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Sample records for adoptive t-cell therapies

  1. Adoptive T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Lokhorst, H M; Liebowitz, D

    1999-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy, or the transfer of immunocompetent cells, has been shown to be a promising new strategy for treatment of a variety of malignancies, including leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The possibility that it may likewise benefit patients with multiple myeloma is now being explored by researchers in Europe and the United States. Two alternatives, one using donor leukocyte infusions (DLIs) and the other using autologous T cells, are described. In the Netherlands, researchers studied the use of DLIs in 17 patients with multiple myeloma who relapsed after bone marrow transplant (BMT). Of 16 evaluable patients, 10 (62%) responded, with six (37%) achieving a complete response (CR). After a median follow-up duration of 28 months, five patients relapsed and five remained in remission. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in nine patients. In the United States, adoptive immunotherapy is currently being tested in eight patients with chemotherapy-resistant lymphoma. Autologous T cells were obtained prior to BMT and expanded using an anti-CD3/CD28 culture system. After BMT, the cells were reinfused into the patient. At approximately day 14, granulocyte levels began to recover in the six evaluable patients, and levels remained relatively stable over the posttreatment course. Two patients developed severe autoimmune toxicity, which responded to treatment in one and resolved spontaneously in the other. PMID:9989486

  2. Adoptive T-cell therapy for Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Garber, Haven R; Mirza, Asma; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Alatrash, Gheath

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is the most robust form of adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) and has been tremendously effective in the treatment of leukemia. It is one of the original forms of cancer immunotherapy and illustrates that lymphocytes can specifically recognize and eliminate aberrant, malignant cells. However, because of the high morbidity and mortality that is associated with alloSCT including graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), refining the anti-leukemia immunity of alloSCT to target distinct antigens that mediate the graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect could transform our approach to treating leukemia, and possibly other hematologic malignancies. Over the past few decades, many leukemia antigens have been discovered that can separate malignant cells from normal host cells and render them vulnerable targets. In concert, the field of T-cell engineering has matured to enable transfer of ectopic high-affinity antigen receptors into host or donor cells with greater efficiency and potency. Many preclinical studies have demonstrated that engineered and conventional T-cells can mediate lysis and eradication of leukemia via one or more leukemia antigen targets. This evidence now serves as a foundation for clinical trials that aim to cure leukemia using T-cells. The recent clinical success of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) cells for treating patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia displays the potential of this new therapeutic modality. In this review, we discuss some of the most promising leukemia antigens and the novel strategies that have been implemented for adoptive cellular immunotherapy of lymphoid and myeloid leukemias. It is important to summarize the data for ACT of leukemia for physicians in-training and in practice and for investigators who work in this and related fields as there are recent discoveries already being translated to the patient setting and numerous accruing clinical trials. We

  3. Adoptive T Cell Therapy Targeting CD1 and MR1

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tingxi; Chamoto, Kenji; Hirano, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive T cell immunotherapy has demonstrated clinically relevant efficacy in treating malignant and infectious diseases. However, much of these therapies have been focused on enhancing, or generating de novo, effector functions of conventional T cells recognizing HLA molecules. Given the heterogeneity of HLA alleles, mismatched patients are ineligible for current HLA-restricted adoptive T cell therapies. CD1 and MR1 are class I-like monomorphic molecules and their restricted T cells possess unique T cell receptor specificity against entirely different classes of antigens. CD1 and MR1 molecules present lipid and vitamin B metabolite antigens, respectively, and offer a new front of targets for T cell therapies. This review will cover the recent progress in the basic research of CD1, MR1, and their restricted T cells that possess translational potential. PMID:26052329

  4. Adoptive T cell therapy for cancer in the clinic

    PubMed Central

    June, Carl H.

    2007-01-01

    The transfusion of lymphocytes, referred to as adoptive T cell therapy, is being tested for the treatment of cancer and chronic infections. Adoptive T cell therapy has the potential to enhance antitumor immunity, augment vaccine efficacy, and limit graft-versus-host disease. This form of personalized medicine is now in various early- and late-stage clinical trials. These trials are currently testing strategies to infuse tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, CTLs, Th cells, and Tregs. Improved molecular biology techniques have also increased enthusiasm and feasibility for testing genetically engineered T cells. The current status of the field and prospects for clinical translation are reviewed herein. PMID:17549249

  5. Adoptive T-cell therapy for B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hudecek, Michael; Anderson, Larry D; Nishida, Tetsuya; Riddell, Stanley R

    2011-01-01

    The success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for B-cell malignancies is evidence that these tumors can be eliminated by T lymphocytes. This has encouraged the development of specific adoptive T-cell therapy, both for augmenting the anti-tumor effect of HCT and for patients not undergoing HCT. T cells that are capable of recognizing antigens expressed on malignant B cells may be recruited from the endogenous repertoire or engineered to express tumor-targeting receptors. Critical insights into the qualities of T cells that enable their persistence and function in vivo have been derived, and obstacles to effective T-cell-mediated tumor eradication are being elucidated. These advances provide the tools to translate adoptive T-cell transfer into reliable clinical therapies. PMID:21083018

  6. Role of T Cell Receptor Affinity in the Efficacy and Specificity of Adoptive T Cell Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jennifer D.; Kranz, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several years, there has been considerable progress in the treatment of cancer using gene modified adoptive T cell therapies. Two approaches have been used, one involving the introduction of a conventional αβ T cell receptor (TCR) against a pepMHC cancer antigen, and the second involving introduction of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of a single-chain antibody as an Fv fragment linked to transmembrane and signaling domains. In this review, we focus on one aspect of TCR-mediated adoptive T cell therapies, the impact of the affinity of the αβ TCR for the pepMHC cancer antigen on both efficacy and specificity. We discuss the advantages of higher-affinity TCRs in mediating potent activity of CD4 T cells. This is balanced with the potential disadvantage of higher-affinity TCRs in mediating greater self-reactivity against a wider range of structurally similar antigenic peptides, especially in synergy with the CD8 co-receptor. Both TCR affinity and target selection will influence potential safety issues. We suggest pre-clinical strategies that might be used to examine each TCR for possible on-target and off-target side effects due to self-reactivities, and to adjust TCR affinities accordingly. PMID:23970885

  7. Promoting transplantation tolerance; adoptive regulatory T cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Safinia, N; Leech, J; Hernandez-Fuentes, M; Lechler, R; Lombardi, G

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation is a successful treatment for end-stage organ failure. Despite improvements in short-term outcome, long-term survival remains suboptimal because of the morbidity and mortality associated with long-term use of immunosuppression. There is, therefore, a pressing need to devise protocols that induce tolerance in order to minimize or completely withdraw immunosuppression in transplant recipients. In this review we will discuss how regulatory T cells (Tregs) came to be recognized as an attractive way to promote transplantation tolerance. We will summarize the preclinical data, supporting the importance of these cells in the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance and that provide the rationale for the isolation and expansion of these cells for cellular therapy. We will also describe the data from the first clinical trials, using Tregs to inhibit graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and will address both the challenges and opportunities in human Treg cell therapy. PMID:23574313

  8. How Chimeric Antigen Receptor Design Affects Adoptive T Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gacerez, Albert T; Arellano, Benjamine; Sentman, Charles L

    2016-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have been developed to treat tumors and have shown great success against B cell malignancies. Exploiting modular designs and swappable domains, CARs can target an array of cell surface antigens and, upon receptor-ligand interactions, direct signaling cascades, thereby driving T cell effector functions. CARs have been designed using receptors, ligands, or scFv binding domains. Different regions of a CAR have each been found to play a role in determining the overall efficacy of CAR T cells. Therefore, this review provides an overview of CAR construction and common designs. Each CAR region is discussed in the context of its importance to a CAR's function. Additionally, the review explores how various engineering strategies have been applied to CAR T cells in order to regulate CAR T cell function and activity. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2590-2598, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27163336

  9. Anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies and adoptive T cell therapy: a perfect marriage?

    PubMed

    Weigelin, Bettina; Bolaños, Elixabet; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria E; Martinez-Forero, Ivan; Friedl, Peter; Melero, Ignacio

    2016-05-01

    CD137(4-1BB) costimulation and adoptive T cell therapy strongly synergize in terms of achieving maximal efficacy against experimental cancers. These costimulatory biological functions of CD137 have been exploited by means of introducing the CD137 signaling domain in clinically successful chimeric antigen receptors and to more efficiently expand T cells in culture. In addition, immunomagnetic sorting of CD137-positive T cells among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes selects for the fittest antitumor T lymphocytes for subsequent cultures. In mouse models, co-infusion of both agonist antibodies and T cells attains marked synergistic effects that result from more focused and intense cytolytic activity visualized under in vivo microscopy and from more efficient entrance of T cells into the tumor through the vasculature. These several levels of dynamic interaction between adoptive T cell therapy and CD137 offer much opportunity to raise the efficacy of current cancer immunotherapies. PMID:26970765

  10. Homing to solid cancers: a vascular checkpoint in adoptive cell therapy using CAR T-cells.

    PubMed

    Ager, Ann; Watson, H Angharad; Wehenkel, Sophie C; Mohammed, Rebar N

    2016-04-15

    The success of adoptive T-cell therapies for the treatment of cancer patients depends on transferred T-lymphocytes finding and infiltrating cancerous tissues. For intravenously transferred T-cells, this means leaving the bloodstream (extravasation) from tumour blood vessels. In inflamed tissues, a key event in extravasation is the capture, rolling and arrest of T-cells inside blood vessels which precedes transmigration across the vessel wall and entry into tissues. This depends on co-ordinated signalling of selectins, integrins and chemokine receptors on T-cells by their respective ligands which are up-regulated on inflamed blood vessels. Clinical data and experimental studies in mice suggest that tumour blood vessels are anergic to inflammatory stimuli and the recruitment of cytotoxic CD8(+)T-lymphocytes is not very efficient. Interestingly, and somewhat counter-intuitively, anti-angiogenic therapy can promote CD8(+)T-cell infiltration of tumours and increase the efficacy of adoptive CD8(+)T-cell therapy. Rather than inhibit tumour angiogenesis, anti-angiogenic therapy 'normalizes' (matures) tumour blood vessels by promoting pericyte recruitment, increasing tumour blood vessel perfusion and sensitizing tumour blood vessels to inflammatory stimuli. A number of different approaches are currently being explored to increase recruitment by manipulating the expression of homing-associated molecules on T-cells and tumour blood vessels. Future studies should address whether these approaches improve the efficacy of adoptive T-cell therapies for solid, vascularized cancers in patients. PMID:27068943

  11. A New Hope in Immunotherapy for Malignant Gliomas: Adoptive T Cell Transfer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Dong-Sup; Shin, Hye-Jin; Hong, Yong-Kil

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapy emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to highly incurable malignant gliomas due to tumor-specific cytotoxicity, minimal side effect, and a durable antitumor effect by memory T cells. But, antitumor activities of endogenously activated T cells induced by immunotherapy such as vaccination are not sufficient to control tumors because tumor-specific antigens may be self-antigens and tumors have immune evasion mechanisms to avoid immune surveillance system of host. Although recent clinical results from vaccine strategy for malignant gliomas are encouraging, these trials have some limitations, particularly their failure to expand tumor antigen-specific T cells reproducibly and effectively. An alternative strategy to overcome these limitations is adoptive T cell transfer therapy, in which tumor-specific T cells are expanded ex vivo rapidly and then transferred to patients. Moreover, enhanced biologic functions of T cells generated by genetic engineering and modified immunosuppressive microenvironment of host by homeostatic T cell expansion and/or elimination of immunosuppressive cells and molecules can induce more potent antitumor T cell responses and make this strategy hold promise in promoting a patient response for malignant glioma treatment. Here we will review the past and current progresses and discuss a new hope in adoptive T cell therapy for malignant gliomas. PMID:25009822

  12. Nonviral RNA transfection to transiently modify T cells with chimeric antigen receptors for adoptive therapy.

    PubMed

    Riet, Tobias; Holzinger, Astrid; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels; Schuler, Gerold; Abken, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    Redirecting T cells with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) of predefined specificity showed remarkable efficacy in the adoptive therapy trials of malignant diseases. The CAR consists of a single chain fragment of variable region (scFv) antibody targeting domain covalently linked to the CD3ζ signalling domain of the T cell receptor complex to mediate T cell activation upon antigen engagement. By using an antibody-derived targeting domain a CAR can potentially redirect T cells towards any target expressed on the cell surface as long as a binding domain is available. Antibody-mediated targeting moreover circumvents MHC restriction of the targeted antigen, thereby broadening the potential of applicability of adoptive T cell therapy. While T cells were so far genetically modified by viral transduction, transient modification with a CAR by RNA transfection gained increasing interest during the last years. This chapter focuses on methods to modify human T cells from peripheral blood with a CAR by electroporation of in vitro transcribed RNA and to test modified T cells for function for use in adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:23296935

  13. Purification of melanoma reactive T cell by using a monocyte-based solid phase T-cell selection system for adoptive therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jongming; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Wagner, John

    2008-01-01

    The generation of melanoma-reactive T cells with the characteristics necessary for in vivo effectiveness remains a considerable obstacle to the application of adoptive cell therapy. Recent clinical success with adoptive cell therapy for melanoma is motivating additional investigation to improve the technology of generating such tumor reactive lymphocytes. Here we describe a novel solid phase T-cell selection system, in which monocytes are immobilized on solid support for antigen-specific T-cell purification. We hypothesized and proved that antigen-specific T cells recognize their cognate antigens and bind to them faster than nonantigen-specific T cells and are concentrated on the surface after removing the nonadherent cells by washing. Moreover, activated antigen-specific T cells proliferated more rapidly than nonspecific T cells, further increasing the frequency and purity of antigen-specific T cells. Optimal selection times for Melan-A-specific T cells are studied. Our data demonstrated that T-cell selection can usually increase the frequency of tumor antigen-specific T cells by >10-fold, whereas T-cell expansion after the selection boost the frequency of tumor antigen-specific T cells by another approximately 10-fold. More importantly, these T cells are generated under more physiologic conditions. This new T-cell selection system is superior to traditional repeated stimulation methods in generating tumor antigen-specific T cells for adoptive cell immunotherapy. This inexpensive and simple T-cell selection system can produce large quantity of highly purified Melan-A-specific T cells within 2 weeks after T-cell activation. PMID:18157015

  14. Adoptive Therapy with Chimeric Antigen Receptor Modified T Cells of Defined Subset Composition

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Stanley R.; Sommermeyer, Daniel; Berger, Carolina; Liu, Lingfeng (Steven); Balakrishnan, Ashwini; Salter, Alex; Hudecek, Michael; Maloney, David G.; Turtle, Cameron J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to engineer T cells to recognize tumor cells through genetic modification with a synthetic chimeric antigen receptor has ushered in a new era in cancer immunotherapy. The most advanced clinical applications are in in targeting CD19 on B cell malignancies. The clinical trials of CD19 CAR therapy have thus far not attempted to select defined subsets prior to transduction or imposed uniformity of the CD4 and CD8 cell composition of the cell products. This review will discuss the rationale for and challenges to utilizing adoptive therapy with genetically modified T cells of defined subset and phenotypic composition. PMID:24667960

  15. Management of patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: focus on adoptive T-cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Serena Kimi; Huye, Leslie E; Savoldo, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) represents a heterogeneous group of malignancies with high diversity in terms of biology, clinical responses, and prognosis. Standard therapy regimens produce a 5-year relative survival rate of only 69%, with the critical need to increase the treatment-success rate of this patient population presenting at diagnosis with a median age of 66 years and many comorbidities. The evidence that an impaired immune system favors the development of NHL has opened the stage for new therapeutics, and specifically for the adoptive transfer of ex vivo-expanded antigen-specific T-cells. In this review, we discuss how T-cells specific for viral-associated antigens, nonviral-associated antigens expressed by the tumor, T-cells redirected through the expression of chimeric antigen receptors, and transgenic T-cell receptors against tumor cells have been developed and used in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with NHLs. PMID:27471712

  16. Adoptive therapy with redirected primary regulatory T cells results in antigen-specific suppression of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Graham P; Notley, Clare A; Xue, Shao-An; Bendle, Gavin M; Holler, Angelika; Schumacher, Ton N; Ehrenstein, Michael R; Stauss, Hans J

    2009-11-10

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) can suppress a wide range of immune cells, making them an ideal candidate for the treatment of autoimmunity. The potential clinical translation of targeted therapy with antigen-specific Tregs is hampered by the difficulties of isolating rare specificities from the natural polyclonal T cell repertoire. Moreover, the initiating antigen is often unknown in autoimmune disease. Here we tested the ability of antigen-specific Tregs generated by retroviral gene transfer to ameliorate arthritis through linked suppression and therefore without cognate recognition of the disease-initiating antigen. We explored two distinct strategies: T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer into purified CD4+CD25+ T cells was used to redirect the specificity of naturally occurring Tregs; and co-transfer of FoxP3 and TCR genes served to convert conventional CD4(+) T cells into antigen-specific regulators. Following adoptive transfer into recipient mice, the gene-modified T cells engrafted efficiently and retained TCR and FoxP3 expression. Using an established arthritis model, we demonstrate antigen-driven accumulation of the gene modified T cells at the site of joint inflammation, which resulted in a local reduction in the number of inflammatory Th17 cells and a significant decrease in arthritic bone destruction. Together, we describe a robust strategy to rapidly generate antigen-specific regulatory T cells capable of highly targeted inhibition of tissue damage in the absence of systemic immune suppression. This opens the possibility to target Tregs to tissue-specific antigens for the treatment of autoimmune tissue damage without the knowledge of the disease-causing autoantigens recognized by pathogenic T cells. PMID:19884493

  17. Adoptive T-cell therapy for fungal infections in haematology patients

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Shivashni S; Gottlieb, David J

    2015-01-01

    The prolonged immune deficiency resulting from haematopoietic stem cell transplant and chemotherapy predisposes to a high risk of invasive fungal infections. Despite the recent advances in molecular diagnostic testing, early initiation of pre-emptive antifungal therapy and the use of combination pharmacotherapy, mortality from invasive mould infections remain high among recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplant. The increasing incidences of previously rare and drug-resistant strains of fungi present a further clinical challenge. Therefore, there is a need for novel strategies to combat fungal infections in the immunocompromised. Adoptive therapy using in vitro-expanded fungus-specific CD4 cells of the Th-1 type has shown clinical efficacy in murine studies and in a small human clinical study. Several techniques for the isolation and expansion of fungus-specific T cells have been successfully applied. Here we discuss the incidence and changing patterns of invasive fungal diseases, clinical evidence supporting the role of T cells in fungal immunity, methods to expand fungus-specific T cells in the laboratory and considerations surrounding the use of T cells for fungal immunotherapy. PMID:26366286

  18. Elimination of Metastatic Melanoma Using Gold Nanoshell-Enabled Photothermal Therapy and Adoptive T Cell Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Serena K.; Mattos Almeida, Joao Paulo; Lin, Adam Y.; Eckels, Phillip C.; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Foster, Aaron E.

    2013-01-01

    Ablative treatments such as photothermal therapy (PTT) are attractive anticancer strategies because they debulk accessible tumor sites while simultaneously priming antitumor immune responses. However, the immune response following thermal ablation is often insufficient to treat metastatic disease. Here we demonstrate that PTT induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and promotes the maturation of dendritic cells within tumor-draining lymph nodes, thereby priming antitumor T cell responses. Unexpectedly, however, these immunomodulatory effects were not beneficial to overall antitumor immunity. We found that PTT promoted the infiltration of secondary tumor sites by CD11b+Ly-6G/C+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells, consequently failing to slow the growth of poorly immunogenic B16-F10 tumors and enhancing the growth of distant lung metastases. To exploit the beneficial effects of PTT activity against local tumors and on antitumor immunity whilst avoiding the adverse consequences, we adoptively transferred gp100-specific pmel T cells following PTT. The combination of local control by PTT and systemic antitumor immune reactivity provided by adoptively transferred T cells prevented primary tumor recurrence post-ablation, inhibited tumor growth at distant sites, and abrogated the outgrowth of lung metastases. Hence, the combination of PTT and systemic immunotherapy prevented the adverse effects of PTT on metastatic tumor growth and optimized overall tumor control. PMID:23935927

  19. Making Better Chimeric Antigen Receptors for Adoptive T-cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Maus, Marcela V; June, Carl H

    2016-04-15

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) are engineered fusion proteins constructed from antigen recognition, signaling, and costimulatory domains that can be expressed in cytotoxic T cells with the purpose of reprograming the T cells to specifically target tumor cells. CAR T-cell therapy uses gene transfer technology to reprogram a patient's own T cells to stably express CARs, thereby combining the specificity of an antibody with the potent cytotoxic and memory functions of a T cell. In early-phase clinical trials, CAR T cells targeting CD19 have resulted in sustained complete responses within a population of otherwise refractory patients with B-cell malignancies and, more specifically, have shown complete response rates of approximately 90% in patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Given this clinical efficacy, preclinical development of CAR T-cell therapy for a number of cancer indications has been actively investigated, and the future of the CAR T-cell field is extensive and dynamic. Several approaches to increase the feasibility and safety of CAR T cells are currently being explored, including investigation into the mechanisms regulating the persistence of CAR T cells. In addition, numerous early-phase clinical trials are now investigating CAR T-cell therapy beyond targeting CD19, especially in solid tumors. Trials investigating combinations of CAR T cells with immune checkpoint blockade therapies are now beginning and results are eagerly awaited. This review evaluates several of the ongoing and future directions of CAR T-cell therapy.Clin Cancer Res; 22(8); 1875-84. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL ARTICLES IN THIS CCR FOCUS SECTION, "OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY". PMID:27084741

  20. Is adoptive T-cell therapy for solid tumors coming of age?

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, P; Comoli, P; Montagna, D; Demirer, T; Bregni, M

    2012-08-01

    Among the novel biological therapeutics that will increase our ability to cure human cancer in years to come, adoptive cellular therapy is one of the most promising approaches. Although this is a complex and challenging field, there have been major advances in basic and translational research resulting in clinical trial activity that is now beginning to confirm this promise. The results obtained with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes therapy for melanoma, and virus-specific CTLs for EBV-associated malignancies are encouraging in terms of both ability to obtain clinical benefit and limited toxicity profile. In both settings, objective responses were obtained in at least 50% of treated patients. However, improvements to the clinical protocols, in terms of better patient selection and timing of administration, as well as cell product quality and availability, are clearly necessary to further ameliorate outcome, and logistical solutions are warranted to extend T-cell therapy beyond academic centers. In particular, there is a need to simplify cell production, in order to decrease costs and ease preparation. Promising implementations are underway, including harnessing the therapeutic potential of T cells transduced with TCRs directed against shared tumor antigens, and delineating strategies aimed at targeting immune evasion mechanisms exerted by tumor cells. PMID:21804611

  1. Combining α-Radioimmunotherapy and Adoptive T Cell Therapy to Potentiate Tumor Destruction.

    PubMed

    Ménager, Jérémie; Gorin, Jean-Baptiste; Maurel, Catherine; Drujont, Lucile; Gouard, Sébastien; Louvet, Cédric; Chérel, Michel; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Davodeau, François; Gaschet, Joëlle; Guilloux, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces direct and indirect killing of cancer cells and for long has been considered as immunosuppressive. However, this concept has evolved over the past few years with the demonstration that irradiation can increase tumor immunogenicity and can actually favor the implementation of an immune response against tumor cells. Adoptive T-cell transfer (ACT) is also used to treat cancer and several studies have shown that the efficacy of this immunotherapy was enhanced when combined with radiation therapy. α-Radioimmunotherapy (α-RIT) is a type of internal radiotherapy which is currently under development to treat disseminated tumors. α-particles are indeed highly efficient to destroy small cluster of cancer cells with minimal impact on surrounding healthy tissues. We thus hypothesized that, in the setting of α-RIT, an immunotherapy like ACT, could benefit from the immune context induced by irradiation. Hence, we decided to further investigate the possibilities to promote an efficient and long-lasting anti-tumor response by combining α-RIT and ACT. To perform such study we set up a multiple myeloma murine model which express the tumor antigen CD138 and ovalbumine (OVA). Then we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy in the mice treated with α-RIT, using an anti-CD138 antibody coupled to bismuth-213, followed by an adoptive transfer of OVA-specific CD8+ T cells (OT-I CD8+ T cells). We observed a significant tumor growth control and an improved survival in the animals treated with the combined treatment. These results demonstrate the efficacy of combining α-RIT and ACT in the MM model we established. PMID:26098691

  2. Combining α-Radioimmunotherapy and Adoptive T Cell Therapy to Potentiate Tumor Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Ménager, Jérémie; Gorin, Jean-Baptiste; Maurel, Catherine; Drujont, Lucile; Gouard, Sébastien; Louvet, Cédric; Chérel, Michel; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Davodeau, François

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces direct and indirect killing of cancer cells and for long has been considered as immunosuppressive. However, this concept has evolved over the past few years with the demonstration that irradiation can increase tumor immunogenicity and can actually favor the implementation of an immune response against tumor cells. Adoptive T-cell transfer (ACT) is also used to treat cancer and several studies have shown that the efficacy of this immunotherapy was enhanced when combined with radiation therapy. α-Radioimmunotherapy (α-RIT) is a type of internal radiotherapy which is currently under development to treat disseminated tumors. α-particles are indeed highly efficient to destroy small cluster of cancer cells with minimal impact on surrounding healthy tissues. We thus hypothesized that, in the setting of α-RIT, an immunotherapy like ACT, could benefit from the immune context induced by irradiation. Hence, we decided to further investigate the possibilities to promote an efficient and long-lasting anti-tumor response by combining α-RIT and ACT. To perform such study we set up a multiple myeloma murine model which express the tumor antigen CD138 and ovalbumine (OVA). Then we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy in the mice treated with α-RIT, using an anti-CD138 antibody coupled to bismuth-213, followed by an adoptive transfer of OVA-specific CD8+ T cells (OT-I CD8+ T cells). We observed a significant tumor growth control and an improved survival in the animals treated with the combined treatment. These results demonstrate the efficacy of combining α-RIT and ACT in the MM model we established. PMID:26098691

  3. T-cell Depleted Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplants As A Platform For Adoptive Therapy With Leukemia Selective Or Virus-Specific T-cells

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Richard J.; Koehne, Gunther; Hasan, Aisha N; Doubrovina, Ekaterina; Prockop, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants adequately depleted of T-cells can reduce or prevent acute and chronic GVHD in both HLA matched and haplotype disparate hosts, without post-transplant prophylaxis with immunosuppressive drugs. Recent trials indicate that high doses of CD34+ progenitors from G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood leukocytes isolated and T-cell depleted by immunoadsorption to paramagnetic beads, when administered after myeloablative conditioning with TBI and chemotherapy or chemotherapy alone can secure consistent engraftment and abrogate GVHD in patients with acute leukemia without incurring an increased risk of a recurrent leukemia. Early clinical trials also indicate that high doses of in vitro generated leukemia reactive donor T-cells can be adoptively transferred and can induce remissions of leukemia relapse without GVHD. Similarly, virus-specific T-cells generated from the transplant donor or an HLA partially matched third party, have induced remissions of Rituxan-refractory EBV lymphomas and can clear CMV disease or viremia persisting despite antiviral therapy in a high proportion of cases. Analyses of treatment responses and failures illustrate both the advantages and limitations of donor or banked, third party derived T-cells, but underscore the potential of adoptive T-cell therapy in the absence of ongoing immunosuppression. PMID:26039207

  4. Generation of CAR T Cells for Adoptive Therapy in the Context of Glioblastoma Standard of Care

    PubMed Central

    Riccione, Katherine; Suryadevara, Carter M.; Snyder, David; Cui, Xiuyu; Sampson, John H.; Sanchez-Perez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive T cell immunotherapy offers a promising strategy for specifically targeting and eliminating malignant gliomas. T cells can be engineered ex vivo to express chimeric antigen receptors specific for glioma antigens (CAR T cells). The expansion and function of adoptively transferred CAR T cells can be potentiated by the lymphodepletive and tumoricidal effects of standard of care chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We describe a method for generating CAR T cells targeting EGFRvIII, a glioma-specific antigen, and evaluating their efficacy when combined with a murine model of glioblastoma standard of care. T cells are engineered by transduction with a retroviral vector containing the anti-EGFRvIII CAR gene. Tumor-bearing animals are subjected to host conditioning by a course of temozolomide and whole brain irradiation at dose regimens designed to model clinical standard of care. CAR T cells are then delivered intravenously to primed hosts. This method can be used to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cells in the context of standard of care. PMID:25741761

  5. Adoptive T-cell therapies for refractory/relapsed leukemia and lymphoma: current strategies and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Lauren; Cruz, C. Russell; Bollard, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant advancements in the treatment and outcome of hematologic malignancies, prognosis remains poor for patients who have relapsed or refractory disease. Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy offers novel therapeutics that attempt to utilize the noted graft versus leukemia effect. While CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have thus far been the most clinically successful application of adoptive T immunotherapy, further work with antigen specific T cells and CARs that recognize other targets have helped diversify the field to treat a broad spectrum of hematologic malignancies. This article will focus primarily on therapies currently in the clinical trial phase as well as current downfalls or limitations. PMID:26622998

  6. Adoptive T-cell therapies for refractory/relapsed leukemia and lymphoma: current strategies and recent advances.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Lauren; Cruz, C Russell; Bollard, Catherine M

    2015-12-01

    Despite significant advancements in the treatment and outcome of hematologic malignancies, prognosis remains poor for patients who have relapsed or refractory disease. Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy offers novel therapeutics that attempt to utilize the noted graft versus leukemia effect. While CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have thus far been the most clinically successful application of adoptive T immunotherapy, further work with antigen specific T cells and CARs that recognize other targets have helped diversify the field to treat a broad spectrum of hematologic malignancies. This article will focus primarily on therapies currently in the clinical trial phase as well as current downfalls or limitations. PMID:26622998

  7. B-cell Maturation Antigen is a Promising Target for Adoptive T-cell Therapy of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Robert O.; Evbuomwan, Moses O.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Rose, Jeremy J.; Raffeld, Mark; Yang, Shicheng; Gress, Ronald E.; Hakim, Frances T.; Kochenderfer, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Multiple myeloma (MM) is a usually incurable malignancy of plasma cells. New therapies are urgently needed for MM. Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells is a promising new therapy for hematologic malignancies, but an ideal target antigen for CAR-expressing T cell therapies of MM has not been identified. B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a protein that has been reported to be selectively expressed by B-lineage cells including MM cells. Our goal was to determine if BCMA is a suitable target for CAR-expressing T cells. Experimental Design We conducted an assessment of BCMA expression in normal human tissues and MM cells by flow cytometry, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry. We designed and tested novel anti-BCMA CARs. Results BCMA had a restricted RNA expression pattern. Except for expression on plasma cells, BCMA protein was not detected in normal human tissues. BCMA was not detected on primary human CD34+ hematopoietic cells. We detected uniform BCMA cell-surface expression on primary MM cells from 5 of 5 patients. We designed the first anti-BCMA CARs to be reported, and we transduced T cells with lentiviral vectors encoding these CARs. The CARs gave T cells the ability to specifically recognize BCMA. The anti-BCMA-CAR-transduced T cells exhibited BCMA-specific functions including cytokine production, proliferation, cytotoxicity, and in vivo tumor eradication. Importantly, anti-BCMA-CAR-transduced T cells recognized and killed primary MM cells. Conclusions BCMA is a suitable target for CAR-expressing T cells, and adoptive transfer of anti-BCMA-CAR-expressing T cells is a promising new strategy for treating MM. PMID:23344265

  8. Rapid generation of NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ THELPER1 cells for adoptive T-cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Simone; Boβ, Cristina; Feucht, Judith; Witte, Kai-Erik; Scheu, Alexander; Bülow, Hans-Jörg; Joachim, Stefanie; Stevanović, Stefan; Schumm, Michael; Rittig, Susanne M; Lang, Peter; Röcken, Martin; Handgretinger, Rupert; Feuchtinger, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated antigens such as NY-ESO-1 are expressed in a variety of solid tumors but absent in mature healthy tissues with the exception of germline cells. The immune system anti-cancer attack is mediated by cell lysis or induction of growth arrest through paralysis of tumor cells, the latter of which can be achieved by tumor-specific CD4+, IFNγ-producing THelper type 1 (TH1) cells. Translation of these immune-mediated mechanisms into clinical application has been limited by availability of immune effectors, as well as the need for complex in vitro protocols and regulatory hurdles. Here, we report a procedure to generate cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1-targeting CD4+ TH1 cells in vitro for cancer immunotherapy in the clinic. After in vitro sensitization by stimulating T cells with protein-spanning, overlapping peptide pools of NY-ESO-1 in combination with IL-7 and low dose IL-2, antigen-specific T cells were isolated using IFNγ capture technique and subsequently expanded with IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15. Large numbers of NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ T cells with a TH1 cytokine profile and lower numbers of cytokine-secreting CD8+ T cells could be generated from healthy donors with a high specificity and expansion potential. Manufactured CD4+ T cells showed strong specific TH1-responses with IFNγ+, TNFα+, IL-2+ and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells. The protocol is GMP-grade and approved by the regulatory authorities. The tumor-antigen specific CD4+ TH1 lymphocytes can be adoptively transferred as a T-cell therapy to boost anticancer immunity and this novel cancer treatment approach is applicable to both T cells from healthy allogeneic donors as well as to autologous T cells derived from cancer patients. PMID:26155389

  9. Adoptive T-cell Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Stephen; Rooney, Cliona

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a range of malignancies involving B-cells, T-cells, natural killer (NK)-cells, epithelial cells and smooth muscle. All of these are associated with the latent life cycles of EBV, but the pattern of latency-associated viral antigens expressed in tumor cells depends on the type of tumor. EBV-specific T cells (EBVSTs) have been explored as prophylaxis and therapy for EBV-associated malignancies for more than two decades. EBVSTs have been most successful as prophylaxis and therapy for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), which expresses the full array of latent EBV antigens (type 3 latency), in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. While less effective, clinical studies have also demonstrated their therapeutic potential for PTLD post solid organ transplant, and for EBV-associated malignancies such as Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma that express a limited array of latent EBV antigens (type 2 latency),. Several approaches are actively being pursued to improve the antitumor activity of EBVSTs including activation and expansion of T cells specific for the EBV antigens expressed in type 2 latency, genetic approaches to render EBVSTs resistant to the immunosuppressive tumor environment and combination approaches with other immune-modulating modalities. Given the recent advances and renewed interest in cell therapy, we hope that EBVSTs will become an integral part of our treatment armamentarium against EBV-positive malignancies in the near future. PMID:26428384

  10. Adoptive T Cell Immunotherapy for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Perica, Karlo; Varela, Juan Carlos; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells has been the central goal of anti-cancer immunotherapy. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in optimizing this technology in order to make it a clinically feasible treatment. One of the main treatment modalities within cancer immunotherapy has been adoptive T cell therapy (ACT). Using this approach, tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells are infused into cancer patients with the goal of recognizing, targeting, and destroying tumor cells. In the current review, we revisit some of the major successes of ACT, the major hurdles that have been overcome to optimize ACT, the remaining challenges, and future approaches to make ACT widely available. PMID:25717386

  11. Adoptive T-cell therapy for cancer in the United kingdom: a review of activity for the British Society of Gene and Cell Therapy annual meeting 2015.

    PubMed

    Gilham, David Edward; Anderson, John; Bridgeman, John Stephen; Hawkins, Robert Edward; Exley, Mark Adrian; Stauss, Hans; Maher, John; Pule, Martin; Sewell, Andrew Kelvin; Bendle, Gavin; Lee, Steven; Qasim, Waseem; Thrasher, Adrian; Morris, Emma

    2015-05-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy is delivering objective clinical responses across a number of cancer indications in the early phase clinical setting. Much of this clinical activity is taking place at major clinical academic centers across the United States. This review focuses upon cancer-focused cell therapy activity within the United Kingdom as a contribution to the 2015 British Society of Gene and Cell Therapy annual general meeting. This overview reflects the diversity and expansion of clinical and preclinical studies within the United Kingdom while considering the background context of this work against new infrastructural developments and the requirements of nationalized healthcare delivery within the UK National Health Service. PMID:25860661

  12. Adoptive T-Cell Therapy for Cancer in the United Kingdom: A Review of Activity for the British Society of Gene and Cell Therapy Annual Meeting 2015

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John; Bridgeman, John Stephen; Hawkins, Robert Edward; Exley, Mark Adrian; Stauss, Hans; Maher, John; Pule, Martin; Sewell, Andrew Kelvin; Bendle, Gavin; Lee, Steven; Qasim, Waseem; Thrasher, Adrian; Morris, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adoptive T-cell therapy is delivering objective clinical responses across a number of cancer indications in the early phase clinical setting. Much of this clinical activity is taking place at major clinical academic centers across the United States. This review focuses upon cancer-focused cell therapy activity within the United Kingdom as a contribution to the 2015 British Society of Gene and Cell Therapy annual general meeting. This overview reflects the diversity and expansion of clinical and preclinical studies within the United Kingdom while considering the background context of this work against new infrastructural developments and the requirements of nationalized healthcare delivery within the UK National Health Service. PMID:25860661

  13. Feasibility of Telomerase-Specific Adoptive T-cell Therapy for B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Solid Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Sara; Bobisse, Sara; Moxley, Kelly; Lamolinara, Alessia; De Sanctis, Francesco; Boschi, Federico; Sbarbati, Andrea; Fracasso, Giulio; Ferrarini, Giovanna; Hendriks, Rudi W; Cavallini, Chiara; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Sartoris, Silvia; Iezzi, Manuela; Nishimura, Michael I; Bronte, Vincenzo; Ugel, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Telomerase (TERT) is overexpressed in 80% to 90% of primary tumors and contributes to sustaining the transformed phenotype. The identification of several TERT epitopes in tumor cells has elevated the status of TERT as a potential universal target for selective and broad adoptive immunotherapy. TERT-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been detected in the peripheral blood of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients, but display low functional avidity, which limits their clinical utility in adoptive cell transfer approaches. To overcome this key obstacle hindering effective immunotherapy, we isolated an HLA-A2-restricted T-cell receptor (TCR) with high avidity for human TERT from vaccinated HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. Using several relevant humanized mouse models, we demonstrate that TCR-transduced T cells were able to control human B-CLL progression in vivo and limited tumor growth in several human, solid transplantable cancers. TERT-based adoptive immunotherapy selectively eliminated tumor cells, failed to trigger a self-MHC-restricted fratricide of T cells, and was associated with toxicity against mature granulocytes, but not toward human hematopoietic progenitors in humanized immune reconstituted mice. These data support the feasibility of TERT-based adoptive immunotherapy in clinical oncology, highlighting, for the first time, the possibility of utilizing a high-avidity TCR specific for human TERT. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2540-51. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197263

  14. Serial Low Doses of Sorafenib Enhance Therapeutic Efficacy of Adoptive T Cell Therapy in a Murine Model by Improving Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ren-Shyan; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Requirements of large numbers of transferred T cells and various immunosuppressive factors and cells in the tumor microenvironment limit the applications of adoptive T cells therapy (ACT) in clinic. Accumulating evidences show that chemotherapeutic drugs could act as immune supportive instead of immunosuppressive agents when proper dosage is used, and combined with immunotherapy often results in better treatment outcomes than monotherapy. Controversial immunomodulation effects of sorafenib, a multi-kinases inhibitor, at high and low doses have been reported in several types of cancer. However, what is the range of the low-dose sorafenib will influence the host immunity and responses of ACT is still ambiguous. Here we used a well-established E.G7/OT-1 murine model to understand the effects of serial low doses of sorafenib on both tumor microenvironment and transferred CD8+ T cells and the underlying mechanisms. Sorafenib lowered the expressions of immunosuppressive factors, and enhanced functions and migrations of transferred CD8+ T cells through inhibition of STAT3 and other immunosuppressive factors. CD8+ T cells were transduced with granzyme B promoter for driving imaging reporters to visualize the activation and distribution of transferred CD8+ T cells prior to adoptive transfer. Better activations of CD8+ T cells and tumor inhibitions were found in the combinational group compared with CD8+ T cells or sorafenib alone groups. Not only immunosuppressive factors but myeloid derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were decreased in sorafenib-treated group, indicating that augmentation of tumor inhibition and function of CD8+ T cells by serial low doses of sorafenib were via reversing the immunosuppressive microenvironment. These results revealed that the tumor inhibitions of sorafenib not only through eradicating tumor cells but modifying tumor microenvironment, which helps outcomes of ACT significantly. PMID:25333973

  15. The weal and woe of costimulation in the adoptive therapy of cancer with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T cells.

    PubMed

    Hombach, A A; Holzinger, A; Abken, H

    2013-08-01

    Adoptive cell therapy has shown impressive efficacy to combat cancer in early phase clinical trials, in particular when T cells engineered to specifically target tumor cells were applied. The patient's T cells are genetically equipped with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) which allows them to be redirected in a predefined manner towards virtually any target; by using an antibody-derived domain for binding, CAR T cells can be redirected in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) dependent and independent fashion. The CAR also provides the stimuli required to induce and maintain T cell activation. Recent clinical data sustain the notion that strong costimulation in conjunction with the primary activation signal is crucial for lasting therapeutic efficacy of CAR T cells. However, costimulation is a double-edged sword and the impact of the individual costimuli to optimize T cell activation is still under debate; some general rules are emerging. The review summarizes how costimulation modulates, improves and prolongs the redirected anti-tumor T cell response and how the same costimulatory signals may contribute to unintended side effects including "cytokine storm" and T cell repression. Upcoming strategies to break the activation/repression circle by using CAR's with modified costimulatory signals are also discussed. PMID:23116267

  16. Adenovirus Improves the Efficacy of Adoptive T-cell Therapy by Recruiting Immune Cells to and Promoting Their Activity at the Tumor.

    PubMed

    Tähtinen, Siri; Grönberg-Vähä-Koskela, Susanna; Lumen, Dave; Merisalo-Soikkeli, Maiju; Siurala, Mikko; Airaksinen, Anu J; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-08-01

    Despite the rapid progress in the development of novel adoptive T-cell therapies, the clinical benefits in treatment of established tumors have remained modest. Several immune evasion mechanisms hinder T-cell entry into tumors and their activity within the tumor. Of note, oncolytic adenoviruses are intrinsically immunogenic due to inherent pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Here, we studied the capacity of adenovirus to overcome resistance of chicken ovalbumin-expressing B16.OVA murine melanoma tumors to adoptive ovalbumin-specific CD8(+) T-cell (OT-I) therapy. Following intraperitoneal transfer of polyclonally activated OT-I lymphocytes, control of tumor growth was superior in mice given intratumoral adenovirus compared with control mice, even in the absence of oncolytic virus replication. Preexisting antiviral immunity against serotype 5 did not hinder the therapeutic efficacy of the combination treatment. Intratumoral adenovirus injection was associated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokines, CD45(+) leukocytes, CD8(+) lymphocytes, and F4/80(+) macrophages, suggesting enhanced tumor immunogenicity. The proinflammatory effects of adenovirus on the tumor microenvironment led to expression of costimulatory signals on CD11c(+) antigen-presenting cells and subsequent activation of T cells, thus breaking the tumor-induced peripheral tolerance. An increased number of CD8(+) T cells specific for endogenous tumor antigens TRP-2 and gp100 was detected in combination-treated mice, indicating epitope spreading. Moreover, the majority of virus/T-cell-treated mice rejected the challenge of parental B16.F10 tumors, suggesting that systemic antitumor immunity was induced. In summary, we provide proof-of-mechanism data on combining adoptive T-cell therapy and adenovirotherapy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25977260

  17. T-cell adoptive immunotherapy using tumor-infiltrating T cells and genetically engineered TCR-T cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroaki

    2016-07-01

    Immunotherapy has received the expectation that it should contribute to the therapy of cancer patients for >100 years. At long last, recent clinical trials of immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell therapy with genetically engineered T cells have reported their remarkable efficacies. Nowadays, it is expected that T-cell adoptive immunotherapy can not only control tumor progression but even cure cancer in some patients. Conversely, severe adverse events associated with efficacy have frequently been reported in clinical trials, suggesting that the assessment and control of safety will be indispensable in the future development of the therapy. New approaches in T-cell adoptive immunotherapy such as reduction of adverse events, targeting of new antigens or utilization of allogeneic cells will open a new gate for less harmful and more effective immunological treatment of cancer patients. PMID:27127191

  18. miR-23a blockade enhances adoptive T cell transfer therapy by preserving immune-competence in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Regina; Sampson, John H; Li, Qi-Jing; Zhu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In adoptive T cell transfer therapy (ACT), the antitumor efficacy of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs) has been limited by tumor-induced immunosuppression. We have demonstrated that miR-23a blockade in tumor-specific CTLs conferred resilience to TGFβ-mediated immunosuppression, resulting in superior tumor control. Our studies highlight miR-23a in tumor-specific CTLs as a clinically relevant target to enhance ACT. PMID:25949909

  19. Phase I Clinical Trial of 4-1BB-based Adoptive T-Cell Therapy for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-positive Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Choi, Beom K.; Lee, Youngjoo; Lee, Hyewon; Yun, Tak; Kim, Young H.; Lee, Je-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Although adoptive cell therapy using Ag-specific T cells has been tested successfully in the clinic, the production of these T cells has been challenging. By applying our simple and practical 4-1BB-based method for the generation of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells, here we determined the maximum tolerated dose, toxicity profile, immunologic responses, and clinical efficacy of autologous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)/LMP2A-specific CD8+ T cells (EBV-induced Natural T cell; EBViNT) in patients with relapsed/refractory EBV-positive tumors. This was a single-center, phase I, dose-escalation trial study evaluating 4 escalating dosing schedules of single injected EBViNT. CD8+ T-cell responses against different LMP2A peptides in each patient were determined, and the most effective peptides were used to produce EBViNT. The produced autologous EBViNTs were single infused to patients with EBV-associated malignancy who had failed to standard treatments and were of HLA-A02 or A24 type. Of 11 patients enrolled, 8 patients received a single infusion of EBViNT: 4 with nasopharyngeal carcinomas, 1 with Hodgkin lymphoma, 2 with extranodal NK/T lymphomas, and 1 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Single infusion of EBViNT was well tolerated by all the patients and generated objective antitumor responses in 3 of them. EBViNT infusion induced 2 waves of interferon-γ response: 1 approximately 1 week and the other 4–8 weeks after the treatment. The strength of the second wave was related to the efficacy of the treatment. The current trial shows that EBViNT therapy is safe and may provide a new option for treating EBV-positive recurrent cancer patients resistant to conventional therapy. PMID:26938947

  20. Phase I Clinical Trial of 4-1BB-based Adoptive T-Cell Therapy for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-positive Tumors.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Choi, Beom K; Lee, Youngjoo; Lee, Hyewon; Yun, Tak; Kim, Young H; Lee, Je-Jung; Kwon, Byoung S

    2016-04-01

    Although adoptive cell therapy using Ag-specific T cells has been tested successfully in the clinic, the production of these T cells has been challenging. By applying our simple and practical 4-1BB-based method for the generation of Ag-specific CD8 T cells, here we determined the maximum tolerated dose, toxicity profile, immunologic responses, and clinical efficacy of autologous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)/LMP2A-specific CD8 T cells (EBV-induced Natural T cell; EBViNT) in patients with relapsed/refractory EBV-positive tumors. This was a single-center, phase I, dose-escalation trial study evaluating 4 escalating dosing schedules of single injected EBViNT. CD8 T-cell responses against different LMP2A peptides in each patient were determined, and the most effective peptides were used to produce EBViNT. The produced autologous EBViNTs were single infused to patients with EBV-associated malignancy who had failed to standard treatments and were of HLA-A02 or A24 type. Of 11 patients enrolled, 8 patients received a single infusion of EBViNT: 4 with nasopharyngeal carcinomas, 1 with Hodgkin lymphoma, 2 with extranodal NK/T lymphomas, and 1 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Single infusion of EBViNT was well tolerated by all the patients and generated objective antitumor responses in 3 of them. EBViNT infusion induced 2 waves of interferon-γ response: 1 approximately 1 week and the other 4-8 weeks after the treatment. The strength of the second wave was related to the efficacy of the treatment. The current trial shows that EBViNT therapy is safe and may provide a new option for treating EBV-positive recurrent cancer patients resistant to conventional therapy. PMID:26938947

  1. Optimized human CYP4B1 in combination with the alkylator prodrug 4-ipomeanol serves as a novel suicide gene system for adoptive T-cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Roellecke, K; Virts, E L; Einholz, R; Edson, K Z; Altvater, B; Rossig, C; von Laer, D; Scheckenbach, K; Wagenmann, M; Reinhardt, D; Kramm, C M; Rettie, A E; Wiek, C; Hanenberg, H

    2016-07-01

    Engineering autologous or allogeneic T cells to express a suicide gene can control potential toxicity in adoptive T-cell therapies. We recently reported the development of a novel human suicide gene system that is based on an orphan human cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP4B1, and the naturally occurring alkylator prodrug 4-ipomeanol. The goal of this study was to systematically develop a clinically applicable self-inactivating lentiviral vector for efficient co-expression of CYP4B1 as an ER-located protein with two distinct types of cell surface proteins, either MACS selection genes for donor lymphocyte infusions after allogeneic stem cell transplantation or chimeric antigen receptors for retargeting primary T cells. The U3 region of the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus in combination with the T2A site was found to drive high-level expression of our CYP4B1 mutant with truncated CD34 or CD271 as MACS suitable selection markers. This lentiviral vector backbone was also well suited for co-expression of CYP4B1 with a codon-optimized CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) construct. Finally, 4-ipomeanol efficiently induced apoptosis in primary T cells that co-express mutant CYP4B1 and the divergently located MACS selection and CAR genes. In conclusion, we here developed a clinically suited lentiviral vector that supports high-level co-expression of cell surface proteins with a potent novel human suicide gene. PMID:27092941

  2. Clinical-scale selection and viral transduction of human naïve and central memory CD8+ T cells for adoptive cell therapy of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Casati, Anna; Varghaei-Nahvi, Azam; Feldman, Steven Alexander; Assenmacher, Mario; Rosenberg, Steven Aaron; Dudley, Mark Edward; Scheffold, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The adoptive transfer of lymphocytes genetically engineered to express tumor-specific antigen receptors is a potent strategy to treat cancer patients. T lymphocyte subsets, such as naïve or central memory T cells, selected in vitro prior to genetic engineering have been extensively investigated in preclinical mouse models, where they demonstrated improved therapeutic efficacy. However, so far, this is challenging to realize in the clinical setting, since good manufacturing practices (GMP) procedures for complex cell sorting and genetic manipulation are limited. To be able to directly compare the immunological attributes and therapeutic efficacy of naïve (T(N)) and central memory (T(CM)) CD8(+) T cells, we investigated clinical-scale procedures for their parallel selection and in vitro manipulation. We also evaluated currently available GMP-grade reagents for stimulation of T cell subsets, including a new type of anti-CD3/anti-CD28 nanomatrix. An optimized protocol was established for the isolation of both CD8(+) T(N) cells (CD4(-)CD62L(+)CD45RA(+)) and CD8(+) T(CM) (CD4(-)CD62L(+)CD45RA(-)) from a single patient. The highly enriched T cell subsets can be efficiently transduced and expanded to large cell numbers, sufficient for clinical applications and equivalent to or better than current cell and gene therapy approaches with unselected lymphocyte populations. The GMP protocols for selection of T(N) and T(CM) we reported here will be the basis for clinical trials analyzing safety, in vivo persistence and clinical efficacy in cancer patients and will help to generate a more reliable and efficacious cellular product. PMID:23903715

  3. A Bayesian adaptive phase 1 design to determine the optimal dose and schedule of an adoptive T-cell therapy in a mixed patient population.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Melanie; Li, Daniel H; Albertson, Tina M; Connor, Jason T

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel Bayesian adaptive phase 1 design to determine the optimal dosing regimen for an adoptive T-cell therapy in a mixed patient population. Our design is motivated by a B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma trial evaluating multiple dosing regimens within multiple disease subtypes. A utility score is calculated from both safety and efficacy utility functions and used to guide dose-escalation decisions. We pool safety data across disease subtypes and use a single dose-toxicity model while sharing efficacy information between disease subtypes using a hierarchical dose-response model. In addition, an adaptive randomization approach is applied to dynamically assign patients to a regimen when more than one regimen is open for enrollment. We illustrate this study design through a simulated trial example, and we investigate the operating characteristics using simulation studies. PMID:27109037

  4. Hurdles in therapy with regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Trzonkowski, Piotr; Bacchetta, Rosa; Battaglia, Manuela; Berglund, David; Bohnenkamp, Hermann Richard; ten Brinke, Anja; Bushell, Andrew; Cools, Nathalie; Geissler, Edward K; Gregori, Silvia; Marieke van Ham, S; Hilkens, Catharien; Hutchinson, James A; Lombardi, Giovanna; Madrigal, J Alejandro; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia; Martinez-Caceres, Eva M; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Sanchez-Ramon, Silvia; Saudemont, Aurore; Sawitzki, Birgit

    2015-09-01

    Improper activation of the immune system contributes to a variety of clinical conditions, including autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. One approach to counteract this activation is through adoptive therapy with regulatory T cells (Tregs). Efforts to manufacture these cells have led to good maunfacturing practice-compliant protocols, and Treg products are entering early clinical trials. Here, we report the stance of the European Union Cooperation in Science and Technology Action BM1305, "Action to Focus and Accelerate Cell-based Tolerance-inducing Therapies-A FACTT," which identifies hurdles hindering Treg clinical applications in Europe and provides possible solutions. PMID:26355029

  5. New cell sources for T cell engineering and adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Themeli, Maria; Rivière, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The promising clinical results obtained with engineered T cells, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy, call for further advancements to facilitate and broaden their applicability. One potentially beneficial innovation is to exploit new T cell sources that reduce the need for autologous cell manufacturing and enable cell transfer across histocompatibility barriers. Here we review emerging T cell engineering approaches that utilize alternative T cell sources, which include virus-specific or T cell receptor-less allogeneic T cells, expanded lymphoid progenitors, and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived T lymphocytes. The latter offer the prospect for true off-the-shelf, genetically enhanced, histocompatible cell therapy products. PMID:25842976

  6. Regulatory and effector functions of gamma-delta (γδ) T cells and their therapeutic potential in adoptive cellular therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sourav; Lal, Girdhari

    2016-09-01

    γδ T cells are an important innate immune component of the tumor microenvironment and are known to affect the immune response in a wide variety of tumors. Unlike αβ T cells, γδ T cells are capable of spontaneous secretion of IL-17A and IFN-γ without undergoing clonal expansion. Although γδ T cells do not require self-MHC-restricted priming, they can distinguish "foreign" or transformed cells from healthy self-cells by using activating and inhibitory killer Ig-like receptors. γδ T cells were used in several clinical trials to treat cancer patient due to their MHC-unrestricted cytotoxicity, ability to distinguish transformed cells from normal cells, the capacity to secrete inflammatory cytokines and also their ability to enhance the generation of antigen-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell response. In this review, we discuss the effector and regulatory function of γδ T cells in the tumor microenvironment with special emphasis on the potential for their use in adoptive cellular immunotherapy. PMID:27012367

  7. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy in Hematology.

    PubMed

    Ataca, Pınar; Arslan, Önder

    2015-12-01

    It is well demonstrated that the immune system can control and eliminate cancer cells. Immune-mediated elimination of tumor cells has been discovered and is the basis of both cancer vaccines and cellular therapies including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Adoptive T cell transfer has been improved to be more specific and potent and to cause less off-target toxicity. Currently, there are two forms of engineered T cells being tested in clinical trials: T cell receptor (TCR) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells. On 1 July 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration granted 'breakthrough therapy' designation to anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy. Many studies were conducted to evaluate the benefits of this exciting and potent new treatment modality. This review summarizes the history of adoptive immunotherapy, adoptive immunotherapy using CARs, the CAR manufacturing process, preclinical and clinical studies, and the effectiveness and drawbacks of this strategy. PMID:26377367

  8. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy in Hematology

    PubMed Central

    Ataca, Pınar; Arslan, Önder

    2015-01-01

    It is well demonstrated that the immune system can control and eliminate cancer cells. Immune-mediated elimination of tumor cells has been discovered and is the basis of both cancer vaccines and cellular therapies including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Adoptive T cell transfer has been improved to be more specific and potent and to cause less off-target toxicity. Currently, there are two forms of engineered T cells being tested in clinical trials: T cell receptor (TCR) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells. On 1 July 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration granted ‘breakthrough therapy’ designation to anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy. Many studies were conducted to evaluate the benefits of this exciting and potent new treatment modality. This review summarizes the history of adoptive immunotherapy, adoptive immunotherapy using CARs, the CAR manufacturing process, preclinical and clinical studies, and the effectiveness and drawbacks of this strategy. PMID:26377367

  9. Safe engineering of CAR T cells for adoptive cell therapy of cancer using long-term episomal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chuan; Fotaki, Grammatiki; Ramachandran, Mohanraj; Nilsson, Berith; Essand, Magnus; Yu, Di

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a new successful treatment for refractory B-cell leukemia. Successful therapeutic outcome depends on long-term expression of CAR transgene in T cells, which is achieved by delivering transgene using integrating gamma retrovirus (RV) or lentivirus (LV). However, uncontrolled RV/LV integration in host cell genomes has the potential risk of causing insertional mutagenesis. Herein, we describe a novel episomal long-term cell engineering method using non-integrating lentiviral (NILV) vector containing a scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) element, for either expression of transgenes or silencing of target genes. The insertional events of this vector into the genome of host cells are below detection level. CD19 CAR T cells engineered with a NILV-S/MAR vector have similar levels of CAR expression as T cells engineered with an integrating LV vector, even after numerous rounds of cell division. NILV-S/MAR-engineered CD19 CAR T cells exhibited similar cytotoxic capacity upon CD19(+) target cell recognition as LV-engineered T cells and are as effective in controlling tumor growth in vivo We propose that NILV-S/MAR vectors are superior to current options as they enable long-term transgene expression without the risk of insertional mutagenesis and genotoxicity. PMID:27189167

  10. Monoclonal T-cell receptors: new reagents for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Stauss, Hans J; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela; Thomas, Sharyn; Hart, Daniel P; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; Wright, Graham; Perro, Mario; Little, Ann-Margaret; Pospori, Constantina; King, Judy; Morris, Emma C

    2007-10-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T lymphocytes is an effective form of immunotherapy for persistent virus infections and cancer. A major limitation of adoptive therapy is the inability to isolate antigen-specific T lymphocytes reproducibly. The demonstration that cloned T-cell receptor (TCR) genes can be used to produce T lymphocyte populations of desired specificity offers new opportunities for antigen-specific T-cell therapy. TCR gene-modified lymphocytes display antigen-specific function in vitro, and were shown to protect against virus infection and tumor growth in animal models. A recent trial in humans demonstrated that TCR gene-modified T cells persisted in all and reduced melanoma burden in 2/15 patients. In future trials, it may be possible to use TCR gene transfer to equip helper and cytotoxic T cells with new antigen-specificity, allowing both T-cell subsets to cooperate in achieving improved clinical responses. Sequence modifications of TCR genes are being explored to enhance TCR surface expression, while minimizing the risk of pairing between introduced and endogenous TCR chains. Current T-cell transduction protocols that trigger T-cell differentiation need to be modified to generate "undifferentiated" T cells, which, upon adoptive transfer, display improved in vivo expansion and survival. Both, expression of only the introduced TCR chains and the production of naïve T cells may be possible in the future by TCR gene transfer into stem cells. PMID:17637721

  11. Restoration of Viral Immunity in Immunodeficient Humans by the Adoptive Transfer of T Cell Clones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddell, Stanley R.; Watanabe, Kathe S.; Goodrich, James M.; Li, Cheng R.; Agha, Mounzer E.; Greenberg, Philip D.

    1992-07-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells to establish immunity is an effective therapy for viral infections and tumors in animal models. The application of this approach to human disease would require the isolation and in vitro expansion of human antigen-specific T cells and evidence that such T cells persist and function in vivo after transfer. Cytomegalovirus-specific CD8^+ cytotoxic T cell (CTL) clones could be isolated from bone marrow donors, propagated in vitro, and adoptively transferred to immunodeficient bone marrow transplant recipients. No toxicity developed and the clones provided persistent reconstitution of CD8^+ cytomegalovirus-specific CTL responses.

