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Sample records for adoptive transfer experiments

  1. Isolation of Immune Cells for Adoptive Transfer.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Tlili; Paradis, Pierre; Mann, Koren K; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2017-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes is a useful technique to characterize the role of the immune system in hypertension and vascular disease. Here we describe as an example the isolation of splenic T regulatory cells from donor mice processed to obtain a single cell suspension, followed by negative and positive selection to obtain CD4(+) T cells and CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells, respectively. Treg cells can be subsequently transferred to recipient animals.

  2. Adoptive cell transfer in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Albert J

    2015-06-01

    Adoptive cell transfer is an intervention in which autologous immune cells that have been expanded ex vivo are re-introduced to mitigate a pathological process. Tregs, mesenchymal stromal cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells have been transferred in diverse immune-mediated diseases, and Tregs have been the focus of investigations in autoimmune hepatitis. Transferred Tregs have improved histological findings in animal models of autoimmune hepatitis and autoimmune cholangitis. Key challenges relate to discrepant findings among studies, phenotypic instability of the transferred population, uncertain side effects and possible need for staged therapy involving anti-inflammatory drugs. Future investigations must resolve issues about the purification, durability and safety of these cells and consider alternative populations if necessary.

  3. Adoptive cell transfer therapy for malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Eiichi; Takano, Shingo; Ohno, Tadao; Tsuboi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To date, various adoptive immunotherapies have been attempted for treatment of malignant gliomas using nonspecific and/or specific effector cells. Since the late 1980s, with the development of rIL-2, the efficacy of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell therapy with or without rIL-2 for malignant gliomas had been tested with some modifications in therapeutic protocols. With advancements in technology, ex vivo expanded tumor specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) or those lineages were used in clinical trials with higher tumor response rates. In addition, combinations of those adoptive cell transfer using LAK cells, CTLs or natural killer (NK) cells with autologous tumor vaccine (ATV) therapy were attempted. Also, a strategy of high-dose (or lymphodepleting) chemotherapy followed by adoptive cell transfer has been drawing attentions recently. The most important role of these clinical studies using cell therapy was to prove that these ex vivo expanded effector cells could kill tumor cells in vivo. Although recent clinical results could demonstrate radiologic tumor shrinkage in a number of cases, cell transfer therapy alone has been utilized less frequently, because of the high cost of ex vivo cell expansion, the short duration of antitumor activity in vivo, and the recent shift of interest to vaccine immunotherapy. Nevertheless, NK cell therapy using specific feeder cells or allergenic NK cell lines have potentials to be a good choice of treatment because of easy ex vivo expansion and their efficacy especially when combined with vaccine therapy as they are complementary to each other. Also, further studies are expected to clarify the efficacy of the high-dose chemotherapy followed by a large scale cell transfer therapy as a new therapeutic strategy for malignant gliomas.

  4. Studying Neutrophil Migration In Vivo Using Adoptive Cell Transfer.

    PubMed

    Miyabe, Yoshishige; Kim, Nancy D; Miyabe, Chie; Luster, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer experiments can be used to study the roles of cell trafficking molecules on the migratory behavior of specific immune cell populations in vivo. Chemoattractants and their G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors regulate migration of cells in vivo, and dysregulated expression of chemoattractants and their receptors is implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inflammatory arthritides, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory cells into joints. The K/BxN serum transfer mouse model of inflammatory arthritis shares many similar features with RA. In this autoantibody-induced model of arthritis, neutrophils are the critical immune cells necessary for the development of joint inflammation and damage. We have used adoptive neutrophil transfer to define the contributions of chemoattractant receptors, cytokines, and activation receptors expressed on neutrophils that critically regulate their entry into the inflamed joint. In this review, we describe the procedure of neutrophil adoptive transfer to study the influence of neutrophil-specific receptors or mediators upon the their recruitment into the joint using the K/BxN model of inflammatory arthritis as a model of how adoptive cell transfer studies can be used to study immune cell migration in vivo.

  5. International adoption as a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Dyer, Janyce G

    2006-08-01

    International adoption research has been called a natural experiment by many child development researchers. How do studies of severe early deprivation inform us about risk factors experienced by many of these children and their impact on developmental outcomes? Three longitudinal studies conducted by British and American researchers in the 1990s are reviewed. Each year, over 20,000 children are adopted from overseas, and a significant number are now entering adolescence; the impact of their prenatal risk factors, early institutionalization, and ameliorative postadoptive environments is also reviewed. The feasibility of generalizing findings to other children in foster care is also addressed.

  6. In Their Own Words: Adopted Persons' Experiences of Adoption Disclosure and Discussion in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wydra, Maria; O'Brien, Karen M.; Merson, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored adoption disclosure in a sample of 18 adult adoptees who were adopted as infants. A qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with adoptees was used to learn about participants' experiences of adoption disclosure. The majority always knew they were adopted, were able to talk openly with parents about adoption, and had…

  7. Information Transfer and the Adoption of Agricultural Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Rose Mary Juliano

    1990-01-01

    Data collected in the Federal District of Brazil were analyzed in terms of information transfer through mass media and interpersonal communication and how they influence farmers in the Federal District of Brazil in their decisions to adopt agricultural innovations. (42 references) (EAM)

  8. The Adoption Experience: Families Who Give Children a Second Chance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ann

    This book examines the adoption process in Great Britain, recounting first-hand experiences to take the reader through each stage of the process from the adopter's point of view. The book also examines the success and failure of several types of adoption. The chapters are: (1) "You Want to Adopt"; (2) "First Meetings, First Months,…

  9. "School Adopts an Experiment": The Magnetic Levitation of Superconductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo

    2010-01-01

    The event "School adopts an experiment" is an event targeted at high schools and secondary schools. It is based on a tight and direct collaboration between researchers and school students and teachers. Several schools were involved in the event by "adopting" an experiment in physics research laboratories. Groups of selected students were first…

  10. Pathogen boosted adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy to treat solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Xin, Gang; Schauder, David M; Jing, Weiqing; Jiang, Aimin; Joshi, Nikhil S; Johnson, Bryon; Cui, Weiguo

    2017-01-24

    Because of insufficient migration and antitumor function of transferred T cells, especially inside the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), the efficacy of adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is much curtailed in treating solid tumors. To overcome these challenges, we sought to reenergize ACT (ReACT) with a pathogen-based cancer vaccine. To bridge ACT with a pathogen, we genetically engineered tumor-specific CD8 T cells in vitro with a second T-cell receptor (TCR) that recognizes a bacterial antigen. We then transferred these dual-specific T cells in combination with intratumoral bacteria injection to treat solid tumors in mice. The dual-specific CD8 T cells expanded vigorously, migrated to tumor sites, and robustly eradicated primary tumors. The mice cured from ReACT also developed immunological memory against tumor rechallenge. Mechanistically, we have found that this combined approach reverts the immunosuppressive TME and recruits CD8 T cells with an increased number and killing ability to the tumors.

  11. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Adoption KidsHealth > For Teens > Adoption Print A A A ... of Adoption en español La adopción What Is Adoption? Caz knew she'd been adopted as a ...

  12. [The international adoption waiting period: waiting experience and coping strategies].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Viejo, Ana Berástegui

    2008-11-01

    The adoption waiting period is a powerful stressor that can affect the well-being and configuration of future family life. Adoption research and practice have not paid enough attention to this phase. The principal aim of this study is to address prospective adoptive parents' experience of and coping with this period. For this purpose, 63 families answered a feelings scale, a coping resources scale and a needs questionnaire, all elaborated for the study. Results show that a shorter length of waiting time, using cognitive and learning coping strategies and associative participation were related to a better general experience of adoption whereas process-centred strategies were related to a worse experience of adoption. Families would like to see more speed in the process, more warmth and humanity in their relation with institutions and better information about their expedients. We conclude by proposing some activities and services during the waiting period that could be useful for post adoption.

  13. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  14. Themes of Hope and Healing: Infertile Couples' Experiences of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith C.; Hurtig-Mitchell, Joss

    2003-01-01

    Using qualitative approach, authors explored the experiences of becoming parents through adoption after unsuccessful infertility treatments. Analysis of data revealed three overarching themes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for counselors who work with infertile couples considering adoption, clients engaged in adoption…

  15. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... biological families) and where they came from. This curiosity often becomes more intense as part of the ... adoptive family or feel close to them. This curiosity, which can feel quite intense, is a normal ...

  16. Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents' Experiences in Preschool Environments

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined the school experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families. The current exploratory study examined the experiences of 79 lesbian, 75 gay male, and 112 heterosexual adoptive parents of preschool-age children with respect to their (a) level of disclosure regarding their LG parent and adoptive family status at their children's schools; (b) perceived challenges in navigating the preschool environment and advocating on behalf of their children and families; and (c) recommendations to teachers and schools about how to create affirming school environments with respect to family structure, adoption, and race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that the majority of parents were open about their LG and adoptive family status, and had not encountered challenges related to family diversity. Those parents who did experience challenges tended to describe implicit forms of marginalization, such as insensitive language and school assignments. Recommendations for teachers included discussing and reading books about diverse families, tailoring assignments to meet the needs of diverse families, and offering school community-building activities and events to help bridge differences across families. PMID:25414543

  17. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption.

  18. The use of endogenous T cells for adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Yee, Cassian

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy involves the ex vivo enrichment and expansion of tumor-reactive T cells for infusion. As an immune-based approach, adoptive therapy has become an increasingly attractive modality for the treatment of patients with cancer due to its potential for high specificity, non-cross resistance with conventional therapies, and promise of long-term immunoprotection. In recent years, a resurgence in discoveries underlying T-cell recognition, tumor immune evasion, and T-cell memory and differentiation coupled with the development of several enabling technologies have facilitated a renewed focus in the field of adoptive therapy and its transition to the clinical arena as a treatment modality for patients with cancer. In this review, endogenous T cells derived from peripheral blood or tumor sites will be presented as a source of effector cells for adoptive therapy and strategies to isolate, manipulate, and enhance the function of antigen-specific T cells in vitro and to augment their in vivo efficacy and persistence by host immunomodulation are presented in the context of an ever-increasing inventory of preclinical and clinically available reagents. Optimizing the combination of adoptive cellular therapy and other immune-based and conventional approaches will herald a new generation of research and clinical opportunities for cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Retail Choice Experiments: Comparing Early-AdopterExperience

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, William

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews the experience with retail choice of non-residential electricity customers during the period from early 1998 through the first few months of 2000. Key findings include: (1) customers in California received a significantly smaller discount from utility tariffs than customers in other competitive markets; (2) this sample of large commercial/industrial customers believed they were benefiting significantly more from commodity savings from contracts with retail electricity service providers (RESP) than from value-added services; and,(3) market rules appear to be critical to customer experiences with retail competition, yet the relationship between market rules and market development is inadequately understood.

  20. Pathways to Engineering: The Validation Experiences of Transfer Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yi; Ozuna, Taryn

    2015-01-01

    Community college engineering transfer students are a critical student population of engineering degree recipients and technical workforce in the United States. Focusing on this group of students, we adopted Rendón's (1994) validation theory to explore the students' experiences in community colleges prior to transferring to a four-year…

  1. 77 FR 1555 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... and 162 Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic Funds... Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers (EFTs) and Remittance Advice AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS... facilitate health care EFT transmissions. DATES: Effective Date: These regulations are effective on...

  2. Adoptive Transfer of Renal Allograft Tolerance in a Large Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Villani, V; Yamada, K; Scalea, J R; Gillon, B C; Arn, J S; Sekijima, M; Tasaki, M; Cormack, T A; Moran, S G; Torabi, R; Shimizu, A; Sachs, D H

    2016-01-01

    Our recent studies in an inbred swine model demonstrated that both peripheral and intra-graft regulatory cells were required for the adoptive transfer of tolerance to a second, naïve donor-matched kidney. Here, we have asked whether both peripheral and intra-graft regulatory elements are required for adoptive transfer of tolerance when only a long-term tolerant (LTT) kidney is transplanted. Nine highly-inbred swine underwent a tolerance-inducing regimen to prepare LTT kidney grafts which were then transplanted to histocompatible recipients, with or without the peripheral cell populations required for adoptive transfer of tolerance to a naïve kidney. In contrast to our previous studies, tolerance of the LTT kidney transplants alone was achieved without transfer of additional peripheral cells and without strategies to increase the number/potency of regulatory T cells in the donor. This tolerance was systemic, since most subsequent, donor-matched challenge kidney grafts were accepted. These results confirm the presence of a potent tolerance-inducing and/or tolerance-maintaining cell population within LTT renal allografts. They suggest further that additional peripheral tolerance mechanisms, required for adoptive transfer of tolerance to a naïve donor-matched kidney, depend on peripheral cells that, if not transferred with the LTT kidney, require time to develop in the adoptive host.

  3. Adoptive transfer of hepatic stellate cells ameliorates liver ischemia reperfusion injury through enriching regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Wang, Quanrongzi; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Guan, Wenxian; Lu, Ling

    2014-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that adoptive transferred regulatory T cells (Tregs) attenuated liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Recent studies demonstrated that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were producers of induced Tregs (iTregs) via retinoic acid. This study aimed to investigate the role of adoptive transferred HSCs in liver IRI. Mice were treated with gradient doses of HSCs before surgery at 24h or 72h. The levels of serum aminotransferases and hepatic cytokines were evaluated after reperfusion. Meanwhile, hepatic Tregs and their subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. We found that adoptive transferred HSCs attenuated liver IRI. Administration of HSCs expanded the number of hepatic iTregs and natural Tregs (nTregs) after reperfusion. In addition, we found that the increased Tregs were almost Helios-Tregs before surgery. These Helios-Tregs were considered as iTregs and protected liver from IRI partially. Furthermore, adoptive transferred HSCs stabilized nTregs and prevented nTregs from reducing after reperfusion. These nTregs also attenuated liver IRI partially. Depletion of Tregs abolished the protective effect of HSCs. Thus, we conclude that adoptive transferred HSCs ameliorate liver IRI in Tregs-dependent manner.

  4. Stable activity of diabetogenic cells with age in NOD mice: dynamics of reconstitution and adoptive diabetes transfer in immunocompromised mice.

    PubMed

    Kaminitz, Ayelet; Mizrahi, Keren; Ash, Shifra; Ben-Nun, Avi; Askenasy, Nadir

    2014-07-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a prevalent disease model of type 1 diabetes. Immune aberrations that cause and propagate autoimmune insulitis in these mice are being continually debated, with evidence supporting both dominance of effector cells and insufficiency of suppressor mechanisms. In this study we assessed the behaviour of NOD lymphocytes under extreme expansion conditions using adoptive transfer into immunocompromised NOD.SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice. CD4(+)  CD25(+) T cells do not cause islet inflammation, whereas splenocytes and CD4(+)  CD25(-) T cells induce pancreatic inflammation and hyperglycaemia in 80-100% of the NOD.SCID recipients. Adoptively transferred effector T cells migrate to the lymphoid organs and pancreas, proliferate, are activated in the target organ in situ and initiate inflammatory insulitis. Reconstitution of all components of the CD4(+) subset emphasizes the plastic capacity of different cell types to adopt effector and suppressor phenotypes. Furthermore, similar immune profiles of diabetic and euglycaemic NOD.SCID recipients demonstrate dissociation between fractional expression of CD25 and FoxP3 and the severity of insulitis. There were no evident and consistent differences in diabetogenic activity and immune reconstituting activity of T cells from pre-diabetic (11 weeks) and new onset diabetic NOD females. Similarities in immune phenotypes and variable distribution of effector and suppressor subsets in various stages of inflammation commend caution in interpretation of quantitative and qualitative aberrations as markers of disease severity in adoptive transfer experiments.

  5. Stable activity of diabetogenic cells with age in NOD mice: dynamics of reconstitution and adoptive diabetes transfer in immunocompromised mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaminitz, Ayelet; Mizrahi, Keren; Ash, Shifra; Ben-Nun, Avi; Askenasy, Nadir

    2014-01-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a prevalent disease model of type 1 diabetes. Immune aberrations that cause and propagate autoimmune insulitis in these mice are being continually debated, with evidence supporting both dominance of effector cells and insufficiency of suppressor mechanisms. In this study we assessed the behaviour of NOD lymphocytes under extreme expansion conditions using adoptive transfer into immunocompromised NOD.SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice. CD4+ CD25+ T cells do not cause islet inflammation, whereas splenocytes and CD4+ CD25− T cells induce pancreatic inflammation and hyperglycaemia in 80–100% of the NOD.SCID recipients. Adoptively transferred effector T cells migrate to the lymphoid organs and pancreas, proliferate, are activated in the target organ in situ and initiate inflammatory insulitis. Reconstitution of all components of the CD4+ subset emphasizes the plastic capacity of different cell types to adopt effector and suppressor phenotypes. Furthermore, similar immune profiles of diabetic and euglycaemic NOD.SCID recipients demonstrate dissociation between fractional expression of CD25 and FoxP3 and the severity of insulitis. There were no evident and consistent differences in diabetogenic activity and immune reconstituting activity of T cells from pre-diabetic (11 weeks) and new onset diabetic NOD females. Similarities in immune phenotypes and variable distribution of effector and suppressor subsets in various stages of inflammation commend caution in interpretation of quantitative and qualitative aberrations as markers of disease severity in adoptive transfer experiments. PMID:24601987

  6. Experiences of School Bullying among Internationally Adopted Children: Results from the Finnish Adoption (FINANDO) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Sinkkonen, Jari; Salmivalli, Christina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Elovainio, Marko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with school bullying and victimization among Finnish international adoptees. The Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was sent to all 9-15-year-old children adopted in Finland between 1985 and 2007 through the mediating organizations officially approved by the Ministry of Social Affairs…

  7. Effect of adoptive transfer of cloned Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-specific T helper cells on periodontal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, K; Eastcott, J W; Taubman, M A; Smith, D J; Cox, D S

    1991-01-01

    Previously we isolated several Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-specific T-cell clones from the spleens and lymph nodes of immunized Rowett rats. These clones were characterized as W3/13+, W3/25+, OX8-, and OX22-, suggesting a T helper (Th) phenotype. In the current experiments, 10(6) cells from a single A. actinomycetemcomitans-specific clone (A3) were adoptively transferred to a group (AaTh; n = 13) of normal heterozygous rats (rnu/+) at 28 days of age. A second group received no T cells (AaNT; n = 15), and a third group also received no T cells (NAaNT, n = 11). Beginning 1 day after transfer, the first and second groups were infected orally with A. actinomycetemcomitans for 5 consecutive days. The presence of infection was confirmed immediately after challenge and after 5 months, when the experiments were ended. Significantly higher numbers of lymphocytes were recovered from the gingival tissues of the first group than from those of either of the other groups. Also, this group showed significantly elevated (P less than 0.01) serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibody to A. actinomycetemcomitans in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay when compared with both other groups. Bone loss was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) in recipients of A. actinomycetemcomitans-specific cloned cells when compared with the other infected group and was approximately equal to the bone loss of the uninfected group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that T-cell regulation can affect periodontal disease. In this regulation, T helper cells appear to interfere with periodontal bone loss. PMID:1825991

  8. Adoptive transfer of fibrocytes enhances splenic T-cell numbers and survival in septic peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Nemzek, Jean A; Fry, Christopher; Moore, Bethany B

    2013-08-01

    Fibrocytes are unique, fibroblast-like cells with diverse functions and the potential for immunomodulation, which prompted investigation of their previously unexplored role in sepsis. Specifically, the study goals were to determine if adoptive transfer of fibrocytes would affect outcome in sepsis and to define relevant immunopathologic changes associated with the outcomes. Initial in vitro studies demonstrated that naive T-cell proliferation was significantly increased in cocultures with tissue-derived fibrocytes as compared with culture either alone or with fibroblasts. In vivo, the adoptive transfer of fibrocytes at the time of cecal ligation and puncture significantly improved survival of mice compared with transfer of fibroblasts or saline. Septic mice had lower blood levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and markers of organ injury after fibrocyte transfer as well as a reduced bacterial burden. Locally, peritoneal lavage fluid yielded lower bacterial counts, lower IL-6, and reduced inflammatory cell counts when fibrocyte transfer was compared with saline. This was also accompanied by significant increases in splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. In vitro stimulation of the splenic T cells demonstrated that, after cecal ligation and puncture and adoptive transfer, the percentages of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with intracellular interferon γ were increased, whereas those with IL-4 remained similar between the groups. Therefore, it appears the adoptive transfer of fibrocytes improves sepsis survival, lowers bacterial burden, and promotes the proliferation of splenic T cells with a T(H)1 phenotype. These results confirm the immunomodulatory effects of exogenous, tissue-derived fibrocytes in sepsis and suggest their potential in cell therapy.

  9. Adoptive transfer of induced-Treg cells effectively attenuates murine airway allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Lan, Qin; Chen, Maogen; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Ning; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Julie; Fan, Huimin; Yan, Chun-Song; Kuang, Jiu-Long; Warburton, David; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Ryffel, Bernhard; Zheng, Song-Guo; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Both nature and induced regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes are potent regulators of autoimmune and allergic disorders. Defects in endogenous Treg cells have been reported in patients with allergic asthma, suggesting that disrupted Treg cell-mediated immunological regulation may play an important role in airway allergic inflammation. In order to determine whether adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells generated in vitro can be used as an effective therapeutic approach to suppress airway allergic inflammation, exogenously induced Treg cells were infused into ovalbumin-sensitized mice prior to or during intranasal ovalbumin challenge. The results showed that adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells prior to allergen challenge markedly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophil recruitment, mucus hyper-production, airway remodeling, and IgE levels. This effect was associated with increase of Treg cells (CD4(+)FoxP3(+)) and decrease of dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes, and with reduction of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell response as compared to the controls. Moreover, adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells during allergen challenge also effectively attenuate airway inflammation and improve airway function, which are comparable to those by natural Treg cell infusion. Therefore, adoptive transfer of in vitro induced Treg cells may be a promising therapeutic approach to prevent and treat severe asthma.

  10. The role of siblings in adoption outcomes and experiences from adolescence to emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Flood, Margaux E; Grotevant, Harold D

    2016-04-01

    In many families, siblings play important roles in shaping each other's outcomes and experiences across development. In adoptive families, siblings may affect adoptees' feelings about adoption and birth family contact. Among "target adoptees" (i.e., 1 participating adopted individual within adoptive families) with siblings who may have also been adopted or the biological children of the adoptive parents, we examined how adoption experiences and individual adjustment from adolescence into emerging adulthood were associated with sibling relationship dynamics. We present 3 studies using longitudinal, mixed method data within the same overarching sample of adoptive families. Study 1 was a follow-up to Berge et al.'s (2006) study of adolescent adoptees and their adopted siblings with birth family contact; we found evidence of changes in the status of contact collectively experienced by 26 adopted sibling pairs when target adoptees were emerging adults. In Study 2, we found that target adoptees (n = 91) with siblings (adopted or not) who were more involved with target adoptees' birth family contact demonstrated more favorable behavioral outcomes than target adoptees who had uninvolved siblings. Finally in Study 3, for target adoptees with siblings who were also adopted (n = 51), results showed that target adoptees felt more positively about their own adoption when siblings expressed similar positive feelings about individual adoption experiences. Implications of our findings are discussed in terms of the enduring contributions of sibling relationships from childhood into adulthood and the unique ways in which adoptive siblings are important in shaping one another's experiences of adoption.

  11. Adoptive transfer of gut intraepithelial lymphocytes protects against murine infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Buzoni-Gatel, D; Lepage, A C; Dimier-Poisson, I H; Bout, D T; Kasper, L H

    1997-06-15

    Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) of the gut represent a primary immune barrier against infection by orally acquired pathogens. Naturally acquired infection with Toxoplasma gondii induces the proliferation of CD8+ T cells in both the gut and spleen. Gut-derived CD8alpha/beta+ IEL exhibit MHC-restricted cytotoxicity against parasite-infected enterocytes and macrophages. In a murine model, we demonstrate that the adoptive transfer of IEL obtained from inbred mice at day 11 postinfection is able to protect against a virulent challenge in syngenic recipients. In CBA mice, the parasite cyst load within the brain of the recipients receiving primed IEL was reduced by 90%. In BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, a 50% decrease in mortality was observed following adoptive transfer of primed IEL. To determine the T cell subset responsible for protective immunity, a purified CD8alpha/beta+ IEL population was isolated from infected mice at day 11 postinfection. These cells were able to protect naive mice by adoptive transfer against a lethal parasite challenge. RNA analysis by reverse-transcriptase PCR revealed that primed CD8alpha/beta+ IEL produce significant message for IFN-gamma, an essential cytokine for host protection against toxoplasmosis. Administration of anti-IFN-gamma at the time of adoptive transfer of primed IEL abrogated protection. The adoptive transfer of these protective IEL was not restricted to the Ld class I locus. These data demonstrate that IFN-gamma-producing IEL may be an important primary barrier against acute and perhaps recurrent infection with T. gondii.

  12. Development of an Autologous Macrophage-based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to Treat Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis (PTOA) and Osteoarithritis (OA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0228 TITLE: Development of an Autologous Macrophage-based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to Treat Posttraumatic...Final 3. DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2013 - 28 Feb 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of an Autologous Macrophage-based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to...autologous macrophage-based adoptive gene transfer strategy can effectively deliver and confine expression of an anti-catabolic gene (IL-1ra or IL-1β

  13. The subscale orbital fluid transfer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Frank G.; Antar, Basil N.; Menzel, Reinhard W.; Meserole, Jere S.; Meserole, Jere S.; Jones, Ogden

    1990-01-01

    The Subscale Orbital Fluid Transfer Experiment (SOFTE) is a planned Shuttle Orbiter fluid transfer experiment. CASP (Center for Advanced Space Propulsion) performed certain aspects of the conceptual design of this experiment. The CASP work consisted of the conceptual design of the optical system, the search for alternative experimental fluids, the determination of the flow meter specifications and the examination of materials to use for a bladder that will empty one of the tanks in the experiment.

  14. Adoptive T cell transfer for cancer immunotherapy in the era of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Kalos, Michael; June, Carl H

    2013-07-25

    Adoptive T cell transfer for cancer and chronic infection is an emerging field that shows promise in recent trials. Synthetic-biology-based engineering of T lymphocytes to express high-affinity antigen receptors can overcome immune tolerance, which has been a major limitation of immunotherapy-based strategies. Advances in cell engineering and culture approaches to enable efficient gene transfer and ex vivo cell expansion have facilitated broader evaluation of this technology, moving adoptive transfer from a "boutique" application to the cusp of a mainstream technology. The major challenge currently facing the field is to increase the specificity of engineered T cells for tumors, because targeting shared antigens has the potential to lead to on-target off-tumor toxicities, as observed in recent trials. As the field of adoptive transfer technology matures, the major engineering challenge is the development of automated cell culture systems, so that the approach can extend beyond specialized academic centers and become widely available.

  15. Multifunctional T-cell Analyses to Study Response and Progression in Adoptive Cell Transfer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chao; Cheung, Ann F.; Chodon, Thinle; Koya, Richard C.; Wu, Zhongqi; Ng, Charles; Avramis, Earl; Cochran, Alistair J.; Witte, Owen N.; Baltimore, David; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Economou, James S.; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Ribas, Antoni; Heath, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of genetically engineered T cells expressing cancer-specific T-cell receptors (TCR) is a promising cancer treatment. Here, we investigate the in vivo functional activity and dynamics of the transferred cells by analyzing samples from 3 representative patients with melanoma enrolled in a clinical trial of ACT with TCR transgenic T cells targeted against the melanosomal antigen MART-1. The analyses included evaluating 19 secreted proteins from individual cells from phenotypically defined T-cell subpopulations, as well as the enumeration of T cells with TCR antigen specificity for 36 melanoma antigens. These analyses revealed the coordinated functional dynamics of the adoptively transferred, as well as endogenous, T cells, and the importance of highly functional T cells in dominating the antitumor immune response. This study highlights the need to develop approaches to maintaining antitumor T-cell functionality with the aim of increasing the long-term efficacy of TCR-engineered ACT immunotherapy. SIGNIFICANCE A longitudinal functional study of adoptively transferred TCR–engineered lymphocytes yielded revealing snapshots for understanding the changes of antitumor responses over time in ACT immunotherapy of patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:23519018

  16. Targeting STAT3 in adoptively transferred T cells promotes their in vivo expansion and antitumor effects

    PubMed Central

    Kujawski, Maciej; Zhang, Chunyan; Herrmann, Andreas; Reckamp, Karen; Scuto, Anna; Jensen, Michael; Deng, Jiehui; Forman, Stephen; Figlin, Robert; Yu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with engineered T cells to improve natural immune response and antitumor functions has shown promise for treating cancer. However, the requirement for extensive ex vivo manipulation of T cells and the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment limit this therapeutic modality. In the present study, we investigated the possibility to circumvent these limitations by engineering Stat3-deficient CD8+ T cells or by targeting Stat3 in the tumor microenvironment. We show that ablating Stat3 in CD8+ T cells prior to their transfer allows their efficient tumor infiltration and robust proliferation, resulting in increased tumor antigen-specific T cell activity and tumor growth inhibition. For potential clinical translation, we combined adoptive T cell therapy with an FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, in renal cell carcinoma and melanoma tumor models. Sunitinib inhibited Stat3 in dendritic cells and T cells, reduced conversion of transferred Foxp3− T cells to tumor-associated T regulatory cells while increasing transferred CD8+ T cell infiltration and activation at the tumor site, leading to inhibition of primary tumor growth. These data demonstrate that adoptively transferred T cells can be expanded and activated in vivo either by engineering Stat3 silenced T cells or by targeting Stat3 systemically with small-molecule inhibitors. PMID:21118964

  17. The Experience of New WBI-Adopters in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyeung, Lai Hung A; Ha, Tak Shing; Au, Grace

    2003-01-01

    The innovative use of information and communication technology is becoming increasingly popular among higher education institutions in Hong Kong. The motivation for adoption is expedited by great promotive efforts within the academic communities that accompany the current high level of financial, hardware, and software resources deployed in all…

  18. Adoptive transfer of tracer alloreactive CD4(+) TCR-transgenic T cells alters the endogenous immune response to an allograft.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle L; Chen, Jianjun; Daniels, Melvin D; McKeague, Matthew G; Wang, Ying; Yin, Dengping; Vu, Vinh; Chong, Anita S; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2016-04-11

    T cell receptor transgenic (TCR-Tg) T cells are often used as tracer populations of antigen-specific responses to extrapolate findings to endogenous T cells. The extent to which TCR-Tg T cells behave purely as tracer cells or modify the endogenous immune response is not clear. To test the impact of TCR-Tg T cell transfer on endogenous alloimmunity, recipient mice were seeded with CD4(+) or CD8(+) TCR-Tg or polyclonal T cells at the time of cardiac allograft transplantation. Only CD4(+) TCR-Tg T cells accelerated rejection, and unexpectedly led to a dose-dependent decrease in both transferred and endogenous T cells infiltrating the graft. In contrast, recipients of CD4(+) TCR-Tg cell exhibited enhanced endogenous donor-specific CD8(+) T-cell activation in the spleen and accelerated alloantibody production. Introduction of CD4(+) TCR-Tg T cells also perturbed the intra-graft accumulation of innate cell populations. Thus, transferred CD4(+) TCR-Tg T cells alter many aspects of endogenous alloimmunity, suggesting that caution should be used when interpreting experiments utilizing these adoptively-transferred cells, as the overall nature of allograft rejection may be altered. These results may also have implications for adoptive CD4(+) T cell immunotherapy in tumor and infectious clinical settings as cell infusion may have additional effects on natural immune responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural Killer Cell Adoptive Transfer Therapy: Exploiting the First Line of Defense Against Cancer.