  12. Permissive expansion and homing of adoptively transferred T cells in tumor-bearing hosts.

    PubMed

    Perez, C; Jukica, A; Listopad, J J; Anders, K; Kühl, A A; Loddenkemper, C; Blankenstein, T; Charo, J

    2015-07-15

    Activated T cells expressing endogenous or transduced TCRs are two cell types currently used in clinical adoptive T-cell therapy. The ability of these cells to recognize their antigen, expand and traffic to the tumor site are the initial steps necessary for successful therapy. In this study, we used in vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) of Renilla luciferase (RLuc) expressing T cells to evaluate the ability of adoptively transferred T cells to survive, expand and home to tumor site in vivo. Using this method, termed RT-Rack (Rluc T cell tracking), we followed T-cell response against tumors in vivo. Expansion and homing of adoptively transferred T cells were antigen dependent, but independent of the host immune status. Moreover, we successfully detected T-cell response to small and large tumors, including autochthonous liver tumors. The adoptively transferred T cells were not ignorant or excluded in a partially tolerant host, which expressed low level of the target in the periphery. Using T cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells, we showed the ability of these cells to respond in tumor-bearing hosts by expanding and homing to the tumor site. In all these models, the host immune status, the nature of the tumor or of the antigen, the tumor size and the presence of the targeted antigen in the periphery did not prevent the adoptively transferred T cells from responding by expanding and homing to the tumor. However, T cells had higher expression of the inhibitory receptor PD1 and reduced functional activity when a self-antigen was targeted. PMID:25530110

  13. WT1-specific T cell receptor gene therapy: improving TCR function in transduced T cells.

    PubMed

    Stauss, Hans J; Thomas, Sharyn; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela; Hart, Daniel P; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; King, Judy; Wright, Graham; Perro, Mario; Pospori, Constantina; Morris, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T lymphocytes is an attractive form of immunotherapy for haematological malignancies and cancer. The difficulty of isolating antigen-specific T lymphocytes for individual patients limits the more widespread use of adoptive T cell therapy. The demonstration that cloned T cell receptor (TCR) genes can be used to produce T lymphocyte populations of desired specificity offers new opportunities for antigen-specific T cell therapy. The first trial in humans demonstrated that TCR gene-modified T cells persisted for an extended time period and reduced tumor burden in some patients. The WT1 protein is an attractive target for immunotherapy of leukemia and solid cancer since elevated expression has been demonstrated in AML, CML, MDS and in breast, colon and ovarian cancer. In the past, we have isolated high avidity CTL specific for a WT1-derived peptide presented by HLA-A2 and cloned the TCR alpha and beta genes of a WT1-specific CTL line. The genes were inserted into retroviral vectors for transduction of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes of leukemia patients and normal donors. The treatment of leukemia-bearing NOD/SCID mice with T cells transduced with the WT1-specific TCR eliminated leukemia cells in the bone marrow of most mice, while treatment with T cells transduced with a TCR of irrelevant specificity did not diminish the leukemia burden. In order to improve the safety and efficacy of TCR gene therapy, we have developed lentiviral TCR gene transfer. In addition, we employed strategies to enhance TCR expression while avoiding TCR mis-pairing. It may be possible to generate dominant TCR constructs that can suppress the expression of the endogenous TCR on the surface of transduced T cells. The development of new TCR gene constructs holds great promise for the safe and effective delivery of TCR gene therapy for the treatment of malignancies. PMID:17855129

  14. Targeting T cell metabolism for therapy

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, David

    2015-01-01

    In the past several years, a wealth of evidence has emerged illustrating how metabolism supports many aspects of T cell biology, as well as how metabolic changes drive T cell differentiation and fate. Here we outline developing principles in the regulation of T cell metabolism, and discuss how these processes are impacted in settings of inflammation and cancer. In this context we discuss how metabolic pathways might be manipulated for the treatment of human disease, including how metabolism may be targeted to prevent T cell dysfunction in inhospitable microenvironments, to generate more effective adoptive cellular immunotherapies in cancer, and to direct T cell differentiation and function towards non-pathogenic phenotypes in settings of autoimmunity. PMID:25601541

  15. The Evolution of T-cell Therapies for Solid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Fousek, Kristen; Ahmed, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Primary resistant, recurrent and relapsed solid tumors are often non-responsive to conventional anti-neoplastic therapies. Moreover, in responsive tumors, the therapeutic to toxic range of these interventions remains quite narrow, such that side effects of therapy are substantial. Targeted therapies, such as adoptive T cell transfer, not only spare normal tissues but also use alternative killing mechanisms to which the tumor cells are usually not immune. Adoptive T cell transfer for solid tumors faces unique challenges because of the inherent heterogeneity of tumor parenchyma, the complexity of the tumor microenvironment, and tumor occurrence in areas with limited therapeutic accessibility. In this review, we examine the recent evolution of various T cell-based immunotherapeutics, the mechanisms of action behind their antitumor activity, their increasing complexity, and the prospect of building on previous successes in the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:26240290

  16. Dynamic imaging for CAR-T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Emami-Shahri, Nia; Papa, Sophie

    2016-04-15

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy is entering the mainstream for the treatment of CD19(+)cancers. As is does we learn more about resistance to therapy and the role, risks and management of toxicity. In solid tumour CAR therapy research the route to the clinic is less smooth with a wealth of challenges facing translating this, potentially hugely valuable, therapeutic option for patients. As we strive to understand our successes, and navigate the challenges, having a clear understanding of how adoptively transferred CAR-T-cells behavein vivoand in human trials is invaluable. Harnessing reporter gene imaging to enable detection and tracking of small numbers of CAR-T-cells after adoptive transfer is one way by which we can accomplish this. The compatibility of certain reporter gene systems with tracers available routinely in the clinic makes this approach highly useful for future appraisal of CAR-T-cell success in humans. PMID:27068944

  17. Biomarkers in T cell therapy clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    T cell therapy represents an emerging and promising modality for the treatment of both infectious disease and cancer. Data from recent clinical trials have highlighted the potential for this therapeutic modality to effect potent anti-tumor activity. Biomarkers, operationally defined as biological parameters measured from patients that provide information about treatment impact, play a central role in the development of novel therapeutic agents. In the absence of information about primary clinical endpoints, biomarkers can provide critical insights that allow investigators to guide the clinical development of the candidate product. In the context of cell therapy trials, the definition of biomarkers can be extended to include a description of parameters of the cell product that are important for product bioactivity. This review will focus on biomarker studies as they relate to T cell therapy trials, and more specifically: i. An overview and description of categories and classes of biomarkers that are specifically relevant to T cell therapy trials, and ii. Insights into future directions and challenges for the appropriate development of biomarkers to evaluate both product bioactivity and treatment efficacy of T cell therapy trials. PMID:21851646

  18. The Ovarian Cancer Chemokine Landscape is Conducive to Homing of Vaccine-primed and CD3/CD28 Costimulated T cells Prepared for Adoptive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zsiros, Emese; Duttagupta, Priyanka; Dangaj, Denarda; Li, Hongzhe; Frank, Renee; Garrabrant, Thomas; Hagemann, Ian S.; Levine, Bruce L.; June, Carl H.; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Bedognetti, Davide; Powell, Daniel J.; Tanyi, Janos; Feldman, Michael D.; Kandalaft, Lana E.; Coukos, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chemokines are implicated in T cell trafficking. We mapped the chemokine landscape in advanced stage ovarian cancer and characterized the expression of cognate receptors in autologous DC-vaccine primed T cells in the context of cell-based immunotherapy. Experimental design The expression of all known human chemokines in patients with primary ovarian cancer was analyzed on two independent microarray datasets and validated on tissue microarray. Peripheral blood T cells from five HLA-A2 patients with recurrent ovarian cancer, who previously received autologous tumor DC vaccine, underwent CD3/CD28 costimulation and expansion ex vivo. Tumor-specific T cells were identified by HER2/neu pentamer staining and were evaluated for the expression and functionality of chemokine receptors important for homing to ovarian cancer. Results The chemokine landscape of ovarian cancer is heterogeneous with high expression of known lymphocyte-recruiting chemokines (CCL2, CCL4 and CCL5) in tumors with intraepithelial T cells, whereas CXCL10, CXCL12 and CXCL16 are expressed quasi-universally, including in tumors lacking tumor infiltrating T cells. DC-vaccine primed T cells were found to express the cognate receptors for the above chemokines. Ex vivo CD3/CD28 costimulation and expansion of vaccine-primed T cells upregulated CXCR3 and CXCR4, and enhanced their migration toward universally expressed chemokines in ovarian cancer. Conclusions DC-primed tumor specific T cells are armed with the appropriate receptors to migrate towards universal ovarian cancer chemokines, and these receptors are further upregulated by ex vivo CD3/CD28 costimulation, which render T cells more fit for migrating towards these chemokines. PMID:25712684

  19. Influenza virus-specific TCR-transduced T cells as a model for adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Berdien, Belinda; Reinhard, Henrike; Meyer, Sabrina; Spöck, Stefanie; Kröger, Nicolaus; Atanackovic, Djordje; Fehse, Boris

    2013-06-01

    Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes equipped with tumor-antigen specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) represents a promising strategy in cancer immunotherapy, but the approach remains technically demanding. Using influenza virus (Flu)-specific T-cell responses as a model system we compared different methods for the generation of T-cell clones and isolation of antigen-specific TCRs. Altogether, we generated 12 CD8(+) T-cell clones reacting to the Flu matrix protein (Flu-M) and 6 CD4(+) T-cell clones reacting to the Flu nucleoprotein (Flu-NP) from 4 healthy donors. IFN-γ-secretion-based enrichment of antigen-specific cells, optionally combined with tetramer staining, was the most efficient way for generating T-cell clones. In contrast, the commonly used limiting dilution approach was least efficient. TCR genes were isolated from T-cell clones and cloned into both a previously used gammaretroviral LTR-vector, MP91 and the novel lentiviral self-inactivating vector LeGO-MP that contains MP91-derived promotor and regulatory elements. To directly compare their functional efficiencies, we in parallel transduced T-cell lines and primary T cells with the two vectors encoding identical TCRs. Transduction efficiencies were approximately twice higher with the gammaretroviral vector. Secretion of high amounts of IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α by transduced cells after exposure to the respective influenza target epitope proved efficient specificity transfer of the isolated TCRs to primary T-cells for both vectors, at the same time indicating superior functionality of MP91-transduced cells. In conclusion, we have developed optimized strategies to obtain and transfer antigen-specific TCRs as well as designed a novel lentiviral vector for TCR-gene transfer. Our data may help to improve adoptive T-cell therapies. PMID:23428899

  20. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  1. Improved anti-leukemia activities of adoptively transferred T cells expressing bispecific T-cell engager in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Barrett, D M; Jiang, S; Fang, C; Kalos, M; Grupp, S A; June, C H; Zhao, Y

    2016-01-01

    Despite the impressive clinical efficacy of T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-Ts), the current applications of CAR-T cell therapy are limited by major treatment-related toxicity. Thus, safer yet effective alternative approaches must be developed. In this study, we compared CD19 bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE)-transferred T cells that had been transfected by RNA electroporation with CD19 CAR RNA-transferred T cells both in vitro and in an aggressive Nalm6 leukemia mouse model. BiTEs were secreted from the transferred T cells and enabled both the transferred and bystander T cells to specifically recognize CD19(+) cell lines, with increased tumor killing ability, prolonged functional persistence, increased cytokine production and potent proliferation compared with the CAR-T cells. More interestingly, in comparison with CD3/CD28 bead-stimulated T cells, T cells that were expanded by a rapid T-cell expansion protocol (REP) showed enhanced anti-tumor activities for both CAR and BiTE RNA-electroporated T cells both in vitro and in a Nalm6 mouse model (P<0.01). Furthermore, the REP T cells with BiTE RNAs showed greater efficacy in the Nalm6 leukemia model compared with REP T cells with CAR RNA (P<0.05) and resulted in complete leukemia remission. PMID:27258611

  2. Prospects for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) γδ T cells: A potential game changer for adoptive T cell cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Hamid Reza; Mirzaei, Hamed; Lee, Sang Yun; Hadjati, Jamshid; Till, Brian G

    2016-10-01

    Excitement is growing for therapies that harness the power of patients' immune systems to combat their diseases. One approach to immunotherapy involves engineering patients' own T cells to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to treat advanced cancers, particularly those refractory to conventional therapeutic agents. Although these engineered immune cells have made remarkable strides in the treatment of patients with certain hematologic malignancies, success with solid tumors has been limited, probably due to immunosuppressive mechanisms in the tumor niche. In nearly all studies to date, T cells bearing αβ receptors have been used to generate CAR T cells. In this review, we highlight biological characteristics of γδ T cells that are distinct from those of αβ T cells, including homing to epithelial and mucosal tissues and unique functions such as direct antigen recognition, lack of alloreactivity, and ability to present antigens. We offer our perspective that these features make γδ T cells promising for use in cellular therapy against several types of solid tumors, including melanoma and gastrointestinal cancers. Engineered γδ T cells should be considered as a new platform for adoptive T cell cancer therapy for mucosal tumors. PMID:27392648

  3. Generation of CD8+ T cells expressing two additional T-cell receptors (TETARs) for personalised melanoma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Höfflin, Sandra; Prommersberger, Sabrina; Uslu, Ugur; Schuler, Gerold; Schmidt, Christopher W; Lennerz, Volker; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy of cancer often fails due to the tumor cells' immune escape mechanisms, like antigen loss or down-regulation. To anticipate immune escape by loss of a single antigen, it would be advantageous to equip T cells with multiple specificities. To study the possible interference of 2 T-cell receptors (TCRs) in one cell, and to examine how to counteract competing effects, we generated TETARs, CD8+ T cells expressing two additional T-cell receptors by simultaneous transient transfection with 2 TCRs using RNA electroporation. The TETARs were equipped with one TCR specific for the common melanoma antigen gp100 and one TCR recognizing a patient-specific, individual mutation of CCT6A (chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 6A) termed “CCT6Am TCR.” These CD8+ T cells proved functional in cytokine secretion and lytic activity upon stimulation with each of their cognate antigens, although some reciprocal inhibition was observed. Murinisation of the CCT6Am TCR increased and prolonged its expression and increased the lytic capacity of the dual-specific T cells. Taken together, we generated functional, dual-specific CD8+ T cells directed against a common melanoma-antigen and an individually mutated antigen for the use in personalised adoptive T-cell therapy of melanoma. The intended therapy would involve repetitive injections of the RNA-transfected cells to overcome the transiency of TCR expression. In case of autoimmunity-related side effects, a cessation of treatment would result in a disappearance of the introduced receptors, which increases the safety of this approach. PMID:26178065

  4. Generation of CD8(+) T cells expressing two additional T-cell receptors (TETARs) for personalised melanoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Höfflin, Sandra; Prommersberger, Sabrina; Uslu, Ugur; Schuler, Gerold; Schmidt, Christopher W; Lennerz, Volker; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy of cancer often fails due to the tumor cells' immune escape mechanisms, like antigen loss or down-regulation. To anticipate immune escape by loss of a single antigen, it would be advantageous to equip T cells with multiple specificities. To study the possible interference of 2 T-cell receptors (TCRs) in one cell, and to examine how to counteract competing effects, we generated TETARs, CD8(+) T cells expressing two additional T-cell receptors by simultaneous transient transfection with 2 TCRs using RNA electroporation. The TETARs were equipped with one TCR specific for the common melanoma antigen gp100 and one TCR recognizing a patient-specific, individual mutation of CCT6A (chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 6A) termed "CCT6A(m) TCR." These CD8(+) T cells proved functional in cytokine secretion and lytic activity upon stimulation with each of their cognate antigens, although some reciprocal inhibition was observed. Murinisation of the CCT6A(m) TCR increased and prolonged its expression and increased the lytic capacity of the dual-specific T cells. Taken together, we generated functional, dual-specific CD8(+) T cells directed against a common melanoma-antigen and an individually mutated antigen for the use in personalised adoptive T-cell therapy of melanoma. The intended therapy would involve repetitive injections of the RNA-transfected cells to overcome the transiency of TCR expression. In case of autoimmunity-related side effects, a cessation of treatment would result in a disappearance of the introduced receptors, which increases the safety of this approach. PMID:26178065

  5. T cells conditioned with MDSC show an increased anti-tumor activity after adoptive T cell based immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Raber, Patrick L.; Sierra, Rosa A.; Thevenot, Paul T.; Shuzhong, Zhang; Wyczechowska, Dorota D.; Kumai, Takumi; Celis, Esteban; Rodriguez, Paulo C.

    2016-01-01

    The success of adoptive T cell-based immunotherapy (ACT) in cancer is limited in part by the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which block several T cell functions, including T cell proliferation and the expression of various cytotoxic mediators. Paradoxically, the inhibition of CD8+ T cell differentiation into cytotoxic populations increased their efficacy after ACT into tumor-bearing hosts. Therefore, we aimed to test the impact of conditioning CD8+ T cells with MDSC on their differentiation potential and ACT efficacy. Our results indicate that MDSC impaired the progression of CD8+ T cells into effector populations, without altering their activation status, production of IL-2, or signaling through the T cell receptor. In addition, culture of CD8+ T cells with MDSC resulted in an increased ACT anti-tumor efficacy, which correlated with a higher frequency of the transferred T cells and elevated IFNγ production. Interestingly, activated CD62L+ CD8+ Tcells were responsible for the enhanced anti-tumor activity showed by MDSC-exposed T cells. Additional results showed a decreased protein synthesis rate and lower activity of the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in T cells conditioned with MDSC. Silencing of the negative mTOR regulator tuberous sclerosis complex-2 in T cells co-cultured with MDSC restored mTOR activity, but resulted in T cell apoptosis. These results indicate that conditioning of T cells with MDSC induces stress survival pathways mediated by a blunted mTOR signaling, which regulated T cell differentiation and ACT efficacy. Continuation of this research will enable the development of better strategies to increase ACT responses in cancer. PMID:27007050

  6. Adoptive Immunotherapy of Disseminated Leukemia With TCR-transduced, CD8+ T Cells Expressing a Known Endogenous TCR

    PubMed Central

    Dossett, Michelle L; Teague, Ryan M; Schmitt, Thomas M; Tan, Xiaoxia; Cooper, Laurence JN; Pinzon, Cristina; Greenberg, Philip D

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy has shown promise in the treatment of human malignancies, but the challenge of isolating T cells with high avidity for tumor antigens in each patient has limited application of this approach. The transfer into T cells of T-cell receptor (TCR) genes encoding high-affinity TCRs recognizing defined tumor-associated antigens can potentially circumvent this obstacle. Using a well-characterized murine model of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy for widely disseminated leukemia, we demonstrate that TCR gene–modified T cells can cure mice of disseminated tumor. One goal of such adoptive therapy is to establish a persistent memory response to prevent recurrence; however, long-term function of transferred TCR-transduced T cells is limited due to reduced expression of the introduced TCR in vivo in quiescent resting T cells. However, by introducing the TCR into a cell with a known endogenous specificity, activation of these T cells by stimulation through the endogenous TCR can be used to increase expression of the introduced TCR, potentially providing a strategy to increase the total number of tumor-reactive T cells in the host and restore more potent antitumor activity. PMID:19209146

  7. Antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1, DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell transfer, inhibits ocular neovascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Han; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Hijioka, Kuniaki; Qiao, Hong; Oshima, Yuji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2009-04-17

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in a wide range of ocular diseases. The exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ocular NV is not yet well understood, and so there is no satisfactory therapy for ocular NV. Here, we describe a strategy targeting Flk-1, a self-antigen overexpressed on proliferating endothelial cells in ocular NV, by antiangiogenic immunotherapy-DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell therapy. An oral DNA vaccine encoding Flk-1 carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium markedly suppressed development of laser-induced choroidal NV. We further demonstrated that adoptive transfer of vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells reduced pathological preretinal NV, with a concomitant facilitation of physiological revascularization after oxygen-induced retinal vessel obliteration. However, physiological retinal vascular development was unaffected in neonatal mice transferred with vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells. These findings suggested that antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1 such as vaccination and adoptive immunotherapy may contribute to future therapies for ocular NV.

  8. Improving therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

    PubMed

    Fraietta, Joseph A; Schwab, Robert D; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive cell immunotherapy for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has heralded a new era of synthetic biology. The infusion of genetically engineered, autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed against CD19 expressed by normal and malignant B cells represents a novel approach to cancer therapy. The results of recent clinical trials of CAR T cells in relapsed and refractory CLL have demonstrated long-term disease-free remissions, underscoring the power of harnessing and redirecting the immune system against cancer. This review will briefly summarize T-cell therapies in development for CLL disease. We discuss the role of T-cell function and phenotype, T-cell culture optimization, CAR design, and approaches to potentiate the survival and anti-tumor effects of infused lymphocytes. Future efforts will focus on improving the efficacy of CAR T cells for the treatment of CLL and incorporating adoptive cell immunotherapy into standard medical management of CLL. PMID:27040708

  9. HEB-deficient T-cell precursors lose T-cell potential and adopt an alternative pathway of differentiation.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Marsela; Anderson, Michele K

    2011-03-01

    Early thymocytes possess multilineage potential, which is progressively restricted as cells transit through the double-negative stages of T-cell development. DN1 cells retain the ability to become natural killer cells, dendritic cells, B cells, and myeloid cells as well as T cells, but these options are lost by the DN3 stage. The Notch1 signaling pathway is indispensable for initiation of the T-cell lineage and inhibitory for the B-cell lineage, but the regulatory mechanisms by which the T-cell fate is locked in are largely undefined. Previously, we discovered that the E-protein transcription factor HEBAlt promoted T-cell specification. Here, we report that HEB(-/-) T-cell precursors have compromised Notch1 function and lose T-cell potential. Moreover, reconstituting HEB(-/-) precursors with Notch1 activity enforced fidelity to the T-cell fate. However, instead of becoming B cells, HEB(-/-) DN3 cells adopted a DN1-like phenotype and could be induced to differentiate into thymic NK cells. HEB(-/-) DN1-like cells retained GATA3 and Id2 expression but had lower levels of the Bcl11b gene, a Notch target gene. Therefore, our studies have revealed a new set of interactions between HEB, Notch1, and GATA3 that regulate the T-cell fate choice in developing thymocytes. PMID:21189289

  10. Direct Toll-Like Receptor 8 signaling increases the functional avidity of human CD8+ T lymphocytes generated for adoptive T cell therapy strategies

    PubMed Central

    Chatillon, Jean-François; Hamieh, Mohamad; Bayeux, Florence; Abasq, Claire; Fauquembergue, Emilie; Drouet, Aurélie; Guisier, Florian; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste; Musette, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of in vitro activated and expanded antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a promising therapeutic strategy for infectious diseases and cancers. Obtaining in vitro a sufficient amount of highly specific cytotoxic cells and capable of retaining cytotoxic activity in vivo remains problematic. We studied the role of Toll-Like Receptor-8 (TLR8) engagement on peripheral CTLs activated with melanoma antigen MART-1-expressing artificial antigen-presenting cells (AAPCs). After a 3-week co-culture, 3–27% of specific CTLs were consistently obtained. CTLs expressed TLR8 in the intracellular compartment and at the cell surface. Specific CTLs activated with a TLR8 agonist (CL075) 24 h before the end of the culture displayed neither any change in their production levels of molecules involved in cytotoxicity (IFN-γ, Granzyme B, and TNF-α) nor major significant change in their cell surface phenotype. However, these TLR8-stimulated lymphocytes displayed increased cytotoxic activity against specific peptide-pulsed target cells related to an increase in specific anti-melanoma CTL functional avidity. TLR8 engagement on CTLs could, therefore, be useful in different immunotherapy strategies. PMID:25866635

  11. C-C chemokine receptor type-4 transduction of T cells enhances interaction with dendritic cells, tumor infiltration and therapeutic efficacy of adoptive T cell transfer

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Moritz; Grassmann, Simon; Chaloupka, Michael; Layritz, Patrick; Kruger, Stephan; Ormanns, Steffen; Rataj, Felicitas; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Endres, Stefan; Anz, David; Kobold, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT T cell infiltration at the tumor site has been identified as a major predictor for the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. The chemokine C-C motif ligand 22 (CCL22) is highly expressed by immune cells in murine and human pancreatic cancer. Expression of its corresponding receptor, C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4), is restricted to regulatory T cells (Treg). We show that transduction of cytotoxic T cells (CTL) with CCR4 enhances their immigration into a pancreatic cancer model. Further, we show that binding of CCR4 with CCL22 strengthens the binding of T cell LFA-1 to dendritic cell (DC) ICAM-1 and increases CTL activation. In vivo, in a model of subcutaneous pancreatic cancer, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with CCR4-transduced CTL led to the eradication of established tumors in 40% of the mice. In conclusion, CCR4 overexpression in CTL is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance the efficacy of adoptive T cell transfer (ACT). PMID:27195186

  12. Adoptive Immunotherapy using Regulatory T cells and Virus-specific T cells Derived from Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Patrick J.; Bollard, Catherine M.; Brunstein, Claudio G

    2014-01-01

    Cord blood transplantation, an alternative to traditional stem cell transplants (bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation), is an attractive option for patients lacking suitable stem cell transplant donors. Cord blood units have also proven to be a valuable donor source for the development of cellular therapeutics. Virus-specific T cells and regulatory T cells are two cord blood derived products that have shown promise in early phase clinical trials to prevent and/or treat viral infections and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), respectively. Here we describe how current strategies utilizing cord blood-derived regulatory T cells and virus-specific T cells have been developed to improve outcomes for cord blood transplant recipients. PMID:25632003

  13. CTLA-4 blockade plus adoptive T cell transfer promotes optimal melanoma immunity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mahvi, David A.; Meyers, Justin V.; Tatar, Andrew J.; Contreras, Amanda; Suresh, M.; Leverson, Glen E.; Sen, Siddhartha; Cho, Clifford S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of advanced melanoma have relied on strategies that augment the responsiveness of endogenous tumor-specific T cell populations (e.g., CTLA-4 blockade-mediated checkpoint inhibition) or introduce exogenously-prepared tumor-specific T cell populations (e.g., adoptive cell transfer). Although both approaches have shown considerable promise, response rates to these therapies remain suboptimal. We hypothesized that a combinatorial approach to immunotherapy using both CTLA-4 blockade and non-lymphodepletional adoptive cell transfer could offer additive therapeutic benefit. C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with syngeneic B16F10 melanoma tumors transfected to express low levels of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus peptide GP33 (B16GP33), and treated with no immunotherapy, CTLA-4 blockade, adoptive cell transfer, or combination immunotherapy of CTLA-4 blockade with adoptive cell transfer. Combination immunotherapy resulted in optimal control of B16GP33 melanoma tumors. Combination immunotherapy promoted a stronger local immune response reflected by enhanced tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte populations, as well as a stronger systemic immune responses reflected by more potent tumor antigen-specific T cell activity in splenocytes. In addition, whereas both CTLA-4 blockade and combination immunotherapy were able to promote long-term immunity against B16GP33 tumors, only combination immunotherapy was capable of promoting immunity against parental B16F10 tumors as well. Our findings suggest that a combinatorial approach using CTLA-4 blockade with non-lymphodepletional adoptive cell transfer may promote additive endogenous and exogenous T cell activities that enable greater therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25658614

  14. Clinical application of genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Michael H; Westwood, Jennifer A; Slaney, Clare Y; Darcy, Phillip K

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapies are emerging as highly promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. In these approaches, a variety of materials are used to boost immunity against malignant cells. A key component of many of these approaches is functional tumor-specific T cells, but the existence and activity of sufficient T cells in the immune repertoire is not always the case. Recent methods of generating tumor-specific T cells include the genetic modification of patient lymphocytes with receptors to endow them with tumor specificity. These T cells are then expanded in vitro followed by infusion of the patient in adoptive cell transfer protocols. Genes used to modify T cells include those encoding T-cell receptors and chimeric antigen receptors. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of genetic engineering of T cells followed by details of their use against cancer in the clinic. PMID:25505964

  15. A pan-inhibitor of DASH family enzymes induces immune-mediated regression of murine sarcoma and is a potent adjuvant to dendritic cell vaccination and adoptive T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Brynn B; Highfill, Steven L; Qin, Haiying; Bouchkouj, Najat; Larabee, Shannon; Zhao, Peng; Woznica, Iwona; Liu, Yuxin; Li, Youhua; Wu, Wengen; Lai, Jack H; Jones, Barry; Mackall, Crystal L; Bachovchin, William W; Fry, Terry J

    2013-10-01

    Multimodality therapy consisting of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation will fail in approximately 40% of patients with pediatric sarcomas and result in substantial long-term morbidity in those who are cured. Immunotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of solid tumors typically generate antigen-specific responses too weak to overcome considerable tumor burden and tumor suppressive mechanisms and are in need of adjuvant assistance. Previous work suggests that inhibitors of DASH (dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity and/or structural homologs) enzymes can mediate tumor regression by immune-mediated mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that the DASH inhibitor, ARI-4175, can induce regression and eradication of well-established solid tumors, both as a single agent and as an adjuvant to a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine and adoptive cell therapy (ACT) in mice implanted with the M3-9-M rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. Treatment with effective doses of ARI-4175 correlated with recruitment of myeloid (CD11b) cells, particularly myeloid DCs, to secondary lymphoid tissues and with reduced frequency of intratumoral monocytic (CD11bLy6-CLy6-G) myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In immunocompetent mice, combining ARI-4175 with a DC vaccine or ACT with tumor-primed T cells produced significant improvements in tumor responses against well-established M3-9-M tumors. In M3-9-M-bearing immunodeficient (Rag1) mice, ACT combined with ARI-4175 produced greater tumor responses and significantly improved survival compared with either treatment alone. These studies warrant the clinical investigation of ARI-4175 for treatment of sarcomas and other malignancies, particularly as an adjuvant to tumor vaccines and ACT. PMID:23994886

  16. A pan-inhibitor of DASH family enzymes induces immune-mediated regression of murine sarcoma and is a potent adjuvant to dendritic cell vaccination and adoptive T-cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Brynn B.; Highfill, Steven L.; Qin, Haiying; Bouchkouj, Najat; Larabee, Shannon; Zhao, Peng; Woznica, Iwona; Liu, Yuxin; Li, Youhua; Wu, Wengen; Lai, Jack H.; Jones, Barry; Mackall, Crystal L.; Bachovchin, William W.; Fry, Terry J.

    2013-01-01

    Current multimodality therapy consisting of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation will fail in approximately 40% of patients with pediatric sarcomas and results in substantial long-term morbidity in those who are cured. Immunotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of solid tumors typically generate antigen-specific responses too weak to overcome considerable tumor burden and tumor suppressive mechanisms and are in need of adjuvant assistance. Previous work suggests that inhibitors of DASH (Dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity and/or structural homologues) enzymes can mediate tumor regression via immune-mediated mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that the DASH inhibitor, ARI-4175, can induce regression and eradication of well-established solid tumors, both as a single agent and as an adjuvant to a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine and adoptive cell therapy (ACT) in mice implanted with the M3-9-M rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell line. Treatment with effective doses of ARI-4175 correlated with recruitment of myeloid (CD11b+) cells, particularly myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), to secondary lymphoid tissues and with reduced frequency of intratumoral monocytic (CD11b+Ly6-ChiLy6-Glo) myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In immunocompetent mice, combining ARI-4175 with a DC vaccine or ACT with tumor-primed T cells produced significant improvements in tumor responses against well-established M3-9-M tumors. In M3-9-M-bearing immunodeficient (Rag1-/-) mice, ACT combined with ARI-4175 produced greater tumor responses and significantly improved survival compared to either treatment alone. These studies warrant the clinical investigation of ARI-4175 for treatment of sarcomas and other malignancies particularly as an adjuvant to tumor vaccines and ACT. PMID:23994886

  17. Genetically Modified T-Cell Therapy for Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    DeRenzo, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    T-cell immunotherapy may offer an approach to improve outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma, who fail current therapies. In addition, it has the potential to reduce treatment-related complications for all patients. Generating tumor-specific T cells with conventional antigen presenting cells ex vivo is time consuming and often results in T-cell products with a low frequency of tumor-specific T cells. In addition, the generated T cells remain sensitive to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Genetic modification of T cells is one strategy to overcome these limitations. For example, T cells can be genetically modified to render them antigen specific, resistant to inhibitory factors, or increase their ability to home to tumor sites. Most genetic modification strategies have only been evaluated in preclinical models, however early phase clinical trials are in progress. In this chapter we review the current status of gene-modified T-cell therapy with special focus on osteosarcoma, highlighting potential antigenic targets, preclinical and clinical studies, and strategies to improve current T-cell therapy approaches. PMID:24924183

  18. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun

    2016-01-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy. PMID:26819347

  19. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun; Han, Weidong

    2016-07-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy. PMID:26819347

  20. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun

    2016-01-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy.

  1. Highly efficient gene transfer using a retroviral vector into murine T cells for preclinical chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Kusabuka, Hotaka; Fujiwara, Kento; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Hirobe, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Okada, Naoki

    2016-04-22

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T (CAR-T) cells has attracted attention as an efficacious strategy for cancer treatment. To prove the efficacy and safety of CAR-T cell therapy, the elucidation of immunological mechanisms underlying it in mice is required. Although a retroviral vector (Rv) is mainly used for the introduction of CAR to murine T cells, gene transduction efficiency is generally less than 50%. The low transduction efficiency causes poor precision in the functional analysis of CAR-T cells. We attempted to improve the Rv gene transduction protocol to more efficiently generate functional CAR-T cells by optimizing the period of pre-cultivation and antibody stimulation. In the improved protocol, gene transduction efficiency to murine T cells was more than 90%. In addition, almost all of the prepared murine T cells expressed CAR after puromycin selection. These CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity and secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. We believe that our optimized gene transduction protocol for murine T cells contributes to the advancement of T cell biology and development of immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells. PMID:26993168

  2. Targeting human melanoma neoantigens by T cell receptor gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Leisegang, Matthias; Kammertoens, Thomas; Uckert, Wolfgang; Blankenstein, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In successful cancer immunotherapy, T cell responses appear to be directed toward neoantigens created by somatic mutations; however, direct evidence that neoantigen-specific T cells cause regression of established cancer is lacking. Here, we generated T cells expressing a mutation-specific transgenic T cell receptor (TCR) to target different immunogenic mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) that naturally occur in human melanoma. Two mutant CDK4 isoforms (R24C, R24L) similarly stimulated T cell responses in vitro and were analyzed as therapeutic targets for TCR gene therapy. In a syngeneic HLA-A2-transgenic mouse model of large established tumors, we found that both mutations differed dramatically as targets for TCR-modified T cells in vivo. While T cells expanded efficiently and produced IFN-γ in response to R24L, R24C failed to induce an effective antitumor response. Such differences in neoantigen quality might explain why cancer immunotherapy induces tumor regression in some individuals, while others do not respond, despite similar mutational load. We confirmed the validity of the in vivo model by showing that the melan-A-specific (MART-1-specific) TCR DMF5 induces rejection of tumors expressing analog, but not native, MART-1 epitopes. The described model allows identification of those neoantigens in human cancer that serve as suitable T cell targets and may help to predict clinical efficacy. PMID:26808500

  3. CAR-T Cell Therapies From the Transfusion Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fesnak, Andrew; Lin, ChieYu; Siegel, Don L; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-07-01

    The use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies has generated significant excitement over the last several years. From a transfusion medicine perspective, the implementation of CAR-T therapy as a potential mainstay treatment for not only hematologic but also solid-organ malignancies represents a significant opportunity for growth and expansion. In this review, we will describe the rationale for the development of genetically redirected T cells as a cancer therapeutic, the different elements that are required to engineer these cells, as well as an overview of the process by which patient cells are harvested and processed to create and subsequently validate CAR-T cells. Finally, we will briefly describe some of the toxicities and clinical efficacy of CAR-T cells in the setting of patients with advanced malignancy. PMID:27067907

  4. Driving CAR-Based T-Cell Therapy to Success

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Bipulendu; Moyes, Judy S; Huls, Helen; Cooper, Laurence JN

    2014-01-01

    T-cells that have been genetically modified, activated, and propagated ex vivo can be infused to control tumor progression in patients who are refractory to conventional treatments. Early-phase clinical trials demonstrate that the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD19 can be therapeutically engaged through the enforced expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) on clinical-grade T-cells. Advances in vector design, the architecture of the CAR molecule especially as associated with T-cell co-stimulatory pathways, and understanding of the tumor microenvironment, play significant roles in the successful treatment of medically fragile patients. However, some recipients of CAR+ T-cells demonstrate incomplete responses. Understanding the potential for treatment failure provides a pathway to improve the potency of adoptive transfer of CAR+ T-cells. High throughput single-cell analyses to understand the complexity of the inoculum coupled with animal models may provide insight into the therapeutic potential of genetically modified T-cells. This review focusses on recent advances regarding the human application of C19-specific CAR+ T-cells and explores how their success for hematologic cancers can provide a framework for investigational treatment of solid tumor malignancies. PMID:24488441

  5. Overcoming Antigen Escape with CAR T-cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J

    2015-12-01

    Sotillo and colleagues describe the molecular events associated with apparent loss of target antigen expression following CAR T-cell therapy. We propose that broader immune activation is required to prevent outgrowth of tumor antigen escape variants following targeted therapies. PMID:26637657

  6. Optimizing T-cell receptor gene therapy for hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Morris, Emma C; Stauss, Hans J

    2016-06-30

    Recent advances in genetic engineering have enabled the delivery of clinical trials using patient T cells redirected to recognize tumor-associated antigens. The most dramatic results have been seen with T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for CD19, a differentiation antigen expressed in B cells and B lineage malignancies. We propose that antigen expression in nonmalignant cells may contribute to the efficacy of T-cell therapy by maintaining effector function and promoting memory. Although CAR recognition is limited to cell surface structures, T-cell receptors (TCRs) can recognize intracellular proteins. This not only expands the range of tumor-associated self-antigens that are amenable for T-cell therapy, but also allows TCR targeting of the cancer mutagenome. We will highlight biological bottlenecks that potentially limit mutation-specific T-cell therapy and may require high-avidity TCRs that are capable of activating effector function when the concentrations of mutant peptides are low. Unexpectedly, modified TCRs with artificially high affinities function poorly in response to low concentration of cognate peptide but pose an increased safety risk as they may respond optimally to cross-reactive peptides. Recent gene-editing tools, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, provide a platform to delete endogenous TCR and HLA genes, which removes alloreactivity and decreases immunogenicity of third-party T cells. This represents an important step toward generic off-the-shelf T-cell products that may be used in the future for the treatment of large numbers of patients. PMID:27207802

  7. T-Cell Therapy: Options for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Parida, Shreemanta K.; Poiret, Thomas; Zhenjiang, Liu; Meng, Qingda; Heyckendorf, Jan; Lange, Christoph; Ambati, Aditya S.; Rao, Martin V.; Valentini, Davide; Ferrara, Giovanni; Rangelova, Elena; Dodoo, Ernest; Zumla, Alimuddin; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis is challenging tuberculosis control worldwide. In the absence of an effective vaccine to prevent primary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and tuberculosis disease, host-directed therapies may offer therapeutic options, particularly for patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis where prognosis is often limited. CD8+ and CD4+ T cells mediate antigen-specific adaptive cellular immune responses. Their use in precision immunotherapy in clinical conditions, especially in treating cancer as well as for prevention of life-threatening viral infections in allogeneic transplant recipients, demonstrated safety and clinical efficacy. We review key achievements in T-cell therapy, including the use of recombinant immune recognition molecules (eg, T-cell receptors and CD19 chimeric antigen receptors), and discuss its potential in the clinical management of patients with drug-resistant and refractory tuberculosis failing conventional therapy. PMID:26409284

  8. T-Cell Therapy: Options for Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Parida, Shreemanta K; Poiret, Thomas; Zhenjiang, Liu; Meng, Qingda; Heyckendorf, Jan; Lange, Christoph; Ambati, Aditya S; Rao, Martin V; Valentini, Davide; Ferrara, Giovanni; Rangelova, Elena; Dodoo, Ernest; Zumla, Alimuddin; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-10-15

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis is challenging tuberculosis control worldwide. In the absence of an effective vaccine to prevent primary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and tuberculosis disease, host-directed therapies may offer therapeutic options, particularly for patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis where prognosis is often limited. CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells mediate antigen-specific adaptive cellular immune responses. Their use in precision immunotherapy in clinical conditions, especially in treating cancer as well as for prevention of life-threatening viral infections in allogeneic transplant recipients, demonstrated safety and clinical efficacy. We review key achievements in T-cell therapy, including the use of recombinant immune recognition molecules (eg, T-cell receptors and CD19 chimeric antigen receptors), and discuss its potential in the clinical management of patients with drug-resistant and refractory tuberculosis failing conventional therapy. PMID:26409284

  9. Immunopathogenesis and therapy of cutaneous T cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ellen J.; Hess, Stephen; Richardson, Stephen K.; Newton, Sara; Showe, Louise C.; Benoit, Bernice M.; Ubriani, Ravi; Vittorio, Carmela C.; Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline M.; Wysocka, Maria; Rook, Alain H.

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are a heterogenous group of lymphoproliferative disorders caused by clonally derived, skin-invasive T cells. Mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are the most common types of CTCLs and are characterized by malignant CD4+/CLA+/CCR4+ T cells that also lack the usual T cell surface markers CD7 and/or CD26. As MF/SS advances, the clonal dominance of the malignant cells results in the expression of predominantly Th2 cytokines, progressive immune dysregulation in patients, and further tumor cell growth. This review summarizes recent insights into the pathogenesis and immunobiology of MF/SS and how these have shaped current therapeutic approaches, in particular the growing emphasis on enhancement of host antitumor immune responses as the key to successful therapy. PMID:15841167

  10. T-cell-directed therapies in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Nandkumar, P; Furie, R

    2016-09-01

    Drug development for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has largely focused on B-cell therapies. A greater understanding of the immunopathogenesis of SLE coupled with advanced bioengineering has allowed for clinical trials centered on other targets for SLE therapy. The authors discuss the benefits and shortcomings of focusing on T-cell-directed therapies in SLE and lupus nephritis clinical trials. PMID:27497252

  11. CAR T Cell Therapy: A Game Changer in Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Almåsbak, Hilde; Aarvak, Tanja; Vemuri, Mohan C

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel targeted therapies with acceptable safety profiles is critical to successful cancer outcomes with better survival rates. Immunotherapy offers promising opportunities with the potential to induce sustained remissions in patients with refractory disease. Recent dramatic clinical responses in trials with gene modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) in B-cell malignancies have generated great enthusiasm. This therapy might pave the way for a potential paradigm shift in the way we treat refractory or relapsed cancers. CARs are genetically engineered receptors that combine the specific binding domains from a tumor targeting antibody with T cell signaling domains to allow specifically targeted antibody redirected T cell activation. Despite current successes in hematological cancers, we are only in the beginning of exploring the powerful potential of CAR redirected T cells in the control and elimination of resistant, metastatic, or recurrent nonhematological cancers. This review discusses the application of the CAR T cell therapy, its challenges, and strategies for successful clinical and commercial translation. PMID:27298832

  12. CAR T Cell Therapy: A Game Changer in Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Almåsbak, Hilde; Aarvak, Tanja; Vemuri, Mohan C.

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel targeted therapies with acceptable safety profiles is critical to successful cancer outcomes with better survival rates. Immunotherapy offers promising opportunities with the potential to induce sustained remissions in patients with refractory disease. Recent dramatic clinical responses in trials with gene modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) in B-cell malignancies have generated great enthusiasm. This therapy might pave the way for a potential paradigm shift in the way we treat refractory or relapsed cancers. CARs are genetically engineered receptors that combine the specific binding domains from a tumor targeting antibody with T cell signaling domains to allow specifically targeted antibody redirected T cell activation. Despite current successes in hematological cancers, we are only in the beginning of exploring the powerful potential of CAR redirected T cells in the control and elimination of resistant, metastatic, or recurrent nonhematological cancers. This review discusses the application of the CAR T cell therapy, its challenges, and strategies for successful clinical and commercial translation. PMID:27298832

  13. Dissecting memory T cell responses to TB: concerns using adoptive transfer into immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ancelet, Lindsay; Rich, Fenella J; Delahunt, Brett; Kirman, Joanna R

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have used adoptive transfer of purified T cell subsets into immunodeficient mice to determine the subset of T cells responsible for mediating protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These studies suggested that CD62L(hi) memory CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice are key for protection against tuberculosis. Importantly, we observed that transfer of naïve CD4(+) T cells into Rag1-/- recipients protected against a mycobacterial challenge as well as transfer of BCG-experienced CD4(+) T cells. We found that transfer of total CD4(+) T cells from naïve mice or enriched CD62L(hi)CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice into Rag1-/- recipients induced severe colitis by 3 weeks post cell transfer, whereas transfer of CD62L(lo)CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice did not. Naïve and CD62L(hi)CD4(+) T cells proliferated extensively upon transfer and developed an activated effector phenotype in the lung, even in the absence of infectious challenge. The induction of colitis and systemic cytokine response induced by the transfer and subsequent activation of CD4(+) T cells from naïve mice or CD62L(hi)CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice, into immunodeficient recipients, may heighten their ability to protect against mycobacterial challenge. This raises doubts about the validity of this model to study CD4(+) T cell-mediated protection against tuberculosis. PMID:22738879

  14. Alkylating agent melphalan augments the efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy using tumor-specific CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoyun; Ding, Zhi-Chun; Cao, Yang; Liu, Chufeng; Habtetsion, Tsadik; Yu, Miao; Lemos, Henrique; Salman, Huda; Xu, Hongyan; Mellor, Andrew L.; Zhou, Gang

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the immune-potentiating effects of some widely used chemotherapeutic agents have been increasingly appreciated. This provides a rationale for combining conventional chemotherapy with immunotherapy strategies to achieve durable therapeutic benefits. Previous studies have implicated the immunomodulatory effects of melphalan, an alkylating agent commonly used to treat multiple myeloma, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In the current study, we investigated the impact of melphalan on endogenous immune cells as well as adoptively transferred tumor-specific CD4+ T cells in tumor-bearing mice. We showed that melphalan treatment resulted in a rapid burst of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines during the cellular recovery phase after melphalan-induced myelo-leukodepletion. After melphalan treatment, tumor cells exhibited characteristics of immunogenic cell death, including membrane translocation of the endoplasmic reticulum resident calreticulin (CRT), and extracellular release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). In addition, there was enhanced tumor antigen uptake by dendritic cells in the tumor-draining lymph node. Consistent with these immunomodulatory effects, melphalan treatment of tumor-bearing mice led to the activation of the endogenous CD8+ T cells, and more importantly, effectively drove the clonal expansion and effector differentiation of adoptively transferred tumor-specific CD4+ T cells. Notably, the combination of melphalan and CD4+ T-cell adoptive cell therapy (ACT) was more efficacious than either treatment alone in prolonging the survival of mice with advanced B-cell lymphomas or colorectal tumors. These findings provide mechanistic insights into melphalan’s immunostimulatory effects, and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of combining melphalan with adoptive cell therapy utilizing antitumor CD4+ T cells. PMID:25560408

  15. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Michaela; Mount, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies. PMID:26035842

  16. Accelerated type 1 diabetes induction in mice by adoptive transfer of diabetogenic CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Berry, Gregory; Waldner, Hanspeter

    2013-01-01

    The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes after 12 weeks of age and is the most extensively studied animal model of human Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Cell transfer studies in irradiated recipient mice have established that T cells are pivotal in T1D pathogenesis in this model. We describe herein a simple method to rapidly induce T1D by adoptive transfer of purified, primary CD4+ T cells from pre-diabetic NOD mice transgenic for the islet-specific T cell receptor (TCR) BDC2.5 into NOD.SCID recipient mice. The major advantages of this technique are that isolation and adoptive transfer of diabetogenic T cells can be completed within the same day, irradiation of the recipients is not required, and a high incidence of T1D is elicited within 2 weeks after T cell transfer. Thus, studies of pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions in T1D can proceed at a faster rate than with methods that rely on heterogenous T cell populations or clones derived from diabetic NOD mice. PMID:23685789

  17. Clinical manufacturing of CAR T cells: foundation of a promising therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyan; Rivière, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of cancer patients with autologous T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is one of the most promising adoptive cellular therapy approaches. Reproducible manufacturing of high-quality, clinical-grade CAR-T cell products is a prerequisite for the wide application of this technology. Product quality needs to be built-in within every step of the manufacturing process. We summarize herein the requirements and logistics to be considered, as well as the state of the art manufacturing platforms available. CAR-T cell therapy may be on the verge of becoming standard of care for a few clinical indications. Yet, many challenges pertaining to manufacturing standardization and product characterization remain to be overcome in order to achieve broad usage and eventual commercialization of this therapeutic modality. PMID:27347557

  18. Clinical manufacturing of CAR T cells: foundation of a promising therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuyan; Rivière, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of cancer patients with autologous T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is one of the most promising adoptive cellular therapy approaches. Reproducible manufacturing of high-quality, clinical-grade CAR-T cell products is a prerequisite for the wide application of this technology. Product quality needs to be built-in within every step of the manufacturing process. We summarize herein the requirements and logistics to be considered, as well as the state of the art manufacturing platforms available. CAR-T cell therapy may be on the verge of becoming standard of care for a few clinical indications. Yet, many challenges pertaining to manufacturing standardization and product characterization remain to be overcome in order to achieve broad usage and eventual commercialization of this therapeutic modality. PMID:27347557

  19. Standard and experimental therapy in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Dummer, Reinhard; Cozzio, Antonio; Meier, Sibylle; Beyeler, Mirjam; Laetsch, Barbara; Doebbeling, Udo; Urosevic, Mirjana

    2006-02-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders, characterized by the accumulation of clonal lymphocytes in the skin. Skin-directed therapies are the preferred first-line modalities. There are interesting new developments in topical therapy using retinoids and gene-therapy products such as adenovirus- interferon (IFN)-gamma. Systemic treatment uses biologicals such as fusion molecules, monoclonal antibodies and immune response modifiers (IFNs and retinoids), and well-tolerated antiproliferative drugs such as methotrexate. Evidence-based treatment recommendation exists but is hampered by the lack of large multicenter randomized trials. PMID:16412213

  20. Enhanced local and systemic anti-melanoma CD8+ T cell responses after memory T cell-based adoptive immunotherapy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Amanda; Sen, Siddhartha; Tatar, Andrew J.; Mahvi, David A.; Meyers, Justin V.; Srinand, Prakrithi; Suresh, Marulasiddappa

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) melanoma immunotherapy typically employs acutely activated effector CD8+ T cells for their ability to rapidly recognize and clear antigen. We have previously observed that effector CD8+ T cells are highly susceptible to melanoma-induced suppression, whereas memory CD8+ T cells are not. Although memory T cells have been presumed to be potentially advantageous for ACT, the kinetics of local and systemic T cell responses after effector and memory ACT have not been compared. B16F10 melanoma cells stably transfected to express very low levels of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) peptide GP33 (B16GP33) were inoculated into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. Equal numbers of bona fide naïve, effector, or memory phenotype GP33-specific CD8+ T cells were adoptively transferred into mice 1 day after B16GP33 inoculation. The efficacy of ACT immunotherapy was kinetically assessed using serial tumor measurements and flow cytometric analyses of local and systemic CD8+ T cell responses. Control of B16GP33 tumor growth, persistence of adoptively transferred CD8+ cells, intratumoral infiltration of CD8+ T cells, and systemic CD8+ T cell responsiveness to GP33 were strongest after ACT of memory CD8+ T cells. Following surgical tumor resection and melanoma tumor challenge, only mice receiving memory T cell-based ACT immunotherapy exhibited durable tumor-specific immunity. These findings demonstrate how the use of non-expanded memory CD8+ T cells may enhance ACT immunotherapeutic efficacy. PMID:27011014

  1. Enhanced local and systemic anti-melanoma CD8+ T cell responses after memory T cell-based adoptive immunotherapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Amanda; Sen, Siddhartha; Tatar, Andrew J; Mahvi, David A; Meyers, Justin V; Srinand, Prakrithi; Suresh, Marulasiddappa; Cho, Clifford S

    2016-05-01

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) melanoma immunotherapy typically employs acutely activated effector CD8+ T cells for their ability to rapidly recognize and clear antigen. We have previously observed that effector CD8+ T cells are highly susceptible to melanoma-induced suppression, whereas memory CD8+ T cells are not. Although memory T cells have been presumed to be potentially advantageous for ACT, the kinetics of local and systemic T cell responses after effector and memory ACT have not been compared. B16F10 melanoma cells stably transfected to express very low levels of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) peptide GP33 (B16GP33) were inoculated into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. Equal numbers of bona fide naïve, effector, or memory phenotype GP33-specific CD8+ T cells were adoptively transferred into mice 1 day after B16GP33 inoculation. The efficacy of ACT immunotherapy was kinetically assessed using serial tumor measurements and flow cytometric analyses of local and systemic CD8+ T cell responses. Control of B16GP33 tumor growth, persistence of adoptively transferred CD8+ cells, intratumoral infiltration of CD8+ T cells, and systemic CD8+ T cell responsiveness to GP33 were strongest after ACT of memory CD8+ T cells. Following surgical tumor resection and melanoma tumor challenge, only mice receiving memory T cell-based ACT immunotherapy exhibited durable tumor-specific immunity. These findings demonstrate how the use of non-expanded memory CD8+ T cells may enhance ACT immunotherapeutic efficacy. PMID:27011014

  2. Adoptive Transfer of CD8+ T Cells Generated from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Triggers Regressions of Large Tumors Along with Immunological Memory.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hidehito; Okita, Keisuke; Chang, Alfred E; Ito, Fumito

    2016-06-15

    Current approaches to adoptive T-cell therapy are limited by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient numbers of T cells against targeted antigens with useful in vivo characteristics. Theoretically, this limitation could be overcome by using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) that could provide an unlimited source of autologous T cells. However, the therapeutic efficacy of iPSC-derived regenerated T cells remains to be demonstrated. Here, we report the first successful reprogramming of T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic CD8(+) T cells into pluripotency. As part of the work, we established a syngeneic mouse model for evaluating in vitro and in vivo antitumor reactivity of regenerated T cells from iPSCs bearing a rearranged TCR of known antigen specificity. Stably TCR retained T-cell-derived iPSCs differentiated into CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells that expressed CD3 and the desired TCR in vitro Stimulation of iPSC-derived CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells with the cognate antigen in the presence of IL7 and IL15 followed by expansion with IL2, IL7, and IL15 generated large numbers of less-differentiated CD8(+) T cells with antigen-specific potent cytokine production and cytolytic capacity. Furthermore, adoptively transferred iPSC-derived CD8(+) T cells escaped immune rejection, mediated effective regression of large tumors, improved survival, and established antigen-specific immunological memory. Our findings illustrate the translational potential of iPSCs to provide an unlimited number of phenotypically defined, functional, and expandable autologous antigen-specific T cells with the characteristics needed to enable in vivo effectiveness. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3473-83. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197199

  3. New insights into T cell biology and T cell-directed therapy for autoimmunity, inflammation, and immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Steward-Tharp, Scott M.; Song, Yun-jeong; Siegel, Richard M.; O'Shea, John J.

    2010-01-01

    T cell-directed therapies have become mainstays in the management of various autoimmune diseases and organ transplantation. The understanding of T cell biology has expanded greatly since the development of most agents currently in use. Here we discuss important recent discoveries pertaining to T helper cell differentiation, lineage commitment, and function. Within this context, we examine existing T cell-directed therapies, including new agents being evaluated in clinical and preclinical studies. We also use recent findings to speculate on novel targets. PMID:20146712

  4. In Situ immunization by bispecific antibody targeted T cell therapy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Archana; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer remains an incurable disease. Most patients experience objective treatment responses associated with palliation of symptoms; however, progression inevitably occurs. Thus, there is an urgent need for innovative therapeutic strategies that may halt disease progression. Adoptive T-cell therapy is a potent and promising treatment option with the potential to harness the intrinsic antitumor power of the immune system and provide long-term immunity against cancer. PMID:27141330

  5. Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by adoptive immunotherapy. Requirement for T cell-deficient recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, I.M.; Collins, F.M.

    1983-07-01

    The results of this study demonstrate that spleen cells taken from mice at the height of the primary immune response to intravenous infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis possess the capacity to transfer adoptive protection to M. tuberculosis-infected recipients, but only if these recipients are first rendered T cell-deficient, either by thymectomy and gamma irradiation, or by sublethal irradiation. A similar requirement was necessary to demonstrate the adoptive protection of the lungs after exposure to an acute aerosol-delivered M. tuberculosis infection. In both infectious models successful adoptive immunotherapy was shown to be mediated by T lymphocytes, which were acquired in the donor animals in response to the immunizing infection. It is proposed that the results of this study may serve as a basic model for the subsequent analysis of the nature of the T cell-mediated immune response to both systemic and aerogenic infections with M. tuberculosis.

  6. Automated manufacturing of chimeric antigen receptor T cells for adoptive immunotherapy using CliniMACS prodigy.

    PubMed

    Mock, Ulrike; Nickolay, Lauren; Philip, Brian; Cheung, Gordon Weng-Kit; Zhan, Hong; Johnston, Ian C D; Kaiser, Andrew D; Peggs, Karl; Pule, Martin; Thrasher, Adrian J; Qasim, Waseem

    2016-08-01

    Novel cell therapies derived from human T lymphocytes are exhibiting enormous potential in early-phase clinical trials in patients with hematologic malignancies. Ex vivo modification of T cells is currently limited to a small number of centers with the required infrastructure and expertise. The process requires isolation, activation, transduction, expansion and cryopreservation steps. To simplify procedures and widen applicability for clinical therapies, automation of these procedures is being developed. The CliniMACS Prodigy (Miltenyi Biotec) has recently been adapted for lentiviral transduction of T cells and here we analyse the feasibility of a clinically compliant T-cell engineering process for the manufacture of T cells encoding chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for CD19 (CAR19), a widely targeted antigen in B-cell malignancies. Using a closed, single-use tubing set we processed mononuclear cells from fresh or frozen leukapheresis harvests collected from healthy volunteer donors. Cells were phenotyped and subjected to automated processing and activation using TransAct, a polymeric nanomatrix activation reagent incorporating CD3/CD28-specific antibodies. Cells were then transduced and expanded in the CentriCult-Unit of the tubing set, under stabilized culture conditions with automated feeding and media exchange. The process was continuously monitored to determine kinetics of expansion, transduction efficiency and phenotype of the engineered cells in comparison with small-scale transductions run in parallel. We found that transduction efficiencies, phenotype and function of CAR19 T cells were comparable with existing procedures and overall T-cell yields sufficient for anticipated therapeutic dosing. The automation of closed-system T-cell engineering should improve dissemination of emerging immunotherapies and greatly widen applicability. PMID:27378344

  7. Preparing clinical grade Ag-specific T cells for adoptive immunotherapy trials

    PubMed Central

    DiGiusto, DL; Cooper, LJN

    2007-01-01

    The production of clinical-grade T cells for adoptive immunotherapy has evolved from the ex vivo numerical expansion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes to sophisticated bioengineering processes often requiring cell selection, genetic modification and other extensive tissue culture manipulations, to produce desired cells with improved therapeutic potential. Advancements in understanding the biology of lymphocyte signaling, activation, homing and sustained in vivo proliferative potential have redefined the strategies used to produce T cells suitable for clinical investigation. When combined with new technical methods in cell processing and culturing, the therapeutic potential of T cells manufactured in academic centers has improved dramatically. Paralleling these technical achievements in cell manufacturing is the development of broadly applied regulatory standards that define the requirements for the clinical implementation of cell products with ever-increasing complexity. In concert with academic facilities operating in compliance with current good manufacturing practice, the prescribing physician can now infuse T cells with a highly selected or endowed phenotype that has been uniformly manufactured according to standard operating procedures and that meets federal guidelines for quality of investigational cell products. In this review we address salient issues related to the technical, immunologic, practical and regulatory aspects of manufacturing these advanced T-cell products for clinical use. PMID:17943498

  8. T Cell Epitope Peptide Therapy for Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    O'Hehir, Robyn E; Prickett, Sara R; Rolland, Jennifer M

    2016-02-01

    Careful selection of dominant T cell epitope peptides of major allergens that display degeneracy for binding to a wide array of MHC class II molecules allows induction of clinical and immunological tolerance to allergen in a refined treatment strategy. From the original concept of peptide-induced T cell anergy arising from in vitro studies, proof-of-concept murine models and flourishing human trials followed. Current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of mixtures of T cell-reactive short allergen peptides or long contiguous overlapping peptides are encouraging with intradermal administration into non-inflamed skin a preferred delivery. Definitive immunological mechanisms are yet to be resolved but specific anergy, Th2 cell deletion, immune deviation, and Treg induction seem implicated. Significant efficacy, particularly with short treatment courses, in a range of aeroallergen therapies (cat, house dust mite, grass pollen) with inconsequential non-systemic adverse events likely heralds a new class of therapeutic for allergy, Synthetic Peptide Immuno-Regulatory Epitopes (SPIRE). PMID:26768622

  9. CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Maude, Shannon L.; Teachey, David T.; Porter, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains difficult to treat, with minimal improvement in outcomes seen in more than 2 decades despite advances in upfront therapy and improved survival for de novo ALL. Adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has emerged as a powerful targeted immunotherapy, showing striking responses in highly refractory populations. Complete remission (CR) rates as high as 90% have been reported in children and adults with relapsed and refractory ALL treated with CAR-modified T cells targeting the B-cell–specific antigen CD19. Distinct CAR designs across several studies have produced similar promising CR rates, an encouraging finding. Even more encouraging are durable remissions observed in some patients without additional therapy. Duration of remission and CAR-modified T-cell persistence require further study and more mature follow-up, but emerging data suggest these factors may distinguish CAR designs. Supraphysiologic T-cell proliferation, a hallmark of this therapy, contributes to both efficacy and the most notable toxicity, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), posing a unique challenge for toxicity management. This review will discuss the current landscape of CD19 CAR clinical trials, CRS pathophysiology and management, and remaining challenges. PMID:25999455

  10. Anti-γδ TCR antibody-expanded γδ T cells: a better choice for the adoptive immunotherapy of lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jianhua; Kang, Ning; Cui, Lianxian; Ba, Denian; He, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Cell-based immunotherapy for lymphoid malignancies has gained increasing attention as patients develop resistance to conventional treatments. γδ T cells, which have major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted lytic activity, have become a promising candidate population for adoptive cell transfer therapy. We previously established a stable condition for expanding γδ T cells by using anti-γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) antibody. In this study, we found that adoptive transfer of the expanded γδ T cells to Daudi lymphoma-bearing nude mice significantly prolonged the survival time of the mice and improved their living status. We further investigated the characteristics of these antibody-expanded γδ T cells compared to the more commonly used phosphoantigen-expanded γδ T cells and evaluated the feasibility of employing them in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Slow but sustained proliferation of human peripheral blood γδ T cells was observed upon stimulation with anti-γδ TCR antibody. Compared to phosphoantigen-stimulated γδ T cells, the antibody-expanded cells manifested similar functional phenotypes and cytotoxic activity towards lymphoma cell lines. It is noteworthy that the anti-γδ TCR antibody could expand both the Vδ1 and Vδ2 subsets of γδ T cells. The in vitro-expanded Vδ1 T cells displayed comparable tumour cell-killing activity to Vδ2 T cells. Importantly, owing to higher C–C chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and CCR8 expression, the Vδ1 T cells were more prone to infiltrate CCL17- or CCL22-expressing lymphomas than the Vδ2 T cells. Characterizing the peripheral blood γδ T cells from lymphoma patients further confirmed that the anti-γδ TCR antibody-expanded γδ T cells could be a more efficacious choice for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies than phosphoantigen-expanded γδ T cells. PMID:21666706

  11. Combining T-cell immunotherapy and anti-androgen therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, C; Chan, R; Bajgain, P; Rambally, S; Palapattu, G; Mims, M; Rooney, CM; Leen, AM; Brenner, MK; Vera, JF

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostate cancer remains a significant health problem for men in the Western world. Although treatment modalities are available, these do not confer long-term benefit and are accompanied by substantial side effects. Adoptive immunotherapy represents an attractive alternative to conventional treatments as a means to control tumor growth. METHODS To selectively target the tumor-expressed form of Muc1 we constructed a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directed against the aberrantly-expressed extracellular portion of Muc1 called the ‘variable number of tandem repeats’. RESULTS We now demonstrate that T cells can be genetically engineered to express a CAR targeting the tumor-associated antigen Muc1. CAR-Muc1 T cells were able to selectively kill Muc1-expressing human prostate cancer cells. However, we noted that heterogeneous expression of the Muc1 antigen on tumor cells facilitated immune escape and the outgrowth of target-antigen loss variants of the tumor. Given the importance of androgen ablation therapy in the management of metastatic prostate cancer, we therefore also tested the value of combining conventional (anti-androgen) and experimental (CAR-Muc1 T cells) approaches. We show that CAR-Muc1 T cells were not adversely impacted by anti-androgen therapy and subsequently demonstrate the feasibility of combining the approaches to produce additive anti-tumor effects in vitro. CONCLUSIONS Adoptive transfer of CAR-Muc1 T cells alone or in combination with other luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs or antagonists should be tested in human clinical trials. PMID:23295316

  12. Modulating Gold Nanoparticle in vivo Delivery for Photothermal Therapy Applications Using a T Cell Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Laura Carpin

    This thesis reports new gold nanoparticle-based methods to treat chemotherapy-resistant and metastatic tumors that frequently evade conventional cancer therapies. Gold nanoparticles represent an innovative generation of diagnostic and treatment agents due to the ease with which they can be tuned to scatter or absorb a chosen wavelength of light. One area of intensive investigation in recent years is gold nanoparticle photothermal therapy (PTT), in which gold nanoparticles are used to heat and destroy cancer. This work demonstrates the utility of gold nanoparticle PTT against two categories of cancer that are currently a clinical challenge: trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer and metastatic cancer. In addition, this thesis presents a new method of gold nanoparticle delivery using T cells that increases gold nanoparticle tumor accumulation efficiency, a current challenge in the field of PTT. I ablated trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer in vitro for the first time using anti-HER2 labeled silica-gold nanoshells, demonstrating the potential utility of PTT against chemotherapy-resistant cancers. I next established for the first time the use of T cells as gold nanoparticle vehicles in vivo. When incubated with gold nanoparticles in culture, T cells can internalize up to 15000 nanoparticles per cell with no detrimental effects to T cell viability or function (e.g. migration and cytokine secretion). These AuNP-T cells can be systemically administered to tumor-bearing mice and deliver gold nanoparticles four times more efficiently than by injecting free nanoparticles. In addition, the biodistribution of AuNP-T cells correlates with the normal biodistribution of T cell carrier, suggesting the gold nanoparticle biodistribution can be modulated through the choice of nanoparticle vehicle. Finally, I apply gold nanoparticle PTT as an adjuvant treatment for T cell adoptive transfer immunotherapy (Hyperthermia-Enhanced Immunotherapy or HIT) of distant tumors in a melanoma mouse

  13. Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy from third-party donors: characterization of donors and set up of a T-cell donor registry

    PubMed Central

    Eiz-Vesper, Britta; Maecker-Kolhoff, Britta; Blasczyk, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Infection with and reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and adenovirus (ADV) are frequent and severe complications in immunocompromised recipients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or solid organ transplantation (SOT). These serious adverse events are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) are often used to treat both viral infections and leukemia relapses after transplantation but are associated with potentially life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific cytotoxic effector T cells (CTLs) derived from seropositive donors can rapidly reconstitute antiviral immunity after HSCT and organ transplantation. Therefore, it can effectively prevent the clinical manifestation of these viruses with no significant acute toxicity or increased risk of GvHD. In conditions, where patients receiving an allogeneic cord blood (CB) transplant or a transplant from a virus-seronegative donor and since donor blood is generally not available for solid organ recipients, allogeneic third party T-cell donors would offer an alternative option. Recent studies showed that during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization, the functional activity of antiviral memory T cells is impaired for a long period. This finding suggests that even stem cell donors may not be the best source of T cells. Under these circumstances, partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched virus-specific CTLs from healthy seropositive individuals may be a promising option. Therefore, frequency assessments of virus-specific memory T cells in HLA-typed healthy donors as well as in HSCT/SOT donors using a high throughput T-cell assay were performed over a period of 4 years at Hannover Medical School. This chapter will address the relevance and potential of a third-party T-cell donor registry and will discuss its clinical implication for adoptive T-cell

  14. Epigenetic therapy overcomes treatment resistance in T cell prolymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hasanali, Zainul S; Saroya, Bikramajit Singh; Stuart, August; Shimko, Sara; Evans, Juanita; Vinod Shah, Mithun; Sharma, Kamal; Leshchenko, Violetta V; Parekh, Samir; Loughran, Thomas P; Epner, Elliot M

    2015-06-24

    T cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare, mature T cell neoplasm with distinct features and an aggressive clinical course. Early relapse and short overall survival are commonplace. Use of the monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody alemtuzumab has improved the rate of complete remission and duration of response to more than 50% and between 6 and 12 months, respectively. Despite this advance, without an allogeneic transplant, resistant relapse is inevitable. We report seven complete and one partial remission in eight patients receiving alemtuzumab and cladribine with or without a histone deacetylase inhibitor. These data show that administration of epigenetic agents can overcome alemtuzumab resistance. We also report epigenetically induced expression of the surface receptor protein CD30 in T-PLL. Subsequent treatment with the anti-CD30 antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin overcame organ-specific (skin) resistance to alemtuzumab. Our findings demonstrate activity of combination epigenetic and immunotherapy in the incurable illness T-PLL, particularly in the setting of previous alemtuzumab therapy. PMID:26109102

  15. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Newick, Kheng; Moon, Edmund; Albelda, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are engineered constructs composed of synthetic receptors that direct T cells to surface antigens for subsequent elimination. Many CAR constructs are also manufactured with elements that augment T-cell persistence and activity. To date, CAR T cells have demonstrated tremendous success in eradicating hematological malignancies (e.g., CD19 CARs in leukemias). This success is not yet extrapolated to solid tumors, and the reasons for this are being actively investigated. Here in this mini-review, we discuss some of the key hurdles encountered by CAR T cells in the solid tumor microenvironment. PMID:27162934

  16. Systemic Combination Virotherapy for Melanoma with Tumor Antigen-Expressing Vesicular Stomatitis Virus and Adoptive T-cell Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Rommelfanger, Diana M.; Wongthida, Phonphimon; Diaz, Rosa M.; Kaluza, Karen M.; Thompson, Jill M.; Kottke, Timothy J.; Vile, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy offers the potential to treat tumors both as a single agent and in combination with traditional modalities such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Here we describe an effective, fully systemic treatment regimen, which combines virotherapy, acting essentially as an adjuvant immunotherapy, with adoptive cell transfer (ACT). The combination of ACT with systemic administration of a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) engineered to express the endogenous melanocyte antigen glycoprotein 100 (gp100) resulted in regression of established melanomas and generation of antitumor immunity. Tumor response was associated with in vivo T-cell persistence and activation as well as treatment-related vitiligo. However, in a proportion of treated mice, initial tumor regressions were followed by recurrences. Therapy was further enhanced by targeting an additional tumor antigen with the VSV-antigen + ACT combination strategy, leading to sustained response in 100% of mice. Together, our findings suggest that systemic virotherapy combined with antigen-expressing VSV could be used to support and enhance clinical immunotherapy protocols with adoptive T-cell transfer, which are already used in the clinic. PMID:22836753

  17. Adoptive Transfer of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and T Cells in a Prostate Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Libo; Xu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of immune cells for cancer, chronic infection, and autoimmunity is an emerging field that has shown promise in recent trials. The transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) is a classical mouse model of prostate cancer (PCa) and TRAMP cell lines were derived from a TRAMP mouse tumor. TRAMP-C2 is tumorigenic when subcutaneously (s.c.) grafted into syngeneic C57BL/6 host mice (Foster et al., 1997). This protocol will describe the adoptive transfer of purified CD11b+Gr1+ double positive (DP) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and CD3+ T cells in the TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer mouse model in order to establish the intrinsic functionality of these immune cells and to determine their role in tumorigenesis in vivo (Yan et al., 2014).

  18. Reprogramming CD19-specific T cells with IL-21 signaling can improve adoptive immunotherapy of B-lineage malignancies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harjeet; Figliola, Matthew J; Dawson, Margaret J; Huls, Helen; Olivares, Simon; Switzer, Kirsten; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra; Kebriaei, Partow; Lee, Dean A; Champlin, Richard E; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2011-05-15

    Improving the therapeutic efficacy of T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) represents an important goal in efforts to control B-cell malignancies. Recently an intrinsic strategy has been developed to modify the CAR itself to improve T-cell signaling. Here we report a second extrinsic approach based on altering the culture milieu to numerically expand CAR(+) T cells with a desired phenotype, for the addition of interleukin (IL)-21 to tissue culture improves CAR-dependent T-cell effector functions. We used electrotransfer of Sleeping Beauty system to introduce a CAR transposon and selectively propagate CAR(+) T cells on CD19(+) artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPC). When IL-21 was present, there was preferential numeric expansion of CD19-specific T cells which lysed and produced IFN-γ in response to CD19. Populations of these numerically expanded CAR(+) T cells displayed an early memory surface phenotype characterized as CD62L(+)CD28(+) and a transcriptional profile of naïve T cells. In contrast, T cells propagated with only exogenous IL-2 tended to result in an overgrowth of CD19-specific CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CAR(+) T cells cultured with IL-21 exhibited improved control of CD19(+) B-cell malignancy in mice. To provide coordinated signaling to propagate CAR(+) T cells, we developed a novel mutein of IL-21 bound to the cell surface of aAPC that replaced the need for soluble IL-21. Our findings show that IL-21 can provide an extrinsic reprogramming signal to generate desired CAR(+) T cells for effective immunotherapy. PMID:21558388

  19. A carbon nanotube-polymer composite for T-cell therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, Tarek R.; Sharp, Fiona A.; Vudattu, Nalini; Ragheb, Ragy; Garyu, Justin; Kim, Dongin; Hong, Enping; Li, Nan; Haller, Gary L.; Pfefferle, Lisa D.; Justesen, Sune; Harold, Kevin C.; Fahmy, Tarek M.