    PubMed

    Davis, Zachary B; Felices, Martin; Verneris, Michael R; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells constitute an important component of the initial immunological response against transformed cells. However, chronic exposure to the tumor microenvironment can fundamentally alter the ability of NK cells to sufficiently control tumor progression. Thus, the adoptive transfer of healthy, functional NK cells as an interventional therapy has been an area of great interest for improving patient outcomes. Recent developments in the field have provided a better understanding of what makes the NK compartment effective against malignant cells. Moreover, there are now multiple potential sources of NK cell products for infusion as well as techniques to manipulate these cells to enhance their antitumor functions. This review explores the advantages and disadvantages of various sources of NK cells as well as prospective therapeutic enhancements to adoptively transferred NK cells.

  20. T-cell-based Immunotherapy: Adoptive Cell Transfer and Checkpoint Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Houot, Roch; Schultz, Liora Michal; Marabelle, Aurélien; Kohrt, Holbrook

    2015-10-01

    Tumor immunotherapy has had demonstrable efficacy in patients with cancer. The most promising results have been with T-cell-based therapies. These include adoptive cell transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, genetically engineered T cells, and immune checkpoint inhibitor antibodies. In this review, we describe the different T-cell-based strategies currently in clinical trials and put their applications, present and future, into perspective.

  1. The adoptive transfer of cultured T cells for patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, James C

    2013-01-01

    T cells have been shown to be capable of rejecting a patient's tumor. Weak responses to current vaccines and the toxicity of exogenously administered cytokines limit the intensity of the T-cell response that can be actively generated in vivo. Adoptive T-cell transfer enhances an intrinsically weak immune response to cancer by activating and expanding tumor reactive T cells in vitro and manipulating the environment of the host at the time of transfer. One can frequently find tumor-reactive T cells in metastatic lesions in patients with melanoma, and expand them in vitro for readministration. When successful, this adoptive cellular immunotherapy has resulted in sustainable curative outcomes. Subsequently, the applicability of adoptive T-cell transfer has been greatly expanded by the development of methods to genetically engineer open-repertoire human T-cells to confer tumor reactivity. This re-direction of T-cell specificity can be achieved by introducing a variety of receptors that ligate tumor-associated antigens and then trigger the normal activation mechanism of T cells. Future T-cell engineering will add a new dimension by reprogramming T-cell functions for optimal tumor rejection. The antigens recognized by T cells, the techniques to procure and grow tumor reactive T cells, the conditioning of the recipient to optimize efficacy, and the results of clinical protocols are reviewed herein.

  2. Accelerated type 1 diabetes induction in mice by adoptive transfer of diabetogenic CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Berry, Gregory; Waldner, Hanspeter

    2013-05-06

    The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes after 12 weeks of age and is the most extensively studied animal model of human Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Cell transfer studies in irradiated recipient mice have established that T cells are pivotal in T1D pathogenesis in this model. We describe herein a simple method to rapidly induce T1D by adoptive transfer of purified, primary CD4+ T cells from pre-diabetic NOD mice transgenic for the islet-specific T cell receptor (TCR) BDC2.5 into NOD.SCID recipient mice. The major advantages of this technique are that isolation and adoptive transfer of diabetogenic T cells can be completed within the same day, irradiation of the recipients is not required, and a high incidence of T1D is elicited within 2 weeks after T cell transfer. Thus, studies of pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions in T1D can proceed at a faster rate than with methods that rely on heterogenous T cell populations or clones derived from diabetic NOD mice.

  3. A Simple Experiment for Mass Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Jesus M.; Henriquez, Vicente; Macias-Machin, Agustin

    1998-01-01

    Presents an experiment in which students use laboratory data to calculate the interphase mass transfer coefficient for a fluid passed over a sphere and obtain correlations for solid-gas mass transfer. Students develop a realistic mathematical model to describe the sublimation process. (DDR)

  4. The Subscale Orbital Fluid Transfer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meserole, J. S.; Collins, Frank G.; Jones, Ogden; Antar, Basil; Menzel, Reinhard; Gray, Perry

    1989-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Spacecraft Propulsion (CASP) is a subcontractor to Boeing Aerospace Corporation to provide support for the concept definition and design of a subscale orbital fluid transfer experiment (SOFTE). SOFTE is an experiment that will look at the fluid mechanics of the process of transfer of a saturated fluid between two tanks. The experiment will be placed in two get away special (GAS) can containers; the tanks will be in one container and the power and electronics will be in a second container. Since GAS cans are being used, the experiment will be autonomous. The work during the present year consisted of examining concepts for visual observation of the fluid transfer process, methods for accurately metering the amount of fluid transferred between the two tanks, possible test fluids, and materials for the elastomeric diaphragm.

  5. Dissecting memory T cell responses to TB: concerns using adoptive transfer into immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ancelet, Lindsay; Rich, Fenella J; Delahunt, Brett; Kirman, Joanna R

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have used adoptive transfer of purified T cell subsets into immunodeficient mice to determine the subset of T cells responsible for mediating protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These studies suggested that CD62L(hi) memory CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice are key for protection against tuberculosis. Importantly, we observed that transfer of naïve CD4(+) T cells into Rag1-/- recipients protected against a mycobacterial challenge as well as transfer of BCG-experienced CD4(+) T cells. We found that transfer of total CD4(+) T cells from naïve mice or enriched CD62L(hi)CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice into Rag1-/- recipients induced severe colitis by 3 weeks post cell transfer, whereas transfer of CD62L(lo)CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice did not. Naïve and CD62L(hi)CD4(+) T cells proliferated extensively upon transfer and developed an activated effector phenotype in the lung, even in the absence of infectious challenge. The induction of colitis and systemic cytokine response induced by the transfer and subsequent activation of CD4(+) T cells from naïve mice or CD62L(hi)CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice, into immunodeficient recipients, may heighten their ability to protect against mycobacterial challenge. This raises doubts about the validity of this model to study CD4(+) T cell-mediated protection against tuberculosis.

  6. Antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1, DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell transfer, inhibits ocular neovascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Han; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Hijioka, Kuniaki; Qiao, Hong; Oshima, Yuji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2009-04-17

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in a wide range of ocular diseases. The exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ocular NV is not yet well understood, and so there is no satisfactory therapy for ocular NV. Here, we describe a strategy targeting Flk-1, a self-antigen overexpressed on proliferating endothelial cells in ocular NV, by antiangiogenic immunotherapy-DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell therapy. An oral DNA vaccine encoding Flk-1 carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium markedly suppressed development of laser-induced choroidal NV. We further demonstrated that adoptive transfer of vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells reduced pathological preretinal NV, with a concomitant facilitation of physiological revascularization after oxygen-induced retinal vessel obliteration. However, physiological retinal vascular development was unaffected in neonatal mice transferred with vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells. These findings suggested that antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1 such as vaccination and adoptive immunotherapy may contribute to future therapies for ocular NV.

  7. Treatment of dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis by adoptive transfer of peritoneal cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xia-wei; Shen, Guo-bo; Liu, Yan-tong; Luo, Min; Xu, Guang-chao; Shao, Bin; Deng, Sen-yi; He, Zhi-yao; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Wen, Yan-Zhu; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li; Deng, Hong-xin; Wei, Yu-quan

    2015-11-13

    The adoptive transfer of the natural regulatory B cells and macrophages should be a useful treatment for inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, it is usually difficult to isolate these cells from the tissues and expand them. Here, we investigated the feasibility of adoptively transferring peritoneal cells (PCs) as a treatment for DSS-induced colitis. We found that peritoneal cavity can provide an easily accessible site for harvesting enough number of PCs, namely, two-dose PCs for the treatment from a mouse in one operation. Adoptive therapy of these cells from healthy mice or those with disease is effectively in reducing the disease activity score. The natural B cells and macrophages of the infused PCs can selectively migrate to lesion sites and regulate the expression of Stat3, NF-κB, Smad3 and Smad7. Additionally, PCs exert dual activity of IL-10 and TGF-β secreted spontaneously by both peritoneal B cells and macrophages, which in turn enhance the induction of regulatory B cells and Macrophages in microenvironment of inflammation. Moreover, PCs can re-establish immunological tolerance in the OVA-immunized mice. Thus, our findings provide a new strategy for colitis therapy and could be of importance in additional exploration of other inflammation and autoimmune diseases therapy.

  8. Treatment of dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis by adoptive transfer of peritoneal cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xia-wei; Shen, Guo-bo; Liu, Yan-tong; Luo, Min; Xu, Guang-chao; Shao, Bin; Deng, Sen-yi; He, Zhi-yao; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Wen, Yan-Zhu; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li; Deng, Hong-xin; Wei, Yu-quan

    2015-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of the natural regulatory B cells and macrophages should be a useful treatment for inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, it is usually difficult to isolate these cells from the tissues and expand them. Here, we investigated the feasibility of adoptively transferring peritoneal cells (PCs) as a treatment for DSS-induced colitis. We found that peritoneal cavity can provide an easily accessible site for harvesting enough number of PCs, namely, two-dose PCs for the treatment from a mouse in one operation. Adoptive therapy of these cells from healthy mice or those with disease is effectively in reducing the disease activity score. The natural B cells and macrophages of the infused PCs can selectively migrate to lesion sites and regulate the expression of Stat3, NF−κB, Smad3 and Smad7. Additionally, PCs exert dual activity of IL-10 and TGF-β secreted spontaneously by both peritoneal B cells and macrophages, which in turn enhance the induction of regulatory B cells and Macrophages in microenvironment of inflammation. Moreover, PCs can re-establish immunological tolerance in the OVA-immunized mice. Thus, our findings provide a new strategy for colitis therapy and could be of importance in additional exploration of other inflammation and autoimmune diseases therapy. PMID:26565726

  9. Adoptive transfer of CD34(+) cells during murine sepsis rebalances macrophage lipopolysaccharide responses.

    PubMed

    Brudecki, Laura; Ferguson, Donald A; McCall, Charles E; El Gazzar, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Effective treatment of the acute systemic inflammatory response associated with sepsis is lacking, but likely will require new ways to rebalance dysregulated immune responses. One challenge is that human sepsis often is diagnosed too late to reduce the hyperinflammation of early sepsis. Another is that the sequential response to sepsis inflammation rapidly generates an adaptive and immunosuppressive state, which by epigenetic imprint may last for months or years. Emerging data support that the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis can both directly reprogram gene expression of circulating and tissue cells, and disrupt development and differentiation of myeloid precursor cells into competent immunocytes. We recently reported that adoptive transfer of bone marrow CD34(+) cells into mice after sepsis induction by cecal ligation and puncture significantly improves late-sepsis survival by enhancing bacterial clearance through improved neutrophil and macrophage phagocytosis. That study, however, did not examine whether CD34(+) transfer can modify noninfectious acute systemic inflammatory responses. Here, we report that CD34(+) cell transfer mice that have survived late sepsis also resist lethal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory shock (88% lived vs 0% of naive mice). The CD34(+) cell-recipient survivor mice administered LPS had globally reduced levels of circulating inflammatory mediators compared with naive mice, but their peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), unlike those from naïve mice, remained LPS responsive ex vivo. We further found that CD34(+) cell transfer into LPS-challenged naïve mice had diminished immunosuppression, as assessed by ex vivo responses of peritoneal and BMDMs to LPS challenge. We conclude that CD34(+) cell adoptive transfer rebalances dysregulated immune responses associated with sepsis and endotoxin shock.

  10. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell impact on endogenous and adoptively transferred T cells.

    PubMed

    Arina, Ainhoa; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2015-04-01

    Novel models of autochthonous tumorigenesis and adoptive T cell therapy (ATT) are providing new clues regarding the pro-tumorigenic and immunosuppressive effects of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and their interaction with T cells. New findings are shifting the perception of the main level at which MDSC act, from direct cell-to-cell suppression to others, such as limiting T cell infiltration. Adoptively transferred, high-avidity T cells recognizing peptides with high-affinity for MHC-I eliminated large tumors. However, low-avidity T cells or low-affinity peptides resulted in failure to eradicate tumors. Manipulation of intratumoral myeloid cells improved the outcome of otherwise unsuccessful ATT. Therefore, therapeutic intervention directed at the tumor stroma might be required when using suboptimal T cells for ATT.

  11. Successful immunotherapy of autoimmune cholangitis by adoptive transfer of forkhead box protein 3(+) regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Zhang, W; Yang, G-X; Ando, Y; Tomiyama, T; Tsuneyama, K; Leung, P; Coppel, R L; Ansari, A A; Lian, Z X; Ridgway, W M; Joh, T; Gershwin, M E

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has lagged behind that of other autoimmune diseases. In this study we have addressed the potential utility of immunotherapy using regulatory T cells (Treg ) to treat murine autoimmune cholangitis. In particular, we have taken advantage of our ability to produce portal inflammation and bile duct cell loss by transfer of CD8(+) T cells from the dominant negative form of transforming growth factor beta receptor type II (dnTGF-βRII) mice to recombination-activating gene (Rag)1(-/-) recipients. We then used this robust established adoptive transfer system and co-transferred CD8(+) T cells from dnTGF-βRII mice with either C57BL/6 or dnTGF-βRII forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3(+) ) T cells. Recipient mice were monitored for histology, including portal inflammation and intralobular biliary cell damage, and also included a study of the phenotypical changes in recipient lymphoid populations and local and systemic cytokine production. Importantly, we report herein that adoptive transfer of Treg from C57BL/6 but not dnTGF-βRII mice significantly reduced the pathology of autoimmune cholangitis, including decreased portal inflammation and bile duct damage as well as down-regulation of the secondary inflammatory response. Further, to define the mechanism of action that explains the differential ability of C57BL/6 Treg versus dnTGF-βRII Treg on the ability to down-regulate autoimmune cholangitis, we noted significant differential expression of glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), CD73, CD101 and CD103 and a functionally significant increase in interleukin (IL)-10 in Treg from C57BL/6 compared to dnTGF-βRII mice. Our data reflect the therapeutic potential of wild-type CD4(+) FoxP3(+) Treg in reducing the excessive T cell responses of autoimmune cholangitis, which has significance for the potential immunotherapy of PBC.

  12. T cell receptor repertoires after adoptive transfer of expanded allogeneic regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Theil, A; Wilhelm, C; Kuhn, M; Petzold, A; Tuve, S; Oelschlägel, U; Dahl, A; Bornhäuser, M; Bonifacio, E; Eugster, A

    2017-02-01

    Regulatory T cell (Treg ) therapy has been exploited in autoimmune disease, solid organ transplantation and in efforts to prevent or treat graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, our knowledge on the in-vivo persistence of transfused Treg is limited. Whether Treg transfusion leads to notable changes in the overall Treg repertoire or whether longevity of Treg in the periphery is restricted to certain clones is unknown. Here we use T cell receptor alpha chain sequencing (TCR-α-NGS) to monitor changes in the repertoire of Treg upon polyclonal expansion and after subsequent adoptive transfer. We applied TCR-α-NGS to samples from two patients with chronic GVHD who received comparable doses of stem cell donor derived expanded Treg . We found that in-vitro polyclonal expansion led to notable repertoire changes in vitro and that Treg cell therapy altered the peripheral Treg repertoire considerably towards that of the infused cell product, to different degrees, in each patient. Clonal changes in the peripheral blood were transient and correlated well with the clinical parameters. We suggest that T cell clonotype analyses using TCR sequencing should be considered as a means to monitor longevity and fate of adoptively transferred T cells.

  13. Elimination of metastatic melanoma using gold nanoshell-enabled photothermal therapy and adoptive T cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Bear, Adham S; Kennedy, Laura C; Young, Joseph K; Perna, Serena K; Mattos Almeida, Joao Paulo; Lin, Adam Y; Eckels, Phillip C; Drezek, Rebekah A; Foster, Aaron E

    2013-01-01

    Ablative treatments such as photothermal therapy (PTT) are attractive anticancer strategies because they debulk accessible tumor sites while simultaneously priming antitumor immune responses. However, the immune response following thermal ablation is often insufficient to treat metastatic disease. Here we demonstrate that PTT induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and promotes the maturation of dendritic cells within tumor-draining lymph nodes, thereby priming antitumor T cell responses. Unexpectedly, however, these immunomodulatory effects were not beneficial to overall antitumor immunity. We found that PTT promoted the infiltration of secondary tumor sites by CD11b(+)Ly-6G/C(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells, consequently failing to slow the growth of poorly immunogenic B16-F10 tumors and enhancing the growth of distant lung metastases. To exploit the beneficial effects of PTT activity against local tumors and on antitumor immunity whilst avoiding the adverse consequences, we adoptively transferred gp100-specific pmel T cells following PTT. The combination of local control by PTT and systemic antitumor immune reactivity provided by adoptively transferred T cells prevented primary tumor recurrence post-ablation, inhibited tumor growth at distant sites, and abrogated the outgrowth of lung metastases. Hence, the combination of PTT and systemic immunotherapy prevented the adverse effects of PTT on metastatic tumor growth and optimized overall tumor control.

  14. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bollyky, L.J.; Beary, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Hanford Site to determine the most efficient pH and temperature levels for the destruction of complexants in Hanford high-level defense waste. These complexants enhance migration of radionuclides in the soil and inhibit the growth of crystals in the evaporator-crystallizer. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics tests have been outlined for the determination of critical mass transfer and kinetics parameters of the ozone-complexant reaction.

  15. Experimental Myocardial Infarction Induces Altered Regulatory T Cell Hemostasis, and Adoptive Transfer Attenuates Subsequent Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Sharir, Rinat; Semo, Jonathan; Shimoni, Sara; Ben-Mordechai, Tamar; Landa-Rouben, Natalie; Maysel-Auslender, Sofia; Shaish, Aviv; Entin–Meer, Michal; Keren, Gad; George, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Background Ischemic cardiac damage is associated with upregulation of cardiac pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as invasion of lymphocytes into the heart. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to exert a suppressive effect on several immune cell types. We sought to determine whether the Treg pool is influenced by myocardial damage and whether Tregs transfer and deletion affect cardiac remodeling. Methods and Results The number and functional suppressive activity of Tregs were assayed in mice subjected to experimental myocardial infarction. The numbers of splenocyte-derived Tregs in the ischemic mice were significantly higher after the injury than in the controls, and their suppressive properties were significantly compromised. Compared with PBS, adoptive Treg transfer to mice with experimental infarction reduced infarct size and improved LV remodeling and functional performance by echocardiography. Treg deletion with blocking anti-CD25 antibodies did not influence infarct size or echocardiographic features of cardiac remodeling. Conclusion Treg numbers are increased whereas their function is compromised in mice with that underwent experimental infarction. Transfer of exogeneous Tregs results in attenuation of myocardial remodeling whereas their ablation has no effect. Thus, Tregs may serve as interesting potential interventional targets for attenuating left ventricular remodeling. PMID:25436994

  16. Recombinant interleukin 2 stimulates in vivo proliferation of adoptively transferred lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinghausen, S.E.; Lipford, E.H. 3d.; Mule, J.J.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1985-11-01

    The authors previously reported that the adoptive transfer of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells plus repetitive injections of recombinant interleukin 2 (IL 2) produced a marked reduction in established pulmonary metastases from a variety of murine sarcomas. The requirement for the exogenous administration of IL 2 prompted a subsequent examination of the role of IL 2 in the in vivo function of transferred LAK cells. The in vivo proliferation and migration patterns of lymphoid cells in C57BL/6 mice were examined after i.v. transfer of LAK cells alone, i.p. injection of IL 2 alone, or the combination of LAK cells and IL 2. A model for in vivo labeling of the DNA of dividing cells was used in which mice were injected with 5-( SVI)-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ( SVIUdR) and, 20 hr later, their tissues were removed and were counted in a gamma analyzer. A proliferation index (PI) was calculated by dividing the mean cpm of organs of experimentally treated mice by the mean cpm of organs of control mice. In animals given LAK cells alone, the lungs and liver demonstrated little if any uptake of SVIUdR above saline-treated controls, whereas the same organs of mice receiving 6000 U of IL 2 alone displayed higher radiolabel incorporation. When mice were given LAK cells plus 6000 U of IL 2, their tissues showed an additional increase in SVIUdR uptake.

  17. Online Learning Adoption: Effects of Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Perceived Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watjatrakul, Boonlert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Individual differences and perceived values of technology have received much attention in technology adoption literature. However, there is a lack of understanding of their relationships and effects on online learning adoption. The study aims to investigate the effects of two important personality traits (i.e. openness to experience and…

  18. Block designs in method transfer experiments.

    PubMed

    Altan, Stan; Shoung, Jyh-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Method transfer is a part of the pharmaceutical development process in which an analytical (chemical) procedure developed in one laboratory (typically the research laboratory) is about to be adopted by one or more recipient laboratories (production or commercial operations). The objective is to show that the recipient laboratory is capable of performing the procedure in an acceptable manner. In the course of carrying out a method transfer, other questions may arise related to fixed or random factors of interest, such as analyst, apparatus, batch, supplier of analytical reagents, and so forth. Estimates of reproducibility and repeatability may also be of interest. This article focuses on the application of various block designs that have been found useful in the comprehensive study of method transfer beyond the laboratory effect alone. An equivalence approach to the comparison of laboratories can still be carried out on either the least squares means or subject-specific means of the laboratories to justify a method transfer or to compare analytical methods.

  19. Shuttle time and frequency transfer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, D. W.; Alley, C. O.; Decher, R.; Vessot, R. F. C.; Winkler, G. M. R.

    1980-01-01

    A proposed space shuttle experiment to demonstrate techniques for global high precision comparison of clocks and primary frequency standards is described. The experiment, using transmitted microwave and pulsed laser signals, compared a hydrogen maser clock onboard the space shuttle with a clock in a ground station in order to demonstrate time transfer with accuracies of 1 nsec or better and frequency comparison at the 10 to the -14th power accuracy level.

  20. An Entrance Region Mass Transfer Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngquist, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment designed to reveal the consequences of the development of a concentration boundary layer. The rate of a mass transfer limited electrochemical reaction is measured and used to obtain the dependence of average Sherwood number on Reynolds number and entrance length. (Author/BB)

  1. Skewing the T-cell repertoire by combined DNA vaccination, host conditioning, and adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, Annelies; Bins, Adriaan D; Schumacher, Ton N M; Haanen, John B A G

    2008-04-01

    Approaches for T-cell-based immunotherapy that have shown substantial effects in clinical trials are generally based on the adoptive transfer of high numbers of antigen-specific cells, and the success of these approaches is thought to rely on the high magnitude of the tumor-specific T-cell responses that are induced. In this study, we aimed to develop strategies that also yield a T-cell repertoire that is highly skewed toward tumor recognition but do not rely on ex vivo generation of tumor-specific T cells. To this end, the tumor-specific T-cell repertoire was first expanded by DNA vaccination and then infused into irradiated recipients. Subsequent vaccination of the recipient mice with the same antigen resulted in peak CD8(+) T-cell responses of approximately 50%. These high T-cell responses required the presence of antigen-experienced tumor-specific T cells within the graft because only mice that received cells of previously vaccinated donor mice developed effective responses. Tumor-bearing mice treated with this combined therapy showed a significant delay in tumor outgrowth, compared with mice treated by irradiation or vaccination alone. Furthermore, this antitumor effect was accompanied by an increased accumulation of activated and antigen-specific T cells within the tumor. In summary, the combination of DNA vaccination with host conditioning and adoptive transfer generates a marked, but transient, skewing of the T-cell repertoire toward tumor recognition. This strategy does not require ex vivo expansion of cells to generate effective antitumor immunity and may therefore easily be translated to clinical application.

  2. Efficacy of systemic adoptive transfer immunotherapy targeting NY-ESO-1 for glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Everson, Richard G.; Antonios, Joseph P.; Lisiero, Dominique N.; Soto, Horacio; Scharnweber, Rudi; Garrett, Matthew C.; Yong, William H.; Li, Ning; Li, Gang; Kruse, Carol A.; Liau, Linda M.; Prins, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy is an ideal treatment modality to specifically target the diffusely infiltrative tumor cells of malignant gliomas while sparing the normal brain parenchyma. However, progress in the development of these therapies for glioblastoma has been slow due to the lack of immunogenic antigen targets that are expressed uniformly and selectively by gliomas. Methods We utilized human glioblastoma cell cultures to induce expression of New York–esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (NY-ESO-1) following in vitro treatment with the demethylating agent decitabine. We then investigated the phenotype of lymphocytes specific for NY-ESO-1 using flow cytometry analysis and cytotoxicity against cells treated with decitabine using the xCelligence real-time cytotoxicity assay. Finally, we examined the in vivo application of this immune therapy using an intracranially implanted xenograft model for in situ T cell trafficking, survival, and tissue studies. Results Our studies showed that treatment of intracranial glioma–bearing mice with decitabine reliably and consistently induced the expression of an immunogenic tumor-rejection antigen, NY-ESO-1, specifically in glioma cells and not in normal brain tissue. The upregulation of NY-ESO-1 by intracranial gliomas was associated with the migration of adoptively transferred NY-ESO-1–specific lymphocytes along white matter tracts to these tumors in the brain. Similarly, NY-ESO-1–specific adoptive T cell therapy demonstrated antitumor activity after decitabine treatment and conferred a highly significant survival benefit to mice bearing established intracranial human glioma xenografts. Transfer of NY-ESO-1–specific T cells systemically was superior to intracranial administration and resulted in significantly extended and long-term survival of animals. Conclusion These results reveal an innovative, clinically feasible strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26330563

  3. British American satellite time transfer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    EASTON R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The use of the Timation satellite for navigation purposes is discussed. The advantages of the satellite for navigation and time transfer are defined as: (1) well-known position, (2) line-of-sight signal which allows use of ultrahigh frequency signals, (3) worldwide coverage, and (4) celestial navigation solution similar to the conventional celestial navigation practices. A diagram of range measurement by phase measure is provided. The application of an intercept chart for determining position using the navigation satellite is demonstrated. The results of a ground based time transfer experiment are reported.

  4. Adoptive transfer of unresponsiveness to allogeneic skin grafts with hepatic gamma delta + T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gorczynski, R M

    1994-01-01

    C3H/HEJ mice injected with irradiated multiple minor incompatible B10.BR lymphoid cells via the portal vein showed delayed rejection of subsequent B10.BR skin grafts. Similar delayed rejection was produced by lateral tail vein injection of B10.BR hepatic mononuclear cells or H-2k cells pulsed in vivo with B10 minor histocompatibility antigens. Inhibition of C3H anti-B10.BR immunity in vivo (assessed by delayed graft rejection) and in vitro (assessed by B10.BR-induced lymphokine production) can be transferred by radioresistant, plastic-adherent F4/80+33D1-CD4-CD8-alpha beta TcR-gamma delta TcR- mononuclear hepatic cells from (C3H/HEJ x C3H.SW)F1 mice injected 36 hr earlier with 100 x 10(6) irradiated spleen cells. By 10 days post-injection, cells transferring delayed rejection are radiosensitive, plastic non-adherent, F4/80-33D1-CD4-CD8- alpha beta Tc+- gamma delta TcR+ cells. Injection of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in vivo into mice receiving pretreatment with B10.BR cells via the portal vein, or adoptive transfer into such mice of immune anti-B10.BR lymphoid cells, abolished delayed rejection on subsequent skin grafting. Delayed rejection or modulation of lymphokine production was associated in all cases with suppression of IL-2 production and preferential retention of IL-4 production from cells stimulated in vitro. PMID:8132216

  5. The subscale orbital fluid transfer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meserole, J. S.; Collins, Frank G.; Jones, Ogden; Antar, Basil; Menzel, Reinhard; Gray, Perry

    1995-01-01

    The work during the present year consisted of examining concepts for visual observation of the fluid transfer process, examination of methods for accurately metering the amount of liquid transferred between the two tanks, examination of possible test fluids, and consideration of the materials to use for the elastomeric diaphragm. The objective of the visual observation is to locate the fluid-vapor interfaces and, if possible, quantify the amount of vapor and the area of the interface. It is proposed to use video cameras to view the overall process in each tank and to place borescopes or other devices through the tank walls to obtain detailed, undistorted views inside the tanks of critical portions of the transfer process. Further work will continue to find an economical means for providing this detailed view, which clearly would increase the data obtained from the experiment.