    2014-08-01

    Clinical translation of cell therapies requires strategies that can manufacture cells efficiently and economically. One promising way to reproducibly expand T cells for cancer therapy is by attaching the stimuli for T cells onto artificial substrates with high surface area. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube-polymer composite can act as an artificial antigen-presenting cell to efficiently expand the number of T cells isolated from mice. We attach antigens onto bundled carbon nanotubes and combined this complex with polymer nanoparticles containing magnetite and the T-cell growth factor interleukin-2 (IL-2). The number of T cells obtained was comparable to clinical standards using a thousand-fold less soluble IL-2. T cells obtained from this expansion were able to delay tumour growth in a murine model for melanoma. Our results show that this composite is a useful platform for generating large numbers of cytotoxic T cells for cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Adoptive Immunotherapy for Hematological Malignancies Using T Cells Gene-Modified to Express Tumor Antigen-Specific Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating clinical evidence suggests that adoptive T-cell immunotherapy could be a promising option for control of cancer; evident examples include the graft-vs-leukemia effect mediated by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and therapeutic infusion of ex vivo-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) for melanoma. Currently, along with advances in synthetic immunology, gene-modified T cells retargeted to defined tumor antigens have been introduced as “cellular drugs”. As the functional properties of the adoptive immune response mediated by T lymphocytes are decisively regulated by their T-cell receptors (TCRs), transfer of genes encoding target antigen-specific receptors should enable polyclonal T cells to be uniformly redirected toward cancer cells. Clinically, anticancer adoptive immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells has an impressive track record. Notable examples include the dramatic benefit of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) gene-modified T cells redirected towards CD19 in patients with B-cell malignancy, and the encouraging results obtained with TCR gene-modified T cells redirected towards NY-ESO-1, a cancer-testis antigen, in patients with advanced melanoma and synovial cell sarcoma. This article overviews the current status of this treatment option, and discusses challenging issues that still restrain the full effectiveness of this strategy, especially in the context of hematological malignancy. PMID:25517545

  1. Deletion of Plasmodium berghei-Specific CD4+ T Cells Adoptively Transferred into Recipient Mice after Challenge with Homologous Parasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirunpetcharat, Chakrit; Good, Michael F.

    1998-02-01

    The immune response to malaria parasites includes T cell responses that reduce parasites by effector T cell responses and by providing help for antibody responses. Some parasites are more sensitive to antibody and others are more sensitive to cell-mediated immunity. We demonstrate that cultured CD4+ T cells that produce interferon CD4+ and interleukin 2, but not interleukin 4, in response to stimulation with the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei can reduce but not eliminate parasites in vivo after adoptive transfer. Although cells can persist in vivo for up to 9 months in uninfected mice, infection results in elimination of up to 99% of specific T cells in different tissues, as judged by tracking T cells labeled with the fluorescent dye 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. T cells specific for ovalbumin are unaffected. In vivo activation and division of transferred T cells per se are not responsible for deletion because T cells positive for 5-(and -6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester divide up to six times within 7 days in uninfected mice and are not deleted. Understanding the factors responsible for parasite-mediated specific deletion of T cells would enhance our knowledge of parasite immunity.

  2. Adoptive Cell Therapies for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bielamowicz, Kevin; Khawja, Shumaila; Ahmed, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary brain malignancy and, as it stands, is virtually incurable. With the current standard of care, maximum feasible surgical resection followed by radical radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide, survival rates are at a median of 14.6 months from diagnosis in molecularly unselected patients (1). Collectively, the current knowledge suggests that the continued tumor growth and survival is in part due to failure to mount an effective immune response. While this tolerance is subtended by the tumor being utterly “self,” it is to a great extent due to local and systemic immune compromise mediated by the tumor. Different cell modalities including lymphokine-activated killer cells, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and transgenic chimeric antigen receptor or αβ T cell receptor grafted T cells are being explored to recover and or redirect the specificity of the cellular arm of the immune system toward the tumor complex. Promising phase I/II trials of such modalities have shown early indications of potential efficacy while maintaining a favorable toxicity profile. Efficacy will need to be formally tested in phase II/III clinical trials. Given the high morbidity and mortality of GBM, it is imperative to further investigate and possibly integrate such novel cell-based therapies into the current standards-of-care and herein we collectively assess and critique the state-of-the-knowledge pertaining to these efforts. PMID:24273748

  3. Therapeutic potential of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes: a cell-free modality for targeted cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhuo-Shun; Zou, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bin; Warnock, Garth L.; Dai, Long-Jun; Luo, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based T-cell adoptive immunotherapy is a distinctively promising therapy for cancer. The engineering of CARs into T cells provides T cells with tumor-targeting capabilities and intensifies their cytotoxic activity through stimulated cell expansion and enhanced cytokine production. As a novel and potent therapeutic modality, there exists some uncontrollable processes which are the potential sources of adverse events. As an extension of this impactful modality, CAR-T cell-derived exosomes may substitute CAR-T cells to act as ultimate attackers, thereby overcoming some limitations. Exosomes retain most characteristics of parent cells and play an essential role in intercellular communications via transmitting their cargo to recipient cells. The application of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes will make this cell-based therapy more clinically controllable as it also provides a cell-free platform to diversify anticancer mediators, which responds effectively to the complexity and volatility of cancer. It is believed that the appropriate application of both cellular and exosomal platforms will make this effective treatment more practicable. PMID:26496034

  4. Therapeutic potential of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes: a cell-free modality for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiang-Jun; Sun, Xu-Yong; Huang, Kuan-Ming; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhuo-Shun; Zou, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bin; Warnock, Garth L; Dai, Long-Jun; Luo, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based T-cell adoptive immunotherapy is a distinctively promising therapy for cancer. The engineering of CARs into T cells provides T cells with tumor-targeting capabilities and intensifies their cytotoxic activity through stimulated cell expansion and enhanced cytokine production. As a novel and potent therapeutic modality, there exists some uncontrollable processes which are the potential sources of adverse events. As an extension of this impactful modality, CAR-T cell-derived exosomes may substitute CAR-T cells to act as ultimate attackers, thereby overcoming some limitations. Exosomes retain most characteristics of parent cells and play an essential role in intercellular communications via transmitting their cargo to recipient cells. The application of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes will make this cell-based therapy more clinically controllable as it also provides a cell-free platform to diversify anticancer mediators, which responds effectively to the complexity and volatility of cancer. It is believed that the appropriate application of both cellular and exosomal platforms will make this effective treatment more practicable. PMID:26496034

  5. Toxicity and management in CAR T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Bonifant, Challice L; Jackson, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J; Curran, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    T cells can be genetically modified to target tumors through the expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Most notably, CAR T cells have demonstrated clinical efficacy in hematologic malignancies with more modest responses when targeting solid tumors. However, CAR T cells also have the capacity to elicit expected and unexpected toxicities including: cytokine release syndrome, neurologic toxicity, "on target/off tumor" recognition, and anaphylaxis. Theoretical toxicities including clonal expansion secondary to insertional oncogenesis, graft versus host disease, and off-target antigen recognition have not been clinically evident. Abrogating toxicity has become a critical step in the successful application of this emerging technology. To this end, we review the reported and theoretical toxicities of CAR T cells and their management. PMID:27626062

  6. Toxicity and management in CAR T-cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bonifant, Challice L; Jackson, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J; Curran, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    T cells can be genetically modified to target tumors through the expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Most notably, CAR T cells have demonstrated clinical efficacy in hematologic malignancies with more modest responses when targeting solid tumors. However, CAR T cells also have the capacity to elicit expected and unexpected toxicities including: cytokine release syndrome, neurologic toxicity, “on target/off tumor” recognition, and anaphylaxis. Theoretical toxicities including clonal expansion secondary to insertional oncogenesis, graft versus host disease, and off-target antigen recognition have not been clinically evident. Abrogating toxicity has become a critical step in the successful application of this emerging technology. To this end, we review the reported and theoretical toxicities of CAR T cells and their management. PMID:27626062

  7. Enhancement of adoptive T cell transfer with single low dose pretreatment of doxorubicin or paclitaxel in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Hui-Yen; Chang, Ya-Fang; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Ex vivo expansion of CD8+ T-cells has been a hindrance for the success of adoptive T cell transfer in clinic. Currently, preconditioning with chemotherapy is used to modulate the patient immunity before ACT, however, the tumor microenvironment beneficial for transferring T cells may also be damaged. Here preconditioning with single low dose of doxorubicin or paclitaxel combined with fewer CD8+ T-cells was investigated to verify whether the same therapeutic efficacy of ACT could be achieved. An E.G7/OT1 animal model that involved adoptive transfer of OVA-specific CD8+ T-cells transduced with a granzyme B promoter-driven firefly luciferase and tomato fluorescent fusion reporter gene was used to evaluate this strategy. The result showed that CD8+ T-cells were activated and sustained longer in mice pretreated with one low-dose Dox or Tax. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy was found in Dox or Tax combined with 2×106 CD8+ T-cells and achieved the same level of tumor growth inhibition as that of 5×106 CD8+ T-cells group. Notably, reduced numbers of Tregs and myeloid derived suppressor cells were shown in combination groups. By contrast, the number of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes and IL-12 were increased. The NF-κB activity and immunosuppressive factors such as TGF-β, IDO, CCL2, VEGF, CCL22, COX-2 and IL-10 were suppressed. This study demonstrates that preconditioning with single low dose Dox or Tax and combined with two fifth of the original CD8+ T-cells could improve the tumor microenvironment via suppression of NF-κB and its related immunosuppressors, and activate more CD8+ T-cells which also stay longer. PMID:26683520

  8. Antigen-specificity using chimeric antigen receptors: the future of regulatory T-cell therapy?

    PubMed

    Boardman, Dominic; Maher, John; Lechler, Robert; Smyth, Lesley; Lombardi, Giovanna

    2016-04-15

    Adoptive regulatory T-cell (Treg) therapy using autologous Tregs expandedex vivois a promising therapeutic approach which is currently being investigated clinically as a means of treating various autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection. Despite this, early results have highlighted the need for potent Tregs to yield a substantial clinical advantage. One way to achieve this is to create antigen-specific Tregs which have been shown in pre-clinical animal models to have an increased potency at suppressing undesired immune responses, compared to polyclonal Tregs. This mini review outlines where Treg therapy currently stands and discusses the approaches which may be taken to generate antigen-specific Tregs, including the potential use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), for future clinical trials. PMID:27068938

  9. Effect of Adoptive Transfer or Depletion of Regulatory T Cells on Triptolide-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinzhi; Sun, Lixin; Zhang, Luyong; Jiang, Zhenzhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to clarify the role of regulatory T cell (Treg) in triptolide (TP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Female C57BL/6 mice received either adoptive transfer of Tregs or depletion of Tregs, then underwent TP administration and were sacrificed 24 h after TP administration. Liver injury was determined according to alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels in serum and histopathological change in liver tissue. Hepatic frequencies of Treg cells and the mRNA expression levels of transcription factor Forkhead box P3 and retinoid orphan nuclear receptor γt (RORγt), interleukin-10 (IL-10), suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), and Notch/Notch ligand were investigated. Results: During TP-induced liver injury, hepatic Treg and IL-10 decreased, while T helper 17 cells cell-transcription factor RORγt, SOCS and Notch signaling increased, accompanied with liver inflammation. Adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated the severity of TP-induced liver injury, accompanied with increased levels of hepatic Treg and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs remarkably inhibited the expression of RORγt, SOCS3, Notch1, and Notch3. On the contrary, depletion of Treg cells in TP-administered mice resulted in a notable increase of RORγt, SOCS1, SOCS3, and Notch3, while the Treg and IL-10 of liver decreased. Consistent with the exacerbation of liver injury, higher serum levels of ALT and AST were detected in Treg-depleted mice. Conclusion: These results showed that adoptive transfer or depletion of Tregs attenuated or aggravated TP-induced liver injury, suggesting that Tregs could play important roles in the progression of liver injury. SOCS proteins and Notch signaling affected Tregs, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of TP-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27148057

  10. Retargeted human avidin-CAR T cells for adoptive immunotherapy of EGFRvIII expressing gliomas and their evaluation via optical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhiping; Sun, Haojie; Zhang, Mingzhi; Zhang, Jianning; Liu, Shuang; Hao, Limin; Lu, Guoqiu; Zheng, Kangcheng; Gong, Xikui; Wu, Di; Wang, Fan; Shen, Li

    2015-01-01

    There has been significant progress in the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for adoptive immunotherapy targeting tumor-associated antigens. However, the challenge of monitoring the therapy in real time has been continually ignored. To address this issue, we developed optical molecular imaging approaches to evaluate a recently reported novel CAR strategy for adoptive immunotherapy against glioma xenografts expressing EGFRvIII. We initially biotinylated a novel anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody (biotin-4G1) to pre-target EGFRvIII+ gliomas and then redirect activated avidin-CAR expressing T cells against the pre-targeted biotin-4G1. By optical imaging study and bio-distribution analysis, we confirmed the specificity of pre-target and target and determined the optimal time for T cells adoptive transfer in vivo. The results showed this therapeutic strategy offered efficient therapy effect to EGFRvIII+ glioma-bearing mice and implied that optical imaging is a highly useful tool in aiding in the instruction of clinical CAR-T cells adoptive transfer in future. PMID:26124178

  11. Phase I Trial of Adoptive Cell Transfer with Mixed-Profile Type-I/Type-II Allogeneic T Cells for Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Nancy M.; Mossoba, Miriam E.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Fellowes, Vicki; Yan, Xiao-Yi; Hakim, Frances T.; Babb, Rebecca R.; Avila, Daniele; Gea-Banacloche, Juan; Sportès, Claude; Levine, Bruce L.; June, Carl H.; Khuu, Hahn M.; Carpenter, Ashley E.; Krumlauf, Michael C.; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Gress, Ronald E.; Fowler, Daniel H.; Bishop, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) response to allogeneic lymphocytes requires donor T-cell engraftment and is limited by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In mice, Type-II-polarized T cells promote engraftment and modulate GVHD whereas Type-I-polarized T cells mediate more potent graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects. This Phase-I translational study evaluated adoptive transfer of ex-vivo-costimulated Type-I/Type-II (T1/T2) donor T cells with T-cell-depleted (TCD) allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (AlloSCT) for MBC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Patients had received anthracycline, taxane and antibody therapies, been treated for metastatic disease and an HLA-identical-sibling donor. Donor lymphocytes were costimulated ex vivo with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibody-coated magnetic beads in IL-2/IL-4-supplemented media. Patients received reduced-intensity conditioning, donor stem cells and T1/T2 cells, and monitoring for toxicity, engraftment, GVHD and tumor response; results were compared with historical controls, identically treated except for T1/T2-product infusions. RESULTS Mixed Type-I/Type-II CD4+-T cells predominated in T1/T2 products. Nine patients received T1/T2 cells at Dose-Level 1 (5×106 cells/kg). T-cell donor chimerism reached 100% by a median of 28 days. Seven (78%) developed acute GVHD. At Day +28, five patients had partial responses (56%) and none had MBC progression; thereafter, two patients had continued responses. Donor-T-cell engraftment and tumor responses appeared faster than in historical controls, but GVHD rates were similar and responders progressed early, often following treatment of acute GVHD. CONCLUSION Allogeneic T1/T2 cells were safely infused with TCD-AlloSCT, appeared to promote donor engraftment, and may have contributed to transient early tumor responses. PMID:21948234

  12. CAR T-cell therapy: toxicity and the relevance of preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Kalaitsidou, Milena; Kueberuwa, Gray; Schütt, Antje; Gilham, David Edward

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells form part of a broad wave of immunotherapies that are showing promise in early phase cancer clinical trials. This clinical delivery has been based upon preclinical efficacy testing that confirmed the proof of principle of the therapy. However, CAR T-cell therapy does not exist alone as T cells are generally given in combination with patient preconditioning, most commonly in the form of chemotherapy, and may also include systemic cytokine support, both of which are associated with toxicity. Consequently, complete CAR T-cell therapy includes elements where the toxicity profile is well known, but also includes the CAR T cell itself, for which toxicity profiles are largely unknown. With recent reports of adverse events associated with CAR T-cell therapy, there is now concern that current preclinical models may not be fit for purpose with respect to CAR T-cell toxicity profiling. Here, we explore the preclinical models used to validate CAR T-cell function and examine their potential to predict CAR T-cell driven toxicities for the future. PMID:26065475

  13. Enhancing T cell therapy by overcoming the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Arina, Ainhoa; Corrales, Leticia; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    Immune response to tumors can be successfully oriented for therapeutic purposes, as shown by the clinical efficacy of checkpoint blockade in extending the survival of patients with certain solid and hematologic neoplasms. Nonetheless, numerous patients do not benefit from these new treatments. Tumor-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes, either endogenously revived by checkpoint interference or adoptively transferred after in vitro expansion and retargeting, can be extremely efficient in controlling metastatic disease but have to overcome a number of restraints imposed by growing tumors. This immune escape relies on a profound modification of the tumor environment, which is rendered less permissive to lymphocyte arrival, persistence, and functional activity. We review here emerging findings on the main negative circuits limiting the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, as well as novel and conventional approaches that can translate into rational combination therapies. PMID:26872631

  14. Co-Expansion of Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells and Vγ9Vδ2 T Cells for CAR T-Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Du, Shou-Hui; Li, Zhendong; Chen, Can; Tan, Wee-Kiat; Chi, Zhixia; Kwang, Timothy Weixin; Xu, Xue-Hu; Wang, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Gamma delta (γδ) T cells and cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, which are a heterogeneous population of T lymphocytes and natural killer T (NKT) cells, have been separately expanded ex vivo and shown to be capable of targeting and mediating cytotoxicity against various tumor cells in a major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted manner. However, the co-expansion and co-administration of these immune cells have not been explored. In this study we describe an efficient method to expand simultaneously both CIK and Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, termed as CIKZ cells, from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using Zometa, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 2 (IL-2), anti-CD3 antibody and engineered K562 feeder cells expressing CD64, CD137L and CD86. A 21-day culture of PBMCs with this method yielded nearly 20,000-fold expansion of CIKZ cells with γδ T cells making up over 20% of the expanded population. The expanded CIKZ cells exhibited antitumor cytotoxicity and could be modified to express anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), anti-CEA CAR, and anti-HER2 CAR to enhance their specificity and cytotoxicity against CD19-, CEA-, or HER2-positive tumor cells. The tumor inhibitory activity of anti-CD19 CAR-modified CIKZ cells was further demonstrated in vivo in a Raji tumor mouse model. The findings herein substantiate the feasibility of co-expanding CIK and γδ cells for adoptive cellular immunotherapy applications such as CAR T-cell therapy against cancer. PMID:27598655

  15. T cell Bim levels reflect responses to anti–PD-1 cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dronca, Roxana S.; Liu, Xin; Harrington, Susan M.; Chen, Lingling; Cao, Siyu; Kottschade, Lisa A.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Block, Matthew S.; Nevala, Wendy K.; Thompson, Michael A.; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Park, Sean S.; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Dong, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint therapy with PD-1 blockade has emerged as an effective therapy for many advanced cancers; however, only a small fraction of patients achieve durable responses. To date, there is no validated blood-based means of predicting the response to PD-1 blockade. We report that Bim is a downstream signaling molecule of the PD-1 pathway, and its detection in T cells is significantly associated with expression of PD-1 and effector T cell markers. High levels of Bim in circulating tumor-reactive (PD-1+CD11ahiCD8+) T cells were prognostic of poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma who did not receive anti–PD-1 therapy and were also predictive of clinical benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma who were treated with anti–PD-1 therapy. Moreover, this circulating tumor-reactive T cell population significantly decreased after successful anti–PD-1 therapy. Our study supports a crucial role of Bim in both T cell activation and apoptosis as regulated by PD-1 and PD-L1 interactions in effector CD8+ T cells. Measurement of Bim levels in circulating T cells of patients with cancer may provide a less invasive strategy to predict and monitor responses to anti–PD-1 therapy, although future prospective analyses are needed to validate its utility. PMID:27182556

  16. Regulatory T cell-based therapies for autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Benjamine; Graber, David J; Sentman, Charles L

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune disorders are long-term diseases that adversely affect the quality of life for patients, and they are one of the top ten leading causes of death. While each autoimmune disorder is unique, they all are caused by a breakdown of tolerance against endogenous proteins. This leads to auto-inflammatory events that promote the destruction of organs in a humoral and cellular immune mediated manner. Treatment options for autoimmunity can involve the use of chemical and biologic agents that suppress inflammation. While these treatment options for patients have shown to be beneficial in autoimmunity, they can result in patients being vulnerable to opportunistic infections. Newer therapies aim to identify methods to specifically block auto-inflammatory immune cells while allowing for an intact immune response to other antigens. T regulatory (Treg) cells are a subtype of the adoptive immune cell that is capable of suppressing inflammatory events in an antigen-specific manner, but they are often poorly functioning within autoimmune patients. Treg cells have been well characterized for their immune modulating capabilities and preclinical and early clinical studies support their therapeutic potential for antigen-specific immune suppression. This review will examine the current understanding of Treg cell function and the therapeutic potential of enhancing Treg cells in patients with inflammatory disorders. PMID:27585233

  17. Genetic modification of T cells for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Imai, C; Campana, D

    2004-01-01

    The use of immune cells with restricted specificities for the treatment of cancer is a rapidly emerging area of clinical research. Chimeric receptors composed of the single-chain variable domain of murine antibodies and human signaling molecules are a promising tool to redirect the specificity of autologous or allogeneic immune cells. The success of this approach depends on the identification of target molecules expressed preferentially on cancer cells. Moreover, appropriate primary and secondary stimuli must be delivered to generate vigorous and durable immune responses. Since cancer cells often lack ligands for key co-stimulatory molecules, the addition of molecules such as CD28 or 4-1BB to the chimeric receptors can significantly improve their function. Studies in vitro and in animal models indicate that immune cells expressing chimeric receptors can have remarkable anti-cancer activity, while experimental and clinical data indicate that long-term persistence of adoptively transferred cells is feasible. Therefore, testing of this approach in clinical trials is warranted. We here review the principles and methodologies for designing chimeric receptors and delivering them into immune cells, as well as some of the potential complications associated with this form of cell therapy. PMID:15323362

  18. [Standard and experimental therapy of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Beyeler, M; Dummer, R

    2003-12-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma represent a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by skin invasion of monoclonal T-lymphocytes. These cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are divided into 3 groups based on clinical, histological and immunohistological characteristics: Indolent with a survival time of over 10 years, aggressive with a survival time less than 10 years and provisional (EORTC classification). Standard treatments such as PUVA, total skin electron beam, methotrexate, polychemotherapy regimens, retinoids and photopheresis have been used for years. Bexarotene is a newly registered drug. To achieve better response rates, several new drugs are being evaluated in clinical trails, including imiquimod, denileukon-diftitox, liposomal doxorubicin, adeno-interferon-gamma and various combination approaches. PMID:14634747

  19. Azathioprine therapy selectively ablates human Vδ2⁺ T cells in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Neil E; Hedin, Charlotte R; Sanders, Theodore J; Amon, Protima; Hoti, Inva; Ayada, Ibrahim; Baji, Vidya; Giles, Edward M; Wildemann, Martha; Bashir, Zora; Whelan, Kevin; Sanderson, Ian; Lindsay, James O; Stagg, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Tumor-derived and bacterial phosphoantigens are recognized by unconventional lymphocytes that express a Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor (Vδ2 T cells) and mediate host protection against microbial infections and malignancies. Vδ2 T cells are absent in rodents but readily populate the human intestine, where their function is largely unknown. Here, we assessed Vδ2 T cell phenotype and function by flow cytometry in blood and intestinal tissue from Crohn's disease patients (CD patients) and healthy controls. Blood from CD patients included an increased percentage of gut-tropic integrin β7-expressing Vδ2 T cells, while "Th1-committed" CD27-expressing Vδ2 T cells were selectively depleted. A corresponding population of CD27+ Vδ2 T cells was present in mucosal biopsies from CD patients and produced elevated levels of TNFα compared with controls. In colonic mucosa from CD patients, Vδ2 T cell production of TNFα was reduced by pharmacological blockade of retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα) signaling, indicating that dietary vitamin metabolites can influence Vδ2 T cell function in inflamed intestine. Vδ2 T cells were ablated in blood and tissue from CD patients receiving azathioprine (AZA) therapy, and posttreatment Vδ2 T cell recovery correlated with time since drug withdrawal and inversely correlated with patient age. These results indicate that human Vδ2 T cells exert proinflammatory effects in CD that are modified by dietary vitamin metabolites and ablated by AZA therapy, which may help resolve intestinal inflammation but could increase malignancy risk by impairing systemic tumor surveillance. PMID:26168223

  20. Azathioprine therapy selectively ablates human Vδ2+ T cells in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Neil E.; Hedin, Charlotte R.; Sanders, Theodore J.; Amon, Protima; Hoti, Inva; Ayada, Ibrahim; Baji, Vidya; Giles, Edward M.; Wildemann, Martha; Bashir, Zora; Whelan, Kevin; Sanderson, Ian; Lindsay, James O.; Stagg, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-derived and bacterial phosphoantigens are recognized by unconventional lymphocytes that express a Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor (Vδ2 T cells) and mediate host protection against microbial infections and malignancies. Vδ2 T cells are absent in rodents but readily populate the human intestine, where their function is largely unknown. Here, we assessed Vδ2 T cell phenotype and function by flow cytometry in blood and intestinal tissue from Crohn’s disease patients (CD patients) and healthy controls. Blood from CD patients included an increased percentage of gut-tropic integrin β7–expressing Vδ2 T cells, while “Th1-committed” CD27-expressing Vδ2 T cells were selectively depleted. A corresponding population of CD27+ Vδ2 T cells was present in mucosal biopsies from CD patients and produced elevated levels of TNFα compared with controls. In colonic mucosa from CD patients, Vδ2 T cell production of TNFα was reduced by pharmacological blockade of retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα) signaling, indicating that dietary vitamin metabolites can influence Vδ2 T cell function in inflamed intestine. Vδ2 T cells were ablated in blood and tissue from CD patients receiving azathioprine (AZA) therapy, and posttreatment Vδ2 T cell recovery correlated with time since drug withdrawal and inversely correlated with patient age. These results indicate that human Vδ2 T cells exert proinflammatory effects in CD that are modified by dietary vitamin metabolites and ablated by AZA therapy, which may help resolve intestinal inflammation but could increase malignancy risk by impairing systemic tumor surveillance. PMID:26168223

  1. Effects of adrenalectomy and glucocorticosteroid therapy on bone marrow T cells. Effect on T cell traffic and graft-versus-host (GVH) reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Emeson, E.E.; Weintraub, F.M.; Likhite, V.

    1982-08-01

    The effects of bilateral adrenalectomy (Ax) and glucocorticosteroid (GCS) treatment on the migratory behavior of circulating T cells in mice were evaluated by a /sup 51/Cr lymphocyte migration assay and two graft-versus-host (GVH) assays. The major new findings were that bilaterally adrenalectomizing a mouse effects it in two interrelated ways: 1) It decreases the accumulation of adoptively transferred /sup 51/Cr-labeled T cells to the bone marrow; and 2) it reduces the GVH reactivity of bone marrow cells. We also confirmed previous studies showing increases in the accumulation of T cells and increases in T cell-mediated GVH reactivity in the marrow of GCS-treated mice. We conclude that Ax has an opposite effect to that of GCS treatment on the intramarrow traffic of T cells and on T cell-mediated GVH reactivity of marrow cells.

  2. Whole-body imaging of adoptively transferred T cells using magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography techniques, with a focus on regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Leech, J M; Sharif-Paghaleh, E; Maher, J; Livieratos, L; Lechler, R I; Mullen, G E; Lombardi, G; Smyth, L A

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based therapies using natural or genetically modified regulatory T cells (Tregs) have shown significant promise as immune-based therapies. One of the main difficulties facing the further advancement of these therapies is that the fate and localization of adoptively transferred Tregs is largely unknown. The ability to dissect the migratory pathway of these cells in a non-invasive manner is of vital importance for the further development of in-vivo cell-based immunotherapies, as this technology allows the fate of the therapeutically administered cell to be imaged in real time. In this review we will provide an overview of the current clinical imaging techniques used to track T cells and Tregs in vivo, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition, we will discuss how the finding of these studies can be used, in the context of transplantation, to define the most appropriate Treg subset required for cellular therapy. PMID:23574314

  3. Skin-Directed Therapies in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cuong V; Bohjanen, Kimberly A

    2015-10-01

    Early stage mycosis fungoides represents the most common clinical presentation of cutaneous lymphoma, with skin-directed therapies long established in its treatment. These therapies continue to change as new treatment regimens emerge. Other skin-directed treatments include light and radiation therapy. Therapies with higher levels of evidence and less systemic toxicity are usually preferred as first-line treatment. However, even these established therapies, like topical corticosteroids and carmustine, lack randomized clinical trials to establish their efficacy. Research is also needed to further define the role of combination topical therapies and how skin-directed therapies can be used as adjuvants to systemic medications. PMID:26433841

  4. Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy: 25years in the making.

    PubMed

    Gill, Saar; Maus, Marcela V; Porter, David L

    2016-05-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy of cancer is generating enormous enthusiasm. Twenty-five years after the concept was first proposed, major advances in molecular biology, virology, and good manufacturing practices (GMP)-grade cell production have transformed antibody-T cell chimeras from a scientific curiosity to a fact of life for academic cellular immunotherapy researchers and, increasingly, for patients. In this review, we explain the preclinical concept, outline how it has been translated to the clinic, and draw lessons from the first years of CAR T cell therapy for the practicing clinician. PMID:26574053

  5. Gene-modified T-cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptors for pediatric hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Yozo

    2016-06-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is the generic name for synthetic T cell receptors redirected to tumor-associated antigens. Most CARs consist of an ectodomain (scFv or ligand), a hinge region, a transmembrane domain, and signaling endodomains derived from one or two co-stimulatory molecules (CD28, 4-1BB, etc) and from a CD3-ζ chain. CD19-targeted CAR T cell therapy has achieved major success in the treatment of B cell malignancies. CD19 CAR-T cells elicited complete remission in 70-90% of adult and pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). CD19 CAR T cell therapy from allogeneic donors including third party donors is a potential option for B-cell malignancies. CAR T cell therapies for myeloma, acute myeloid leukemia, and T-cell leukemia are still under development. Our group is currently preparing a phase I study of CD19 CAR T cell therapy in pediatric and young adult patients with ALL using a non-viral gene transfer method, the piggyBac-transposon system. PMID:27384848

  6. Designer T cells by T cell receptor replacement.

    PubMed

    Sommermeyer, Daniel; Neudorfer, Julia; Weinhold, Monika; Leisegang, Matthias; Engels, Boris; Noessner, Elfriede; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M; Charo, Jehad; Schendel, Dolores J; Blankenstein, Thomas; Bernhard, Helga; Uckert, Wolfgang

    2006-11-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer is a convenient method to produce antigen-specific T cells for adoptive therapy. However, the expression of two TCR in T cells could impair their function or cause unwanted effects by mixed TCR heterodimers. With five different TCR and four different T cells, either mouse or human, we show that some TCR are strong--in terms of cell surface expression--and replace weak TCR on the cell surface, resulting in exchange of antigen specificity. Two strong TCR are co-expressed. A mouse TCR replaces human TCR on human T cells. Even though it is still poorly understood why some TCRalpha/beta combinations are preferentially expressed on T cells, our data suggest that, in the future, designer T cells with exclusive tumor reactivity can be generated by T cell engineering. PMID:17051621

  7. Successful adoptive immunotherapy for relapse of AML 9 years after T-cell-depleted BMT.

    PubMed

    Bertz, H; Kunzman, R; Bunjes, D; Finke, J

    1998-11-01

    Relapse is one of the main problems which can occur following allogeneic transplantation for haematological malignancies. In this situation the enhancement of the graft-versus-leukaemia effect by transfusion of donor buffy coats with or without cytokines may lead to complete remission especially in myeloid leukaemias. FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) is a sensitive method to monitor chimaerism in gender-different transplantation. We report a case of successful buffy coat transfer therapy > 9 years after bone marrow transplantation. This is the longest interval reported, to our knowledge, between transplantation to relapse, which was treated by adoptive immunotherapy. Complete donor chimaerism was confirmed by FISH. PMID:9827936

  8. T-cell Engager-armed Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Significantly Enhances Antitumor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Feng; Wang, Xingbing; Guo, Z Sheng; Bartlett, David L; Gottschalk, Stephen M; Song, Xiao-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) therapy has shown promise in preclinical models and in clinical studies. However, complete responses have rarely been observed. This lack of efficacy is most likely due to suboptimal virus spread through the tumor resulting in limited tumor cell destruction. We reasoned that redirecting T cells to the tumor has the potential to improve the antitumor activity of oncolytic VVs. We, therefore, constructed a VV encoding a secretory bispecific T-cell engager consisting of two single- chain variable fragments specific for CD3 and the tumor cell surface antigen EphA2 (EphA2-T-cell engager-armed VV (EphA2-TEA-VV)). In vitro, EphA2-TEA-VV's ability to replicate and induce oncolysis was similar to that of unmodified virus. However, only tumor cells infected with EphA2-TEA-VV induced T-cell activation as judged by the secretion of interferon-γ and interleukin-2. In coculture assays, EphA2-TEA-VV not only killed infected tumor cells, but in the presence of T cells, it also induced bystander killing of noninfected tumor cells. In vivo, EphA2-TEA-VV plus T cells had potent antitumor activity in comparison with control VV plus T cells in a lung cancer xenograft model. Thus, arming oncolytic VVs with T-cell engagers may represent a promising approach to improve oncolytic virus therapy. PMID:24135899

  9. Resistance of CD45RA- T cells to apoptosis and functional impairment, and activation of tumor-antigen specific T cells during radiation therapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Spary, Lisa K; Coleman, Sharon; Clayton, Aled; Mason, Malcolm D; Staffurth, John

    2010-07-15

    The effect of radiation therapy (RT) to the pelvis on circulating T cells was studied in prostate cancer (PCa) patients to provide a baseline for a more informed design of combination radioimmunotherapy. Peripheral blood samples taken from 12 PCa patients with locally advanced tumor before, during, and after hypofractionated RT were analyzed for T cell phenotype and function. There was significantly more loss of naive and early memory compared with more differentiated T cells during RT. The proportions of annexin-V(+) and Fas-expressing T cells were elevated in patients during RT and in PBMC irradiated in vitro (< or = 5.0 Gy), with preferential increases in CD45RA(+) T cells. The baseline level of apoptosis of CD45RA(-) T cells increased > 2-fold in the presence of an IkappaB-kinase inhibitor, indicating a protective effect via this pathway. T cell proliferation was impaired during RT with IL-2-dependent recovery post-RT. Recall T cell responses to common viral Ags, measured by IFN-gamma production, were little affected by RT. In vitro irradiation of healthy donor PBMCs resulted in a significantly increased frequency of responding T cells, due at least partly to the preferential elimination of CD45RA(+) T cells. Most importantly, antitumor CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses were detectable after, but not before or during RT. The results indicate that generating tumor-specific T cell responses before RT and boosting their activity post-RT are ways likely to amplify the frequency and function of antitumor T cells, with implications for scheduling immunotherapy in PCa. PMID:20548027

  10. IGF1R- and ROR1-Specific CAR T Cells as a Potential Therapy for High Risk Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin; Park, Haein; Greene, Joseph; Zhou, Sophia X.; Albert, Catherine M.; Moy, Fred; Sachdev, Deepali; Yee, Douglas; Rader, Christoph; Hamby, Carl V.; Loeb, David M.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Zhou, Xianzheng

    2015-01-01

    Patients with metastatic or recurrent and refractory sarcomas have a dismal prognosis. Therefore, new targeted therapies are urgently needed. This study was designed to evaluate chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) or tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) molecules for their therapeutic potential against sarcomas. Here, we report that IGF1R (15/15) and ROR1 (11/15) were highly expressed in sarcoma cell lines including Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, alveolar or embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells derived from eight healthy donors using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system were cytotoxic against sarcoma cells and produced high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-13 in an antigen-specific manner. IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells generated from three sarcoma patients released significant amounts of IFN-γ in response to sarcoma stimulation. The adoptive transfer of IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells derived from a sarcoma patient significantly reduced tumor growth in pre-established, systemically disseminated and localized osteosarcoma xenograft models in NSG mice. Infusion of IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells also prolonged animal survival in a localized sarcoma model using NOD/scid mice. Our data indicate that both IGF1R and ROR1 can be effectively targeted by SB modified CAR T cells and that such CAR T cells may be useful in the treatment of high risk sarcoma patients. PMID:26173023

  11. IGF1R- and ROR1-Specific CAR T Cells as a Potential Therapy for High Risk Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Park, Haein; Greene, Joseph; Pao, James; Mulvey, Erin; Zhou, Sophia X; Albert, Catherine M; Moy, Fred; Sachdev, Deepali; Yee, Douglas; Rader, Christoph; Hamby, Carl V; Loeb, David M; Cairo, Mitchell S; Zhou, Xianzheng

    2015-01-01

    Patients with metastatic or recurrent and refractory sarcomas have a dismal prognosis. Therefore, new targeted therapies are urgently needed. This study was designed to evaluate chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) or tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) molecules for their therapeutic potential against sarcomas. Here, we report that IGF1R (15/15) and ROR1 (11/15) were highly expressed in sarcoma cell lines including Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, alveolar or embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells derived from eight healthy donors using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system were cytotoxic against sarcoma cells and produced high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-13 in an antigen-specific manner. IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells generated from three sarcoma patients released significant amounts of IFN-γ in response to sarcoma stimulation. The adoptive transfer of IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells derived from a sarcoma patient significantly reduced tumor growth in pre-established, systemically disseminated and localized osteosarcoma xenograft models in NSG mice. Infusion of IGF1R and ROR1 CAR T cells also prolonged animal survival in a localized sarcoma model using NOD/scid mice. Our data indicate that both IGF1R and ROR1 can be effectively targeted by SB modified CAR T cells and that such CAR T cells may be useful in the treatment of high risk sarcoma patients. PMID:26173023

  12. T-cell response relative to genotype and ethnicity during antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David E; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Ikeda, Fusao; Stadanlick, Jason; Valiga, Mary; Shetty, Kirti; Reddy, K Rajender; Chang, Kyong-Mi

    2005-06-01

    Viral genotype and host ethnicity are important predictors of viral clearance during antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Based on the role of T cells in natural HCV clearance, we hypothesized that T cells may contribute to the genotypic and ethnic difference in treatment outcome. To test this hypothesis, T-cell response to HCV antigens (core, nonstructural NS3/4 and NS5) and control phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was monitored prospectively and was correlated with virological outcome in 41 patients chronically infected with HCV (27 genotype 1, 14 genotype 2 or 3; 19 black persons, 22 white persons) undergoing combined interferon alfa and ribavirin therapy. Interestingly, in patients with genotype 2 or 3 infection, enhanced virological response coincided with a greater T-cell response to HCV NS3/4 antigen at baseline (50% vs. 15%; P = .026) that augmented further during therapy (29% vs. 4%; P = .035) compared with genotype 1-infected patients. However, HCV-specific T-cell response remained weak in genotype 1-infected patients regardless of virological outcome or ethnicity. Furthermore, virological outcome was associated with a suppressed baseline proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin (P < .03) that increased during therapy (P < .003) independent of ethnicity or genotype. In conclusion, HCV-specific T-cell response was associated with HCV genotype but not with therapeutic clearance of HCV infection. The association between treatment outcome and phytohemagglutinin response suggests more global and antigen-nonspecific mechanisms for therapeutic HCV clearance. PMID:15915458

  13. T-cell therapies for HIV: Preclinical successes and current clinical strategies.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shabnum; Jones, R Brad; Nixon, Douglas F; Bollard, Catherine M

    2016-08-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been successful in controlling HIV infection, it does not provide a permanent cure, requires lifelong treatment, and HIV-positive individuals are left with social concerns such as stigma. The recent application of T cells to treat cancer and viral reactivations post-transplant offers a potential strategy to control HIV infection. It is known that naturally occurring HIV-specific T cells can inhibit HIV initially, but this response is not sustained in the majority of people living with HIV. Genetically modifying T cells to target HIV, resist infection, and persist in the immunosuppressive environment found in chronically infected HIV-positive individuals might provide a therapeutic solution for HIV. This review focuses on successful preclinical studies and current clinical strategies using T-cell therapy to control HIV infection and mediate a functional cure solution. PMID:27265874

  14. High-content molecular profiling of T-cell therapy in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Novosiadly, Ruslan; Kalos, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recent clinical data have revealed the remarkable potential for T-cell-modulating agents to induce potent and durable responses in a subset of cancer patients. In this review, we discuss molecular approaches, platforms, and strategies that enable a broader interrogation of the activity of agents that modulate the activity of tumor-specific T cells, to more comprehensively understand how and why the agents succeed and fail, as well as examples of data sets generated in clinical trials that have provided important insights into the biological activity of T-cell therapies and that support further rational development of this exciting treatment modality. PMID:27626060

  15. Targeting T Cells with Bispecific Antibodies for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Lawrence G.; Thakur, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies (BiAbs) offer a unique opportunity to redirect immune effector cells to kill cancer cells. BiAbs combine the benefits of different binding specificities of two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) into a single construct. This unique feature of BiAbs enables approaches that are not possible with single mAbs. Advances in antibody engineering and antigen profiling of malignant cells have led to the development of a number of BiAb formats and their combinations for redirecting effector cells to tumor targets. There have been significant advances in the design and application of BiAbs for intravenous and local injection. The initial barrier of cytokine storm has been partially overcome by more recent constructs that have improved clinical effectiveness without dose-limiting toxicities. Since the recent revival of BiAbs, there has been multiple, ongoing, phase I/II and III trials, and some promising clinical outcomes have been reported in completed clinical studies. This review focuses on arming T cells with BiAbs to create the ‘poor man's cytotoxic lymphocyte’. PMID:22050339

  16. Approaches to augment CAR T-cell therapy by targeting the apoptotic machinery.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Hannah

    2016-04-15

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells have shown impressive results in patients with B-cell leukaemia. Yet, in patients with lymphoma durable responses are still rare and heavy preconditioning required. Apoptosis resistance is considered a hallmark of cancer, often conveyed by a halted apoptosis signalling. Tumours regularly skew the balance of the components of the apoptotic machinery either through up-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins or silencing pro-apoptotic ones. Malignant B-cells frequently up-regulate anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins leading to therapy resistance. CAR T-cells kill tumour cells via apoptosis induction and their efficacy may be affected by the level of Bcl-2 family proteins. Hence, there is an interesting possibility to increase the effect of CAR T-cell therapy by combining it with apoptosis inhibitor blockade agents. Compounds that inhibit Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma extra large (Bcl-xL) and Bcl-2-like protein 2 (Bcl-w), can restore execution of apoptosis in tumour cells or sensitize them to other apoptosis-dependent treatments. Hence, there is a great interest to combine such agents with CAR T-cell therapy to potentiate the effect of CAR T-cell killing. This review will focus on the potential of targeting the apoptotic machinery to sensitize tumour cells to CAR T-cell killing. PMID:27068942

  17. Microbial translocation augments the function of adoptively transferred self/tumor-specific CD8+ T cells via TLR4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Paulos, Chrystal M.; Wrzesinski, Claudia; Kaiser,, Andrew; Hinrichs, Christian S.; Chieppa, Marcello; Cassard, Lydie; Palmer, Douglas C.; Boni, Andrea; Muranski, Pawel; Yu, Zhiya; Gattinoni, Luca; Antony, Paul A.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2007-01-01

    Lymphodepletion with total body irradiation (TBI) increases the efficacy of adoptively transferred tumor-specific CD8+ T cells by depleting inhibitory lymphocytes and increasing homeostatic cytokine levels. We found that TBI augmented the function of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells in mice genetically deficient in all lymphocytes, indicating the existence of another TBI mechanism of action. Additional investigation revealed commensal gut microflora in the mesenteric lymph nodes and elevated LPS levels in the sera of irradiated mice. These findings correlated with increased dendritic cell activation and heightened levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines. Reduction of host microflora using antibiotics, neutralization of serum LPS using polymyxin B, or removal of LPS signaling components using mice genetically deficient in CD14 and TLR4 reduced the beneficial effects of TBI on tumor regression. Conversely, administration of microbial ligand–containing serum or ultrapure LPS from irradiated animals to nonirradiated antibody-lymphodepleted mice enhanced CD8+ T cell activation and improved tumor regression. Administration of ultrapure LPS to irradiated animals further enhanced the number and function of the adoptively transferred cells, leading to long-term cure of mice with large B16F10 tumors and enhanced autoimmune vitiligo. Thus, disruption of the homeostatic balance between the host and microbes can enhance cell-based tumor immunotherapy. PMID:17657310

  18. CAR T-Cell Therapy: The Role of Physical Barriers and Immunosuppression in Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Enblad, Gunilla; Karlsson, Hannah; Loskog, Angelica S.I.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells have shown remarkable results in patients with B-cell leukemia and lymphoma. However, while CAR T-cells have shown complete responses in a majority of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), lymphomas are more difficult to treat. Different CAR designs and conditioning protocols seem to affect the persistence of patient responses. However, factors that determine if patients receiving the same CARs will respond or not remain obscure. In Sweden, a phase I/IIa trial using third-generation CAR T-cells is ongoing in which we intend to compare tumor biology and immunology, in each patient, to treatment response. CAR T-cell therapy is a powerful tool to add to the treatment options for this patient group but we need to perform the necessary basic research on the multifactorial mechanisms of action to give patients the best possible option of survival. Such studies are also crucial to expand the success of CAR T-cells beyond CD19+ B-cell malignancy. This review will focus on possible barriers of treating lymphoma to define factors that need to be investigated to develop the next generation of CAR T-cell therapy. PMID:26230974

  19. Reengineering chimeric antigen receptor T cells for targeted therapy of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Ellebrecht, Christoph T; Bhoj, Vijay G; Nace, Arben; Choi, Eun Jung; Mao, Xuming; Cho, Michael Jeffrey; Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Seykora, John T; Cotsarelis, George; Milone, Michael C; Payne, Aimee S

    2016-07-01

    Ideally, therapy for autoimmune diseases should eliminate pathogenic autoimmune cells while sparing protective immunity, but feasible strategies for such an approach have been elusive. Here, we show that in the antibody-mediated autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV), autoantigen-based chimeric immunoreceptors can direct T cells to kill autoreactive B lymphocytes through the specificity of the B cell receptor (BCR). We engineered human T cells to express a chimeric autoantibody receptor (CAAR), consisting of the PV autoantigen, desmoglein (Dsg) 3, fused to CD137-CD3ζ signaling domains. Dsg3 CAAR-T cells exhibit specific cytotoxicity against cells expressing anti-Dsg3 BCRs in vitro and expand, persist, and specifically eliminate Dsg3-specific B cells in vivo. CAAR-T cells may provide an effective and universal strategy for specific targeting of autoreactive B cells in antibody-mediated autoimmune disease. PMID:27365313

  20. Current status of engineered T-cell therapy for synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Dallos, Matthew; Tap, William D; D'Angelo, Sandra P

    2016-09-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma characterized by a t(X;18) translocation, which results in a SYT-SSX gene fusion. In the metastatic setting, chemotherapy has limited, durable efficacy prompting the necessity for new therapeutic modalities. One emerging new strategy involves T-cell-directed therapy such as tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or the development of T cells that are genetically engineered to express a T-cell receptor against a cancer testis antigen. Of these approaches, engineered T cells that recognize NY-ESO-1 are the furthest along in development. Completed and on-going clinical trials have shown promise and there are efforts to continue to optimize the current approach. PMID:27485079

  1. High vitamin D3 diet administered during active colitis negatively affects bone metabolism in an adoptive T cell transfer model

    PubMed Central

    Larmonier, C. B.; McFadden, R.-M. T.; Hill, F. M.; Schreiner, R.; Ramalingam, R.; Besselsen, D. G.; Ghishan, F. K.

    2013-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) represents an extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D3 has been considered a viable adjunctive therapy in IBD. However, vitamin D3 plays a pleiotropic role in bone modeling and regulates the bone formation-resorption balance, depending on the physiological environment, and supplementation during active IBD may have unintended consequences. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation during the active phase of disease on colonic inflammation, BMD, and bone metabolism in an adoptive IL-10−/− CD4+ T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 days during established disease had negligible effects on mucosal inflammation. Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites correlated with diet, but not disease, status. Colitis significantly reduced BMD. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not affect cortical bone but led to a further deterioration of trabecular bone morphology. In mice fed a high vitamin D3 diet, colitis more severely impacted bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and increased bone resorption markers, ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand to osteoprotegrin transcript, plasma osteoprotegrin level, and the osteoclast activation marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACp5). Bone vitamin D receptor expression was increased in mice with chronic colitis, especially in the high vitamin D3 group. Our data suggest that vitamin D3, at a dose that does not improve inflammation, has no beneficial effects on bone metabolism and density during active colitis or may adversely affect BMD and bone turnover. These observations should be taken into consideration in the planning of further clinical studies with high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with active IBD. PMID:23639807

  2. Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction Develops at the Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, and Can Be Induced by Adoptive Transfer of Auto-Reactive T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Mehrnaz; Bredberg, Anders; Weström, Björn; Lavasani, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a pathogenesis involving a dysfunctional blood-brain barrier and myelin-specific, autoreactive T cells. Although the commensal microbiota seems to affect its pathogenesis, regulation of the interactions between luminal antigens and mucosal immune elements remains unclear. Herein, we investigated whether the intestinal mucosal barrier is also targeted in this disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the prototypic animal model of MS, was induced either by active immunization or by adoptive transfer of autoreactive T cells isolated from these mice. We show increased intestinal permeability, overexpression of the tight junction protein zonulin and alterations in intestinal morphology (increased crypt depth and thickness of the submucosa and muscularis layers). These intestinal manifestations were seen at 7 days (i.e., preceding the onset of neurological symptoms) and at 14 days (i.e., at the stage of paralysis) after immunization. We also demonstrate an increased infiltration of proinflammatory Th1/Th17 cells and a reduced regulatory T cell number in the gut lamina propria, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. Adoptive transfer to healthy mice of encephalitogenic T cells, isolated from EAE-diseased animals, led to intestinal changes similar to those resulting from the immunization procedure. Our findings show that disruption of intestinal homeostasis is an early and immune-mediated event in EAE. We propose that this intestinal dysfunction may act to support disease progression, and thus represent a potential therapeutic target in MS. In particular, an increased understanding of the regulation of tight junctions at the blood-brain barrier and in the intestinal wall may be crucial for design of future innovative therapies. PMID:25184418

  3. Virus-specific T-cell therapy in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Roemhild, Andy; Reinke, Petra

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the current state of T-cell therapy as therapeutic option for virus-associated diseases against the background of the most common viral complications and their standard treatment regimens after SOT. The available data of clinical T-cell trials in SOT are summarized. References to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are made if applicable data in SOT are not available and their content was considered likewise valid for cell therapy in SOT. Moreover, aspects of different manufacturing approaches including beneficial product characteristics and the importance of GMP compliance are addressed. PMID:26284570

  4. CAR-modified T-cell therapy for cancer: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Haji-Fatahaliha, Mostafa; Hosseini, Maryam; Akbarian, Asiye; Sadreddini, Sanam; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    The use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells is a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. These genetically modified receptors contain an antigen-binding moiety, a hinge region, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular costimulatory domain resulting in T-cell activation subsequent to antigen binding. Optimal tumor removal through CAR-modified T cells requires suitable target antigen selection, co-stimulatory signaling domain, and the ability of CAR T cells to traffic, persist, and retain antitumor function after adoptive transfer. There are several elements which can improve antitumor function of CAR T cells, including signaling, conditioning chemotherapy and irradiation, tumor burden of the disease, T-cell phenotype, and supplementary cytokine usage. This review outlines four generations of CAR. The pre-clinical and clinical studies showed that this technique has a great potential for treatment of solid and hematological malignancies. The main purpose of the current review is to focus on the pre-clinical and clinical developments of CAR-based immunotherapy. PMID:26068778

  5. The Impact of Unprotected T Cells in RNAi-based Gene Therapy for HIV-AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Carrillo, Elena; Liu, Ying Poi; Berkhout, Ben

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is highly effective in inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by the expression of antiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in stably transduced T-cell lines. For the development of a durable gene therapy that prevents viral escape, we proposed to combine multiple shRNAs against highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 RNA genome. The future in vivo application of such a gene therapy protocol will reach only a fraction of the T cells, such that HIV-1 replication will continue in the unmodified T cells, thereby possibly frustrating the therapy by generation of HIV-1 variants that escape from the inhibition imposed by the protected cells. We studied virus inhibition and evolution in pure cultures of shRNA-expressing cells versus mixed cell cultures of protected and unprotected T cells. The addition of the unprotected T cells indeed seems to accelerate HIV-1 evolution and escape from a single shRNA inhibitor. However, expression of three antiviral shRNAs from a single lentiviral vector prevents virus escape even in the presence of unprotected cells. These results support the idea to validate the therapeutic potential of this anti-HIV approach in appropriate in vivo models. PMID:24336172

  6. Clonal T cell expansion induced by interleukin 2 therapy in blood and tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A; Farace, F; Gaudin, C; Triebel, F

    1996-01-01

    In a phase I clinical trial on the effects of preoperative adjuvant IL-2 therapy given to patients undergoing hepatic resection of colorectal adenocarcinoma metastases, we monitored the putative induction of T cell clonal expansion in both tissues and blood. The presence of T cell clonotypes was analyzed with a PCR-based method that determines V-D-J junction size patterns in T cell receptor (TCR) V beta subfamilies in samples before and after a 5-d IL-2 infusion. This high resolution method analyzing CDR3 sizes of TCR transcripts was used in conjunction with FACS analysis of the corresponding T cell subpopulations with TCR V beta-specific mAb. At time of surgery (day 8 after starting IL-2), we found in the three patients analyzed with V beta-C beta primers multiple dominant T cell clonotypes in the tumor and peritumoral tissues which had probably expanded as a result of therapy. In three control patients not treated with IL-2, multiple oligoclonal patterns were not observed with this set of primers. In the fourth control patient a unique V beta 21-C beta CDR3 pattern which corresponds to two dominant clonotypes was found in the tumor. The same dominant clonotypes identified in the tumor after IL-2 were also detectable in the blood and comparison of the profiles obtained before and after IL-2 therapy indicates that they were induced by IL-2. The relative expansion of the corresponding T cell subpopulations was maintained for varying periods of time after surgery (4-7 d and almost 2 yr in one case). Together, these results indicate that IL-2 induces marked expansion of several T cell clones. Systemic IL-2 administration may represent, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, an appropriate way of boosting antigen-specific immune responses. PMID:8636433

  7. The role of autoreactive T cell in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and implications for T cell targeted vaccine therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Li, Y; Liu, Y; Shi, G

    2015-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterised by chronic inflammation of joint synovial tissue and subsequent destruction of associated bone, cartilage and soft tissues. RA is commonly treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids and biologic inhibitors of TNF, IL-1, IL-6, T cells and B cells. The use of these drugs especially biological agents has greatly improved the treatment of RA. Although the pathogenesis of RA remains unclear, T-cell mediated immune response is considered as a critical contributor in RA initiation and progression. It has been hypothesized that arthritogenic T cells (autoreactive T cells) escaping negative selection can recognize arthritogenic antigens and lead to autoimmunity and tissue destruction. Due to the important role of autoreactive T cells in the mechanisms of RA, they might be a novel therapeutic target. Many vaccines targeting autoreactive T cells which can establish immunological self tolerance have been developed. The efficacy of these vaccines has been justified in experimental models of RA and clinical trials. Inhibition of autoreactive T cell response by vaccination might provide a new treatment opinion in RA. PMID:26057192

  8. Immunoregulatory T cell epitope peptides: the new frontier in allergy therapy

    PubMed Central

    Prickett, S R; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    2015-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been practised since 1911 and remains the only therapy proven to modify the natural history of allergic diseases. Although efficacious in carefully selected individuals, the currently licensed whole allergen extracts retain the risk of IgE-mediated adverse events, including anaphylaxis and occasionally death. This together with the need for prolonged treatment regimens results in poor patient adherence. The central role of the T cell in orchestrating the immune response to allergen informs the choice of T cell targeted therapies for down-regulation of aberrant allergic responses. Carefully mapped short synthetic peptides that contain the dominant T cell epitopes of major allergens and bind to a diverse array of HLA class II alleles, can be delivered intradermally into non-inflamed skin to induce sustained clinical and immunological tolerance. The short peptides from allergenic proteins are unable to cross-link IgE and possess minimal inflammatory potential. Systematic progress has been made from in vitro human models of allergen T cell epitope-based peptide anergy in the early 1990s, through proof-of-concept murine allergy models and early human trials with longer peptides, to the current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials with the potential new class of synthetic short immune-regulatory T cell epitope peptide therapies. Sustained efficacy with few adverse events is being reported for cat, house dust mite and grass pollen allergy after only a short course of treatment. Underlying immunological mechanisms remain to be fully delineated but anergy, deletion, immune deviation and Treg induction all seem contributory to successful outcomes, with changes in IgG4 apparently less important compared to conventional AIT. T cell epitope peptide therapy is promising a safe and effective new class of specific treatment for allergy, enabling wider application even for more severe allergic diseases. PMID:25900315

  9. Immunoregulatory T cell epitope peptides: the new frontier in allergy therapy.

    PubMed

    Prickett, S R; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    2015-06-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been practised since 1911 and remains the only therapy proven to modify the natural history of allergic diseases. Although efficacious in carefully selected individuals, the currently licensed whole allergen extracts retain the risk of IgE-mediated adverse events, including anaphylaxis and occasionally death. This together with the need for prolonged treatment regimens results in poor patient adherence. The central role of the T cell in orchestrating the immune response to allergen informs the choice of T cell targeted therapies for down-regulation of aberrant allergic responses. Carefully mapped short synthetic peptides that contain the dominant T cell epitopes of major allergens and bind to a diverse array of HLA class II alleles, can be delivered intradermally into non-inflamed skin to induce sustained clinical and immunological tolerance. The short peptides from allergenic proteins are unable to cross-link IgE and possess minimal inflammatory potential. Systematic progress has been made from in vitro human models of allergen T cell epitope-based peptide anergy in the early 1990s, through proof-of-concept murine allergy models and early human trials with longer peptides, to the current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials with the potential new class of synthetic short immune-regulatory T cell epitope peptide therapies. Sustained efficacy with few adverse events is being reported for cat, house dust mite and grass pollen allergy after only a short course of treatment. Underlying immunological mechanisms remain to be fully delineated but anergy, deletion, immune deviation and Treg induction all seem contributory to successful outcomes, with changes in IgG4 apparently less important compared to conventional AIT. T cell epitope peptide therapy is promising a safe and effective new class of specific treatment for allergy, enabling wider application even for more severe allergic diseases. PMID:25900315

  10. Effects of IL-7 on memory CD8+ T cell homeostasis are influenced by the timing of therapy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nanjappa, Som G.; Walent, Jane H.; Morre, Michel; Suresh, M.

    2008-01-01

    IL-7 is integral to the generation and maintenance of CD8+ T cell memory, and insufficient IL-7 is believed to limit survival and the persistence of memory CD8+ T cells. Here, we show that during the mouse T cell response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, IL-7 enhanced the number of memory CD8+ T cells when its administration was restricted to the contraction phase of the response. Likewise, IL-7 administration during the contraction phase of the mouse T cell response to vaccinia virus or a DNA vaccine potentiated antigen-specific CD8+ memory T cell proliferation and function. Qualitatively, CD8+ T cells from IL-7–treated mice exhibited superior recall responses and improved viral control. IL-7 treatment during the memory phase stimulated a marked increase in the number of memory CD8+ T cells, but the effects were transient. IL-7 therapy during contraction of the secondary CD8+ T cell response also expanded the pool of memory CD8+ T cells. Collectively, our studies show differential effects of IL-7 on memory CD8+ T cell homeostasis and underscore the importance of the timing of IL-7 therapy to effectively improve CD8+ T cell memory and protective immunity. These findings may have implications in the clinical use of IL-7 as an immunotherapeutic agent to bolster vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell memory. PMID:18246202

  11. T-cells fighting B-cell lymphoproliferative malignancies: the emerging field of CD19 CAR T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Heijink, D M; Kater, A P; Hazenberg, M D; Hagenbeek, A; Kersten, M J

    2016-05-01

    CAR T-cells are autologous T-cells transduced with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The CAR contains an antigen recognition part (originating from an antibody), a T-cell receptor transmembrane and cytoplasmic signalling part, and one or more co-stimulatory domains. While CAR T-cells can be directed against any tumour target, most experience thus far has been obtained with targeting of the B-cell antigen CD19 that is expressed by B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and other B-cell lymphomas. The first clinical results are promising, although there are profound differences in response between patients with different haematological malignancies. Treatment-related side effects have been observed that require specific management. This review will explain the mechanism of action, summarise the experience to date and point out future directions for this hopeful new addition to the therapeutic armamentarium in the treatment of lymphoproliferative B-cell malignancies. PMID:27185772

  12. PD-L1 blockade synergizes with IL-2 therapy in reinvigorating exhausted T cells

    PubMed Central

    West, Erin E.; Jin, Hyun-Tak; Rasheed, Ata-Ur; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Ha, Sang-Jun; Tan, Wendy G.; Youngblood, Ben; Freeman, Gordon J.; Smith, Kendall A.; Ahmed, Rafi

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) plays a major role in functional exhaustion of T cells during chronic infections and cancer, and recent clinical data suggest that blockade of the PD-1 pathway is an effective immunotherapy in treating certain cancers. Thus, it is important to define combinatorial approaches that increase the efficacy of PD-1 blockade. To address this issue, we examined the effect of IL-2 and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade in the mouse model of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. We found that low-dose IL-2 administration alone enhanced CD8+ T cell responses in chronically infected mice. IL-2 treatment also decreased inhibitory receptor levels on virus-specific CD8+ T cells and increased expression of CD127 and CD44, resulting in a phenotype resembling that of memory T cells. Surprisingly, IL-2 therapy had only a minimal effect on reducing viral load. However, combining IL-2 treatment with blockade of the PD-1 inhibitory pathway had striking synergistic effects in enhancing virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses and decreasing viral load. Interestingly, this reduction in viral load occurred despite increased numbers of Tregs. These results suggest that combined IL-2 therapy and PD-L1 blockade merits consideration as a regimen for treating human chronic infections and cancer. PMID:23676462

  13. PET imaging of adoptive progenitor cell therapies.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelovani, Juri G.

    2008-05-13

    Objectives. The overall objective of this application is to develop novel technologies for non-invasive imaging of adoptive stem cell-based therapies with positron emission tomography (PET) that would be applicable to human patients. To achieve this objective, stem cells will be genetically labeled with a PET-reporter gene and repetitively imaged to assess their distribution, migration, differentiation, and persistence using a radiolabeled reporter probe. This new imaging technology will be tested in adoptive progenitor cell-based therapy models in animals, including: delivery pro-apoptotic genes to tumors, and T-cell reconstitution for immunostimulatory therapy during allogeneic bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Technical and Scientific Merits. Non-invasive whole body imaging would significantly aid in the development and clinical implementation of various adoptive progenitor cell-based therapies by providing the means for non-invasive monitoring of the fate of injected progenitor cells over a long period of observation. The proposed imaging approaches could help to address several questions related to stem cell migration and homing, their long-term viability, and their subsequent differentiation. The ability to image these processes non-invasively in 3D and repetitively over a long period of time is very important and will help the development and clinical application of various strategies to control and direct stem cell migration and differentiation. Approach to accomplish the work. Stem cells will be genetically with a reporter gene which will allow for repetitive non-invasive “tracking” of the migration and localization of genetically labeled stem cells and their progeny. This is a radically new approach that is being developed for future human applications and should allow for a long term (many years) repetitive imaging of the fate of tissues that develop from the transplanted stem cells. Why the approach is appropriate. The novel approach to

  14. CD137 Agonist Therapy Can Reprogram Regulatory T Cells into Cytotoxic CD4+ T Cells with Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Akhmetzyanova, Ilseyar; Zelinskyy, Gennadiy; Littwitz-Salomon, Elisabeth; Malyshkina, Anna; Dietze, Kirsten K; Streeck, Hendrik; Brandau, Sven; Dittmer, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Recent successes in immune therapeutic strategies aimed to improve control over tumor growth have sparked hope that long-lived control of cancer through stimulation of the immune system can be possible. However, the underlying immunological mechanisms that are induced by immunotherapeutic strategies are not well understood. In this study, we used the highly immunogenic Friend virus-induced FBL-3 tumor as a model to study the mechanisms of immunological tumor control by CD4(+) T cells in the course of CD137 (4-1BB) agonist immunotherapy in the absence of a CD8 T cell response. We demonstrate that treatment with a CD137 agonist resulted in complete FBL-3 tumor regression in CD8(+) T cell-deficient mice. CD137 signaling enhanced the production of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules in tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells. Interestingly, a subset of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells was reprogrammed to eliminate immunogenic virus-induced tumor cells in response to CD137 agonist treatment. These cells expressed markers characteristic for Th cells (CD154) and produced the cytokine TNF-α or the T-box transcriptional factor Eomesodermin and granzyme B without loss of Foxp3 expression. Foxp3 Eomes double-positive CD4(+) T cells were capable of eliminating immunogenic virus-induced tumor cells in vivo. Thus, our data show that tumor-induced Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells can be reprogrammed into cytotoxic effector cells upon therapeutic costimulatory signaling and restore antitumor immunity. PMID:26608920

  15. [Principles of adoptive cell therapy based on "Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes"].

    PubMed

    Martins, Filipe; Orcurto, Angela; Michielin, Olivier; Coukos, George

    2016-05-18

    Adoptive cell therapy consists in the use of T lymphocytes for therapeutic purposes. Up to now, of limited use in clinical practice for logistical reasons, technical progress and substantial level of evidence obtained in the last decade allow its arrival in universitary hospitals. We will principally discuss the administration of expanded tumor infiltrating T cells in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This treatment modality exploits the natural specificity of these cells and aims to potentiate their effectiveness. This personalized immunotherapy detains a potential for expansion to many other advanced tumor types. PMID:27424426

  16. Circulating gamma delta T cells are activated and depleted during progression of high-grade gliomas: Implications for gamma delta T cell therapy of GBM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains frustratingly impervious to any existing therapy. We have previously shown that GBM is sensitive to recognition and lysis by ex vivo activated gamma delta T cells, a minor subset of lymphocytes that innately recognize autologous stress-associated target antigens...

  17. Adoptive precursor cell therapy to enhance immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in mouse and man

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Amanda M.; Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Goldberg, Gabrielle L.; Ghosh, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative therapy for hematological malignancies. T cell deficiency following transplantation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we discuss adoptive transfer of committed precursor cells to enhance T cell reconstitution and improve overall prognosis after transplantation. PMID:19015856

  18. Engineering T-cells with antibody-based chimeric receptors for effective cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Thistlethwaite, Fiona; Mansoor, Wasat; Gilham, David E; Hawkins, Robert E

    2005-02-01

    The combination of power and specificity inherent within the immune system make its manipulation an attractive prospect for the development of novel anticancer therapies. However, tumors are frequently poorly recognized by the immune system, and intrinsic controls limit the benefit from active immunization. These and other issues have proved major challenges in the search for effective cancer immunotherapy. Recent advances in the understanding of the immune system and the development of methods to manipulate it have led to the point where engineered T-cell therapy can be tested in the clinical setting with a realistic chance of success. These advances are considered and potential future clinical and scientific issues involved in the successful development of effective, engineered T-cell therapy are examined. PMID:15732529

  19. Towards a commercial process for the manufacture of genetically modified T cells for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, A D; Assenmacher, M; Schröder, B; Meyer, M; Orentas, R; Bethke, U; Dropulic, B

    2015-01-01

    The recent successes of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies have highlighted the need for manufacturing processes that are robust and scalable for product commercialization. Here we review some of the more outstanding issues surrounding commercial scale manufacturing of personalized-adoptive T-cell medicinal products. These include closed system operations, improving process robustness and simplifying work flows, reducing labor intensity by implementing process automation, scalability and cost, as well as appropriate testing and tracking of products, all while maintaining strict adherence to Current Good Manufacturing Practices and regulatory guidelines. A decentralized manufacturing model is proposed, where in the future patients' cells could be processed at the point-of-care in the hospital. PMID:25613483

  20. Towards a commercial process for the manufacture of genetically modified T cells for therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, A D; Assenmacher, M; Schröder, B; Meyer, M; Orentas, R; Bethke, U; Dropulic, B

    2015-03-01

    The recent successes of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies have highlighted the need for manufacturing processes that are robust and scalable for product commercialization. Here we review some of the more outstanding issues surrounding commercial scale manufacturing of personalized-adoptive T-cell medicinal products. These include closed system operations, improving process robustness and simplifying work flows, reducing labor intensity by implementing process automation, scalability and cost, as well as appropriate testing and tracking of products, all while maintaining strict adherence to Current Good Manufacturing Practices and regulatory guidelines. A decentralized manufacturing model is proposed, where in the future patients' cells could be processed at the point-of-care in the hospital. PMID:25613483

  1. Adoptive transfer of T cells transduced with a chimeric antigen receptor to treat relapsed or refractory acute leukemia: efficacy and feasibility of immunotherapy approaches.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guoliang; Chen, Hu

    2016-07-01

    Treatment outcomes of acute leukemia (AL) have not improved over the past several decades and relapse rates remain high despite the availability of aggressive therapies. Conventional relapsed leukemia treatment includes second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), which in most cases mediate, at best, a modest graft-versus-leukemia effect, although their clinical efficacy is still limited. Although allo-HSCT following myeloablative conditioning is a curative treatment option for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a first complete remission (CR), allo-HSCT as a clinical treatment is usually limited because of treatment-related toxicity. The overall DLI remission rate is only 15%-42% and 2-year overall survival (OS) is approximately 15%-20%, with a high (40%-60%) incidence of DLI-related graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Therefore, development of new, targeted treatment strategies for relapsed and refractory AL patients is ongoing. Adoptive transfer of T cells with genetically engineered chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is an encouraging approach for treating hematological malignancies. These T cells are capable of selectively recognizing tumor-associated antigens and may overcome many limitations of conventional therapies, inducing remission in patients with chemotherapy-refractory or relapsed AL. In this review, we aimed to highlight the current understanding of this promising treatment modality, discussing its adverse effects and efficacy. PMID:27142351

  2. Cytotoxic T Cell Adoptive Immunotherapy as a Treatment for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Pauline; Morrison, Leanne; Stevens, Natasha; Davis, Joanne E.; Corban, Monika; Hall, David; Panizza, Benedict; Coman, William B.; Coman, Scott; Moss, Denis J.

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We assess the safety and tolerability of adoptive transfer of autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for the EBV latent membrane protein (LMP) in a patient with recurrent NPC. After infusion, the majority of pulmonary lesions were no longer evident, although the primary tumor did not regress. PMID:24351754

  3. Self-Reactive CFTR T Cells in Humans: Implications for Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Calcedo, Roberto; Griesenbach, Uta; Dorgan, Daniel J.; Soussi, Samia; Boyd, A. Christopher; Davies, Jane C.; Higgins, Tracy E.; Hyde, Stephen C.; Gill, Deborah R.; Innes, J. Alastair; Porteous, David J.; Alton, Eric W.; Wilson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common autosomal recessive lethal disorders affecting white populations of northern European ancestry. To date there is no cure for CF. Life-long treatments for CF are being developed and include gene therapy and the use of small-molecule drugs designed to target specific cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations. Irrespective of the type of molecular therapy for CF, which may include gene replacement, exon skipping, nonsense suppression, or molecular correctors, because all of these modulate gene expression there is an inherent risk of activation of T cells against the wild-type version of CFTR. Here we report the validation of the human interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay and its application for the analysis of CFTR-specific T cell responses in patients with CF and in non-CF subjects. We found non-CF subjects with low levels of self-reactive CFTR-specific T cells in the United States and several patients with CF with low to high levels of self-reactive CFTR-specific T cells in both the United States and the United Kingdom. PMID:23790242

  4. Self-reactive CFTR T cells in humans: implications for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Calcedo, Roberto; Griesenbach, Uta; Dorgan, Daniel J; Soussi, Samia; Boyd, A Christopher; Davies, Jane C; Higgins, Tracy E; Hyde, Stephen C; Gill, Deborah R; Innes, J Alastair; Porteous, David J; Alton, Eric W; Wilson, James M; Limberis, Maria P

    2013-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common autosomal recessive lethal disorders affecting white populations of northern European ancestry. To date there is no cure for CF. Life-long treatments for CF are being developed and include gene therapy and the use of small-molecule drugs designed to target specific cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations. Irrespective of the type of molecular therapy for CF, which may include gene replacement, exon skipping, nonsense suppression, or molecular correctors, because all of these modulate gene expression there is an inherent risk of activation of T cells against the wild-type version of CFTR. Here we report the validation of the human interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay and its application for the analysis of CFTR-specific T cell responses in patients with CF and in non-CF subjects. We found non-CF subjects with low levels of self-reactive CFTR-specific T cells in the United States and several patients with CF with low to high levels of self-reactive CFTR-specific T cells in both the United States and the United Kingdom. PMID:23790242

  5. Adoptive chemoimmunotherapy using ex vivo activated memory T-cells and cyclophosphamide: tumor lysis syndrome of a metastatic soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gold, J E; Malamud, S C; LaRosa, F; Osband, M E

    1993-09-01

    Adoptively transferred immune cells in combination with chemotherapeutic agents form the basis for adoptive chemoimmunotherapy (ACIT) of neoplastic disease. Autolymphocytes (ALT-cells) are ex vivo activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from tumor-bearing hosts (TBH) that consist primarily of tumor-specific CD45RO+ (memory) T-cells. These ALT-cells combined with cimetidine (CIM) as autolymphocyte therapy (ALT), have previously been demonstrated to be a safe and active form of outpatient adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) in human TBH with metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC). We have previously described an effective ACIT protocol using ALT and cyclophosphamide (CY) for patients with relapsed and refractory non-RCC solid tumors. We now report a case of a patient with a metastatic gastric leiomyosarcoma to the liver, who developed a clinical picture consistent with a tumor-lysis syndrome (TLS), following salvage therapy for his tumor with ACIT using ALT and CY. TLS is a well-known complication resulting from the treatment of rapidly proliferating hematopoietic tumors such as Burkitt's lymphoma and acute lymphocytic leukemia. TLS has also been rarely described in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, as well as certain solid tumors such as breast cancer, small cell lung cancer, and medulloblastoma. However, there have been no previous reports of TLS occurring either secondary to immunotherapy or in sarcomas. The nature of these unusual findings is discussed. PMID:8342564

  6. Cinnamon ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice via regulatory T cells: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material used for centuries throughout the world. Here, we have explored a novel use of cinnamon powder in protecting Tregs and treating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder suppresses clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female PLP-TCR transgenic mice and adoptive transfer mouse model. Cinnamon also inhibited clinical symptoms of chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Dose-dependent study shows that cinnamon powder at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt/d or higher significantly suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE in mice. Accordingly, oral administration of cinnamon also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the central nervous system of EAE mice. Interestingly, cinnamon treatment upregulated Tregs via reduction of nitric oxide production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blocking of Tregs by neutralizing antibodies against CD25 abrogates cinnamon-mediated protection of EAE. Taken together, our results suggest that oral administration of cinnamon powder may be beneficial in MS patients and that no other existing anti-MS therapies could be so economical and trouble-free as this approach. PMID:25569428

  7. Cinnamon Ameliorates Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Mice via Regulatory T Cells: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material used for centuries throughout the world. Here, we have explored a novel use of cinnamon powder in protecting Tregs and treating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder suppresses clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female PLP-TCR transgenic mice and adoptive transfer mouse model. Cinnamon also inhibited clinical symptoms of chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Dose-dependent study shows that cinnamon powder at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt/d or higher significantly suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE in mice. Accordingly, oral administration of cinnamon also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the central nervous system of EAE mice. Interestingly, cinnamon treatment upregulated Tregs via reduction of nitric oxide production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blocking of Tregs by neutralizing antibodies against CD25 abrogates cinnamon-mediated protection of EAE. Taken together, our results suggest that oral administration of cinnamon powder may be beneficial in MS patients and that no other existing anti-MS therapies could be so economical and trouble-free as this approach. PMID:25569428

  8. Combination of T-cell therapy and trigger of inflammation induces remodeling of the vasculature and tumor eradication.

    PubMed

    Ganss, Ruth; Ryschich, Eduard; Klar, Ernst; Arnold, Bernd; Hämmerling, Günter J

    2002-03-01

    In a transgenic mouse model of multistep carcinogenesis, highly angiogenic insulinomas contain an irregular vascular network and develop an intrinsic resistance to leukocyte infiltration and effector function. Even persistently high levels of activated tumor-specific T lymphocytes fail to eradicate the tumors. In contrast, we show that irradiation before adoptive transfer results in complete macroscopic tumor regression. Thus, effective tumor therapy requires a proinflammatory microenvironment that permits T cells to extravasate and to destroy the tumor. Early after initiation of the irradiation/adoptive transfer therapy, the capillary network reacquires an almost normal appearance, a likely consequence of strong induction of the chemokines monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig) and IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP10). This remodeling of the vasculature in a proinflammatory environment may directly affect lymphocyte extravasation and effector function. Therefore, irradiation/adoptive transfer therapy combines antigen-driven tumor cell eradication with anti-angiogenic effects on tumor endothelium, a powerful synergy that has not been previously appreciated. PMID:11888921

  9. Predictors of Adopting Motivational Enhancement Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Richard; Roahen-Harrison, Stephanie; Toriello, Paul J.; Kissinger, Patricia; Morse, Patricia; Morse, Edward; Carney, Linton; Rice, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors have shown limited success in adopting evidence-based practices (EBPs). The purpose of this paper is to identify the barriers and facilitators of adopting an EBP called motivational enhancement therapy (MET). One hundred thirty-six predominantly female (60%) African American (68%) addiction counselors representing over…

  10. Lenalidomide Therapy for Patients With Relapsed and/or Refractory, Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-18

    Peripheral T-cell Lymphomas; Adult T-cell Leukemia; Adult T-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Unspecified; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; T/Null Cell Systemic Type; Cutaneous t-Cell Lymphoma With Nodal/Visceral Disease

  11. Effect of IL-7 Therapy on Naive and Memory T Cell Homeostasis in Aged Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Afam A; Rohankhedkar, Mukta; Konfe, Audrie L; Abana, Chike O; Reyes, Matthew D; Clock, Joseph A; Duell, Derick M; Sylwester, Andrew W; Sammader, Partha; Legasse, Alfred W; Park, Byung S; Axthelm, Michael K; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko; Picker, Louis J

    2015-11-01

    Aging is associated with gradual deterioration of adaptive immune function, a hallmark of which is the profound loss of naive T cells (TN) associated with decline in thymic output and export of new cells into the peripheral T cell pool. Because the lymphotropic cytokine IL-7 plays crucial roles in both development of TN in the thymus and TN homeostasis in the periphery, we sought to determine the extent to which therapeutic administration of IL-7 could reverse TN deficiency in aging rhesus macaques (RM), either by enhancement of the demonstrably reduced thymopoiesis or by peripheral TN expansion. Our results indicate that treatment of both adult (8-15 y) and old (>20 y) RM with recombinant simian IL-7 (rsIL-7) results in only transient increases in peripheral CD4(+) and CD8(+) TN numbers with no long-term benefit, even with repeated therapy. This transient effect was due to peripheral TN expansion and not enhanced thymic function, and appeared to be limited by induction of IL-7 nonresponsiveness. However, rsIL-7 therapy had a more promising effect on the central memory T cell (TCM) population (both CD4(+) and CD8(+)) in adult and old RM, doubling the numbers of these cells in circulation and maintaining this larger population long term. IL-7 therapy did not reduce TCR diversity of the memory T cell compartment, suggesting that rsIL-7-induced expansion was symmetrical. Thus, although rsIL-7 failed to counter age-associated TN loss, the ability of this therapy to expand clonotypically diverse CD4(+) and CD8(+) TCM populations might potentially improve adaptive immune responsiveness in the elderly. PMID:26416281

  12. Autoimmune Hepatitis: Progress from Global Immunosuppression to Personalised Regulatory T Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nwe Ni; Jeffery, Hannah C.; Oo, Ye H.

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an immune mediated liver injury. The precise aetiology of AIH is still unknown but current evidence suggests both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Breakdown in peripheral self-tolerance, and impaired functions of FOXP3+ regulatory T cell along with effector cell resistance to suppression at the tissue level seem to play an important role in AIH immunopathogenesis. AIH is predominantly a T lymphocytes driven disease but B lymphocytes are also involved in the immunopathology. Innate immune cells are crucial in the initial onset of disease and their response is followed by adaptive T (Th1, Th17, and cytotoxic T cells) and B cell responses evidenced by liver histology and peripheral blood serology. Standard treatment regimens involving steroid and immunosuppressive medications lead to global immune suppression requiring life-long therapy with many side effects. Biologic therapies have been attempted but duration of remission is short-lived. Future direction of diagnosis and treatment for AIH should be guided by “omics” and the immunology profile of the individual patient and clinicians should aim to deliver personalised medicine for their patients. Cell therapy such as infusion of autologous, antigen-specific, and liver-homing regulatory T cells to restore hepatic immune tolerance may soon be a potential future treatment for AIH patients. PMID:27446862

  13. Induction of Murine Intestinal Inflammation by Adoptive Transfer of Effector CD4+CD45RBhigh T Cells into Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Erin C.; Gipson, Gregory R.; Sheikh, Shehzad Z.

    2015-01-01

    There are many different animal models available for studying the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), each with its own advantages and disadvantages. We describe here an experimental colitis model that is initiated by adoptive transfer of syngeneic splenic CD4+CD45RBhigh T cells into T and B cell deficient recipient mice. The CD4+CD45RBhigh T cell population that largely consists of naïve effector cells is capable of inducing chronic intestinal inflammation, closely resembling key aspects of human IBD. This method can be manipulated to study aspects of disease onset and progression. Additionally it can be used to study the function of innate, adaptive, and regulatory immune cell populations, and the role of environmental exposures, i.e., the microbiota, in intestinal inflammation. In this article we illustrate the methodology for inducing colitis with a step-by-step protocol. This includes a video demonstration of key technical aspects required to successfully develop this murine model of experimental colitis for research purposes. PMID:25938395

  14. MELOE-1 is a new antigen overexpressed in melanomas and involved in adoptive T cell transfer efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Godet, Yann; Moreau-Aubry, Agnès; Guilloux, Yannik; Vignard, Virginie; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Jotereau, Francine; Labarriere, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone was derived from a tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) population infused to a melanoma patient who remained relapse free for 10 yr after this adoptive transfer. This clone recognized all melanoma cell lines tested and, to a lower extent, melanocytes, in the context of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen A2 (HLA-A2), but it did not recognize other tumor cell types. The gene coding for the antigen recognized by this clone was identified by the screening of a melanoma complementary DNA expression library. This antigen is overexpressed in melanomas, compared with other cancer cell lines and healthy tissues, and was thus called melanoma-overexpressed antigen (meloe). Remarkably, the structure of meloe was unusual, with multiple short open reading frames (ORFs). The peptide recognized by the CTL clone was encoded by one of these ORFs, called MELOE-1. Using a specific HLA-A2/peptide tetramer, we showed a correlation between the infusion of TILs containing MELOE-1–specific T cells and relapse prevention in HLA-A2 patients. Indeed, 5 out of 9 patients who did not relapse were infused with TILs that contained MELOE-1–specific T cells, whereas 0 out of the 21 patients who relapsed was infused with such TIL-containing lymphocytes. Overall, our results suggest that this new antigen is involved in immunosurveillance and, thus, represents an attractive target for immunotherapy protocols of melanoma. PMID:18936238

  15. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents. PMID:26645775

  16. Expanding Roles for CD4 T Cells and Their Subpopulations in Tumor Immunity and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dobrzanski, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of CD4 T cells in orchestrating the immune system and their role in inducing effective T cell-mediated therapies for the treatment of patients with select established malignancies are undisputable. Through a complex and balanced array of direct and indirect mechanisms of cellular activation and regulation, this functionally diverse family of lymphocytes can potentially promote tumor eradication, long-term tumor immunity, and aid in establishing and/or rebalancing immune cell homeostasis through interaction with other immune cell populations within the highly dynamic tumor environment. However, recent studies have uncovered additional functions and roles for CD4 T cells, some of which are independent of other lymphocytes, that can not only influence and contribute to tumor immunity but paradoxically promote tumor growth and progression. Here, we review the recent advances in our understanding of the various CD4 T cell lineages and their signature cytokines in disease progression and/or regression. We discuss their direct and indirect mechanistic interplay among themselves and with other responding cells of the antitumor response, their potential roles and abilities for “plasticity” and memory cell generation within the hostile tumor environment, and their potentials in cancer treatment and immunotherapy. PMID:23533029

  17. Therapeutic regulatory T-cell adoptive transfer ameliorates established murine chronic GVHD in a CXCR5-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    McDonald-Hyman, Cameron; Flynn, Ryan; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Peterson, Nicholas; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Hill, Geoffrey R; Luznik, Leo; Serody, Jonathan S; Murphy, William J; Maillard, Ivan; Munn, David H; Turka, Laurence A; Koreth, John; Cutler, Corey S; Soiffer, Robert J; Antin, Joseph H; Ritz, Jerome; Blazar, Bruce R

    2016-08-18

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In cGVHD, alloreactive T cells and germinal center (GC) B cells often participate in GC reactions to produce pathogenic antibodies. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) can inhibit GC reactions, Treg numbers are reduced in cGVHD, contributing to cGVHD pathogenesis. Here, we explored 2 means to increase Tregs in cGVHD: interleukin-2/monoclonal antibody (IL-2/mAb) complexes and donor Treg infusions. IL-2/mAb complexes given over 1 month were efficacious in expanding Tregs and treating established cGVHD in a multi-organ-system disease mouse model characterized by GC reactions, antibody deposition, and lung dysfunction. In an acute GVHD (aGVHD) model, IL-2/mAb complexes given for only 4 days resulted in rapid mortality, indicating IL-2/mAb complexes can drive conventional T-cell (Tcon)-mediated injury. In contrast, Treg infusions, which uniformly suppress aGVHD, increased Treg frequency and were effective in preventing the onset of, and treating, established cGVHD. Efficacy was dependent upon CXCR5-sufficient Tregs homing to, and inhibiting, GC reactions. These studies indicate that the infusion of Tregs, especially ones enriched for GC homing, may be desirable for cGVHD therapy. Although IL-2/mAb complexes can be efficacious in cGVHD, a cautious approach needs to be taken in settings in which aGVHD elements, and associated Tcon, are present. PMID:27385791

  18. T cell engineering as therapy for cancer and HIV: our synthetic future.

    PubMed

    June, Carl H; Levine, Bruce L

    2015-10-19

    It is now well established that the immune system can control and eliminate cancer cells. Adoptive T cell transfer has the potential to overcome the significant limitations associated with vaccine-based strategies in patients who are often immune compromised. Application of the emerging discipline of synthetic biology to cancer, which combines elements of genetic engineering and molecular biology to create new biological structures with enhanced functionalities, is the subject of this overview. Various chimeric antigen receptor designs, manufacturing processes and study populations, among other variables, have been tested and reported in recent clinical trials. Many questions remain in the field of engineered T cells, but the encouraging response rates pave a wide road for future investigation into fields as diverse as cancer and chronic infections. PMID:26416683

  19. Comparison of Regulatory T Cells in Hemodialysis Patients and Healthy Controls: Implications for Cell Therapy in Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Afzali, Behdad; Edozie, Francis C.; Fazekasova, Henrieta; Scottà, Cristiano; Mitchell, Peter J.; Canavan, James B.; Kordasti, Shahram Y.; Chana, Prabhjoat S.; Ellis, Richard; Lord, Graham M.; John, Susan; Hilton, Rachel; Lechler, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Cell-based therapy with natural (CD4+CD25hiCD127lo) regulatory T cells to induce transplant tolerance is now technically feasible. However, regulatory T cells from hemodialysis patients awaiting transplantation may be functionally/numerically defective. Human regulatory T cells are also heterogeneous, and some are able to convert to proinflammatory Th17 cells. This study addresses the suitability of regulatory T cells from hemodialysis patients for cell-based therapy in preparation for the first clinical trials in renal transplant recipients (the ONE Study). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Healthy controls and age- and sex-matched hemodialysis patients without recent illness/autoimmune disease on established, complication-free hemodialysis for a minimum of 6 months were recruited. Circulating regulatory T cells were studied by flow cytometry to compare the regulatory T cell subpopulations. Regulatory T cells from members of each group were compared for suppressive function and plasticity (IL-17–producing capacity) before and after in vitro expansion with and without Rapamycin, using standard assays. Results Both groups had similar total regulatory T cells and subpopulations I and III. In each subpopulation, regulatory T cells expressed similar levels of the function-associated markers CD27, CD39, HLA-DR, and FOXP3. Hemodialysis regulatory T cells were less suppressive, expanded poorly compared with healthy control regulatory T cells, and produced IL-17 in the absence of Rapamycin. However, Rapamycin efficiently expanded hemodialysis regulatory T cells to a functional and stable cell product. Conclusions Rapamycin-based expansion protocols should enable clinical trials of cell-based immunotherapy for the induction of tolerance to renal allografts using hemodialysis regulatory T cells. PMID:23580782

  20. Full-breadth analysis of CD8+ T-cell responses in acute hepatitis C virus infection and early therapy.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Georg M; Lucas, Michaela; Timm, Joerg; Ouchi, Kei; Kim, Arthur Y; Day, Cheryl L; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia; Sheridan, Isabelle; Casson, Deborah R; Reiser, Markus; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Li, Bin; Allen, Todd M; Chung, Raymond T; Klenerman, Paul; Walker, Bruce D

    2005-10-01

    Multispecific CD8(+) T-cell responses are thought to be important for the control of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but to date little information is actually available on the breadth of responses at early time points. Additionally, the influence of early therapy on these responses and their relationships to outcome are controversial. To investigate this issue, we performed comprehensive analysis of the breadth and frequencies of virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses on the single epitope level in eight acutely infected individuals who were all started on early therapy. During the acute phase, responses against up to five peptides were identified. During therapy, CD8(+) T-cell responses decreased rather than increased as virus was controlled, and no new specificities emerged. A sustained virological response following completion of treatment was independent of CD8(+) T-cell responses, as well as CD4(+) T-cell responses. Rapid recrudescence also occurred despite broad CD8(+) T-cell responses. Importantly, in vivo suppression of CD3(+) T cells using OKT3 in one subject did not result in recurrence of viremia. These data suggest that broad CD8(+) T-cell responses alone may be insufficient to contain HCV replication, and also that early therapy is effective independent of such responses. PMID:16189000

  1. Phase 1 studies of central memory-derived CD19 CAR T-cell therapy following autologous HSCT in patients with B-cell NHL.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuli; Popplewell, Leslie L; Wagner, Jamie R; Naranjo, Araceli; Blanchard, M Suzette; Mott, Michelle R; Norris, Adam P; Wong, ChingLam W; Urak, Ryan Z; Chang, Wen-Chung; Khaled, Samer K; Siddiqi, Tanya; Budde, Lihua E; Xu, Jingying; Chang, Brenda; Gidwaney, Nikita; Thomas, Sandra H; Cooper, Laurence J N; Riddell, Stanley R; Brown, Christine E; Jensen, Michael C; Forman, Stephen J

    2016-06-16

    Myeloablative autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a mainstay of therapy for relapsed intermediate-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); however, relapse rates are high. In phase 1 studies designed to improve long-term remission rates, we administered adoptive T-cell immunotherapy after HSCT, using ex vivo-expanded autologous central memory-enriched T cells (TCM) transduced with lentivirus expressing CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). We present results from 2 safety/feasibility studies, NHL1 and NHL2, investigating different T-cell populations and CAR constructs. Engineered TCM-derived CD19 CAR T cells were infused 2 days after HSCT at doses of 25 to 200 × 10(6) in a single infusion. In NHL1, 8 patients safely received T-cell products engineered from enriched CD8(+) TCM subsets, expressing a first-generation CD19 CAR containing only the CD3ζ endodomain (CD19R:ζ). Four of 8 patients (50%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16-84%) were progression free at both 1 and 2 years. In NHL2, 8 patients safely received T-cell products engineered from enriched CD4(+) and CD8(+) TCM subsets and expressing a second-generation CD19 CAR containing the CD28 and CD3ζ endodomains (CD19R:28ζ). Six of 8 patients (75%; 95% CI: 35-97%) were progression free at 1 year. The CD4(+)/CD8(+) TCM-derived CD19 CAR T cells (NHL2) exhibited improvement in expansion; however, persistence was ≤28 days, similar to that seen by others using CD28 CARs. Neither cytokine release syndrome nor delayed hematopoietic engraftment was observed in either trial. These data demonstrate the safety and feasibility of CD19 CAR TCM therapy after HSCT. Trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01318317 and #NCT01815749. PMID:27118452

  2. Chemokine-mediated redirection of T cells constitutes a critical mechanism of glucocorticoid therapy in autoimmune CNS responses

    PubMed Central

    Schweingruber, Nils; Fischer, Henrike J.; Fischer, Lisa; van den Brandt, Jens; Karabinskaya, Anna; Labi, Verena; Villunger, Andreas; Kretzschmar, Benedikt; Huppke, Peter; Simons, Mikael; Tuckermann, Jan P.; Flügel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the standard therapy for treating multiple sclerosis (MS) patients suffering from an acute relapse. One of the main mechanisms of gC action is held to be the induction of T cell apoptosis leading to reduced lymphocyte infiltration into the CNS, yet our analysis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in three different strains of genetically manipulated mice has revealed that the induction of T cell apoptosis is not essential for the therapeutic efficacy of GCs. Instead, we identified the redirection of T cell migration in response to chemokines as a new therapeutic principle of GC action. GCs inhibited the migration of T cells towards CCL19 while they enhanced their responsiveness towards CXCL12. Importantly, blocking CXCR4 signaling in vivo by applying Plerixafor® strongly impaired the capacity of GCs to interfere with EAE, as revealed by an aggravated disease course, more pronounced CNS infiltration and a more dispersed distribution of the infiltrating T cells throughout the parenchyma. Our observation that T cells lacking the GC receptor were refractory to CXCL12 further underscores the importance of this pathway for the treatment of EAE by GCs. Importantly, methylprednisolone pulse therapy strongly increased the capacity of peripheral blood T cells from MS patients of different subtypes to migrate towards CXCL12. This indicates that modulation of T cell migration is an important mechanistic principle responsible for the efficacy of high-dose GC therapy not only of EAE but also of MS. PMID:24488308

  3. Association of γδ T Cell Compartment Size to Disease Activity and Response to Therapy in SLE

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongshuang; Yuan, Yi; Zhao, Ling; Ye, Zhuang; Xu, Jiandong; Li, Man; Jiang, Zhenyu; Jiang, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although γδT cells are widely recognized as pivotal elements in immune-mediated diseases, their role in the pathogenesis of SLE and therapeutic outcome remains under explored. The current study aims to characterize the γδT cell compartment in SLE and correlate its status to disease severity and response to therapy. Methods Human peripheral blood-derived γδ T cells were isolated from 14 healthy volunteers and 22 SLE patients (before and after 4 and 12 weeks following the onset of glucocorticoids (GC), mycophenolatemofetil (MMF) orhydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment). The γδ T cells were characterized using flow cytometry. In addition, serum concentration of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17A was determined by cytometric bead array (CBA). Results The SLEDAI scores dropped significantly following therapy in a subset of patients (responders–R) but not in some (non- responders–NR). Peripheral blood γδ T cells in general, and γ9+δ T cells and TNF-α/IL-17-secreting CD4-CD8-γδ T cell subsets in particular, were decreased in SLE compared to healthy controls. The numbers of the γδ T cell subsets reached levels similar to those of healthy controls following therapy in R but not in NR. Serum IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17 but not IFN-γ and TNF-α were significantly increased in SLE compared to the healthy controls and exhibited differential changes following therapy. In addition, inverse correlation was observed between SLEDAI scores and γδ T cell compartments, especially with TNF-α+γδT cells, TNF-α+γ9+δT cells and IL17+CD4-CD8-γδT cells subsets. Differential correlation patterns were also observed between serum cytokine levels and various γδ T cell compartments. Conclusions A strong association exists between γδ T cell compartments and SLE pathogenesis, disease severity and response to therapy. PMID:27333282

  4. [Novel therapy for malignant lymphoma: adoptive immuno-gene therapy using chimeric antigen receptor(CAR)-expressing T lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Keiya

    2014-03-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology is a novel approach to cancer immuno-gene therapy. CARs are hybrid proteins consisting of target-antigen-specific single-chain antibody fragment fused to intracellular T-cell activation domains (CD28 or CD137/CD3 zeta receptor). CAR-expressing engineered T lymphocytes can directly recognize and kill tumor cells in an HLA independent manner. In the United States, promising results have been obtained in the clinical trials of adoptive immuno-gene therapy using CD19-CAR-T lymphocytes for the treatment of refractory B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this review article, CD19-CAR-T gene therapy for refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma is discussed. PMID:24724418

  5. The human application of gene therapy to re-program T-cell specificity using chimeric antigen receptors

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Alan D; Moyes, Judy S; Cooper, Laurence JN

    2014-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of T cells is a promising approach to treat cancers. Primary human T cells can be modified using viral and non-viral vectors to promote the specific targeting of cancer cells via the introduction of exogenous T-cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). This gene transfer displays the potential to increase the specificity and potency of the anticancer response while decreasing the systemic adverse effects that arise from conventional treatments that target both cancerous and healthy cells. This review highlights the generation of clinical-grade T cells expressing CARs for immunotherapy, the use of these cells to target B-cell malignancies and, particularly, the first clinical trials deploying the Sleeping Beauty gene transfer system, which engineers T cells to target CD19+ leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:25189715

  6. Adoptive cell therapy: a highly successful individualized therapy for melanoma with great potential for other malignancies.

    PubMed

    Verdegaal, Els M E

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) by infusion of autologous or redirected tumor-specific T-cells has had a major impact on the treatment of several metastasized malignancies that were until now hardly treatable. Recent findings provide a more profound knowledge on the underlying mechanisms of success and allow the optimization of the ACT protocol with respect to (1) the treatment related side-effects, (2) the quality and specificity of infused T-cells, and (3) the immunosuppressive phenotype of the tumor environment. In this review, the results and insights in the success of ACT as well as the possibilities to improve ACT and its exploitation as treatment option for various metastatic cancer types, will be discussed. PMID:26829458

  7. T Cell Receptor Engagement Triggers Its CD3ε and CD3ζ Subunits to Adopt a Compact, Locked Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Risueño, Ruth M.; Schamel, Wolfgang W. A.; Alarcón, Balbino

    2008-01-01

    How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) discriminates between molecularly related peptide/Major Histocompatibility Complex (pMHC) ligands and converts this information into different possible signaling outcomes is still not understood. One current model proposes that strong pMHC ligands, but not weak ones, induce a conformational change in the TCR. Evidence supporting this comes from a pull-down assay that detects ligand-induced binding of the TCR to the N-terminal SH3 domain of the adapter protein Nck, and also from studies with a neoepitope-specific antibody. Both methods rely on the exposure of a polyproline sequence in the CD3ε subunit of the TCR, and neither indicates whether the conformational change is transmitted to other CD3 subunits. Using a protease-sensitivity assay, we now show that the cytoplasmic tails of CD3ε and CD3ζ subunits become fully protected from degradation upon TCR triggering. These results suggest that the TCR conformational change is transmitted to the tails of CD3ε and CD3ζ, and perhaps all CD3 subunits. Furthermore, the resistance to protease digestion suggests that CD3 cytoplasmic tails adopt a compact structure in the triggered TCR. These results are consistent with a model in which transduction of the conformational change induced upon TCR triggering promotes condensation and shielding of the CD3 cytoplasmic tails. PMID:18320063

  8. Memory T cells specific for murine cytomegalovirus re-emerge after multiple challenges and recapitulate immunity in various adoptive transfer scenarios.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael; Turula, Holly; Tandon, Mayank; Deslouches, Berthony; Moghbeli, Toktam; Snyder, Christopher M

    2015-02-15

    Reconstitution of CMV-specific immunity after transplant remains a primary clinical objective to prevent CMV disease, and adoptive immunotherapy of CMV-specific T cells can be an effective therapeutic approach. Because of viral persistence, most CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells become terminally differentiated effector phenotype CD8(+) T cells (TEFF). A minor subset retains a memory-like phenotype (memory phenotype CD8(+) T cells [TM]), but it is unknown whether these cells retain memory function or persist over time. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells with different phenotypes have different abilities to reconstitute sustained immunity after transfer. The immunology of human CMV infections is reflected in the murine CMV (MCMV) model. We found that human CMV- and MCMV-specific T cells displayed shared genetic programs, validating the MCMV model for studies of CMV-specific T cells in vivo. The MCMV-specific TM population was stable over time and retained a proliferative capacity that was vastly superior to TEFF. Strikingly, after transfer, TM established sustained and diverse T cell populations even after multiple challenges. Although both TEFF and TM could protect Rag(-/-) mice, only TM persisted after transfer into immune replete, latently infected recipients and responded if recipient immunity was lost. Interestingly, transferred TM did not expand until recipient immunity was lost, supporting that competition limits the Ag stimulation of TM. Ultimately, these data show that CMV-specific TM retain memory function during MCMV infection and can re-establish CMV immunity when necessary. Thus, TM may be a critical component for consistent, long-term adoptive immunotherapy success. PMID:25595792

  9. The effect of extracorporeal photopheresis alone or in combination therapy on circulating CD4+Foxp3+CD25- T-cells in patients with leukemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Shiue, Lisa H.; Couturier, Jacob; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Wei, Caimiao; Ni, Xiao; Duvic, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) alone or in combination therapy is effective for treatment of leukemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (L-CTCL), but its mechanism(s) of action remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effect of ECP on regulatory T-cell and CD8+ T-cells in L-CTCL patients. Experimental Design Peripheral blood from 18 L-CTCL patients at baseline, Day 2, 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month post-ECP therapy were analyzed by flow cytometry for CD4+CD25+/high, CD4+Foxp3+CD25+/-, CD3+CD8+, CD3+CD8+CD69+, and CD3+CD8+IFN-γ+ T-cells. Clinical responses were assessed and correlated with changes in these T-cell subsets. Results Twelve of 18 patients achieved clinical responses. The average baseline number of CD4+CD25+/high T-cells of PBMCs in L-CTCL patients was normal (2.2%), but increased at 6-month post-therapy (4.3%, p<0.01). The average baseline number of CD4+Foxp3+ T-cells out of CD4+ T-cells in 9 evaluable patients was high (66.8±13.7%), mostly CD25 negative. The levels of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells in responders were higher (n=6, 93.1±5.7%) than non-responders (n=3, 14.2±16.0%, p<0.01), and they declined in parallel with malignant T-cells. The numbers of CD3+CD8+CD69+ and CD3+CD8+ IFN-γ+ T-cells increased at 3-month post-therapy in 5 of 6 patients studied. Conclusions ECP alone or in combination therapy might be effective in L-CTCL patients whose malignant T-cells have a CD4+Foxp3+CD25- phenotype. PMID:25772268

  10. Type 1 regulatory T cells specific for collagen type II as an efficient cell-based therapy in arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a crucial role in preventing autoimmune diseases and are an ideal target for the development of therapies designed to suppress inflammation in an antigen-specific manner. Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells are defined by their capacity to produce high levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10), which contributes to their ability to suppress pathological immune responses in several settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of collagen type II–specific Tr1 (Col-Treg) cells in two models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in mice. Methods Col-Treg clones were isolated and expanded from collagen-specific TCR transgenic mice. Their cytokine secretion profile and phenotype characterization were studied. The therapeutic potential of Col-Treg cells was evaluated after adoptive transfer in collagen-antibody– and collagen-induced arthritis models. The in vivo suppressive mechanism of Col-Treg clones on effector T-cell proliferation was also investigated. Results Col-Treg clones are characterized by their specific cytokine profile (IL-10highIL-4negIFN-γint) and mediate contact-independent immune suppression. They also share with natural Tregs high expression of GITR, CD39 and granzyme B. A single infusion of Col-Treg cells reduced the incidence and clinical symptoms of arthritis in both preventive and curative settings, with a significant impact on collagen type II antibodies. Importantly, injection of antigen-specific Tr1 cells decreased the proliferation of antigen-specific effector T cells in vivo significantly. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of Col-Treg cells in two models of RA, providing evidence that Col-Treg could be an efficient cell-based therapy for RA patients whose disease is refractory to current treatments. PMID:24886976

  11. Mechanisms of immunological eradication of a syngeneic guinea pig tumor. II. Effect of methotrexate treatment and T cell depletion of the recipient on adoptive immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, S.; Fonseca, L.S.; Hunter, J.T.; Rapp, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of methotrexate on the development of immunity to the line 10 hepatoma was studied in guinea pigs. Chronic methotrexate treatment had no apparent effect on the ability of immune guinea pigs to suppress the growth of inoculated tumor cells. In contrast, the same methotrexate regimen inhibited the development of tumor immunity if started before the 8th day after immunization with a vaccine containing viable line 10 cells admixed with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) cell walls. Thus, methotrexate selectively inhibited the afferent limb of the immune response. In adoptive transfer experiments, methotrexate-treated recipient guinea pigs were capable of being passively sensitized with immune spleen cells, indicating that the primary cell-mediated immune response of the recipient was not required for adoptive immunity. The contribution of recipient T cells in adoptive immunity was further investigated in guinea pigs deleted of T cells by thymectomy, irradiation, and bone marrow reconstitution. Despite demonstrable deficiency in T lymphocyte reactions, B animals were fully capable of rejecting tumors after transfer of immune cells. These results suggest that the expression of adoptive immunity was independent of recipient T cell participation. In addition, sublethal irradiation of immune spleen cells prior to adoptive transfer abolished their efficacy. Proliferation of transferred immune cells in the recipient may be essential for expression of adoptive immunity.

  12. Adoptive cellular therapy of cancer: exploring innate and adaptive cellular crosstalk to improve anti-tumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Payne, Kyle K; Bear, Harry D; Manjili, Masoud H

    2014-08-01

    The mammalian immune system has evolved to produce multi-tiered responses consisting of both innate and adaptive immune cells collaborating to elicit a functional response to a pathogen or neoplasm. Immune cells possess a shared ancestry, suggestive of a degree of coevolution that has resulted in optimal functionality as an orchestrated and highly collaborative unit. Therefore, the development of therapeutic modalities that harness the immune system should consider the crosstalk between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems in order to elicit the most effective response. In this review, the authors will discuss the success achieved using adoptive cellular therapy in the treatment of cancer, recent trends that focus on purified T cells, T cells with genetically modified T-cell receptors and T cells modified to express chimeric antigen receptors, as well as the use of unfractionated immune cell reprogramming to achieve optimal cellular crosstalk upon infusion for adoptive cellular therapy. PMID:25303057

  13. Combination immunotherapy using adoptive T-cell transfer and tumor antigen vaccination on the basis of hTERT and survivin after ASCT for myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Aqui, Nicole A.; Stadtmauer, Edward A.; Vogl, Dan T.; Fang, Hong-Bin; Cai, Ling; Janofsky, Stephen; Chew, Anne; Storek, Jan; Akpek, Gorgun; Badros, Ashraf; Yanovich, Saul; Tan, Ming T.; Veloso, Elizabeth; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Cross, Alan; Philip, Sunita; Murphy, Heather; Bhagat, Rita; Zheng, Zhaohui; Milliron, Todd; Cotte, Julio; Cannon, Andrea; Levine, Bruce L.; Vonderheide, Robert H.; June, Carl H.

    2011-01-01

    In a phase 1/2 two-arm trial, 54 patients with myeloma received autografts followed by ex vivo anti-CD3/anti-CD28 costimulated autologous T cells at day 2 after transplantation. Study patients positive for human leukocyte antigen A2 (arm A, n = 28) also received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunizations before and after transplantation and a multipeptide tumor antigen vaccine derived from the human telomerase reverse transcriptase and the antiapoptotic protein survivin. Patients negative for human leukocyte antigen A2 (arm B, n = 26) received the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine only. Patients exhibited robust T-cell recoveries by day 14 with supraphysiologic T-cell counts accompanied by a sustained reduction in regulatory T cells. The median event-free survival (EFS) for all patients is 20 months (95% confidence interval, 14.6-24.7 months); the projected 3-year overall survival is 83%. A subset of patients in arm A (36%) developed immune responses to the tumor antigen vaccine by tetramer assays, but this cohort did not exhibit better EFS. Higher posttransplantation CD4+ T-cell counts and a lower percentage of FOXP3+ T cells were associated with improved EFS. Patients exhibited accelerated polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery compared with patients without T-cell transfers. Adoptive transfer of tumor antigen vaccine-primed and costimulated T cells leads to augmented and accelerated cellular and humoral immune reconstitution, including antitumor immunity, after autologous stem cell transplantation for myeloma. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00499577. PMID:21030558

  14. Adoptive transfer of allergen-specific CD4+ T cells induces airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in brown-Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Haczku, A; Macary, P; Huang, T J; Tsukagoshi, H; Barnes, P J; Kay, A B; Kemeny, D M; Chung, K F; Moqbel, R

    1997-06-01

    Following allergen exposure, sensitized Brown-Norway rats develop airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophilic inflammation together with an increase in activated T cells (CD25+) in the airways. We tested the hypothesis that CD4+ T cells are involved directly in the acquisition of AHR. Spleen T cells from animals that were injected intraperitoneally on three consecutive days with ovalbumin/Al(OH)3, showed a dose-dependent proliferative response in vitro to ovalbumin, but not to bovine serum albumin, as measured by [3H]thymidine uptake. For total T-cell transfer, spleen cells obtained from donor rats 4 days after sensitization were depleted of adherent cells by a nylon wool column separation. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were purified by immunomagnetic beads cell separation. Recipient naive rats were injected intravenously with 50 x 10(6) total T cells, 20 x 10(6) and 5 x 10(6) CD4+ cells, and 5 x 10(6) CD8+ cells, and were exposed to ovalbumin aerosol 24 hr afterwards. After a further 24 hr, airway responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) was measured and provocative concentration (PC) values PC100, PC200 and PC300) (the ACh concentration needed to achieve 100, 200 and 300% increase in lung resistance above baseline) were calculated. Airway responsiveness was significantly increased in recipients of sensitized total T cells compared with recipients of cells from saline-injected donor rats (P < 0.05). There were significantly increased eosinophil major basic protein (MBP)+ cell counts/mm2 in airway submucosal tissue in the hyperreactive rats and a significant correlation was found between the number of MBP+ cells and PC100 (r = 0.75; P < 0.03) in recipients of sensitized total T cells. Purified CD4+ T cells from sensitized donors induced AHR in naive recipients (P < 0.05), while sensitized CD8+ and naive CD4+ cells failed to do so. Our data indicate that T cells may induce AHR through an eosinophilic airway inflammation and that CD4+ T cells may have a direct effect in

  15. Decreased HPV-specific T cell responses and accumulation of immunosuppressive influences in oropharyngeal cancer patients following radical therapy.

    PubMed

    Al-Taei, Saly; Banner, Russell; Powell, Ned; Evans, Mererid; Palaniappan, Nachi; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Man, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a type of squamous cell head and neck cancer that is often associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, suggesting the potential for immunotherapeutic targeting of HPV antigens. This study aimed to determine the effect of radical therapy on HPV-specific T cells and other immune parameters in 20 OPC patients, as a prelude to future immunotherapy studies. HPV DNA could be detected in 9/12 available tissue samples (8/9 HPV(+) samples were also p16(+)). HPV-specific T cell responses against HPV16 E6 and E7 peptides were detected by enzyme-linked immunoSPOT in 10/13 and 8/13 evaluable patients, respectively, but did not appear to correlate with HPV status. Post-treatment, both HPV E6 and E7 T cell responses were decreased (4/13 and 2/13 patients, respectively). These reductions in T cell response could not be explained by a concurrent decrease in memory T cells whose absolute numbers were relatively unaffected by radical therapy (27,975 vs. 25,661/10(5) PBMC) despite a significant decrease in overall lymphocyte counts (1.74 vs. 0.69 × 10(9)/L). Instead, there were significant increases in regulatory T cells (3.7 vs. 6.8 %) and a population of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (CD14(-)HLA-DR(-)CD15(hi), 12.38 vs. 21.92 %). This suggests that immunosuppression may contribute to the reduction in HPV-specific T cell responses post-treatment, although study of larger patient cohorts will be required to test whether this affects clinical outcome. Overall these findings suggest that HPV-targeted immunotherapy in post-therapy OPC patients will require multiple strategies to boost T cell immunity and to overcome the influence of immunosuppressive cells. PMID:24146146

  16. Type 1 Diabetes Therapy Beyond T Cell Targeting: Monocytes, B Cells, and Innate Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wong, F. Susan; Wen, Li

    2012-01-01

    Recent clinical trials, investigating type 1 diabetes (T1D), have focused mainly on newly diagnosed individuals who have developed diabetes. We need to continue our efforts to understand disease processes and to rationally design interventions that will be safe and specific for disease, but at the same time not induce undesirable immunosuppression. T cells are clearly involved in the pathogenesis of T1D, and have been a major focus for both antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific therapy, but thus far no single strategy has emerged as superior. As T1D is a multifactorial disease, in which multiple cell types are involved, some of these pathogenic and regulatory cell pathways may be important to consider. In this review, we examine evidence for whether monocytes, B cells, and innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells, may be suitable targets for intervention. PMID:23804267

  17. The in vitro generation of multi-tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell clones: Candidates for leukemia adoptive immunotherapy following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Yehia S; Bashawri, Layla A; Vatte, Chittibabu; Abu-Rish, Eman Y; Cyrus, Cyril; Khalaf, Wafaa S; Browning, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy is a promising approach to manage and maintain relapse-free survival of leukemia patients, especially following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Post-transplant adoptive immunotherapy using cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) of the donor origin provide graft-versus-tumor effects, with or without graft-versus-host disease. Myeloid leukemias express immunogenic leukemia associated antigens (LAAs); such as WT-1, PRAME, MAGE, h-TERT and others, most of them are able to induce specific T cell responses whenever associated with the proper co-stimulation. We investigated the ability of a LAA-expressing hybridoma cell line to induce CTL clones in PBMCs of HLA-matched healthy donors in vitro. The CTL clones were induced by repetitive co-culture with LAAs-expressing, HLA-A*0201(+) hybrid cell line, generated by fusion of leukemia blasts to human immortalized APC (EBV-sensitized B-lymphoblastoid cell line; HMy2). The induced cytotoxic T cell clones were phenotypically and functionally characterized by pentamer analysis, IFN-γ release ELISPOT and cellular cytotoxicity assays. All T cell lines showed robust peptide recognition and functional activity when sensitized with HLA-A*0201-restricted WT-1235-243, hTERT615-624 or PRAME100-108 peptides-pulsed T2 cells, in addition to partially HLA-matched leukemia blasts. This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing multi-tumor antigen-specific T cell lines in allogeneic PBMCs in vitro, using LAA-expressing tumor/HMy2 hybrid cell line model, for potential use in leukemia adoptive immunotherapy in partially matched donor-recipient setting. PMID:27490939

  18. A novel multimeric form of FasL modulates the ability of diabetogenic T cells to mediate type 1 diabetes in an adoptive transfer model

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Deanna D.H.; Yolcu, Esma S.; Alard, Pascale; Kosiewicz, Michele M.; Shirwan, Haval

    2007-01-01

    Activation induced cell death (AICD) via Fas/FasL is the primary homeostatic molecular mechanism employed by the immune system to control activated T-cell responses and promote tolerance to self-antigens. We herein investigated the ability of a novel multimeric form of FasL chimeric with streptavidin (SA-FasL) having potent apoptotic activity to induce apoptosis in diabetogenic T cells and modulate insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes (IDDM) in an adoptive transfer model. Diabetogenic splenocytes from NOD/Lt females were co-cultured in vitro with SA-FasL, SA control protein, or alone without protein, and adoptively transferred into NOD/Lt-Rag1null recipients for diabetes development. All animals receiving control (Alone: n=16 or SA: n=17) cells developed diabetes on average by 6 weeks, whereas animals receiving SA-FasL-treated (n = 25) cells exhibited significantly delayed progression (p<.001) and decreased incidence (70%). This effect was associated with an increase in CD4+CD25+ T cells and correlated with FoxP3 expression in pancreatic lymph nodes. Extracorporeal treatment of peripheral blood lymphocytes using SA-FasL during disease onset represents a novel approach that may alter the ability of pathogenic T cells to mediate diabetes and have therapeutic utility in clinical management of IDDM. PMID:17324464

  19. Graft Versus Leukemia Response Without Graft-versus-host Disease Elicited By Adoptively Transferred Multivirus-specific T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Melenhorst, Jan J; Castillo, Paul; Hanley, Patrick J; Keller, Michael D; Krance, Robert A; Margolin, Judith; Leen, Ann M; Heslop, Helen E; Barrett, A John; Rooney, Cliona M; Bollard, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia received a haploidentical transplant from his mother. As prophylaxis for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and adenovirus, he received ex vivo expanded virus-specific donor T cells 3.5 months after transplant. Four weeks later leukemic blasts bearing the E2A deletion, identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), appeared transiently in the blood followed by a FISH-negative hematological remission, which was sustained until a testicular relapse 3.5 months later. Clearance of the circulating leukemic cells coincided with a marked increase in circulating virus-specific T cells. The virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) line showed strong polyfunctional reactivity with the patient's leukemic cells but not phytohemagglutinin (PHA) blasts, suggesting that virus-specific CTL lines may have clinically significant antileukemia activity. PMID:25266309

  20. T Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... or turn off the immune response. Cytotoxic or “killer” T cells directly attack and destroy cells bearing ... involve selective activation of helper T cells and killer T cells, with a corresponding decrease in regulatory ...

  1. Influence of Short-Term Glucocorticoid Therapy on Regulatory T Cells In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sbiera, Silviu; Dexneit, Thomas; Reichardt, Sybille D.; Michel, Kai D.; van den Brandt, Jens; Schmull, Sebastian; Kraus, Luitgard; Beyer, Melanie; Mlynski, Robert; Wortmann, Sebastian; Allolio, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Background Pre- and early clinical studies on patients with autoimmune diseases suggested that induction of regulatory T(Treg) cells may contribute to the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids(GCs). Objective We readdressed the influence of GC therapy on Treg cells in immunocompetent human subjects and naïve mice. Methods Mice were treated with increasing doses of intravenous dexamethasone followed by oral taper, and Treg cells in spleen and blood were analyzed by FACS. Sixteen patients with sudden hearing loss but without an inflammatory disease received high-dose intravenous prednisolone followed by stepwise dose reduction to low oral prednisolone. Peripheral blood Treg cells were analyzed prior and after a 14 day GC therapy based on different markers. Results Repeated GC administration to mice for three days dose-dependently decreased the absolute numbers of Treg cells in blood (100 mg dexamethasone/kg body weight: 2.8±1.8×104 cells/ml vs. 33±11×104 in control mice) and spleen (dexamethasone: 2.8±1.9×105/spleen vs. 95±22×105/spleen in control mice), which slowly recovered after 14 days taper in spleen but not in blood. The relative frequency of FOXP3+ Treg cells amongst the CD4+ T cells also decreased in a dose dependent manner with the effect being more pronounced in blood than in spleen. The suppressive capacity of Treg cells was unaltered by GC treatment in vitro. In immunocompetent humans, GCs induced mild T cell lymphocytosis. However, it did not change the relative frequency of circulating Treg cells in a relevant manner, although there was some variation depending on the definition of the Treg cells (FOXP3+: 4.0±1.5% vs 3.4±1.5%*; AITR+: 0.6±0.4 vs 0.5±0.3%, CD127low: 4.0±1.3 vs 5.0±3.0%* and CTLA4+: 13.8±11.5 vs 15.6±12.5%; * p<0.05). Conclusion Short-term GC therapy does not induce the hitherto supposed increase in circulating Treg cell frequency, neither in immunocompetent humans nor in mice. Thus, it is questionable that the

  2. Transcriptional Changes in CD8+ T Cells During Antiretroviral Therapy Intensified With Raltegravir

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhengyu; Buzon, Maria J.; Zheng, Lu; Sun, Hong; Yu, Xu G.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Mellors, John W.; Eron, Joseph J.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Lichterfeld, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Background. Intensification of antiretroviral therapy with raltegravir does not affect levels of residual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 viremia, but it has led to increased levels of episomal HIV-1 DNA in some patients, suggesting antiviral activity against otherwise unresponsive components of the viral reservoir. Effects of raltegravir on host cells remain less well understood. Methods. We used comprehensive and unbiased microarray-based transcriptional profiling to analyze gene expression changes in CD8+ T cells from participants in a randomized clinical trial (AIDS Clinical Trials Group [ACTG] A5244) comparing raltegravir-intensified to nonintensified antiretroviral therapy. Results. Although raltegravir intensification failed to induce statistically significant changes in HIV-1 DNA or residual plasma viremia, we observed significant increases in the expression intensity of 121 host gene transcripts. In functional annotations of these transcripts, we found that they were mainly involved in glucose and carbohydrate metabolism, immune regulation, control of cell proliferation, and tumor suppression. Two of the raltegravir-responsive gene transcripts were statistically correlated with levels of residual HIV-1 RNA, but none of the remaining 119 transcripts were associated with immunologic or virologic characteristics of the study patients. Conclusions. Together, these findings demonstrate that raltegravir intensification can induce previously unrecognized, statistically significant gene expression changes in host CD8+ T lymphocytes. PMID:26380343

  3. Temporal pattern of ICAM-I mediated regulatory T cell recruitment to sites of inflammation in adoptive transfer model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Doerck, Sebastian; Göbel, Kerstin; Weise, Gesa; Schneider-Hohendorf, Tilman; Reinhardt, Michael; Hauff, Peter; Schwab, Nicholas; Linker, Ralf; Mäurer, Mathias; Meuth, Sven G; Wiendl, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Migration of immune cells to the target organ plays a key role in autoimmune disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the exact underlying mechanisms of this active process during autoimmune lesion pathogenesis remain elusive. To test if pro-inflammatory and regulatory T cells migrate via a similar molecular mechanism, we analyzed the expression of different adhesion molecules, as well as the composition of infiltrating T cells in an in vivo model of MS, adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats. We found that the upregulation of ICAM-I and VCAM-I parallels the development of clinical disease onset, but persists on elevated levels also in the phase of clinical remission. However, the composition of infiltrating T cells found in the developing versus resolving lesion phase changed over time, containing increased numbers of regulatory T cells (FoxP3) only in the phase of clinical remission. In order to test the relevance of the expression of cell adhesion molecules, animals were treated with purified antibodies to ICAM-I and VCAM-I either in the phase of active disease or in early remission. Treatment with a blocking ICAM-I antibody in the phase of disease progression led to a milder disease course. However, administration during early clinical remission aggravates clinical symptoms. Treatment with anti-VCAM-I at different timepoints had no significant effect on the disease course. In summary, our results indicate that adhesion molecules are not only important for capture and migration of pro-inflammatory T cells into the central nervous system, but also permit access of anti-inflammatory cells, such as regulatory T cells. Therefore it is likely to assume that intervention at the blood brain barrier is time dependent and could result in different therapeutic outcomes depending on the phase of CNS lesion development. PMID:21085578

  4. CTLA4-Ig (abatacept) therapy modulates T cell effector functions in autoantibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a strong MHC class II component and where many patients develop characteristic autoantibodies towards the noncoding amino acid citrulline. Such anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) have recently been put forward as an independent predictive factor for treatment response by co-stimulation blockade by CTLA4-Ig (abatacept). We have performed a mechanism of action study to dissect T cell functionality in RA patients with long-standing disease undergoing abatacept treatment and the influence of ACPA status. Results Peripheral blood samples were collected from RA patients as they started CTLA4-Ig treatment and 3 and 6 months later. A general decrease of regulatory T cell subsets was observed in the cohort. Additionally within the ACPA-positive group significant down-regulation of all key T cell effector subsets including Th1, Th2, and Th17 was observed by analyzing cytokines by intracellular flow cytometry and in cell culture supernatants. RA synovial fluid samples were cultured in vitro in the presence or absence of CTLA4-Ig (abatacept). T cell cytokine production was diminished, but without increasing the functional capacity of CD4+CD25hi regulatory T cells as previously demonstrated in the context of TNF-blockade and anti-IL6R therapy. Conclusions Our immunological study of T cell functionality in RA patients, both ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative, starting biological therapy with the co-stimulation blockade abatacept (CTLA4-Ig) supports the recently published registry study implicating ACPA seropositivity as an independent predictive factor to treatment response as we observed the most striking effect on T cell subset modulation in ACPA-positive patients. These data further support the notion of RA as a disease with several sub-entities, where the ACPA-positive fraction represents a classical HLA-associated autoimmune disorder while ACPA-negative patients may have other driving forces apart

  5. Neoantigen landscape dynamics during human melanoma-T cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Verdegaal, Els M E; de Miranda, Noel F C C; Visser, Marten; Harryvan, Tom; van Buuren, Marit M; Andersen, Rikke S; Hadrup, Sine R; van der Minne, Caroline E; Schotte, Remko; Spits, Hergen; Haanen, John B A G; Kapiteijn, Ellen H W; Schumacher, Ton N; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2016-08-01

    Recognition of neoantigens that are formed as a consequence of DNA damage is likely to form a major driving force behind the clinical activity of cancer immunotherapies such as T-cell checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell therapy. Therefore, strategies to selectively enhance T-cell reactivity against genetically defined neoantigens are currently under development. In mouse models, T-cell pressure can sculpt the antigenicity of tumours, resulting in the emergence of tumours that lack defined mutant antigens. However, whether the T-cell-recognized neoantigen repertoire in human cancers is constant over time is unclear. Here we analyse the stability of neoantigen-specific T-cell responses and the antigens they recognize in two patients with stage IV melanoma treated by adoptive T-cell transfer. The T-cell-recognized neoantigens can be selectively lost from the tumour cell population, either by overall reduced expression of the genes or loss of the mutant alleles. Notably, loss of expression of T-cell-recognized neoantigens was accompanied by development of neoantigen-specific T-cell reactivity in tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. These data demonstrate the dynamic interactions between cancer cells and T cells, which suggest that T cells mediate neoantigen immunoediting, and indicate that the therapeutic induction of broad neoantigen-specific T-cell responses should be used to avoid tumour resistance. PMID:27350335

  6. Favorable Alteration of Tumor Microenvironment by Immunomodulatory Cytokines for Efficient T-Cell Therapy in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tähtinen, Siri; Kaikkonen, Saija; Merisalo-Soikkeli, Maiju; Grönberg-Vähä-Koskela, Susanna; Kanerva, Anna; Parviainen, Suvi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-01-01

    Unfavorable ratios between the number and activation status of effector and suppressor immune cells infiltrating the tumor contribute to resistance of solid tumors to T-cell based therapies. Here, we studied the capacity of FDA and EMA approved recombinant cytokines to manipulate this balance in favor of efficient anti-tumor responses in B16.OVA melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice. Intratumoral administration of IFN-α2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect of ovalbumin-specific CD8+ T-cell (OT-I) therapy, whereas GM-CSF increased tumor growth in association with an increase in immunosuppressive cell populations. None of the cytokines augmented tumor trafficking of OT-I cells significantly, but injections of IFN-α2, IFN-γ and IL-2 increased intratumoral cytokine secretion and recruitment of endogenous immune cells capable of stimulating T-cells, such as natural killer and maturated CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, IFN-α2 and IL-2 increased the levels of activated tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells concomitant with reduction in the CD8+ T-cell expression of anergy markers CTLA-4 and PD-1. In conclusion, intratumoral administration of IFN-α2, IFN-γ and IL-2 can lead to immune sensitization of the established tumor, whereas GM-CSF may contribute to tumor-associated immunosuppression. The results described here provide rationale for including local administration of immunostimulatory cytokines into T-cell therapy regimens. One appealing embodiment of this would be vectored delivery which could be advantageous over direct injection of recombinant molecules with regard to efficacy, cost, persistence and convenience. PMID:26107883

  7. Evaluating Human T-Cell Therapy of Cytomegalovirus Organ Disease in HLA-Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Simone; Klobuch, Sebastian; Podlech, Jürgen; Plachter, Bodo; Hoffmann, Petra; Renzaho, Angelique; Theobald, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause severe disease in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although preclinical research in murine models as well as clinical trials have provided 'proof of concept' for infection control by pre-emptive CD8 T-cell immunotherapy, there exists no predictive model to experimentally evaluate parameters that determine antiviral efficacy of human T cells in terms of virus control in functional organs, prevention of organ disease, and host survival benefit. We here introduce a novel mouse model for testing HCMV epitope-specific human T cells. The HCMV UL83/pp65-derived NLV-peptide was presented by transgenic HLA-A2.1 in the context of a lethal infection of NOD/SCID/IL-2rg-/- mice with a chimeric murine CMV, mCMV-NLV. Scenarios of HCMV-seropositive and -seronegative human T-cell donors were modeled by testing peptide-restimulated and T-cell receptor-transduced human T cells, respectively. Upon transfer, the T cells infiltrated host tissues in an epitope-specific manner, confining the infection to nodular inflammatory foci. This resulted in a significant reduction of viral load, diminished organ pathology, and prolonged survival. The model has thus proven its potential for a preclinical testing of the protective antiviral efficacy of HCMV epitope-specific human T cells in the evaluation of new approaches to an immunotherapy of CMV disease. PMID:26181057

  8. Efficacy and safety of adoptive immunotherapy using anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor transduced T-cells: a systematic review of phase I clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Jun; Zhao, Hai-Zhao; Tang, Yong-Min

    2013-02-01

    There remain some key questions regarding the adoptive infusion of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) transduced T-cells in the clinical setting. This article systematically reviews the phase I clinical trials using CARs targeting CD19 in B-lineage malignancies. Twenty-nine patients were enrolled and the 6-month progression free survival for this cohort was 50.0 ± 9.9%. Univariate analysis showed that patients benefited from lymphodepletion before CAR+T-cell infusion and the administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Longer-term persistence (≥ 4 weeks) and stronger expansion of CAR+ T-cells in the blood and higher peak serum interferon-γ (IFN-γ) level (≥ 200 pg/mL) were also related to superior outcome. Regarding treatment-related adverse events, the most prominent toxicities were fever, rigors, chills, acute renal failure, hypotension and capillary leak syndrome. In conclusion, anti-CD19 CAR+ T-cells have shown some benefits in patients with B-lineage malignancies and are well tolerated in most patients. Preconditioning and cytokine supplement are required to improve the clinical outcome. PMID:22897728

  9. UTX inhibition as selective epigenetic therapy against TAL1-driven T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Benyoucef, Aissa; Palii, Carmen G; Wang, Chaochen; Porter, Christopher J; Chu, Alphonse; Dai, Fengtao; Tremblay, Véronique; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Singh, Kulwant; Huang, Suming; Pflumio, Francoise; Hébert, Josée; Couture, Jean-Francois; Perkins, Theodore J; Ge, Kai; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Brand, Marjorie

    2016-03-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a heterogeneous group of hematological tumors composed of distinct subtypes that vary in their genetic abnormalities, gene expression signatures, and prognoses. However, it remains unclear whether T-ALL subtypes differ at the functional level, and, as such, T-ALL treatments are uniformly applied across subtypes, leading to variable responses between patients. Here we reveal the existence of a subtype-specific epigenetic vulnerability in T-ALL by which a particular subgroup of T-ALL characterized by expression of the oncogenic transcription factor TAL1 is uniquely sensitive to variations in the dosage and activity of the histone 3 Lys27 (H3K27) demethylase UTX/KDM6A. Specifically, we identify UTX as a coactivator of TAL1 and show that it acts as a major regulator of the TAL1 leukemic gene expression program. Furthermore, we demonstrate that UTX, previously described as a tumor suppressor in T-ALL, is in fact a pro-oncogenic cofactor essential for leukemia maintenance in TAL1-positive (but not TAL1-negative) T-ALL. Exploiting this subtype-specific epigenetic vulnerability, we propose a novel therapeutic approach based on UTX inhibition through in vivo administration of an H3K27 demethylase inhibitor that efficiently kills TAL1-positive primary human leukemia. These findings provide the first opportunity to develop personalized epigenetic therapy for T-ALL patients. PMID:26944678

  10. Molecular Pathways: Breaking the Epithelial Cancer Barrier for Chimeric Antigen Receptor and T-cell Receptor Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Christian S

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered to express a tumor-targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or T-cell receptor (TCR) can mediate cancer regression in some patients. CARs are synthetic single-chain proteins that use antibody domains to target cell surface antigens. TCRs are natural heterodimeric proteins that can target intracellular antigens through recognition of peptides bound to human leukocyte antigens. CARs have shown promise in B-cell malignancies and TCRs in melanoma, but neither approach has achieved clear success in an epithelial cancer. Treatment of epithelial cancers may be particularly challenging because of a paucity of target antigens expressed by carcinomas and not by important healthy tissues. In addition, epithelial cancers may be protected by inhibitory ligands and soluble factors in the tumor microenvironment. One strategy to overcome these negative regulators is to modulate expression of T-cell genes to enhance intrinsic T-cell function. Programmable nucleases, which can suppress inhibitory genes, and inducible gene expression systems, which can enhance stimulatory genes, are entering clinical testing. Other work is delineating whether control of genes for immune checkpoint receptors (e.g.,PDCD1, CTLA4) and cytokine and TCR signaling regulators (e.g.,CBLB, CISH, IL12, IL15) can increase the antitumor activity of therapeutic T cells.Clin Cancer Res; 22(7); 1559-64. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27037253

  11. Recombinant T-cell Receptor Ligands: Immunomodulatory, Neuroprotective and Neuroregenerative Effects Suggest Application as Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Offner, Halina; Sinha, Sushmita; Wang, Chunhe; Burrows, Gregory G.; Vandenbark, Arthur A.