  6. Technical Considerations for the Generation of Adoptively Transferred T Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Visioni, Anthony; Skitzki, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    A significant function of the immune system is the surveillance and elimination of aberrant cells that give rise to cancer. Even when tumors are well established and metastatic, immune-mediated spontaneous regressions have been documented. While there are have been various forms of immunotherapy, one of the most widely studied for almost 40 years is adoptive cellular immunotherapy, but its success has yet to be fully realized. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is a therapeutic modality that has intrigued physicians and researchers for its many theoretical benefits. Preclinical investigations and human trials have utilized natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells (DC), macrophages, T-cells or B-cells for ACT with the most intense research focused on T-cell ACT. T-cells are exquisitely specific to the target of its T-cell receptor (TCR), thus potentially reducing the amount of collateral damage and off-target effects from treatment. T-cells also possess a memory subset that may reduce the risk of recurrence of a cancer after the successful treatment of the primary disease. There are several options for the source of T-cells used in the generation of cells for ACT. Perhaps the most widely known source is T-cells generated from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). However, studies have also employed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), lymph nodes, and even induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) as a source of T-cells. Several important technical considerations exist regarding benefits and limitations of each source of T-cells. Unique aspects of T-cells factor into their ability to be efficacious in ACT including the total number of cells available for ACT, the anti-tumor efficacy on a per cell basis, the repertoire of TCRs specific to tumor cells, and their ability to traffic to various organs that harbor tumor. Current research is attempting to unlock the full potential of these cells to effectively and safely treat cancer. PMID:27657129

  7. Adoptively transferred TRAIL+ T cells suppress GVHD and augment antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arnab; Dogan, Yildirim; Moroz, Maxim; Holland, Amanda M.; Yim, Nury L.; Rao, Uttam K.; Young, Lauren F.; Tannenbaum, Daniel; Masih, Durva; Velardi, Enrico; Tsai, Jennifer J.; Jenq, Robert R.; Penack, Olaf; Hanash, Alan M.; Smith, Odette M.; Piersanti, Kelly; Lezcano, Cecilia; Murphy, George F.; Liu, Chen; Palomba, M. Lia; Sauer, Martin G.; Sadelain, Michel; Ponomarev, Vladimir; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Current strategies to suppress graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) also compromise graft-versus-tumor (GVT) responses. Furthermore, most experimental strategies to separate GVHD and GVT responses merely spare GVT function without actually enhancing it. We have previously shown that endogenously expressed TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is required for optimal GVT activity against certain malignancies in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In order to model a donor-derived cellular therapy, we genetically engineered T cells to overexpress TRAIL and adoptively transferred donor-type unsorted TRAIL+ T cells into mouse models of allo-HSCT. We found that murine TRAIL+ T cells induced apoptosis of alloreactive T cells, thereby reducing GVHD in a DR5-dependent manner. Furthermore, murine TRAIL+ T cells mediated enhanced in vitro and in vivo antilymphoma GVT response. Moreover, human TRAIL+ T cells mediated enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity against both human leukemia cell lines and against freshly isolated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Finally, as a model of off-the-shelf, donor-unrestricted antitumor cellular therapy, in vitro–generated TRAIL+ precursor T cells from third-party donors also mediated enhanced GVT response in the absence of GVHD. These data indicate that TRAIL-overexpressing donor T cells could potentially enhance the curative potential of allo-HSCT by increasing GVT response and suppressing GVHD. PMID:23676461

  8. Study on cellular events in postthymectomy autoimmune oophoritis in mice. I. Requirement of Lyt-1 effector cells for oocytes damage after adoptive transfer

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Neonatal thymectomy during the critical period, 2-4 d after birth, can induce various organ-specific autoimmune diseases including oophoritis in A/J mice. The oophoritis thus induced was passively transferred into neonatal mice by injection of spleen cells obtained from syngeneic donors with the disease. Recipient ovaries were rapidly damaged with remarkable mononuclear cell infiltration and destruction of follicular structures. The phenotype of effector cells responsible for successful adoptive transfer was found to be Thy-1+, Lyt-1+,23-, Ia-, Qa-1-, and was sensitive to antithymocyte serum treatment but resistant to cyclophosphamide treatment or in vitro X-ray irradiation. The compatibility between donor and recipient at the major histocompatibility complex was not required for the effector phase of transfer. The oophoritis induced in BALB/c (nu/+ or +/+) was also shown to be transferred into athymic BALB/c nude mice with resulting ovarian lesion and circulating autoantibodies against oocytes. In this transfer system, the effector cells were also demonstrated to be T cells with the Lyt-1+,23- phenotype. Adoptive transfer experiments in both systems revealed that the destruction of ovaries in postthymectomy autoimmune oophoritis was mediated by Lyt-1 T cells. Whether these T cells can be distinguished from other Lyt-1 cells, such as T helper cells and effector T cells in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), is not clear at present, but the results suggest that the effector mechanisms may be closely related to a DTH reaction. PMID:6983557

  9. Adopted children and education: the experiences of a specialist CAMHS team.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The education system makes special provision for "looked after children". However, once adopted these children become invisible. Adopted children are often placed in their new families when they are already of school age. School is yet another transition alongside that of home, food, language and social milieu which an adopted child has to manage together the pain of the loss of the biological family and its culture. This article focuses on the importance for CAMHS practitioners to work closely with schools and adoptive parents to help children manage their lives in school. Alongside the difficulties they face in learning, many adopted children need help in managing friendships and in concentrating on what is required of them in school. Adults may be ignorant of the day to day experiences of racism and questions about mothers, fathers, brothers and sisters that can throw an adopted child into confusion. This chapter draws on clinical experience to describe some of the difficulties that arise for parents and children in managing the education system.

  10. Adoption and the communication of genetic risk: experiences in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Y; Semaka, A; Hayden, M R

    2012-01-01

    Adoption agencies can use genetic information to determine the eligibility of prospective adoptive parents and to establish a child's suitability for adoption. We describe experiences and implications of communicating genetic risk for Huntington disease (HD) in the context of adoption. A secondary analysis was employed using data collected from a cross-sectional survey (n = 233) and two qualitative studies on the psychosocial effects of predictive testing for HD. We demonstrate several ethical and practical challenges in the search for and communication of genetic information for adoptees and their birth relatives. We also found that concern for adoption discrimination was reported by 13.7% of survey respondents (n = 32). Concerns were higher among tested respondents than those who had not been tested (n = 29 vs n = 3, p = 0.010). However, more respondents were concerned about being discriminated based on their family history (FHx) vs their genetic test results (GTR) (concern based on FHx: n = 18 vs based on GTR: n = 1 vs based on both: n =10). These findings contribute to the limited empirical literature by offering evidence on the experiences and implications of communicating genetic risk information in the context of adoption with reference to HD.

  11. Adoptive transfer of effector CD8+ T cells derived from central memory cells establishes persistent T cell memory in primates.

    PubMed

    Berger, Carolina; Jensen, Michael C; Lansdorp, Peter M; Gough, Mike; Elliott, Carole; Riddell, Stanley R

    2008-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells that have been expanded ex vivo is being actively pursued to treat infections and malignancy in humans. The T cell populations that are available for adoptive immunotherapy include both effector memory and central memory cells, and these differ in phenotype, function, and homing. The efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy requires that transferred T cells persist in vivo, but identifying T cells that can reproducibly survive in vivo after they have been numerically expanded by in vitro culture has proven difficult. Here we show that in macaques, antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell clones derived from central memory T cells, but not effector memory T cells, persisted long-term in vivo, reacquired phenotypic and functional properties of memory T cells, and occupied memory T cell niches. These results demonstrate that clonally derived CD8+ T cells isolated from central memory T cells are distinct from those derived from effector memory T cells and retain an intrinsic capacity that enables them to survive after adoptive transfer and revert to the memory cell pool. These results could have significant implications for the selection of T cells to expand or to engineer for adoptive immunotherapy of human infections or malignancy.

  12. Age at adoption from institutional care as a window into the lasting effects of early experiences.

    PubMed

    Julian, Megan M

    2013-06-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early deprivation and its timing. The effects of age at adoption from institutional care are discussed for multiple domains of social and behavioral development within the context of several prominent developmental hypotheses about the effects of early deprivation (cumulative effects, experience-expectant developmental programming, and experience-adaptive developmental programming). Age at adoption effects are detected in a majority of studies, particularly when children experienced global deprivation and were assessed in adolescence. For most outcomes, institutionalization beyond a certain age is associated with a step-like increase in risk for lasting social and behavioral problems, with the step occurring at an earlier age for children who experienced more severe levels of deprivation. Findings are discussed in terms of their concordance and discordance with our current hypotheses, and speculative explanations for the findings are offered.

  13. Age at adoption from institutional care as a window into the lasting effects of early experiences

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early deprivation and its timing. The effects of age at adoption from institutional care are discussed for multiple domains of social and behavioral development within the context of several prominent developmental hypotheses about the effects of early deprivation (cumulative effects, experience-expectant developmental programming, and experience-adaptive developmental programming). Age at adoption effects are detected in a majority of studies, particularly when children experienced global deprivation and were assessed in adolescence. For most outcomes, institutionalization beyond a certain age is associated with a step-like increase in risk for lasting social and behavioral problems, with the step occurring at an earlier age for children who experienced more severe levels of deprivation. Findings are discussed in terms of their concordance and discordance with our current hypotheses, and speculative explanations for the findings are offered. PMID:23576122

  14. "School Adopts an Experiment": The Photoluminescence in Extra-Virgin Olive Oil and in Tonic Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallitto, A. Agliolo; Agnello, S.; Cannas, M.

    2011-01-01

    We report a laboratory activity, carried out along with high- and secondary-school students, that can be done to increase the interest of the young in scientific studies. Groups of selected students "adopted" experiments at physics research laboratories, under the guidance of university researchers. Subsequently, the students…

  15. Preparation for a Clinical Trial Using Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TGF_Beta-Insensitive CD8+ T Cells for Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    W81XWH-05-1-0450 TITLE: Preparation for a Clinical Trial Using Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TGF_Beta- Insensitive CD8+ T Cells for...CONTRACT NUMBER Preparation for a Clinical Trial Using Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TGF_Beta- Insensitive CD8+ T Cells for Treatment of Prostate...that adoptive transfer of tumor-reactive TGF-beta- insensitive CD8+ T cells to hosts bearing mouse prostate tumors resulted in a complete rejection

  16. Adoptive transfer of natural killer cells promotes the anti-tumor efficacy of T cells.

    PubMed

    Goding, Stephen R; Yu, Shaohong; Bailey, Lisa M; Lotze, Michael T; Basse, Per H

    2016-07-01

    The density of NK cells in tumors correlates positively with prognosis in many types of cancers. The average number of infiltrating NK cells is, however, quite modest (approximately 30 NK cells/sq.mm), even in tumors deemed to have a "high" density of infiltrating NK cells. It is unclear how such low numbers of tumor-infiltrating NK cells can influence outcome. Here, we used ovalbumin-expressing tumor cell lines and TCR transgenic, OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (OT-I-CTLs) to determine whether the simultaneous attack by anti-tumor CTLs and IL-2-activated NK (A-NK) cells synergistically increases the overall tumor cell kill and whether upregulation of tumor MHC class-I by NK cell-derived interferon-gamma (IFNγ) improves tumor-recognition and kill by anti-tumor CTLs. At equal E:T ratios, A-NK cells killed OVA-expressing tumor cells better than OT-I-CTLs. The cytotoxicity against OVA-expressing tumor cells increased by combining OT-I-CTLs and A-NK cells, but the increase was additive rather than synergistic. A-NK cells adenovirally-transduced to produce IL-12 (A-NK(IL-12)) produced high amounts of IFNγ. The addition of a low number of A-NK(IL-12) cells to OT-I-CTLs resulted in a synergistic, albeit modest, increase in overall cytotoxicity. Pre-treatment of tumor cells with NK cell-conditioned medium increased tumor MHC expression and sensitivity to CTL-mediated killing. Pre-treatment of CTLs with NK cell-conditioned medium had no effect on CTL cytotoxicity. In vivo, MHC class-I expression by OVA-expressing B16 melanoma lung metastases increased significantly within 24-48h after adoptive transfer of A-NK(IL-12) cells. OT-I-CTLs and A-NK(IL-12) cells localized selectively and equally well into OVA-expressing B16 lung metastases and treatment of mice bearing 7-days-old OVA-B16 lung metastases with both A-NK(IL-12) cells and OT-I-CTLs lead to a significant prolongation of survival. Thus, an important function of tumor-infiltrating NK cells may be to increase

  17. Adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus-specific effector CD4+ T cells provides antiviral protection from murine CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Jeitziner, Sanja Mandaric; Walton, Senta M; Torti, Nicole; Oxenius, Annette

    2013-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects a majority of the human population and establishes a life-long persistence. CMV infection is usually asymptomatic but the virus carries pathogenic potential and causes severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. T-cell-mediated immunity plays an essential role in control of CMV infection and adoptive transfer of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells restores viral immunity in immunosuppressed patients but a role for CD4(+) T cells remains elusive. Here, we analyzed in adoptive transfer studies the features and antiviral functions of virus-specific CD4(+) T cells during primary murine CMV (MCMV) infection. MCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells expanded upon MCMV infection and displayed an effector phenotype and function. Adoptive transfer of in vivo activated MCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells to immune-compromised mice was protective during pathogenic MCMV infection and IFN-γ was a crucial mediator of this protective capacity. Moreover, co-transfer of low doses of both MCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells synergized in control of lytic viral replication in immune-compromised mice. Our data reveal a pivotal antiviral role for virus-specific CD4(+) T cells in protection from pathogenic CMV infection and provide evidence for their antiviral therapeutic potential.

  18. The Experience of Male Adolescent Refugees during Their Transfer and Adaptation to a UK Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a study which investigated the experience of six male adolescent refugees during their transfer and adaptation to a secondary school in the UK. The research used a qualitative design. The approach adopted was Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The data generated three superordinate themes which reflected the…

  19. Vascular endothelial cells in cell-mediated immunity: adoptive transfer with in vitro conditioned cells is genetically restricted at the endothelial cell barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Standage, B.A.; Vetto, R.M.; Jones, R.; Burger, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is a cell-mediated immune response that can be adoptively transferred in rats when greater than 2 X 10(8) cells from peritoneal exudate, lymph nodes, or spleen are used. We have shown that by using an in vitro conditioning step with antigen, transfer can be subsequently carried out with as few as 2 X 10(7) spleen cells. The magnitude of DTH was reflected in ear swelling after intradermal injection of antigen (tuberculin or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)) and confirmed histologically. The transfer was antigen specific, requiring the sensitizing antigen in both the in vitro conditioning step and in the ear test challenge. Adoptive transfer with conditioned cells was genetically restricted by alleles of the RT-1 region (major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of the rat). Brown Norway strain (n haplotype) immune cells would not transfer DTH to Lewis (1 haplotype), ACI (a haplotype), or Buffalo (b haplotype) rats, whereas each strain would transfer DTH to syngeneic recipients. Moreover, this pattern of restriction held for all strains when tested in reciprocal fashion. In additional experiments, F1 to parental bone marrow chimeras were constructed so that bone-marrow-derived cells and non-bone-marrow-derived cells were of different RT-1 haplotypes. When these chimeras were used as recipients, transfer of DTH was only observed when immune donor cells and recipient non-bone-marrow-derived cells were syngeneic. These results point to the critical role of non-bone-marrow-derived cells (endothelial cells) in the DTH reaction.

  20. Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  1. Technology transfer needs and experiences: The NASA Research Center perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology transfer needs and experiences - the NASA Research Center perspective are provided. Topics covered include: functions of NASA, incentives and benefits, technology transfer mechanisms, economics of technology commercialization, examples, and conclusions.

  2. Preschool selection considerations and experiences of school mistreatment among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2016-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate the school selection considerations and school-related experiences of sexual-minority parents with young children. The sample consisted of 210 parents in 105 couples, including 35 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 40 heterosexual couples, all of whom had adopted a child three years earlier. We found that parents with less income were more likely to consider cost in choosing a preschool, and parents with less education were more likely to consider location. More educated parents tended to emphasize racial diversity and the presence of adoptive families, and, among sexual-minority parents, the presence of other lesbian/gay parents. Sexual-minority parents were more likely to consider racial diversity than heterosexual parents. In reporting on their experiences with schools, heterosexual parents were more likely to perceive mistreatment due to their adoptive status than sexual-minority parents, and sexual-minority parents living in less gay-friendly communities were more likely to perceive mistreatment due to their sexual orientation than sexual-minority parents living in more gay-friendly communities. Our findings have implications for early childhood educators and administrators seeking to create an inclusive learning community for all types of families. PMID:27110062

  3. Assessing the development of murine plasmacytoid dendritic cells in Peyer's patches using adoptive transfer of hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan S; Watowich, Stephanie S

    2014-03-17

    This protocol details a method to analyze the ability of purified hematopoietic progenitors to generate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in intestinal Peyer's patch (PP). Common dendritic cell progenitors (CDPs, lin(-) c-kit(lo) CD115(+) Flt3(+)) were purified from the bone marrow of C57BL6 mice by FACS and transferred to recipient mice that lack a significant pDC population in PP; in this case, Ifnar(-/-) mice were used as the transfer recipients. In some mice, overexpression of the dendritic cell growth factor Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) was enforced prior to adoptive transfer of CDPs, using hydrodynamic gene transfer (HGT) of Flt3L-encoding plasmid. Flt3L overexpression expands DC populations originating from transferred (or endogenous) hematopoietic progenitors. At 7-10 days after progenitor transfer, pDCs that arise from the adoptively transferred progenitors were distinguished from recipient cells on the basis of CD45 marker expression, with pDCs from transferred CDPs being CD45.1(+) and recipients being CD45.2(+). The ability of transferred CDPs to contribute to the pDC population in PP and to respond to Flt3L was evaluated by flow cytometry of PP single cell suspensions from recipient mice. This method may be used to test whether other progenitor populations are capable of generating PP pDCs. In addition, this approach could be used to examine the role of factors that are predicted to affect pDC development in PP, by transferring progenitor subsets with an appropriate knockdown, knockout or overexpression of the putative developmental factor and/or by manipulating circulating cytokines via HGT. This method may also allow analysis of how PP pDCs affect the frequency or function of other immune subsets in PPs. A unique feature of this method is the use of Ifnar(-/-) mice, which show severely depleted PP pDCs relative to wild type animals, thus allowing reconstitution of PP pDCs in the absence of confounding effects from lethal irradiation.

  4. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. PMID:27247964

  5. Experiences of Adopting Blended Pedagogies in Health Assessment Course in Post RN Baccalaureate Program of Nursing in Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassum, Shanaz Hussein; Allana, Saleema; Dias, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There is little known about whether faculty and students in a resource constricted context experience a change in learning due to the adoption of blended learning (BL) pedagogies in a lab based course. The study aimed to understand the experiences of faculty and students' related to the adoption of BL pedagogies in health assessment…

  6. Development of allogeneic NK cell adoptive transfer therapy in metastatic melanoma patients: in vitro preclinical optimization studies.

    PubMed

    Besser, Michal J; Shoham, Tsipi; Harari-Steinberg, Orit; Zabari, Naama; Ortenberg, Rona; Yakirevitch, Arkadi; Nagler, Arnon; Loewenthal, Ron; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have long been considered as potential agents for adoptive cell therapy for solid cancer patients. Until today most studies utilized autologous NK cells and yielded disappointing results. Here we analyze various modular strategies to employ allogeneic NK cells for adoptive cell transfer, including donor-recipient HLA-C mismatching, selective activation and induction of melanoma-recognizing lysis receptors, and co-administration of antibodies to elicit antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). We show that NK cell activation and induction of the relevant lysis receptors, as well as co-administration of antibodies yield substantial anti-cancer effects, which are functionally superior to HLA-C mismatching. Combination of the various strategies yielded improved effects. In addition, we developed various clinically-compatible ex vivo expansion protocols that were optimized according to fold expansion, purity and expression of lysis receptors. The main advantages of employing allogeneic NK cells are accessibility, the ability to use a single donor for many patients, combination with various strategies associated with the mechanism of action, e.g. antibodies and specific activation, as well as donor selection according to HLA or CD16 genotypes. This study rationalizes a clinical trial that combines adoptive transfer of highly potent allogeneic NK cells and antibody therapy.

  7. Interorganizational transfer of technology - A study of adoption of NASA innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. K.; Rubenstein, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes a study on the effects of top management support, various techno-economic factors, organizational climate, and decision-making modes on the adoption of NASA innovations. Field research consisted of interviews and questionnaires directed to sixty-five organizations. Forty-five test cases where different decisions for adoption of ideas for new products or processes were made on NASA Tech Briefs were studied in relation to the effects of various factors on the degree of success of adoption, including: (1) the degree of general connection of the technology to the firm's existing operation, (2) the specificity of the relationship between the technology and some existing and recognized problem, (3) the degree of urgency of the problem to which the technology was related, (4) maturity of technology available to implement the technology, (5) availability of personnel and financial resources to implement the technology, (6) degree of top management interest, (7) the use of confrontation in joint-decision, (8) the use of smoothing in decision-making, and (9) the use of forcing in decision-making. It was found that top managements interest was important in the product cases only, and that the success of process innovations was dependent on the quality of information and the specificity of the relationship between the technology and some recognized existing problem.

  8. Suppression of colitis by adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-treated dendritic cells requires interleukin-4 receptor-α signaling

    PubMed Central

    Matisz, C. E.; Faz-López, B.; Thomson, E.; Al Rajabi, A.; Lopes, F.; Terrazas, L. I.; Wang, A.; Sharkey, K. A.; McKay, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Infection with helminth parasites has been explored as a treatment for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. As helminth antigens have potent immunomodulation properties capable of inducing regulatory programs in a variety of cell types, transferring cells treated with helminth antigens represents a novel extension to helminth therapy. Previous work determined that transfer of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with a crude extract of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (HD) can suppress colitis in recipient mice. The present study explored the mechanism of disease suppression and the importance of interleukin (IL)-4 signaling. Transfer of HD-DCs suppressed dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis through activation of recipient IL-4 receptor-α. The transferred HD-DCs required IL-4Rα and the capacity to secrete IL-10 to drive IL-4 and IL-10 production and to suppress colitis in recipient mice. Treatment of DCs with IL-4 evokes an alternatively activated phenotype, but adoptive transfer of these cells did not affect the outcome of colitis. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the complexity between IL-4 and IL-10 in donor cells and recipient, and the requirement for parasite- and host-derived factors in this novel form of cell therapy. Thus IL-4Rα signaling is revealed as a pathway that could be exploited for helminth antigen cell-based therapy. PMID:28094779

  9. Early experience shapes amygdala sensitivity to race: an international adoption design.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Flannery, Jessica; Shapiro, Mor; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Goff, Bonnie; Gabard-Durman, Laurel; Gee, Dylan D; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-08-14

    In the current study, we investigated how complete infant deprivation to out-group race impacts behavioral and neural sensitivity to race. Although monkey models have successfully achieved complete face deprivation in early life, this is typically impossible in human studies. We overcame this barrier by examining youths with exclusively homogenous racial experience in early postnatal development. These were youths raised in orphanage care in either East Asia or Eastern Europe as infants and later adopted by American families. The use of international adoption bolsters confidence of infant exposure to race (e.g., to solely Asian faces or European faces). Participants completed an emotional matching task during functional MRI. Our findings show that deprivation to other-race faces in infancy disrupts recognition of emotion and results in heightened amygdala response to out-group faces. Greater early deprivation (i.e., later age of adoption) is associated with greater biases to race. These data demonstrate how early social deprivation to race shapes amygdala function later in life and provides support that early postnatal development may represent a sensitive period for race perception.

  10. Reinforcement of cancer immunotherapy by adoptive transfer of cblb-deficient CD8+ T cells combined with a DC vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lutz-Nicoladoni, Christina; Wallner, Stephanie; Stoitzner, Patrizia; Pircher, Magdalena; Gruber, Thomas; Wolf, Anna Maria; Gastl, Günther; Penninger, Josef M; Baier, Gottfried; Wolf, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    The success of cancer immunotherapy is limited by potent endogenous immune-evasion mechanisms, which are at least in part mediated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). The E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b is a key regulator of T cell activation and is established to regulate TGF-β sensitivity. cblb-deficient animals reject tumors via CD8(+) T cells, which make Cbl-b an ideal target for improvement of adoptive T-cell transfer (ATC) therapy. In this study, we show that cblb-deficient CD8(+) T cells are hyper-responsive to T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD28-stimulation and are in part protected against the negative cues induced by TGF-β in vitro. Notably, adoptive transfer of polyclonal, non-TCR transgenic cblb-deficient CD8(+) T cells is not sufficient to reject B16-ova or EG7 tumors in vivo. Thus, cblb-deficient ATC requires proper in vivo re-activation by a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine. In strict contrast to ATC monotherapy, this approach delayed tumor outgrowth and significantly increased survival rates, which is paralleled by increased CD8(+) T-cells infiltration to the tumor site and enrichment of ova-specific and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-secreting CD8(+) T cell in the draining lymph node (LN). Moreover, CD8(+) T cells from cblb-deficient mice vaccinated with the DC vaccine show increased cytolytic activity in vivo. In summary, our data using cblb-deficient polyclonal, non-TCR-transgenic adoptively transferred CD8(+) T cells into immuno-competent non-lymphodepleted recipients suggest that targeting Cbl-b might serve as a novel 'adjuvant approach', suitable to augment the effectiveness of established anti-cancer immunotherapies.

  11. Swelling agent adopted decal transfer method for membrane electrode assembly fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Doo Hee; Lee, So Young; Shin, Dong Won; Hwang, Doo Sung; Lee, Young Moo

    2014-07-01

    The decal transfer method is regarded as an effective membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabrication method for industrial processes due to the improved adhesion between the catalyst layers and the hydrocarbon membrane. In this study, three swelling agents (ethanol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol) are introduced to the conventional decal methods in order to improve both the transfer ratio of electrodes on the membrane surface and the electrochemical properties. These swelling agents affect the surface energy differences between the swollen catalyst layer and the membrane substrate. Swelling agents also change the structure of the catalyst layer during the preparation (hot pressing) of the MEA. Changing the catalyst layer structure by introducing swelling agents diminishes the charge transfer resistance and internal resistances of MEAs. These improved electrochemical properties lead to the remarkably enhanced single cell performance of a SPAES MEA of 1380 mA cm-2 at 0.6 V, compared to a SPAES MEA fabricated by the conventional decal method (500 mA cm-2).

  12. Hymenolepis nana: adoptive transfer of protective immunity and delayed type hypersensitivity response with mesenteric lymph node cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Asano, K; Muramatsu, K; Okamoto, K

    1991-01-01

    A marked degree of footpad swelling was observed in BALB/c mice infected with Hymenolepis nana eggs, when soluble egg antigen was injected into their footpads 4 to 21 days after the egg infection, indicating delayed type hypersensitivity responses in infected mice. Adoptive transfer with mesenteric lymph node cells from donor mice (BALB/c strain; +/+) infected with eggs 4 days before cell collection could confer this hypersensitivity to recipient nude mice (BALB/c strain; nu/nu). These mesenteric lymph node cells were then divided into two fractions, blast-enriched and blast-depleted cells, by density gradient centrifugation with Percoll. The recipients intravenously injected with the blast-depleted cell fraction showed a marked increase in footpad thickness, whereas the intravenous transfer of the blast-enriched cell fraction resulted in an insignificant increase in footpad thickness. The transfer of the blast-enriched cell fraction, but not of the blast-depleted cell fraction, conferred a strong adoptive immunity on syngeneic recipient nude mice, when the immunity transferred was assessed by examining cysticercoids developed in the intestinal villi on Day 4 of challenge infection. The lack of delayed type hypersensitivity response in mice that received the blast-enriched cell population was not due to a lack of the capacity of the cells to induce the response, because the cells were capable of inducing a significant increase in thickness of footpads of normal mice when these cells were locally injected into the footpad together with soluble egg antigen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Charge transfer on the metallic atom-pair bond, and the crystal structures adopted by intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rajasekharan, T; Seshubai, V

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued in our recent papers that the heat of formation of intermetallic compounds is mostly concentrated in the nearest neighbor unlike atom-pair bonds, and that the positive term in Miedema's equation is associated with charge transfer on the bond to maintain electroneutrality. In this paper, taking examples of some well populated crystal-structure types such as MgCu(2), AsNa(3), AuCu(3), MoSi(2) and SiCr(3) types, the effect of such charge transfer on the crystal structures adopted by intermetallic compounds is examined. It is shown that the correlation between the observed size changes of atoms on alloying and their electronegativity differences is supportive of the idea of charge transfer between atoms. It is argued that the electronegativity and valence differences need to be of the required magnitude and direction to alter, through charge transfer, the elemental radius ratios R(A)/R(B) to the internal radius ratios r(A)/r(B) allowed by the structure types. Since the size change of atoms on alloying is highly correlated to how different R(A)/R(B) is from the ideal radius ratio for a structure type, the lattice parameters of intermetallic compounds can be predicted with excellent accuracy knowing R(A)/R(B). A practical application of the approach developed in our recent papers to superalloy design is presented.

  14. Adoptive transfer of experimental autoimmune hepatitis in mice: cellular interaction between donor and recipient mice

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, M.; Mori, Y.; Mori, T.; Ueda, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kato, I.; Iesato, K.; Wakashin, Y.; Azemoto, R.; Wakashin, M.; Okuda, K.; Ohto, M.

    1988-01-01

    This report extends our previous study on experimental autoimmune hepatitis in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Cellular immunity involved in the induction of liver injury in this model was studied by transfer of primed spleen cells from hepatitis donor mice to syngeneic normal recipient mice. The most prominent liver damage in recipient B6 mice was induced by transfer of nylon wool adherent spleen cells from hepatitis donor mice, and T cells in this fraction were the essential requirement for the liver damage in the recipient mice. Nylon wool adherent spleen cells from hepatitis donor mice after depletion of the suppressor T-cell function by low-dose (300 rad) irradiation induced more severe liver injury compared to the same cells without irradiation. When the recipient mice were depleted of lymphocytes by low or high dose (700 rad) whole body irradiation, transfer of primed spleen cells from hepatitis donor mice did not induce liver lesion in the lymphocyte-depleted mice. This low susceptibility of lymphocyte-depleted recipient mice to primed spleen cells of hepatitis mice was no longer demonstrated after reconstitution with normal spleen cells. In a cell-migration study using 51Cr-labelled spleen cells, it was shown that a considerable number of infiltrating cells in the liver of recipient mice were derived from recipient mice themselves. These results seem to indicate that cell-to-cell interaction between radiosensitive precursor cells of recipient mice and liver-antigen-primed T cells from hepatitis donor mice play an essential role in the induction of liver injury in the recipient mice. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:3052945

  15. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    SciTech Connect

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  16. Adoptive transfer of dendritic cells isolated from helminth-infected mice enhanced T regulatory cell responses in airway allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, J-Y; Li, L-Y; Yang, X-Z; Li, J; Zhong, G; Wang, J; Li, L-J; Ji, B; Wu, Z-Q; Liu, H; Yang, X; Liu, P-M

    2011-10-01

    Our and others' previous studies have shown that Schistosoma japonicum (SJ) infection can inhibit allergic reactions. Moreover, we found that adoptive transfer of dendritic cells (DCs) from inhibited mice showed a similar inhibitory effect on allergy, suggesting a critical role of DCs in SJ-infected mediated inhibition of allergy. In this study, we further examined the mechanism by which DCs contribute to inhibition of allergy. Our results showed that DCs from SJ-infected mice (SJDCs) produced significantly higher levels of IL-10 compared to those from naive control mice (NDCs). Adoptive transfer of SJDCs, unlike NDCs, significantly increased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and CD4+CD25+IL-10+ T cells regulatory T-cell responses in vivo. This was correlated with significantly reduced production of IL-4 and IL-5 by CD4+ T cells, eotaxin in lung tissues and reduced airway allergic inflammation in the SJDC recipients following allergen sensitization and challenge. These data suggest that helminth infection may induce tolerogenic DCs that can inhibit the development of airway allergic inflammation through enhancing T regulatory cell responses.