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant TCR ligands (RTL) represent the minimal interactive surface with antigen-specific T cell receptors. These novel constructs fold similarly to native four-domain MHC/peptide complexes but deliver suboptimal and qualitatively different signals that cause a “cytokine switch” to anti-inflammatory factors in targeted encephalitogenic T cells. RTL treatment can reverse clinical and histological signs of EAE and most dramatically can promote myelin and axonal recovery in the CNS of mice with chronic disease. These properties of RTL suggest that this novel antigen-specific approach may hold unusual promise as a therapy for multiple sclerosis. PMID:19145988

  12. Th1/17 Polarization of CD4 T Cells Supports HIV-1 Persistence during Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Kim, Dhohyung; Li, Xiaodong; Kiselinova, Maja; Ouyang, Zhengyu; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Shang, Hong; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Yu, Xu G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to persist long term in latently infected CD4 T cells represents a characteristic feature of HIV-1 infection and the predominant barrier to efforts aiming at viral eradication and cure. Yet, increasing evidence suggests that only small subsets of CD4 T cells with specific developmental and maturational profiles are able to effectively support HIV-1 long-term persistence. Here, we analyzed how the functional polarization of CD4 T cells shapes and structures the reservoirs of HIV-1-infected cells. We found that CD4 T cells enriched for a Th1/17 polarization had elevated susceptibilities to HIV-1 infection in ex vivo assays, harbored high levels of HIV-1 DNA in persons treated with antiretroviral therapy, and made a disproportionately increased contribution to the viral reservoir relative to their contribution to the CD4 T memory cell pool. Moreover, HIV-1 DNA levels in Th1/17 cells remained stable over many years of antiretroviral therapy, resulting in a progressively increasing contribution of these cells to the viral reservoir, and phylogenetic studies suggested preferential long-term persistence of identical viral sequences during prolonged antiretroviral treatment in this cell compartment. Together, these data suggest that Th1/17 CD4 T cells represent a preferred site for HIV-1 DNA long-term persistence in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Current antiretroviral therapy is very effective in suppressing active HIV-1 replication but does not fully eliminate virally infected cells. The ability of HIV-1 to persist long term despite suppressive antiretroviral combination therapy represents a perplexing aspect of HIV-1 disease pathogenesis, since most HIV-1 target cells are activated, short-lived CD4 T cells. This study suggests that CD4 T helper cells with Th1/17 polarization have a preferential role as a long-term reservoir for HIV-1 infection during antiretroviral therapy, possibly because these cells may imitate some of the

  13. Interleukin-2 administration after modified radical mastectomy in breast cancer therapy increases peripheral regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunli; Zhou, Lei; Sun, Bei; Li, Xiaoxiao; Duan, Kaiming; Wu, Yuhui; Ouyang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC) deaths are a major concern worldwide, and modified radical mastectomy (MRM) still represents a primary therapeutic strategy. Post-surgery administration of interleukin (IL)-2 for BC therapy has been implemented in China recently. Although its impact on regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been documented in some cancer types, such as melanoma, the IL-2-mediated changes in the Treg composition after MRM in BC treatment remain unknown. Methods: As registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, 34 newly diagnosed BC patients, aged 20-65 years, were enrolled in this trial. Patients were randomized to the IL-2-treated group (n=15) and the untreated control group (n=19). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated at time points of pre-operation (PreOP) and post-operation Day 1 (POD1), POD3, and POD7. Cells were subjected to flow cytometric assays to identify CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Tregs, as well as real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of FOXP3 expression. Results: We found that the surgery caused a significant decrease in the percentage of Tregs on POD1, followed by a significant increase characterized by a peak value on POD7 with a more than 18% increase relative to the Pre-OP levels. We observed that the Treg percentages in the IL-2-treated group were significantly greater than those in the control group on POD3 and POD7, whereas no such statistical difference was observed on POD1. The FOXP3 expression analysis revealed consistent trends as observed by flow cytometry. Conclusions: Post-operative administration of IL-2 amplifies the surgery-induced augmentation of both Tregs and FOXP3 expression in BC therapy. PMID:26221334

  14. Pre-Transplant Donor-Specific T-Cell Alloreactivity Is Strongly Associated with Early Acute Cellular Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients Not Receiving T-Cell Depleting Induction Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Elena; Lucia, Marc; Cruzado, Josep M.; Luque, Sergio; Melilli, Edoardo; Manonelles, Anna; Lloberas, Nuria; Torras, Joan; Grinyó, Josep M.; Bestard, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    Preformed T-cell immune-sensitization should most likely impact allograft outcome during the initial period after kidney transplantation, since donor-specific memory T-cells may rapidly recognize alloantigens and activate the effector immune response, which leads to allograft rejection. However, the precise time-frame in which acute rejection is fundamentally triggered by preformed donor-specific memory T cells rather than by de novo activated naïve T cells is still to be established. Here, preformed donor-specific alloreactive T-cell responses were evaluated using the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay in a large consecutive cohort of kidney transplant patients (n = 90), to assess the main clinical variables associated with cellular sensitization and its predominant time-frame impact on allograft outcome, and was further validated in an independent new set of kidney transplant recipients (n = 67). We found that most highly T-cell sensitized patients were elderly patients with particularly poor HLA class-I matching, without any clinically recognizable sensitizing events. While one-year incidence of all types of biopsy-proven acute rejection did not differ between T-cell alloreactive and non-alloreactive patients, Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis indicated the first two months after transplantation as the highest risk time period for acute cellular rejection associated with baseline T-cell sensitization. This effect was particularly evident in young and highly alloreactive individuals that did not receive T-cell depletion immunosuppression. Multivariate analysis confirmed preformed T-cell sensitization as an independent predictor of early acute cellular rejection. In summary, monitoring anti-donor T-cell sensitization before transplantation may help to identify patients at increased risk of acute cellular rejection, particularly in the early phases after kidney transplantation, and thus guide decision-making regarding the use of induction therapy. PMID:25689405

  15. Regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma following transfer of polyomavirus-specific T cells and therapies capable of re-inducing HLA class-I

    PubMed Central

    Chapuis, Aude G.; Afanasiev, Olga K.; Iyer, Jayasri G.; Paulson, Kelly G.; Parvathaneni, Upendra; Hwang, Joo Ha; Lai, Ivy; Roberts, Ilana M.; Sloan, Heather L.; Bhatia, Shailender; Shibuya, Kendall C.; Gooley, Ted; Desmarais, Cindy; Koelle, David M.; Yee, Cassian; Nghiem, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer that typically requires the persistent expression of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) oncoproteins that can serve as ideal immunotherapeutic targets. Several immune evasion mechanisms are active in MCC including down-regulation of HLA class-I expression on tumor cells and dysfunctional endogenous MCPyV-specific CD8 T cell responses. To overcome these obstacles, we combined local and systemic immune therapies in a 67-year-old man, who developed metastatic MCPyV-expressing MCC. Intralesional IFNβ-1b or targeted single-dose radiation was administered as a pre-conditioning strategy to reverse the down-regulation of HLA-I expression noted in his tumors and to facilitate the subsequent recognition of tumor cells by T cells. This was followed by the adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded polyclonal, polyomavirus-specific T cells as a source of reactive antitumor immunity. The combined regimen was well-tolerated and led to persistent up-regulation of HLA-I expression in the tumor and a durable complete response in two of three metastatic lesions. Relative to historical controls, the patient experienced a prolonged period without development of additional distant metastases (535 days compared to historic median of 200 days, 95% confidence interval = 154–260 days). The transferred CD8+ T cells preferentially accumulated in the tumor tissue, remained detectable and functional for >200 days, persisted with an effector phenotype, and exhibited evidence of recent in vivo activation and proliferation. The combination of local and systemic immune stimulatory therapies was well-tolerated and may be a promising approach to overcome immune evasion in virus-driven cancers. PMID:24432305

  16. Ex vivo priming for long-term maintenance of antileukemia human cytotoxic T cells suggests a general procedure for adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Montagna, D; Maccario, R; Locatelli, F; Rosti, V; Yang, Y; Farness, P; Moretta, A; Comoli, P; Montini, E; Vitiello, A

    2001-12-01

    Adoptive cellular immunotherapy has proven to be a successful approach in preventing and curing cytomegalovirus infection and Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphomas after bone marrow transplantation. Translation of this approach for preventing leukemia relapse after bone marrow transplantation might require ex vivo priming and long-term maintenance of leukemia blast-specific T cells. To accomplish this goal, procedures were optimized for the in vitro priming of naive CD8 using dendritic cells activated by CD40 ligation, interleukin-12 (IL-12), and IL-7. Using T lymphocytes and dendritic cells obtained from HLA-matched allogeneic bone marrow transplantation donors and leukemia blasts as a source of tumor antigens, anti-acute myeloid leukemia cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were induced. In these experiments, it was found that though it is possible to induce CTLs using immature dendritic cells, IL-12, and IL-7, obtaining long-term CTLs requires the presence of CD4 T cells in the priming phase. Using this approach, long-term antileukemia CTL lines could be generated from 4 of 4 bone marrow donors. Because this procedure does not require definition of the target antigen and because it selects responding cells from a virgin T-cell repertoire, its general application is suggested in adoptive immunotherapy and in the definition of tumor rejection antigens. PMID:11719375

  17. Longitudinal evaluation of regulatory T-cell dynamics on HIV-infected individuals during the first 2 years of therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nobrega, Claudia; Horta, Ana; Coutinho-Teixeira, Vítor; Martins-Ribeiro, Ana; Baldaia, Ana; Rb-Silva, Rita; Santos, Catarina L.; Sarmento-Castro, Rui; Correia-Neves, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: A sizeable percentage of individuals infected by HIV and on antiretroviral therapy (ART) fail to increase their CD4+ T-cells to satisfactory levels. The percentage of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) has been suggested to contribute to this impairment. This study aimed to address this question and to expand the analysis of Tregs subpopulations during ART. Design: Longitudinal follow-up of 81 HIV-infected individuals during the first 24 months on ART. Methods: CD4+ T-cell counts, Tregs percentages, and specific Tregs subpopulations were evaluated at ART onset, 2, 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, and 24 months of ART (five individuals had no Tregs information at baseline). Results: The slope of CD4+ T-cell recovery was similar for individuals with moderate and with severe lymphopenia at ART onset. No evidence was found for a contribution of the baseline Tregs percentages on the CD4+ T-cell counts recovery throughout ART. In comparison to uninfected individuals, Tregs percentages were higher at ART onset only for patients with less than 200 cells/μl at baseline and decreased afterwards reaching normal values. Within Tregs, the percentage of naive cells remained low in these patients. Reduced thymic export and increased proliferation of Tregs vs. conventional CD4+ T cells might explain these persistent alterations. Conclusion: No effect of Tregs percentages at baseline was detected on CD4+ T-cell recovery. However, profound alterations on Tregs subpopulations were consistently observed throughout ART for patients with severe lymphopenia at ART onset. PMID:26919738

  18. Structural design of disialoganglioside GD2 and CD3-bispecific antibodies to redirect T cells for tumor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming; Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Xu, Hong; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2015-01-01

    Antibody based immunotherapy has proven efficacy for patients with high risk neuroblastoma. However, despite being the most efficient tumoricidal effectors, T cells are underutilized because they lack Fc receptors. Using a monovalent single chain fragment (ScFv) platform, we engineered tandem scFv bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) that specifically target disialoganglioside (GD2) on tumor cells and CD3 on T cells. Structural variants of BsAbs were constructed and ranked based on binding to GD2, and on competency in inducing T cell mediated tumor cytotoxicity. In vitro thermal stability and binding measurements were used to characterize each of the constructs, and in silico molecular modeling was used to show how the orientation of the variable region heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains of the anti-GD2 ScFv could alter the conformations of key residues responsible for high affinity binding. We showed that the VH-VL orientation, the (GGGGS)3 linker, disulfide bond stabilization of scFv, when combined with an affinity matured mutation provided the most efficient BsAb to direct T cells to lyse GD2 positive tumor cells. In vivo, the optimized BsAb could efficiently inhibit melanoma and neuroblastoma xenograft growth. These findings provide preclinical validation of a structure-based method to assist in designing BsAb for T-cell mediated therapy. PMID:24895182

  19. CD4+ T cell counts in initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected asymptomatic individuals; controversies and inconsistencies.

    PubMed

    Maina, E K; Bonney, E Y; Bukusi, E A; Sedegah, M; Lartey, M; Ampofo, W K

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal when devising strategies to define the start of therapy in HIV infected individuals is to avoid HIV disease progression and toxicity from antiretroviral therapy (ART). Intermediate goals includes, avoiding resistance by suppressing HIV replication, reducing transmission, limiting spread and diversity of HIV within the body and protecting the immune system from harm. The question of how early or late to start ART and achieve both primary and intermediate goals has dominated HIV research. The distinction between early and late treatment of HIV infection is currently a matter of CD4+ T cells count, a marker of immune status, rather than on viral load, a marker of virus replication. Discussions about respective benefits of early or delayed therapy, as well as the best CD4+ T cell threshold during the course of HIV infection at which ART is initiated remains inconclusive. Guidelines issued by various agencies, provide different initiation recommendations. This can be confusing for clinicians and policy-makers when determining the best time to initiate therapy. Optimizing ART initiation strategies are clearly complex and must be balanced between individual and broader public health needs. This review assesses available data that contributes to the debate on optimal time to initiate therapy in HIV-infected asymptomatic individuals. We also review reports on CD4+ T cell threshold to guide initiation of ART and finally discuss arguments for and against early or late initiation of ART. PMID:26475399

  20. Long-term Outcome of Extranodal NK/T Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated With Postremission Therapy Using EBV LMP1 and LMP2a-specific CTLs

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seok-Goo; Kim, Nayoun; Sohn, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Suk Kyeong; Oh, Sang Taek; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Hyun-Il; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Jung, Seung Eun; Park, Gyeongsin; Oh, Joo Hyun; Choi, Byung-Ock; Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Soo Whan; Chung, Nak Gyun; Lee, Jong Wook; Hong, Young Seon; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL) is associated with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and frequent relapse even after complete response (CR) to intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The expression of EBV proteins in the tumor provides targets for adoptive immunotherapy with antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of EBV latent membrane protein (LMP)-1 and LMP-2a-specific CTLs (LMP1/2a CTLs) stimulated with LMP1/2a RNA-transferred dendritic cells, we treated 10 ENKTCL patients who showed complete response to induction therapy. Patients who completed and responded to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and/or high-dose therapy followed by stem cell transplantation (HDT/SCT) were eligible to receive eight doses of 2 × 107 LMP1/2a CTLs/m2. Following infusion, there were no immediate or delayed toxicities. The 4-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 100%, and 90% (95% CI: 71.4 to 100%) respectively with a median follow-up of 55·5 months. Circulating IFN-γ secreting LMP1 and LMP2a-specific T cells within the peripheral blood corresponded with decline in plasma EBV DNA levels in patients. Adoptive transfer of LMP1/2a CTLs in ENKTCL patients is a safe and effective postremission therapeutic approach. Further randomized studies will be needed to define the role of EBV-CTLs in preventing relapse of ENKTCL. PMID:26017177

  1. Long-term Outcome of Extranodal NK/T Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated With Postremission Therapy Using EBV LMP1 and LMP2a-specific CTLs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seok-Goo; Kim, Nayoun; Sohn, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Suk Kyeong; Oh, Sang Taek; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Hyun-Il; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Jung, Seung Eun; Park, Gyeongsin; Oh, Joo Hyun; Choi, Byung-Ock; Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Soo Whan; Chung, Nak Gyun; Lee, Jong Wook; Hong, Young Seon; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2015-08-01

    Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL) is associated with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and frequent relapse even after complete response (CR) to intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The expression of EBV proteins in the tumor provides targets for adoptive immunotherapy with antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of EBV latent membrane protein (LMP)-1 and LMP-2a-specific CTLs (LMP1/2a CTLs) stimulated with LMP1/2a RNA-transferred dendritic cells, we treated 10 ENKTCL patients who showed complete response to induction therapy. Patients who completed and responded to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and/or high-dose therapy followed by stem cell transplantation (HDT/SCT) were eligible to receive eight doses of 2 × 10(7) LMP1/2a CTLs/m(2). Following infusion, there were no immediate or delayed toxicities. The 4-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 100%, and 90% (95% CI: 71.4 to 100%) respectively with a median follow-up of 55·5 months. Circulating IFN-γ secreting LMP1 and LMP2a-specific T cells within the peripheral blood corresponded with decline in plasma EBV DNA levels in patients. Adoptive transfer of LMP1/2a CTLs in ENKTCL patients is a safe and effective postremission therapeutic approach. Further randomized studies will be needed to define the role of EBV-CTLs in preventing relapse of ENKTCL. PMID:26017177

  2. Engineered T cells: the promise and challenges of cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fesnak, Andrew D; June, Carl H; Levine, Bruce L

    2016-08-23

    The immune system evolved to distinguish non-self from self to protect the organism. As cancer is derived from our own cells, immune responses to dysregulated cell growth present a unique challenge. This is compounded by mechanisms of immune evasion and immunosuppression that develop in the tumour microenvironment. The modern genetic toolbox enables the adoptive transfer of engineered T cells to create enhanced anticancer immune functions where natural cancer-specific immune responses have failed. Genetically engineered T cells, so-called 'living drugs', represent a new paradigm in anticancer therapy. Recent clinical trials using T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or engineered T cell receptors (TCRs) have produced stunning results in patients with relapsed or refractory haematological malignancies. In this Review we describe some of the most recent and promising advances in engineered T cell therapy with a particular emphasis on what the next generation of T cell therapy is likely to entail. PMID:27550819

  3. Effective Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Targeting of Persistent HIV-1 during Antiretroviral Therapy Requires Priming of Naive CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kellie N.; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Piazza, Paolo A.; Fischer, Will; Korber, Bette T.; Fecek, Ronald J.; Ratner, Deena; Gupta, Phalguni; Mullins, James I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Curing HIV-1 infection will require elimination of persistent cellular reservoirs that harbor latent virus in the face of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Proposed immunotherapeutic strategies to cure HIV-1 infection include enhancing lysis of these infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). A major challenge in this strategy is overcoming viral immune escape variants that have evaded host immune control. Here we report that naive CD8+ T cells from chronic HIV-1-infected participants on long-term cART can be primed by dendritic cells (DC). These DC must be mature, produce high levels of interleukin 12p70 (IL-12p70), be responsive to CD40 ligand (CD40L), and be loaded with inactivated, autologous HIV-1. These DC-primed CD8+ T cell responders produced high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in response to a broad range of both conserved and variable regions of Gag and effectively killed CD4+ T cell targets that were either infected with the autologous latent reservoir-associated virus or loaded with autologous Gag peptides. In contrast, HIV-1-specific memory CD8+ T cells stimulated with autologous HIV-1-loaded DC produced IFN-γ in response to a narrow range of conserved and variable Gag peptides compared to the primed T cells and most notably, displayed significantly lower cytolytic function. Our findings highlight the need to selectively induce new HIV-1-specific CTL from naive precursors while avoiding activation of existing, dysfunctional memory T cells in potential curative immunotherapeutic strategies for HIV-1 infection. PMID:27247230

  4. Changes in Markers of T-Cell Senescence and Exhaustion With Atazanavir-, Raltegravir-, and Darunavir-Based Initial Antiviral Therapy: ACTG 5260s.

    PubMed

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Moser, Carlee; Stein, James H; Brown, Todd T; Tran, Thuy Tien T; Ribaudo, Heather J; Dube, Michael P; Yang, Otto O; Currier, Judith S; McComsey, Grace A

    2016-09-01

    It is unclear whether differential roles of CD4(+) versus CD8(+) T-cell senescence/exhaustion and effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on these processes may contribute to morbidity in treated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection. In a prospective 96-week trial, 328 HIV-infected ART-naive participants were randomly assigned to receive tenofovir-emtricitabine plus either atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, or raltegravir. Markers of CD4(+) T-cell senescence (ie, the percentage of CD28(-)CD57(+) cells among CD4(+) T cells ) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell exhaustion (ie, the percentage of PD-1(+) cells among CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells) decreased after ART. There were no changes in markers of CD8(+) T-cell senescence after ART and no differential changes in all markers in ART groups. Senescent CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells may have differential roles in HIV pathogenesis. PMID:27354367

  5. Modulation of Autoimmune T-Cell Memory by Stem Cell Educator Therapy: Phase 1/2 Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Elias; Perez-Basterrechea, Marcos; Suarez-Alvarez, Beatriz; Zhou, Huimin; Revuelta, Eva Martinez; Garcia-Gala, Jose Maria; Perez, Silvia; Alvarez-Viejo, Maria; Menendez, Edelmiro; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos; Tang, Ruifeng; Zhu, Zhenlong; Hu, Wei; Moss, Thomas; Guindi, Edward; Otero, Jesus; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that causes a deficit of pancreatic islet β cells. The complexities of overcoming autoimmunity in T1D have contributed to the challenges the research community faces when devising successful treatments with conventional immune therapies. Overcoming autoimmune T cell memory represents one of the key hurdles. Methods In this open-label, phase 1/phase 2 study, Caucasian T1D patients (N = 15) received two treatments with the Stem Cell Educator (SCE) therapy, an approach that uses human multipotent cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SCs). SCE therapy involves a closed-loop system that briefly treats the patient's lymphocytes with CB-SCs in vitro and returns the “educated” lymphocytes (but not the CB-SCs) into the patient's blood circulation. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01350219. Findings Clinical data demonstrated that SCE therapy was well tolerated in all subjects. The percentage of naïve CD4+ T cells was significantly increased at 26 weeks and maintained through the final follow-up at 56 weeks. The percentage of CD4+ central memory T cells (TCM) was markedly and constantly increased at 18 weeks. Both CD4+ effector memory T cells (TEM) and CD8+ TEM cells were considerably decreased at 18 weeks and 26 weeks respectively. Additional clinical data demonstrated the modulation of C–C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) expressions on naïve T, TCM, and TEM cells. Following two treatments with SCE therapy, islet β-cell function was improved and maintained in individuals with residual β-cell function, but not in those without residual β-cell function. Interpretation Current clinical data demonstrated the safety and efficacy of SCE therapy in immune modulation. SCE therapy provides lasting reversal of autoimmune memory that could improve islet β-cell function in Caucasian subjects. Funding Obra Social “La Caixa”, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Red de

  6. Asymptomatic HIV-infected Individuals on Antiretroviral Therapy Exhibit Impaired Lung CD4+ T-Cell Responses to Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Dominic H.; Afran, Louise; Kankwatira, Anstead M.; Malamba, Rose D.; Allain, Theresa J.; Gordon, Stephen B.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Russell, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain at higher risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) than HIV-uninfected individuals. This increased susceptibility may be caused by impairment of alveolar macrophage (AM) function and/or mycobacteria-specific alveolar CD4+ T-cell responses observed in HIV-infected ART-naive adults. Objectives: To determine whether ART was associated with improvement in both AM function, assessed by phagosomal proteolysis, and alveolar CD4+ T-cell responses to Mycobacterium in HIV-infected individuals. Methods: Peripheral blood was drawn and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed on healthy, 35 HIV-uninfected, 25 HIV-infected ART-naive, and 50 HIV-infected ART-treated asymptomatic adults. Phagosomal proteolysis of AM was assessed with fluorogenic beads. Mycobacteria-specific CD4+ T-cell responses were measured by intracellular cytokine staining. Measurements and Main Results: HIV-infected adults on ART exhibited lower plasma HIV viral load and higher blood CD4+ T-cell count than ART-naive adults. AM proteolysis and total mycobacteria-specific Th1 CD4+ T-cell responses in individuals on ART for greater than or equal to 4 years were similar to HIV-uninfected control subjects but those on ART for less than 4 years had impaired responses. Total influenza-specific alveolar Th1 CD4+ T-cell responses were intact in all individuals receiving ART. In contrast, BAL and blood mycobacteria-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses were impaired in adults on ART irrespective of duration. Conclusions: AM and mycobacteria-specific alveolar CD4+ T-cell responses in HIV-infected adults on ART for less than 4 years are impaired and may partly explain the high risk of TB in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Strategies to augment ART to improve lung immune cell function and reduce the high incidence of TB in HIV-infected adults who initiate ART should be investigated. PMID:25225948

  7. A single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of viral-specific T-cells from healthy donors: implications for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, Guillaume; Bollard, Catherine M; Kunz, Hawley; Hanley, Patrick J; Simpson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The adoptive transfer of donor-derived viral-specific cytotoxic T-cells (VSTs) is an effective treatment for controlling CMV and EBV infections after HSCT; however, new practical methods are required to augment the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors. This study investigated the effects of a single exercise bout on the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs. PBMCs isolated from healthy CMV/EBV seropositive participants before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) 30-minutes of cycling exercise were stimulated with CMV (pp65 and IE1) and EBV (LMP2A and BMLF1) peptides and expanded over 8 days. The number (fold difference from PRE) of T-cells specific for CMV pp65 (2.6), EBV LMP2A (2.5), and EBV BMLF1 (4.4) was greater among the VSTs expanded POST. VSTs expanded PRE and POST had similar phenotype characteristics and were equally capable of MHC-restricted killing of autologous target cells. We conclude that a single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors without altering their phenotype or function and may serve as a simple and economical adjuvant to boost the production of multi-VSTs for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy. PMID:27181409

  8. A single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of viral-specific T-cells from healthy donors: implications for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Spielmann, Guillaume; Bollard, Catherine M.; Kunz, Hawley; Hanley, Patrick J.; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The adoptive transfer of donor-derived viral-specific cytotoxic T-cells (VSTs) is an effective treatment for controlling CMV and EBV infections after HSCT; however, new practical methods are required to augment the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors. This study investigated the effects of a single exercise bout on the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs. PBMCs isolated from healthy CMV/EBV seropositive participants before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) 30-minutes of cycling exercise were stimulated with CMV (pp65 and IE1) and EBV (LMP2A and BMLF1) peptides and expanded over 8 days. The number (fold difference from PRE) of T-cells specific for CMV pp65 (2.6), EBV LMP2A (2.5), and EBV BMLF1 (4.4) was greater among the VSTs expanded POST. VSTs expanded PRE and POST had similar phenotype characteristics and were equally capable of MHC-restricted killing of autologous target cells. We conclude that a single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors without altering their phenotype or function and may serve as a simple and economical adjuvant to boost the production of multi-VSTs for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy. PMID:27181409

  9. Type I interferons induced by radiation therapy mediate recruitment and effector function of CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joanne Y H; Gerber, Scott A; Murphy, Shawn P; Lord, Edith M

    2014-03-01

    The need for an intact immune system for cancer radiation therapy to be effective suggests that radiation not only acts directly on the tumor but also indirectly, through the activation of host immune components. Recent studies demonstrated that endogenous type I interferons (type I IFNs) play a role in radiation-mediated anti-tumor immunity by enhancing the ability of dendritic cells to cross-prime CD8(+) T cells. However, it is still unclear to what extent endogenous type I IFNs contribute to the recruitment and function of CD8(+) T cells. Little is also known about the effects of type I IFNs on myeloid cells. In the current study, we demonstrate that type I and type II IFNs (IFN-γ) are both required for the increased production of CXCL10 (IP-10) chemokine by myeloid cells within the tumor after radiation treatment. Radiation-induced intratumoral IP-10 levels in turn correlate with tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cell numbers. Moreover, type I IFNs promote potent tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells by directly affecting the phenotype, effector molecule production, and enhancing cytolytic activity. Using a unique inducible expression system to increase local levels of IFN-α exogenously, we show here that the capacity of radiation therapy to result in tumor control can be enhanced. Our preclinical approach to study the effects of local increase in IFN-α levels can be used to further optimize the combination therapy strategy in terms of dosing and scheduling, which may lead to better clinical outcome. PMID:24357146

  10. αβ T-cell receptor bias in disease and therapy (Review).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Yu, Pei-Fa; He, Xiao-Bing; Fang, Yong-Xiang; Cheng, Wen-Yu; Jing, Zhi-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    The diversity and specificity of T cell receptors (TCR), the characteristics of T-cell surface marker, are central to the adaptive immunity. TCR variability is required for successful immunization coverage because this structural foundation is indispensable for the valid identification of short antigen peptides (derived from degraded antigens) that are presented by major histocompatibility molecules on the surfaces of antigen-presenting cells. Despite the vast T-cell repertoire, biased αβ TCR has become a common theme in immunology. To date, numerous examples of TCR bias have been observed in various diseases. Immunotherapy strategies that are based on αβ T cell responses are also emerged as a prominent component of clinical treatment. In the present review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding basic structural information and the molecular mechanisms underlying TCR diversity. Moreover, we outline the role of TCR repertoire bias in some diseases, and its application for therapeutic interventions, as these play significant roles in disease progression, even with patients with a good prognosis. PMID:27098221

  11. Characterization of Diabetogenic CD8+ T Cells: IMMUNE THERAPY WITH METABOLIC BLOCKADE.

    PubMed

    Garyu, Justin W; Uduman, Mohamed; Stewart, Alex; Rui, Jinxiu; Deng, Songyan; Shenson, Jared; Staron, Matt M; Kaech, Susan M; Kleinstein, Steven H; Herold, Kevan C

    2016-05-20

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by the killing of insulin-producing β cells by CD8+T cells. The disease progression, which is chronic, does not follow a course like responses to conventional antigens such as viruses, but accelerates as glucose tolerance deteriorates. To identify the unique features of the autoimmune effectors that may explain this behavior, we analyzed diabetogenic CD8+ T cells that recognize a peptide from the diabetes antigen IGRP (NRP-V7-reactive) in prediabetic NOD mice and compared them to others that shared their phenotype (CD44(+)CD62L(lo)PD-1(+)CXCR3(+)) but negative for diabetes antigen tetramers and to LCMV (lymphocytic choriomeningitis)-reactive CD8+ T cells. There was an increase in the frequency of the NRP-V7-reactive cells coinciding with the time of glucose intolerance. The T cells persisted in hyperglycemic NOD mice maintained with an insulin pellet despite destruction of β cells. We compared gene expression in the three groups of cells compared with the other two subsets of cells, and the NRP-V7-reactive cells exhibited gene expression of memory precursor effector cells. They had reduced cellular proliferation and were less dependent on oxidative phosphorylation. When prediabetic NOD mice were treated with 2-deoxyglucose to block aerobic glycolysis, there was a reduction in the diabetes antigen versus other cells of similar phenotype and loss of lymphoid cells infiltrating the islets. In addition, treatment of NOD mice with 2-deoxyglucose resulted in improved β cell granularity. These findings identify a link between metabolic disturbances and autoreactive T cells that promotes development of autoimmune diabetes. PMID:26994137

  12. Ewing sarcoma dissemination and response to T-cell therapy in mice assessed by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liebsch, L; Kailayangiri, S; Beck, L; Altvater, B; Koch, R; Dierkes, C; Hotfilder, M; Nagelmann, N; Faber, C; Kooijman, H; Ring, J; Vieth, V; Rossig, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Novel treatment strategies in Ewing sarcoma include targeted cellular therapies. Preclinical in vivo models are needed that reflect their activity against systemic (micro)metastatic disease. Methods: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) was used to monitor the engraftment and dissemination of human Ewing sarcoma xenografts in mice. In this model, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of T cells redirected against the Ewing sarcoma-associated antigen GD2 by chimeric receptor engineering. Results: Of 18 mice receiving intravenous injections of VH-64 Ewing sarcoma cells, all developed disseminated tumour growth detectable by WB-MRI. All mice had lung tumours, and the majority had additional manifestations in the bone, soft tissues, and/or kidney. Sequential scans revealed in vivo growth of tumours. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background signal suppression effectively visualised Ewing sarcoma growth in extrapulmonary sites. Animals receiving GD2-targeted T-cell therapy had lower numbers of pulmonary tumours than controls, and the median volume of soft tissue tumours at first detection was lower, with a tumour growth delay over time. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging reliably visualises disseminated Ewing sarcoma growth in mice. GD2-retargeted T cells can noticeably delay tumour growth and reduce pulmonary Ewing sarcoma manifestations in this aggressive disease model. PMID:23839490

  13. IL-2 / α-IL-2 Complex Treatment Cannot Be Substituted for the Adoptive Transfer of Regulatory T cells to Promote Bone Marrow Engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Mahr, Benedikt; Unger, Lukas; Hock, Karin; Pilat, Nina; Baranyi, Ulrike; Schwarz, Christoph; Maschke, Svenja; Farkas, Andreas Michael; Wekerle, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy with recipient Tregs achieves engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow (BM) without the need for cytoreductive conditioning (i.e., without irradiation or cytotoxic drugs). Thereby mixed chimerism and transplantation tolerance are established in recipients conditioned solely with costimulation blockade and rapamycin. However, clinical translation would be substantially facilitated if Treg-stimulating pharmaceutical agents could be used instead of individualized cell therapy. Recently, it was shown that interleukin-2 (IL-2) complexed with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) (clone JES6-1A12) against IL-2 (IL-2 complexes) potently expands and activates Tregs in vivo. Therefore, we investigated whether IL-2 complexes can replace Treg therapy in a costimulation blockade-based and irradiation-free BM transplantation (BMT) model. Unexpectedly, the administration of IL-2 complexes at the time of BMT (instead of Tregs) failed to induce BM engraftment in non-irradiated recipients (0/6 with IL-2 complexes vs. 3/4 with Tregs, p<0.05). Adding IL-2 complexes to an otherwise effective regimen involving recipient irradiation (1Gy) but no Treg transfer indeed actively triggered donor BM rejection at higher doses (0/8 with IL-2 complexes vs. 9/11 without, p<0.01) and had no detectable effect at two lower doses (3/5 vs. 9/11, p>0.05). CD8 T cells and NK cells of IL-2 complex-treated naïve mice showed an enhanced proliferative response towards donor antigens in vitro despite the marked expansion of Tregs. However, IL-2 complexes also expanded conventional CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, NK cells, NKT cells and notably even B cells, albeit to a lesser extent. Notably, IL-2 complex expanded Tregs featured less potent suppressive functions than in vitro activated Tregs in terms of T cell suppression in vitro and BM engraftment in vivo. In conclusion, these data suggest that IL-2 complexes are less effective than recipient Tregs in promoting BM engraftment and in contrast actually trigger BM

  14. IL-2/α-IL-2 Complex Treatment Cannot Be Substituted for the Adoptive Transfer of Regulatory T cells to Promote Bone Marrow Engraftment.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Benedikt; Unger, Lukas; Hock, Karin; Pilat, Nina; Baranyi, Ulrike; Schwarz, Christoph; Maschke, Svenja; Farkas, Andreas Michael; Wekerle, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy with recipient Tregs achieves engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow (BM) without the need for cytoreductive conditioning (i.e., without irradiation or cytotoxic drugs). Thereby mixed chimerism and transplantation tolerance are established in recipients conditioned solely with costimulation blockade and rapamycin. However, clinical translation would be substantially facilitated if Treg-stimulating pharmaceutical agents could be used instead of individualized cell therapy. Recently, it was shown that interleukin-2 (IL-2) complexed with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) (clone JES6-1A12) against IL-2 (IL-2 complexes) potently expands and activates Tregs in vivo. Therefore, we investigated whether IL-2 complexes can replace Treg therapy in a costimulation blockade-based and irradiation-free BM transplantation (BMT) model. Unexpectedly, the administration of IL-2 complexes at the time of BMT (instead of Tregs) failed to induce BM engraftment in non-irradiated recipients (0/6 with IL-2 complexes vs. 3/4 with Tregs, p<0.05). Adding IL-2 complexes to an otherwise effective regimen involving recipient irradiation (1Gy) but no Treg transfer indeed actively triggered donor BM rejection at higher doses (0/8 with IL-2 complexes vs. 9/11 without, p<0.01) and had no detectable effect at two lower doses (3/5 vs. 9/11, p>0.05). CD8 T cells and NK cells of IL-2 complex-treated naïve mice showed an enhanced proliferative response towards donor antigens in vitro despite the marked expansion of Tregs. However, IL-2 complexes also expanded conventional CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, NK cells, NKT cells and notably even B cells, albeit to a lesser extent. Notably, IL-2 complex expanded Tregs featured less potent suppressive functions than in vitro activated Tregs in terms of T cell suppression in vitro and BM engraftment in vivo. In conclusion, these data suggest that IL-2 complexes are less effective than recipient Tregs in promoting BM engraftment and in contrast actually trigger BM

  15. Programmed Death-Ligand 1 on Antigen-presenting Cells Facilitates the Induction of Antigen-specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes: Application to Adoptive T-Cell Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tatsunori; Nishida, Tetsuya; Takagi, Erina; Miyao, Kotaro; Koyama, Daisuke; Sakemura, Reona; Hanajiri, Ryo; Watanabe, Keisuke; Imahashi, Nobuhiko; Terakura, Seitaro; Murata, Makoto; Kiyoi, Hitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) binds to programmed death-1 (PD-1) on activated T cells and contributes to T-cell exhaustion. PD-L1 expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) could be thought to inhibit the induction of Ag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by transducing negative signal into T cells; however, the roles of PD-L1 on APCs have not yet been well examined. Therefore, we evaluated the roles of PD-L1 on APCs in the induction of Ag-specific CTLs. CD3 T cells isolated from cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive healthy donors were stimulated with mature dendritic cells pulsed with CMV pp65-derived HLA-restricted peptides in the presence of anti-PD-L1 blocking antibody. Unexpectedly, PD-L1 blockade resulted in a less efficient induction of CMV-specific CTLs, suggesting that PD-L1 play a positive role in the induction of Ag-specific CTLs. For further evaluations and application to adoptive immunotherapy, we generated K562-based artificial APCs, which were retrovirally transduced with HLA class I molecules and various combinations of CD80/86 and PD-L1. K562/HLA+CD80/86+PD-L1 cells produced significantly higher induction of CMV-specific CTLs than K562/HLA or K562/HLA+CD80/86 cells without causing excessive differentiation or functional exhaustion of the induced CTLs, whereas PD-L1 itself did not have a stimulatory effect. Furthermore, only K562/HLA+CD80/86+PD-L1 cells pulsed with HLA-A*24:02-restricted Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) peptide clearly expanded WT1-specific CTLs from healthy donors. Our findings presumed that PD-L1 expressed on APCs along with CD80/86 enhanced the induction of Ag-specific CTLs probably depending on fine-tuning excessive stimulation of CD80/86, and that K562/HLA+CD80/86+PD-L1 cells has therapeutic potential as a novel type of artificial APCs for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:27548033

  16. The effect of timing of antiretroviral therapy on CD4+ T-cell reconstitution in the intestine of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Allers, K; Puyskens, A; Epple, H-J; Schürmann, D; Hofmann, J; Moos, V; Schneider, T

    2016-01-01

    Whether and to what extent gut mucosal CD4(+) T cells of HIV-infected patients can be restored by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is not yet fully resolved. We studied absolute numbers, differentiation, and activation of mucosal CD4(+) T cells at different stages of HIV infection and assessed the effect of timing of cART initiation on this cell population. Mucosal CD4(+) T-cell numbers were severely reduced at all stages of chronic infection, but normal in patients with acute infection. In patients with initiation of cART during chronic HIV infection, mucosal CD4(+) T cells restored to less than half of the numbers in controls. However, in patients who initiated cART during acute HIV infection, mucosal CD4(+) T-cell numbers were fully preserved and markers of microbial translocation and inflammation reversed to normal. The proportion of mucosal effector memory CD4(+) T cells normalized only if cART was initiated at >350 CD4(+) T cells per μl blood but not with delayed treatment. In conclusion, mucosal CD4(+) T-cell numbers can be preserved if cART is initiated in acute HIV infection. In chronically HIV-infected patients, early cART improves mucosal CD4(+) T-cell differentiation but cannot prevent the persistent lack of total CD4(+) T cells. PMID:26129649

  17. T cell therapies-are T memory stem cells the answer?

    PubMed

    Flynn, Jacqueline K; Gorry, Paul R

    2015-10-01

    T memory stem cells (TSCM) are the earliest developmental stage of memory T cells, displaying stem cell-like properties and exhibiting a gene profile between naive and central memory (CM) T cells. Their long-lifespan, robust proliferative potential and self-renewal capacity has generated much research and clinical interest particularly for therapeutic use. Here, we discuss recent findings published in Science Translational Medicine by Biasco and colleagues [2015 Feb 4;7(273):273ra13], which provided evidence for the persistence of TSCM in humans for up to 12 years after infusion of genetically modified lymphocytes, and we examine the implications for the development of novel immunotherapies using TSCM. PMID:26605297

  18. Ex Vivo γ-Retroviral Gene Therapy of Dogs with X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and the Development of a Thymic T Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Douglas R.; Hartnett, Brian J.; Kennedy, Jeffrey S.; Vernau, William; Moore, Peter F.; O’Malley, Thomas; Burkly, Linda C.; Henthorn, Paula S.; Felsburg, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that in vivo γ-retroviral gene therapy of dogs with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) results in sustained T cell reconstitution and sustained marking in myeloid and B cells for up to 4 years with no evidence of any serious adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ex vivo γ-retroviral gene therapy of XSCID dogs results in a similar outcome. Eight of 12 XSCID dogs treated with an average of dose of 5.8 × 106 transduced CD34+ cells/kg successfully engrafted producing normal numbers of gene-corrected CD45RA+ (naïve) T cells. However, this was followed by a steady decrease in CD45RA+ T cells, T cell diversity, and thymic output as measured by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) resulting in a T cell lymphopenia. None of the dogs survived past 11 months post treatment. At necropsy, few gene-corrected thymocytes were observed correlating with the TREC levels and one of the dogs was diagnosed with a thymic T cell lymphoma that was attributed to the gene therapy. This study highlights the outcome differences between the ex vivo and in vivo approach to γ-retroviral gene therapy and is the first to document a serious adverse event following gene therapy in a canine model of a human genetic disease. PMID:21536334

  19. Manufacture of tumor- and virus-specific T lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Rivière, I

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and genetically engineered T lymphocytes expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or conventional alpha/beta T-cell receptors (TCRs), collectively termed adoptive cell therapy (ACT), is an emerging novel strategy to treat cancer patients. Application of ACT has been constrained by the ability to isolate and expand functional tumor-reactive T cells. The transition of ACT from a promising experimental regimen to an established standard of care treatment relies largely on the establishment of safe, efficient, robust and cost-effective cell manufacturing protocols. The manufacture of cellular products under current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs) has a critical role in the process. Herein, we review current manufacturing methods for the large-scale production of clinical-grade TILs, virus-specific and genetically modified CAR or TCR transduced T cells in the context of phase I/II clinical trials as well as the regulatory pathway to get these complex personalized cellular products to the clinic. PMID:25721207

  20. Manufacture of tumor- and virus-specific T lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Rivière, I

    2015-03-01

    Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and genetically engineered T lymphocytes expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or conventional alpha/beta T-cell receptors (TCRs), collectively termed adoptive cell therapy (ACT), is an emerging novel strategy to treat cancer patients. Application of ACT has been constrained by the ability to isolate and expand functional tumor-reactive T cells. The transition of ACT from a promising experimental regimen to an established standard of care treatment relies largely on the establishment of safe, efficient, robust and cost-effective cell manufacturing protocols. The manufacture of cellular products under current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs) has a critical role in the process. Herein, we review current manufacturing methods for the large-scale production of clinical-grade TILs, virus-specific and genetically modified CAR or TCR transduced T cells in the context of phase I/II clinical trials as well as the regulatory pathway to get these complex personalized cellular products to the clinic. PMID:25721207

  1. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy. PMID:10811469

  2. Blockade of TNF-α signaling benefits cancer therapy by suppressing effector regulatory T cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Yuan; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chiang, Jy-Ming; Mahalingam, Jayashri; Su, Shih-Huan; Huang, Ching-Tai; Chen, Wei-Ting; Huang, Chien-Hao; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Lin, Shi-Ming; Sheen, I-Shyan; Lin, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Effector but not naive regulatory T cells (Treg cells) can accumulate in the peripheral blood as well as the tumor microenvironment, expand during tumor progression and be one of the main suppressors for antitumor immunity. However, the underlying mechanisms for effector Treg cell expansion in tumor are still unknown. We demonstrate that effector Treg cell-mediated suppression of antitumor CD8+ T cells is tumor-nonspecific. Furthermore, TNFR2 expression is increased in these Treg cells by Affymetrix chip analysis which was confirmed by monoclonal antibody staining in both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and murine models. Correspondingly, increased levels of TNF-α in both tissue and serum were also demonstrated. Interestingly, TNF-α could not only expand effector Treg cells through TNFR2 signaling, but also enhanced their suppressive activity against antitumor immunity of CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, targeting TNFR2 signaling with a TNF-α inhibitor could selectively reduce rapid resurgence of effector Treg cells after cyclophosphamide-induced lymphodepletion and markedly inhibit the growth of established tumors. Herein, we propose a novel mechanism in which TNF-α could promote tumor-associated effector Treg cell expansion and suggest a new cancer immunotherapy strategy using TNF-α inhibitors to reduce effector Treg cells expansion after cyclophosphamide-induced lymphodepletion. PMID:26451304

  3. Design and Development of Therapies using Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Expressing T cells

    PubMed Central

    Dotti, Gianpietro; Gottschalk, Stephen; Savoldo, Barbara; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2013-01-01

    Summary Investigators developed chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for expression on T cells more than 25 years ago. When the CAR is derived from an antibody, the resultant cell should combine the desirable targeting features of an antibody (e.g. lack of requirement for major histocompatibility complex recognition, ability to recognize non-protein antigens) with the persistence, trafficking and effector functions of a T-cell. This article describes how the past two decades have seen a crescendo of research which has now begun to translate these potential benefits into effective treatments for patients with cancer. We describe the basic design of CARs, describe how antigenic targets are selected, and the initial clinical experience with CART cells. Our review then describes our own and other investigators’ work aimed at improving the function of CARs and reviews the clinical studies in hematological and solid malignancies that are beginning to exploit these approaches. Finally, we show the value of adding additional engineering features to CAR-T cells, irrespective of their target, to render them better suited to function in the tumor environment, and discuss how the safety of these heavily modified cells may be maintained. PMID:24329793

  4. Acquisition of a CD19-negative myeloid phenotype allows immune escape of MLL-rearranged B-ALL from CD19 CAR-T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Rebecca; Wu, David; Cherian, Sindhu; Fang, Min; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Finney, Olivia; Smithers, Hannah; Jensen, Michael C; Riddell, Stanley R; Maloney, David G; Turtle, Cameron J

    2016-05-19

    Administration of lymphodepletion chemotherapy followed by CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells is a remarkably effective approach to treating patients with relapsed and refractory CD19(+) B-cell malignancies. We treated 7 patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) harboring rearrangement of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene with CD19 CAR-T cells. All patients achieved complete remission (CR) in the bone marrow by flow cytometry after CD19 CAR-T-cell therapy; however, within 1 month of CAR-T-cell infusion, 2 of the patients developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that was clonally related to their B-ALL, a novel mechanism of CD19-negative immune escape. These reports have implications for the management of patients with relapsed and refractory MLL-B-ALL who receive CD19 CAR-T-cell therapy. PMID:26907630

  5. Producer T cells: Using genetically engineered T cells as vehicles to generate and deliver therapeutics to tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander K.; Davila, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is an emerging anticancer therapy that has shown promise in various malignancies. Redirecting antigen specificity by genetically engineering T cells to stably express receptors has become an effective variant of ACT. A novel extension of this approach is to utilize engineered T cells to produce and deliver anticancer therapeutics that enhance cytotoxic T cell function and simultaneously inhibit immunosuppressive processes. Here, we review the potential of using T cells as therapeutic-secreting vehicles for immunotherapies and present theoretical and established arguments in support of further development of this unique cell-based immunotherapy.

  6. Activated T cells exhibit increased uptake of silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 and increased susceptibility to Pc 4-photodynamic therapy-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Soler, David C; Ohtola, Jennifer; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Rodriguez, Myriam E; Han, Ling; Oleinick, Nancy L; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2016-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment for malignant and inflammatory dermal disorders. Photoirradiation of the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 photosensitizer with red light generates singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species to induce cell death. We previously reported that Pc 4-PDT elicited cell death in lymphoid-derived (Jurkat) and epithelial-derived (A431) cell lines in vitro, and furthermore that Jurkat cells were more sensitive than A431 cells to treatment. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of Pc 4-PDT on primary human CD3(+) T cells in vitro. Fluorometric analyses of lysed T cells confirmed the dose-dependent uptake of Pc 4 in non-stimulated and stimulated T cells. Flow cytometric analyses measuring annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) demonstrated a dose-dependent increase of T cell apoptosis (6.6-59.9%) at Pc 4 doses ranging from 0-300 nM. Following T cell stimulation through the T cell receptor using a combination of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, activated T cells exhibited increased susceptibility to Pc 4-PDT-induced apoptosis (10.6-81.2%) as determined by Pc 4 fluorescence in each cell, in both non-stimulated and stimulated T cells, Pc 4 uptake increased with Pc 4 dose up to 300 nM as assessed by flow cytometry. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of Pc 4 uptake measured in stimulated T cells was significantly increased over the uptake of resting T cells at each dose of Pc 4 tested (50, 100, 150 and 300 nM, p < 0.001 between 50 and 150 nM, n = 8). Treg uptake was diminished relative to other T cells. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) T cells appeared to take up somewhat more Pc 4 than normal resting T cells at 100 and 150 nm Pc 4. Confocal imaging revealed that Pc 4 localized in cytoplasmic organelles, with approximately half of the Pc 4 co-localized with mitochondria in T cells. Thus, Pc 4-PDT exerts an enhanced apoptotic effect on activated CD3(+) T cells that may be exploited in targeting T cell-mediated skin

  7. Results of a Randomized Phase I Gene Therapy Clinical Trial of Nononcolytic Fowlpox Viruses Encoding T Cell Costimulatory Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Won; Kim-Schulze, Seunghee; DeRaffele, Gail; Jagoda, Michael C.; Broucek, Joseph R.; Zloza, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Oncolytic viruses have shown promise as gene delivery vehicles in the treatment of cancer; however, their efficacy may be inhibited by the induction of anti-viral antibody titers. Fowlpox virus is a nonreplicating and nononcolytic vector that has been associated with lesser humoral but greater cell-mediated immunity in animal tumor models. To test whether fowlpox virus gene therapy is safe and can elicit immune responses in patients with cancer, we conducted a randomized phase I clinical trial of two recombinant fowlpox viruses encoding human B7.1 or a triad of costimulatory molecules (B7.1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3; TRICOM). Twelve patients (10 with melanoma and 2 with colon adenocarcinoma) enrolled in the trial and were randomized to rF-B7.1 or rF-TRICOM administered in a dose escalation manner (∼3.7×107 or ∼3.7×108 plaque-forming units) by intralesional injection every 4 weeks. The therapy was well tolerated, with only four patients experiencing grade 1 fever or injection site pain, and there were no serious adverse events. All patients developed anti-viral antibody titers after vector delivery, and posttreatment anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody titers were detected in the two patients with colon cancer. All patients developed CD8+ T cell responses against fowlpox virus, but few responses against defined tumor-associated antigens were observed. This is the first clinical trial of direct (intratumoral) gene therapy with a nononcolytic fowlpox virus. Treatment was well tolerated in patients with metastatic cancer; all subjects exhibited anti-viral antibody responses, but limited tumor-specific T cell responses were detected. Nononcolytic fowlpox viruses are safe and induce limited T cell responses in patients with cancer. Further development may include prime–boost strategies using oncolytic viruses for initial priming. PMID:24484178

  8. PD-1+ and Foxp3+ T cell reduction correlates with survival of HCC patients after sorafenib therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kalathil, Suresh Gopi; Lugade, Amit Anand; Miller, Austin; Iyer, Renuka; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sorafenib is an oral antiangiogenic agent administered in advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Based on preclinical and human studies, we hypothesized that, in addition to its antiangiogenic properties, sorafenib may beneficially reduce the extent of the immunosuppressive network in HCC patients. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether alterations in the immunosuppressive burden of advanced-stage HCC patients correlated with clinical outcome. METHODS In before and after sorafenib treatment, blood samples collected from 19 patients with advanced HCC, the frequency of PD-1+ T cells, Tregs, and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were quantified by multiparameter FACS. Cytokine levels in plasma were determined by ELISA. RESULTS Overall survival (OS) was significantly impacted by the reduction in the absolute number of both CD4+PD-1+ T cells and CD8+PD-1+ T cells following sorafenib treatment. Significant decreases in the frequency and absolute number of Foxp3+ Tregs were also observed, and a statistically significant improvement in OS was noted in patients exhibiting a greater decrease in the number of Foxp3+ Tregs. The ratio of CD4+CD127+PD-1− T effector cells to CD4+Foxp3+PD-1+ Tregs was significantly increased following treatment with sorafenib. Increased frequency of CD4+CD127+ T effector cells in the posttreatment samples significantly correlated with OS. CONCLUSION This study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate the potent immunomodulatory effects of sorafenib therapy on PD-1+ T cells and Tregs and the ensuing correlation with survival. These phenotypes could serve as predictive biomarkers to identify HCC patients who are likely to benefit from sorafenib treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION Registration is not required for observational studies. FUNDING This study was supported by NCI Core Grant to RPCI (NIH P30 CA016056) and discretionary funds to Y. Thanavala. PMID:27540594

  9. Infliximab therapy balances regulatory T cells, tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) expression and soluble TNFR2 in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, A; Hijdra, D; Vorselaars, A D M; Crommelin, H A; van Moorsel, C H M; Grutters, J C; Claessen, A M E

    2016-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology that most commonly affects the lungs. Although elevated levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs ) have been reported, the extent to which they play a role in sarcoidosis pathogenesis remains unclear. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is thought to be one of the driving forces behind granuloma formation, illustrated by the efficacy of infliximab in severe sarcoidosis. Tregs express TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) highly. Here, we examined the influence of infliximab therapy on Tregs and (soluble) TNFR2 levels in sarcoidosis, and correlated these with response to therapy. We observed that relative frequencies of Tregs were significantly higher in patients (n = 54) compared to healthy controls (n = 26; median 6·73 versus 4·36%; P < 0·001) and decreased following therapy (4·95; P < 0·001). Baseline TNFR2 expression on Tregs was increased significantly in patients versus controls (99·4 versus 96·2%; P = 0·031), and also in responders to therapy versus non-responders (99·6 versus 97·3%; P = 0·012). Furthermore, baseline soluble TNFR2 (sTNFR2) was higher in responders than in non-responders (mean 174 versus 107 pg/ml; P = 0·015). After treatment, responders showed a significant reduction in sTNFR2 levels in peripheral blood (-44·7 pg/ml; P < 0·001), in contrast to non-responders (+3·59 pg/ml). Our results demonstrated that Treg frequencies and TNFR2 expression on Tregs are increased in sarcoidosis, followed by a decline during infliximab therapy, suggesting a pathophysiological role of this T cell subset. Interestingly, sTNFR2 levels at baseline differed significantly between responders and non-responders, making it a potential marker in predicting which patients might benefit from infliximab. PMID:27158798

  10. Scientists adopt new strategy to find Huntington's disease therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 President's Budget Calendar of Events Proceedings Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Scientists adopt new strategy to find Huntington’s disease therapies Follow NINDSnews For ...

  11. CD8+ T Cells Specific to Apoptosis-Associated Antigens Predict the Response to Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Citro, Alessandra; Scrivo, Rossana; Martini, Helene; Martire, Carmela; De Marzio, Paolo; Vestri, Anna Rita; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Barnaba, Vincenzo; Valesini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    CD8+ T cells specific to caspase-cleaved antigens derived from apoptotic T cells (apoptotic epitopes) represent a principal player in chronic immune activation, which is known to amplify immunopathology in various inflammatory diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship involving these autoreactive T cells, the rheumatoid arthritis immunopathology, and the response to tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy. The frequency of autoreactive CD8+ T cells specific to various apoptotic epitopes, as detected by both enzyme-linked immunospot assay and dextramers of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules complexed with relevant apoptotic epitopes, was longitudinally analyzed in the peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients who were submitted to etanercept treatment (or other tumor necrosis factor inhibitors as a control). The percentage of apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells was significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients than in healthy donors, and correlated with the disease activity. More important, it was significantly more elevated in responders to tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy than in non-responders before the start of therapy; it significantly dropped only in the former following therapy. These data indicate that apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells may be involved in rheumatoid arthritis immunopathology through the production of inflammatory cytokines and that they may potentially represent a predictive biomarker of response to tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy to validate in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:26061065

  12. A Subset of CD4/CD8 Double-Negative T Cells Expresses HIV Proteins in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    DeMaster, Laura K.; Liu, Xiaohe; VanBelzen, D. Jake; Trinité, Benjamin; Zheng, Lingjie; Agosto, Luis M.; Migueles, Stephen A.; Connors, Mark; Sambucetti, Lidia; Levy, David N.; Pasternak, Alexander O.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A major goal in HIV eradication research is characterizing the reservoir cells that harbor HIV in the presence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), which reseed viremia after treatment is stopped. In general, it is assumed that the reservoir consists of CD4+ T cells that express no viral proteins. However, recent findings suggest that this may be an overly simplistic view and that the cells that contribute to the reservoir may be a diverse population that includes both CD4+ and CD4− cells. In this study, we directly infected resting CD4+ T cells and used fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and fiber-optic array scanning technology (FAST) to identify and image cells expressing HIV Gag. We found that Gag expression from integrated proviruses occurred in resting cells that lacked surface CD4, likely resulting from Nef- and Env-mediated receptor internalization. We also extended our approach to detect cells expressing HIV proteins in patients suppressed on ART. We found evidence that rare Gag+ cells persist during ART and that these cells are often negative for CD4. We propose that these double-negative α/β T cells that express HIV protein may be a component of the long-lived reservoir. IMPORTANCE A reservoir of infected cells persists in HIV-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy (ART) that leads to rebound of virus if treatment is stopped. In this study, we used flow cytometry and cell imaging to characterize protein expression in HIV-infected resting cells. HIV Gag protein can be directly detected in infected resting cells and occurs with simultaneous loss of CD4, consistent with the expression of additional viral proteins, such as Env and Nef. Gag+ CD4− cells can also be detected in suppressed patients, suggesting that a subset of infected cells express proteins during ART. Understanding the regulation of viral protein expression during ART will be key to designing effective strategies to eradicate HIV reservoirs. PMID:26537682

  13. Preclinical targeting of human T-cell malignancies using CD4-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells.

    PubMed

    Pinz, K; Liu, H; Golightly, M; Jares, A; Lan, F; Zieve, G W; Hagag, N; Schuster, M; Firor, A E; Jiang, X; Ma, Y

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are aggressive lymphomas with no effective upfront standard treatment and ineffective options in relapsed disease, resulting in poorer clinical outcomes as compared with B-cell lymphomas. The adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is a promising new approach for treatment of hematological malignancies. However, preclinical reports of targeting T-cell lymphoma with CARs are almost non-existent. Here we have designed a CAR, CD4CAR, which redirects the antigen specificity of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells to CD4-expressing cells. CD4CAR T cells derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cord blood effectively redirected T-cell specificity against CD4+ cells in vitro. CD4CAR T cells efficiently eliminated a CD4+ leukemic cell line and primary CD4+ PTCL patient samples in co-culture assays. Notably, CD4CAR T cells maintained a central memory stem cell-like phenotype (CD8+CD45RO+CD62L+) under standard culture conditions. Furthermore, in aggressive orthotropic T-cell lymphoma models, CD4CAR T cells efficiently suppressed the growth of lymphoma cells while also significantly prolonging mouse survival. Combined, these studies demonstrate that CD4CAR-expressing CD8+ T cells are efficacious in ablating malignant CD4+ populations, with potential use as a bridge to transplant or stand-alone therapy for the treatment of PTCLs. PMID:26526988

  14. Targeted T cell Therapy in Stage IV Breast Cancer: A Phase I Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Lawrence G.; Thakur, Archana; Al-Kadhimi, Zaid; Colvin, Gerald A.; Cummings, Francis J.; Legare, Robert D.; Dizon, Don S.; Kouttab, Nicola; Maizel, Abby; Colaiace, William; Liu, Qin; Rathore, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study reports a phase I immunotherapy (IT) trial in 23 women with metastatic breast cancer consisting of eight infusions of anti-CD3 × anti-HER2 bispecific antibody (HER2Bi) armed anti-CD3 activated T cells (ATC) in combination with low dose interleukin 2 (IL-2) and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor to determine safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), technical feasibility, T cell trafficking, immune responses, time to progression, and overall survival (OS). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN ATC were expanded from leukapheresis product using IL-2 and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody and armed with HER2Bi. In 3+3 dose escalation design, groups of 3 patients received 5, 10, 20, or 40 × 109 armed ATC (aATC) per infusion. RESULTS There were no dose limiting toxicities and the MTD was not defined. It was technically feasible to grow 160 × 109 ATC from a single leukapheresis. aATC persisted in the blood for weeks and trafficked to tumors. Infusions of aATC induced anti-breast cancer responses and increases in immunokines. At 14.5 weeks after enrollment, 13 of 22 (59.1%) evaluable patients had stable disease and 9 of 22 (40.9%) had progressive disease. The median OS was 36.2 months for all patients, 57.4 months for HER2 3+ patients, and 27.4 months for HER2 0–2+ patients. CONCLUSIONS Targeting HER2 positive and negative tumors with aATC infusions induced anti-tumor responses, increases in Th1 cytokines and IL-12 serum levels that suggest that aATC infusions vaccinated patients against their own tumors. These results provide a strong rationale for conducting phase II trials. PMID:25688159

  15. Development of Human Anti-Murine T-cell Receptor Antibodies in Both Responding and Non-responding Patients Enrolled in TCR Gene Therapy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jeremy L.; Theoret, Marc R.; Zheng, Zhili; Lamers, Cor; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Morgan, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Immune responses to gene-modified cells are a concern in the field of human gene therapy as they may impede effective treatment. We conducted two clinical trials in which cancer patients were treated with lymphocytes genetically engineered to express murine T cell receptors (mTCR) specific for tumor-associated antigens p53 and gp100. Experimental Design Twenty-six patients treated with autologous lymphocytes expressing mTCR had blood and serum samples available for analysis. Patient sera were assayed for development of a humoral immune response. Adoptive cell transfer characteristics were analyzed to identify correlates to immune response. Results Six of 26 (23%) patients post-treatment sera exhibited specific binding of human anti-mTCR antibodies to lymphocytes transduced with the mTCR. Antibody development was found in both responding and non-responding patients. Three of these six patients post-treatment sera mediated a 60 – 99% inhibition of mTCR activity as measured by a reduction in antigen-specific IFN-γ release. Detailed analysis of post-treatment serum revealed that antibody binding was beta chain specific in one patient whereas it was alpha chain specific in another. Conclusions A subset of patients treated with mTCR engineered T-cells developed antibodies directed to the mTCR variable regions and not to the constant region domains common to all mTCR. Overall, the development of a host immune response was not associated with the level of transduced cell persistence or response to therapy. In summary, patients treated with mTCR can develop an immune response to gene-modified cells in a minority of cases, but this may not affect clinical outcome. PMID:21138872

  16. A new approach to gene therapy using Sleeping Beauty to genetically modify clinical-grade T cells to target CD19

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harjeet; Huls, Helen; Cooper, Laurence JN

    2014-01-01

    Summary The advent of efficient approaches to the genetic modification of T cells has provided investigators with clinically appealing approaches to improve the potency of tumor-specific clinical grade T cells. For example, gene therapy has been successfully used to enforce expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) that provide T cells with ability to directly recognize tumor-associated antigens without the need for presentation by human leukocyte antigen. Gene transfer of CARs can be undertaken using viral-based and non-viral approaches. We have advanced DNA vectors derived from the Sleeping Beauty (SB) system to avoid the expense and manufacturing difficulty associated with transducing T cells with recombinant viral vectors. After electroporation, the transposon/transposase system improves the efficiency of integration of plasmids used to express CAR and other transgenes in T cells. The SB system combined with artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPC) can selectively propagate and thus retrieve CAR+ T cells suitable for human application. This review describes the translation of the SB system and aAPC for use in clinical trials and highlights how a nimble and cost-effective approach to developing genetically modified T cells can be used to implement clinical trials infusing next-generation T cells with improved therapeutic potential. PMID:24329797

  17. Exploring the mode of action of dithranol therapy for psoriasis: a metabolomic analysis using HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Hollywood, Katherine A; Winder, Catherine L; Dunn, Warwick B; Xu, Yun; Broadhurst, David; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Goodacre, Royston

    2015-08-01

    Psoriasis is a common, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease characterized by red, heavily scaled plaques. The disease affects over one million people in the UK and causes significant physical, psychological and societal impact. There is limited understanding regarding the exact pathogenesis of the disease although it is believed to be a consequence of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Treatments vary from topical therapies, such as dithranol, for disease of limited extent (<5% body surface area) to the new immune-targeted biologic therapies for severe psoriasis. Dithranol (also known as anthralin) is a topical therapy for psoriasis believed to work by inhibiting keratinocyte proliferation. To date there have been no metabolomic-based investigations into psoriasis. The HaCaT cell line is a model system for the epidermal keratinocyte proliferation characteristic of psoriasis and was thus chosen for study. Dithranol was applied at therapeutically relevant doses to HaCaT cells. Following the optimisation of enzyme inactivation and metabolite extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed for metabolomics as this addresses central metabolism. Cells were challenged with 0-0.5 μg mL(-1) in 0.1 μg mL(-1) steps and this quantitative perturbation generated data that were highly amenable to correlation analysis. Thus, we used a combination of traditional principal components analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, along with correlation networks. All methods highlighted distinct metabolite groups, which had different metabolite trajectories with respect to drug concentration and the interpretation of these data established that cellular metabolism had been altered significantly and provided further clarification of the proposed mechanism of action of the drug. PMID:26018604

  18. Intestinal Parasitosis in Relation to Anti-Retroviral Therapy, CD4+ T-cell Count and Diarrhea in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Shehla; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Sinha, Sanjeev; Panda, Ashutosh; Singh, Yogita; Joseph, Anju; Deb, Manorama

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the major causes of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive individuals. Antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of many opportunistic infections, but parasite-related diarrhea still remains frequent and often underestimated especially in developing countries. The present hospital-based study was conducted to determine the spectrum of intestinal parasitosis in adult HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients with or without diarrhea with the levels of CD4+ T-cell counts. A total of 400 individuals were enrolled and were screened for intestinal parasitosis. Of these study population, 200 were HIV seropositives, and the remaining 200 were HIV uninfected individuals with or without diarrhea. Intestinal parasites were identified by using microscopy as well as PCR assay. A total of 130 (32.5%) out of 400 patients were positive for any kinds of intestinal parasites. The cumulative number of parasite positive patients was 152 due to multiple infections. A significant association of Cryptosporidium (P<0.001) was detected among individuals with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200 cells/μl. PMID:26797437

  19. Improved Treatment of Breast Cancer with Anti-HER2 Therapy Requires Interleukin-21 Signaling in CD8+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Deepak; Caramia, Franco; Michiels, Stefan; Joensuu, Heikki; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Sotiriou, Christos; Loi, Sherene; Smyth, Mark J

    2016-01-15

    The HER2/ErbB2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) trastuzumab is combined with chemotherapy as a standard-of-care for newly diagnosed HER2(+) breast cancer patients, but some patients treated with this combination therapy experience early relapse. Our analysis of data from a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapy plus/minus trastuzumab suggested that the magnitude of trastuzumab benefit on distant disease-free survival was higher for increasing expression of the IL21 receptor (IL21R). Therefore, we investigated a possible role for IL21 signaling in promoting HER2 mAb therapeutic efficacy. We found that IL21R-deficient mice and wild-type mice treated with a neutralizing anti-IL21 mAb were less susceptible to trastuzumab-like anti-ErbB2 therapy. Furthermore, IL21R expression on CD8(+) T cells, but not on natural killer cells, was required for optimal anti-ErbB2 mAb efficacy, and IL21 expression was enhanced in tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) T lymphocytes after anti-ErbB2 therapy. Finally, we found that administering recombinant IL21 in combination with anti-ErbB2 therapy was therapeutic against primary tumors and experimental metastases in mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that elevating IL21 signaling may enhance trastuzumab efficacy, thus constituting a novel candidate strategy to overcome trastuzumab resistance and improve patient survival. Cancer PMID:26744522

  20. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-directed adoptive immunotherapy: a new era in targeted cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yamei

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the recent advances in molecular immunology, virology, genetics, and cell processing, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-directed cancer therapy has finally arrived for clinical application. CAR-directed adoptive immunotherapy represents a novel form of gene therapy, cellular therapy, and immunotherapy, a combination of three in one. Early phase clinical trial was reported in patients with refractory chronic lymphoid leukemia with 17p deletion. Accompanying the cytokine storm and tumor lysis syndrome was the shocking disappearance of the leukemia cells refractory to chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies. CAR therapy was reproduced in both children and adults with refractory acute lymphoid leukemia. The CAR technology is being explored for solid tumor therapy, such as glioma. Close to 30 clinical trials are underway in the related fields (www.clinicaltrials.gov). Further improvement in gene targeting, cell expansion, delivery constructs (such as using Sleeping Beauty or Piggyback transposons) will undoubtedly enhance clinical utility. It is foreseeable that CAR-engineered T cell therapy will bring targeted cancer therapy into a new era.