  17. Administrative simplification: adoption of operating rules for health care electronic funds transfers (EFT) and remittance advice transactions. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2012-08-10

    This interim final rule with comment period implements parts of section 1104 of the Affordable Care Act which requires the adoption of operating rules for the health care electronic funds transfers (EFT) and remittance advice transaction.

  18. TCR-ligand koff rate correlates with the protective capacity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells for adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Nauerth, Magdalena; Weißbrich, Bianca; Knall, Robert; Franz, Tobias; Dössinger, Georg; Bet, Jeannette; Paszkiewicz, Paulina J; Pfeifer, Lukas; Bunse, Mario; Uckert, Wolfgang; Holtappels, Rafaela; Gillert-Marien, Dorothea; Neuenhahn, Michael; Krackhardt, Angela; Reddehase, Matthias J; Riddell, Stanley R; Busch, Dirk H

    2013-07-03

    Adoptive immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic infections and cancer. T cells within a certain range of high avidity for their cognate ligand are believed to be most effective. T cell receptor (TCR) transfer experiments indicate that a major part of avidity is hardwired within the structure of the TCR. Unfortunately, rapid measurement of structural avidity of TCRs is difficult on living T cells. We developed a technology where dissociation (koff rate) of truly monomeric peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules bound to surface-expressed TCRs can be monitored by real-time microscopy in a highly reliable manner. A first evaluation of this method on distinct human cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cell populations revealed unexpected differences in the koff rates. CMV-specific T cells are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for efficacy in adoptive immunotherapy; therefore, determination of koff rates could guide selection of the most effective donor cells. Indeed, in two different murine infection models, we demonstrate that T cell populations with lower koff rates confer significantly better protection than populations with fast koff rates. These data indicate that koff rate measurements can improve the predictability of adoptive immunotherapy and provide diagnostic information on the in vivo quality of T cells.

  19. Importance of context in adoption and progress in application of strategic environmental assessment: Experience of Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Wirutskulshai, Uma Sajor, Edsel Coowanitwong, Nowarat

    2011-04-15

    Following the example of other developed countries, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) tool is now being introduced in developing countries, with the expectations, among others, that it will influence decision-making process in planning, and also usher in the participatory and collaborative planning towards a more sustainable track in development. This article examines Thailand's own recent introduction of SEA. The authors underscore the particularity of the Thai planning context as well as the broader governance structure and processes in the country as the critical factor influencing the extent, substance and form of adoption of SEA. Top-down tradition of planning and serious limitation of public participation opportunity structures and institutional culture have minimized the tool's positive impact and influence in development planning. Thailand's experience in SEA introduction thus reaffirms the important lesson from a number of other developing countries: that legal framework for SEA is necessary and critical especially in its initial adoption; and, that public participation needs to be supported too and institutionalized for the tool to fulfill its promise of improving environmental governance and optimizing potentials of development projects vis-a-vis various social and environmental concerns.

  20. Transfer Students in Higher Education: Building Foundations for Policies, Programs, and Services that Foster Student Success. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poisel, Mark Allen, Ed.; Joseph, Sonya, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Transfer Students in Higher Education" presents what individuals know about transfer students, addresses assumptions and myths about the transfer experience, and explores the changing demographics of this student group. Adopting a student-centered approach, the monograph offers strategies to begin (and continue) the work of serving students and…

  1. Enhancement of adoptive T cell transfer with single low dose pretreatment of doxorubicin or paclitaxel in mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Fei-Ting; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Chuang, Hui-Yen; Chang, Ya-Fang; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2015-12-29

    Ex vivo expansion of CD8+ T-cells has been a hindrance for the success of adoptive T cell transfer in clinic. Currently, preconditioning with chemotherapy is used to modulate the patient immunity before ACT, however, the tumor microenvironment beneficial for transferring T cells may also be damaged. Here preconditioning with single low dose of doxorubicin or paclitaxel combined with fewer CD8+ T-cells was investigated to verify whether the same therapeutic efficacy of ACT could be achieved. An E.G7/OT1 animal model that involved adoptive transfer of OVA-specific CD8+ T-cells transduced with a granzyme B promoter-driven firefly luciferase and tomato fluorescent fusion reporter gene was used to evaluate this strategy. The result showed that CD8+ T-cells were activated and sustained longer in mice pretreated with one low-dose Dox or Tax. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy was found in Dox or Tax combined with 2x106 CD8+ T-cells and achieved the same level of tumor growth inhibition as that of 5x106 CD8+ T-cells group. Notably, reduced numbers of Tregs and myeloid derived suppressor cells were shown in combination groups. By contrast, the number of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes and IL-12 were increased. The NF-κB activity and immunosuppressive factors such as TGF-β, IDO, CCL2, VEGF, CCL22, COX-2 and IL-10 were suppressed. This study demonstrates that preconditioning with single low dose Dox or Tax and combined with two fifth of the original CD8+ T-cells could improve the tumor microenvironment via suppression of NF-κB and its related immunosuppressors, and activate more CD8+ T-cells which also stay longer.

  2. Adoptive transfer of MART-1 T cell receptor transgenic lymphocytes and dendritic cell vaccination in patients with metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chodon, Thinle; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Koya, Richard C; Wu, Zhongqi; Auerbach, Martin; Ng, Charles; Avramis, Earl; Seja, Elizabeth; Villanueva, Arturo; McCannel, Tara A.; Ishiyama, Akira; Czernin, Johannes; Radu, Caius G.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gjertson, David W.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wong, Deborah J.L.; Kaplan-lefko, Paula; Hamid, Omid; Samlowski, Wolfram; Cohen, Peter A.; Daniels, Gregory A.; Mukherji, Bijay; Yang, Lili; Zack, Jerome A.; Kohn, Donald B.; Heath, James R.; Glaspy, John A.; Witte, Owen N.; Baltimore, David; Economou, James S.; Ribas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It has been demonstrated that large numbers of tumor-specific T cells for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) can be manufactured by retroviral genetic engineering of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes and expanding them over several weeks. In mouse models, this therapy is optimized when administered with dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. We developed a short one-week manufacture protocol to determine the feasibility, safety and antitumor efficacy of this double cell therapy. Experimnetal Design A clinical trial (NCT00910650) adoptively transferring MART-1 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic lymphocytes together with MART-1 peptide pulsed DC vaccination in HLA-A2.1 patients with metastatic melanoma. Autologous TCR transgenic cells were manufactured in 6 to 7 days using retroviral vector gene transfer, and re-infused with (n = 10) or without (n = 3) prior cryopreservation. Results 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were enrolled and nine out of 13 treated patients (69%) showed evidence of tumor regression. Peripheral blood reconstitution with MART-1-specific T cells peaked within two weeks of ACT indicating rapid in vivo expansion. Administration of freshly manufactured TCR transgenic T cells resulted in a higher persistence of MART-1-specific T cells in the blood as compared to cryopreserved. Evidence that DC vaccination could cause further in vivo expansion was only observed with ACT using non-cryopreserved T cells. Conclusion Double cell therapy with ACT of TCR engineered T cells with a very short ex vivo manipulation and DC vaccines is feasible and results in antitumor activity, but improvements are needed to maintain tumor responses. PMID:24634374

  3. Sodium phenylacetate inhibits adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice at multiple steps.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Subhajit; Zhou, You; Jana, Malabendu; Banik, Naren L; Pahan, Kalipada

    2003-04-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the animal model for multiple sclerosis. The present study underlines the importance of sodium phenylacetate (NaPA), a drug approved for urea cycle disorders, in inhibiting the disease process of adoptively transferred EAE in female SJL/J mice at multiple steps. Myelin basic protein (MBP)-primed T cells alone induced the expression of NO synthase (iNOS) and the activation of NF-kappaB in mouse microglial cells through cell-cell contact. However, pretreatment of MBP-primed T cells with NaPA markedly inhibited its ability to induce microglial expression of iNOS and activation of NF-kappaB. Consistently, adoptive transfer of MBP-primed T cells, but not that of NaPA-pretreated MBP-primed T cells, induced the clinical symptoms of EAE in female SJL/J mice. Furthermore, MBP-primed T cells isolated from NaPA-treated donor mice were also less efficient than MBP-primed T cells isolated from normal donor mice in inducing iNOS in microglial cells and transferring EAE to recipient mice. Interestingly, clinical symptoms of EAE were much less in mice receiving NaPA through drinking water than those without NaPA. Similar to NaPA, sodium phenylbutyrate, a chemically synthesized precursor of NaPA, also inhibited the disease process of EAE. Histological and immunocytochemical analysis showed that NaPA inhibited EAE-induced spinal cord mononuclear cell invasion and normalized iNOS, nitrotyrosine, and p65 (the RelA subunit of NF-kappaB) expression within the spinal cord. Taken together, our results raise the possibility that NaPA or sodium phenylbutyrate taken through drinking water or milk may reduce the observed neuroinflammation and disease process in multiple sclerosis patients.

  4. Improving Adoptive T Cell Therapy: The Particular Role of T Cell Costimulation, Cytokines, and Post-Transfer Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Redeker, Anke; Arens, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) is a form of immunotherapy whereby antigen-specific T cells are isolated or engineered, expanded ex vivo, and transferred back to patients. Clinical benefit after ACT has been obtained in treatment of infection, various hematological malignancies, and some solid tumors; however, due to poor functionality and persistence of the transferred T cells, the efficacy of ACT in the treatment of most solid tumors is often marginal. Hence, much effort is undertaken to improve T cell function and persistence in ACT and significant progress is being made. Herein, we will review strategies to improve ACT success rates in the treatment of cancer and infection. We will deliberate on the most favorable phenotype for the tumor-specific T cells that are infused into patients and on how to obtain T cells bearing this phenotype by applying novel ex vivo culture methods. Moreover, we will discuss T cell function and persistence after transfer into patients and how these factors can be manipulated by means of providing costimulatory signals, cytokines, blocking antibodies to inhibitory molecules, and vaccination. Incorporation of these T cell stimulation strategies and combinations of the different treatment modalities are likely to improve clinical response rates further. PMID:27656185

  5. Improving Adoptive T Cell Therapy: The Particular Role of T Cell Costimulation, Cytokines, and Post-Transfer Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Redeker, Anke; Arens, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) is a form of immunotherapy whereby antigen-specific T cells are isolated or engineered, expanded ex vivo, and transferred back to patients. Clinical benefit after ACT has been obtained in treatment of infection, various hematological malignancies, and some solid tumors; however, due to poor functionality and persistence of the transferred T cells, the efficacy of ACT in the treatment of most solid tumors is often marginal. Hence, much effort is undertaken to improve T cell function and persistence in ACT and significant progress is being made. Herein, we will review strategies to improve ACT success rates in the treatment of cancer and infection. We will deliberate on the most favorable phenotype for the tumor-specific T cells that are infused into patients and on how to obtain T cells bearing this phenotype by applying novel ex vivo culture methods. Moreover, we will discuss T cell function and persistence after transfer into patients and how these factors can be manipulated by means of providing costimulatory signals, cytokines, blocking antibodies to inhibitory molecules, and vaccination. Incorporation of these T cell stimulation strategies and combinations of the different treatment modalities are likely to improve clinical response rates further.

  6. Adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-pulsed dendritic cells protects against the development of experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Matisz, Chelsea E; Leung, Gabriella; Reyes, Jose Luis; Wang, Arthur; Sharkey, Keith A; McKay, Derek M

    2015-11-01

    Infection with helminth parasites and treatment with worm extracts can suppress inflammatory disease, including colitis. Postulating that dendritic cells (DCs) participated in the suppression of inflammation and seeking to move beyond the use of helminths per se, we tested the ability of Hymenolepis diminuta antigen-pulsed DCs to suppress colitis as a novel cell-based immunotherapy. Bone marrow derived DCs pulsed with H. diminuta antigen (HD-DCs), or PBS-, BSA-, or LPS-DCs as controls, were transferred into wild-type (WT), interleukin-10 (IL-10) knock-out (KO), and RAG-1 KO mice, and the impact on dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis and splenic cytokine production assessed 72 h later. Mice receiving HD-DCs were significantly protected from DNBS-induced colitis and of the experimental groups only these mice displayed increased Th2 cytokines and IL-10 production. Adoptive transfer of HD-DCs protected neither RAG-1 nor IL-10 KO mice from DNBS-colitis. Furthermore, the transfer of CD4(+) splenocytes from recipients of HD-DCs protected naïve mice against DNBS-colitis, in an IL-10 dependent manner. Thus, HD-DCs are a novel anti-colitic immunotherapy that can educate anti-colitic CD4(+) T cells: mechanistically, the anti-colitic effect of HD-DCs requires that the host has an adaptive immune response and the ability to mobilize IL-10.

  7. Laser data transfer flight experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A set of laser communication flight experiments to be performed between a relay satellite, ground terminals, and space shuttles were synthesized and evaluated. Results include a definition of the space terminals, NASA ground terminals, test methods, and test schedules required to perform the experiments.

  8. Development and Adoption of a Watershed Approach to Compensatory Mitigation: Experiences in Colorado and California

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article, we examine the adoption of the watershed approach and its technical methods into regulatory programs in Colorado and California. Specific steps and motives for the adoption are explained. Through close collaboration, regulators have systematically been made aware...

  9. Participation in the Adoption Mentoring Partnership: Mentors' Experiences of Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Karin J.; French, Quade Y. S.; Grotevant, Harold D.

    2015-01-01

    The Adoption Mentoring Partnership (AMP) matches preadolescent adoptees with adopted college students, prioritizing matches of the same ethnic background. As part of AMP, participants actively discuss issues of ethnicity and adoption with a cohort of mentors over a period of 1 to 3 years in mentor group meetings (MGMs). This study focuses on…

  10. Nonatopic asthma: in vivo airway hyperreactivity adoptively transferred to naive mice by THY-1(+) and B220(+) antigen-specific cells that lack surface expression of CD3.

    PubMed Central

    Geba, G P; Wegner, C D; Wolyniec, W W; Li, Y; Askenase, P W

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the cellular immune events contributing to airway hyperreactivity (AHR), we studied an in vivo mouse model induced by the hapten picryl (trinitrophenyl) chloride (PCl). Mice were immunized by cutaneous contact sensitization with PCl and airway challenged subsequently with picryl sulfonic acid (PSA) antigen (Ag). Increased airway resistance was produced late (24 h) after Ag challenge, disappeared by 48 h, and was associated with no decrease in diffusion capacity. AHR could be produced in PCl immune/ PSA challenged mice on day 7 or even, with challenge, as early as 1 d after contact sensitization, after adoptive transfer of immune cells lacking CD3(+) contact sensitivity effector T cells, or after transfer of Ag-specific lymphoid cells depleted of conventional T lymphocytes with surface determinants for CD3, CD4, CD8, TCR-beta, or TCR-delta molecules. Further experiments showed that development of AHR depended upon transfer of immune cells expressing surface membrane Thy-1 and B220 (CD45RA) determinants. We concluded that a novel population of Ag-specific lymphoid cells with a defined surface phenotype (Thy-1(+), CD3(-), CD4(-), CD8(-), TCR-alphabeta-, TCR-gammadelta-, and CD45RA+) is required in a mouse model for the development of AHR. PMID:9241124

  11. Vaccination of Lewis rats with temperature-sensitive mutants of Mycoplasma pulmonis: adoptive transfer of immunity by spleen cells but not by sera.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, W C; Bennett, M; Lu, Y S; Pakes, S P

    1991-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutant vaccines protect rats against Mycoplasma pulmonis infection. The role of the humoral or cellular immune response in resistance to mycoplasma infection was investigated by adoptive-transfer experiments. Spleen cells from Lewis rats vaccinated but not challenged with wild-type organisms (vaccinated) and spleen cells from rats vaccinated (or not) and challenged were effective in preventing syngeneic recipients from developing respiratory disease. There was also a significant reduction in the incidence and number of challenging organisms in the respiratory system. In contrast, sera from the same donors had no detectable effect on the number of mycoplasmas recovered or on lesion development in the respiratory tract. We conclude that cellular immunity rather than humoral immunity generated in vaccinated rats confers protection against subsequent infection. PMID:1987049

  12. Extending the lifespan and efficacies of immune cells used in adoptive transfer for cancer immunotherapies-A review.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Sandeep; Dasgupta, Prokar; Galustian, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Cells used in adoptive cell-transfer immunotherapies against cancer include dendritic cells (DCs), natural-killer cells, and CD8(+) T-cells. These cells may have limited efficacy due to their lifespan, activity, and immunosuppressive effects of tumor cells. Therefore, increasing longevity and activity of these cells may boost their efficacy. Four cytokines that can extend immune effector-cell longevity are IL-2, IL-7, IL-21, and IL-15. This review will discuss current knowledge on effector-cell lifespans and the mechanisms by which IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 can extend effector-cell longevity. We will also discuss how lifespan and efficacy of these cells can be regulated to allow optimal clinical benefits.

  13. Phenotype and function of T cells infiltrating visceral metastases from gastrointestinal cancers and melanoma: implications for adoptive cell transfer therapy.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Simon; Gros, Alena; Hogan, Katherine; Tran, Eric; Hinrichs, Christian S; Wunderlich, John R; Dudley, Mark E; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2013-09-01

    Adoptive cell transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate cancer regression in patients with metastatic melanoma, but whether this approach can be applied to common epithelial malignancies remains unclear. In this study, we compared the phenotype and function of TILs derived from liver and lung metastases from patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers (n = 14) or melanoma (n = 42). Fewer CD3(+) T cells were found to infiltrate GI compared with melanoma metastases, but the proportions of CD8(+) cells, T cell differentiation stage, and expression of costimulatory molecules were similar for both tumor types. Clinical-scale expansion up to ~50 × 10(9) T cells on average was obtained for all patients with GI cancer and melanoma. From GI tumors, however, TIL outgrowth in high-dose IL-2 yielded 22 ± 1.4% CD3(+)CD8(+) cells compared with 63 ± 2.4% from melanoma (p < 0.001). IFN-γ ELISA demonstrated MHC class I-mediated reactivity of TIL against autologous tumor in 5 of 7 GI cancer patients tested (9% of 188 distinct TIL cultures) and in 9 of 10 melanoma patients (43% of 246 distinct TIL cultures). In these assays, MHC class I-mediated up-regulation of CD137 (4-1BB) expression on CD8(+) cells suggested that 0-3% of TILs expanded from GI cancer metastases were tumor-reactive. This study implies that the main challenge to the development of TIL adoptive cell transfer for metastatic GI cancers may not be the in vitro expansion of bulk TILs, but the ability to select and enrich for tumor-reactive T cells.

  14. Fate of gamma-interferon-activated killer blood monocytes adoptively transferred into the abdominal cavity of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, H.C.; Keenan, A.M.; Woodhouse, C.; Ottow, R.T.; Miller, P.; Steller, E.P.; Foon, K.A.; Abrams, P.G.; Beman, J.; Larson, S.M.

    1987-11-15

    Five patients with colorectal cancer widely metastatic to peritoneal surfaces have been treated i.p. with infusions of autologous blood monocytes made cytotoxic by in vitro incubation with human gamma-interferon. The monocytes were purified by a combination of cytapheresis and counter-current centrifugal elutriation procedures; each week approximately 350 million activated monocytes were given to patients as adoptive immunotherapy by a single i.p. instillation. On the eighth cycle of treatment the trafficking of i.p. infused blood monocytes was studied in two patients by prelabeling the cells with /sup 111/In. These activated cells became distributed widely within the peritoneal cavity. Two and 5 days after infusion their position within the peritoneum had not changed. When peritoneal specimens were obtained 36 h after /sup 111/In-labeled monocyte infusion, labeled monocytes were demonstrated to be associated with the serosal surfaces by autoradiographic analysis. Scintiscanning structures outside the abdominal cavity revealed that /sup 111/In-labeled monocytes infused i.p. did not traffic to other organs during the 5 days of the study. We conclude that i.p. adoptive transfer of autologous killer blood monocytes is an effective way of delivering these cytotoxic cells to sites of tumor burden on peritoneal surfaces in these cancer patients.

  15. IL-2 augments the therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred B cells which directly kill tumor cells via the CXCR4/CXCL12 and perforin pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Xia, Leiming; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yi; Bao, Yangyi; Huang, Shiang; Ren, Xiubao; Lundy, Steven K.; Dai, Fu; Li, Qiao; Chang, Alfred E.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that antitumor B cells directly kill tumor cells via the Fas/FasL pathway and are regulated by IL-10. In this study, we defined additional mechanisms involved in B cell antitumor immunity. Administration of IL-2 significantly augmented the therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN) B cells which express IL- 2R. Culture supernatant of purified B splenocytes harvested from the mice that received adoptive transfer of 4T1 TDLN B cells plus IL-2 administration produced larger amounts of IgG which bound to 4T1, resulting in 4T1 lysis. Furthermore, we detected CXCR4 expression on 4T1 TDLN B cells, and 4T1 tumor cells produced its ligand CXCL12. Transwell experiments demonstrated the chemoattraction of CXCR4-expressing 4T1 TDLN B cells towards CXCL12- producing 4T1 cells. Blockade of CXCR4 using a CXCR4-specific inhibitor, AMD3100, significantly reduced the killing of 4T1 tumor cells by 4T1 TDLN B cells. Blockade of FasL and CXCR4 concurrently inhibited B cell-mediated direct killing of tumor cells in an additive manner, indicating that both Fas/FasL and CXCL12/CXCR4 pathways are involved in the direct killing of 4T1 cells by 4T1 TDLN B cells. TDLN B cells produced perforin. Additional transwell experiments showed that effector B cells could directly kill tumor cells in cell-cell contact via the Fas/FasL and CXCR4/CXCL12 pathways as well as perforin, while without cell contact, perforin secreted by B cells led to tumor cell cytotoxicity. These findings underscore the diversity of function by which B cells can play an important role in the host immune response to tumor. PMID:27528023

  16. Passive adoptive transfer of antitumor immunity induced by laser-dye-immunoadjuvant treatment in a rat metastatic breast cancer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong; Singhal, Anil K.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    The ideal cancer treatment modalities should not only cause tumor regression and eradication but also induce a systemic anti-tumor immunity. This is essential for control of metastatic tumors and for long-term tumor resistance. Laser immunotherapy using a laser, a laser-absorbing dye and an immunoadjuvant has induced such a long-term immunity in treatment of a mammary metastatic tumor. The successfully treated rats established total resistance to multiple subsequent tumor challenges. For further mechanistic studies of the antitumor immunity induced by this novel treatment modality, passive adoptive transfer was performed using splenocytes as immune cells. The spleen cells harvested from successfully treated tumor-bearing rats provided 100% immunity in the naive recipients. The passively protected first cohort rats were immune to tumor challenge with an increased tumor dose; their splenocytes also prevented the establishment of tumor in the second cohort of naive recipient rats. This immunity transfer was accomplished without the usually required T-cell suppression in recipients.

  17. Deficiency of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 aggravates colitogenic potential of adoptively transferred effector T cells.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Beng San; Saha, Piu; Singh, Vishal; Xiao, Xia; Ying, Yun; Vanamala, Jairam K; Kennett, Mary J; Harvatine, Kevin J; Joe, Bina; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2016-10-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is a lipogenic enzyme involved in the de novo biosynthesis of oleate (C18:1, n9), a major fatty acid in the phospholipids of lipid bilayers of cell membranes. Accordingly, Scd1KO mice display substantially reduced oleate in cell membranes. An altered SCD1 level was observed during intestinal inflammation; however, its role in modulating inflammatory bowel disease remains elusive. Herein, we investigated the colitogenic capacity of Scd1KO effector T cells by employing the adoptive T-cell transfer colitis model. Splenic effector T cells (CD4(+)CD25(-)) from age- and sex-matched wild-type (WT) and Scd1KO mice were isolated by FACS and intraperitoneally administered to Rag1KO mice, which were monitored for the development of colitis. At day 60 postcell transfer, Rag1KO mice that received Scd1KO CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells displayed accelerated and exacerbated colitis than mice receiving WT CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. Intriguingly, Scd1KO CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells display augmented inflammatory cytokine profile and cellular membrane fluidity with a concomitant increase in proinflammatory saturated fatty acids, which we postulate to potentially underlie their augmented colitogenic potential.

  18. Deletion of Plasmodium berghei-Specific CD4+ T Cells Adoptively Transferred into Recipient Mice after Challenge with Homologous Parasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirunpetcharat, Chakrit; Good, Michael F.

    1998-02-01

    The immune response to malaria parasites includes T cell responses that reduce parasites by effector T cell responses and by providing help for antibody responses. Some parasites are more sensitive to antibody and others are more sensitive to cell-mediated immunity. We demonstrate that cultured CD4+ T cells that produce interferon CD4+ and interleukin 2, but not interleukin 4, in response to stimulation with the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei can reduce but not eliminate parasites in vivo after adoptive transfer. Although cells can persist in vivo for up to 9 months in uninfected mice, infection results in elimination of up to 99% of specific T cells in different tissues, as judged by tracking T cells labeled with the fluorescent dye 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. T cells specific for ovalbumin are unaffected. In vivo activation and division of transferred T cells per se are not responsible for deletion because T cells positive for 5-(and -6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester divide up to six times within 7 days in uninfected mice and are not deleted. Understanding the factors responsible for parasite-mediated specific deletion of T cells would enhance our knowledge of parasite immunity.

  19. Mass transfer coefficients determination from linear gradient elution experiments.

    PubMed

    Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-01-02

    A procedure to estimate mass transfer coefficients in linear gradient elution chromatography is presented and validated by comparison with experimental data. Mass transfer coefficients are traditionally estimated experimentally through the van Deemter plot, which represents the HETP as a function of the fluid velocity. Up to now, the HETP was obtained under isocratic elution conditions. Unfortunately, isocratic elution experiments are often not suitable for large biomolecules which suffer from severe mass transfer hindrances. Yamamoto et al. were the first to propose a semi-empirical equation to relate HETPs measured from linear gradient elution experiments to those obtained under isocratic conditions [7]. Based on his pioneering work, the approach presented in this work aims at providing an experimental procedure supported by simple equations to estimate reliable mass transfer parameters from linear gradient elution chromatographic experiments. From the resolution of the transport model, we derived a rigorous analytical expression for the HETP in linear gradient elution chromatography.

  20. Collective Adoption of Max--Min Strategy in an Information Cascade Voting Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shintaro; Hisakado, Masato; Takahashi, Taiki

    2013-08-01

    We consider a situation where one has to choose an option with multiplier m. The multiplier is inversely proportional to the number of people who have chosen the option and is proportional to the return if it is correct. If one does not know the correct option, we call him a herder, and then there is a zero-sum game between the herder and other people who have set the multiplier. The max--min strategy where one divides one's choice inversely proportional to m is optimal from the viewpoint of the maximization of expected return. We call the optimal herder an analog herder. The system of analog herders takes the probability of correct choice to one for any value of the ratio of herders, p<1, in the thermodynamic limit if the accuracy of the choice of informed person q is one. We study how herders choose by a voting experiment in which 50 to 60 subjects sequentially answer a two-choice quiz. We show that the probability of selecting a choice by the herders is inversely proportional to m for 4/3 ≤ m ≤ 4 and they collectively adopt the max--min strategy in that range.

  1. Adoptive Transfer of Dendritic Cells Expressing Fas Ligand Modulates Intestinal Inflammation in a Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Edelmarie Rivera; Isidro, Raymond A; Cruz, Myrella L; Marty, Harry; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing inflammatory conditions of unknown cause and likely result from the loss of immunological tolerance, which leads to over-activation of the gut immune system. Gut macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for maintaining tolerance, but can also contribute to the inflammatory response in conditions such as IBD. Current therapies for IBD are limited by high costs and unwanted toxicities and side effects. The possibility of reducing intestinal inflammation with DCs genetically engineered to over-express the apoptosis-inducing FasL (FasL-DCs) has not yet been explored. Objective Investigate the immunomodulatory effect of administering FasL-DCs in the rat trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model of acute colitis. Methods Expression of FasL on DCs isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of normal and TNBS-colitis rats was determined by flow cytometry. Primary rat bone marrow DCs were transfected with rat FasL plasmid (FasL-DCs) or empty vector (EV-DCs). The effect of these DCs on T cell IFNγ secretion and apoptosis was determined by ELISPOT and flow cytometry for Annexin V, respectively. Rats received FasL-DCs or EV-DCs intraperitoneally 96 and 48 hours prior to colitis induction with TNBS. Colonic T cell and neutrophil infiltration was determined by immunohistochemistry for CD3 and myeloperoxidase activity assay, respectively. Macrophage number and phenotype was measured by double immunofluorescence for CD68 and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase. Results MLN dendritic cells from normal rats expressed more FasL than those from colitic rats. Compared to EV-DCs, FasL-DCs reduced T cell IFNγ secretion and increased T cell apoptosis in vitro. Adoptive transfer of FasL-DCs decreased macroscopic and microscopic damage scores and reduced colonic T cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory macrophages when compared to EV-DC adoptive transfer. Conclusion FasL-DCs are effective at treating colonic

  2. Fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, F. T.; Abramson, H. N.; Angrist, S. W.; Catton, I.; Churchill, S. W.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Otrach, S.; Schwartz, S. H.; Sengers, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    An overstudy committee was formed to study and recommend fundamental experiments in fluid physics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer for experimentation in orbit, using the space shuttle system and a space laboratory. The space environment, particularly the low-gravity condition, is an indispensable requirement for all the recommended experiments. The experiments fell broadly into five groups: critical-point thermophysical phenomena, fluid surface dynamics and capillarity, convection at reduced gravity, non-heated multiphase mixtures, and multiphase heat transfer. The Committee attempted to assess the effects of g-jitter and other perturbations of the gravitational field on the conduct of the experiments. A series of ground-based experiments are recommended to define some of the phenomena and to develop reliable instrumentation.

  3. Preparation for a Clinical Trial Using Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TGF_Beta-Insensitive CD8+ T Cells for Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    W81XWH-05-1-0450 TITLE: Preparation for a Clinical Trial Using Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TGF_Beta-Insensitive CD8+ T Cells for...CONTRACT NUMBER Preparation for a Clinical Trial Using Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TGF_Beta-Insensitive CD8+ T Cells for Treatment of Prostate...technology to clinical trial. At present, I have submitted a R21/R33 application to NCI for a combination of pre-clinical and clinical trial for the use of

  4. Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Specific Tc17 Effector T Cells Controls the Growth of B16 Melanoma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez, Maria; Hamada, Hiromasa; Reome, Joyce B.; Misra, Sara K.; Tighe, Michael P.; Dutton, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro generated OVA-specific IL-17–producing CD8 T effector cells (Tc17) from OT-1 mice, adoptively transferred into B16-OVA tumor-bearing mice, controlled tumor growth in early and late stage melanoma. IL-17, TNF, and IFN-γ from the Tc17 effectors all played a role in an enhanced recruitment of T cells, neutrophils, and macrophages to the tumor. In addition, Tc17 cells and recently recruited, activated neutrophils produced further chemokines, including CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10, responsible for the attraction of type 1 lymphocytes (Th1 and Tc1) and additional neutrophils. Neutrophils were rapidly attracted to the tumor site by an IL-17 dependent mechanism, but at later stages the induction of the chemokine CXCL2 by Tc17-derived TNF and IFN-γ contributed to sustain neutrophil recruitment. Approximately 10–50 times as many Tc17 effectors were required compared with Tc1 effectors to exert the same level of control over tumor growth. The recruitment of neutrophils was more prominent when Tc17 rather than Tc1 were used to control tumor and depletion of neutrophils resulted in a diminished capacity to control tumor growth. PMID:20237297

  5. Generation of memory T cells for adoptive transfer using clinical-grade anti-CD62L magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Verfuerth, S; Sousa, P S E; Beloki, L; Murray, M; Peters, M D; O'Neill, A T; Mackinnon, S; Lowdell, M W; Chakraverty, R; Samuel, E R

    2015-10-01

    Pre-clinical studies of allogeneic stem cell transplantation suggest that depletion of naive T cells from donor lymphocytes will reduce the risk of GvHD but preserve immunity to infectious pathogens. In this study, we have established a clinical-grade protocol under good manufacturing practice conditions for purging CD62L(+) naive T cells from steady-state leukapheresis products using the CliniMACS system. The efficacy of immunomagnetic CD62L depletion was assessed by analysis of cell composition and functional immune responses. A median 2.9 log CD62L depletion was achieved with no evidence of CD62L shedding during the procedure and a mean T-cell yield of 47%. CD62L(-) cells comprised an equal mix of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, with elimination of B cells but maintenance of regulatory T cells and natural killer cell populations. CD62L-depleted T cells were predominantly CD45RA(-) and CD45RA(+) effector memory (>90%) and contained the bulk of pentamer-staining antivirus-specific T cells. Functional assessment of CD62L(-) cells revealed the maintenance of antiviral T-cell reactivity and a reduction in the alloreactive immune response compared with unmanipulated cells. Clinical-grade depletion of naive T cells using immunomagnetic CD62L beads from steady-state leukapheresis products is highly efficient and generates cells suitable for adoptive transfer in the context of clinical trials.

  6. Metabolic phenotyping of an adoptive transfer mouse model of experimental colitis and impact of dietary fish oil intake.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Lichti, Pia; Bosco, Nabil; Brahmbhatt, Viral; Oliveira, Manuel; Haller, Dirk; Benyacoub, Jalil

    2015-04-03

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are acute and chronic disabling inflammatory disorders with multiple complex etiologies that are not well-defined. Chronic intestinal inflammation has been linked to an energy-deficient state of gut epithelium with alterations in oxidative metabolism. Plasma-, urine-, stool-, and liver-specific metabonomic analyses are reported in a naïve T cell adoptive transfer (AT) experimental model of colitis, which evaluated the impact of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet. Metabolic profiles of AT animals and their controls under chow diet or fish oil supplementation were compared to describe the (i) consequences of inflammatory processes and (ii) the differential impact of n-3 fatty acids. Inflammation was associated with higher glycoprotein levels (related to acute-phase response) and remodeling of PUFAs. Low triglyceride levels and enhanced PUFA levels in the liver suggest activation of lipolytic pathways that could lead to the observed increase of phospholipids in the liver (including plasmalogens and sphingomyelins). In parallel, the increase in stool excretion of most amino acids may indicate a protein-losing enteropathy. Fecal content of glutamine was lower in AT mice, a feature exacerbated under fish oil intervention that may reflect a functional relationship between intestinal inflammatory status and glutamine metabolism. The decrease in Krebs cycle intermediates in urine (succinate, α-ketoglutarate) also suggests a reduction in the glutaminolytic pathway at a systemic level. Our data indicate that inflammatory status is related to this overall loss of energy homeostasis.

  7. Do the Instructors Differ in Their Behavioral Intention to Adopt E-Learning Based on Age, Gender, and Internet Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altawallbeh, Manal; Thiam, Wun; Alshourah, Sultan; Fong, Soon Fook

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine if there are differences of the age, gender, and internet experience on behavioural intention to adopt e-learning of the instructors in Jordanian universities. The paper takes a social, and technical approach in its investigation by using a research model based on the ANOVA and t-test Analysis to identify if…

  8. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Implementation Experiences of Early-Adopting Districts. REL 2015-093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Moira; English, Brittany; Angus, Megan Hague; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts: State requirements to include student achievement growth in teacher evaluations are prompting the development of alternative ways to measure growth in grades and subjects not covered by state assessments. These alternative growth…

  9. Challenges in the Adoption and Use of OpenCourseWare: Experience of the United Nations University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Brendan F. D.; Grover, Velma I.; Janowski, Tomasz; van Lavieren, Hanneke; Ojo, Adegboyega; Schmidt, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides insights on the adoption or use of OpenCourseWare (OCW) to support broader research, training and institutional capacity development goals, based on the experience of the United Nations University. Specifically, it explains the strategic context for the use of OCW in the university through its related efforts in the area of…

  10. Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minerick, Adrienne R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a new Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) engineered for a chemical engineering junior-level Heat Transfer course. This new DEMo learning tool is versatile, fairly inexpensive, and portable such that it can be positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. The DEMo system can illustrate conduction of various materials,…

  11. ASTP fluid transfer measurement experiment. [using breadboard model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The ASTP fluid transfer measurement experiment flight system design concept was verified by the demonstration and test of a breadboard model. In addition to the breadboard effort, a conceptual design of the corresponding flight system was generated and a full scale mockup fabricated. A preliminary CEI specification for the flight system was also prepared.

  12. Women Engineering Transfer Students: The Community College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    An interpretative philosophical framework was applied to a case study to document the particular experiences and perspectives of ten women engineering transfer students who once attended a community college and are currently enrolled in one of two university professional engineering programs. This study is important because women still do not earn…

  13. Midcourse Space Experiment Data Certification and Technology Transfer. Supplement 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, David B.

    1998-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville contributes to the Technical Management of the Midcourse Space Experiment Program, to the Certification of the Level 2 data produced by the Midcourse Space Experiment's suite of in-orbit imaging radiometers, imaging spectro-radiometers and an interferometer and to the Transfer of the Midcourse Space Experiment Technology to other Government Programs. The Technical Management of the Midcourse Space Experiment Program is expected to continue through out the spacecraft's useful life time. The Transfer of Midcourse Space Experiment Technology to other government elements is expected to be on a demand basis by the United States Government and other organizations. The University, of Alabama Huntsville' contribution specifically supports the Principal Investigator's Executive Committee, the Deputy Principal Investigator for Data Certification and Technology Transfer team, the nine Ultraviolet Visible Imagers and Spectrographic Imagers (UVISI) and the Pointing and Alignment of all eleven of the science instruments. The science instruments effectively cover the 0.1 to 28 micron spectral region. The Midcourse Space Experiment spacecraft, launched April 24, 1996, is expected to have a 5 year useful lifetime. The cryogenically cooled IR sensor, SPIRIT III, performed through February, 1997 when its cryogen expired. A pre-launch, ground based calibration of the instruments provided a basis for the pre-launch certification of the Level 2 data base these instruments produce. With the spacecraft in-orbit the certification of the instrument's Level 2 data base was extended to the in-orbit environment.

  14. An HSV-2 based oncolytic virus can function as an attractant to guide migration of adoptively transferred T cells to tumor sites.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinping; Rivera, Armando; Tao, Lihua; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2015-01-20

    Adoptive T-cell therapy has shown promises for cancer treatment. However, for treating solid tumors, there is a need for improving the ability of the adoptively transferred T cells to home to tumor sites. We explored the possibility of using an oncolytic virus derived from HSV-2, which can actively pull T effector cells to the site of infection, as a local attractant for migration of adoptively transferred T cells. Our data show that intratumoral administration of this virus can indeed attract active migration of the adoptively transferred T cells to the treated tumor. Moreover, once attracted to the tumor site by the virus, T cells persisted in there significantly longer than in mock-treated tumor. Chemokine profiling identified significant elevation of CXCL9 and CXCL10, as well as several other chemokines belonging to the inflammatory chemokine family in the virus-treated tumors. These chemokines initially guided the T-cell migration to and then maintained their persistence in the tumor site, leading to a significantly enhanced therapeutic effect. Our data suggests that this virotherapy may be combined with adoptive T-cell therapy to potentiate its therapeutic effect against solid tumors that are otherwise difficult to manage with the treatment alone.

  15. Adoption of smart cards in the medical sector: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Auber, B A; Hamel, G

    2001-10-01

    This research evaluates the factors influencing the adoption of smart cards in the medical sector (a smart card has a micro-processor containing information about the patient: identification, emergency data (allergies, blood type, etc.), vaccination, drugs used, and the general medical record). This research was conducted after a pilot study designed to evaluate the use of such smart cards. Two hundred and ninety-nine professionals, along with 7248 clients, used the smart card for a year. The targeted population included mostly elderly people, infants, and pregnant women (the most intensive users of health care services). Following this pilot study, two surveys were conducted, together with numerous interviews, to assess the factors influencing adoption of the technology. A general picture emerged. indicating that although the new card is well-perceived by individuals, tangible benefits must be available to motivate professionals and clients to adopt the technology. Results show that the fundamental dimension that needs to be assessed before massive diffusion is the relative advantage to the professional. The system must provide a direct benefit to its user. The relative advantage of the system for the professional is directly linked to the obligation for the client to use the card. The system is beneficial for the professional only if the information on the card is complete. Technical adequacy is a necessary but not sufficient condition for adoption.

  16. The Adoption of Mobile Learning in a Traditional Training Environment: The C95-Challenge Project Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catenazzi, Nadia; Sommaruga, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Kylene; Gabbianelli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Within the C95-Challenge Erasmus+ project, mobile learning technologies are adopted and tested for bus and truck drivers training according to the EU 2003/59/EC Directive. Different kinds of training contents are developed in the form of interactive slides, hyper-videos, interactive quizzes and delivered on mobile devices. Existing apps and games…

  17. Adoptive transfer of Tc1 or Tc17 cells elicits antitumor immunity against established melanoma through distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yu; Cho, Hyun-Ii; Wang, Dapeng; Kaosaard, Kane; Anasetti, Claudio; Celis, Esteban; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2013-02-15

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of ex vivo-activated autologous tumor-reactive T cells is currently one of the most promising approaches for cancer immunotherapy. Recent studies provided some evidence that IL-17-producing CD8(+) (Tc17) cells may exhibit potent antitumor activity, but the specific mechanisms have not been completely defined. In this study, we used a murine melanoma lung-metastasis model and tested the therapeutic effects of gp100-specific polarized type I CD8(+) cytotoxic T (Tc1) or Tc17 cells combined with autologous bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation. Bone marrow transplantation combined with ACT of antitumor (gp100-specific) Tc17 cells significantly suppressed the growth of established melanoma, whereas Tc1 cells induced long-term tumor regression. After ACT, Tc1 cells maintained their phenotype to produce IFN-γ, but not IL-17. However, although Tc17 cells largely preserved their ability to produce IL-17, a subset secreted IFN-γ or both IFN-γ and IL-17, indicating the plasticity of Tc17 cells in vivo. Furthermore, after ACT, the Tc17 cells had a long-lived effector T cell phenotype (CD127(hi)/KLRG-1(low)) as compared with Tc1 cells. Mechanistically, Tc1 cells mediated antitumor immunity primarily through the direct effect of IFN-γ on tumor cells. In contrast, despite the fact that some Tc17 cells also secreted IFN-γ, Tc17-mediated antitumor immunity was independent of the direct effects of IFN-γ on the tumor. Nevertheless, IFN-γ played a critical role by creating a microenvironment that promoted Tc17-mediated antitumor activity. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that both Tc1 and Tc17 cells can mediate effective antitumor immunity through distinct effector mechanisms, but Tc1 cells are superior to Tc17 cells in mediating tumor regression.

  18. High vitamin D3 diet administered during active colitis negatively affects bone metabolism in an adoptive T cell transfer model

    PubMed Central

    Larmonier, C. B.; McFadden, R.-M. T.; Hill, F. M.; Schreiner, R.; Ramalingam, R.; Besselsen, D. G.; Ghishan, F. K.

    2013-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) represents an extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D3 has been considered a viable adjunctive therapy in IBD. However, vitamin D3 plays a pleiotropic role in bone modeling and regulates the bone formation-resorption balance, depending on the physiological environment, and supplementation during active IBD may have unintended consequences. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation during the active phase of disease on colonic inflammation, BMD, and bone metabolism in an adoptive IL-10−/− CD4+ T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 days during established disease had negligible effects on mucosal inflammation. Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites correlated with diet, but not disease, status. Colitis significantly reduced BMD. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not affect cortical bone but led to a further deterioration of trabecular bone morphology. In mice fed a high vitamin D3 diet, colitis more severely impacted bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and increased bone resorption markers, ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand to osteoprotegrin transcript, plasma osteoprotegrin level, and the osteoclast activation marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACp5). Bone vitamin D receptor expression was increased in mice with chronic colitis, especially in the high vitamin D3 group. Our data suggest that vitamin D3, at a dose that does not improve inflammation, has no beneficial effects on bone metabolism and density during active colitis or may adversely affect BMD and bone turnover. These observations should be taken into consideration in the planning of further clinical studies with high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with active IBD. PMID:23639807

  19. Boeing Low-Thrust Geosynchronous Transfer Mission Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Mark; Ho, Monte

    2007-01-01

    Since 2000, Boeing 702 satellites have used electric propulsion for transfer to geostationary orbits. The use of the 25cm Xenon Ion Propulsion System (25cm XIPS) results in more than a tenfold increase in specific impulse with the corresponding decrease in propellant mass needed to complete the mission when compared to chemical propulsion[1]. In addition to more favorable mass properties, with the use of XIPS, the 702 has been able to achieve orbit insertions with higher accuracy than it would have been possible with the use of chemical thrusters. This paper describes the experience attained by using the 702 XIPS ascent strategy to transfer satellite to geosynchronous orbits.

  20. Adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells promotes intestinal tumorigenesis and is associated with decreased NK cells and IL-22 binding protein.

    PubMed

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Bryant, Taylor; Brewer, Misty; Biddick, Laura; Lightfoot, Stan; Lang, Mark L; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-10-01

    High number of regulatory T cells (Tregs), both circulating and at the tumor site, often indicates a poor prognosis in CRC patient's possibly impairing natural killer (NK) cell function. To determine the role of Tregs in CRC development and their effects on NK cells, we created novel transgenic Rag-Apc mice that lack T cells and develop spontaneous intestinal tumors, and we adoptively transferred Tregs or transiently depleted NK cells during initial stages of tumorigenesis. In 6-weeks old Rag-Apc mice containing microscopic intestinal tumors adoptive transfer of Tregs or transient NK cell depletion dramatically associated with an increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity and tumor size, with significantly decreased survival rates. Importantly, Treg transfer increased small intestinal polyp formation up to 65% (P < 0.0005) and increased colon tumors multiplicities by 84% (P < 0.0001) with a significant decrease in NK cells as compared to control mice. Similarly, in NK depleted mice, colon tumor multiplicities increased up to 40% and small intestinal polyp formation up to 60% (P < 0.0001). Treg transfer or NK cell transient depletion markedly increased interleukin (IL)-22 systemically and the inflammatory signaling molecules P2X7R, and STAT3 in the tumors; and impaired production of the tumor suppressor interferon (IFN)-γ systemically. Notably, IL-22 binding protein (IL-22 BP) was associated with NKs and a significant decrease was seen at the tumor site in mice adoptively transferred with Tregs or depleted of NK cells. Our results suggest that adoptive transfer of Tregs aggressively promote intestinal tumorigenesis by decreasing NK cell number and activity by modulating IL-22 BP.

  1. Optimal experiments for maximizing coherence transfer between coupled spins.

    PubMed

    Khaneja, Navin; Kramer, Frank; Glaser, Steffen J

    2005-03-01

    In spite of great advances in the theory and applications of magnetic resonance in the past 50 years, some basic questions in spin physics have not yet been answered. In the absence of relaxation losses, what is the maximum amount of coherence that can be transferred between coupled spins under general coupling tensors in a given time and how can this be realized experimentally? Since transfer of coherence between spins forms the basis for multidimensional experiments in NMR spectroscopy, the answers to these questions are of both practical and theoretical interest. Computing the physical limits of coherence transfer involves characterizing all unitary evolutions that can be synthesized in a given time. Here we derive these limits and show how they can be achieved experimentally.

  2. Midcourse Space Experiment Data Certification and Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, David B.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville contributes to the Technical Management of the Midcourse Space Experiment Program, to the Certification of the Level 2 data produced by the Midcourse Space Experiment's suite of in-orbit imaging radiometers, imaging spectra-radiometers and an interferometer and to the Transfer of the Midcourse Space Experiment Technology to other Government Programs. The Technical Management of the Midcourse Space Experiment Program is expected to continue through out the spacecraft's useful life time, 5 years after its 1996 launch. The Transfer of Midcourse Space Experiment Technology to other government elements is expected to be on a demand basis by the United States Government and other organizations. The University of Alabama Huntsville' contribution specifically supports the nine Ultraviolet Visible Imagers and Spectrographic Imagers (UVISI) and the Pointing and Alignment of all eleven of the science instruments. The science instruments effectively cover the 0.1 to 28 micron spectral region. The Midcourse Space Experiment spacecraft, launched April 24, 1996, is expected to have a 5 year useful lifetime with a 12 month lifetime for the cryogenically cooled IR sensor. A pre-launch, ground based calibration of the instruments provided a basis for the pre-launch certification of the Level 2 data base these instruments produce. With the spacecraft in-orbit the certification of the instruments' Level 2 data base is being extended to the in-orbit environment.

  3. Microwave frequency modulation for improving polarization transfer in DNP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Mallory; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a driven process that transfers the inherently high electron polarization to surrounding nuclear spins via microwave irradiation at or near the electron Larmor frequency. In a typical DNP experiment, the amplitude and frequency of the applied microwaves are constant. However, by adding time dependence in the form of frequency modulation, the electron excitation bandwidth is increased, thereby increasing the number of electron spins active in the polarization transfer process and improving overall efficiency. Both triangular and sinusoidal modulation show a 3 fold improvement over monochromatic irradiation. In the present study, we compare the nuclear spin polarization after DNP experiments with no modulation of the applied microwaves, triangular and sinusoidal modulation, and modulation schemes derived from the sample's ESR spectrum. We characterize the polarization as a function of the modulation amplitude and frequency and compare the optimal results from each modulation scheme. Working at a field of 3.34 T and at a temperature of 4 K, we show that by using a modulation scheme tailored to the electronic environment of the sample, polarization transfer is improved over other modulation schemes. Small-scale simulations of the spin system are developed to gain further insight into the dynamics of this driven open system. This understanding could enable the design of modulation schemes to achieve even higher polarization transfer efficiencies. With support from NSF (CHE-1410504) and by NIH (U19-A1091173).

  4. Adoptive transfer of Mammaglobin-A epitope specific CD8 T cells combined with a single low dose of total body irradiation eradicates breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Lerret, Nadine M; Rogozinska, Magdalena; Jaramillo, Andrés; Marzo, Amanda L

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy has proven to be beneficial in a number of tumor systems by targeting the relevant tumor antigen. The tumor antigen targeted in our model is Mammaglobin-A, expressed by approximately 80% of human breast tumors. Here we evaluated the use of adoptively transferred Mammaglobin-A specific CD8 T cells in combination with low dose irradiation to induce breast tumor rejection and prevent relapse. We show Mammaglobin-A specific CD8 T cells generated by DNA vaccination with all epitopes (Mammaglobin-A2.1, A2.2, A2.4 and A2.6) and full-length DNA in vivo resulted in heterogeneous T cell populations consisting of both effector and central memory CD8 T cell subsets. Adoptive transfer of spleen cells from all Mammaglobin-A2 immunized mice into tumor-bearing SCID/beige mice induced tumor regression but this anti-tumor response was not sustained long-term. Additionally, we demonstrate that only the adoptive transfer of Mammaglobin-A2 specific CD8 T cells in combination with a single low dose of irradiation prevents tumors from recurring. More importantly we show that this single dose of irradiation results in the down regulation of the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 on dendritic cells within the tumor and reduces lipid uptake by tumor resident dendritic cells potentially enabling the dendritic cells to present tumor antigen more efficiently and aid in tumor clearance. These data reveal the potential for adoptive transfer combined with a single low dose of total body irradiation as a suitable therapy for the treatment of established breast tumors and the prevention of tumor recurrence.

  5. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Daniel L; O'Neil, Richard T; Foster, Aaron E; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans.

  6. Adoptive transfer of allogeneic liver sinusoidal endothelial cells specifically inhibits T-cell responses to cognate stimuli.

    PubMed

    Banshodani, Masataka; Onoe, Takashi; Shishida, Masayuki; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Shinji; Igarashi, Yuka; Tanaka, Yuka; Ohdan, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that liver allografts are often accepted by recipients, leading to donor-specific tolerance of further organ transplants, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We had previously used an in vitro model and showed that mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) selectively suppress allospecific T-cells across major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barriers. In the present study, we established an in vivo model for evaluating the immunomodulatory effects of allogeneic LSECs on corresponding T-cells. Allogeneic BALB/cA LSECs were injected intraportally into recombination activating gene 2 γ-chain double-knockout (RAG2/gc-KO, H-2(b)) mice lacking T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. In order to facilitate LSEC engraftment, the RAG2/gc-KO mice were injected intraperitoneally with monocrotaline 2 days before the adoptive transfer of LSECs; this impaired the host LSECs, conferring a proliferative advantage to the transplanted LSECs. After orthotopic allogeneic LSEC engraftment, the RAG2/gc-KO mice were immune reconstituted intravenously with C57BL/6 splenocytes. After immune reconstitution, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay using splenocytes from the recipients revealed that specific inhibition of host CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation was greater in response to allostimulation with irradiated BALB/cA splenocytes rather than to stimulation with irradiated third party SJL/jorllco splenocytes. This inhibitory effect was attenuated by administering anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody during immune reconstitution in the above-mentioned mice, but not in RAG2/gc-KO mice engrafted with Fas ligand (FasL)-deficient BALB/cA LSECs. Furthermore, engraftment of allogeneic BALB/cA LSECs significantly prolonged the survival of subsequently grafted cognate allogeneic BALB/cA hearts in RAG2/gc-KO mice immune reconstituted with bone marrow transplantation from C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, murine LSECs have been proven

  7. Far Transfer of Leadership Training: Concepts, Experiences, and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    psychology : the definitive statement of the Gestalt theory. New York, NY: Liveright/W.W. Norton. Kraiger, K. (2008). Transforming our models of learning...for Psychological Science Annual Convention in Chicago, IL, 26 May 2012. vii FAR TRANSFER OF LEADERSHIP TRAINING: CONCEPTS, EXPERIENCES, AND...leadership’ and ‘leader’ or, for readers familiar with popular psychological concepts, ‘emotional’ and ‘intelligence.’ Each key word was examined to

  8. Heat Transfer Experiments on a Pulse Detonation Driven Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    steps that need to take place before such a hybrid is successfully developed. PDEs obtain their increased efficiency by means of detonation , a pressure...combustion in the Brayton cycle. A PDE utilizes detonations , which offer much higher pressures at the site of fuel ignition, generating less...HEAT TRANSFER EXPERIMENTS ON A PULSE DETONATION DRIVEN COMBUSTOR THESIS Nicholas C. Longo, Captain, USAF AFIT/GAE/ENY/11-M18

  9. SHORT-RUN SUBSIDIES AND LONG-RUN ADOPTION OF NEW HEALTH PRODUCTS: EVIDENCE FROM A FIELD EXPERIMENT

    PubMed Central

    Dupas, Pascaline

    2014-01-01

    Short-run subsidies for health products are common in poor countries. How do they affect long-run adoption? A common fear among development practitioners is that one-off subsidies may negatively affect long-run adoption through reference-dependence: People might anchor around the subsidized price and be unwilling to pay more for the product later. But for experience goods, one-off subsidies could also boost long-run adoption through learning. This paper uses data from a two-stage randomized pricing experiment in Kenya to estimate the relative importance of these effects for a new, improved antimalarial bed net. Reduced form estimates show that a one-time subsidy has a positive impact on willingness to pay a year later inherit. To separately identify the learning and anchoring effects, we estimate a parsimonious experience-good model. Estimation results show a large, positive learning effect but no anchoring. We black then discuss the types of products and the contexts inherit for which these results may apply. PMID:25308977

  10. Target selection biases from recent experience transfer across effectors.

    PubMed

    Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Target selection is often biased by an observer's recent experiences. However, not much is known about whether these selection biases influence behavior across different effectors. For example, does looking at a red object make it easier to subsequently reach towards another red object? In the current study, we asked observers to find the uniquely colored target object on each trial. Randomly intermixed pre-trial cues indicated the mode of action: either an eye movement or a visually guided reach movement to the target. In Experiment 1, we found that priming of popout, reflected in faster responses following repetition of the target color on consecutive trials, occurred regardless of whether the effector was repeated from the previous trial or not. In Experiment 2, we examined whether an inhibitory selection bias away from a feature could transfer across effectors. While priming of popout reflects both enhancement of the repeated target features and suppression of the repeated distractor features, the distractor previewing effect isolates a purely inhibitory component of target selection in which a previewed color is presented in a homogenous display and subsequently inhibited. Much like priming of popout, intertrial suppression biases in the distractor previewing effect transferred across effectors. Together, these results suggest that biases for target selection driven by recent trial history transfer across effectors. This indicates that representations in memory that bias attention towards or away from specific features are largely independent from their associated actions.

  11. Rod Bundle Heat Transfer: Steady-State Steam Cooling Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, J.P.; McLaughlin, D.M.

    2006-07-01

    Through the joint efforts of the Pennsylvania State University and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, an experimental rod bundle heat transfer (RBHT) facility was designed and built. The rod bundle consists of a 7 x 7 square pitch array with spacer grids and geometry similar to that found in a modern pressurized water reactor. From this facility, a series of steady-state steam cooling experiments were performed. The bundle inlet Reynolds number was varied from 1 400 to 30 000 over a pressure range from 1.36 to 4 bars (20 to 60 psia). The bundle inlet steam temperature was controlled to be at saturation for the specified pressure and the fluid exit temperature exceeded 550 deg. C in the highest power tests. One important quantity of interest is the local convective heat transfer coefficient defined in terms of the local bulk mean temperature of the flow, local wall temperature, and heat flux. Steam temperatures were measured at the center of selected subchannels along the length of the bundle by traversing miniaturized thermocouples. Using an analogy between momentum and energy transport, a method was developed for relating the local subchannel centerline temperature measurement to the local bulk mean temperature. Wall temperatures were measured using internal thermocouples strategically placed along the length of each rod and the local wall heat flux was obtained from an inverse conduction program. The local heat transfer coefficient was calculated from the data at each rod thermocouple location. The local heat transfer coefficients calculated for locations where the flow was fully developed were compared against several published correlations. The Weisman and El-Genk correlations were found to agree best with the RBHT steam cooling data, especially over the range of turbulent Reynolds numbers. The effect of spacer grids on the heat transfer enhancement was also determined from instrumentation placed downstream of the spacer grid locations. The local

  12. The stoichiometric production of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA defines memory T cells that can self-renew after adoptive transfer in humans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anran; Chandran, Smita; Shah, Syed A; Chiu, Yu; Paria, Biman C; Aghamolla, Tamara; Alvarez-Downing, Melissa M; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Singh, Sanmeet; Li, Thomas; Dudley, Mark E; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rosenberg, Steven A; Kammula, Udai S

    2012-08-29

    Adoptive immunotherapy using ex vivo-expanded tumor-reactive lymphocytes can mediate durable cancer regression in selected melanoma patients. Analyses of these trials have associated the in vivo engraftment ability of the transferred cells with their antitumor efficacy. Thus, there is intensive clinical interest in the prospective isolation of tumor-specific T cells that can reliably persist after transfer. Animal studies have suggested that central memory CD8(+) T cells (T(CM)) have divergent capabilities including effector differentiation to target antigen and stem cell-like self-renewal that enable long-term survival after adoptive transfer. We sought to isolate human melanoma-specific T(CM) to define their in vivo fate and function after autologous therapeutic transfer to metastatic patients. To facilitate the high-throughput identification of these rare cells from patients, we report that T(CM) have a defined stoichiometric production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA after antigen stimulation. Melanoma-specific T cells screened for high relative IL-2 production had a T(CM) phenotype and superior in vitro proliferative capacity compared to cells with low IL-2 production. To investigate in vivo effector function and self-renewal capability, we allowed melanoma-specific T(CM) to undergo in vitro expansion and differentiation into lytic effector clones and then adoptively transferred them back into their hosts. These clones targeted skin melanocytes in all five patients and persisted long term and reacquired parental T(CM) attributes in four patients after transfer. These findings demonstrate the favorable engraftment fitness for human T(CM)-derived clones, but further efforts to improve their antitumor efficacy are still necessary.