  1. Timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation after diagnosis of recent human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4(+) T-cell recovery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Y; Duan, S; Wu, Z; Ye, R; Yang, Y; Yao, S; Wang, J; Xiang, L; Jiang, Y; Lu, L; Jia, M; Detels, R; He, N

    2016-03-01

    We retrospectively examined the timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and CD4(+) T-cell recovery over 36 months among recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections using BED (HIV-1 subtypes B, E and D) immunoglobulin G capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA). Regardless of baseline CD4(+) counts, individuals (n = 393) who initiated ART >2 months after diagnosis had significantly decreased probability and rate of achieving CD4(+) counts ≥900 cells/μL or ≥600 cells/μL than those individuals (n = 135) who started ART earlier (≤2 months). But the mean CD4(+) counts in two groups converged after 30 months of treatment. Early ART initiation leads to accelerated CD4(+) recovery, but does not offer a long-term advantage in CD4(+) counts. PMID:26627338

  2. The NOTCH signaling pathway: role in the pathogenesis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and implication for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tosello, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) is characterized by aberrant activation of NOTCH1 in over 60% of T-ALL cases. The high prevalence of activating NOTCH1 mutations highlights the critical role of NOTCH signaling in the pathogenesis of this disease and has prompted the development of therapeutic approaches targeting the NOTCH signaling pathway. Small molecule gamma secretase inhibitors (GSIs) can effectively inhibit oncogenic NOTCH1 and are in clinical testing for the treatment of T-ALL. Treatment with GSIs and glucocorticoids are strongly synergistic and may overcome the gastrointestinal toxicity associated with systemic inhibition of the NOTCH pathway. In addition, emerging new anti-NOTCH1 therapies include selective inhibition of NOTCH1 with anti-NOTCH1 antibodies and stapled peptides targeting the NOTCH transcriptional complex in the nucleus. PMID:23730497

  3. CARs: Driving T-cell specificity to enhance anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kebriaei, Partow; Kelly, Susan S.; Manuri, Pallavi; Jena, Bipulendu; Jackson, Rineka; Shpall, Elizabeth; Champlin, Richard; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells is a compelling tool to treat cancer. To overcome issues of immune tolerance which limits the endogenous adaptive immune response to tumor-associated antigens, robust systems for the genetic modification and characterization of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to redirect specificity have been produced. Refinements with regards to persistence and trafficking of the genetically modified T cells are underway to help improve the potency of genetically modified T cells. Clinical trials utilizing this technology demonstrate feasibility, and increasingly, antitumor activity, paving the way for multi-center trials to establish the efficacy of this novel T-cell therapy. PMID:22202074

  4. Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 and Photodynamic Therapy in Stage IA-IIA Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-03

    Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage II Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IIA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome

  5. Incomplete Reconstitution of T Cell Subsets on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 384

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Gregory K.; Spritzler, John G.; Chan, Ellen S.; Asmuth, David M.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Rodriguez, Benigno A.; Skowron, Gail; Skolnik, Paul R.; Shafer, Robert W.; Pollard, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) results in higher total CD4 cell counts, a surrogate for immune reconstitution. Whether the baseline CD4 cell count affects reconstitution of immune cell subsets has not been well characterized. Methods Using data from 978 patients (621 with comprehensive immunological assessments) from the AIDS [Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome] Clinical Trials Group protocol 384, a randomized trial of initial ART, we compared reconstitution of CD4+, CD4+ naive and memory, CD4+ activation, CD8+, CD8+ activation, B, and natural killer cells among patients in different baseline CD4+ strata. Reference ranges for T cell populations in control patients negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were calculated using data from AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5113. Results Patients in the lower baseline CD4+ strata did not achieve total CD4+ cell counts similar to those of patients in the higher strata during 144 weeks of ART, although CD4+ cell count increases were similar. Ratios of CD4+ naive-memory cell counts and CD4+:CD8+ cell counts remained significantly reduced in patients with lower baseline CD4+ cell counts (≤350 cells/mm3). These immune imbalances were most notable for those initiating ART with a baseline CD4+ cell count ≤200 cells/mm3, even after adjustment for baseline plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusions After nearly 3 years of ART, T cell subsets in patients with baseline CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/mm3 achieved or approached the reference range those of control individuals without HIV infection. In contrast, patients who began ART with ≤350 CD4+ cells/mm3 generally did not regain normal CD4+ naive-memory cell ratios. These results support current guidelines to start ART at a threshold of 350 cells/mm3 and suggest that there may be immunological benefits associated with initiating therapy at even higher CD4+ cell counts. PMID:19123865

  6. Rhodococcus equi Infection after Alemtuzumab Therapy for T-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Herman G.; van Assen, Sander; Leduc, Dominique; Daenen, Simon M.G.J.; Arends, Jan P.; van der Werf, Tjip S.

    2007-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi, mainly known from veterinary medicine as a pathogen in domestic animals, can also cause infections in immunocompromised humans, especially in those with defects in cellular immunity. Alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, causes lymphocytopenia by eliminating CD52-positive cells. We report a patient in whom Rhodococcus equi infection developed after alemtuzumab therapy. PMID:18258054

  7. Circulating T-cell subsets in Graves' disease: differences between patients with active disease and in remission after /sup 131/I-therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Canonica, G.W.; Bagnasco, M.; Ferrini, S.; Biassoni, P.; Giordano, G.; Corte, G.

    1983-08-01

    In the present investigation some surface markers in peripheral blood T lymphocytes of patients with active Graves' disease and subjects in remission after /sup 131/I-therapy have been studied. We confirmed low TG levels in untreated patients and normal values in treated subjects. Increased percentages of DR+, MLR4+ (activated T cells), and 5/9+ (inducer-helper) T cells were detected in patients with active disease, thus indicating the presence of activated T cells and suggesting increased levels of helper T cells. High percentages of MLR4+ and 5/9+, but normal levels of DR+ were found in /sup 131/I-treated subjects. The different distribution of DR and MLR4 positivities on 5/9+ and 5+9-T cells confirm the different meaning of these two markers of the activation state. The imbalance of T-cell subsets found in /sup 131/I-treated subjects and the normal values observed in patients with hyperthyroidism due to toxic adenoma indicate that hyperthyroidism per se is not sufficient to explain the T-cell alterations. The possible meaning of these findings is discussed with respect to previous hypotheses on the pathogenesis of Graves' disease.

  8. Conservation of Pathogenic TCR Homology Across Class II Restrictions in Anti-RNP Autoimmunity: Extended Efficacy of T Cell Vaccine Therapy1

    PubMed Central

    Zang, YunJuan; Martinez, Laisel; Fernandez, Irina; Pignac-Kobinger, Judith; Greidinger, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    T cells have been shown to mediate aspects of anti-RNP autoimmunity, and are a potential target of therapy in lupus and related diseases. In this study, we assessed the relevance of a conserved class of anti-RNP T cells to autoimmune disease expression and therapy. Our data show that anti-RNP T cell selection induced a limited set of homologous CDR3 motifs at high frequency. Homologous CDR3 motifs have been reported in other autoimmune diseases. Vaccination with irradiated anti-RNP (but not anti-Tetanus Toxoid) CD4+ cells induced remission of anti-RNP-associated nephritis in at least 80% of treated mice, even with donor/recipient MHC Class II mismatch, and in both induced and spontaneous autoimmunity. Vaccine responder sera inhibited anti-70k T cell proliferation and bound hybridomas expressing the conserved CDR3 motifs. Our data indicate that a limited set of TCR CDR3 motifs may be important for the pathogenesis of anti-RNP lupus and other autoimmune diseases. The ability to target a consistent set of pathogenic T cells between individuals and across Class II restrictions may allow for the more practical development of a standardized anti-RNP T cell vaccine preparation useful for multiple patients. PMID:24670800

  9. Planes, Trains, and Automobiles: Perspectives on CAR T Cells and Other Cellular Therapies for Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gill, Saar

    2016-08-01

    Hematologic oncologists now have at their disposal (or a referral away) a myriad of new options to get from point A (a patient with relapsed or poor-risk disease) to point B (potential tumor eradication and long-term disease-free survival). In this perspective piece, we discuss the putative mechanisms of action and the relative strengths and weaknesses of currently available cellular therapy approaches. Notably, while many of these approaches have been published in high impact journals, with the exception of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and of checkpoint inhibitors (PD1/PDL1 or CTLA4 blockade), the published clinical trials have mostly been early phase, uncontrolled studies. Therefore, many of the new cellular therapy approaches have yet to demonstrate incontrovertible evidence of enhanced overall survival compared with controls. Nonetheless, the science behind these is sure to advance our understanding of cancer immunology and ultimately to bring us closer to our goal of curing cancer. PMID:27136938

  10. Esophageal involvement by extranodal natural killer T cell lymphoma, nasal type, mimicking Ebstein Barr viral esophagitis in a tonsillar lymphoma patient undergoing chemoradiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se Ryeon; Park, Eun Kyung; Won, Nam Hee; Kim, Byung Soo

    2010-09-01

    Esophageal involvement by extranodal natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, is rare. As a result, esophageal symptoms in these patients might at first be thought to originate from a benign condition, such as viral esophagitis. It is important to note, however, that benign conditions may mask esophageal involvement by lymphoma. Until now, there has been no report documenting esophageal involvement by lymphoma mimicking viral esophagitis in an extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma patient undergoing active treatment. Here, we report a case of esophageal involvement by extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, initially misdiagnosed as Ebstein Barr virus esophagitis. Lymphoma invasion of the esophagus should be considered if esophageal symptoms do not respond to usual medical esophagitis therapy in an extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, patient undergoing chemoradiation. PMID:20887494

  11. IL-21-mediated potentiation of antitumor cytolytic and proinflammatory responses of human V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells for adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thedrez, Aurélie; Harly, Christelle; Morice, Alexis; Salot, Samuel; Bonneville, Marc; Scotet, Emmanuel

    2009-03-15

    Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes are a major human gammadelta T cell subset that react against a wide array of tumor cells, through recognition of phosphorylated isoprenoid pathway metabolites called phosphoantigens. Immunotherapeutic protocols targeting Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells have yielded promising, yet limited, signs of antitumor efficacy. To improve these approaches, we analyzed the effects on gammadelta T cells of IL-21, a cytokine known to enhance proliferation and effector functions of CD8(+) T cells and NK cells. IL-21 induced limited division of phosphoantigen-stimulated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells, but did not modulate their sustained expansion induced by exogenous IL-2. Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells expanded in the presence of IL-21 and IL-2 showed enhanced antitumor cytolytic responses, associated with increased expression of CD56 and several lytic molecules, and increased tumor-induced degranulation capacity. IL-21 plus IL-2-expanded Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells expressed higher levels of inhibitory receptors (e.g., ILT2 and NKG2A) and lower levels of the costimulatory molecule NKG2D. Importantly, these changes were rapidly and reversibly induced after short-term culture with IL-21. Finally, IL-21 irreversibly enhanced the proinflammatory Th1 polarization of expanded Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells when added at the beginning of the culture. These data suggest a new role played by IL-21 in the cytotoxic and Th1 programming of precommitted Ag-stimulated gammadelta T cells. On a more applied standpoint, IL-21 could be combined to IL-2 to enhance gammadelta T cell-mediated antitumor responses, and thus represents a promising way to optimize immunotherapies targeting this cell subset. PMID:19265120

  12. Preventing stem cell transplantation-associated viral infections using T-cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tzannou, Ifigeneia; Leen, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for many hematologic malignancies and genetic diseases. However, viral infections continue to account for substantial post-transplant morbidity and mortality. While antiviral drugs are available against some viruses, they are associated with significant side effects and are frequently ineffective. This review focuses on the immunotherapeutic strategies that have been used to prevent and treat infections over the past 20 years and outlines different refinements that have been introduced with the goal of moving this therapy beyond specialized academic centers. PMID:26250410

  13. Does thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine therapy, or antithyroid drug treatment alter reactivity of patients` T cells to epitopes of thyrotropin receptor in autoimmune thyroid diseases?

    SciTech Connect

    Soliman, M.; Kaplan, E.; Abdel-Latif, A.

    1995-08-01

    The effect of treatment on thyroid antibody production and T cell reactivity to thyroid antigens was studied in 15 patients with Graves` disease (GD) before and after thyroidectomy, 19 patients with GD before and after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, and 9 patients maintained euthyroid on antithyroid drugs (ATD). In GD patients, the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and TSH receptor (TSHR)-specific T cell lines to recombinant human TSHR extracellular domain, thyroglobulin, and TSHR peptides were examined on the day of surgery or RAI therapy (day 0) and also 6-8 weeks and 3-6 months thereafter. Reactivity to TSHR peptides before surgery was heterogeneous and spanned the entire extracellular domain. Six to 8 weeks after subtotal thyroidectomy, the number of patients` PBMC responding to any peptide and the average number of recognized peptides decreased. A further decrease in the T cell reactivity to TSHR peptides was observed 3-6 months after surgery. The responses of PBMC from Graves` patients before RAI therapy were less than those in the presurgical group. Six to 8 weeks after RAI therapy, the number of patients responding to any peptide and the average number of recognized peptides increased. Three to 6 months after RAI, T cell responses to TSHR peptides were less than those 6-8 weeks after RAI therapy, but still higher than the values on day 0. Responses of PBMC from patients with GD, maintained euthyroid on ATD, were lower than those before surgery or RAI therapy. The reactivity of T cell lines in different groups reflected a pattern similar to PBMC after treatment. TSHR antibody and microsomal antibody levels decreased after surgery, but increased after RAI therapy. The difference in the number of recognized peptides by patients` PBMC before RAI and surgery may reflect the effect of long term therapy with ATD in the patients before RAI vs. the shorter period in patients before surgery. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. A Functionally Superior Second-Generation Vector Expressing an Aurora Kinase-A-Specific T-Cell Receptor for Anti-Leukaemia Adoptive Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Casey, Nicholas Paul; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Kazushi; Okamoto, Sachiko; Mineno, Junichi; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Shiku, Hiroshi; Yasukawa, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Aurora Kinase A is a cancer-associated protein normally involved in the regulation of mitosis. Being over-expressed in a range of cancers, it is a suitable target for cell-based immunotherapy. Gene transfer of T-cell receptor sequences cognisant of HLA-A*0201-restricted Aurora Kinase A antigen has previously been shown to transfer specific immunoreactivity against the target peptide in a Human Lymphocyte Antigen-restricted manner. While T cell receptor gene-transfer has great potential in overcoming the difficulties of isolating and expanding tumour-reactive lymphocytes from a patient's own cells, one hurdle is potential mispairing and competition between exogenous and endogenous T cell receptor chains. We have used a retroviral vector design bearing a short-interfering RNA that downregulates endogenous T cell receptor chains, without affecting expression of the transgenic T cell receptor sequences. The T cell receptor expression cassette also includes a 2A self-cleaving peptide, resulting in equimolar expression of the T cell receptor alpha and beta chains, further enhancing formation of the desired T cell receptor. Via a simple, modular cloning method, we have cloned the alpha and beta chains of the anti-Aurora Kinase A-reactive T cell receptor into this 'siTCR' vector. We then compared the activity of this vector against the original, 'conventional' vector across a panel of assays. T cell receptors expressed from the siTCR-vector retained the cytotoxic functionality of the original vector, with evidence of reduced off-target reactivity. The rate of expression of correctly-formed T cell receptors was superior using the siTCR design, and this was achieved at lower vector copy numbers. Maintaining T cell receptor efficacy with a reduced vector copy number reduces the risk of genotoxicity. The siTCR design also reduces the risk of mispairing and cross-reactivity, while increasing the functional titre. Such improvements in the safety of T cell receptor gene

  15. A Functionally Superior Second-Generation Vector Expressing an Aurora Kinase-A-Specific T-Cell Receptor for Anti-Leukaemia Adoptive Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Nicholas Paul; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Kazushi; Okamoto, Sachiko; Mineno, Junichi; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Shiku, Hiroshi; Yasukawa, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Aurora Kinase A is a cancer-associated protein normally involved in the regulation of mitosis. Being over-expressed in a range of cancers, it is a suitable target for cell-based immunotherapy. Gene transfer of T-cell receptor sequences cognisant of HLA-A*0201-restricted Aurora Kinase A antigen has previously been shown to transfer specific immunoreactivity against the target peptide in a Human Lymphocyte Antigen-restricted manner. While T cell receptor gene-transfer has great potential in overcoming the difficulties of isolating and expanding tumour-reactive lymphocytes from a patient’s own cells, one hurdle is potential mispairing and competition between exogenous and endogenous T cell receptor chains. We have used a retroviral vector design bearing a short-interfering RNA that downregulates endogenous T cell receptor chains, without affecting expression of the transgenic T cell receptor sequences. The T cell receptor expression cassette also includes a 2A self-cleaving peptide, resulting in equimolar expression of the T cell receptor alpha and beta chains, further enhancing formation of the desired T cell receptor. Via a simple, modular cloning method, we have cloned the alpha and beta chains of the anti-Aurora Kinase A-reactive T cell receptor into this ‘siTCR’ vector. We then compared the activity of this vector against the original, ‘conventional’ vector across a panel of assays. T cell receptors expressed from the siTCR-vector retained the cytotoxic functionality of the original vector, with evidence of reduced off-target reactivity. The rate of expression of correctly-formed T cell receptors was superior using the siTCR design, and this was achieved at lower vector copy numbers. Maintaining T cell receptor efficacy with a reduced vector copy number reduces the risk of genotoxicity. The siTCR design also reduces the risk of mispairing and cross-reactivity, while increasing the functional titre. Such improvements in the safety of T cell receptor gene

  16. Inclusion of Strep-Tag II in design of antigen receptors for T cell immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingfeng; Sommermeyer, Daniel; Cabanov, Alexandra; Kosasih, Paula; Hill, Tyler; Riddell, Stanley R

    2016-01-01

    The tactical introduction of Strep-tag II into synthetic antigen receptors provides engineered T cells with a marker for identification and rapid purification, and a functional element for selective antibody coated microbead-driven large-scale expansion. Such receptor designs can be applied to chimeric antigen receptors of different ligand specificities and costimulatory domains, and to T cell receptors to facilitate cGMP manufacturing of adoptive T cell therapies to treat cancer and other diseases. PMID:26900664

  17. The number of regulatory T cells correlates with hemodynamic improvement in patients with inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy after immunoadsorption therapy.

    PubMed

    Bulut, D; Creutzenberg, G; Mügge, A

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory DCM (iDCM) may be related to autoimmune processes. An immunoadsorption (IA) has been reported to improve cardiac hemodynamics. The benefit of IA is probably related to the removal of autoantibodies. A recent study suggests additional effects of IA on the T cell-mediated immune reactions, especially on regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this prospective study, the correlation between the level of Tregs and improvement of myocardial contractility in response to IA in patients with iDCM was investigated. Patients (n = 18) with iDCM, reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (<35%), were enrolled for IA. Before and 6 months after IA, LV systolic function was assessed by echocardiography, and blood levels of Tregs were quantified by FACS analysis. Patients (n = 12) with chronic ischaemic heart failure and comparable reduced LV-EF served as controls. IA improved LV-EF in 12 of 18 patients at 6-month follow-up. These patients were classified as 'IA responder'. In 6 patients, LV-EF remained unchanged. At baseline, IA responder and non-responder subgroups showed similar values for C-reactive protein, white blood cells, lymphocytes and T helper cells, but they differ for the number of circulating Tregs (responder: 2.32 ± 1.38% versus non-responder: 4.86 ± 0.28%; P < 0.01). Tregs increased significantly in the IA responders, but remained unchanged in the IA non-responders. In patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, none of these values changed over time. A low level of Tregs in patients with chronic iDCM may characterize a subset of patients who do best respond to IA therapy. PMID:22998220

  18. Manipulating TLR Signaling Increases the Anti-tumor T Cell Response Induced by Viral Cancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Juan J; Sampath, Padma; Bonilla, Braulio; Ashley, Alexandra; Hou, Weizhou; Byrd, Daniel; Thorne, Steve H

    2016-04-12

    The immune response plays a key role in enhancing the therapeutic activity of oncolytic virotherapies. However, to date, investigators have relied on inherent interactions between the virus and the immune system, often coupled to the expression of a single cytokine transgene. Recently, the importance of TLR activation in mediating adaptive immunity has been demonstrated. We therefore sought to influence the type and level of immune response raised after oncolytic vaccinia therapy through manipulation of TLR signaling. Vaccinia naturally activates TLR2, associated with an antibody response, whereas a CTL response is associated with TLR3-TRIF-signaling pathways. We manipulated TLR signaling by vaccinia through deglycosylation of the viral particle to block TLR2 activation and expression of a TRIF transgene. The resulting vector displayed greatly reduced production of anti-viral neutralizing antibody as well as an increased anti-tumor CTL response. Delivery in both naive and pre-treated mice was enhanced and immunotherapeutic activity dramatically improved. PMID:27050526

  19. The Media Adoption Stage Model of Technology for Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brent Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study examined survey data from professional credentialed members of the American Art Therapy Association and 8 follow up interviews to determine how art therapists adopt or reject technology and/or new digital media for therapeutic use with their clients. Using Rogers's (2003) "diffusion of innovation" model, the author identified a…

  20. Dynamic Perturbations of the T-Cell Receptor Repertoire in Chronic HIV Infection and following Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Heather, James M.; Best, Katharine; Oakes, Theres; Gray, Eleanor R.; Roe, Jennifer K.; Thomas, Niclas; Friedman, Nir; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Chain, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection profoundly affects many parameters of the immune system and ultimately leads to AIDS, yet which factors are most important for determining resistance, pathology, and response to antiretroviral treatment – and how best to monitor them – remain unclear. We develop a quantitative high-throughput sequencing pipeline to characterize the TCR repertoires of HIV-infected individuals before and after antiretroviral therapy, working from small, unfractionated samples of peripheral blood. This reveals the TCR repertoires of HIV+ individuals to be highly perturbed, with considerably reduced diversity as a small proportion of sequences are highly overrepresented. HIV also causes specific qualitative changes to the repertoire including an altered distribution of V gene usage, depletion of public TCR sequences, and disruption of TCR networks. Short-term antiretroviral therapy has little impact on most of the global damage to repertoire structure, but is accompanied by rapid changes in the abundance of many individual TCR sequences, decreases in abundance of the most common sequences, and decreases in the majority of HIV-associated CDR3 sequences. Thus, high-throughput repertoire sequencing of small blood samples that are easy to take, store, and process can shed light on various aspects of the T-cell immune compartment and stands to offer insights into patient stratification and immune reconstitution. PMID:26793190

  1. Downregulation of myeloma-induced ICOS-L and regulatory T cell generation by lenalidomide and dexamethasone therapy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Gina B; Carter, Clive; Parrish, Christopher; Wood, Philip M; Cook, Gordon

    2015-09-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) produces significant cellular and humoral immune defects. We have previously reported that MM induces CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells (TRegs), via tumour expression of the immune checkpoint regulator, ICOS-L. We sought to define what impact the immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide, alone or with dexamethasone, has on TReg cell generation. Lenalidomide pre-treatment of MM cell lines reduced TReg generation and the concomitant TReg:TEff (CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(-): effector T cells) ratio, as a consequence of reduced ICOSL transcription. Dexamethasone did not affect surface ICOS-L expression but did induce TReg cell apoptosis without impacting on TEff cell survival. Combined lenalidomide and dexamethasone significantly reduced both TReg induction and the TReg:TEff cell ratio. In vivo, serial analysis of the TReg:TEff ratio in MM patients on lenalidomide-dexamethasone therapy revealed a progressive reduction towards age-matched control values, though not complete correction. Our data demonstrate for the first time immune synergism to explain the observed immune-modulation associated with lenalidomide-dexamethasone therapy. PMID:26051632

  2. Memory T Cells in Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Charles A.; Fairchild, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Following infections and environmental exposures, memory T cells are generated that provide long-term protective immunity. Compared to their naïve T cell counterparts, memory T cells possess unique characteristics that endow them with the ability to quickly and robustly respond to foreign antigens. While such memory T cells are beneficial in protecting their hosts from recurrent infection, memory cells reactive to donor antigens pose a major barrier to successful transplantation and tolerance induction. Significant progress has been made over the past several decades contributing to our understanding of memory T cell generation, their distinct biology, and their detrimental impact in clinical and animal models of transplantation. This review focuses on the unique features which make memory T cells relevant to the transplant community and discusses potential therapies targeting memory T cells which may ameliorate allograft rejection. PMID:25435071

  3. HIV-Infected Individuals with Low CD4/CD8 Ratio despite Effective Antiretroviral Therapy Exhibit Altered T Cell Subsets, Heightened CD8+ T Cell Activation, and Increased Risk of Non-AIDS Morbidity and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Sainz, Talia; Lee, Sulggi A.; Hunt, Peter W.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Ferre, April L.; Hayes, Timothy L.; Somsouk, Ma; Hsue, Priscilla Y.; Van Natta, Mark L.; Meinert, Curtis L.; Lederman, Michael M.; Hatano, Hiroyu; Jain, Vivek; Huang, Yong; Hecht, Frederick M.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; McCune, Joseph M.; Moreno, Santiago; Deeks, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined. Using data from four distinct clinical cohorts and three clinical trials, we show that a low CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-infected adults during otherwise effective ART (after CD4 count recovery above 500 cells/mm3) is associated with a number of immunological abnormalities, including a skewed T cell phenotype from naïve toward terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells, higher levels of CD8+ T cell activation (HLADR+CD38+) and senescence (CD28− and CD57+CD28−), and higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. Changes in the peripheral CD4/CD8 ratio are also reflective of changes in gut mucosa, but not in lymph nodes. In a longitudinal study, individuals who initiated ART within six months of infection had greater CD4/CD8 ratio increase compared to later initiators (>2 years). After controlling for age, gender, ART duration, nadir and CD4 count, the CD4/CD8 ratio predicted increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Hence, a persistently low CD4/CD8 ratio during otherwise effective ART is associated with increased innate and adaptive immune activation, an immunosenescent phenotype, and higher risk of morbidity/mortality. This ratio may prove useful in monitoring response to ART and could identify a unique subset of individuals needed of novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:24831517

  4. Invariant natural killer T-cell neutralization is a possible novel therapy for human eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Rayapudi, Madhavi; Rajavelu, Priya; Zhu, Xiang; Kaul, Ajay; Niranjan, Rituraj; Dynda, Scott; Mishra, Akanksha; Mattner, Jochen; Zaidi, Asifa; Dutt, Parmesh; Mishra, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently recognized inflammatory disorder that needs a potential therapeutic strategy. We earlier showed that iNKT cell-deficient mice are protected from allergen-induced EoE. Therefore, we now tested the hypothesis that iNKT cells are induced in the human EoE and is a novel possible target for the treatment of human EoE. Accordingly, we examine number of iNKT cells and eosinophils and expression of iNKT-associated cell surface receptors and chemokines by performing immunofluorescence, qPCR and ELISA in the esophageal biopsies and blood samples of normal subjects (comparison control) and EoE patients. Herein, we show that iNKT cell number, their receptor subcomponents Vα24 and Vβ11 expression, and associated chemokine CXCL16 levels (or expression) are induced significantly in EoE patients compared with normal individuals. In addition, we show that CXCL16 levels (or expression) correlate with the mRNA levels of Vα24 receptor but not well with esophageal eosinophilia in human EoE. Of note, we show that in vivo activation of iNKT cells is sufficient to induce EoE in mice. Furthermore, we show that anti-mCD1d- and anti-hVα24Jα18-neutralizing antibody treatment protects allergen-induced experimental EoE. Taken together, we have shown first time that iNKT cells have a critical pathogenic role in human and experimental EoE. iNKT cell neutralization by humanized anti-CD1d and anti-Vα24Jα18 antibodies might be a novel and potential therapy for human EoE. PMID:25505954

  5. Adoptive cell therapy with autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and low-dose Interleukin-2 in metastatic melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adoptive cell therapy may be based on isolation of tumor-specific T cells, e.g. autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), in vitro activation and expansion and the reinfusion of these cells into patients upon chemotherapy induced lymphodepletion. Together with high-dose interleukin (IL)-2 this treatment has been given to patients with advanced malignant melanoma and impressive response rates but also significant IL-2 associated toxicity have been observed. Here we present data from a feasibility study at a Danish Translational Research Center using TIL adoptive transfer in combination with low-dose subcutaneous IL-2 injections. Methods This is a pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00937625) including patients with metastatic melanoma, PS ≤1, age <70, measurable and progressive disease and no involvement of the central nervous system. Six patients were treated with lymphodepleting chemotherapy, TIL infusion, and 14 days of subcutaneous low-dose IL-2 injections, 2 MIU/day. Results Low-dose IL-2 considerably decreased the treatment related toxicity with no grade 3–4 IL-2 related adverse events. Objective clinical responses were seen in 2 of 6 treated patients with ongoing complete responses (30+ and 10+ months), 2 patients had stable disease (4 and 5 months) and 2 patients progressed shortly after treatment. Tumor-reactivity of the infused cells and peripheral lymphocytes before and after therapy were analyzed. Absolute number of tumor specific T cells in the infusion product tended to correlate with clinical response and also, an induction of peripheral tumor reactive T cells was observed for 1 patient in complete remission. Conclusion Complete and durable responses were induced after treatment with adoptive cell therapy in combination with low-dose IL-2 which significantly decreased toxicity of this therapy. PMID:22909342

  6. Interleukin-2 Enhances the Regulatory Functions of CD4(+)T Cell-Derived CD4(-)CD8(-) Double Negative T Cells.

    PubMed

    Cong, Min; Liu, Tianhui; Tian, Dan; Guo, Hongbo; Wang, Ping; Liu, Kai; Lin, Jun; Tian, Yue; Shi, Wen; You, Hong; Jia, Jidong; Zhang, Dong

    2016-08-01

    CD4(+) T cells can be converted to CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative T cells (DN T cells) under appropriate conditions, and IL-2 enhanced the conversion. Here, we investigated the effect of IL-2 on the proliferation and function of converted DN T cells in vitro and in vivo. DN T cells were hyporesponsive when restimulated by mature dendritic cells (mDCs), IL-2 completely restored their responsiveness in vitro. In addition, IL-2 increased the resistance of DN T cells to apoptosis in vivo. DN T cells profoundly inhibited the proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T effector cells triggered by mDCs in vitro, and this suppression was further enhanced by IL-2. Adoptively transferring of DN T cells, in combination with IL-2, inhibited the proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of alloreactive CD4(+) T cells, which resulted in significant prolongation of skin allograft survival time. Perforin plays a key role in the enhancement of DN T cells immune regulation by IL-2. In conclusion, we elucidated that IL-2 promoted DN T cell proliferation and suppressive function. The combination of DN T cells and exogenous IL-2 may represent a novel therapy in the clinical setting to prevent allograft rejection and induce immune tolerance. PMID:27135902

  7. CMV-Specific T-cells Generated From Naïve T-cells Recognize Atypical Epitopes And May Be Protective in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Patrick J.; Melenhorst, Jan J.; Nikiforow, Sarah; Scheinberg, Phillip; Blaney, James W.; Demmler-Harrison, Gail; Cruz, C. Russell; Lam, Sharon; Krance, Robert A.; Leung, Kathryn S.; Martinez, Caridad A.; Liu, Hao; Heslop, Helen E.; Rooney, Cliona M.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Barrett, A. John; Rodgers, John R.; Bollard, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of adult-seropositive, cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cells can effectively restore antiviral immunity after transplantation. Lack of CMV-specific memory T-cells in blood from CMV-seronegative adult and cord blood (CB) donors restricts the availability of donor-derived virus-specific T-cells for immunoprophylaxis. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of naïve-donor-derived CMV-specific T-cell therapy for transplant recipients. Primed naïve T-cells recognized only atypical epitopes and with a similar avidity to CMV-seropositive-derived T-cells recognizing typical epitopes, but T-cells from CMV-seropositive donors recognizing atypical epitopes had a lower avidity suggesting the loss of high-avidity T-cells over time. Clonotypic analysis revealed T-cells recognizing atypical CMVpp65 epitopes in the peripheral blood of recipients of CB grafts who did not develop CMV. T-cell receptors from atypical epitopes were most common in unmanipulated CB units explaining why these T-cells expanded. When infused to recipients, naïve donor-derived virus specific T-cells that recognized atypical epitopes were associated with prolonged periods of CMV-free survival and complete remission. PMID:25925682

  8. Engineering T Cells to Functionally Cure HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leibman, Rachel S; Riley, James L

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ability of antiretroviral therapy to minimize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and increase the duration and quality of patients' lives, the health consequences and financial burden associated with the lifelong treatment regimen render a permanent cure highly attractive. Although T cells play an important role in controlling virus replication, they are themselves targets of HIV-mediated destruction. Direct genetic manipulation of T cells for adoptive cellular therapies could facilitate a functional cure by generating HIV-1–resistant cells, redirecting HIV-1–specific immune responses, or a combination of the two strategies. In contrast to a vaccine approach, which relies on the production and priming of HIV-1–specific lymphocytes within a patient's own body, adoptive T-cell therapy provides an opportunity to customize the therapeutic T cells prior to administration. However, at present, it is unclear how to best engineer T cells so that sustained control over HIV-1 replication can be achieved in the absence of antiretrovirals. This review focuses on T-cell gene-engineering and gene-editing strategies that have been performed in efforts to inhibit HIV-1 replication and highlights the requirements for a successful gene therapy–mediated functional cure. PMID:25896251

  9. CTOP/ITE/MTX Compared With CHOP as the First-line Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Young Patients With T Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-11-24

    ALK-negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Peripherial T Cell Lymphoma,Not Otherwise Specified; Angioimmunoblastic T Cell Lymphoma; Enteropathy Associated T Cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T Cell Lymphoma; Subcutaneous Panniculitis Like T Cell Lymphoma

  10. Pathogen Stimulation History Impacts Donor-Specific CD8(+) T Cell Susceptibility to Costimulation/Integrin Blockade-Based Therapy.

    PubMed

    Badell, I R; Kitchens, W H; Wagener, M E; Lukacher, A E; Larsen, C P; Ford, M L

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the quantity of donor-reactive memory T cells is an important factor in determining the relative heterologous immunity barrier posed during transplantation. Here, we hypothesized that the quality of T cell memory also potently influences the response to costimulation blockade-based immunosuppression. Using a murine skin graft model of CD8(+) memory T cell-mediated costimulation blockade resistance, we elicited donor-reactive memory T cells using three distinct types of pathogen infections. Strikingly, we observed differential efficacy of a costimulation and integrin blockade regimen based on the type of pathogen used to elicit the donor-reactive memory T cell response. Intriguingly, the most immunosuppression-sensitive memory T cell populations were composed primarily of central memory cells that possessed greater recall potential, exhibited a less differentiated phenotype, and contained more multi-cytokine producers. These data, therefore, demonstrate that the memory T cell barrier is dependent on the specific type of pathogen infection via which the donor-reactive memory T cells are elicited, and suggest that the immune stimulation history of a given transplant patient may profoundly influence the relative barrier posed by heterologous immunity during transplantation. PMID:26228897

  11. CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CD19 CAR)-redirected adoptive T-cell immunotherapy for the treatment of relapsed or refractory B-cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Onea, Alexandra S; Jazirehi, Ali R

    2016-01-01

    Recovery rates for B-cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) are up to 70% with current standard-of-care treatments including rituximab (chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) in combination with chemotherapy (R-CHOP). However, patients who do not respond to first-line treatment or develop resistance have a very poor prognosis. This signifies the need for the development of an optimal treatment approach for relapsed/refractory B-NHL. Novel CD19- chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell redirected immunotherapy is an attractive option for this subset of patients. Anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy has already had remarkable efficacy in various leukemias as well as encouraging outcomes in phase I clinical trials of relapsed/refractory NHL. In going forward with additional clinical trials, complementary treatments that may circumvent potential resistance mechanisms should be used alongside anti-CD19 T-cells in order to prevent relapse with resistant strains of disease. Some such supplementary tactics include conditioning with lymphodepletion agents, sensitizing with kinase inhibitors and Bcl-2 inhibitors, enhancing function with multispecific CAR T-cells and CD40 ligand-expressing CAR T-cells, and safeguarding with lymphoma stem cell-targeted treatments. A therapy regimen involving anti-CD19 CAR T-cells and one or more auxiliary treatments could dramatically improve prognoses for patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell NHL. This approach has the potential to revolutionize B-NHL salvage therapy in much the same way rituximab did for first-line treatments. PMID:27186412

  12. Adoptive transfer of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells to C57BL/6J mice during acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii down modulates the exacerbated Th1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Jonadab E; Fernández, Jacquelina; Salinas, Nohemí; Juárez, Imelda; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Campuzano, Jaime; Castellanos, Carlos; Saavedra, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Infection of C57BL/6J mice with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii triggers a powerful Th1 immune response that is detrimental to the host. During acute infection, a reduction in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) has been reported. We studied the role of Treg during T. gondii infection by adoptive transfer of cells purified from transgenic Foxp3(EGFP) mice to infected wild type animals. We found a less severe weight loss, a significant delayed mortality in infected Treg-transferred mice, and reduced pathology of the small intestine that were associated with lower IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. Nevertheless, higher cyst number and parasite load in brain were observed in these mice. Treg-transferred infected mice showed reduced levels of both IFN-γ and TNF-α in sera. A reduced number of CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ was detected in these mice, while IL-2 producing CD4(+) T cells were restored to levels nearly similar to uninfected mice. CD25 and CD69 expression of CD4(+) T cells were also down modulated. Our data show that the low Treg cell number are insufficient to modulate the activation of CD4(+) T cells and the production of high levels of IFN-γ. Thus, a delicate balance between an optimal immune response and its modulation by Treg cells must exist. PMID:25899946

  13. Adoptive immunotherapy with genetically engineered T cells: modification of the IgG1 Fc 'spacer' domain in the extracellular moiety of chimeric antigen receptors avoids 'off-target' activation and unintended initiation of an innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Hombach, A; Hombach, A A; Abken, H

    2010-10-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, immunoreceptors) are frequently used to redirect T cells with pre-defined specificity, in particular towards tumour cells for use in adoptive immunotherapy of malignant diseases. Specific targeting is mediated by an extracellularly located antibody-derived binding domain, which is joined to the transmembrane and intracellular CD3ζ moiety for T-cell activation. Stable CAR expression in T cells, however, requires a spacer domain interposed between the binding and the transmembrane domain and which is commonly the constant IgG1 Fc domain. We here revealed that CARs with Fc spacer domain bind to IgG Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), thereby unintentionally activating innate immune cells, including monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, which consequently secrete high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Engineered T cells, on the other hand, are likewise activated by FcγR binding resulting in cytokine secretion and lysis of monocytes and NK cells independently of the redirected specificity. To reduce FcγR binding, we modified the spacer domain without affecting CAR expression and antigen binding. Engineered with the modified CAR, T cells are not activated in presence of FcγR(+) cells, thereby minimizing the risk of off-target activation while preserving their redirected targeting specificity. PMID:20555360

  14. Memory T Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianqian; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is a key feature of adaptive immunity. It provides the organism with long-lived and robust protection against infection. In organ transplantation, memory T cells pose a significant threat by causing allograft rejection that is generally resistant to immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of memory T cell biology is needed to improve the survival of transplanted organs without compromising the host’s ability to fight infections. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to the site where their target antigen is present, with particular emphasis on their migration to transplanted organs. First, we will define the known subsets of memory T cells (central, effector, and tissue resident) and their circulation patterns. Second, we will review the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to inflamed and non-inflamed tissues and highlight the emerging paradigm of antigen-driven, trans-endothelial migration. Third, we will discuss the relevance of this knowledge to organ transplantation and the prevention or treatment of allograft rejection. PMID:26483794

  15. Sodium Benzoate, a Food Additive and a Metabolite of Cinnamon, Modifies T Cells at Multiple Steps and Inhibits Adoptive Transfer of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis1

    PubMed Central

    Brahmachari, Saurav; Pahan, Kalipada

    2007-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the animal model for multiple sclerosis. This study explores a novel use of sodium benzoate (NaB), a commonly used food additive and a Food and Drug Administration-approved nontoxic drug for urea cycle disorders, in treating the disease process of relapsing-remitting EAE in female SJL/J mice. NaB, administered through drinking water at physiologically tolerable doses, ameliorated clinical symptoms and disease progression of EAE in recipient mice and suppressed the generation of encephalitogenic T cells in donor mice. Histological studies reveal that NaB effectively inhibited infiltration of mononuclear cells and demyelination in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Consequently, NaB also suppressed the expression of proinflammatory molecules and normalized myelin gene expression in the CNS of EAE mice. Furthermore, we observed that NaB switched the differentiation of myelin basic protein-primed T cells from Th1 to Th2 mode, enriched regulatory T cell population, and down-regulated the expression of various contact molecules in T cells. Taken together, our results suggest that NaB modifies encephalitogenic T cells at multiple steps and that NaB may have therapeutic importance in multiple sclerosis. PMID:17579047

  16. Long-term increase in CD4+ T-cell counts during combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Judith J; Bosch, Ronald J; Benson, Constance A; Collier, Ann C; Robbins, Gregory K; Shafer, Robert W; Hughes, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Objective To inform guidelines concerning when to initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), we investigated whether CD4+ T-cell counts (CD4 counts) continue to increase over long periods of time on ART. Losses-to-follow-up and some patients discontinuing ART at higher CD4 counts hamper such evaluation, but novel statistical methods can help address these issues. We estimated the long-term CD4 count trajectory accounting for losses-to-follow-up and treatment discontinuations. Design The study population included 898 U.S. patients first initiating ART in a randomized trial (ACTG 384); 575 were subsequently prospectively followed in an observational study (ALLRT). Methods Inverse probability of censoring weighting statistical methods were used to estimate the CD4 count trajectory accounting for losses-to-follow-up and ART-discontinuations, overall and for pre-treatment CD4 count categories ≤ 200, 201–350, 351–500, and >500 cells/mm3. Results Median CD4 count increased from 270 cells/mm3 pre-ART to an estimated 556 at three and 532 cells/mm3 at seven years after starting ART in analyses ignoring treatment discontinuations; and to 570 and 640 cells/mm3, respectively, had all patients continued ART. However, even had ART been continued, an estimated 25%, 9%, 3% and 2% of patients with pre-treatment CD4 counts of ≤ 200, 201–350, 351–500, and >500 cells/mm3 would have had CD4 counts ≤350 cells/mm3 after seven years. Conclusions If patients remain on ART, CD4 counts increase in most patients for at least seven years. However, the substantial percentage of patients starting therapy at low CD4 counts who still had low CD4 counts after seven years provides support for ART initiation at higher CD4 counts. PMID:20467286

  17. Human and Mouse CD8+CD25+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells at Steady State and during Interleukin-2 Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Churlaud, Guillaume; Pitoiset, Fabien; Jebbawi, Fadi; Lorenzon, Roberta; Bellier, Bertrand; Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Klatzmann, David

    2015-01-01

    In addition to CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), CD8+ suppressor T cells are emerging as an important subset of regulatory T cells. Diverse populations of CD8+ T cells with suppressive activities have been described. Among them, a small population of CD8+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells is found both in mice and humans. In contrast to thymic-derived CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs, their origin and their role in the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are less understood. We report here the number, phenotype, and function of CD8+ Tregs cells in mice and humans, at the steady state and in response to low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2). CD8+ Tregs represent approximately 0.4 and 0.1% of peripheral blood T cells in healthy humans and mice, respectively. In mice, their frequencies are quite similar in lymph nodes (LNs) and the spleen, but two to threefold higher in Peyer patches and mesenteric LNs. CD8+ Tregs express low levels of CD127. CD8+ Tregs express more activation or proliferation markers such as CTLA-4, ICOS, and Ki-67 than other CD8+ T cells. In vitro, they suppress effector T cell proliferation as well as or even better than CD4+ Tregs. Owing to constitutive expression of CD25, CD8+ Tregs are 20- to 40-fold more sensitive to in vitro IL-2 stimulation than CD8+ effector T cells, but 2–4 times less than CD4+ Tregs. Nevertheless, low-dose IL-2 dramatically expands and activates CD8+ Tregs even more than CD4+ Tregs, in mice and humans. Further studies are warranted to fully appreciate the clinical relevance of CD8+ Tregs in AIDs and the efficacy of IL-2 treatment. PMID:25926835

  18. Rigorous optimization and validation of potent RNA CAR T cell therapy for the treatment of common epithelial cancers expressing folate receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schutsky, Keith; Song, De-Gang; Lynn, Rachel; Smith, Jenessa B.; Poussin, Mathilde; Figini, Mariangela; Zhao, Yangbing; Powell, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Using lentiviral technology, we recently demonstrated that incorporation of CD27 costimulation into CARs greatly improves antitumor activity and T cell persistence. Still, virus-mediated gene transfer is expensive, laborious and enables long-term persistence, creating therapies which cannot be easily discontinued if toxic. To address these concerns, we utilized a non-integrating RNA platform to engineer human T cells to express FRα-specific, CD27 CARs and tested their capacity to eliminate human FRα+ cancer. Novel CARs comprised of human components were constructed, C4-27z and C4opt-27z, a codon-optimized variant created for efficient expression. Following RNA electroporation, C4-27z and C4opt-27z CAR expression is initially ubiquitous but progressively declines across T cell populations. In addition, C4-27z and C4opt-27z RNA CAR T cells secrete high levels of Th-1 cytokines and display strong cytolytic function against human FRα+ cancers in a time- and antigen-dependent manner. Further, C4-27z and C4opt-27z CAR T cells exhibit significant proliferation in vivo, facilitate the complete regression of fully disseminated human ovarian cancer xenografts in mice and reduce the progression of solid ovarian cancer. These results advocate for rapid progression of C4opt-27z RNA CAR to the clinic and establish a new paradigm for preclinical optimization and validation of RNA CAR candidates destined for clinical translation. PMID:26359629

  19. Prevention and therapy of experimental autoimmune neuritis by an antibody against T cell receptors-alpha/beta.

    PubMed

    Jung, S; Krämer, S; Schluesener, H J; Hünig, T; Toyka, K; Hartung, H P

    1992-06-15

    The mAb R73 directed to the TCR-alpha/beta of rat lymphocytes was tested for its therapeutic potential during the effector phase of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) in Lewis rats. EAN can be actively induced by immunization with bovine peripheral nerve myelin, bovine P2 protein, or a peptide containing its neuritogenic epitope and serves as a model of the human Guilain-Barré syndrome. Adoptive transfer of activated P2-specific T lymphocytes also produces the monophasic disease (AT-EAN) characterized by inflammation and demyelination of peripheral nerves and highlights the central role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of EAN. A single administration of the mAb R73 immediately after injection of activated P2-specific T line cells completely prevented the development of clinical and electrophysiologic signs of EAN in most animals and greatly alleviated the disease in the others. In further experiments mAb R73 was applied after the appearance of first clinical signs of EAN actively induced by immunization with a neuritogenic peptide or bovine peripheral nerve myelin. In both cases the anti-TCR-alpha/beta mAb reversed clinical signs of EAN and prevented the development of peripheral nerve dysfunction. In vivo and in vitro data suggest that impairment of Ag recognition and T cell function by occupancy of the TCR and R73-induced TCR-modulation rather than depletion of TCR-alpha/beta-bearing lymphocytes is the decisive mechanism underlying suppression of EAN that is apparent already within 48 h of the first R73 injection. PMID:1376340

  20. A phase II study of cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine and prednisone (CEOP) Alternating with Pralatrexate (P) as front line therapy for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL): final results from the T- cell consortium trial.

    PubMed

    Advani, Ranjana H; Ansell, Stephen M; Lechowicz, Mary J; Beaven, Anne W; Loberiza, Fausto; Carson, Kenneth R; Evens, Andrew M; Foss, Francine; Horwitz, Steven; Pro, Barbara; Pinter-Brown, Lauren C; Smith, Sonali M; Shustov, Andrei R; Savage, Kerry J; Vose, Julie M

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) have suboptimal outcomes using conventional CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy. The anti-folate pralatrexate, the first drug approved for patients with relapsed/refractory PTCL, provided a rationale to incorporate it into the front-line setting. This phase 2 study evaluated a novel front-line combination whereby cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine and prednisone (CEOP) alternated with pralatrexate (CEOP-P) in PTCL. Patients achieving a complete or partial remission (CR/PR) were eligible for consolidative stem cell transplantation (SCT) after 4 cycles. Thirty-three stage II-IV PTCL patients were treated: 21 PTCL-not otherwise specified (64%), 8 angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (24%) and 4 anaplastic large cell lymphoma (12%). The majority (61%) had stage IV disease and 46% were International Prognostic Index high/intermediate or high risk. Grade 3-4 toxicities included anaemia (27%), thrombocytopenia (12%), febrile neutropenia (18%), mucositis (18%), sepsis (15%), increased creatinine (12%) and liver transaminases (12%). Seventeen patients (52%) achieved a CR. The 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival, were 39% (95% confidence interval 21-57) and 60% (95% confidence interval 39-76), respectively. Fifteen patients (45%) (12 CR) received SCT and all remained in CR at a median follow-up of 21·5 months. CEOP-P did not improve outcomes compared to historical data using CHOP. Defining optimal front line therapy in PTCL continues to be a challenge and an unmet need. PMID:26627450

  1. Retrieval of functional TCRs from single antigen-specific T cells: Toward individualized TCR-engineered therapies

    PubMed Central

    Omokoko, Tana; Simon, Petra; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a highly versatile platform for the systematic retrieval of T-cell receptors (TCRs) from single-antigen-reactive T cells and for characterization of their function and specificity. This approach enables rapid extraction of multiple TCRs from repertoires in individuals and not only broadens the diversity of TCRs suitable for clinical use, but also sets the stage for actively personalized immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:26140230

  2. The association of clinical outcome and peripheral T-cell subsets in metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving first-line FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Mario; Formica, Vincenzo; Cereda, Vittore; Jochems, Caroline; Richards, Jacob; Grenga, Italia; Orlandi, Augusto; Ferroni, Patrizia; Guadagni, Fiorella; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    The first-line standard of care for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is FOLFIRI (irinotecan, levo-leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)) plus bevacizumab. With the renewed interest in cancer immunotherapy with agents such as vaccines, checkpoint inhibitors and immune modulators, the possibility exists for the use of one or more of these immunotherapeutics in the first-line setting and thus in combination with the FOLFIRI and bevacizumab regimen. Studies were undertaken to study the effects of FOLFIRI and bevacizumab therapy on peripheral T-cell subsets, and to determine if there are any associations between these subsets and response to therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets of patients with mCRC (n = 23) were analyzed prior to and during therapy. While there were differences among patients, the majority of patients showed either a minimal change or an increase in CD4(+) T cell to regulatory T cell (Treg) ratios during therapy, as well as either minimal change or a decrease in Treg suppressive activity during therapy. There was also an association (p = 0.036) between a decrease in Treg frequency during FOLFIRI therapy and overall survival, and an association (p = 0.037) between the frequency of Tregs prior to therapy and progression-free survival. Responders to the chemotherapy by RECIST criteria also had a greater decrease in Tregs during therapy vs. pre-therapy (p = 0.0064) as compared to non-responders. While the number of mCRC patients undergoing chemotherapy in this study is relatively small, it provides the rationale for the use of immunotherapeutics in this first-line metastatic setting. PMID:27622042

  3. Low expression of CD39 on regulatory T cells as a biomarker for resistance to methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Peres, Raphael Sanches; Liew, Foo Y; Talbot, Jhimmy; Carregaro, Vanessa; Oliveira, Rene D; Almeida, Sergio L; França, Rafael F O; Donate, Paula B; Pinto, Larissa G; Ferreira, Flavia I S; Costa, Diego L; Demarque, Daniel P; Gouvea, Dayana Rubio; Lopes, Norberto P; Queiroz, Regina Helena C; Silva, Joao Santana; Figueiredo, Florencio; Alves-Filho, Jose Carlos; Cunha, Thiago M; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Cunha, Fernando Q

    2015-02-24

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by joint destruction and severe morbidity. Methotrexate (MTX) is the standard first-line therapy of RA. However, about 40% of RA patients are unresponsive to MTX treatment. Regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) are thought to play an important role in attenuating RA. To investigate the role of Tregs in MTX resistance, we recruited 122 RA patients (53 responsive, R-MTX; 69 unresponsive, UR-MTX) and 33 healthy controls. Three months after MTX treatment, R-MTX but not UR-MTX showed higher frequency of peripheral blood CD39(+)CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs than the healthy controls. Tregs produce adenosine (ADO) through ATP degradation by sequential actions of two cell surface ectonucleotidases: CD39 and CD73. Tregs from UR-MTX expressed a lower density of CD39, produced less ADO, and had reduced suppressive activity than Tregs from R-MTX. In a prospective study, before MTX treatment, UR-MTX expressed a lower density of CD39 on Tregs than those of R-MTX or control (P < 0.01). In a murine model of arthritis, CD39 blockade reversed the antiarthritic effects of MTX treatment. Our results demonstrate that MTX unresponsiveness in RA is associated with low expression of CD39 on Tregs and the decreased suppressive activity of these cells through reduced ADO production. Our findings thus provide hitherto unrecognized mechanism of immune regulation in RA and on mode of action of MTX. Furthermore, our data suggest that low expression of CD39 on Tregs could be a noninvasive biomarker for identifying MTX-resistant RA patients. PMID:25675517

  4. Total Skin Electron Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Using a Modern Dual-Field Rotational Technique

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Thatcher R.; Esiashvili, Natia; Parker, Sareeta; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Dhabbaan, Anees; Goodman, Michael; Lechowicz, Mary Jo; Flowers, Christopher R.; Khan, Mohammad K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report our experience with rotational total skin electron irradiation (RTSEI) in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), and to examine response by disease stage and race. Methods and Materials We reviewed our outcomes for 68 CTCL patients who received RTSEI (≥30 Gy) from 2000 to 2013. Primary outcomes were complete clinical response (CCR), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Using log–rank tests and Cox proportional hazards, OS and RFS were compared across tumor stages at time of RTSEI with further racial subgroup analysis. Results Median age at diagnosis and at time of radiation was 52 and 56 years, respectively. Median follow-up was 5.1 years, 49% were African American, and 49% were female. At time of treatment, 18, 37, and 13 patients were T stage 2, 3, and 4, respectively. At 6 weeks after RTSEI, overall CCR was 82% (88%, 83%, and 69% for T2, T3, and T4, respectively). Median RFS was 11 months for all patients and 14, 10, and 12 months for stage T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Tumor stage was not associated with RFS or CCR. Maintenance therapy after RTSEI was associated with improved RFS in both crude and multivariable analysis, controlling for T stage. Median OS was 76 months (91 and 59 months for T3 and T4, respectively). With the exception of improved OS in African Americans compared with whites at stage T2, race was not associated with CCR, RFS, or OS. Conclusions These results represent the largest RTSEI clinical outcomes study in the modern era using a dual-field rotational technique. Our observed response rates match or improve upon the standard set by previous outcome studies using conventional TSEI techniques, despite a large percentage of advanced CTCL lesions in our cohort. We found that clinical response after RTSEI did not seem to be affected by T stage or race. PMID:25670538

  5. Low expression of CD39 on regulatory T cells as a biomarker for resistance to methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Raphael Sanches; Liew, Foo Y.; Talbot, Jhimmy; Carregaro, Vanessa; Oliveira, Rene D.; Almeida, Sergio L.; França, Rafael F. O.; Donate, Paula B.; Pinto, Larissa G.; Ferreira, Flavia I. S.; Costa, Diego L.; Demarque, Daniel P.; Gouvea, Dayana Rubio; Lopes, Norberto P.; Queiroz, Regina Helena C.; Silva, Joao Santana; Figueiredo, Florencio; Alves-Filho, Jose Carlos; Cunha, Thiago M.; Ferreira, Sérgio H.; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Cunha, Fernando Q.

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by joint destruction and severe morbidity. Methotrexate (MTX) is the standard first-line therapy of RA. However, about 40% of RA patients are unresponsive to MTX treatment. Regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) are thought to play an important role in attenuating RA. To investigate the role of Tregs in MTX resistance, we recruited 122 RA patients (53 responsive, R-MTX; 69 unresponsive, UR-MTX) and 33 healthy controls. Three months after MTX treatment, R-MTX but not UR-MTX showed higher frequency of peripheral blood CD39+CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs than the healthy controls. Tregs produce adenosine (ADO) through ATP degradation by sequential actions of two cell surface ectonucleotidases: CD39 and CD73. Tregs from UR-MTX expressed a lower density of CD39, produced less ADO, and had reduced suppressive activity than Tregs from R-MTX. In a prospective study, before MTX treatment, UR-MTX expressed a lower density of CD39 on Tregs than those of R-MTX or control (P < 0.01). In a murine model of arthritis, CD39 blockade reversed the antiarthritic effects of MTX treatment. Our results demonstrate that MTX unresponsiveness in RA is associated with low expression of CD39 on Tregs and the decreased suppressive activity of these cells through reduced ADO production. Our findings thus provide hitherto unrecognized mechanism of immune regulation in RA and on mode of action of MTX. Furthermore, our data suggest that low expression of CD39 on Tregs could be a noninvasive biomarker for identifying MTX-resistant RA patients. PMID:25675517

  6. Total Skin Electron Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Using a Modern Dual-Field Rotational Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, Thatcher R.; Esiashvili, Natia; Parker, Sareeta; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Dhabbaan, Anees; Goodman, Michael; Lechowicz, Mary Jo; Flowers, Christopher R.; Khan, Mohammad K.

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To report our experience with rotational total skin electron irradiation (RTSEI) in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), and to examine response by disease stage and race. Methods and Materials: We reviewed our outcomes for 68 CTCL patients who received RTSEI (≥30 Gy) from 2000 to 2013. Primary outcomes were complete clinical response (CCR), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Using log–rank tests and Cox proportional hazards, OS and RFS were compared across tumor stages at time of RTSEI with further racial subgroup analysis. Results: Median age at diagnosis and at time of radiation was 52 and 56 years, respectively. Median follow-up was 5.1 years, 49% were African American, and 49% were female. At time of treatment, 18, 37, and 13 patients were T stage 2, 3, and 4, respectively. At 6 weeks after RTSEI, overall CCR was 82% (88%, 83%, and 69% for T2, T3, and T4, respectively). Median RFS was 11 months for all patients and 14, 10, and 12 months for stage T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Tumor stage was not associated with RFS or CCR. Maintenance therapy after RTSEI was associated with improved RFS in both crude and multivariable analysis, controlling for T stage. Median OS was 76 months (91 and 59 months for T3 and T4, respectively). With the exception of improved OS in African Americans compared with whites at stage T2, race was not associated with CCR, RFS, or OS. Conclusions: These results represent the largest RTSEI clinical outcomes study in the modern era using a dual-field rotational technique. Our observed response rates match or improve upon the standard set by previous outcome studies using conventional TSEI techniques, despite a large percentage of advanced CTCL lesions in our cohort. We found that clinical response after RTSEI did not seem to be affected by T stage or race.

  7. γδ T Cell and Other Immune Cells Crosstalk in Cellular Immunity

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying; Wu, Kangni; Hu, Yongxian; Sheng, Lixia; Tie, Ruxiu; Wang, Binsheng; Huang, He

    2014-01-01

    γδ T cells have been recognized as effectors with immunomodulatory functions in cellular immunity. These abilities enable them to interact with other immune cells, thus having the potential for treatment of various immune-mediated diseases with adoptive cell therapy. So far, the interactions between γδ T cell and other immune cells have not been well defined. Here we will discuss the interactivities among them and the perspective on γδ T cells for their use in immunotherapy could be imagined. The understanding of the crosstalk among the immune cells in immunopathology might be beneficial for the clinical application of γδ T cell. PMID:24741636

  8. Antileukemia multifunctionality of CD4(+) T cells genetically engineered by HLA class I-restricted and WT1-specific T-cell receptor gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, H; Ochi, T; Ochi, F; Miyazaki, Y; Asai, H; Narita, M; Okamoto, S; Mineno, J; Kuzushima, K; Shiku, H; Yasukawa, M

    2015-12-01

    To develop gene-modified T-cell-based antileukemia adoptive immunotherapy, concomitant administration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that have been gene modified using identical HLA class I-restricted leukemia antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer has not yet been fully investigated. Here, using CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that had been gene modified with a retroviral vector expressing HLA-A*24:02-restricted and Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1)-specific TCR-α/β genes and siRNAs for endogenous TCRs (WT1-siTCR/CD4(+) T cells and WT1-siTCR/CD8(+) T cells), we examined the utility of this strategy. WT1-siTCR/CD4(+) T cells sufficiently recognized leukemia cells in an HLA class I-restricted manner and provided target-specific Th1 help for WT1-siTCR/CD8(+) T cells. By using a xenografted mouse model, we found that WT1-siTCR/CD4(+) T cells migrated to leukemia sites and subsequently attracted WT1-siTCR/CD8(+) T cells via chemotaxis. Therapy-oriented experiments revealed effective enhancement of leukemia suppression mediated by concomitant administration of WT1-siTCR/CD4(+) T cells and WT1-siTCR/CD8(+) T cells. Importantly, this augmented efficacy in the presence of WT1-siTCR/CD4(+) T cells was correlated with longer survival and enhanced formation of memory T cells by WT1-siTCR/CD8(+) T cells. Collectively, our experimental findings strongly suggest that this strategy would be clinically advantageous for the treatment of human leukemia. PMID:26104661

  9. Interferon-targeted therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus: Is this an alternative to targeting B and T cells?

    PubMed

    Kalunian, K C

    2016-09-01

    Clinical trials of investigational agents in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have focused on targeting dysregulated B and T cells; however, recent translational research findings of the importance of the dysregulation of the innate immune system in SLE have led to clinical trials that target interferon. Three biologics that target type I interferons have been tested for their efficacy and safety in active SLE patients; these phase II trials have tested the hypothesis that down-regulation of interferon-regulated gene expression (the interferon signature) lessen the clinical burden of SLE. Rontalizumab, an anti-interferon-α monoclonal antibody, was studied in patients who had discontinued immunosuppressants. This study failed to show efficacy as assessed by both two outcome assessments; however, in low interferon signature patients, response was higher and corticosteroid usage was less in rontalizumab-treated patients. Sifalimumab, another anti-interferon-α monoclonal antibody, was studied in patients who remained on standard of care therapy. This study showed significantly better efficacy in patients treated with two sifalimumab dosages; significant differences were seen in the high interferon signature group. In a similar design and in a similar population as the sifalimumab study, anifrolumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to a type I interferon receptor, was studied in patients who remained on standard of care therapy. In this study, one dosage group demonstrated efficacy and statistically significant effects were achieved in both tested dosage groups with secondary end points. Oral corticosteroid reduction to ≤7.5 mg daily was achieved in one of the tested dosage groups and organ-specific outcomes were significantly improved in that same group. For all studies, no significant differences in serious adverse effects were seen; although, herpes zoster infections were increased in sifalimumab- and anifrolumab-treated patients and influenza rates were

  10. Measuring Turnover of SIV DNA in Resting CD4+ T Cells Using Pyrosequencing: Implications for the Timing of HIV Eradication Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Jeanette C.; Martyushev, Alexey; Petravic, Janka; Grimm, Andrew; Gooneratne, Shayarana; Amaresena, Thakshila; De Rose, Robert; Loh, Liyen; Davenport, Miles P.; Kent, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Resting CD4+ T cells are a reservoir of latent HIV-1. Understanding the turnover of HIV DNA in these cells has implications for the development of eradication strategies. Most studies of viral latency focus on viral persistence under antiretroviral therapy (ART). We studied the turnover of SIV DNA resting CD4+ T cells during active infection in a cohort of 20 SIV-infected pigtail macaques. We compared SIV sequences at two Mane-A1*084:01-restricted CTL epitopes using serial plasma RNA and resting CD4+ T cell DNA samples by pyrosequencing, and used a mathematical modeling approach to estimate SIV DNA turnover. We found SIV DNA turnover in resting CD4+ T cells was slow in animals with low chronic viral loads, consistent with the long persistence of latency seen under ART. However, in animals with high levels of chronic viral replication, turnover was high. SIV DNA half-life within resting CD4 cells correleated with viral load (p = 0.0052) at the Gag KP9 CTL epitope. At a second CTL epitope in Tat (KVA10) there was a trend towards an association of SIV DNA half-life in resting CD4 cells and viral load (p = 0.0971). Further, we found that the turnover of resting CD4+ T cell SIV DNA was higher for escape during early infection than for escape later in infection (p = 0.0084). Our results suggest viral DNA within resting CD4 T cells is more labile and may be more susceptible to reactivation/eradication treatments when there are higher levels of virus replication and during early/acute infection. PMID:24710023

  11. Biphasic function of TLR3 adjuvant on tumor and spleen dendritic cells promotes tumor T cell infiltration and regression in a vaccine therapy.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Masahiro; Takeda, Yohei; Nakajima, Hiroko; Sugiyama, Haruo; Ebihara, Takashi; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2016-08-01

    Successful cancer immunotherapy necessitates T cell proliferation and infiltration into tumor without exhaustion, a process closely links optimal maturation of dendritic cells (DC), and adjuvant promotes this process as an essential prerequisite. Poly(I:C) has contributed to adjuvant immunotherapy that evokes an antitumor response through the Toll-loke receptor 3 (TLR3)/TICAM-1 pathway in DC. However, the mechanism whereby Poly(I:C) acts on DC for T cell proliferation and migration remains undetermined. Subcutaneous injection of Poly(I:C) regressed implant tumors (WT1-C1498 or OVA-EG7) in C57BL/6 mice, which coincided with tumor-infiltration of CD8(+) T cells. Epitope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were increased in spleen by challenge with Poly(I:C)+Db126 WT-1 peptide but not Poly(I:C) alone, suggesting the need of an exogenous Ag density for cross-priming. In tumor, CXCR3 ligands were upregulated by Poly(I:C), which facilitated recruitment of CTL to the tumor. Thus, Poly(I:C) acts on splenic CD8α(+) DC to cross-prime T cells and on intratumor cells to attract CTLs. Besides CD8(+) T cell cross-priming, T cell recruitment into tumor was significantly dampened in Batf3 (-/-) mice, reflecting the importance of tumor Batf3-dependent DC rather than macrophages in T cell recruitment. Poly(I:C)-induced XCR1(hi) CD8α(+) DC with high TLR3 levels were markedly decreased in Batf3 (-/-) mice, which hampered the production of IL-12 and IL-12-mediated CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell proliferation. Subcutaneous administration of Poly(I:C) and adoptive transfer of wild-type CD8α(+) DC largely recovered antitumor response in those Batf3 (-/-) mice. Collectively, Poly(I:C) tunes up proper maturation of CD8α(+) DC to establish TLR3-mediated IL-12 function and cross-presentation in spleen and lymphocyte-attractive antitumor microenvironment in tumor. PMID:27622060

  12. Persistence of long-lived plasma cells and humoral immunity in individuals responding to CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Bhoj, Vijay G; Arhontoulis, Dimitrios; Wertheim, Gerald; Capobianchi, James; Callahan, Colleen A; Ellebrecht, Christoph T; Obstfeld, Amrom E; Lacey, Simon F; Melenhorst, Jan J; Nazimuddin, Farzana; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Maude, Shannon L; Wasik, Mariusz A; Bagg, Adam; Schuster, Stephen; Feldman, Michael D; Porter, David L; Grupp, Stephen A; June, Carl H; Milone, Michael C

    2016-07-21

    The mechanisms underlying the maintenance of long-lasting humoral immunity are not well understood. Studies in mice indicate that plasma cells (PCs) can survive up to a lifetime, even in the absence of regeneration by B cells, implying the presence of long-lived PCs as a mechanism for long-lasting immunity. Evidence from humans treated with anti-CD20, which depletes circulating B cells, also suggests B-cell-independent long-term survival of some PCs. On the other hand, antibody responses may be sustained solely by short-lived PCs with repopulation from clonally related memory B cells. To explore PC longevity and humoral immunity in humans, we investigated the fate of PCs and their antibodies in adult and pediatric patients who received chimeric antigen receptor-based adoptive T-cell immunotherapy targeting CD19 to treat B-cell lineage malignancies (CTL019). Treatment with CTL019 is frequently associated with B-cell aplasia that can persist for years. Serum antibody titers to vaccine-related antigens were measured, and quantitative assessment of B cells and PCs in blood and bone marrow was performed at various time points before and after CTL019 therapy. While total serum immunoglobulin concentrations decline following CTL019-induced B-cell aplasia, several vaccine/pathogen-specific serum immunoglobulin G and A (IgG and IgA) titers remain relatively stable for at least 6 and 12 months posttreatment, respectively. Analysis of bone marrow biopsies after CTL019 revealed 8 patients with persistence of antibody-secreting PCs at least 25 months post-CTL019 infusion despite absence of CD19(+)CD20(+) B cells. These results provide strong evidence for the existence of memory B-cell-independent, long-lived PCs in humans that contribute to long-lasting humoral immunity. PMID:27166358

  13. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... the birth nor adoptive parents know the others' identities. Other adoptions are handled more openly. Open adoptions, ... desire to seek out more information about the identity of the birth family. Most of us (whether ...

  14. Identification of Candidate Tolerogenic CD8+ T Cell Epitopes for Therapy of Type 1 Diabetes in the NOD Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cailin; Burns, Jeremy C.; Robinson, William H.; Utz, Paul J.; Ho, Peggy P.; Steinman, Lawrence; Frey, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which insulin-producing pancreatic islet β cells are the target of self-reactive B and T cells. T cells reactive with epitopes derived from insulin and/or IGRP are critical for the initiation and maintenance of disease, but T cells reactive with other islet antigens likely have an essential role in disease progression. We sought to identify candidate CD8+ T cell epitopes that are pathogenic in type 1 diabetes. Proteins that elicit autoantibodies in human type 1 diabetes were analyzed by predictive algorithms for candidate epitopes. Using several different tolerizing regimes using synthetic peptides, two new predicted tolerogenic CD8+ T cell epitopes were identified in the murine homolog of the major human islet autoantigen zinc transporter ZnT8 (aa 158–166 and 282–290) and one in a non-β cell protein, dopamine β-hydroxylase (aa 233–241). Tolerizing vaccination of NOD mice with a cDNA plasmid expressing full-length proinsulin prevented diabetes, whereas plasmids encoding ZnT8 and DβH did not. However, tolerizing vaccination of NOD mice with the proinsulin plasmid in combination with plasmids expressing ZnT8 and DβH decreased insulitis and enhanced prevention of disease compared to vaccination with the plasmid encoding proinsulin alone. PMID:27069933

  15. CXCR3/CCR5 pathways in metastatic melanoma patients treated with adoptive therapy and interleukin-2

    PubMed Central

    Bedognetti, D; Spivey, T L; Zhao, Y; Uccellini, L; Tomei, S; Dudley, M E; Ascierto, M L; De Giorgi, V; Liu, Q; Delogu, L G; Sommariva, M; Sertoli, M R; Simon, R; Wang, E; Rosenberg, S A; Marincola, F M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adoptive therapy with tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) induces durable complete responses (CR) in ∼20% of patients with metastatic melanoma. The recruitment of T cells through CXCR3/CCR5 chemokine ligands is critical for immune-mediated rejection. We postulated that polymorphisms and/or expression of CXCR3/CCR5 in TILs and the expression of their ligands in tumour influence the migration of TILs to tumours and tumour regression. Methods: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from 142 metastatic melanoma patients enrolled in adoptive therapy trials were genotyped for CXCR3 rs2280964 and CCR5-Δ32 deletion, which encodes a protein not expressed on the cell surface. Expression of CXCR3/CCR5 in TILs and CXCR3/CCR5 and ligand genes in 113 available parental tumours was also assessed. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte data were validated by flow cytometry (N=50). Results: The full gene expression/polymorphism model, which includes CXCR3 and CCR5 expression data, CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism data and their interaction, was significantly associated with both CR and overall response (OR; P=0.0009, and P=0.007, respectively). More in detail, the predicted underexpression of both CXCR3 and CCR5 according to gene expression and polymorphism data (protein prediction model, PPM) was associated with response to therapy (odds ratio=6.16 and 2.32, for CR and OR, respectively). Flow cytometric analysis confirmed the PPM. Coordinate upregulation of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CCL5 in pretreatment tumour biopsies was associated with OR. Conclusion: Coordinate overexpression of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CCL5 in pretreatment tumours was associated with responsiveness to treatment. Conversely, CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism and CXCR3/CCR5 underexpression influence downregulation of the corresponding receptors in TILs and were associated with likelihood and degree of response. PMID:24129241

  16. T Cells Expressing Constitutively Active Akt Resist Multiple Tumor-associated Inhibitory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiali; Dotti, Gianpietro; Huye, Leslie E; Foster, Aaron E; Savoldo, Barbara; Gramatges, Maria M; Spencer, David M; Rooney, Cliona M

    2010-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes has shown promise for the therapy of cancer. However, tumor-specific T cells are susceptible to diverse inhibitory signals from the tumor microenvironment. The Akt/protein kinase B plays a central role in T-cell proliferation, function, and survival and we hypothesized that expression of constitutively active Akt (caAkt) in T cells could provide resistance to many of these tumor-associated inhibitory mechanisms. caAkt expression in activated human T cells increased proliferation and cytokine production, a likely result of their sustained expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and provided resistance to apoptosis by upregulating antiapoptotic molecules. caAkt expressing T cells (caAkt-T-cells) were also relatively resistant to suppression by and conversion into regulatory T cells (Tregs). These characteristics provided a survival advantage to T cells cocultured with tumor cells in vitro; CD3/28-stimulated T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for disialoganglioside (GD2) that redirected their activity to the immunosuppressive, GD2-expressing neuroblastoma cell line, LAN-1, resisted tumor-induced apoptosis when co-expressing transgenic caAkt. In conclusion, caAkt-transduced T cells showed resistance to several evasion strategies employed by tumors and may therefore enhance the antitumor activity of adoptively transferred T lymphocytes. PMID:20842106

  17. p53MVA therapy in patients with refractory gastrointestinal malignancies elevates p53-specific CD8+ T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, Nicola R; Carrol, Mary; Kaltcheva, Teodora; Qian, Dajun; Lim, Dean; Leong, Lucille; Chu, Peiguo; Kim, Joseph; Chao, Joseph; Fakih, Marwan; Yen, Yun; Espenschied, Jonathan; Ellenhorn, Joshua D I; Diamond, Don J; Chung, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To conduct a Phase I trial of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara vaccine delivering wild type human p53 (p53MVA) in patients with refractory gastrointestinal cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Three patients were vaccinated with 1.0 × 108 pfu p53MVA followed by nine patients at 5.6 × 108 pfu. Toxicity was classified using the NCI Common Toxicity Criteria and clinical responses were assessed by CT scan. Peripheral blood samples were collected pre- and post-immunization for immunophenotyping, monitoring of p53MVA induced immune response and examination of PD-1 checkpoint inhibition in vitro. RESULTS: p53MVA immunization was well tolerated at both doses, with no adverse events above grade 2. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showing enhanced recognition of a p53 overlapping peptide library were detectable after the first immunization, particularly in the CD8+ T cell compartment (p=0.03). However in most patients this did not expand further with the second and third immunization. The frequency of PD-1+ T cells detectable in patients PBMC was significantly higher than in healthy controls. Furthermore, the frequency of PD-1+ CD8+ T cells showed an inverse correlation with the peak CD8+ p53 response (p=0.02) and antibody blockade of PD-1 in vitro increased the p53 immune responses detected after the second or third immunizations. Induction of strong T cell and antibody responses to the MVA backbone were also apparent. CONCLUSION: p53MVA was well tolerated and induced robust CD8+ T cell responses. Combination of p53MVA with immune checkpoint inhibition could help sustain immune responses and lead to enhanced clinical benefit. PMID:24987057

  18. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  19. Lymph node trafficking of regulatory T cells is prerequisite for immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Tzu; Lin, Been-Ren; Liu, Wei-Liang; Lu, Chun-Wei; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T cells have a crucial role in health and disease because of their immune regulation function. However, the anatomic sites where regulatory T cells exert optimal immune regulation are open to debate. In our current study with the use of a shear-stress flow assay, we found that regulatory T cells exhibited significantly decreased adhesion to either activated endothelial monolayer or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 or E-selectin-coated surfaces compared with activated effector T cells. The less transmigration capacity of the regulatory T cells prompted our speculation of preferential lymph node localization for the regulatory T cells that endowed these cells with immune regulation function in the most efficient manner. To test this hypothesis, the role of lymph node localization in regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression was evaluated with a footpad inflammation model. We found that adoptively transferred regulatory T cells inhibited the development of footpad inflammation. In addition, although blockage of CCR7 or CD62L had no effect on the immune suppressive function of the regulatory T cells per se, pretreatment of the regulatory T cells with either CCR7 or CD62L blocking antibodies prevented their recruitment into draining lymph nodes and concomitantly abrogated the immune suppressive effects of adoptively transferred regulatory T cells during footpad inflammation. Our data demonstrate the crucial role of lymph node localization in regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression and suggest a probable hierarchy in the anatomic sites for optimal immune regulation. Elucidating the relationships between the transmigration characteristics of the regulatory T cells and their immune regulation function will provide insightful information for regulatory T cell-based cell therapy. PMID:26543091

  20. Optimization of T-cell Reactivity by Exploiting TCR Chain Centricity for the Purpose of Safe and Effective Antitumor TCR Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Toshiki; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Chamoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Shinya; Yamashita, Yuki; Guo, Tingxi; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Yasukawa, Masaki; Butler, Marcus O; Hirano, Naoto

    2015-09-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells redirected by a high-affinity antitumor T-cell receptor (TCR) is a promising treatment modality for cancer patients. Safety and efficacy depend on the selection of a TCR that induces minimal toxicity and elicits sufficient antitumor reactivity. Many, if not all, TCRs possess cross-reactivity to unrelated MHC molecules in addition to reactivity to target self-MHC/peptide complexes. Some TCRs display chain centricity, in which recognition of MHC/peptide complexes is dominated by one of the TCR hemi-chains. In this study, we comprehensively studied how TCR chain centricity affects reactivity to target self-MHC/peptide complexes and alloreactivity using the TCR, clone TAK1, which is specific for human leukocyte antigen-A*24:02/Wilms tumor 1(235-243) (A24/WT1(235)) and cross-reactive with B*57:01 (B57). The TAK1β, but not the TAK1α, hemi-chain possessed chain centricity. When paired with multiple clonotypic TCRα counter-chains encoding TRAV12-2, 20, 36, or 38-2, the de novo TAK1β-containing TCRs showed enhanced, weakened, or absent reactivity to A24/WT1(235) and/or to B57. T cells reconstituted with these TCRα genes along with TAK1β possessed a very broad range (>3 log orders) of functional and structural avidities. These results suggest that TCR chain centricity can be exploited to enhance desired antitumor TCR reactivity and eliminate unwanted TCR cross-reactivity. TCR reactivity to target MHC/peptide complexes and cross-reactivity to unrelated MHC molecules are not inextricably linked and are separable at the TCR sequence level. However, it is still mandatory to carefully monitor for possible harmful toxicities caused by adoptive transfer of T cells redirected by thymically unselected TCRs. PMID:25943533

  1. Optimization of T-cell reactivity by exploiting TCR chain centricity for the purpose of safe and effective antitumor TCR gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Toshiki; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Chamoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Shinya; Yamashita, Yuki; Guo, Tingxi; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Yasukawa, Masaki; Butler, Marcus O.; Hirano, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells redirected by a high affinity antitumor T-cell receptor (TCR) is a promising treatment modality for cancer patients. Safety and efficacy depend on the selection of a TCR that induces minimal toxicity and elicits sufficient antitumor reactivity. Many, if not all, TCRs possess cross-reactivity to unrelated MHC molecules in addition to reactivity to target self-MHC/peptide complexes. Some TCRs display chain centricity, in which recognition of MHC/peptide complexes is dominated by one of the TCR hemi-chains. In this study, we comprehensively studied how TCR chain centricity impacts reactivity to target self-MHC/peptide complexes and alloreactivity using the TCR, clone TAK1, which is specific for human leukocyte antigen-A*24:02/Wilms tumor 1235–243 (A24/WT1235) and cross-reactive with B*57:01 (B57). The TAK1β, but not the TAK1α, hemi-chain possessed chain centricity. When paired with multiple clonotypic TCRα counter-chains encoding TRAV12-2, 20, 36, or 38-2, the de novo TAK1β-containing TCRs showed enhanced, weakened, or absent reactivity to A24/WT1235 and/or to B57. T cells reconstituted with these TCRα genes along with TAK1β possessed a very broad range (>3 log orders) of functional and structural avidities. These results suggest that TCR chain centricity can be exploited to enhance desired antitumor TCR reactivity and eliminate unwanted TCR cross-reactivity. TCR reactivity to target MHC/peptide complexes and cross-reactivity to unrelated MHC molecules are not inextricably linked and are separable at the TCR sequence level. However, it is still mandatory to carefully monitor for possible harmful toxicities caused by adoptive transfer of T cells redirected by thymically-unselected TCRs. PMID:25943533

  2. Identifying Individual T Cell Receptors of Optimal Avidity for Tumor Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Hebeisen, Michael; Allard, Mathilde; Gannon, Philippe O.; Schmidt, Julien; Speiser, Daniel E.; Rufer, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells recognize, via their T cell receptors (TCRs), small antigenic peptides presented by the major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells and infected or malignant cells. The efficiency of T cell triggering critically depends on TCR binding to cognate pMHC, i.e., the TCR–pMHC structural avidity. The binding and kinetic attributes of this interaction are key parameters for protective T cell-mediated immunity, with stronger TCR–pMHC interactions conferring superior T cell activation and responsiveness than weaker ones. However, high-avidity TCRs are not always available, particularly among self/tumor antigen-specific T cells, most of which are eliminated by central and peripheral deletion mechanisms. Consequently, systematic assessment of T cell avidity can greatly help distinguishing protective from non-protective T cells. Here, we review novel strategies to assess TCR–pMHC interaction kinetics, enabling the identification of the functionally most-relevant T cells. We also discuss the significance of these technologies in determining which cells within a naturally occurring polyclonal tumor-specific T cell response would offer the best clinical benefit for use in adoptive therapies, with or without T cell engineering. PMID:26635796

  3. Adoptive immunotherapy with unselected or EBV-specific T cells for biopsy-proven EBV+ lymphomas after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Doubrovina, Ekaterina; Oflaz-Sozmen, Banu; Prockop, Susan E.; Kernan, Nancy A.; Abramson, Sara; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Hedvat, Cyrus; Chou, Joanne F.; Heller, Glenn; Barker, Juliet N.; Boulad, Farid; Castro-Malaspina, Hugo; George, Diane; Jakubowski, Ann; Koehne, Guenther; Papadopoulos, Esperanza B.; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Small, Trudy N.; Khalaf, Ramzi; Young, James W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated HLA-compatible donor leukocyte infusions (DLIs) and HLA-compatible or HLA-disparate EBV-specific T cells (EBV-CTLs) in 49 hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients with biopsy-proven EBV-lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD). DLIs and EBV-CTLs each induced durable complete or partial remissions in 73% and 68% of treated patients including 74% and 72% of patients surviving ≥ 8 days after infusion, respectively. Reversible acute GVHD occurred in recipients of DLIs (17%) but not EBV-CTLs. The probability of complete response was significantly lower among patients with multiorgan involvement. In responders, DLIs and EBV-CTLs regularly induced exponential increases in EBV-specific CTL precursor (EBV-CTLp) frequencies within 7-14 days, with subsequent clearance of EBV viremia and resolution of disease. In nonresponders, EBV-CTLps did not increase and EBV viremia persisted. Treatment failures were correlated with impaired T-cell recognition of tumor targets. Either donor-derived EBV-CTLs that had been sensitized with autologous BLCLs transformed by EBV strain B95.8 could not lyse spontaneous donor-derived EBV-transformed BLCLs expanded from the patient's blood or biopsied tumor or they failed to lyse their targets because they were selectively restricted by HLA alleles not shared by the EBV-LPD. Therefore, either unselected DLIs or EBV-specific CTLs can eradicate both untreated and Rituxan-resistant lymphomatous EBV-LPD, with failures ascribable to impaired T-cell recognition of tumor-associated viral antigens or their presenting HLA alleles. PMID:22138512

  4. Evolving Insights in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Henry K.; Mishra, Anjali; Hake, Timothy; Porcu, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies derived from skin-homing T cells. The most common forms of CTCL are Mycosis Fungoides (MF) and Sezary Syndrome (SS). Accurate diagnosis remains a challenge due to the heterogeneity of presentation and the lack of highly characteristic immunophenotypical and genetic markers. Over the past decade molecular studies have improved our understanding of the biology of CTCL. The identification of gene expression differences between normal and malignant T-cells has led to promising new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers that now need validation to be incorporated into clinical practice. These biomarkers may also provide insight into the mechanism of development of CTCL. Additionally, treatment options have expanded with the approval of new agents, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors. A better understanding of the cell biology, immunology and genetics underlying the development and progression of CTCL will allow the design of more rational treatment strategies for these malignancies. This review summarizes the clinical epidemiology, staging and natural history of MF and SS; discusses the immunopathogenesis of MF and the functional role of the malignant T-cells; and reviews the latest advances in MF and SS treatment. PMID:21883142

  5. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy--a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4⁺ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8⁺ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4⁺ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors. PMID:26999211

  6. Cytokine release syndrome in cancer immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Yong-Min

    2014-02-28

    Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells is a promising therapy for cancers. However, the safety of this approach is concerned. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a common but lethal complication of CAR-T cell therapy. The development of CRS correlates with CAR structures, tumor type and burden, and patients' genetic polymorphisms. CRS related adverse events may be reduced by designing safer CARs and CAR-T cells and following strict dose-escalation scheme. Timely and effective cytokine-directed treatment with corticosteroid and various cytokine antagonists is important to avoid CRS associated death. PMID:24141191

  7. Regulatory T Cell Infusion Can Enhance Memory T Cell and Alloantibody Responses in Lymphodepleted Nonhuman Primate Heart Allograft Recipients.

    PubMed

    Ezzelarab, M B; Zhang, H; Guo, H; Lu, L; Zahorchak, A F; Wiseman, R W; Nalesnik, M A; Bhama, J K; Cooper, D K C; Thomson, A W

    2016-07-01

    The ability of regulatory T cells (Treg) to prolong allograft survival and promote transplant tolerance in lymphodepleted rodents is well established. Few studies, however, have addressed the therapeutic potential of adoptively transferred, CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(-) Foxp3(+) (Treg) in clinically relevant large animal models. We infused ex vivo-expanded, functionally stable, nonselected Treg (up to a maximum cumulative dose of 1.87 billion cells) into antithymocyte globulin-lymphodepleted, MHC-mismatched cynomolgus monkey heart graft recipients before homeostatic recovery of effector T cells. The monkeys also received tacrolimus, anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibodies and tapered rapamycin maintenance therapy. Treg administration in single or multiple doses during the early postsurgical period (up to 1 month posttransplantation), when host T cells were profoundly depleted, resulted in inferior graft function compared with controls. This was accompanied by increased incidences of effector memory T cells, enhanced interferon-γ production by host CD8(+) T cells, elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and antidonor alloantibodies. The findings caution against infusion of Treg during the early posttransplantation period after lymphodepletion. Despite marked but transient increases in Treg relative to endogenous effector T cells and use of reputed "Treg-friendly" agents, the host environment/immune effector mechanisms instigated under these conditions can perturb rather than favor the potential therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred Treg. PMID:26700196

  8. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells derived from defined CD8+ and CD4+ subsets confer superior antitumor reactivity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sommermeyer, Daniel; Hudecek, Michael; Kosasih, Paula L.; Gogishvili, Tea; Maloney, David G.; Turtle, Cameron J.; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy with gene-modified T-cells expressing a tumor-reactive T-cell receptor (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a rapidly growing field of translational medicine and has shown success in the treatment of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors. In all reported trials, patients have received T-cell products comprised of random compositions of CD4+ and CD8+ naïve and memory T-cells, meaning that each patient received a different therapeutic agent. This variation might have influenced the efficacy of T-cell therapy, and complicates comparison of outcomes between different patients and across trials. We analyzed CD19 CAR-expressing effector T-cells derived from different subsets (CD4+/CD8+ naïve, central memory, effector memory). T-cells derived from each of the subsets were efficiently transduced and expanded, but showed clear differences in effector function and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Combining the most potent CD4+ and CD8+ CAR-expressing subsets resulted in synergistic antitumor effects in vivo. We show that CAR-T-cell products generated from defined T-cell subsets can provide uniform potency compared with products derived from unselected T-cells that vary in phenotypic composition. These findings have important implications for the formulation of T-cell products for adoptive therapies. PMID:26369987

  9. Acyclovir Therapy Reduces the CD4+ T Cell Response against the Immunodominant pp65 Protein from Cytomegalovirus in Immune Competent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Pachnio, Annette; Begum, Jusnara; Fox, Ashini; Moss, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects the majority of the global population and leads to the development of a strong virus-specific immune response. The CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune response can comprise between 10 and 50% of the T cell pool within peripheral blood and there is concern that this may impair immunity to other pathogens. Elderly individuals with the highest magnitude of CMV-specific immune response have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of mortality and there is increasing interest in interventions that may serve to moderate this. Acyclovir is an anti-viral drug with activity against a range of herpes viruses and is used as long term treatment to suppress reactivation of herpes simplex virus. We studied the immune response to CMV in patients who were taking acyclovir to assess if therapy could be used to suppress the CMV-specific immune response. The T cell reactivity against the immunodominant late viral protein pp65 was reduced by 53% in people who were taking acyclovir. This effect was seen within one year of therapy and was observed primarily within the CD4+ response. Acyclovir treatment only modestly influenced the immune response to the IE-1 target protein. These data show that low dose acyclovir treatment has the potential to modulate components of the T cell response to CMV antigen proteins and indicate that anti-viral drugs should be further investigated as a means to reduce the magnitude of CMV-specific immune response and potentially improve overall immune function. PMID:25923913

  10. Versatile strategy for controlling the specificity and activity of engineered T cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jennifer S Y; Kim, Ji Young; Kazane, Stephanie A; Choi, Sei-Hyun; Yun, Hwa Young; Kim, Min Soo; Rodgers, David T; Pugh, Holly M; Singer, Oded; Sun, Sophie B; Fonslow, Bryan R; Kochenderfer, James N; Wright, Timothy M; Schultz, Peter G; Young, Travis S; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Cao, Yu

    2016-01-26

    The adoptive transfer of autologous T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has emerged as a promising cancer therapy. Despite impressive clinical efficacy, the general application of current CAR-T--cell therapy is limited by serious treatment-related toxicities. One approach to improve the safety of CAR-T cells involves making their activation and proliferation dependent upon adaptor molecules that mediate formation of the immunological synapse between the target cancer cell and T-cell. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of structurally defined semisynthetic adaptors we refer to as "switch" molecules, in which anti-CD19 and anti-CD22 antibody fragments are site-specifically modified with FITC using genetically encoded noncanonical amino acids. This approach allows the precise control over the geometry and stoichiometry of complex formation between CD19- or CD22-expressing cancer cells and a "universal" anti-FITC-directed CAR-T cell. Optimization of this CAR-switch combination results in potent, dose-dependent in vivo antitumor activity in xenograft models. The advantage of being able to titrate CAR-T-cell in vivo activity was further evidenced by reduced in vivo toxicity and the elimination of persistent B-cell aplasia in immune-competent mice. The ability to control CAR-T cell and cancer cell interactions using intermediate switch molecules may expand the scope of engineered T-cell therapy to solid tumors, as well as indications beyond cancer therapy. PMID:26759368

  11. Interdependent IL-7 and IFN-γ signalling in T-cell controls tumour eradication by combined α-CTLA-4+α-PD-1 therapy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lewis Zhichang; Fu, Tihui; Guan, Baoxiang; Chen, Jianfeng; Blando, Jorge M; Allison, James P; Xiong, Liangwen; Subudhi, Sumit K; Gao, Jianjun; Sharma, Padmanee

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy with α-CTLA-4 and α-PD-1 has shown significant clinical responses in different types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, combining detailed analysis of human tumour samples with preclinical tumour models, we report that concomitant blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-1 improves anti-tumour immune responses and synergistically eradicates tumour. Mechanistically, combination therapy relies on the interdependence between IL-7 and IFN-γ signalling in T cells, as lack of either pathway abrogates the immune-boosting and therapeutic effects of combination therapy. Combination treatment increases IL-7Rα expression on tumour-infiltrating T cells in an IFN-γ/IFN-γR signalling-dependent manner, which may serve as a potential biomarker for clinical trials with immune checkpoint blockade. Our data suggest that combining immune checkpoint blockade with IL-7 signalling could be an effective modality to improve immunotherapeutic efficacy. Taken together, we conclude that combination therapy potently reverses immunosuppression and eradicates tumours via an intricate interplay between IFN-γ/IFN-γR and IL-7/IL-7R pathways. PMID:27498556

  12. Interdependent IL-7 and IFN-γ signalling in T-cell controls tumour eradication by combined α-CTLA-4+α-PD-1 therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lewis Zhichang; Fu, Tihui; Guan, Baoxiang; Chen, Jianfeng; Blando, Jorge M.; Allison, James P.; Xiong, Liangwen; Subudhi, Sumit K.; Gao, Jianjun; Sharma, Padmanee

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy with α-CTLA-4 and α-PD-1 has shown significant clinical responses in different types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, combining detailed analysis of human tumour samples with preclinical tumour models, we report that concomitant blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-1 improves anti-tumour immune responses and synergistically eradicates tumour. Mechanistically, combination therapy relies on the interdependence between IL-7 and IFN-γ signalling in T cells, as lack of either pathway abrogates the immune-boosting and therapeutic effects of combination therapy. Combination treatment increases IL-7Rα expression on tumour-infiltrating T cells in an IFN-γ/IFN-γR signalling-dependent manner, which may serve as a potential biomarker for clinical trials with immune checkpoint blockade. Our data suggest that combining immune checkpoint blockade with IL-7 signalling could be an effective modality to improve immunotherapeutic efficacy. Taken together, we conclude that combination therapy potently reverses immunosuppression and eradicates tumours via an intricate interplay between IFN-γ/IFN-γR and IL-7/IL-7R pathways. PMID:27498556

  13. Predicting Cytotoxic T-cell Age from Multivariate Analysis of Static and Dynamic Biomarkers*

    PubMed Central

    Rivet, Catherine A.; Hill, Abby S.; Lu, Hang; Kemp, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell transfer therapy relies upon in vitro expansion of autologous cytotoxic T cells that are capable of tumor recognition. The success of this cell-based therapy depends on the specificity and responsiveness of the T cell clones before transfer. During ex vivo expansion, CD8+ T cells present signs of replicative senescence and loss of function. The transfer of nonresponsive senescent T cells is a major bottleneck for the success of adoptive T-cell transfer therapy. Quantitative methods for assessing cellular age and responsiveness will facilitate the development of appropriate cell expansion and selection protocols. Although several biomarkers of lymphocyte senescence have been identified, these proteins in isolation are not sufficient to determine the age-dependent responsiveness of T cells. We have developed a multivariate model capable of extracting combinations of markers that are the most informative to predict cellular age. To acquire signaling information with high temporal resolution, we designed a microfluidic chip enabling parallel lysis and fixation of stimulated cell samples on-chip. The acquisition of 25 static biomarkers and 48 dynamic signaling measurements at different days in culture, integrating single-cell and population based information, allowed the multivariate regression model to accurately predict CD8+ T-cell age. From surface marker expression and early phosphorylation events following T-cell receptor stimulation, the model successfully predicts days in culture and number of population doublings with R2 = 0.91 and 0.98, respectively. Furthermore, we found that impairment of early signaling events following T cell receptor stimulation because of long term culture allows prediction of costimulatory molecules CD28 and CD27 expression levels and the number of population divisions in culture from a limited subset of signaling proteins. The multivariate analysis highlights the information content of both averaged biomarker values and

  14. VEGFA/VEGFR2-targeted therapies prevent the VEGFA-induced proliferation of regulatory T cells in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Terme, Magali; Tartour, Eric; Taieb, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Some of the anti-angiogenic agents currently used to treat solid malignancies have effects on tumor endothelial cells as well as on immune cells. We have recently demonstrated that targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling pathway reduces the proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg) in a mouse model of colorectal cancer (CRC) and in metastatic CRC patients as it inhibits tumor-induced Treg proliferation. PMID:24083078

  15. Epigenetically Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy (ePDT) is Superior to Conventional Photodynamic Therapy for Inducing Apoptosis in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Salva, Katrin Agnes; Wood, Gary S

    2015-11-01

    Conventional photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinate (ALA-PDT) selectively induces apoptosis in diseased cells and is highly effective for treating actinic keratoses. However, similar results are achieved only in a subset of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Our previous work shows that the apoptotic resistance of CTCL correlates with low expression of death receptors like Fas cell surface death receptor (FAS), and that methotrexate upregulates FAS by inhibiting the methylation of its promoter, acting as an epigenetic derepressor that restores the susceptibility of FAS-low CTCL to caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that methotrexate increases the response of CTCL to ALA-PDT, a concept we refer to as epigenetically enhanced PDT (ePDT). Multiple CTCL cell lines were subjected to conventional PDT versus ePDT. Apoptotic biomarkers were analyzed in situ with multispectral imaging analysis of immunostained cells, a method that is quantitative and 5× more sensitive than standard immunohistology for antigen detection. Compared to conventional PDT or methotrexate alone, ePDT led to significantly greater cell death in all CTCL cell lines tested by inducing greater activation of caspase-8-mediated extrinsic apoptosis. Upregulation of FAS and/or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand pathway components was observed in different CTCL cell lines. These findings provide a rationale for clinical trials of ePDT for CTCL. PMID:26302991

  16. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Romidepsin Induces HIV Expression in CD4 T Cells from Patients on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy at Concentrations Achieved by Clinical Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Datsen George; Chiang, Vicki; Fyne, Elizabeth; Balakrishnan, Mini; Barnes, Tiffany; Graupe, Michael; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Irrinki, Alivelu; Murry, Jeffrey P.; Stepan, George; Stray, Kirsten M.; Tsai, Angela; Yu, Helen; Spindler, Jonathan; Kearney, Mary; Spina, Celsa A.; McMahon, Deborah; Lalezari, Jacob; Sloan, Derek; Mellors, John; Geleziunas, Romas; Cihlar, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Persistent latent reservoir of replication-competent proviruses in memory CD4 T cells is a major obstacle to curing HIV infection. Pharmacological activation of HIV expression in latently infected cells is being explored as one of the strategies to deplete the latent HIV reservoir. In this study, we characterized the ability of romidepsin (RMD), a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphomas, to activate the expression of latent HIV. In an in vitro T-cell model of HIV latency, RMD was the most potent inducer of HIV (EC50 = 4.5 nM) compared with vorinostat (VOR; EC50 = 3,950 nM) and other histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in clinical development including panobinostat (PNB; EC50 = 10 nM). The HIV induction potencies of RMD, VOR, and PNB paralleled their inhibitory activities against multiple human HDAC isoenzymes. In both resting and memory CD4 T cells isolated from HIV-infected patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), a 4-hour exposure to 40 nM RMD induced a mean 6-fold increase in intracellular HIV RNA levels, whereas a 24-hour treatment with 1 µM VOR resulted in 2- to 3-fold increases. RMD-induced intracellular HIV RNA expression persisted for 48 hours and correlated with sustained inhibition of cell-associated HDAC activity. By comparison, the induction of HIV RNA by VOR and PNB was transient and diminished after 24 hours. RMD also increased levels of extracellular HIV RNA and virions from both memory and resting CD4 T-cell cultures. The activation of HIV expression was observed at RMD concentrations below the drug plasma levels achieved by doses used in patients treated for T-cell lymphomas. In conclusion, RMD induces HIV expression ex vivo at concentrations that can be achieved clinically, indicating that the drug may reactivate latent HIV in patients on suppressive cART. PMID:24722454

  17. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy––a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4+ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8+ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4+ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors. PMID:26999211

  18. γδ T Cells Confer Protection against Murine Cytomegalovirus (MCMV)

    PubMed Central

    Villacreces, Arnaud; Juzan, Marina; Rousseau, Benoît; Dulanto, Sara; Giese, Alban; Costet, Pierre; Praloran, Vincent; Moreau, Jean-François; Dubus, Pierre; Vermijlen, David

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading infectious cause of morbidity in immune-compromised patients. γδ T cells have been involved in the response to CMV but their role in protection has not been firmly established and their dependency on other lymphocytes has not been addressed. Using C57BL/6 αβ and/or γδ T cell-deficient mice, we here show that γδ T cells are as competent as αβ T cells to protect mice from CMV-induced death. γδ T cell-mediated protection involved control of viral load and prevented organ damage. γδ T cell recovery by bone marrow transplant or adoptive transfer experiments rescued CD3ε−/− mice from CMV-induced death confirming the protective antiviral role of γδ T cells. As observed in humans, different γδ T cell subsets were induced upon CMV challenge, which differentiated into effector memory cells. This response was observed in the liver and lungs and implicated both CD27+ and CD27− γδ T cells. NK cells were the largely preponderant producers of IFNγ and cytotoxic granules throughout the infection, suggesting that the protective role of γδ T cells did not principally rely on either of these two functions. Finally, γδ T cells were strikingly sufficient to fully protect Rag−/−γc−/− mice from death, demonstrating that they can act in the absence of B and NK cells. Altogether our results uncover an autonomous protective antiviral function of γδ T cells, and open new perspectives for the characterization of a non classical mode of action which should foster the design of new γδ T cell based therapies, especially useful in αβ T cell compromised patients. PMID:25747674

  19. Patient-individualized CD8⁺ cytolytic T-cell therapy effectively combats minimal residual leukemia in immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Distler, Eva; Albrecht, Jana; Brunk, Ariane; Khan, Shamsul; Schnürer, Elke; Frey, Michaela; Mottok, Anja; Jordán-Garrote, Ana-Laura; Brede, Christian; Beilhack, Andreas; Mades, Andreas; Tomsitz, Dirk; Theobald, Matthias; Herr, Wolfgang; Hartwig, Udo F

    2016-03-01

    Adoptive transfer of donor-derived cytolytic T-lymphocytes (CTL) has evolved as a promising strategy to improve graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effects in allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. However, durable clinical responses are often hampered by limited capability of transferred T cells to establish effective and sustained antitumor immunity in vivo. We therefore analyzed GvL responses of acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-reactive CD8(+) CTL with central and effector memory phenotype in a new allogeneic donor-patient specific humanized mouse model. CTL lines and clones obtained upon stimulation of naive CD45RA(+) donor CD8(+) T cells with either single HLA antigen-mismatched or HLA-matched primary AML blasts, respectively, elicited strong leukemia reactivity during cytokine-optimized short to intermediate (i.e., 2-8 weeks) culture periods. Single doses of CTL were intravenously infused into NOD/scidIL2Rcg(null) mice when engraftment with patient AML reached bone marrow infiltration of 1-5%, clinically defining minimal residual disease status. This treatment resulted in complete regression of HLA-mismatched and strong reduction of HLA-matched AML infiltration, respectively. Most importantly, mice receiving AML-reactive CTL showed significantly prolonged survival. Transferred CTL were detectable in murine bone marrow and spleen and demonstrated sustained AML-reactivity ex vivo. Moreover, injections with human IL-15 clearly promoted CTL persistence. In summary, we show that naive donor-derived CD8(+) CTL effectively combat patient AML blasts in immunodeficient mice. The donor-patient specific humanized mouse model appears suitable to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of AML-reactive CTL before adoptive transfer into patients. It may further help to identify powerful leukemia rejection antigens and T-cell receptors for redirecting immunity to leukemias even in a patient-individualized manner. PMID:26376181

  20. [THE DYNAMICS OF IMMUNOLOGICAL RESULTS OF PATIENTS WITH T-CELL SKIN LYMPHOMAS AND PSORIASIS BY THE THERAPY OF ACTIVATION MECHANISMS SANOGENESIS METHODS].

    PubMed

    Kurgan, D M; Kokoruz, M V; Kurgan, M G; Novak, V L

    2015-01-01

    The therapy T-cell skin lymphoma and psoriasis by the application of activation mechanisms sanogenesis methods, such as: original--a treatment plasmapheresis, a standard heparin infusion; used for the first time--wobenzym; solutions of acid acetic food and sodium bicarbonate; known--the basic sanitations of concomitant diseases, photopheresis caused remissions in 79.6% patients with different stages T-cell skin lymphoma (observed over an 8-year span), and in 67% of patients with psoriasis (observed over an 6-year span). Depuration reactions (phagocytosis, pinocytosis, toxin neutralization) has been activated by detoxication of treatment plasmapheresis and heparin infusions. The topical therapy with wobenzym, solutions of acid acetic food and sodium bicarbonate renewed natural immune barrier of skin. Basic therapy of concomitant diseases enhanced of patient state of health and mobilized compensatory resources. Photopheresis initiated autoimmunization processes by malignant CD4+ lymphocytes. When remission was achieved, the parameters of cellular and humoral immunity returned to normal levels, or the parameters made worse in the absence of remission. PMID:26827436

  1. Anti-CTLA-4 therapy results in higher CD4+ICOShi T cell frequency and IFN-γ levels in both nonmalignant and malignant prostate tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Liakou, Chrysoula I.; Kamat, Ashish; Pettaway, Curtis; Ward, John F.; Tang, Derek Ng; Sun, Jingjing; Jungbluth, Achim A.; Troncoso, Patricia; Logothetis, Christopher; Sharma, Padmanee

    2009-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) blockade is an active immunotherapeutic strategy that is currently in clinical trials in cancer. There are several ongoing trials of anti-CTLA-4 in the metastatic setting of prostate cancer patients with reported clinical responses consisting of decreases in the prostate specific antigen (PSA) tumor marker for some patients. Immunologic markers that correlate with these clinical responses are necessary to guide further development of anti-CTLA-4 therapy in the treatment of cancer patients. We recently reported that CD4+ inducible co-stimulator (ICOS)hi T cells that produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) are increased in the peripheral blood and tumor tissues of bladder cancer patients treated with anti-CTLA-4 antibody. Here we present data from the same clinical trial in bladder cancer patients demonstrating a higher frequency of CD4+ICOShi T cells and IFN-γ mRNA levels in nonmalignant prostate tissues and incidental prostate tumor tissues removed at the time of radical cystoprostatectomy. Our data suggest immunologic markers that can be used to monitor prostate cancer patients who receive anti-CTLA-4 therapy and indicate that the immunologic impact of anti-CTLA-4 antibody can occur in both tumor and nonmalignant tissues. These data should be taken into consideration for evaluation of efficacy as well as immune-related adverse events associated with anti-CTLA-4 therapy. PMID:19202079

  2. Plant-based oral tolerance to hemophilia therapy employs a complex immune regulatory response including LAP+CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomei; Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Rogers, Geoffrey L; Liao, Gongxian; Hoffman, Brad E; Leong, Kam W; Terhorst, Cox; Daniell, Henry; Herzog, Roland W

    2015-04-01

    Coagulation factor replacement therapy for the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia is severely complicated by antibody ("inhibitor") formation. We previously found that oral delivery to hemophilic mice of cholera toxin B subunit-coagulation factor fusion proteins expressed in chloroplasts of transgenic plants suppressed inhibitor formation directed against factors VIII and IX and anaphylaxis against factor IX (FIX). This observation and the relatively high concentration of antigen in the chloroplasts prompted us to evaluate the underlying tolerance mechanisms. The combination of oral delivery of bioencapsulated FIX and intravenous replacement therapy induced a complex, interleukin-10 (IL-10)-dependent, antigen-specific systemic immune suppression of pathogenic antibody formation (immunoglobulin [Ig] 1/inhibitors, IgE) in hemophilia B mice. Tolerance induction was also successful in preimmune mice but required prolonged oral delivery once replacement therapy was resumed. Orally delivered antigen, initially targeted to epithelial cells, was taken up by dendritic cells throughout the small intestine and additionally by F4/80(+) cells in the duodenum. Consistent with the immunomodulatory responses, frequencies of tolerogenic CD103(+) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were increased. Ultimately, latency-associated peptide expressing CD4(+) regulatory T cells (CD4(+)CD25(-)LAP(+) cells with upregulated IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) expression) as well as conventional CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells systemically suppressed anti-FIX responses. PMID:25700434

  3. Levels of circulating myeloid subpopulations and of heme oxygenase-1 do not predict CD4+ T cell recovery after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The level (or frequency) of circulating monocyte subpopulations such as classical (CD14hiCD16-) and non-classical (CD14dimCD16+) monocytes varies during the course of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that such variation and/or differences in the degree to which these cells expressed the immunoregulatory enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), would be associated with CD4+ T cell recovery after the initiation of ART. This hypothesis was tested in a cross-sectional study of four groups of HIV-infected subjects, including those who were seronegative, untreated virologic controllers [detectable viral load (VL) of <1000 copies/mL], untreated virologic non-controllers [VL > 10,000 copies/mL], and ART-mediated virologic controllers [VL < 75 copies/mL]. A longitudinal analysis of ART-treated subjects was also performed along with regression analysis to determine which biomarkers were associated with and/or predictive of CD4+ T cell recovery. Suppressive ART was associated with increased levels of classical monocyte subpopulations (CD14hiCD16-) and decreased levels of non-classical monocyte populations (CD14dimCD16+). Among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), HO-1 was found to be most highly up-regulated in CD14+ monocytes after ex vivo stimulation. Neither the levels of monocyte subpopulations nor of HO-1 expression in CD14+ monocytes were significantly associated with the degree of CD4+ T cell recovery. Monocyte subpopulations and HO-1 gene expression were, however, restored to normal levels by suppressive ART. These results suggest that the level of circulating monocyte subpopulations and their expression of HO-1 have no evident relationship to CD4+ T cell recovery after the initiation of ART. PMID:25180041

  4. Methamphetamine Use in HIV-infected Individuals Affects T-cell Function and Viral Outcome during Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Massanella, Marta; Gianella, Sara; Schrier, Rachel; Dan, Jennifer M; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Oliveira, Michelli F; Richman, Douglas D; Little, Susan J; Benson, Constance A; Daar, Eric S; Dube, Michael P; Haubrich, Richard H; Smith, Davey M; Morris, Sheldon R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the associations between methamphetamine (meth) use, immune function, and the dynamics of HIV and cytomegalovirus [CMV] in the blood and genital tract of HIV-infected ART-suppressed subjects. Self-reported meth use was associated with increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation (Ki67(+), p < 0.005), CD4(+) T-cell activation (CD45RA(-)CD38(+), p = 0.005) and exhaustion (PD-1(+), p = 0.0004) in blood, compared to non-meth users. Meth use was also associated with a trend towards higher blood HIV DNA levels (p = 0.09) and more frequent shedding of CMV in seminal plasma (p = 0.002). To explore possible mechanisms, we compared ex vivo spontaneous and antigen-specific proliferation in PBMC collected from subjects with and without positive meth detection in urine (Utox+ vs. Utox-). Despite higher levels of spontaneous proliferation, lymphocytes from Utox+ meth users had a significantly lower proliferative capacity after stimulation with a number of pathogens (CMV, candida, mycobacterium, toxoplasma, HIV, p < 0.04 in all cases), compared to Utox- participants. Our findings suggest that meth users have greater proliferation and exhaustion of the immune system. Meth use is also associated with a loss of control of CMV replication, which could be related to loss of immune response to pathogens. Future studies should consider meth use as a potential modulator of T-cell responses. PMID:26299251

  5. Methamphetamine Use in HIV-infected Individuals Affects T-cell Function and Viral Outcome during Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Massanella, Marta; Gianella, Sara; Schrier, Rachel; Dan, Jennifer M.; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Oliveira, Michelli F.; Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Benson, Constance A.; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Haubrich, Richard H.; Smith, Davey M.; Morris, Sheldon R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the associations between methamphetamine (meth) use, immune function, and the dynamics of HIV and cytomegalovirus [CMV] in the blood and genital tract of HIV-infected ART-suppressed subjects. Self-reported meth use was associated with increased CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation (Ki67+, p < 0.005), CD4+ T-cell activation (CD45RA–CD38+, p = 0.005) and exhaustion (PD-1+, p = 0.0004) in blood, compared to non-meth users. Meth use was also associated with a trend towards higher blood HIV DNA levels (p = 0.09) and more frequent shedding of CMV in seminal plasma (p = 0.002). To explore possible mechanisms, we compared ex vivo spontaneous and antigen-specific proliferation in PBMC collected from subjects with and without positive meth detection in urine (Utox+ vs. Utox-). Despite higher levels of spontaneous proliferation, lymphocytes from Utox+ meth users had a significantly lower proliferative capacity after stimulation with a number of pathogens (CMV, candida, mycobacterium, toxoplasma, HIV, p < 0.04 in all cases), compared to Utox- participants. Our findings suggest that meth users have greater proliferation and exhaustion of the immune system. Meth use is also associated with a loss of control of CMV replication, which could be related to loss of immune response to pathogens. Future studies should consider meth use as a potential modulator of T-cell responses. PMID:26299251

  6. EGFRvIII mCAR-modified T-cell therapy cures mice with established intracerebral glioma and generates host immunity against tumor-antigen loss

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, John H.; Choi, Bryan D.; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Suryadevara, Carter M.; Snyder, David J.; Flores, Catherine T.; Schmittling, Robert J.; Nair, Smita; Reap, Elizabeth A.; Norberg, Pamela K.; Herndon, James E.; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Morgan, Richard A.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Johnson, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) transduced T cells represent a promising immune therapy that has been shown to successfully treat cancers in mice and humans. However, CARs targeting antigens expressed in both tumors and normal tissues have led to significant toxicity. Preclinical studies have been limited by the use of xenograft models that do not adequately recapitulate the immune system of a clinically relevant host. EGFRvIII is a constitutively activated mutant of the naturally occurring epidermal growth factor receptor and is antigenically identical in both human and mouse glioma, but is also completely absent from any normal tissues. Experimental Design We developed a third-generation, EGFRvIII-specific murine CAR (mCAR), and performed tests to determine its efficacy in a fully immune-competent mouse model of malignant glioma. Results At elevated doses, infusion with EGFRvIII mCAR T cells led to cures in all mice with brain tumors. Additionally, antitumor efficacy was found to be dependent on lymphodepletive host conditioning. Selective blockade with EGFRvIII soluble peptide significantly abrogated the activity of EGFRvIII mCAR T cells in vitro and in vivo, and may offer a novel strategy to enhance the safety profile for CAR-based therapy. Lastly, mCAR-treated, cured mice were resistant to rechallenge with EGFRvIIINEG tumors, suggesting generation of host immunity against additional tumor antigens. Conclusion All together, these data support that third-generation, EGFRvIII specific mCARs are effective against gliomas in the brain and highlight the importance of syngeneic, immune-competent models in the preclinical evaluation of tumor immunotherapies. PMID:24352643

  7. Can engineered "designer" T cells outsmart chronic hepatitis B?

    PubMed

    Protzer, U; Abken, H

    2010-01-01

    More than 350 million people worldwide are persistently infected with human heptatitis B virus (HBV) and at risk to develop liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma making long-term treatment necessary. While a vaccine is available and new antiviral drugs are being developed, elimination of persistently infected cells is still a major issue. Recent efforts in adoptive cell therapy are experimentally exploring immunotherapeutic elimination of HBV-infected cells by means of a biological attack with genetically engineered "designer" T cells. PMID:21188203

  8. Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti–CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Tyler R.; Li, Fubin; Montalvo-Ortiz, Welby; Sepulveda, Manuel A.; Bergerhoff, Katharina; Arce, Frederick; Roddie, Claire; Henry, Jake Y.; Yagita, Hideo; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Peggs, Karl S.; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment with monoclonal antibody specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), an inhibitory receptor expressed by T lymphocytes, has emerged as an effective therapy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Although subject to debate, current models favor a mechanism of activity involving blockade of the inhibitory activity of CTLA-4 on both effector (T eff) and regulatory (T reg) T cells, resulting in enhanced antitumor effector T cell activity capable of inducing tumor regression. We demonstrate, however, that the activity of anti–CTLA-4 antibody on the T reg cell compartment is mediated via selective depletion of T reg cells within tumor lesions. Importantly, T reg cell depletion is dependent on the presence of Fcγ receptor–expressing macrophages within the tumor microenvironment, indicating that T reg cells are depleted in trans in a context-dependent manner. Our results reveal further mechanistic insight into the activity of anti-CTLA-4–based cancer immunotherapy, and illustrate the importance of specific features of the local tumor environment on the final outcome of antibody-based immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:23897981

  9. Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Tyler R; Li, Fubin; Montalvo-Ortiz, Welby; Sepulveda, Manuel A; Bergerhoff, Katharina; Arce, Frederick; Roddie, Claire; Henry, Jake Y; Yagita, Hideo; Wolchok, Jedd D; Peggs, Karl S; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Allison, James P; Quezada, Sergio A

    2013-08-26

    Treatment with monoclonal antibody specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), an inhibitory receptor expressed by T lymphocytes, has emerged as an effective therapy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Although subject to debate, current models favor a mechanism of activity involving blockade of the inhibitory activity of CTLA-4 on both effector (T eff) and regulatory (T reg) T cells, resulting in enhanced antitumor effector T cell activity capable of inducing tumor regression. We demonstrate, however, that the activity of anti-CTLA-4 antibody on the T reg cell compartment is mediated via selective depletion of T reg cells within tumor lesions. Importantly, T reg cell depletion is dependent on the presence of Fcγ receptor-expressing macrophages within the tumor microenvironment, indicating that T reg cells are depleted in trans in a context-dependent manner. Our results reveal further mechanistic insight into the activity of anti-CTLA-4-based cancer immunotherapy, and illustrate the importance of specific features of the local tumor environment on the final outcome of antibody-based immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:23897981

  10. Survival Advantage With the Addition of Radiation Therapy to Chemotherapy in Early Stage Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xi-Mei; Li, Ye-Xiong; Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Fang, Hui; Ren, Hua; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Liu, Xin-Fan; Yu, Zi-Hao

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Early stage peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment as well as the potential role of radiation therapy in PTCL-NOS. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with early stage PTCL-NOS were included. There were 13 patients with stage I disease and 22 with stage II. All patients except 1 received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy alone (n=13) or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CMT) (n=21). Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the entire group were 41.3% and 25.7%, respectively. The addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved OS and PFS in early stage PTCL-NOS. The 3-year OS and PFS rates were 49.7% and 33.3% for CMT, compared with 23.1% (P=.042) and 15.4% (P=.035) for chemotherapy alone, respectively. The prognosis for patients who achieved a complete response (CR) was significantly better than that observed in those who did not achieve a CR. Conclusions: Despite the aggressive clinical course of early stage PTCL-NOS, additional radiation therapy has a significant impact on outcome. The integration of local radiation therapy into more effective systemic therapies may further improve survival.

  11. CD4+ T-Cell Decline after the Interruption of Antiretroviral Therapy in ACTG A5170 Is Predicted by Differential Expression of Genes in the Ras Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhining; Su, Zhaohui; Nau, Martin E.; Krambrink, Amy; Skiest, Daniel J.; Margolis, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Patterns of expressed genes examined in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of seropositive persons electing to stop antiretroviral therapy in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5170 were scrutinized to identify markers capable of predicting the likelihood of CD4+ T-cell depletion after cessation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A5170 was a multicenter, 96-week, prospective study of HIV-infected patients with immunological preservation on ART who elected to interrupt therapy. Study entry required that the CD4 count was greater than 350 cells/mm3 within 6 months of ART initiation. Median nadir CD4 count of enrollees was 436 cells/mm3. Two cohorts, matched for clinical characteristics, were selected from A5170. Twenty-four patients with an absolute CD4 cell decline of less that 20% at week 24 (good outcome group) and 24 with a CD4 cell decline of >20% (poor outcome group) were studied. The good outcome group had a decline in CD4+ T-cell count that was 50% less than the poor outcome group. Significance analysis of microarrays identified differential gene expression (DE) in the two groups in data obtained from Affymetrix Human FOCUS GeneChips. DE was significantly higher in the poor outcome group than in the good outcome group. Prediction analysis of microarrays (PAM-R) identified genes that classified persons as to progression with greater than 80% accuracy at therapy interruption (TI) as well as at 24 weeks after TI. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) identified a set of genes in the Ras signaling pathway, associated with the downregulation of apoptosis, as significantly upregulated in the good outcome group at cessation of ART. These observations identify specific host cell processes associated with differential outcome in this cohort after TI. PMID:18724805

  12. The CD3-zeta chimeric antigen receptor overcomes TCR Hypo-responsiveness of human terminal late-stage T cells.

    PubMed

    Rappl, Gunter; Riet, Tobias; Awerkiew, Sabine; Schmidt, Annette; Hombach, Andreas A; Pfister, Herbert; Abken, Hinrich

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive therapy of malignant diseases with tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells showed remarkable efficacy in recent trials. Repetitive T cell receptor (TCR) engagement of target antigen, however, inevitably ends up in hypo-responsive cells with terminally differentiated KLRG-1(+) CD57(+) CD7(-) phenotype limiting their therapeutic efficacy. We here revealed that hypo-responsiveness of CMV-specific late-stage CD8(+) T cells is due to reduced TCR synapse formation compared to younger cells. Membrane anchoring of TCR components contributes to T cell hypo-responsiveness since dislocation of galectin-3 from the synapse by swainsonine restored both TCR synapse formation and T cell response. Transgenic expression of a CD3-zeta signaling chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) recovered hypo-responsive T cells to full effector functions indicating that the defect is restricted to TCR membrane components while synapse formation of the transgenic CAR was not blocked. CAR engineered late-stage T cells released cytokines and mediated redirected cytotoxicity as efficiently as younger effector T cells. Our data provide a rationale for TCR independent, CAR mediated activation in the adoptive cell therapy to avoid hypo-responsiveness of late-stage T cells upon repetitive antigen encounter. PMID:22292024

  13. Interleukin-7 Modulates Anti-Tumor CD8+ T Cell Responses via Its Action on Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deiser, Katrin; Stoycheva, Diana; Bank, Ute; Blankenstein, Thomas; Schüler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells is a promising approach for the treatment of chronic viral and malignant diseases. In order to improve adoptive T cell therapy (ATT) of cancer, recent strategies aim at the antibody-based blockade of immunosuppressive signaling pathways in CD8+ T cells. Alternatively, adjuvant effects of immunostimulatory cytokines might be exploited to improve therapeutic CD8+ T cell responses. For example, Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent growth, activation and survival factor for CD8+ T cells that can be used to improve virus- and tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Although direct IL-7 effects on CD8+ T cells were studied extensively in numerous models, the contribution of IL-7 receptor-competent (IL-7R+) host cells remained unclear. In the current study we provide evidence that CD8+ T cell-mediated tumor rejection in response to recombinant IL-7 (rIL-7) therapy is strictly dependent on IL-7R+ host cells. On the contrary, CD8+ T cell expansion is independent of host IL-7R expression. If, however, rIL-7 therapy and peptide vaccination are combined, host IL-7R signaling is crucial for CD8+ T cell expansion. Unexpectedly, maximum CD8+ T cell expansion relies mainly on IL-7R signaling in non-hematopoietic host cells, similar to the massive accumulation of dendritic cells and granulocytes. In summary, we provide evidence that IL-7R+ host cells are major targets of rIL-7 that modulate therapeutic CD8+ T cell responses and the outcome of rIL-7-assisted ATT. This knowledge may have important implications for the design and optimization of clinical ATT protocols. PMID:27447484

  14. Interleukin-7 Modulates Anti-Tumor CD8+ T Cell Responses via Its Action on Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Deiser, Katrin; Stoycheva, Diana; Bank, Ute; Blankenstein, Thomas; Schüler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells is a promising approach for the treatment of chronic viral and malignant diseases. In order to improve adoptive T cell therapy (ATT) of cancer, recent strategies aim at the antibody-based blockade of immunosuppressive signaling pathways in CD8+ T cells. Alternatively, adjuvant effects of immunostimulatory cytokines might be exploited to improve therapeutic CD8+ T cell responses. For example, Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent growth, activation and survival factor for CD8+ T cells that can be used to improve virus- and tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Although direct IL-7 effects on CD8+ T cells were studied extensively in numerous models, the contribution of IL-7 receptor-competent (IL-7R+) host cells remained unclear. In the current study we provide evidence that CD8+ T cell-mediated tumor rejection in response to recombinant IL-7 (rIL-7) therapy is strictly dependent on IL-7R+ host cells. On the contrary, CD8+ T cell expansion is independent of host IL-7R expression. If, however, rIL-7 therapy and peptide vaccination are combined, host IL-7R signaling is crucial for CD8+ T cell expansion. Unexpectedly, maximum CD8+ T cell expansion relies mainly on IL-7R signaling in non-hematopoietic host cells, similar to the massive accumulation of dendritic cells and granulocytes. In summary, we provide evidence that IL-7R+ host cells are major targets of rIL-7 that modulate therapeutic CD8+ T cell responses and the outcome of rIL-7-assisted ATT. This knowledge may have important implications for the design and optimization of clinical ATT protocols. PMID:27447484

  15. A Multidrug-resistant Engineered CAR T Cell for Allogeneic Combination Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Valton, Julien; Guyot, Valérie; Marechal, Alan; Filhol, Jean-Marie; Juillerat, Alexandre; Duclert, Aymeric; Duchateau, Philippe; Poirot, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell represents a highly promising strategy to fight against multiple cancers. The clinical outcome of such therapies is intimately linked to the ability of effector cells to engraft, proliferate, and specifically kill tumor cells within patients. When allogeneic CAR T-cell infusion is considered, host versus graft and graft versus host reactions must be avoided to prevent rejection of adoptively transferred cells, host tissue damages and to elicit significant antitumoral outcome. This work proposes to address these three requirements through the development of multidrug-resistant T cell receptor αβ-deficient CAR T cells. We demonstrate that these engineered T cells displayed efficient antitumor activity and proliferated in the presence of purine and pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, currently used in clinic as preconditioning lymphodepleting regimens. The absence of TCRαβ at their cell surface along with their purine nucleotide analogues-resistance properties could prevent their alloreactivity and enable them to resist to lymphodepleting regimens that may be required to avoid their ablation via HvG reaction. By providing a basic framework to develop a universal T cell compatible with allogeneic adoptive transfer, this work is laying the foundation stone of the large-scale utilization of CAR T-cell immunotherapies. PMID:26061646

  16. Uncoupling protein 2 regulates metabolic reprogramming and fate of antigen-stimulated CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Leena; Srivastava, Rupesh K; Kos, Ferdynand; Shrikant, Protul A

    2016-07-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) employing ex vivo-generated tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells shows tumor efficacy when the transferred cells possess both effector and memory functions. New strategies based on understanding of mechanisms that balance CD8+ T cell differentiation toward effector and memory responses are highly desirable. Emerging information confirms a central role for antigen-induced metabolic reprogramming in CD8+ T cell differentiation and clonal expansion. The mitochondrial protein uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is induced by antigen stimulation of CD8+ T cells; however, its role in metabolic reprogramming underlying differentiation and clonal expansion has not been reported. Employing genetic (siRNA) and pharmacologic (Genipin) approaches, we note that antigen-induced UCP2 expression reduces glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and production of reactive oxygen species to balance differentiation with survival of effector CD8+ T cells. Inhibition of UCP2 promotes CD8+ T cell terminal differentiation into short-lived effector cells (CD62L(lo)KLRG1(Hi)IFNγ(Hi)) that undergo clonal contraction. These findings are the first to reveal a role for antigen-induced UCP2 expression in balancing CD8+ T cell differentiation and survival. Targeting UCP2 to regulate metabolic reprogramming of CD8+ T cells is an attractive new approach to augment efficacy of tumor therapy by ACT. PMID:27271549

  17. Propagation of mouse and human T cells with defined antigen specificity and function.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P A; Fowler, D H; Kim, H; White, R L; Czerniecki, B J; Carter, C; Gress, R E; Rosenberg, S A

    1994-01-01

    Difficulties maintaining fully functional CD4+ T cells in culture have historically limited the study of their role in tumour rejection as well as other clinical applications. As the therapeutic value of current antitumour CD8+ T cell adoptive therapy becomes better defined, a strong impetus exists to determine optimal conditions for culturing antitumour CD4+ T cells. Our goal is to promote broadly polyclonal, antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses of either Th1 or Th2 character for use in antitumour therapy or allograft facilitation, respectively. Similar obstacles exist in murine and human cultures: (1) during even brief periods of culture CD4+ T cells develop high 'background' reactivity to class II-positive antigen-presenting cells; (2) maintenance of antigen specificity as evidenced by cytokine secretion and short-term proliferation assays is insufficient to ensure bulk numerical expansion; (3) Th1-type CD4+ T cells often lose their potential for antigen-specific secretion of interleukin 2 on re-stimulation (though remain inducible by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate/ionomycin); (4) during prolonged culture selection pressure favours CD4+ subpopulations that recognize artifactual antigens such as culture medium proteins; (5) even with optimal culture conditions, cultured CD4+ T cells may function differently in vivo to uncultured CD4+ T cells. We have devised various strategies to surmount these obstacles by use of selected cytokines, antigen-presenting cells and timely culture manoeuvres. PMID:7540969

  18. B and T cell screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... following, which might affect your T and B cell count: Chemotherapy HIV Radiation therapy Recent or current infection ... Abnormal T and B cell counts suggest a possible disease. Further ... to confirm a diagnosis. An increased T cell count may be due ...