  13. Experience, Adoption, and Technology: Exploring the Phenomenological Experiences of Faculty Involved in Online Teaching at One School of Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Terry; Davis, Trina; Larke, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and Dewey's Theory of Experience, this phenomenological study explored the experiences of faculty who engaged in online teaching at one school of public health. Findings revealed that the experiences of public health faculty, who engaged in online teaching, are similar and…

  14. Integrating network and transfer metrics to optimize transfer efficiency and experiment workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, S.; Babik, M.; Campana, S.; Di Girolamo, A.; Wildish, T.; Closier, J.; Roiser, S.; Grigoras, C.; Vukotic, I.; Salichos, M.; De, Kaushik; Garonne, V.; Cruz, J. A. D.; Forti, A.; Walker, C. J.; Rand, D.; de Salvo, A.; Mazzoni, E.; Gable, I.; Chollet, F.; Caillat, L.; Schaer, F.; Chen, Hsin-Yen; Tigerstedt, U.; Duckeck, G.; Hoeft, B.; Petzold, A.; Lopez, F.; Flix, J.; Stancu, S.; Shade, J.; O'Connor, M.; Kotlyar, V.; Zurawski, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid relies on the network as a critical part of its infrastructure and therefore needs to guarantee effective network usage and prompt detection and resolution of any network issues, including connection failures, congestion, traffic routing, etc. The WLCG Network and Transfer Metrics project aims to integrate and combine all network-related monitoring data collected by the WLCG infrastructure. This includes FTS monitoring information, monitoring data from the XRootD federation, as well as results of the perfSONAR tests. The main challenge consists of further integrating and analyzing this information in order to allow the optimizing of data transfers and workload management systems of the LHC experiments. In this contribution, we present our activity in commissioning WLCG perfSONAR network and integrating network and transfer metrics: We motivate the need for the network performance monitoring, describe the main use cases of the LHC experiments as well as status and evolution in the areas of configuration and capacity management, datastore and analytics, including integration of transfer and network metrics and operations and support.

  15. Identification of a Novel Immunodominant HLA-B*07: 02-restricted Adenoviral Peptide Epitope and Its Potential in Adoptive Transfer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Günther, Patrick S; Peper, Janet K; Faist, Benjamin; Kayser, Simone; Hartl, Lena; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Jahn, Gerhard; Neuenhahn, Michael; Busch, Dirk H; Stevanović, Stefan; Dennehy, Kevin M

    2015-09-01

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised patients, particularly following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, are associated with morbidity and mortality. Immunotherapy by adoptive transfer of hexon-specific and penton-specific T cells has been successfully applied, but many approaches are impeded by the low number of HLA class I-restricted adenoviral peptide epitopes described to date. We use a novel method to identify naturally presented adenoviral peptide epitopes from infected human cells, ectopically expressing defined HLA, using peptide elution and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We show that the previously described HLA-A*01:01-restricted peptide epitope LTDLGQNLLY from hexon protein is naturally presented, and demonstrate the functionality of LTDLGQNLLY-specific T cells. We further identify a novel immunodominant HLA-B*07:02-restricted peptide epitope VPATGRTLVL from protein 13.6 K, and demonstrate the high proliferative, cytotoxic, and IFN-γ-producing capacity of peptide-specific T cells. Lastly, LTDLGQNLLY-specific T cells can be detected ex vivo following adoptive transfer therapy, and LTDLGQNLLY-specific and VPATGRTLVL-specific T cells have memory phenotypes ex vivo. Given their proliferative and cytotoxic capacity, such epitope-specific T cells are promising candidates for adoptive T-cell transfer therapy of adenovirus infection.

  16. Enhanced anti-tumor activity induced by adoptive T cell transfer and the adjunctive use of the HDAC Inhibitor LAQ824

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Dan D.; Prins, Robert M.; Begley, Jonathan L.; Donahue, Timothy R.; Morris, Lilah F.; Bruhn, Kevin W.; de la Rocha, Pilar; Yang, Meng-Yin; Mok, Stephen; Garban, Hermes J.; Craft, Noah; Economou, James S.; Marincola, Francesco M.; Wang, Ena; Ribas, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Tumors grow in the presence of antigen-specific T cells, suggesting the existence of intrinsic cancer cell escape mechanisms. We hypothesized that a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor could sensitize tumor cells to immunotherapy because this class of agents has been reported to increase tumor antigen expression and shift gene expression to a pro-apoptotic milieu in cancer cells. To test this question, we treated B16 murine melanoma with the combination of the HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 together with the adoptive transfer (AT) of gp100 melanoma antigen-specific pmel-1 T cells. The combined therapy significantly improved antitumor activity through several mechanisms: 1) increase in MHC and tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expression by tumor cells; 2) decrease in competing endogenous lymphocytes in recipient mice, resulting in a proliferative advantage for the adoptively transferred cells; and 3) improvement in the functional activity of the adoptively transferred lymphocytes. We confirmed the beneficial effects of this HDAC inhibitor as sensitizer to immunotherapy in a different model of prophylactic prime-boost vaccination with the melanoma antigen tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP2), which also demonstrated a significant improvement in antitumor activity against B16 melanoma. In conclusion, the HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 significantly enhances tumor immunotherapy through effects on target tumor cells as well as improving the antitumor activity of tumor antigen-specific lymphocytes. PMID:19861533

  17. In-space experiment on thermoacoustic convection heat transfer phenomenon-experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parang, M.; Crocker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    The definition phase of an in-space experiment in thermoacoustic convection (TAC) heat transfer phenomenon is completed and the results are presented and discussed in some detail. Background information, application and potential importance of TAC in heat transfer processes are discussed with particular focus on application in cryogenic fluid handling and storage in microgravity space environment. Also included are the discussion on TAC space experiment objectives, results of ground support experiments, hardware information, and technical specifications and drawings. The future plans and a schedule for the development of experiment hardware (Phase 1) and flight tests and post-flight analysis (Phase 3/4) are also presented. The specific experimental objectives are rapid heating of a compressible fluid and the measurement of the fluid temperature and pressure and the recording and analysis of the experimental data for the establishment of the importance of TAC heat transfer process. The ground experiments that were completed in support of the experiment definition included fluid temperature measurement by a modified shadowgraph method, surface temperature measurements by thermocouples, and fluid pressure measurements by strain-gage pressure transducers. These experiments verified the feasibility of the TAC in-space experiment, established the relevance and accuracy of the experimental results, and specified the nature of the analysis which will be carried out in the post-flight phase of the report.

  18. Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments in Adoption of Digital Talking Textbooks: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussin, Ahamad

    2013-01-01

    Assistive technology devices have become essential tools for students with visual impairments. In 2009, the Malaysian Ministry of Education introduced Digital Talking Textbooks (DTTs) for selected subjects to facilitate learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, describe, and interpret the experiences of students with visual…

  19. Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments in Adoption of Digital Talking Textbooks: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussin, Ahamad; Folkestad, James E.; Makela, Carole

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the experiences of Malaysian secondary students with visual impairments in using digital talking textbooks (DTTs) to assist their learning. Data were obtained from individual in-depth interviews. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to understand the findings and confirm the emergent…

  20. Bacterial plasmid transfer under space flight conditions: The Mobilisatsia experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boever, P.; Ilyin, V.; Mahillon, J.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Microorganisms are subject to a genetic evolution which may lead to the capacity to colonize new environments and to cause infections Central players in this evolutionary process are mobile genetic elements phages plasmids and transposons The latter help to mobilize and reorganize genes be it within a given genome intragenomic mobility or between bacterial cells intercellular mobility Confined environment and space flight related factors such as microgravity and cosmic radiation may influence the frequency with which mobile genetic elements are exchanged between microorganisms Aim Within the frame of the Mobilisatsia experiment a triparental microbial plasmid transfer was promoted aboard the International Space Station ISS The efficiency of the plasmid exchange process was compared with a synchronously performed ground control experiment An experiment was carried out with well-characterized Gram-negative test strains and one experiment was done with Gram-positive test strains Results The experiment took place during the Soyouz Mission 8 to the ISS from April 19th until April 30th 2004 Liquid cultures of the bacterial strains Cupriavidus metallidurans AE815 final recipient Escherichia coli CM1962 carrying a mobilisable vector with a nickel-resistance marker and E coli CM140 carrying the Broad Host Range plasmid RP4 for the Gram-negative experiment and Bacillus thuringiensis Bti AND931 carrying the conjugative plasmid pXO16 Bti 4Q7 with mobilisable vector pC194 carrying a resistance to chloramphenicol and Bti GBJ002

  1. Neutral null models for diversity in serial transfer evolution experiments.

    PubMed

    Harpak, Arbel; Sella, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Evolution experiments with microorganisms coupled with genome-wide sequencing now allow for the systematic study of population genetic processes under a wide range of conditions. In learning about these processes in natural, sexual populations, neutral models that describe the behavior of diversity and divergence summaries have played a pivotal role. It is therefore natural to ask whether neutral models, suitably modified, could be useful in the context of evolution experiments. Here, we introduce coalescent models for polymorphism and divergence under the most common experimental evolution assay, a serial transfer experiment. This relatively simple setting allows us to address several issues that could affect diversity patterns in evolution experiments, whether selection is operating or not: the transient behavior of neutral polymorphism in an experiment beginning from a single clone, the effects of randomness in the timing of cell division and noisiness in population size in the dilution stage. In our analyses and discussion, we emphasize the implications for experiments aimed at measuring diversity patterns and making inferences about population genetic processes based on these measurements.

  2. SeaWiFS transfer-to-orbit experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Slater, Philip N.; Holmes, Alan W.

    2000-10-01

    We present the results of an experiment designed to measure the changes in the radiometric calibration of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) from the time of its manufacture to the time of the start of on-orbit operations. The experiment uses measurements of the Sun at the manufacturer s facility to predict the instrument outputs during solar measurements immediately after launch. Because an onboard diffuser plate is required for these measurements, the experiment measures changes in the instrument diffuser system. There is no mechanism in this experiment to separate changes in the diffuser from changes in the instrument. For the eight SeaWiFS bands, the initial instrument outputs on orbit averaged 0.8% higher than predicted with a standard deviation of 0.9%. The greatest difference was 2.1% (actual output higher than predicted) for band 3. The estimated uncertainty for the experiment is 3%. Thus the transfer-to-orbit experiment shows no changes in the radiometric sensitivities of the SeaWiFS bands at the 3% level from the completion of the instrument s manufacture to its insertion into orbit.

  3. Enhanced neointima formation following arterial injury in immune deficient Rag-1-/- mice is attenuated by adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells.

    PubMed

    Dimayuga, Paul C; Chyu, Kuang-Yuh; Kirzner, Jonathan; Yano, Juliana; Zhao, Xiaoning; Zhou, Jianchang; Shah, Prediman K; Cercek, Bojan

    2011-01-01

    T cells modulate neointima formation after arterial injury but the specific T cell population that is activated in response to arterial injury remains unknown. The objective of the study was to identify the T cell populations that are activated and modulate neointimal thickening after arterial injury in mice. Arterial injury in wild type C57Bl6 mice resulted in T cell activation characterized by increased CD4(+)CD44(hi) and CD8(+)CD44(hi) T cells in the lymph nodes and spleens. Splenic CD8(+)CD25(+) T cells and CD8(+)CD28(+) T cells, but not CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD28(+) T cells, were also significantly increased. Adoptive cell transfer of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells from donor CD8-/- or CD4-/- mice, respectively, to immune-deficient Rag-1-/- mice was performed to determine the T cell subtype that inhibits neointima formation after arterial injury. Rag-1-/- mice that received CD8(+) T cells had significantly reduced neointima formation compared with Rag-1-/- mice without cell transfer. CD4(+) T cell transfer did not reduce neointima formation. CD8(+) T cells from CD4-/- mice had cytotoxic activity against syngeneic smooth muscle cells in vitro. The study shows that although both CD8(+) T cells and CD4(+) T cells are activated in response to arterial injury, adoptive cell transfer identifies CD8(+) T cells as the specific and selective cell type involved in inhibiting neointima formation.

  4. Boiling Experiment Facility for Heat Transfer Studies in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; McQuillen, John; Chao, David

    2008-01-01

    Pool boiling in microgravity is an area of both scientific and practical interest. By conducting tests in microgravity, it is possible to assess the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and assess the relative magnitude of effects with regards to other "forces" and phenomena such as Marangoni forces, liquid momentum forces, and microlayer evaporation. The Boiling eXperiment Facility is now being built for the Microgravity Science Glovebox that will use normal perfluorohexane as a test fluid to extend the range of test conditions to include longer test durations and less liquid subcooling. Two experiments, the Microheater Array Boiling Experiment and the Nucleate Pool Boiling eXperiment will use the Boiling eXperiment Facility. The objectives of these studies are to determine the differences in local boiling heat transfer mechanisms in microgravity and normal gravity from nucleate boiling, through critical heat flux and into the transition boiling regime and to examine the bubble nucleation, growth, departure and coalescence processes. Custom-designed heaters will be utilized to achieve these objectives.

  5. Exploring the Lived Experiences and Intersectionalities of Mexican Community College Transfer Students: Qualitative Insights toward Expanding a Transfer Receptive Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Erin L.; Cortez, Edén

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of six Mexican community college transfer students attending a research-intensive institution in the Pacific Northwest. Using semi-structured interviews, the objectives of this study were to 1) understand how Mexican students made meaning of their transfer experiences and 2) how those experiences…

  6. Gaining independent prescriptive practice: one state's experience in adoption of the APRN Consensus Model.

    PubMed

    Madler, Billie Jo; Kalanek, Constance B; Rising, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are increasingly encouraged to be active participants in health policy. This article provides an exemplar of how nurse practitioners (NPs) in one state, North Dakota, used strategic policy actions to obtain independent prescriptive privileges. Consistent and clear communication among NPs and with key stakeholders, including legislators, contributed to a positive policy outcome. North Dakota nurse leaders in this initiative have shared their experiences with a variety of audiences including other state boards of nursing and NP organizations in states such as New York, South Dakota, and Louisiana. In addition, a webinar sponsored by the Center to Champion Nursing in America at AARP featured several of the North Dakota NP leaders, who shared their reflections of this experience and the strategies they used. Regulatory environments and public policies will continue to significantly influence the future of all nurses. This case study of one state can be useful to NPs and other nurses seeking meaningful policy change through laws or regulations with regard to scope of practice or other health policy issues.

  7. Early Experiences with Microvascular Free Tissue Transfer in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mofikoya, Bolaji O; Ugburo, Andrew O

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Microvascular free tissue transfer within our subregion is fraught with considerable challenges. We aim to highlight our experiences gained with our first fifteen cases of microvascular free tissue transfer at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. We believe our report will be useful to colleagues embarking on such reconstructions in similar settings. Materials and Methods: The clinical records of the first 15 cases of free flaps done at our center were reviewed. The indications for surgery, choice of flap, recipient vessels, duration of surgery and complications were noted. Results: Fifteen cases were done, 10 flaps survived, ten defects occurred following trauma while remaining five followed cancer resections. Anterolateral thigh and radial forearm flaps were the most common flap used. The mean duration of surgeries was 7.1 hours SD ± 1.10 hours. Our take back rate was 13.3%, with a salvage rate of 50%. Three flaps failed on account venous congestion while remaining two failed due to arterial occlusion. Conclusion: 66.67% free flap success rate recorded reflect our early experiences in our institution. We believe meticulous planning, careful vessel selection, close flap monitoring as well as improved infrastructural support can lead to much better success rates in microvascular reconstruction in our country. PMID:24665201

  8. Genetic and environmental effects on openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness: an adoption/twin study.

    PubMed

    Bergeman, C S; Chipuer, H M; Plomin, R; Pedersen, N L; McClearn, G E; Nesselroade, J R; Costa, P T; McCrae, R R

    1993-06-01

    Previous research has indicated that extraversion and neuroticism are substantially affected both by genotype and environment. This study assesses genetic and environmental influences on the other three components of the five-factor model of personality: Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. An abbreviated version of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) was administered to 82 pairs of identical twins and 171 pairs of fraternal twins reared apart and 132 pairs of identical twins and 167 pairs of fraternal twins reared together. Estimates of genetic and environmental effects for Openness and Conscientiousness were similar to those found in other studies of personality: Genetic influence was substantial and there was little evidence of shared rearing environment. Results for Agreeableness were different: Genetic influence accounted for only 12% of the variance and shared rearing environment accounted for 21% of the variance. Few significant gender or age differences for genetic and environmental parameters were found in model-fitting analyses.

  9. Comparison of naïve and central memory derived CD8(+) effector cell engraftment fitness and function following adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuli; Wong, ChingLam W; Urak, Ryan; Taus, Ellie; Aguilar, Brenda; Chang, Wen-Chung; Mardiros, Armen; Budde, Lihua E; Brown, Christine E; Berger, Carolina; Forman, Stephen J; Jensen, Michael C

    Human CD8(+) effector T cells derived from CD45RO(+)CD62L(+) precursors enriched for central memory (TCM) precursors retain the capacity to engraft and reconstitute functional memory upon adoptive transfer, whereas effectors derived from CD45RO(+)CD62L(-) precursors enriched for effector memory precursors do not. Here we sought to compare the engraftment fitness and function of CD8(+) effector T cells derived from CD45RA(+)CD62L(+) precursors enriched for naïve and stem cell memory precursors (TN/SCM) with that of TCM. We found that cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) derived from TCM transcribed higher levels of CD28, FOS, INFγ, Eomesodermin (Eomes), and lower levels of BCL2L11, maintained higher levels of phosphorylated AKT, and displayed enhanced sensitivity to the proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of γ-chain cytokines compared to CTLs derived from TN/SCM. Higher frequencies of CTLs derived from TCM retained CD28 expression and upon activation secreted higher levels of IL-2. In NOD/Scid IL-2RγC(null) mice, CD8(+) TCM derived CTLs engrafted to higher frequencies in response to human IL-15 and mounted robust proliferative responses to an immunostimulatory vaccine. Similarly, CD8(+) TCM derived CD19CAR(+) CTLs exhibited superior antitumor potency following adoptive transfer compared to their CD8(+) TN/SCM derived counterparts. These studies support the use of TCM enriched cell products for adoptive therapy of cancer.

  10. Development of an Autologous Macrophage-Based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to Treat Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis (PTOA) and Osteoarithritis (OA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the articular fracture is impossible by the fact that mesenchymal stem cells from various sources can’t be effectively delivered to the injured...over M1 macrophages to deliver therapeutic genes. To isolate M2 macrophages from bone marrow , we used the magnetic-bead selection by a specific antibody...combination adoptive gene therapy for treatment of PTOA. The rationale for the use of macrophages as the cell vehicle for targeted delivery and confined

  11. Autologous lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination followed by adoptive transfer of vaccine-primed ex vivo co-stimulated T cells in recurrent ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kandalaft, Lana E; Powell, Daniel J; Chiang, Cheryl L; Tanyi, Janos; Kim, Sarah; Bosch, Marnix; Montone, Kathy; Mick, Rosemarie; Levine, Bruce L; Torigian, Drew A; June, Carl H; Coukos, George

    2013-01-01

    Novel strategies for the therapy of recurrent ovarian cancer are warranted. We report a study of a combinatorial approach encompassing dendritic cell (DC)-based autologous whole tumor vaccination and anti-angiogenesis therapy, followed by the adoptive transfer of autologous vaccine-primed CD3/CD28-co-stimulated lymphocytes. Recurrent ovarian cancer patients for whom tumor lysate was available from prior cytoreductive surgery underwent conditioning with intravenous bevacizumab and oral metronomic cyclophosphamide, sequentially followed by (1) bevacizumab plus vaccination with DCs pulsed with autologous tumor cell lysate supernatants, (2) lymphodepletion and (3) transfer of 5 × 10(9) autologous vaccine-primed T-cells in combination with the vaccine. Feasibility, safety as well as immunological and clinical efficacy were evaluated. Six subjects received this vaccination. Therapy was feasible, well tolerated, and elicited antitumor immune responses in four subjects, who also experienced clinical benefits. Of these, three patients with residual measurable disease received outpatient lymphodepletion and adoptive T-cell transfer, which was well tolerated and resulted in a durable reduction of circulating regulatory T cells and increased CD8(+) lymphocyte counts. The vaccine-induced restoration of antitumor immunity was achieved in two subjects, who also demonstrated clinical benefits, including one complete response. Our findings indicate that combinatorial cellular immunotherapy for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer is well tolerated and warrants further investigation. Several modifications of this approach can be envisioned to optimize immunological and clinical outcomes.

  12. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex had long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent modified Redfield theory and non-Markovian quantum jump method to simulate EET dynamics. This scheme provides a practical approach of detecting the realistic EET pathway in BChl complexes with currently available experimental technology. And it may assist optimizing design of artificial light-harvesting devices. PMID:27277702

  13. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-06-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex had long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent modified Redfield theory and non-Markovian quantum jump method to simulate EET dynamics. This scheme provides a practical approach of detecting the realistic EET pathway in BChl complexes with currently available experimental technology. And it may assist optimizing design of artificial light-harvesting devices.

  14. Whole-body irradiation increases the magnitude and persistence of adoptively transferred T cells associated with tumor regression in a mouse model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ward-Kavanagh, Lindsay K; Zhu, Junjia; Cooper, Timothy K; Schell, Todd D

    2014-08-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in a subset of clinical and preclinical studies, but the T cells used for therapy often are rendered rapidly nonfunctional in tumor-bearing hosts. Recent evidence indicates that prostate cancer can be susceptible to immunotherapy, but most studies using autochthonous tumor models demonstrate only short-lived T-cell responses in the tolerogenic prostate microenvironment. Here, we assessed the efficacy of sublethal whole-body irradiation (WBI) to enhance the magnitude and duration of adoptively transferred CD8(+) T cells in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. We demonstrate that WBI promoted high-level accumulation of granzyme B (GzB, Gzmb)-expressing donor T cells both in lymphoid organs and in the prostate of TRAMP mice. Donor T cells remained responsive to vaccination in irradiated recipients, but a single round of WBI-enhanced adoptive immunotherapy failed to affect significantly the existing disease. Addition of a second round of immunotherapy promoted regression of established disease in half of the treated mice, with no progression observed. Regression was associated with long-term persistence of effector/memory phenotype CD8(+) donor cells. Administration of the second round of adoptive immunotherapy led to reacquisition of GzB expression by persistent T cells from the first transfer. These results indicate that WBI conditioning amplifies tumor-specific T cells in the TRAMP prostate and lymphoid tissue, and suggest that the initial treatment alters the tolerogenic microenvironment to increase antitumor activity by a second wave of donor cells.

  15. Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived myeloid suppressor cell (MDSC) adoptive transfer in mouse models of autoimmunity and allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Drujont, Lucile; Carretero-Iglesia, Laura; Bouchet-Delbos, Laurence; Beriou, Gaelle; Merieau, Emmanuel; Hill, Marcelo; Delneste, Yves; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Louvet, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic use of immunoregulatory cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of uncontrolled immunity. During the last decade, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as novel key regulatory players in the context of tumor growth, inflammation, transplantation or autoimmunity. Recently, MDSC have been successfully generated in vitro from naive mouse bone marrow cells or healthy human PBMCs using minimal cytokine combinations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of adoptive transfer of such cells to control auto- and allo-immunity in the mouse. Culture of bone marrow cells with GM-CSF and IL-6 consistently yielded a majority of CD11b+Gr1hi/lo cells exhibiting strong inhibition of CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro. However, adoptive transfer of these cells failed to alter antigen-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in vivo. Furthermore, MDSC could not prevent the development of autoimmunity in a stringent model of type 1 diabetes. Rather, loading the cells prior to injection with a pancreatic neo-antigen peptide accelerated the development of the disease. Contrastingly, in a model of skin transplantation, repeated injection of MDSC or single injection of LPS-activated MDSC resulted in a significant prolongation of allograft survival. The beneficial effect of MDSC infusions on skin graft survival was paradoxically not explained by a decrease of donor-specific T cell response but associated with a systemic over-activation of T cells and antigen presenting cells, prominently in the spleen. Taken together, our results indicate that in vitro generated MDSC bear therapeutic potential but will require additional in vitro factors or adjunct immunosuppressive treatments to achieve safe and more robust immunomodulation upon adoptive transfer.

  16. Adoptive transfer of T regulatory cells inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in fetal brain tissue in a late-pregnancy preterm birth mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Xiao, Mi; Chen, Ru-Juan; Lin, Xiao-Jie; Siddiq, Muhammad; Liu, Li

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of regulatory T cells (Tregs) on the inflammation resulting from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in prenatal brain tissue, Tregs isolated from pregnant mice were transferred into model mice, and the expression levels of fork head family transcription factor (Foxp3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), CD68 (a marker of microglia), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) were assessed in the fetal brain tissue. Foxp3, IL-6, and TLR-4 expression were detected by polymerase chain reaction and Western blot; CD68 expression level was detected using immunochemical analysis. Foxp3, IL-6, TLR-4, and CD68 expressions in fetal brain were significantly induced by maternal LPS administration, and the increased expression levels were markedly reduced by adoptive transfer of Tregs. Maternal LPS exposure significantly induced inflammation in perinatal brain tissue, and Tregs negatively regulated this LPS-induced inflammation.

  17. Memory T cells specific for murine cytomegalovirus re-emerge after multiple challenges and recapitulate immunity in various adoptive transfer scenarios.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael; Turula, Holly; Tandon, Mayank; Deslouches, Berthony; Moghbeli, Toktam; Snyder, Christopher M

    2015-02-15

    Reconstitution of CMV-specific immunity after transplant remains a primary clinical objective to prevent CMV disease, and adoptive immunotherapy of CMV-specific T cells can be an effective therapeutic approach. Because of viral persistence, most CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells become terminally differentiated effector phenotype CD8(+) T cells (TEFF). A minor subset retains a memory-like phenotype (memory phenotype CD8(+) T cells [TM]), but it is unknown whether these cells retain memory function or persist over time. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells with different phenotypes have different abilities to reconstitute sustained immunity after transfer. The immunology of human CMV infections is reflected in the murine CMV (MCMV) model. We found that human CMV- and MCMV-specific T cells displayed shared genetic programs, validating the MCMV model for studies of CMV-specific T cells in vivo. The MCMV-specific TM population was stable over time and retained a proliferative capacity that was vastly superior to TEFF. Strikingly, after transfer, TM established sustained and diverse T cell populations even after multiple challenges. Although both TEFF and TM could protect Rag(-/-) mice, only TM persisted after transfer into immune replete, latently infected recipients and responded if recipient immunity was lost. Interestingly, transferred TM did not expand until recipient immunity was lost, supporting that competition limits the Ag stimulation of TM. Ultimately, these data show that CMV-specific TM retain memory function during MCMV infection and can re-establish CMV immunity when necessary. Thus, TM may be a critical component for consistent, long-term adoptive immunotherapy success.

  18. Community College Transfer Student Involvement Experiences at a Selective, Private Four-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation tested the constructs of academic and social involvement and adjustment on grades as a pathway to explain community college transfer student experiences beyond the concept of transfer shock. The study contributes to the growing body of literature on Latina(o) community college transfer student experiences with the application of…

  19. How Design Experiments Can Inform a Rethinking of Transfer and Vice Versa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobato, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that the theoretical assumptions underlying a researcher's model of transfer affect how design decisions are made. Discusses limitations with the two most common approaches to transfer in design experiments, exploring how design experiments can challenge the basic assumptions underlying transfer models, and illustrating this point by…

  20. Adverse childhood experiences among children placed in and adopted from foster care: Evidence from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Despite good reason to believe that children in foster care are disproportionately exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), relatively little research considers exposure to ACEs among this group of vulnerable children. In this article, we use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between foster care placement and exposure to an array of ACEs. In adjusted logistic regression models, we find that children placed in foster care or adopted from foster care, compared to their counterparts, were more likely to experience parental divorce or separation, parental death, parental incarceration, parental abuse, violence exposure, household member mental illness, and household member substance abuse. These children were also more likely to experience ACEs than children across different thresholds of socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., children in households with incomes below the poverty line) and across different family structures (e.g., children in single-mother families). These results advance our understanding of how children in foster care, an already vulnerable population, are disproportionately exposed to ACEs. This exposure, given the link between ACEs and health, may have implications for children's health and wellbeing throughout the life course.

  1. Stress transfer through fibrous materials in wicking experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Andrukh, Taras; Kornev, Konstantin

    2009-11-01

    Due to the recent progress in preparation of fibers and nanofibers with different properties, the idea of smart textiles attracts much attention. In many situations the probes and sensors are designed for bio fluid detection. The liquid penetration in fibrous materials causes their deformations including stretching, twisting, wrinkling, buckling etc. The most of researches on wicking properties of textiles are focused on determination of media permeability and ignore the specific features of fibrous materials. On the other hand the theoretical works on quantitative analysis of the deformation effects in porous materials filled with liquids are mostly focused on deformation of fully saturated samples. The fundamental understanding of the stress transfer through the fiber network is crucial for sensors development, but to the best of our knowledge, the stress analysis in the fibrous materials absorbing liquids has never been discussed in the literature. This paper sets a physical basis for analysis of absorption processes in nanotubular and nanofibrous materials. We study absorption of droplets by yarns and webs made of fibers, develop a theory which explains the stress distribution in fibrous materials and checked this theory on wicking experiments. The reported theory and experiments propose a new area of research on absorption-induced deformations of fibrous materials.