  19. Anti tumour necrosis-α therapy increases the number of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in children affected by Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardelli, Ida; Lindley, Keith J; Londei, Marco; Quaratino, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Its pathogenesis is not completely understood, though the prevailing model is that the intestinal flora drives a strong intestinal T helper 1 (Th1)/Th17 type immune response and inflammation in the genetically susceptible host. This leads to overly aggressive T-cell responses to normal bacteria causing tissue damage. Intestinal homeostasis and maintenance of tolerance to harmless antigens in the intestine has been shown to be maintained by CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells (Treg) in animal models of inflammatory bowel diseases. Here we investigated whether Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α shown to be highly effective in the treatment of CD, has any effect on mucosal CD4+ CD25+ (FOXP3+) Tregs. Colonic mucosal biopsies from children with active Crohn's disease treated in vivo with Infliximab and controls were analysed to determine FOXP3 expression by immunofluorescence and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. We observed that FOXP3+ T cells were significantly reduced in mucosa of CD patients with active disease compared with controls and restored to normal following Infliximab treatment. The frequency of FOXP3+ cells and mRNA expression was significantly increased in CD mucosa from patients treated in vivo with Infliximab compared with CD patients treated with conventional therapies. In conclusion, we show that Infliximab treatment does not solely neutralize soluble TNF-α, but also affects activation and possibly expansion of mucosal regulatory T cells. We suggest that anti TNF-α immunotherapy can also restore mucosal homeostasis in Crohn's disease. PMID:18422560

  20. Increased Regulatory T-Cell Percentage Contributes to Poor CD4+ Lymphocytes Recovery: A 2-Year Prospective Study After Introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saison, Julien; Maucort Boulch, Delphine; Chidiac, Christian; Demaret, Julie; Malcus, Christophe; Cotte, Laurent; Poitevin-Later, Francoise; Miailhes, Patrick; Venet, Fabienne; Trabaud, Mary Anne; Monneret, Guillaume; Ferry, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The primary aim of this study was to determine the impact of regulatory T cells (Tregs) percentage on immune recovery in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients after antiretroviral therapy introduction. Methods. A 2-year prospective study was conducted in HIV-1 chronically infected naive patients with CD4 count <500 cells/mm3. Regulatory T cells were identified as CD4+CD25highCD127low cells among CD4+ lymphocytes. Effect of Treg percentage at inclusion on CD4 evolution overtime was analyzed using a mixed-effect Poisson regression for count data. Results. Fifty-eight patients were included (median CD4 = 293/mm3, median Treg percentage = 6.1%). Percentage of Treg at baseline and CD4 nadir were independently related to the evolution of CD4 absolute value according to time: (1) at any given nadir CD4 count, 1% increase of initial Treg was associated with a 1.9% lower CD4 absolute value at month 24; (2) at any given Treg percentage at baseline, 10 cell/mm3 increase of CD4 nadir was associated with a 2.4% increase of CD4 at month 24; and (3) both effects did not attenuate with time. The effect of Treg at baseline on CD4 evolution was as low as the CD4 nadir was high. Conclusions. Regulatory T-cell percentage at baseline is a strong independent prognostic factor of immune recovery, particularly among patients with low CD4 nadir. PMID:26110165

  1. Shifting the Evolving CAR T Cell Platform into Higher Gear.

    PubMed

    Holohan, Daniel R; Lee, James C; Bluestone, Jeffrey A

    2015-10-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Zhao and colleagues test various chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to show that CD28-CD3ζ CAR T cells that constitutively express 4-1BBL promote T cell expansion and tumor eradication while reducing exhaustion. The results have important implications for the development of effective CAR T cell therapies in cancer patients. PMID:26461084

  2. Long-term IL-2 therapy after transplantation of T cell depleted stem cells from alternative donors in children.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Patrick; Teltschik, Heiko-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Matthias; Handgretinger, Rupert; Schumm, Michael; Koscielniak, Ewa; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Schlegel, Paul-Gerhard; Greil, Johann; Lang, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of long-term subcutaneous application of low-dose IL-2 in children with malignancies at very high risk of relapse who underwent highly T cell and B cell depleted HLA-identical (MUD) or full haplotype mismatched related hematopoetic stem cell transplantation. We studied 11 patients with acute leukemias / myelodysplastic syndrome and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (active disease and/or second stem cell transplantation, n = 8; ≥CR 2, n = 2) and relapsed or progressive Ewing's sarcoma (n = 2) who received prophylactic IL-2 treatment for a high probability of disease recurrence after allo-HSCT. Toxicities from IL-2 were transient fever, fatigue and local inflammation. In one patient GvHD grade III with no clear association to IL-2 administration occurred. IL-2 administration was started at median day 57 (range 13-154) post-transplant for a mean duration of 28 days (range 15-250). IL-2 administration clearly increased NK cell activity. 3 of 11 patients (ALL, AML, multifocal Ewings sarcoma) survived with a follow-up of ten years. In conclusion, long-term low-dose IL-2 subcutaneous application is feasible in children due to a low side effect profile even after HLA mismatched transplantation and may be a strategy to prevent relapse in pediatric malignancies with extremely high risk of relapse. PMID:21925097

  3. Human melanoma immunotherapy using tumor antigen-specific T cells generated in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Xia, Jinxing; Fan, Wei; Wargo, Jennifer; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    A major factor hindering the exploration of adoptive immunotherapy in preclinical settings is the limited availability of tumor-reactive human T cells. Here we developed a humanized mouse model that permits large-scale production of human T cells expressing the engineered melanoma antigen MART-1-specific TCR. Humanized mice, made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue and CD34+ cells virally-transduced with HLA class I-restricted melanoma antigen (MART-1)-specific TCR gene, showed efficient development of MART-1-TCR+ human T cells with predominantly CD8+ cells. Importantly, MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells developing in these mice were capable of mounting antigen-specific responses in vivo, as evidenced by their proliferation, phenotypic conversion and IFN-γ production following MART-1 peptide immunization. Moreover, these MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells mediated efficient killing of melanoma cells in an HLA/antigen-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells induced potent antitumor responses that were further enhanced by IL-15 treatment in melanoma-bearing recipients. Finally, a short incubation of MART-1-specific T cells with rapamycin acted synergistically with IL-15, leading to significantly improved tumor-free survival in recipients with metastatic melanoma. These data demonstrate the practicality of using humanized mice to produce potentially unlimited source of tumor-specific human T cells for experimental and preclinical exploration of cancer immunotherapy. This study also suggests that pretreatment of tumor-reactive T cells with rapamycin in combination with IL-15 administration may be a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:26824989

  4. Modulation of heme oxygenase-1 by metalloporphyrins increases anti-viral T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Bunse, C E; Fortmeier, V; Tischer, S; Zilian, E; Figueiredo, C; Witte, T; Blasczyk, R; Immenschuh, S; Eiz-Vesper, B

    2015-02-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the inducible isoform of HO, has immunomodulatory functions and is considered a target for therapeutic interventions. In the present study, we investigated whether modulation of HO-1 might have regulatory effects on in-vitro T cell activation. The study examined whether: (i) HO-1 induction by cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP) or inhibition by tin-mesoporphyrin (SnMP) can affect expansion and function of virus-specific T cells, (ii) HO-1 modulation might have a functional effect on other cell populations mediating effects on proliferating T cells [e.g. dendritic cells (DCs), regulatory T cells (T(regs)) and natural killer cells] and (iii) HO-1-modulated anti-viral T cells might be suitable for adoptive immunotherapy. Inhibition of HO-1 via SnMP in cytomegalovirus (CMV)pp65-peptide-pulsed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) led to increased anti-viral T cell activation and the generation of a higher proportion of effector memory T cells (CD45RA(-) CD62L(-)) with increased capability to secrete interferon (IFN)-γ and granzyme B. T(reg) depletion and SnMP exposure increased the number of anti-viral T cells 15-fold. To test the possibility that HO-1 modulation might be clinically applicable in conformity with good manufacturing practice (GMP), SnMP was tested in isolated anti-viral T cells using the cytokine secretion assay. Compared to control, SnMP treatment resulted in higher cell counts and purity without negative impact on quality and effector function [CD107a, IFN-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were stable]. These results suggest an important role of HO-1 in the modulation of adaptive immune responses. HO-1 inhibition resulted in markedly more effective generation of functionally active T cells suitable for adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:25196646

  5. Modulation of heme oxygenase-1 by metalloporphyrins increases anti-viral T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Bunse, C E; Fortmeier, V; Tischer, S; Zilian, E; Figueiredo, C; Witte, T; Blasczyk, R; Immenschuh, S; Eiz-Vesper, B

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the inducible isoform of HO, has immunomodulatory functions and is considered a target for therapeutic interventions. In the present study, we investigated whether modulation of HO-1 might have regulatory effects on in-vitro T cell activation. The study examined whether: (i) HO-1 induction by cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP) or inhibition by tin-mesoporphyrin (SnMP) can affect expansion and function of virus-specific T cells, (ii) HO-1 modulation might have a functional effect on other cell populations mediating effects on proliferating T cells [e.g. dendritic cells (DCs), regulatory T cells (Tregs) and natural killer cells] and (iii) HO-1-modulated anti-viral T cells might be suitable for adoptive immunotherapy. Inhibition of HO-1 via SnMP in cytomegalovirus (CMV)pp65-peptide-pulsed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) led to increased anti-viral T cell activation and the generation of a higher proportion of effector memory T cells (CD45RA− CD62L−) with increased capability to secrete interferon (IFN)-γ and granzyme B. Treg depletion and SnMP exposure increased the number of anti-viral T cells 15-fold. To test the possibility that HO-1 modulation might be clinically applicable in conformity with good manufacturing practice (GMP), SnMP was tested in isolated anti-viral T cells using the cytokine secretion assay. Compared to control, SnMP treatment resulted in higher cell counts and purity without negative impact on quality and effector function [CD107a, IFN-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were stable]. These results suggest an important role of HO-1 in the modulation of adaptive immune responses. HO-1 inhibition resulted in markedly more effective generation of functionally active T cells suitable for adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:25196646

  6. Integrative therapies in hospice and home health: introduction and adoption.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Esther L; O'Brien, Deborah

    2009-02-01

    Integrative therapies comprise a variety of nonpharmacologic methods that provide pain and symptom management. These therapies are increasingly gaining acceptance in the healthcare community as complementary to traditional treatments for pain. This article details the introduction, scope, and challenges healthcare organizations face when incorporating integrative therapies into their care plans. PMID:19212218

  7. Systemic Cytokine Levels Do Not Predict CD4(+) T-Cell Recovery After Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Norris, Philip J; Zhang, Jinbing; Worlock, Andrew; Nair, Sangeetha V; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard L; Villacres, Maria C; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Desai, Seema; Landay, Alan L; Gange, Stephen J; Nugent, C Thomas; Golub, Elizabeth T; Keating, Sheila M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Subjects on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) who do not achieve robust reconstitution of CD4(+) T cells face higher risk of complications and death. We studied participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study with good (immunological responder [IR]) or poor (immunological nonresponder [INR]) CD4(+) T-cell recovery after suppressive cART (n = 50 per group) to determine whether cytokine levels or low-level viral load correlated with INR status. Methods.  A baseline sample prior to viral control and 2 subsequent samples 1 and 2 years after viral control were tested. Serum levels of 30 cytokines were measured at each time point, and low-level human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load and anti-HIV antibody levels were measured 2 years after viral suppression. Results.  There were minimal differences in cytokine levels between IR and INR subjects. At baseline, macrophage inflammatory protein-3β levels were higher in IR subjects; after 1 year of suppressive cART, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor-R3 levels were higher in IR subjects; and after 2 years of suppressive cART, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 levels were higher in INR subjects. Very low-level HIV viral load and anti-HIV antibody levels did not differ between IR and INR subjects. Conclusions.  These results imply that targeting residual viral replication might not be the optimum therapeutic approach for INR subjects. PMID:26966697

  8. Systemic Cytokine Levels Do Not Predict CD4+ T-Cell Recovery After Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Philip J.; Zhang, Jinbing; Worlock, Andrew; Nair, Sangeetha V.; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard L.; Villacres, Maria C.; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Desai, Seema; Landay, Alan L.; Gange, Stephen J.; Nugent, C. Thomas; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Keating, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Subjects on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) who do not achieve robust reconstitution of CD4+ T cells face higher risk of complications and death. We studied participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study with good (immunological responder [IR]) or poor (immunological nonresponder [INR]) CD4+ T-cell recovery after suppressive cART (n = 50 per group) to determine whether cytokine levels or low-level viral load correlated with INR status. Methods. A baseline sample prior to viral control and 2 subsequent samples 1 and 2 years after viral control were tested. Serum levels of 30 cytokines were measured at each time point, and low-level human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load and anti-HIV antibody levels were measured 2 years after viral suppression. Results. There were minimal differences in cytokine levels between IR and INR subjects. At baseline, macrophage inflammatory protein-3β levels were higher in IR subjects; after 1 year of suppressive cART, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor-R3 levels were higher in IR subjects; and after 2 years of suppressive cART, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 levels were higher in INR subjects. Very low-level HIV viral load and anti-HIV antibody levels did not differ between IR and INR subjects. Conclusions. These results imply that targeting residual viral replication might not be the optimum therapeutic approach for INR subjects. PMID:26966697

  9. Genetically engineered donor T cells to optimize graft-versus-tumor effects across MHC barriers

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arnab; Holland, Amanda M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used for more than 50 years to combat hematologic malignancies. In addition to being the first stem cell therapy, transplantation has provided evidence for the potent anti-tumor effects of T cells. Facilitating T-cell-based immunity against malignancies requires a careful balancing act between generating a robust response and avoiding off-target killing of healthy tissues, which is difficult to accomplish using bulk donor T cells. To address these issues, several approaches have been developed, drawing on basic T-cell biology, to potentiate graft-versus-tumor activity while avoiding graft-versus-host disease. Current strategies for anti-tumor cell therapies include (i) selecting optimal T cells for transfer, (ii) engineering T cells to possess enhanced effector functions, and (iii) generating T-cell precursors that complete development after adoptive transfer. In this review, we assess the current state of the art in T-lineage cell therapy to treat malignancies in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:24329800

  10. CARMA1 is necessary for optimal T cell responses in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Ramadas, Ravisankar A; Roche, Marly I; Moon, James J; Ludwig, Thomas; Xavier, Ramnik J; Medoff, Benjamin D

    2011-12-15

    CARMA1 is a lymphocyte-specific scaffold protein necessary for T cell activation. Deletion of CARMA1 prevents the development of allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma due to a defect in naive T cell activation. However, it is unknown if CARMA1 is important for effector and memory T cell responses after the initial establishment of inflammation, findings that would be more relevant to asthma therapies targeted to CARMA1. In the current study, we sought to elucidate the role of CARMA1 in T cells that have been previously activated. Using mice in which floxed CARMA1 exons can be selectively deleted in T cells by OX40-driven Cre recombinase (OX40(+/Cre)CARMA1(F/F)), we report that CD4(+) T cells from these mice have impaired T cell reactivation responses and NF-κB signaling in vitro. Furthermore, in an in vivo recall model of allergic airway inflammation that is dependent on memory T cell function, OX40(+/Cre)CARMA1(F/F) mice have attenuated eosinophilic airway inflammation, T cell activation, and Th2 cytokine production. Using MHC class II tetramers, we demonstrate that the development and maintenance of Ag-specific memory T cells is not affected in OX40(+/Cre)CARMA1(F/F) mice. In addition, adoptive transfer of Th2-polarized OX40(+/Cre)CARMA1(F/F) Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells into wild-type mice induces markedly less airway inflammation in response to Ag challenge than transfer of wild-type Th2 cells. These data demonstrate a novel role for CARMA1 in effector and memory T cell responses and suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting CARMA1 could help treat chronic inflammatory disorders such as asthma. PMID:22075698

  11. TCR Signaling in T Cell Memory

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Mark A.; Teixeiro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    T cell memory plays a critical role in our protection against pathogens and tumors. The antigen and its interaction with the T cell receptor (TCR) is one of the initiating elements that shape T cell memory together with inflammation and costimulation. Over the last decade, several transcription factors and signaling pathways that support memory programing have been identified. However, how TCR signals regulate them is still poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that the biochemical rules that govern T cell memory, strikingly, change depending on the TCR signal strength. Furthermore, TCR signal strength regulates the input of cytokine signaling, including pro-inflammatory cytokines. These highlight how tailoring antigenic signals can improve immune therapeutics. In this review, we focus on how TCR signaling regulates T cell memory and how the quantity and quality of TCR–peptide–MHC interactions impact the multiple fates a T cell can adopt in the memory pool. PMID:26697013

  12. Effective immunotherapy of weakly immunogenic solid tumours using a combined immunogene therapy and regulatory T-cell inactivation.

    PubMed

    Whelan, M C; Casey, G; MacConmara, M; Lederer, J A; Soden, D; Collins, J K; Tangney, M; O'Sullivan, G C

    2010-07-01

    Obstacles to effective immunotherapeutic anti-cancer approaches include poor immunogenicity of the tumour cells and the presence of tolerogenic mechanisms in the tumour microenvironment. We report an effective immune-based treatment of weakly immunogenic, growing solid tumours using a locally delivered immunogene therapy to promote development of immune effector responses in the tumour microenvironment and a systemic based T regulatory cell (Treg) inactivation strategy to potentiate these responses by elimination of tolerogenic or immune suppressor influences. As the JBS fibrosarcoma is weakly immunogenic and accumulates Treg in its microenvironment with progressive growth, we used this tumour model to test our combined immunotherapies. Plasmids encoding GM-CSF and B7-1 were electrically delivered into 100 mm(3) tumours; Treg inactivation was accomplished by systemic administration of anti-CD25 antibody (Ab). Using this approach, we found that complete elimination of tumours was achieved at a level of 60% by immunogene therapy, 25% for Treg inactivation and 90% for combined therapies. Moreover, we found that these responses were immune transferable, systemic, tumour specific and durable. Combined gene-based immune effector therapy and Treg inactivation represents an effective treatment for weakly antigenic solid growing tumours and that could be considered for clinical development. PMID:20186173

  13. Driving CAR T-cells forward.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Hollie J; Rafiq, Sarwish; Brentjens, Renier J

    2016-06-01

    The engineered expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on the surface of T cells enables the redirection of T-cell specificity. Early clinical trials using CAR T cells for the treatment of patients with cancer showed modest results, but the impressive outcomes of several trials of CD19-targeted CAR T cells in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies have generated an increased enthusiasm for this approach. Important lessons have been derived from clinical trials of CD19-specific CAR T cells, and ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in haematological and solid malignancies. In this Review, we discuss these trials and present strategies that can increase the antitumour efficacy and safety of CAR T-cell therapy. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, we only discuss studies with direct translational application currently or soon-to-be tested in the clinical setting. PMID:27000958

  14. Child-Parent Relationship Therapy for Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes-Holt, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Adopted children may present with a wide range of disruptive behaviors making it difficult to implement holistic therapeutic interventions. The number of primary caregivers, disrupted placements, and repeated traumatic events contribute to the overall mental health of the adoptee and greater number of occurrences increases the risk of…

  15. T Cells Going Innate.

    PubMed

    Seyda, Midas; Elkhal, Abdallah; Quante, Markus; Falk, Christine S; Tullius, Stefan G

    2016-08-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell receptors (NKRs) play a crucial role in the homeostasis of antigen-experienced T cells. Indeed, prolonged antigen stimulation may induce changes in the receptor repertoire of T cells to a profile that features NKRs. Chronic antigen exposure, at the same time, has been shown to trigger the loss of costimulatory CD28 molecules with recently reported intensified antigen thresholds of antigen-experienced CD8(+) T cells. In transplantation, NKRs have been shown to assist allograft rejection in a CD28-independent fashion. We discuss here a role for CD28-negative T cells that have acquired the competency of the NKR machinery, potentially promoting allorecognition either through T cell receptor (TCR) crossreactivity or independently from TCR recognition. Collectively, NKRs can bring about innate-like T cells by providing alternative costimulatory pathways that gain relevance in chronic inflammation, potentially leading to resistance to CD28-targeting immunosuppressants. PMID:27402226

  16. TALEN-mediated genetic inactivation of the glucocorticoid receptor in cytomegalovirus-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Menger, Laurie; Gouble, Agnes; Marzolini, Maria A V; Pachnio, Annette; Bergerhoff, Katharina; Henry, Jake Y; Smith, Julianne; Pule, Martin; Moss, Paul; Riddell, Stanley R; Quezada, Sergio A; Peggs, Karl S

    2015-12-24

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. T-cell immunity is critical for control of CMV infection, and correction of the immune deficiency induced by transplant is now clinically achievable by the adoptive transfer of donor-derived CMV-specific T cells. It is notable, however, that most clinical studies of adoptive T- cell therapy exclude patients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) from receiving systemic corticosteroid therapy, which impairs cellular immunity. This group of patients remains the highest clinical risk group for recurrent and problematic infections. Here, we address this unmet clinical need by genetic disruption of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene using electroporation of transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) messenger RNA. We demonstrate efficient inactivation of the GR gene without off-target activity in Streptamer-selected CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells (HLA-A02/NLV peptide), conferring resistance to glucocorticoids. TALEN-modified CMV-specific T cells retained specific killing of target cells pulsed with the CMV peptide NLV in the presence of dexamethasone (DEX). Inactivation of the GR gene also conferred resistance to DEX in a xenogeneic GVHD model in sublethally irradiated NOD-scid IL2rγ(null) mice. This proof of concept provides the rationale for the development of clinical protocols for producing and administering high-purity genetically engineered virus-specific T cells that are resistant to the suppressive effects of corticosteroids. PMID:26508783

  17. Enhancing T cell reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a brief update of the latest trends

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Goldberg, Gabrielle L.; Smith, Odette M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with a period of immune incompetence that particularly affects the T cell lineage. Strategies to enhance T cell reconstitution could significantly improve the survival of HSCT recipients by decreasing the incidence of fatal infectious complications and by enhancing graft-versus-tumor activity. In recent years, a variety of promising strategies have been established in preclinical models to improve T cell recovery in particular after allogeneic T cell-depleted HSCT, without aggravating graft-versus-host disease while preserving or even improving graft-versus-tumor activity. These therapies include treatment with keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), growth hormone (GH), LHRH agonists, interleukin 7 (IL-7) and interleukin 15 (IL-15). Thanks to the establishment of Notch-based culture systems, adoptive cellular therapies with T lineage-committed precursor cells have become feasible, since early T cell progenitors can now easily be generated in vitro in large quantities and have been proven to be very effective in enhancing T cell reconstitution and anti-tumor activity after allogeneic T cell-depleted HSCT. The translation of most of these strategies into clinical trials is likely and in some cases Phase I/II studies are already underway. PMID:17905611

  18. Chimeric antigen receptor–engineered T cells as oncolytic virus carriers

    PubMed Central

    VanSeggelen, Heather; Tantalo, Daniela GM; Afsahi, Arya; Hammill, Joanne A; Bramson, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The use of engineered T cells in adoptive transfer therapies has shown significant promise in treating hematological cancers. However, successes treating solid tumors are much less prevalent. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have the capacity to induce specific lysis of tumor cells and indirectly impact tumor growth via vascular shutdown. These viruses bear natural abilities to associate with lymphocytes upon systemic administration, but therapeutic doses must be very high in order to evade antibodies and other components of the immune system. As T cells readily circulate through the body, using these cells to deliver OVs directly to tumors may provide an ideal combination. Our studies demonstrate that loading chimeric antigen receptor–engineered T cells with low doses of virus does not impact receptor expression or function in either murine or human T cells. Engineered T cells can deposit virus onto a variety of tumor targets, which can enhance the tumoricidal activity of the combination treatment. This concept appears to be broadly applicable, as we observed similar results using murine or human T cells, loaded with either RNA or DNA viruses. Overall, loading of engineered T cells with OVs represents a novel combination therapy that may increase the efficacy of both treatments. PMID:27119109

  19. Young T Cells Age During a Redirected Anti-Tumor Attack: Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Provided Dual Costimulation is Half the Battle

    PubMed Central

    Hombach, Andreas A.; Abken, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T cells showed spectacular efficacy in the treatment of leukemia in recent early phase trials. Patient’s T cells were ex vivo genetically engineered with a CAR, amplified and re-administered to the patient. While T cells mediating the primary response were predominantly of young effector and central memory phenotype, repetitive antigen engagement irreversible triggers T cell maturation leaving late memory cells with the KLRG1+ CD57+ CD7− CCR7− phenotype in the long-term. These cells preferentially accumulate in the periphery, are hypo-responsive upon TCR engagement and prone to activation-induced cell death. A recent report indicates that those T cells can be rescued by CAR provided CD28 and OX40 (CD134) stimulation. We discuss the strategy with respect to prolong the anti-tumor response and to improve the over-all efficacy of adoptive cell therapy. PMID:23761793

  20. Young T Cells Age During a Redirected Anti-Tumor Attack: Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Provided Dual Costimulation is Half the Battle.

    PubMed

    Hombach, Andreas A; Abken, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T cells showed spectacular efficacy in the treatment of leukemia in recent early phase trials. Patient's T cells were ex vivo genetically engineered with a CAR, amplified and re-administered to the patient. While T cells mediating the primary response were predominantly of young effector and central memory phenotype, repetitive antigen engagement irreversible triggers T cell maturation leaving late memory cells with the KLRG1(+) CD57(+) CD7(-) CCR7(-) phenotype in the long-term. These cells preferentially accumulate in the periphery, are hypo-responsive upon TCR engagement and prone to activation-induced cell death. A recent report indicates that those T cells can be rescued by CAR provided CD28 and OX40 (CD134) stimulation. We discuss the strategy with respect to prolong the anti-tumor response and to improve the over-all efficacy of adoptive cell therapy. PMID:23761793

  1. Enhancing Antitumor Efficacy of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Through Constitutive CD40L Expression

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Kevin J; Seinstra, Beatrijs A; Nikhamin, Yan; Yeh, Raymond; Usachenko, Yelena; van Leeuwen, Dayenne G; Purdon, Terence; Pegram, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with genetically modified T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a promising therapy for patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, CAR-modified T cells (CAR T cells) have mostly failed in patients with solid tumors or low-grade B-cell malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia with bulky lymph node involvement. Herein, we enhance the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cells through the constitutive expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154). T cells genetically modified to constitutively express CD40L (CD40L-modified T cells) demonstrated increased proliferation and secretion of proinflammatory TH1 cytokines. Further, CD40L-modified T cells augmented the immunogenicity of CD40+ tumor cells by the upregulated surface expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), adhesion molecules (CD54, CD58, and CD70), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules (Class I and HLA-DR), and the Fas-death receptor (CD95). Additionally, CD40L-modified T cells induced maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 by monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Finally, tumor-targeted CD19-specific CAR/CD40L T cells exhibited increased cytotoxicity against CD40+ tumors and extended the survival of tumor-bearing mice in a xenotransplant model of CD19+ systemic lymphoma. This preclinical data supports the clinical application of CAR T cells additionally modified to constitutively express CD40L with anticipated enhanced antitumor efficacy. PMID:25582824

  2. Control of CD8 T-cell Infiltration into Tumors by Vasculature and Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Peske, J. David; Woods, Amber B.; Engelhard, Victor H.

    2015-01-01

    CD8 T-cells are a critical brake on the initial development of tumors. In established tumors, the presence of CD8 T-cells is correlated with a positive patient prognosis, although immunosuppressive mechanisms limit their effectiveness and they are rarely curative without manipulation. Cancer immunotherapies aim to shift the balance back to dominant anti-tumor immunity through antibody blockade of immunosuppressive signaling pathways, vaccination, and adoptive transfer of activated or engineered T-cells. These approaches have yielded striking responses in small subsets of patients with solid tumors, most notably those with melanoma. Importantly, the subset of patients who respond to vaccination or immunosuppression blockade therapies are those with CD8 T-cells present in the tumor prior to initiating therapy. While current adoptive cell therapy approaches can be dramatically effective, they require infusion of extremely large numbers of T-cells, but the number that actually infiltrate the tumor is very small. Thus, poor representation of CD8 T-cells in tumors is a fundamental hurdle to successful immunotherapy, over and above the well-established barrier of immunosuppression. In this review, we discuss the factors that determine whether immune cells are present in tumors, with a focus on the representation of cytotoxic CD8 T-cells. We emphasize the critically important role of tumor-associated vasculature as a gateway that enables the active infiltration of both effector and naïve CD8 T-cells that exert anti-tumor activity. We also discuss strategies to enhance the gateway function and extend the effectiveness of immunotherapies to a broader set of cancer patients. PMID:26216636

  3. Control of CD8 T-Cell Infiltration into Tumors by Vasculature and Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Peske, J David; Woods, Amber B; Engelhard, Victor H

    2015-01-01

    CD8 T-cells are a critical brake on the initial development of tumors. In established tumors, the presence of CD8 T-cells is correlated with a positive patient prognosis, although immunosuppressive mechanisms limit their effectiveness and they are rarely curative without manipulation. Cancer immunotherapies aim to shift the balance back to dominant antitumor immunity through antibody blockade of immunosuppressive signaling pathways, vaccination, and adoptive transfer of activated or engineered T-cells. These approaches have yielded striking responses in small subsets of patients with solid tumors, most notably those with melanoma. Importantly, the subset of patients who respond to vaccination or immunosuppression blockade therapies are those with CD8 T-cells present in the tumor prior to initiating therapy. While current adoptive cell therapy approaches can be dramatically effective, they require infusion of extremely large numbers of T-cells, but the number that actually infiltrates the tumor is very small. Thus, poor representation of CD8 T-cells in tumors is a fundamental hurdle to successful immunotherapy, over and above the well-established barrier of immunosuppression. In this review, we discuss the factors that determine whether immune cells are present in tumors, with a focus on the representation of cytotoxic CD8 T-cells. We emphasize the critically important role of tumor-associated vasculature as a gateway that enables the active infiltration of both effector and naïve CD8 T-cells that exert antitumor activity. We also discuss strategies to enhance the gateway function and extend the effectiveness of immunotherapies to a broader set of cancer patients. PMID:26216636

  4. Androgen deprivation therapy sensitizes prostate cancer cells to T-cell killing through androgen receptor dependent modulation of the apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ardiani, Andressa; Gameiro, Sofia R; Kwilas, Anna R; Donahue, Renee N; Hodge, James W

    2014-10-15

    Despite recent advances in diagnosis and management, prostrate cancer remains the second most common cause of death from cancer in American men, after lung cancer. Failure of chemotherapies and hormone-deprivation therapies is the major cause of death in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Currently, the androgen inhibitors enzalutamide and abiraterone are approved for treatment of metastatic CRPC. Here we show for the first time that both enzalutamide and abiraterone render prostate tumor cells more sensitive to T cell-mediated lysis through immunogenic modulation, and that these immunomodulatory activities are androgen receptor (AR)-dependent. In studies reported here, the NAIP gene was significantly down-regulated in human prostate tumor cells treated in vitro and in vivo with enzalutamide. Functional analysis revealed that NAIP played a critical role in inducing CTL sensitivity. Amplification of AR is a major mechanism of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Here, we show that enzalutamide enhances sensitivity to immune-mediated killing of prostate tumor cells that overexpress AR. The immunomodulatory properties of enzalutamide and abiraterone provide a rationale for their use in combination with immunotherapeutic agents in CRPC, especially for patients with minimal response to enzalutamide or abiraterone alone, or for patients who have developed resistance to ADT. PMID:25344864

  5. Sequential therapy combining clofarabine and T-cell-replete HLA-haploidentical haematopoietic SCT is feasible and shows efficacy in the treatment of refractory or relapsed aggressive lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, A-K; Fritsch, S; Prevalsek, D; Engel, N; Hubmann, M; Reibke, R; Rieger, C T; Hellmuth, J C; Haas, M; Mumm, F; Herold, T; Ledderose, G; Hiddemann, W; Dreyling, M; Hausmann, A; Tischer, J

    2015-05-01

    Prognosis is poor for patients with biologically aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), refractory to chemotherapy or relapsed after autologous transplantation, especially when no disease control before allogeneic transplantation is achieved. In 16 patients (median age 53, median prior regimes 5) with relapsed or refractory non-remission NHL, we analysed retrospectively the efficacy of a sequential therapy comprising clofarabine re-induction followed by a reduced-intensity conditioning with fludarabine, CY and melphalan, and T-cell-replete HLA-haploidentical transplantation. High-dose CY was utilized post-transplantation. All patients engrafted. Early response (day +30) was achieved in 94%. Treatment-related grade III-IV toxicity occurred in 56%, most commonly transient elevation of transaminases (36%), while there was a low incidence of infections (19% CMV reactivation, 19% invasive fungal infection) and GVHD (GVHD: acute III-IV: 6%; mild chronic: 25%). One-year non-relapse mortality was 19%. After a median follow-up of 21 months, estimated 1- and 2-year PFS was 56 and 50%, respectively, with 11 patients (69%) still alive after 2 years. In summary, sequential therapy is feasible and effective and provides an acceptable toxicity profile in high-risk non-remission NHL. Presumably, cytotoxic reinduction with clofarabine provides enough remission time for the graft-versus lymphoma effect of HLA-haploidentical transplantation to kick in, even in lymphomas that are otherwise chemo-refractory. PMID:25642765

  6. Messenger RNA encoding constitutively active Toll-like receptor 4 enhances effector functions of human T cells.

    PubMed

    Pato, A; Eisenberg, G; Machlenkin, A; Margalit, A; Cafri, G; Frankenburg, S; Merims, S; Peretz, T; Lotem, M; Gross, G

    2015-11-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy of cancer employs a large number of ex-vivo-propagated T cells which recognize their targets either by virtue of their endogenous T cell receptor (TCR) or via genetic reprogramming. However, both cell-extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms often diminish the in-vivo potency of these therapeutic T cells, limiting their clinical efficacy and broader use. Direct activation of human T cells by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands induces T cell survival and proliferation, boosts the production of proinflammatory cytokines and augments resistance to regulatory T cell (Treg) suppression. Removal of the TLR ligand-binding region results in constitutive signalling triggered by the remaining cytosolic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The use of such TIR domains therefore offers an ideal means for equipping anti-tumour T cells with the arsenal of functional attributes required for improving current clinical protocols. Here we show that constitutively active (ca)TLR-4 can be expressed efficiently in human T cells using mRNA electroporation. The mere expression of caTLR-4 mRNA in polyclonal CD8 and CD4 T cells induced the production of interferon (IFN)-γ, triggered the surface expression of CD25, CD69 and 4-1BB and up-regulated a panel of cytokines and chemokines. In tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes prepared from melanoma patients, caTLR-4 induced robust IFN-γ secretion in all samples tested. Furthermore, caTLR-4 enhanced the anti-melanoma cytolytic activity of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and augmented the secretion of IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for at least 4 days post-transfection. Our results demonstrate that caTLR-4 is capable of exerting multiple T cell-enhancing effects and can potentially be used as a genetic adjuvant in adoptive cell therapy. PMID:26212048

  7. T Cells in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4+ and CD8α+ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4+ helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8α+, CD4+ T-cells and sIgM+ cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells. PMID:26426066

  8. Estrogen Therapy Delays Autoimmune Diabetes and Promotes the Protective Efficiency of Natural Killer T-Cell Activation in Female Nonobese Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Gourdy, Pierre; Bourgeois, Elvire A; Levescot, Anaïs; Pham, Linh; Riant, Elodie; Ahui, Marie-Louise; Damotte, Diane; Gombert, Jean-Marc; Bayard, Francis; Ohlsson, Claes; Arnal, Jean-François; Herbelin, André

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies focused on restoring immune tolerance remain the main avenue to prevent type 1 diabetes (T1D). Because estrogens potentiate FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, two regulatory lymphocyte populations that are functionally deficient in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, we investigated whether estradiol (E2) therapy influences the course of T1D in this model. To this end, female NOD mice were sc implanted with E2- or placebo-delivering pellets to explore the course of spontaneous and cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes. Treg-depleted and iNKT-cell-deficient (Jα18(-/-)) NOD mice were used to assess the respective involvement of these lymphocyte populations in E2 effects. Early E2 administration (from 4 wk of age) was found to preserve NOD mice from both spontaneous and cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes, and a complete protection was also observed throughout treatment when E2 treatment was initiated after the onset of insulitis (from 12 wk of age). This delayed E2 treatment remained fully effective in Treg-depleted mice but failed to entirely protect Jα18(-/-) mice. Accordingly, E2 administration was shown to restore the cytokine production of iNKT cells in response to in vivo challenge with the cognate ligand α-galactosylceramide. Finally, transient E2 administration potentiated the previously described protective action of α-galactosylceramide treatment in NOD females. This study provides original evidence that E2 therapy strongly protects NOD mice from T1D and reveals the estrogen/iNKT cell axis as a new effective target to counteract diabetes onset at the stage of insulitis. Estrogen-based therapy should thus be considered for T1D prevention. PMID:26485613

  9. Elevated CD8 T-cell counts and virological failure in HIV-infected patients after combination antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Nam Su; Jiamsakul, Awachana; Ng, Oon Tek; Yunihastuti, Evy; Cuong, Do Duy; Lee, Man Po; Sim, Benedict Lim Heng; Phanuphak, Praphan; Wong, Wing-Wai; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Zhang, Fujie; Pujari, Sanjay; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Oka, Shinichi; Mustafa, Mahiran; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Van Nguyen, Kinh; Ditangco, Rossana; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Durier, Nicolas; Choi, Jun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Elevated CD8 counts with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation may be an early warning indicator for future treatment failure. Thus, we investigated whether elevated CD8 counts were associated with virological failure (VF) in the first 4 years of cART in Asian HIV-infected patients in a multicenter regional cohort. We included patients from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). Patients were included in the analysis if they started cART between 1996 and 2013 with at least one CD8 measurement within 6 months prior to cART initiation and at least one CD8 and viral load (VL) measurement beyond 6 months after starting cART. We defined VF as VL ≥400 copies/mL after 6 months on cART. Elevated CD8 was defined as CD8 ≥1200 cells/μL. Time to VF was modeled using Cox regression analysis, stratified by site. In total, 2475 patients from 19 sites were included in this analysis, of whom 665 (27%) experienced VF in the first 4 years of cART. The overall rate of VF was 12.95 per 100 person-years. In the multivariate model, the most recent elevated CD8 was significantly associated with a greater hazard of VF (HR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.14–1.61; P = 0.001). However, the sensitivity analysis showed that time-lagged CD8 measured at least 6 months prior to our virological endpoint was not statistically significant (P = 0.420). This study indicates that the relationship between the most recent CD8 count and VF was possibly due to the CD8 cells reacting to the increase in VL rather than causing the VL increase itself. However, CD8 levels may be a useful indicator for VF in HIV-infected patients after starting cART. PMID:27512885

  10. Elevated CD8 T-cell counts and virological failure in HIV-infected patients after combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Ku, Nam Su; Jiamsakul, Awachana; Ng, Oon Tek; Yunihastuti, Evy; Cuong, Do Duy; Lee, Man Po; Sim, Benedict Lim Heng; Phanuphak, Praphan; Wong, Wing-Wai; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Zhang, Fujie; Pujari, Sanjay; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Oka, Shinichi; Mustafa, Mahiran; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Van Nguyen, Kinh; Ditangco, Rossana; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Durier, Nicolas; Choi, Jun Yong

    2016-08-01

    Elevated CD8 counts with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation may be an early warning indicator for future treatment failure. Thus, we investigated whether elevated CD8 counts were associated with virological failure (VF) in the first 4 years of cART in Asian HIV-infected patients in a multicenter regional cohort.We included patients from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). Patients were included in the analysis if they started cART between 1996 and 2013 with at least one CD8 measurement within 6 months prior to cART initiation and at least one CD8 and viral load (VL) measurement beyond 6 months after starting cART. We defined VF as VL ≥400 copies/mL after 6 months on cART. Elevated CD8 was defined as CD8 ≥1200 cells/μL. Time to VF was modeled using Cox regression analysis, stratified by site.In total, 2475 patients from 19 sites were included in this analysis, of whom 665 (27%) experienced VF in the first 4 years of cART. The overall rate of VF was 12.95 per 100 person-years. In the multivariate model, the most recent elevated CD8 was significantly associated with a greater hazard of VF (HR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.61; P = 0.001). However, the sensitivity analysis showed that time-lagged CD8 measured at least 6 months prior to our virological endpoint was not statistically significant (P = 0.420).This study indicates that the relationship between the most recent CD8 count and VF was possibly due to the CD8 cells reacting to the increase in VL rather than causing the VL increase itself. However, CD8 levels may be a useful indicator for VF in HIV-infected patients after starting cART. PMID:27512885

  11. Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) in T cell differentiation, maturation, and function

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Douglas C.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2009-01-01

    Cytokines are key modulators of T cell biology but their influence can be attenuated by suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS), a family of proteins comprised of eight members, SOCS1-7 and CIS. SOCS proteins regulate cytokine signals that control the polarization of CD4+ T cells into Th1, Th2, Th17, and T regulatory cell lineages, the maturation of CD8+ T cells from naïve to “stem-cell memory” (Tscm), central memory (Tcm), and effector memory (Tem) states, and the activation of these lymphocytes. Understanding how SOCS family members regulate T cell maturation, differentiation and function might prove critical in improving adoptive immunotherapy for cancer and therapies aimed at treating autoimmune and infectious diseases. PMID:19879803

  12. Genetically Modified T Cells for the Treatment of Malignant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Uharek, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Summary The broaden application of adoptive T-cell transfer has been constrained by the technical abilities to isolate and expand antigen-specific T cells potent to selectively kill tumor cells. With the recent progress in the design and manufacturing of cellular products, T cells used in the treatment of malignant diseases may be regarded as anticancer biopharmaceuticals. Genetical manipulation of T cells has given T cells desired specificity but also enable to tailor their activation and proliferation potential. Here, we summarize the recent developments in genetic engineering of T-cell-based biopharmaceuticals, covering criteria for their clinical application in regard to safety and efficacy. PMID:24474888

  13. Versatile strategy for controlling the specificity and activity of engineered T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jennifer S. Y.; Kim, Ji Young; Kazane, Stephanie A.; Choi, Sei-hyun; Yun, Hwa Young; Kim, Min Soo; Rodgers, David T.; Pugh, Holly M.; Singer, Oded; Sun, Sophie B.; Fonslow, Bryan R.; Kochenderfer, James N.; Wright, Timothy M.; Schultz, Peter G.; Young, Travis S.; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Cao, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of autologous T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has emerged as a promising cancer therapy. Despite impressive clinical efficacy, the general application of current CAR–T-cell therapy is limited by serious treatment-related toxicities. One approach to improve the safety of CAR-T cells involves making their activation and proliferation dependent upon adaptor molecules that mediate formation of the immunological synapse between the target cancer cell and T-cell. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of structurally defined semisynthetic adaptors we refer to as “switch” molecules, in which anti-CD19 and anti-CD22 antibody fragments are site-specifically modified with FITC using genetically encoded noncanonical amino acids. This approach allows the precise control over the geometry and stoichiometry of complex formation between CD19- or CD22-expressing cancer cells and a “universal” anti-FITC–directed CAR-T cell. Optimization of this CAR–switch combination results in potent, dose-dependent in vivo antitumor activity in xenograft models. The advantage of being able to titrate CAR–T-cell in vivo activity was further evidenced by reduced in vivo toxicity and the elimination of persistent B-cell aplasia in immune-competent mice. The ability to control CAR-T cell and cancer cell interactions using intermediate switch molecules may expand the scope of engineered T-cell therapy to solid tumors, as well as indications beyond cancer therapy. PMID:26759368

  14. T Cells Engineered With Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting NKG2D Ligands Display Lethal Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    VanSeggelen, Heather; Hammill, Joanne A; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Tantalo, Daniela G M; Kwiecien, Jacek M; Denisova, Galina F; Rabinovich, Brian; Wan, Yonghong; Bramson, Jonathan L

    2015-10-01

    Ligands for the NKG2D receptor are overexpressed on tumors, making them interesting immunotherapy targets. To assess the tumoricidal properties of T cells directed to attack NKG2D ligands, we engineered murine T cells with two distinct NKG2D-based chimeric antigen receptors (CARs): (i) a fusion between the NKG2D receptor and the CD3ζ chain and (ii) a conventional second-generation CAR, where the extracellular domain of NKG2D was fused to CD28 and CD3ζ. To enhance the CAR surface expression, we also engineered T cells to coexpress DAP10. In vitro functionality and surface expression levels of all three CARs was greater in BALB/c T cells than C57BL/6 T cells, indicating strain-specific differences. Upon adoptive transfer of NKG2D-CAR-T cells into syngeneic animals, we observed significant clinical toxicity resulting in morbidity and mortality. The severity of these toxicities varied between the CAR configurations and paralleled their in vitro NKG2D surface expression. BALB/c mice were more sensitive to these toxicities than C57BL/6 mice, consistent with the higher in vitro functionality of BALB/c T cells. Treatment with cyclophosphamide prior to adoptive transfer exacerbated the toxicity. We conclude that while NKG2D ligands may be useful targets for immunotherapy, the pursuit of NKG2D-based CAR-T cell therapies should be undertaken with caution. PMID:26122933

  15. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Western adoption of Buddhist tenets?

    PubMed

    Fung, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a psychological intervention that has wide clinical applications with emerging empirical support. It is based on Functional Contextualism and is derived as a clinical application of the Relational Frame Theory, a behavioral account of the development of human thought and cognition. The six core ACT therapeutic processes include: Acceptance, Defusion, Present Moment, Self-as-Context, Values, and Committed Action. In addition to its explicit use of the concept of mindfulness, the therapeutic techniques of ACT implicitly incorporate other aspects of Buddhism. This article describes the basic principles and processes of ACT, explores the similarities and differences between ACT processes and some of the common tenets in Buddhism such as the Four Noble Truths and No-Self, and reports on the experience of running a pilot intervention ACT group for the Cambodian community in Toronto in partnership with the community's Buddhist Holy Monk. Based on this preliminary exploration in theory and the reflections of the group experience, ACT appears to be consistent with some of the core tenets of Buddhism in the approach towards alleviating suffering, with notable differences in scope reflecting their different aims and objectives. Further development of integrative therapies that can incorporate psychological and spiritual as well as diverse cultural perspectives may help the continued advancement and evolution of more effective psychotherapies that can benefit diverse populations. PMID:25085722

  16. Comparative Analysis of T Cell Imaging with Human Nuclear Reporter Genes

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Maxim A.; Zhang, Hanwen; Lee, Jason; Moroz, Ekaterina; Zurita, Juan; Shenker, Larissa; Serganova, Inna; Blasberg, Ronald; Ponomarev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring genetically altered T cells is an important component of adoptive T cell therapy in patients, and the ability to visualize their trafficking/targeting, proliferation/expansion, and retention/death using highly sensitive reporter systems that do not induce an immunologic response would provide useful information. Therefore, we focused on human reporter gene systems that have the potential for translation to clinical studies. The objective of the in vivo imaging studies was to determine the minimum number of T cells that could be visualized with the different nuclear reporter systems. We determined the imaging sensitivity (lower limit of T cell detection) of each reporter using appropriate radiolabeled probes for PET or SPECT imaging. Methods Human T cells were transduced with retroviral vectors encoding for the human norepinephrine transporter (hNET), human sodiumiodide symporter (hNIS), a human deoxycytidine kinase double mutant (hdCKDM), and herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (hsvTK) reporter genes. After viability and growth were assessed, 105 to 3 × 106 reporter T cells were injected subcutaneously on the shoulder area. The corresponding radiolabeled probe was injected intravenously 30 min later, followed by sequential PET or SPECT imaging. Radioactivity at the T cell injection sites and in the thigh (back-ground) was measured. Results The viability and growth of experimental cells were unaffected by transduction. The hNET/meta-18F-fluorobenzylguanidine (18F-MFBG) reporter system could detect less than 1 × 105 T cells because of its high uptake in the transduced T cells and low background activity. The hNIS/124I-iodide reporter system could detect approximately 1 × 106 T cells; 124I-iodide uptake at the T cell injection site was time-dependent and associated with high background. The hdCKDM/2′-18F-fluoro-5-ethyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (18F-FEAU) and hsvTK/18F-FEAU reporter systems detected approximately 3 × 105 T cells

  17. Therapy Outcome of a T-Cell-Rich-B-Cell Lymphoma (TCRBCL) Patient with R-CHOP in Ibadan, Nigeria: a Case Report.

    PubMed Central

    Olaniyi, J.A; Oluwasola, A.O.; Ibijola, A

    2011-01-01

    T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL) is considered a rare variant of aggressive B cell lymphoma characterized by few neoplastic B cells and a large reactive infiltrate with striking similarities to nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A case of a 46 year old man referred with a 5 months history of generalized lymphadenopathy, weight loss, low grade pyrexia and two separately reported lymph node histology consistent with TCRBCL is described. The clinical course was indeed aggressive because in spite of initial treatment with four cycles of CHOP combination chemotherapy, followed by R+CHOP(x 6 cycles), signs of tumor re-growth/infiltration were frequently observed. Also, recurrent infection was frequent, troublesome and eventually became overwhelming resulting to the loss of the patient. This case, being the first case of TCRBCL diagnosed by immunohistochemical confirmation and managed at this centre with R-CHOP, is presented to highlight the dilemma in making diagnosis, clinical challenges faced and rituximab therapy outcome especially in resource poor country. It will also serve to increase our index of suspicion and the need reinforce immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of lymphoma. PMID:21625312

  18. Targeted delivery of siRNA to activated T cells via transferrin-polyethylenimine (Tf-PEI) as a potential therapy of asthma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuran; Kim, Na Hyung; Nadithe, Venkatareddy; Schalk, Dana; Thakur, Archana; Kılıç, Ayşe; Lum, Lawrence G; Bassett, David J P; Merkel, Olivia M

    2016-05-10

    Asthma is a worldwide health problem. Activated T cells (ATCs) in the lung, particularly T helper 2 cells (Th2), are strongly associated with inducing airway inflammatory responses and chemoattraction of inflammatory cells in asthma. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a promising anti-sense molecule can specifically silence inflammation related genes in ATCs, however, lack of safe and efficient siRNA delivery systems limits the application of siRNA as a therapeutic molecule in asthma. Here, we designed a novel pulmonary delivery system of siRNA, transferrin-polyethylenimine (Tf-PEI), to selectively deliver siRNA to ATCs in the lung. Tf-PEI polyplexes demonstrated optimal physicochemical properties such as size, distribution, zeta-potential, and siRNA condensation efficiency. Moreover, in vitro studies showed significantly enhanced cellular uptake and gene knockdown mediated by Tf-PEI polyplexes in human primary ATCs. Biodistribution of polyplexes in a murine asthmatic model confirmed that Tf-PEI polyplexes can efficiently and selectively deliver siRNA to ATCs. In conclusion, the present work proves the feasibility to target ATCs in asthma via Tf receptor. This strategy could potentially be used to design an efficient siRNA delivery system for asthma therapy. PMID:27001893

  19. Engineered T cells for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Anurathapan, Usanarat; Leen, Ann M.; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Vera, Juan F.

    2014-01-01

    Adoptively transferred T cells have the capacity to traffic to distant tumor sites, infiltrate even fibrotic tissue and kill antigen-expressing tumor cells. A variety of groups have investigated different genetic engineering strategies designed to enhance tumor specificity, increase T cell potency, improve proliferation, persistence, or migratory capacity, and increase safety. In this review we focus on recent developments in the T cell engineering arena, discuss the application of these engineered cell products clinically, and outline future prospects for this therapeutic modality. PMID:24239105

  20. Escape from suppression: tumor-specific effector cells outcompete regulatory T cells following stem-cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Tan, Gladys; Zhou, Gang; Morino, Tricia; Noonan, Kimberly; Borrello, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Immune reconstitution of autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients with the progeny of mature T cells in the graft leads to profound changes in the emerging functional T-cell repertoire. In the steady state, the host is frequently tolerant to tumor antigens, reflecting dominant suppression of naive and effector T cells by regulatory T cells (Tregs). We examined the relative frequency and function of these 3 components within the tumor-specific T-cell compartment during immune reconstitution. Grafts from tumor-bearing donors exerted a significant antitumor effect in irradiated, syngeneic tumor-bearing recipients. This was associated with dramatic clonal expansion and interferon-γ (IFNγ) production by previously tolerant tumor-specific T cells. While donor-derived Tregs expanded in recipients, they did not inhibit the antigen-driven expansion of effector T cells in the early posttransplantation period. Indeed, the repopulation of tumor-specific effector T cells significantly exceeded that of Tregs, the expansion of which was limited by IL-2 availability. Although the intrinsic suppressive capacity of Tregs remained intact, their diminished frequency was insufficient to suppress effector cell function. These findings provide an explanation for the reversal of tolerance leading to tumor rejection in transplant recipients and likely contribute to the efficacy of adoptive T-cell therapies in lymphopenic hosts. PMID:18063750

  1. Low-Dose (10-Gy) Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: An Open Clinical Study and Pooled Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kamstrup, Maria R.; Gniadecki, Robert; Iversen, Lars; Skov, Lone; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Loft, Annika; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments is limited to 2 to 3 courses in a lifetime due to skin toxicity. This study aimed to determine the clinical effect of low-dose TSEBT in patients with MF and SS. Methods and Materials: In an open clinical study, 21 patients with MF/SS stages IB to IV were treated with low-dose TSEBT over <2.5 weeks, receiving a total dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. Results: The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response or a very good partial response rate (<1% skin involvement with patches or plaques) documented in 57% of the patients. Median duration of overall cutaneous response was 174 days (5.8 months; range: 60-675 days). TSEBT-related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in 60% of patients. Conclusions: Low-dose (10-Gy) TSEBT offers a high overall response rate and is relatively safe. With this approach, reirradiation at times of relapse or progression is likely to be less toxic than standard dose TSEBT. It remains to be established whether adjuvant and combination treatments can prolong the beneficial effects of low-dose TSEBT.

  2. Changes in CD4+ T-cells and HIV RNA resulting from combination of anti-TB therapy with Dzherelo in TB/HIV dually infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaeva, Lyudmila G; Maystat, Tatyana V; Masyuk, Lilia A; Pylypchuk, Volodymyr S; Volyanskii, Yuri L; Kutsyna, Galyna A

    2008-01-01

    The open-label, phase II clinical trial of antituberculosis therapy (ATT) with or without oral immunomodulator Dzherelo (Immunoxel) was conducted in TB/HIV coinfected, antiretroviral therapy naïve patients to evaluate the effect on CD4 T-lymphocyte counts and viral load. The arm A (n = 20) received isoniazid (H); rimfapicin (R); pyrazinamide (Z); streptomycin (S); and ethambutol (E), and arm B (n = 20) received 50 drops of Dzherelo twice per day in addition to HRZSE. After 2 months in 90% of Dzherelo patients the population of absolute CD4 T-cells expanded by an average of 71.2% (from 174 to 283 cells/μl; P = 0.00003), but declined in ATT-alone patients (182 to 174; P = 0.34). The ratio between CD4/CD8 cells deteriorated in 80% of individuals in arm A (1.213 > 0.943; P = 0.002), but improved in the same proportion of patients in arm B (1.244 > 1.536; P = 0.007). The number of total CD3+ lymphocytes rose from 728 to 921 cells in arm B (P = 0.025) whereas it fell from 650 to 585 cells in arm A (P = 0.25). The viral load, as measured by plasma RNA-PCR, decreased in 70% of Dzherelo recipients (2.174 > 1.558 copies/ml; P = 0.002), but increased in 70% of HRZSE only receivers (1.907 > 2.076 copies/ml; P = 0.03). Dzherelo has a favorable effect on the immune status and viral burden in TB/HIV patients when given as an immunomodulating adjunct to ATT. PMID:19920896

  3. Prophylactic and therapeutic adenoviral vector-based multivirus-specific T-cell immunotherapy for transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Vijayendra; Schuessler, Andrea; Smith, Corey; Wong, Yide; Miles, John J; Smyth, Mark J; Ambalathingal, George; Francis, Ross; Campbell, Scott; Chambers, Daniel; Khanna, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections including cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, and BK virus are a common and predictable problem in transplant recipients. While cellular immune therapies have been successfully used to tackle infectious complications in transplant recipients, manufacturing immunotherapies to address the multitude of possible pathogens can be technically challenging and labor-intensive. Here we describe a novel adenoviral antigen presentation platform (Ad-MvP) as a tool for rapid generation of multivirus-specific T-cells in a single step. Ad-MvP encodes 32 CD8+ T-cell epitopes from cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, and BK virus as a contiguous polyepitope. We demonstrate that Ad-MvP vector can be successfully used for rapid in vitro expansion of multivirus-specific T-cells from transplant recipients and in vivo priming of antiviral T-cell immunity. Most importantly, using an in vivo murine model of Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma, we also show that adoptive immunotherapy with Ad-MvP expanded autologous and allogeneic multivirus-specific T-cells is highly effective in controlling Epstein-Barr virus tumor outgrowth and improving overall survival. We propose that Ad-MvP has wide ranging therapeutic applications in greatly facilitating in vivo priming of antiviral T-cells, the generation of third-party T-cell banks as "off-the-shelf" therapeutics as well as autologous T-cell therapies for transplant patients. PMID:27606351

  4. Prophylactic and therapeutic adenoviral vector-based multivirus-specific T-cell immunotherapy for transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Vijayendra; Schuessler, Andrea; Smith, Corey; Wong, Yide; Miles, John J; Smyth, Mark J; Ambalathingal, George; Francis, Ross; Campbell, Scott; Chambers, Daniel; Khanna, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections including cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, and BK virus are a common and predictable problem in transplant recipients. While cellular immune therapies have been successfully used to tackle infectious complications in transplant recipients, manufacturing immunotherapies to address the multitude of possible pathogens can be technically challenging and labor-intensive. Here we describe a novel adenoviral antigen presentation platform (Ad-MvP) as a tool for rapid generation of multivirus-specific T-cells in a single step. Ad-MvP encodes 32 CD8+ T-cell epitopes from cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, and BK virus as a contiguous polyepitope. We demonstrate that Ad-MvP vector can be successfully used for rapid in vitro expansion of multivirus-specific T-cells from transplant recipients and in vivo priming of antiviral T-cell immunity. Most importantly, using an in vivo murine model of Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma, we also show that adoptive immunotherapy with Ad-MvP expanded autologous and allogeneic multivirus-specific T-cells is highly effective in controlling Epstein-Barr virus tumor outgrowth and improving overall survival. We propose that Ad-MvP has wide ranging therapeutic applications in greatly facilitating in vivo priming of antiviral T-cells, the generation of third-party T-cell banks as “off-the-shelf” therapeutics as well as autologous T-cell therapies for transplant patients. PMID:27606351

  5. Inhibition of calpain attenuates encephalitogenicity of MBP-specific T cells

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, Mary K.; Das, Arabinda; Inoue, Jun; Azuma, Mitsuyoshi; Ray, Swapan K.; Brahmachari, Saurav; Banik, Naren L.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the CNS, possessing both immune and neurodegenerative events that lead to disability. Adoptive transfer (AT) of myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T cells into naïve female SJL/J mice results in a relapsing-remitting (RR) form of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Blocking the mechanisms by which MBP-specific T cells are activated before AT may help characterize the immune arm of MS and offer novel targets for therapy. One such target is calpain, which is involved in activation of T cells, migration of immune cells into the CNS, degradation of axonal and myelin proteins, and neuronal apoptosis. Thus, the hypothesis that inhibiting calpain in MBP-specific T cells would diminish their encephalitogenicity in RR-EAE mice was tested. Incubating MBP-specific T cells with the calpain inhibitor SJA6017 before AT markedly suppressed the ability of these T cells to induce clinical symptoms of RR-EAE. These reductions correlated with decreases in demyelination, inflammation, axonal damage, and loss of oligodendrocytes and neurons. Also, calpain:calpastatin ratio, production of tBid, and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, and activities of calpain and caspases, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation were attenuated. Thus, these data suggest calpain as a promising target for treating EAE and MS. PMID:19627443

  6. Transfection of Tumor-Infiltrating T Cells with mRNA Encoding CXCR2.

    PubMed

    Idorn, Manja; Thor Straten, Per; Svane, Inge Marie; Met, Özcan

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy based on the infusion of patient's own immune cells after ex vivo culturing is among the most potent forms of personalized treatment among recent clinical developments for the treatment of cancer. However, despite high rates of successful initial clinical responses, only about 20 % of patients with metastatic melanoma treated with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) enter complete and long-term regression, with the majority either relapsing after initial partial regression or not benefiting at all. Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between the number infused T cells migrating to the tumor and the clinical response, but also that only a small fraction of adoptively transferred T cells reach the tumor site. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for transfection of TILs with mRNA encoding the chemokine receptor CXCR2 transiently redirecting and improving TILs migration toward tumor-secreted chemokines in vitro. PMID:27236805

  7. T-Cell Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... are extremely rare. T-cell lymphomas can be aggressive (fast-growing) or indolent (slow-growing). Lymphomas are ... also be involved. This group of PTCLs is aggressive and requires combination chemotherapy upon diagnosis. For more ...

  8. Regulatory T cells: a review.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Alakananda; Saxena, Renu

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a pivotal role in the homeostasis of the immune system and in the modulation of the immune response. Tregs have emerged as key players in the development and maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. Broadly speaking, CD4+ T cells possessing the ability to suppress immune responses can be divided into two types: naturally occurring (nTreg) and inducible (iTreg) or adaptive regulatory cells. Naturally occurring thymus-derived CD4+CD25+ Tregs are a subset of T cells which have immunosuppressive properties and are 5%-10% of the total peripheral CD4+ T cells. In normal conditions, Tregs regulate ongoing immune responses and prevent autoimmunity. Imbalanced function or number of these cells, either enhanced or decreased, might lead to tumour development and autoimmunity, respectively. These cells thus play a major role in autoimmune diseases, transplantation tolerance, infectious diseases, allergic disease and tumour immunity. These natural properties make Tregs attractive tools for novel immunotherapeutic approaches. The in vivo manipulation or depletion of Tregs may help devise effective immunotherapy for patients with cancer, autoimmunity, graftversus-host disease, infectious diseases and allergic diseases. It is crucial to understand the biology of Tregs before attempting therapies, including (i) the injection of expanded Tregs to cure autoimmune disease or prevent graft-versus-host disease or (ii) the depletion or inhibition of Tregs in cancer therapy. Recent findings in murine models and studies in humans have opened new avenues to study the biology of Tregs and their therapeutic potential. This overview provides a framework for integrating these concepts of basic and translational research. PMID:23998865

  9. Rifaximin has a Marginal Impact on Microbial Translocation, T-cell Activation and Inflammation in HIV-Positive Immune Non-responders to Antiretroviral Therapy – ACTG A5286

    PubMed Central

    Tenorio, Allan R.; Chan, Ellen S.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Macatangay, Bernard J. C.; Read, Sarah W.; Yesmin, Suria; Taiwo, Babafemi; Margolis, David M.; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Landay, Alan L.; Wilson, Cara C.; Mellors, John W.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rodriguez, Benigno; Aziz, Mariam; Presti, Rachel; Deeks, Steven; Ebiasah, Ruth; Myers, Laurie; Borowski, LuAnn; Plants, Jill; Palm, David A.; Weibel, Derek; Putnam, Beverly; Lindsey, Elizabeth; Player, Amy; Albrecht, Mary; Kershaw, Andrea; Sax, Paul; Keenan, Cheryl; Walton, Patricia; Baum, Jane; Stroberg, Todd; Hughes, Valery; Coster, Laura; Kumar, Princy N.; Yin, Michael T.; Noel-Connor, Jolene; Tebas, Pablo; Thomas, Aleshia; Davis, Charles E.; Redfield, Robert R.; Sbrolla, Amy; Flynn, Teri; Davis, Traci; Whitely, Kim; Singh, Baljinder; Swaminathan, Shobha; McGregor, Donna; Palella, Frank; Aberg, Judith; Cavanagh, Karen; Santana Bagur, Jorge L.; Flores, Olga Méndez; Fritsche, Janice; Sha, Beverly; Slamowitz, Debbie; Valle, Sandra; Tashima, Karen; Patterson, Helen; Harber, Heather; Para, Michael; Eaton, Molly; Maddox, Dale; Currier, Judith; Cajahuaringa, Vanessa; Luetkemeyer, Annie; Dwyer, Jay; Fichtenbaum, Carl J.; Saemann, Michelle; Ray, Graham; Campbell, Thomas; Fischl, Margaret A.; Bolivar, Hector; Oakes, Jonathan; Chicurel-Bayard, Miriam; Tripoli, Christine; Weinman, D. Renee; Adams, Mary; Hurley, Christine; Dunaway, Shelia; Storey, Sheryl; Klebert, Michael; Royal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background. Rifaximin, a nonabsorbable antibiotic that decreases lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cirrhotics, may decrease the elevated levels of microbial translocation, T-cell activation and inflammation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive immune nonresponders to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods. HIV-positive adults receiving ART for ≥96 weeks with undetectable viremia for ≥48 weeks and CD4+ T-cell counts <350 cells/mm3 were randomized 2:1 to rifaximin versus no study treatment for 4 weeks. T-cell activation, LPS, and soluble CD14 were measured at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, and 8. Wilcoxon rank sum tests compared changes between arms. Results. Compared with no study treatment (n = 22), rifaximin (n = 43) use was associated with a significant difference between study arms in the change from baseline to week 4 for CD8+T-cell activation (median change, 0.0% with rifaximin vs +0.6% with no treatment; P = .03). This difference was driven by an increase in the no-study-treatment arm because there was no significant change within the rifaximin arm. Similarly, although there were significant differences between study arms in change from baseline to week 2 for LPS and soluble CD14, there were no significant changes within the rifaximin arm. Conclusions. In immune nonresponders to ART, rifaximin minimally affected microbial translocation and CD8+T-cell activation. Trial registration number. NCT01466595. PMID:25214516

  10. Recovery of CD4+ T Cells in HIV patients with a stable virologic response to antiretroviral therapy is associated with polymorphisms of interleukin-6 and central major histocompatibility complex genes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Sonia; Rosenow, Ann A; James, Ian R; Roberts, Steven G; Nolan, Richard C; French, Martyn A; Price, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether polymorphisms in genes associated with HIV disease progression and/or immune activation affect CD4+ T-cell recovery in HIV patients who began combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) with advanced immunodeficiency and achieved stable control of plasma viremia. Patients with CD4 T-cell counts <300 cells/microL (n = 33) and >400 cells/microL (n = 37) on ART were compared. A multiple case-control logistic regression associated carriage of BAT1(1,2) or interleukin (IL)6-174(2,2) with low CD4 T-cell counts (P = 0.012). BAT1*2 uniquely marks the central major histocompatibility complex region of a conserved haplotype (HLA-A1,B8,BAT1*2,TNFA-308*2,DR3,DQ2). There was no association between alleles carried at CCR5Delta32, CCR5 59029, CCR5 59353, CCR2+190 (V64I), SDF1 3'UTR, IL1A+4845, IL1B+3953, IL4-589, IL10-592, IL10-R1+536, IL10-R1+1112, IL12B 3'UTR, TNFA-308, or TNFA-1031 and CD4 T-cell counts. We suggest that immune activation and/or CD4 T-cell apoptosis in HIV patients on effective ART is influenced by genetic factors. PMID:16340466

  11. PLZF confers effector functions to donor T cells that preserve graft-versus-tumor effects while attenuating graft-versus-host-disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arnab; Holland, Amanda M.; Dogan, Yildirim; Yim, Nury L.; Rao, Uttam K.; Young, Lauren F.; West, Mallory L.; Singer, Natalie V.; Lee, Hae; Na, Il-Kang; Tsai, Jennifer J.; Jenq, Robert R.; Penack, Olaf; Hanash, Alan M.; Lezcano, Cecilia; Murphy, George; Liu, Chen; Sadelain, Michel; Sauer, Martin G.; Sant’Angelo, Derek; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to limit graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) mediated by alloreactive donor T cells after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) are limited by a concomitant decrease in graft-versus-tumor (GVT) activity and increased possibilities of tumor relapse. Using a novel approach, we adoptively transferred conventional T cells expressing the transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), which confers effector properties resembling invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells), such as copious production of cytokines under suboptimal stimulation. PLZF expression in T cell allografts attenuates expansion of alloreactive T cells, leading to lower GVHD. Intact alloreactivity-driven antitumor cytokine responses result in preserved GVT effects leading to improved survival. Our findings suggest that therapy with PLZF-overexpressing T cells would result in overall improved outcomes due to less GVHD and intact GVT effects. PMID:23733752

  12. Toxicities of chimeric antigen receptor T cells: recognition and management.

    PubMed

    Brudno, Jennifer N; Kochenderfer, James N

    2016-06-30

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells can produce durable remissions in hematologic malignancies that are not responsive to standard therapies. Yet the use of CAR T cells is limited by potentially severe toxicities. Early case reports of unexpected organ damage and deaths following CAR T-cell therapy first highlighted the possible dangers of this new treatment. CAR T cells can potentially damage normal tissues by specifically targeting a tumor-associated antigen that is also expressed on those tissues. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS), a systemic inflammatory response caused by cytokines released by infused CAR T cells can lead to widespread reversible organ dysfunction. CRS is the most common type of toxicity caused by CAR T cells. Neurologic toxicity due to CAR T cells might in some cases have a different pathophysiology than CRS and requires different management. Aggressive supportive care is necessary for all patients experiencing CAR T-cell toxicities, with early intervention for hypotension and treatment of concurrent infections being essential. Interleukin-6 receptor blockade with tocilizumab remains the mainstay pharmacologic therapy for CRS, though indications for administration vary among centers. Corticosteroids should be reserved for neurologic toxicities and CRS not responsive to tocilizumab. Pharmacologic management is complicated by the risk of immunosuppressive therapy abrogating the antimalignancy activity of the CAR T cells. This review describes the toxicities caused by CAR T cells and reviews the published approaches used to manage toxicities. We present guidelines for treating patients experiencing CRS and other adverse events following CAR T-cell therapy. PMID:27207799

  13. Clinical Strategies to Enhance T cell Reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Gabrielle L; Zakrzewski, Johannes L; Perales, Miguel A; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Strategies to enhance T cell recovery are of increasing clinical importance to overcome long lasting T cell deficiencies, which occur in association with infections, autoimmunity and chemo/radiotherapy as well as aging of the immune system. In this review we discuss those strategies that are close to or in the clinic. Interleukin-7, sex steroid modulation, keratinocyte growth factor, growth hormone and cellular therapies using ex vivo generated T cell precursors are currently being tested in recipients of a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and patients with malignancies or HIV/AIDS. PMID:17964803

  14. Lymphocyte function associated antigen-1, integrin alpha 4, and L-selectin mediate T-cell homing to the pancreas in the model of adoptive transfer of diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Fabien, N; Bergerot, I; Orgiazzi, J; Thivolet, C

    1996-09-01

    The involvement of adhesion molecule in the process of T-cell homing to the pancreas was investigated in the model of the T-cell transfer of type I diabetes in NOD mice. Treatment of mice using monoclonal anti-lymphocyte function associated antigen (LFA)-1, anti-integrin alpha 4, anti-intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and anti-L-selectin antibodies (monoclonal antibodies [mAbs]) gave rise to a partial or complete prevention of diabetes via different mechanisms of protection. On day 20 posttransfer, diabetes was only observed in control mice (26 of 32) and in few mice treated with the anti-L-selectin mAbs (3 of 24). On day 60, the best protection was observed using the anti-LFA-1 or the anti-integrin alpha 4 mAbs with 3 of 11 and 2 of 5 diabetic mice, respectively. On day 20, no insulitis was observed in the pancreases of mice treated with these mAbs compared with the pancreases of controls, suggesting that such treatment blocked the penetration of T-cells into the islets. In vitro adhesion assays confirmed that adhesion of T-cells to the pancreatic endothelium was blocked, except when using the anti-L-selectin mAb, which induced a modification of the traffic of the transferred T-cells; the ability of T-cells to migrate into the pancreatic lymph nodes was significantly reduced (10.4 vs. 22%). Anti-LFA-1 mAbs did not modify such T-cell trafficking. The present study, therefore, elucidates the role of LFA-1, integrin alpha 4, and L-selectin in T-cell homing to the pancreas, first step of the cascade of events leading to type I diabetes. PMID:8772719

  15. Phase I Hepatic Immunotherapy for Metastases study of intra-arterial chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell therapy for CEA+ liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Steven C.; Burga, Rachel A.; McCormack, Elise; Wang, Li Juan; Mooring, Wesley; Point, Gary; Khare, Pranay D.; Thorn, Mitchell; Ma, Qiangzhong; Stainken, Brian F.; Assanah, Earle O.; Davies, Robin; Espat, N. Joseph; Junghans, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells (CAR-T) have demonstrated encouraging results in early-phase clinical trials. Successful adaptation of CAR-T technology for CEA-expressing adenocarcinoma liver metastases (LM), a major cause of death in patients with gastrointestinal cancers, has yet to be achieved. We sought to test intrahepatic delivery of anti-CEA CAR-T through percutaneous hepatic artery infusions (HAI). Experimental Design We conducted a phase I trial to test HAI of CAR-T in patients with CEA+ LM. Six patients completed the protocol, and 3 received anti-CEA CAR-T HAIs alone in dose-escalation fashion (108, 109, and 1010 cells). We treated an additional 3 patients with the maximum planned CAR-T HAI dose (1010 cells X 3) along with systemic IL2 support. Results Four patients had more than 10 LM and patients received a mean of 2.5 lines of conventional systemic therapy prior to enrollment. No patient suffered a grade 3 or 4 adverse event related to the CAR-T HAIs. One patient remains alive with stable disease at 23 months following CAR-T HAI and 5 patients died of progressive disease. Among the patients in the cohort that received systemic IL2 support, CEA levels decreased 37% (range 19–48%) from baseline. Biopsies demonstrated an increase in LM necrosis or fibrosis in 4 of 6 patients. Elevated serum IFNγ levels correlated with IL2 administration and CEA decreases. Conclusions We have demonstrated the safety of anti-CEA CAR-T HAIs with encouraging signals of clinical activity in a heavily pre-treated population with large tumor burdens. Further clinical testing of CAR-T HAIs for LM is warranted. PMID:25850950

  16. A self-inactivating lentiviral vector for SCID-X1 gene therapy that does not activate LMO2 expression in human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Disha; DeRavin, Suk See; Hauer, Julia; Lu, Taihe; Ma, Zhijun; Hacein-Bey Abina, Salima; Gray, John T.; Greene, Michael R.; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Malech, Harry L.; Sorrentino, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    To develop safer and more effective vectors for gene therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), we have evaluated new self-inactivating lentiviral vectors