  2. A single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of viral-specific T-cells from healthy donors: implications for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Spielmann, Guillaume; Bollard, Catherine M.; Kunz, Hawley; Hanley, Patrick J.; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The adoptive transfer of donor-derived viral-specific cytotoxic T-cells (VSTs) is an effective treatment for controlling CMV and EBV infections after HSCT; however, new practical methods are required to augment the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors. This study investigated the effects of a single exercise bout on the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs. PBMCs isolated from healthy CMV/EBV seropositive participants before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) 30-minutes of cycling exercise were stimulated with CMV (pp65 and IE1) and EBV (LMP2A and BMLF1) peptides and expanded over 8 days. The number (fold difference from PRE) of T-cells specific for CMV pp65 (2.6), EBV LMP2A (2.5), and EBV BMLF1 (4.4) was greater among the VSTs expanded POST. VSTs expanded PRE and POST had similar phenotype characteristics and were equally capable of MHC-restricted killing of autologous target cells. We conclude that a single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors without altering their phenotype or function and may serve as a simple and economical adjuvant to boost the production of multi-VSTs for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy. PMID:27181409

  3. Adoptive transfer of DNT cells induces long-term cardiac allograft survival and augments recipient CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cell accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhu-Xu; Lian, Dameng; Huang, Xuyan; Wang, Shuang; Sun, Hongtao; Liu, Weihua; Garcia, Bertha; Min, Wei-Ping; Jevnikar, Anthony M

    2011-01-15

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the regulation of immune responses but whether Treg will induce tolerance in transplant recipients in the clinic remains unknown. Our previous studies have shown that TCRαβ(+)CD3(+)CD4⁻CD8⁻NK1.1⁻ (double negative, DN) T cells suppress T cell responses and prolong allograft survival in a single locus MHC-mismatched mouse model. In this study, we investigated the role of DNT cells in a more robust, fully MHC-mismatched BALB/c to C57BL/6 transplantation model, which may be more clinically relevant. Adoptive transfer of DNT cells in combination with short-term rapamycin treatment (days 1-9) induced long-term heart allograft survival (101±31 vs. 39±13 days rapamycin alone, p<0.01). Furthermore adoptive transfer DNT cells augmented CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells accumulation in transplant recipients while depletion of CD4(+) Treg cells by anti-CD25 inhibited the effect of DNT cells on long-term graft survival (48±12 days vs. 101±31 days, p<0.001). In conclusion, DNT cells combined with short-term immunosuppression can prolong allograft survival, which may be through the accumulation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the recipient. Our result suggests that allograft tolerance may require the co-existence of different type Treg cell phenotypes which are affected by current immunosuppression.

  4. Adoptive transfer of pp65-specific T cells for the treatment of chemorefractory cytomegalovirus disease or reactivation after haploidentical and matched unrelated stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Feuchtinger, Tobias; Opherk, Kathrin; Bethge, Wolfgang A; Topp, Max S; Schuster, Friedhelm R; Weissinger, Eva M; Mohty, Mohamad; Or, Reuven; Maschan, Michael; Schumm, Michael; Hamprecht, Klaus; Handgretinger, Rupert; Lang, Peter; Einsele, Hermann

    2010-11-18

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease and infection refractory to antiviral treatment after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is associated with a high mortality. Adoptive transfer of CMV-specific T cells could reconstitute viral immunity after SCT and could protect from CMV-related complications. However, logistics of producing virus-specific T-cell grafts limited the clinical application. We treated 18 patients after allo-SCT from human leukocyte antigen-mismatched/haploidentical or human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated donors with polyclonal CMV-specific T cells generated by ex vivo stimulation with pp65, followed by isolation of interferon-γ-producing cells. Patients with CMV disease or viremia refractory to antiviral chemotherapy or both were eligible for adoptive T-cell transfer and received a mean of 21 × 10³/kg pp65-specific T cells. In 83% of cases CMV infection was cleared or viral burden was significantly reduced, even in cases of CMV encephalitis (n = 2). Viral control was associated with in vivo expansion of CMV-specific T lymphocytes in 12 of 16 evaluable cases, resulting in reconstitution of antiviral T-cell responses, without graft-versus-host disease induction or acute side effects. Our findings indicate that the infusion of low numbers of CMV-specific T cells is safe, feasible, and effective as a treatment on demand for refractory CMV infection and CMV disease after allo-SCT.

  5. Predicting Community College Transfer Student Success: The Role of Community College Academic Experiences on Post-Transfer Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kristin LeAnne

    2013-01-01

    Community college students who transfer to four-year universities face a variety of academic, social, and psychological challenges as they adjust to new postsecondary institutions (Laanan, 2001; Townsend, 2008). Student success through the transfer process is positively influenced by accumulated knowledge, skills, and experiences from the…

  6. Indiana Regional Transfer Study: The Student Experience of Transfer Pathways between Ivy Tech Community College and Indiana University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlec, Alison; Gupta, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    This report details findings from focus groups with college students across Indiana. All of these students were planning to transfer or had transferred from the state community college system, Ivy Tech, to a school in the Indiana University system. We wanted to find out what these students had to say about their experiences preparing for and…

  7. Second Chances: Investigating Athletes’ Experiences of Talent Transfer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Talent transfer initiatives seek to transfer talented, mature individuals from one sport to another. Unfortunately talent transfer initiatives seem to lack an evidence-based direction and a rigorous exploration of the mechanisms underpinning the approach. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify the factors which successfully transferring athletes cite as facilitative of talent transfer. In contrast to the anthropometric and performance variables that underpin current talent transfer initiatives, participants identified a range of psycho-behavioral and environmental factors as key to successful transfer. We argue that further research into the mechanisms of talent transfer is needed in order to provide a strong evidence base for the methodologies employed in these initiatives. PMID:26600303

  8. Technology Transfer: Technocultures, Power and Communication--The Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Elizabeth; Irwin, Harry

    1995-01-01

    Discusses issues of communication and power in the organizational dimensions of international technology transfer, including technoculture differences and strategic political alliances. Theoretical discussion is supplemented by analysis of international technology transfer activities involving Australian participation in the aerospace and…

  9. Second Chances: Investigating Athletes' Experiences of Talent Transfer.

    PubMed

    MacNamara, Áine; Collins, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Talent transfer initiatives seek to transfer talented, mature individuals from one sport to another. Unfortunately talent transfer initiatives seem to lack an evidence-based direction and a rigorous exploration of the mechanisms underpinning the approach. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify the factors which successfully transferring athletes cite as facilitative of talent transfer. In contrast to the anthropometric and performance variables that underpin current talent transfer initiatives, participants identified a range of psycho-behavioral and environmental factors as key to successful transfer. We argue that further research into the mechanisms of talent transfer is needed in order to provide a strong evidence base for the methodologies employed in these initiatives.

  10. GVHD-associated, inflammasome-mediated loss of function in adoptively transferred myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Brent H; Apostolova, Petya; Haverkamp, Jessica M; Miller, Jeffrey S; McCullar, Valarie; Tolar, Jakub; Munn, David H; Murphy, William J; Brickey, Willie June; Serody, Jonathan S; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Bronte, Vincenzo; Murray, Peter J; Ting, Jenny P-Y; Zeiser, Robert; Blazar, Bruce R

    2015-09-24

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a naturally occurring immune regulatory population associated with inhibition of ongoing inflammatory responses. In vitro generation of MDSCs from bone marrow has been shown to enhance survival in an acute model of lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, donor MDSC infusion only partially ameliorates GVHD lethality. In order to improve the potential therapeutic benefit and ultimately survival outcomes, we set out to investigate the fate of MDSCs after transfer in the setting of acute GVHD (aGVHD). MDSCs transferred to lethally irradiated recipients of allogeneic donor hematopoietic grafts are exposed to an intense inflammatory environment associated with aGVHD, which we now show directly undermines their suppressive capacity. Under a conditioning regimen and GVHD inflammatory settings, MDSCs rapidly lose suppressor function and their potential to inhibit GVHD lethality, which is associated with their induced conversion toward a mature inflammasome-activated state. We find even brief in vitro exposure to inflammasome-activating mediators negates the suppressive potential of cultured murine and human-derived MDSCs. Consistent with a role for the inflammasome, donor MDSCs deficient in the adaptor ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), which assembles inflammasome complexes, conferred improved survival of mice developing GVHD compared with wild-type donor MDSCs. These data suggest the use of MDSCs as a therapeutic approach for preventing GVHD and other systemic inflammatory conditions will be more effective when combined with approaches limiting in vivo MDSC inflammasome activation, empowering MDSCs to maintain their suppressive potential.

  11. GVHD-associated, inflammasome-mediated loss of function in adoptively transferred myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    PubMed Central

    Koehn, Brent H.; Apostolova, Petya; Haverkamp, Jessica M.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; McCullar, Valarie; Tolar, Jakub; Munn, David H.; Murphy, William J.; Brickey, Willie June; Serody, Jonathan S.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.; Bronte, Vincenzo; Murray, Peter J.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.; Zeiser, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a naturally occurring immune regulatory population associated with inhibition of ongoing inflammatory responses. In vitro generation of MDSCs from bone marrow has been shown to enhance survival in an acute model of lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, donor MDSC infusion only partially ameliorates GVHD lethality. In order to improve the potential therapeutic benefit and ultimately survival outcomes, we set out to investigate the fate of MDSCs after transfer in the setting of acute GVHD (aGVHD). MDSCs transferred to lethally irradiated recipients of allogeneic donor hematopoietic grafts are exposed to an intense inflammatory environment associated with aGVHD, which we now show directly undermines their suppressive capacity. Under a conditioning regimen and GVHD inflammatory settings, MDSCs rapidly lose suppressor function and their potential to inhibit GVHD lethality, which is associated with their induced conversion toward a mature inflammasome-activated state. We find even brief in vitro exposure to inflammasome-activating mediators negates the suppressive potential of cultured murine and human-derived MDSCs. Consistent with a role for the inflammasome, donor MDSCs deficient in the adaptor ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), which assembles inflammasome complexes, conferred improved survival of mice developing GVHD compared with wild-type donor MDSCs. These data suggest the use of MDSCs as a therapeutic approach for preventing GVHD and other systemic inflammatory conditions will be more effective when combined with approaches limiting in vivo MDSC inflammasome activation, empowering MDSCs to maintain their suppressive potential. PMID:26265697

  12. Suppression of disease in New Zealand Black/New Zealand White lupus-prone mice by adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Scalapino, Kenneth J; Tang, Qizhi; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Bonyhadi, Mark L; Daikh, David I

    2006-08-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that a subset of CD4(+) T cells with regulatory capacity (regulatory T cells; T(regs)) can function to control organ-specific autoimmune disease. To determine whether abnormalities of thymic-derived T(regs) play a role in systemic lupus erythematosus, we evaluated T(reg) prevalence and function in (New Zealand Black x New Zealand White)F(1) (B/W) lupus-prone mice. To explore the potential of T(regs) to suppress disease, we evaluated the effect of adoptive transfer of purified, ex vivo expanded thymic-derived T(regs) on the progression of renal disease. We found that although the prevalence of T(regs) is reduced in regional lymph nodes and spleen of prediseased B/W mice compared with age-matched non-autoimmune mice, these cells increase in number in older diseased mice. In addition, the ability of these cells to proliferate in vitro was comparable to those purified from non-autoimmune control animals. Purified CD4(+)CD25(+)CD62L(high) B/W T(regs) were expanded ex vivo 80-fold, resulting in cells with a stable suppressor phenotype. Adoptive transfer of these exogenously expanded cells reduced the rate at which mice developed renal disease; a second transfer after treated animals had developed proteinuria further slowed the progression of renal disease and significantly improved survival. These studies indicate that thymic-derived T(regs) may have a significant role in the control of autoimmunity in lupus-prone B/W mice, and augmentation of these cells may constitute a novel therapeutic approach for systemic lupus erythematosus.

  13. Antibody responses to allergen Lol pIV are suppressed following adoptive transfer of B lymphocytes from the internal image anti-idiotypic antibody-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-10-01

    An internal image anti-idiotypic antibody, designated B1/1, was generated against an idiotope (Id91) of the monoclonal antibody (mAb91) specific for Lol pIV. The administration of B1/1 in PBS, at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms/mouse, to syngeneic Balb/c mice resulted in the suppression of the formation of anti-Lol pIV antibodies that possessed the Id91. Spleen cells obtained from the mice 2 weeks after the treatment with B1/1 (25 micrograms/mouse) were adoptively transferred intravenously into the syngeneic recipients which were challenged intraperitoneally with Lol pIV in alum 2 hr after the transfer. The recipients were boosted with Lol pIV 14 days later. It was demonstrated that the transfer of splenic B cells (but not of T cells) from B1/1-treated donors induced a significant suppression of not only the level of IgE and IgG antibodies to Lol pIV, but also the level of antibodies possessing the Id91. Treatment of the B cells with mAb91 plus complement abrogated their ability to transfer the suppression. This study indicates that the treatment with the anti-Id B1/1 generated B cells that were characterized, serologically, as possessing the anti-Id-like antibodies on their surface and were responsible for transferring the suppression of the formation of antibodies to allergen Lol pIV and the expression of Id91.

  14. "When You're Sitting on the Fence, Hope's the Hardest Part": Challenges and Experiences of Heterosexual and Same-Sex Couples Adopting Through the Child Welfare System.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie; Moyer, April M; Kinkler, Lori A; Richardson, Hannah B

    2012-01-01

    Foster-to-adopt families can be viewed as systems that are influenced by many other systems (e.g., the legal system, the social service agency, and the birth family). The current qualitative study of 84 foster-to-adopt parents (members of 42 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples) examined the types of challenges that parents faced as they navigated multiple systems during the initial post-placement period. Some participants described the legal insecurity associated with their role as foster-to-adopt parents as impacting their personal well-being and their attachment to their children. Lack of support services and disorganization within social service agencies, as well as strained relationships with birth parents, were also identified as stressors for foster-to-adopt parents. Importantly, lesbian and gay participants faced additional concerns regarding the security of their placement, due to the possibility for discrimination within the various systems involved with the foster-to-adopt process. Participants as a whole also identified positive aspects of their experiences within various systems; for example, they appreciated child care subsidies, state-provided health insurance, and supportive social workers. Our findings provide insights into foster-to-adopt parents' experiences during the initial post-placement period, and have implications for adoption services aimed to improve placement stability and enhance family functioning in foster-to-adopt families.

  15. Preliminary design for Arctic atmospheric radiative transfer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, B. D.; Church, H. W.; Stamnes, K.; Shaw, G.; Filyushkin, V.; Jin, Z.; Ellingson, R. G.; Tsay, S. C.

    1995-01-01

    If current plans are realized, within the next few years, an extraordinary set of coordinated research efforts focusing on energy flows in the Arctic will be implemented. All are motivated by the prospect of global climate change. SHEBA (Surface Energy Budget of the Arctic Ocean), led by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR), involves instrumenting an ice camp in the perennial Arctic ice pack, and taking data for 12-18 months. The ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) focuses on atmospheric radiative transport, especially in the presence of clouds. The NSA/AAO CART involves instrumenting a sizeable area on the North Slope of Alaska and adjacent waters in the vicinity of Barrow, and acquiring data over a period of about 10 years. FIRE (First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program) Regional Experiment) Phase 3 is a program led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which focuses on Arctic clouds, and which is coordinated with SHEBA and ARM. FIRE has historically emphasized data from airborne and satellite platforms. All three program anticipate initiating Arctic data acquisition during spring, 1997. In light of his historic opportunity, the authors discuss a strawman atmospheric radiative transfer experimental plan that identifies which features of the radiative transport models they think should be tested, what experimental data are required for each type of test, the platforms and instrumentation necessary to acquire those data, and in general terms, how the experiments could be conducted. Aspects of the plan are applicable to all three programs.

  16. 'She was a foster mother who said she didn't give cuddles': The adverse early foster care experiences of children who later struggle with adoptive family life.

    PubMed

    Meakings, Sarah; Selwyn, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Foster care remains a valuable and safe intervention for many children unable to live with their birth family. When birth family reunification is not considered possible, a small proportion of children in foster care will go on to achieve permanency by way of adoption. This article reports on some unexpected findings to emerge from two national adoption studies of previously looked after children in England and Wales. Focussing on a subset of families who had experienced or were at risk of an adoption disruption, the findings revealed that not only did children carry elevated risks for disruption due to their older age at entry to care, multiple foster care placements and traumatic early histories, but once in care, many of the children whose placements had disrupted were considered by their adoptive parents to have had very poor, even harmful fostering experiences before being placed for adoption. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, together with the implications for social work practice.

  17. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  18. Policy Borrowing and Transfer, and Policy Convergence: Justifications for the Adoption of the Bologna Process in the CEMAC Region and the Cameroonian Higher Education System through the LMD Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor

    2015-01-01

    The borrowing and transfer of policies, ideas and practices from one system to another may in part explain the convergence of educational systems. Using text documents as research material, this paper examines the adoption and transfer of Bologna Process (BP) ideas in the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) and in the…

  19. A Qualitative Analysis of BSN Transfer Student Perspectives and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Kit I.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively few studies have focused on two-year college BSN transfer students and the unique features that predict their educational outcomes. Conducting one-on-one interviews with seven students from one of three University of Wisconsin baccalaureate institutions who had transferred to a four-year institution from either a two-year University of…

  20. The Experience of Outsourcing Transfer: Implications for Guidance and Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Stephanie; Symon, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Outsourcing can involve the forced transfer of employees to another organisation. During or after the transfer they may find their jobs have changed or go through a process of downsizing. They also often have to maintain a relationship with their previous employer as they continue to work on joint projects. In this paper we review relevant…

  1. Efficient tumor regression by adoptively transferred CEA-specific CAR-T cells associated with symptoms of mild cytokine release syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linan; Ma, Ning; Okamoto, Sachiko; Amaishi, Yasunori; Sato, Eiichi; Seo, Naohiro; Mineno, Junichi; Takesako, Kazutoh; Kato, Takuma; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell surface antigen highly expressed in various cancer cell types and in healthy tissues. It has the potential to be a target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cell therapy; however, the safety of this approach in terms of on-target/off-tumor effects needs to be determined. To address this issue in a clinically relevant model, we used a mouse model in which the T cells expressing CEA-specific CAR were transferred into tumor-bearing CEA-transgenic (Tg) mice that physiologically expressed CEA as a self-antigen. The adoptive transfer in conjunction with lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning mediated significant tumor regression but caused weight loss in CEA-Tg, but not in wild-type mice. The weight loss was not associated with overt inflammation in the CEA-expressing gastrointestinal tract but was associated with malnutrition, reflected in elevated systemic levels of cytokines linked to anorexia, which could be controlled by the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody without compromising efficacy. The apparent relationship between lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning, efficacy, and off-tumor toxicity of CAR-T cells would necessitate the development of CEA-specific CAR-T cells with improved signaling domains that require less stringent preconditioning for their efficacy. Taken together, these results suggest that CEA-specific CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy may be effective for patients with CEA(+) solid tumors. Distinguishing the fine line between therapeutic efficacy and off-tumor toxicity would involve further modifications of CAR-T cells and preconditioning regimens.

  2. Intestinal barrier dysfunction develops at the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and can be induced by adoptive transfer of auto-reactive T cells.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mehrnaz; Bredberg, Anders; Weström, Björn; Lavasani, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a pathogenesis involving a dysfunctional blood-brain barrier and myelin-specific, autoreactive T cells. Although the commensal microbiota seems to affect its pathogenesis, regulation of the interactions between luminal antigens and mucosal immune elements remains unclear. Herein, we investigated whether the intestinal mucosal barrier is also targeted in this disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the prototypic animal model of MS, was induced either by active immunization or by adoptive transfer of autoreactive T cells isolated from these mice. We show increased intestinal permeability, overexpression of the tight junction protein zonulin and alterations in intestinal morphology (increased crypt depth and thickness of the submucosa and muscularis layers). These intestinal manifestations were seen at 7 days (i.e., preceding the onset of neurological symptoms) and at 14 days (i.e., at the stage of paralysis) after immunization. We also demonstrate an increased infiltration of proinflammatory Th1/Th17 cells and a reduced regulatory T cell number in the gut lamina propria, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. Adoptive transfer to healthy mice of encephalitogenic T cells, isolated from EAE-diseased animals, led to intestinal changes similar to those resulting from the immunization procedure. Our findings show that disruption of intestinal homeostasis is an early and immune-mediated event in EAE. We propose that this intestinal dysfunction may act to support disease progression, and thus represent a potential therapeutic target in MS. In particular, an increased understanding of the regulation of tight junctions at the blood-brain barrier and in the intestinal wall may be crucial for design of future innovative therapies.

  3. Efficient tumor regression by adoptively transferred CEA-specific CAR-T cells associated with symptoms of mild cytokine release syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linan; Ma, Ning; Okamoto, Sachiko; Amaishi, Yasunori; Sato, Eiichi; Seo, Naohiro; Mineno, Junichi; Takesako, Kazutoh; Kato, Takuma; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell surface antigen highly expressed in various cancer cell types and in healthy tissues. It has the potential to be a target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cell therapy; however, the safety of this approach in terms of on-target/off-tumor effects needs to be determined. To address this issue in a clinically relevant model, we used a mouse model in which the T cells expressing CEA-specific CAR were transferred into tumor-bearing CEA-transgenic (Tg) mice that physiologically expressed CEA as a self-antigen. The adoptive transfer in conjunction with lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning mediated significant tumor regression but caused weight loss in CEA-Tg, but not in wild-type mice. The weight loss was not associated with overt inflammation in the CEA-expressing gastrointestinal tract but was associated with malnutrition, reflected in elevated systemic levels of cytokines linked to anorexia, which could be controlled by the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody without compromising efficacy. The apparent relationship between lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning, efficacy, and off-tumor toxicity of CAR-T cells would necessitate the development of CEA-specific CAR-T cells with improved signaling domains that require less stringent preconditioning for their efficacy. Taken together, these results suggest that CEA-specific CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy may be effective for patients with CEA+ solid tumors. Distinguishing the fine line between therapeutic efficacy and off-tumor toxicity would involve further modifications of CAR-T cells and preconditioning regimens. PMID:27757303

  4. C-C chemokine receptor type-4 transduction of T cells enhances interaction with dendritic cells, tumor infiltration and therapeutic efficacy of adoptive T cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Moritz; Grassmann, Simon; Chaloupka, Michael; Layritz, Patrick; Kruger, Stephan; Ormanns, Steffen; Rataj, Felicitas; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Endres, Stefan; Anz, David; Kobold, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    T cell infiltration at the tumor site has been identified as a major predictor for the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. The chemokine C-C motif ligand 22 (CCL22) is highly expressed by immune cells in murine and human pancreatic cancer. Expression of its corresponding receptor, C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4), is restricted to regulatory T cells (Treg). We show that transduction of cytotoxic T cells (CTL) with CCR4 enhances their immigration into a pancreatic cancer model. Further, we show that binding of CCR4 with CCL22 strengthens the binding of T cell LFA-1 to dendritic cell (DC) ICAM-1 and increases CTL activation. In vivo, in a model of subcutaneous pancreatic cancer, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with CCR4-transduced CTL led to the eradication of established tumors in 40% of the mice. In conclusion, CCR4 overexpression in CTL is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance the efficacy of adoptive T cell transfer (ACT).

  5. Adoptive transfer of Aspergillus-specific T cells as a novel anti-fungal therapy for hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: Progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Anastasia; Kaloyannidis, Panayotis; Yannaki, Evangelia; Cruz, Conrad Russell

    2016-02-01

    Although newer antifungal drugs have substantially altered the natural history of invasive aspergillosis, the disease still accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Both the evidence supporting a protective role of T cells against this fungal pathogen and the documented efficacy of adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells for prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections post-transplant have stimulated much interest towards development of Aspergillus-specific T cells (Asp-STs) for adoptive immunotherapy in the allogeneic transplant setting. In contrast to the remarkable progress with virus-specific T cells, clinical development of fungus-specific T cells is still in its infancy. Several groups have characterized Asp-STs in healthy individuals and patients with malignant hematological diseases, while others sought to develop GMP-compliant methods of expanding or bioengineering Asp-STs ex vivo as immunotherapy. This review highlights the recent advances in this field, and discusses critical issues involved in development and protocol design of Asp-ST immunotherapy.

  6. Combined IL-15 and IL-12 drives the generation of CD34(+)-derived natural killer cells with superior maturation and alloreactivity potential following adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Cany, Jeannette; van der Waart, Anniek B; Spanholtz, Jan; Tordoir, Marleen; Jansen, Joop H; van der Voort, Robbert; Schaap, Nicolaas M; Dolstra, Harry

    2015-07-01

    Adoptive transfer of allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells represents a promising treatment approach against cancer, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previously, we reported a cytokine-based culture method for the generation of NK cell products with high cell number and purity. In this system, CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) were expanded and differentiated into NK cells under stroma-free conditions in the presence of IL-15 and IL-2. We show that combining IL-15 with IL-12 drives the generation of more mature and highly functional NK cells. In particular, replacement of IL-2 by IL-12 enhanced the cytolytic activity and IFNγ production of HPC-NK cells toward cultured and primary AML cells in vitro, and improved antileukemic responses in NOD/SCID-IL2Rγnull (NSG) mice bearing human AML cells. Phenotypically, IL-12 increased the frequency of HPC-NK cells expressing NKG2A and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR), which were more responsive to target cell stimulation. In addition, NK15/12 cell products demonstrated superior maturation potential, resulting in >70% positivity for CD16 and/or KIR within 2 weeks after infusion into NSG mice. We predict that higher functionality and faster in vivo maturation will favor HPC-NK cell alloreactivity toward malignant cells in patients, making this cytokine combination an attractive strategy to generate clinical HPC-NK cell products for cancer adoptive immunotherapy.

  7. Experiments on heat transfer in a cryogenic engine thrust chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugathan, N.; Srinivasan, K.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    1993-04-01

    Tests are conducted on a cryogenic engine using liquid oxygen as oxidizer and gaseous hydrogen as fuel with water as a coolant. The coolant flow passage of the thrust chamber is of milled channel configuration. Measured heat transfer results compare well with those predicted by a thermal analysis using the standard Bartz correlation and the Hess and Kunz correlation for hot gas side and coolant side heat transfer coefficients, respectively. This confirms the conclusions of a recent theoretical study by the authors in which a comparison of various heat transfer correlations was made.

  8. Cutaneous sensitivity induced by immunization with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. I. Induction, elicitation, and adoptive transfer analysis of cell-mediated cutaneous sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ch'ang, L.Y.; Colley, D.G.

    1986-06-01

    Exposure of C57BL/6 mice to highly irradiated (50 kR) cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni leads to the development of partial resistance against subsequent challenge with unattenuated cercariae. We have analyzed the cellular immune responses that occur during the afferent and efferent phases of this protective sensitization. Mice were immunized by exposure to irradiated S. mansoni cercariae. After challenge with irradiated cercariae, delayed-type (18-72 hr) cutaneous sensitivity reaction sites were rich in mononuclear cells and eosinophils. This reactivity was established by 4 days after sensitization, reached its maximum between 7 and 14 days after sensitization, and was maintained for over 20 weeks. These challenge reactions could be abrogated by treatment with either 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or 5 mg of hydrocortisone. Syngeneic adoptive transfer of cutaneous sensitivity was accomplished with lymphoid cells from the draining lymph nodes or spleens of mice sensitized 7-14 days previously. Negative selection studies of nylon-wool non-adherent cells from sensitized donors demonstrated that the cells responsible for transferring this eosinophil-rich, delayed-type cutaneous sensitivity to S. mansoni irradiated cercariae were Thy/sup -1 +/, Lyt/sup 1 +/, Lyt/sup 2 -/, surface Ig/sup -/ lymphocytes.

  9. Arthritogenic T cells drive the recovery of autoantibody-producing B cell homeostasis and the adoptive transfer of arthritis in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Kis-Toth, Katalin; Radacs, Marianna; Olasz, Katalin; van Eden, Willem; Mikecz, Katalin; Glant, Tibor T

    2012-08-01

    T cells orchestrate joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but B cells/B cell-derived factors are also involved in disease pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to understand the role of antigen-specific T and B cells in the pathological events of arthritis, which is impossible to study in humans due to the small number of antigen-specific cells. To determine the significance of antigen-specific lymphocytes and antibodies in the development of an autoimmune mouse model of RA, we generated TCR transgenic (TCR-Tg) mice specific for the dominant arthritogenic epitope of cartilage proteoglycan (PG) and performed a series of combined transfers of T cells, B cells and autoantibodies into BALB/c.Scid mice. The adoptive transfer of highly purified T cells from naive TCR-Tg, arthritic TCR-Tg or arthritic wild-type mice induced arthritis in SCID recipients, but the onset and severity of the disease were dependent on the sequential events of the T cell-supported reconstitution of PG-specific B cells and autoantibodies. The presence of activated PG-specific T cells was critical for disease induction, establishing a unique milieu for the selective homeostasis of autoantibody-producing B cells. In this permissive environment, anti-PG autoantibodies bound to cartilage and induced activation of the complement cascade, leading to irreversible cartilage destruction in affected joints. These findings may lead to a better understanding of the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms of RA.

  10. Assisting adoptive families: children adopted at older ages.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ellen; Krebs, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the adoption experience can help health care providers develop sensitivity to the special tasks of adopted children and their families. Children who are adopted at older ages may face particular challenges. Age at adoptive placement, the burden of loss, pre-adoptive experiences, and the challenge of attachment are all significant issues in older-child adoption. Pediatric nurses demonstrate sensitivity and support to adopted children and their families by using appropriate language about adoption; understanding the significance of missing health information; providing appropriate referrals as needed; and displaying an open, caring attitude.

  11. Transfer Rate Edited experiment for the selective detection of Chemical Exchange via Saturation Transfer (TRE-CEST).

    PubMed

    Friedman, Joshua I; Xia, Ding; Regatte, Ravinder R; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-07-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance experiments have become valuable tools in magnetic resonance for the detection of low concentration solutes with far greater sensitivity than direct detection methods. Accurate measures of rates of chemical exchange provided by CEST are of particular interest to biomedical imaging communities where variations in chemical exchange can be related to subtle variations in biomarker concentration, temperature and pH within tissues using MRI. Despite their name, however, traditional CEST methods are not truly selective for chemical exchange and instead detect all forms of magnetization transfer including through-space NOE. This ambiguity crowds CEST spectra and greatly complicates subsequent data analysis. We have developed a Transfer Rate Edited CEST experiment (TRE-CEST) that uses two different types of solute labeling in order to selectively amplify signals of rapidly exchanging proton species while simultaneously suppressing 'slower' NOE-dominated magnetization transfer processes. This approach is demonstrated in the context of both NMR and MRI, where it is used to detect the labile amide protons of proteins undergoing chemical exchange (at rates⩾30s(-1)) while simultaneously eliminating signals originating from slower (∼5s(-1)) NOE-mediated magnetization transfer processes. TRE-CEST greatly expands the utility of CEST experiments in complex systems, and in-vivo, in particular, where it is expected to improve the quantification of chemical exchange and magnetization transfer rates while enabling new forms of imaging contrast.

  12. Transfer Rate Edited experiment for the selective detection of Chemical Exchange via Saturation Transfer (TRE-CEST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Joshua I.; Xia, Ding; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-07-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance experiments have become valuable tools in magnetic resonance for the detection of low concentration solutes with far greater sensitivity than direct detection methods. Accurate measures of rates of chemical exchange provided by CEST are of particular interest to biomedical imaging communities where variations in chemical exchange can be related to subtle variations in biomarker concentration, temperature and pH within tissues using MRI. Despite their name, however, traditional CEST methods are not truly selective for chemical exchange and instead detect all forms of magnetization transfer including through-space NOE. This ambiguity crowds CEST spectra and greatly complicates subsequent data analysis. We have developed a Transfer Rate Edited CEST experiment (TRE-CEST) that uses two different types of solute labeling in order to selectively amplify signals of rapidly exchanging proton species while simultaneously suppressing 'slower' NOE-dominated magnetization transfer processes. This approach is demonstrated in the context of both NMR and MRI, where it is used to detect the labile amide protons of proteins undergoing chemical exchange (at rates ⩾ 30 s-1) while simultaneously eliminating signals originating from slower (∼5 s-1) NOE-mediated magnetization transfer processes. TRE-CEST greatly expands the utility of CEST experiments in complex systems, and in-vivo, in particular, where it is expected to improve the quantification of chemical exchange and magnetization transfer rates while enabling new forms of imaging contrast.

  13. Adoptive Transfer of Treg Cells Combined with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitates Repopulation of Endogenous Treg Cells in a Murine Acute GVHD Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sol; Lim, Jung-Yeon; Im, Keon-Il; Kim, Nayoun; Nam, Young-Sun; Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of combined cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have recently been studied in acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) models. However, the underlying, seemingly synergistic mechanism behind combined cell therapy has not been determined. We investigated the origin of Foxp3+ Treg cells and interleukin 17 (IL-17+) cells in recipients following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) to identify the immunological effects of combined cell therapy. Treg cells were generated from eGFP-expressing C57BL/6 mice (Tregegfp cells) to distinguish the transferred Treg cells; recipients were then examined at different time points after BMT. Systemic infusion of MSCs and Treg cells improved survival and GVHD scores, effectively downregulating pro-inflammatory Th×and Th17 cells. These therapeutic effects of combined cell therapy resulted in an increased Foxp3+ Treg cell population. Compared to single cell therapy, adoptively transferred Tregegfp cells only showed prolonged survival in the combined cell therapy group on day 21 after allogeneic BMT. In addition, Foxp3+ Treg cells, generated endogenously from recipients, significantly increased. Significantly higher levels of Tregegfp cells were also detected in aGVHD target organs in the combined cell therapy group compared to the Treg cells group. Thus, our data indicate that MSCs may induce the long-term survival of transferred Treg cells, particularly in aGVHD target organs, and may increase the repopulation of endogenous Treg cells in recipients after BMT. Together, these results support the potential of combined cell therapy using MSCs and Treg cells for preventing aGVHD.

  14. Analysis of dewar and transfer line cooldown in Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer Flight Experiment (SHOOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. S.; Lee, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer Flight Experiment (SHOOT) is designed to demonstrate the techniques and components required for orbital superfluid (He II) replenishment of observatories and satellites. One of the tasks planned in the experiment is to cool a warm cryogen tank and a warm transfer line to liquid helium temperature. A math model, based on single-phase vapor flow heat transfer, has been developed to predict the cooldown time, component temperature histories, and helium consumption rate, for various initial conditions of the components and for the thermomechanical pump heater powers of 2 W and 0.5 W. This paper discusses the model and the analytical results, which can be used for planning the experiment operations and determining the pump heater power required for the cooldown operation.

  15. The Adopt-A-Buoy Project: A Firsthand Experience for Students in Collecting, Processing and Analyzing Environmental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter-Menge, J.; Stott, G.; Harriman, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Elder, B. C.; Polashenski, C.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 4 school years, our team of Arctic sea ice researchers and middle school teachers has collaborated in an educational outreach activity to develop a series of earth science classes aimed at 8th grade science students. Central to the effort is an environmental observation site installed at the school, designed to closely mimic sea ice mass balance buoys deployed as part of an NSF-sponsored Arctic Observing Network (AON) project. The site located at the school collects data on air temperature, barometric pressure, snow depth, and snow and ground temperatures. Working directly with the research team over the course of the school year, students learn to collect, process, and analyze the local environmental data. Key to the experience is the students' opportunity to pose and address open-ended questions about a set of scientific data that is inherently familiar to them, since it reflects the seasonal conditions they are witnessing (e.g. the 2011-12 New England winter with no snow). During the series of classes, students are also exposed to the similar set of environmental data collected in the Arctic, via a sea ice mass balance buoy they ';adopt.' The arctic data set opens the door to discussions about climate change and its particularly dramatic affect on the arctic environment. Efforts are underway to transform this outreach project into an expanded earth science classroom module for use at other schools. Portability will require an approach that makes connections to the Arctic without a reliance on the multiple visits to the classroom by the research team (e.g. forming and facilitating partnerships with Arctic schools and field researchers via the internet). We are also evaluating the possibility of constructing low cost, portable weather stations to be used with the module.

  16. Host T cells are the main producers of IL-17 within the central nervous system during initiation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by adoptive transfer of Th1 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lees, Jason R; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Russell, John H

    2008-06-15

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, has long been thought to be mediated by Th1 CD4(+) T cells. Using adoptive transfer techniques, transfer of CNS specific Th1 T cells was sufficient to induce EAE in naive mice. However, recent studies found a vital role for IL-17 in induction of EAE. These studies suggested that a fraction of IL-17-producing T cells that contaminate Th1 polarized cell lines are largely responsible for initiation of EAE. In this study, we tracked the appearance and cytokine production capacity of adoptively transferred cells within the CNS of mice throughout EAE disease. IL-17-producing, adoptively transferred cells were not enriched over the low percentages present in vitro. Thus, there was no selective recruitment and/or preferential proliferation of adoptively transferred IL-17-producing cells during the induction of EAE. Instead a large number of CNS infiltrating host T cells in mice with EAE were capable of producing IL-17 following ex vivo stimulation. The IL-17-producing T cells contained both alphabeta and gammadelta TCR(+) T cells with a CD4(+)CD8(-) or CD4(-)CD8(-) phenotype. These cells concentrated within the CNS within 3 days of adoptive transfer, and appeared to play a role in EAE induction as adoptive transfer of Th1 lines derived from wild-type mice into IL-17-deficient mice induced reduced EAE clinical outcomes. This study demonstrates that an encephalitogenic Th1 cell line induces recruitment of host IL-17-producing T cells to the CNS during the initiation of EAE and that these cells contribute to the incidence and severity of disease.

  17. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  18. OGO-6 gas-surface energy transfer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeown, D.; Dummer, R. S.; Bowyer, J. M., Jr.; Corbin, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The kinetic energy flux of the upper atmosphere was analyzed using OGO-6 data. Energy transfer between 10 microwatts/sq cm and 0.1 W/sq cm was measured by short-term frequency changes of temperature-sensitive quartz crystals used in the energy transfer probe. The condition of the surfaces was continuously monitored by a quartz crystal microbalance to determine the effect surface contamination had on energy accommodation. Results are given on the computer analysis and laboratory tests performed to optimize the operation of the energy transfer probe. Data are also given on the bombardment of OGO-6 surfaces by high energy particles. The thermoelectrically-cooled quartz crystal microbalance is described in terms of its development and applications.

  19. Media Selection for Agricultural Knowledge Transfer: The Malaysian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Hassan, Musa

    A study examined the ways in which the staffs of communication units in agricultural extension agencies in Malaysia select media to transfer knowledge to their clients. A survey method of data collection was employed, whereby 95 staff of communication units from 11 development agencies were asked to respond to self-administered questionnaires.…

  20. Impact of the economic recession on companion animal relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia: a Chicago animal shelter's experience.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Hart, Lynette A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how the current economic recession (since December 2007) has affected dog and cat relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia at the Anti-Cruelty Society animal shelter in Chicago, Illinois. The study compared temporal patterns of the investigated statistics before (2000-2007) the start of the current recession with the patterns after the start of the recession (2008-2010). The results showed that once the guardianship (ownership) of a nonhuman animal had been established, the recession did not greatly affect the owner's decision on relinquishment-except for the relinquishment of senior dogs, which may be associated with increased costs of care. However, an unfavorable economic environment may have reduced adoption of animals. The consequences of a decline in adoptions might be reflected in an increase in the proportion or number of sheltered animals euthanized. This study demonstrated how monitoring changes in temporal patterns in these shelter statistics can help guide animal shelters to better prepare for the current recession.

  1. Long-term Survival and Clinical Benefit from Adoptive T-cell Transfer in Stage IV Melanoma Patients Is Determined by a Four-Parameter Tumor Immune Signature.

    PubMed

    Melief, Sara M; Visconti, Valeria V; Visser, Marten; van Diepen, Merel; Kapiteijn, Ellen H W; van den Berg, Joost H; Haanen, John B A G; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Oosting, Jan; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Verdegaal, Els M E

    2017-02-01

    The presence of tumor-infiltrating immune cells is associated with longer survival and a better response to immunotherapy in early-stage melanoma, but a comprehensive study of the in situ immune microenvironment in stage IV melanoma has not been performed. We investigated the combined influence of a series of immune factors on survival and response to adoptive cell transfer (ACT) in stage IV melanoma patients. Metastases of 73 stage IV melanoma patients, 17 of which were treated with ACT, were studied with respect to the number and functional phenotype of lymphocytes and myeloid cells as well as for expression of galectins-1, -3, and -9. Single factors associated with better survival were identified using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression analyses, and those factors were used for interaction analyses. The results were validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas database. We identified four parameters that were associated with a better survival: CD8(+) T cells, galectin-9(+) dendritic cells (DC)/DC-like macrophages, a high M1/M2 macrophage ratio, and the expression of galectin-3 by tumor cells. The presence of at least three of these parameters formed an independent positive prognostic factor for long-term survival. Patients displaying this four-parameter signature were found exclusively among patients responding to ACT and were the ones with sustained clinical benefit. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(2); 170-9. ©2017 AACR.

  2. Glyceryl Tribenzoate: A Flavoring Ingredient, Inhibits the Adoptive Transfer of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis via TGF-β: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Susanta; Dasarathi, Sridevi; Pahan, Kalipada

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we have explored a novel use of glyceryl tribenzoate (GTB), a flavoring ingredient, in ameliorating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, via TGF-β. Oral feeding of GTB suppressed clinical symptoms of adoptively-transferred relapsing-remitting (RR) EAE in recipient mice and suppressed the generation of encephalitogenic T cells in donor mice. GTB also attenuated clinical symptoms of RR-EAE in PLP-TCR transgenic mice and chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, GTB also suppressed perivascular cuffing, preserved the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, inhibited inflammation, and stopped demyelination in the CNS of EAE mice. Interestingly, GTB treatment upregulated TGF-β and enriched regulatory T cells (Tregs) in splenocytes as well as in vivo in EAE mice. Blocking TGF-β by neutralizing antibodies abrogated GTB-mediated enrichment of Tregs and protection of EAE. These results suggest that oral GTB may be considered as a possible therapy for MS patients. PMID:28367355

  3. Therapeutic Targeting of CC Ligand 21 or CC Chemokine Receptor 7 Abrogates Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced by the Adoptive Transfer of Human Pulmonary Fibroblasts to Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Elizabeth M.; Carpenter, Kristin; Jakubzick, Claudia; Kunkel, Steven L.; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are a collection of pulmonary fibrotic diseases of unknown etiopathogenesis. CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is expressed in IIP biopsies and primary fibroblast lines, but its role in pulmonary fibrosis was not previously examined. To study the in vivo role of CCR7 in a novel model of pulmonary fibrosis, 1.0 × 106 primary fibroblasts grown from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, or histologically normal biopsies were injected intravenously into C.B-17 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)/beige (bg) mice. At days 35 and 63 after idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia fibroblast injection, patchy interstitial fibrosis and increased hydroxyproline were present in the lungs of immunodeficient mice. Adoptively transferred nonspecific interstitial pneumonia fibroblasts caused a more diffuse interstitial fibrosis and increased hydroxyproline levels at both times, but injected normal human fibroblasts did not induce interstitial remodeling changes in C.B-17SCID/bg mice. Systemic therapeutic immunoneutralization of either human CCR7 or CC ligand 21, its ligand, significantly attenuated the pulmonary fibrosis in groups of C.B-17SCID/bg mice that received either type of IIP fibroblasts. Thus, the present study demonstrates that pulmonary fibrosis is initiated by the intravenous introduction of primary human fibroblast lines into immunodeficient mice, and this fibrotic response is dependent on the interaction between CC ligand 21 and CCR7. PMID:17392156

  4. The immunosuppressive effects of phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy in mice are mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and can be adoptively transferred to naive recipients.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Katiyar, Santosh K; Elmets, Craig A

    2008-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for malignant tumors but it is also immunosuppressive which may reduce its therapeutic efficacy. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in PDT immunosuppression. Using silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) as photosensitizer, nontumor-bearing CD4 knockout (CD4-/-) mice and their wild type (WT) counterparts were subjected to Pc4-PDT in a manner identical to that used for tumor regression (1 cm spot size, 0.5 mg kg(-1) Pc4, 110 J cm(-2) light) to assess the effect of Pc4-PDT on cell-mediated immunity. There was a decrease in immunosuppression in CD4-/- mice compared with WT mice. We next examined the role of CD8+ T cells in Pc4-PDT-induced immunosuppression using CD8-/- mice following the same treatment regimen used for CD4-/- mice. Similar to CD4-/- mice, CD8-/- mice exhibited less immunosuppression than WT mice. Pc4-PDT-induced immunosuppression could be adoptively transferred with spleen cells from Pc4-PDT treated donor mice to syngenic naive recipients (P < 0.05) and was mediated primarily by T cells, although macrophages were also found to play a role. Procedures that limit PDT-induced immunosuppression but do not affect PDT-induced regression of tumors may prove superior to PDT alone in promoting long-term antitumor responses.

  5. Experiences with microsurgical tissue transfers in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Omer; Ozgentas, H Ege; Islamoglu, Kemal; Boztug, Neval; Bigat, Zekiye; Dikici, M Bahadir

    2005-01-01

    The combination of advances in microsurgery and the improvement of anesthetic management with increased understanding of the physiology of preoperative and postoperative care has significantly raised the upper age limit for free-flap transfer in elderly patients. Despite pessimistic opinions regarding elderly patients who have poor recovery potential and decreased physiological reserves, the unique feature of free-tissue transfer is that it allows the transfer of well-vascularized tissue to defects in a single-stage procedure, and leads to improved quality of life. In this report, a retrospective analysis of 55 patients aged 50 and older who underwent microsurgical tissue transfer is presented. Hospital and our own records were used to review various parameters. The preoperative medical status of each patient was assessed using the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Classification of Physical Status. Each patient's preoperative medical records, age, sex, transferred tissue type, and length of operation were outlined. Postoperative recorded parameters were the fate of flaps and the short-term postoperative outcome, including surgical complications, medical morbidity, and death within 30 days of surgery. Fifty-eight microvascular tissue transfers were performed in 55 consecutive patients. The study comprised 38 male and 17 female patients, with a mean age of 64.8 years. ASA classification status was class 1 for 15 patients, class 2 for 26 patients, and class 3 for 14 patients. Twenty-five flaps were used for lower extremity reconstruction, 32 flaps were used for head and neck reconstruction, and 1 was used for breast reconstruction. The average operative time was 5.7 h, ranging between 2-13 h. There were 14 major medical complications, resulting in an overall medical complication rate of 25%. There were 3 deaths within 30 days postoperatively. Thus, the overall surgical mortality rate was 5.4%. The longer operation times were associated with the development

  6. Heat Transfer Experiments in the Internal Cooling Passages of a Cooled Radial Turbine Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted (1) to experimentally measure, assess and analyze the heat transfer within the internal cooling configuration of a radial turbine rotor blade and (2) to obtain heat transfer data to evaluate and improve computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures and turbulent transport models of internal coolant flows. A 1.15 times scale model of the coolant passages within the NASA LERC High Temperature Radial Turbine was designed, fabricated of Lucite and instrumented for transient beat transfer tests using thin film surface thermocouples and liquid crystals to indicate temperatures. Transient heat transfer tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers of one-fourth, one-half, and equal to the operating Reynolds number for the NASA Turbine. Tests were conducted for stationary and rotating conditions with rotation numbers in the range occurring in the NASA Turbine. Results from the experiments showed the heat transfer characteristics within the coolant passage were affected by rotation. In general, the heat transfer increased and decreased on the sides of the straight radial passages with rotation as previously reported from NASA-HOST-sponsored experiments. The heat transfer in the tri-passage axial flow region adjacent to the blade exit was relatively unaffected by rotation. However, the heat transfer on one surface, in the transitional region between the radial inflow passage and axial, constant radius passages, decreased to approximately 20 percent of the values without rotation. Comparisons with previous 3-D numerical studies indicated regions where the heat transfer characteristics agreed and disagreed with the present experiment.

  7. Admissions and Transfer Experiences of Students Continuing Their Studies in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrance, Jill

    This report presents the results of an analysis of admissions and transfer data from the 2000 British Columbia (BC) College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey. It addresses a number of issues related to the admissions and transfer experiences of former students from BC's college and institute system, from the students' perspective. Twenty-one…

  8. Technology and Knowledge Transfer in the Graz Region Ten Years of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Franz; Adametz, Christoph; Holzer, Franz

    2004-01-01

    Technology and knowledge transfer from universities to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is seen as one way to strengthen a region's innovation capability. But what if SMEs do not want to play along? Looking back at some 10 years' experience of supporting SMEs, the authors describe in detail the 'Active Knowledge Transfer' programme, which…

  9. The Shared Experiences: Facilitating Successful Transfer of Women and Underrepresented Minorities in STEM Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Dimitra Lynette; Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos

    2013-01-01

    This chapter addresses critical issues related to the transfer success of women and underrepresented minorities (URMs) in STEM disciplines and will highlight implications for fostering a successful transfer experience for these populations. For the purposes of this chapter, URMs is defined by the National Science Foundation to include African…

  10. Exploring Hurdles to Transfer: Student Experiences of Applying Knowledge across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Jouni; Rosqvist, Juho

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the ways students perceive the transfer of learned knowledge to new situations -- often a surprisingly difficult prospect. The novel aspect compared to the traditional transfer studies is that the learning phase is not a part of the experiment itself. The intention was only to activate acquired knowledge relevant to the…

  11. Two Experiments for Estimating Free Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economides, Michael J.; Maloney, J. O.

    1978-01-01

    This article describes two simple undergraduate heat transfer experiments which may reinforce a student's understanding of free convection and radiation. Apparatus, experimental procedure, typical results, and discussion are included. (Author/BB)

  12. [The experience using the ADOPT problem-solving training protocol in a hemodialysis patient with poor IDWG control].

    PubMed

    Song, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2011-06-01

    The health problems of hemodialysis patient are complex, involving physical, mental and social aspects. Those with chronic conditions must be able to resolve disease and treatment problems on their own expectation in order to maintain life quality. This case report describes how the authors applied the ADOPT (Attitude, Definition, Open mind, Planning, Try it out) problem-solving training model to care for a hemodialysis patient with poor interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) control. Nursing care was provided to this patient from November 3rd to December 8th, 2008. This case demonstrated ADOPT model efficacy at improving the patient's problem solving abilities in various daily life situations. The authors hope this theory-based intervention can help establish an innovative and effective care model for patients with chronic conditions.

  13. Radiative Transfer Theory Verified by Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2 to 10. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to 2. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5 should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination.

  14. Generation of autologous tumor-specific T cells for adoptive transfer based on vaccination, in vitro restimulation and CD3/CD28 dynabead-induced T cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Brimnes, Marie Klinge; Gang, Anne Ortved; Donia, Marco; Thor Straten, Per; Svane, Inge Marie; Hadrup, Sine Reker

    2012-08-01

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of in vitro expanded autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has been shown to exert therapeutic efficacy in melanoma patients. We aimed to develop an ACT protocol based on tumor-specific T cells isolated from peripheral blood and in vitro expanded by Dynabeads® ClinExVivo™CD3/CD28. We show here that the addition of an in vitro restimulation step with relevant peptides prior to bead expansion dramatically increased the proportion of tumor-specific T cells in PBMC-cultures. Importantly, peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) as well as allogeneic tumor lysate-pulsed DCs from the DC vaccine preparation could be used with comparable efficiency to peptides for in vitro restimulation, to increase the tumor-specific T-cell response. Furthermore, we tested the use of different ratios and different types of Dynabeads® CD3/CD28 and CD3/CD28/CD137 T-cell expander, for optimized expansion of tumor-specific T cells. A ratio of 1:3 of Dynabeads® CD3/CD28 T-cell expander to T cells resulted in the maximum number of tumor-specific T cells. The addition of CD137 did not improve functionality or fold expansion. Both T-cell expansion systems could generate tumor-specific T cells that were both cytotoxic and effective cytokine producers upon antigen recognition. Dynabeads®-expanded T-cell cultures shows phenotypical characteristics of memory T cells with potential to migrate and expand in vivo. In addition, they possess longer telomeres compared to TIL cultures. Taken together, we demonstrate that in vitro restimulation of tumor-specific T cells prior to bead expansion is necessary to achieve high numbers of tumor-specific T cells. This is effective and easily applicable in combination with DC vaccination, by use of vaccine-generated DCs, either pulsed with peptide or tumor-lysate.

  15. Adoptive Transfer of Engineered Rhesus Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Reduces the Number of Transmitted/Founder Viruses Established in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Victor I; Trivett, Matthew T; Barsov, Eugene V; Jain, Sumiti; Piatak, Michael; Trubey, Charles M; Alvord, W Gregory; Chertova, Elena; Roser, James D; Smedley, Jeremy; Komin, Alexander; Keele, Brandon F; Ohlen, Claes; Ott, David E

    2016-11-01

    AIDS virus infections are rarely controlled by cell-mediated immunity, in part due to viral immune evasion and immunodeficiency resulting from CD4(+) T-cell infection. One likely aspect of this failure is that antiviral cellular immune responses are either absent or present at low levels during the initial establishment of infection. To test whether an extensive, timely, and effective response could reduce the establishment of infection from a high-dose inoculum, we adoptively transferred large numbers of T cells that were molecularly engineered with anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (anti-SIV) activity into rhesus macaques 3 days following an intrarectal SIV inoculation. To measure in vivo antiviral activity, we assessed the number of viruses transmitted using SIVmac239X, a molecularly tagged viral stock containing 10 genotypic variants, at a dose calculated to transmit 12 founder viruses. Single-genome sequencing of plasma virus revealed that the two animals receiving T cells expressing SIV-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) had significantly fewer viral genotypes than the two control animals receiving non-SIV-specific T cells (means of 4.0 versus 7.5 transmitted viral genotypes; P = 0.044). Accounting for the likelihood of transmission of multiple viruses of a particular genotype, the calculated means of the total number of founder viruses transmitted were 4.5 and 14.5 in the experimental and control groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Thus, a large antiviral T-cell response timed with virus exposure can limit viral transmission. The presence of strong, preexisting T-cell responses, including those induced by vaccines, might help prevent the establishment of infection at the lower-exposure doses in humans that typically transmit only a single virus.

  16. [Analysis of clinical Risk and adoption of shared procedures: experience of nephrology and dialysis unit of ASL BA].

    PubMed

    Mancini, Andrea; Angelini, Pernina; Bozzi, Michele; Cuzzola, Cristoforo; Giancaspro, Vincenzo; Laraia, Elvira; Nisi, Maria Teresa; Proscia, Anna Rita; Tarantino, Giuseppe; Vitale, Ottavia; Petrarulo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Currently, English scientific literature is lacking in studies showing that medical assistance may be delivered without errors. Since two years ago, the department of nephrology and urology of ASL BA has been establishing a process of clinical risk management.Starting with the reporting of a single error, a related database was subsequently developed, in order to validate technical and organizational procedures that would be of common use in the daily clinical practice.With regard to error reporting, the system of incident reporting was adopted: that is a structured collection of significant events for the safety of patients with a specific form for reporting to be filled out by health professionals. Reports have been collected, coded and analysed. Finally measures were adopted to reduce the recurrence of the error.This first phase consisted on writing the procedures in order to create structured diagnostic-therapeutic protocols. In 18 months of observation adopting the incident reporting form, 48 errors have been reported: 52% due to adverse events; 12.5% to adverse reactions; 31.2% near misses and 2% to sentinel events. In 35.4 % of cases the error occurred in the administration or prescription of drug therapies, in 18.7% of cases it occurred in the organizational stage, in 12.5% it was a surgical error, in 18.7% of cases the error was due to incorrect asepsis, in 8.3% of cases it occurred during the medical examination and finally in 8.3% during dialysis. An analysis of the error database resulted in the choice of more urgent procedures. It is our view that only the observation of procedures can ensure the achievement of a high quality with improved clinical outcomes, reduction of complications, elimination of inappropriate interventions and increased patient satisfaction.

  17. LDEF (Postflight), P0006 : Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement Experiment, Tray F02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), P0006 : Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement Experiment, Tray F02 EL-1994-00193 LDEF (Postflight), P0006 : Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement Experiment, Tray F02 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Experiment (P0006) is one of three passive experiments located in a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. The experiment consist of two types of detectors, thermal luminescence and track type, assembled in a sealed container and a silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. Two other experiments, the Seeds in Space Experiment (P0004-01) and the Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P0004-02 were companion experiments in the tray. The experiment hardware was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. Areas of the experiment tray flanges covered by the tray clamp blocks are unstained and clearly visible. The sealed Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Experiment container was machined from aluminum and assembled together with a Buna-N o-ring seal. The canister, approximately 6 inches in diameter and 4.5 inches high, was mounted on the top side of the experiment tray and painted white with Chemglaze II A-276. Thermal control was accomplished by placing the canister on fiberglass isolators and covering the experiment tray with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® specular cover secured with Velcro pads located on each of the P0004 canister domes and on clips attached to the tray sidewalls. The silvered TEFLON® thermal cover appears to be intact with no apparent damage. The surroundings reflected in the thermal covers specular surface provides an array of colors including white, browns, silver, red, and aqua.

  18. Midcourse Space Experiment Data Certification and Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, David B.

    1998-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment spacecraft, launched April 24, 1996, is expected to have a 5 year useful lifetime with a 12 month lifetime for the cryogenically cooled IR sensor. A pre-launch, ground based calibration of the instruments provided a basis for the pre-launch certification of the Level 2 data base these instruments produce. With the spacecraft in-orbit the certification of the instrument's Level 2 data base is being extended to the in-orbit environment.

  19. A Laboratory Experiment for Measuring Solid-Liquid Mass Transfer Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dapia, Sonia; Vila, Carlos; Dominguez, Herminia; Parajo, Juan Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The lab experiment described starts from the principles developed by Sensel and Myers, but the experimental procedure are modified to provide a more reliable experiment assessment. The mass transfer equation is solved and all the involved parameters are calculated by a simple, numerical method.

  20. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruella, Marco; Kalos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical success has underscored the potential for immunotherapy based on the adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of engineered T lymphocytes to mediate dramatic, potent, and durable clinical responses. This success has led to the broader evaluation of engineered T-lymphocyte-based adoptive cell therapy to treat a broad range of malignancies. In this review, we summarize concepts, successes, and challenges for the broader development of this promising field, focusing principally on lessons gleaned from immunological principles and clinical thought. We present ACT in the context of integrating T-cell and tumor biology and the broader systemic immune response.

  1. Transfer to Adult Care--Experiences of Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Asp, Ann; Bratt, Ewa-Lena; Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    More than 90% of children born with congenital heart disease survive into adulthood due to successes of cardiac surgery and medical management. Interviews with 16 young adults with congenital heart disease to explore their experiences of transfer from pediatric to adult care were performed. The analysis identified five themes; Feeling secure during the transfer process, Experiencing trust in the care, Expecting to be involved, Assuming responsibility for one's health is a process and Lack of knowledge leads to uncertainty. In conclusion; a structured and gradual transfer process was necessary to enable the informants to shoulder the responsibility for self-care.

  2. Soil transference patterns on bras: Image processing and laboratory dragging experiments.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kathleen R; Fitzpatrick, Robert W; Bottrill, Ralph S; Berry, Ron; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-01-01

    In a recent Australian homicide, trace soil on the victim's clothing suggested she was initially attacked in her front yard and not the park where her body was buried. However the important issue that emerged during the trial was how soil was transferred to her clothing. This became the catalyst for designing a range of soil transference experiments (STEs) to study, recognise and classify soil patterns transferred onto fabric when a body is dragged across a soil surface. Soil deposits of interest in this murder were on the victim's bra and this paper reports the results of anthropogenic soil transfer to bra-cups and straps caused by dragging. Transfer patterns were recorded by digital photography and photomicroscopy. Eight soil transfer patterns on fabric, specific to dragging as the transfer method, appeared consistently throughout the STEs. The distinctive soil patterns were largely dependent on a wide range of soil features that were measured and identified for each soil tested using X-ray Diffraction and Non-Dispersive Infra-Red analysis. Digital photographs of soil transfer patterns on fabric were analysed using image processing software to provide a soil object-oriented classification of all soil objects with a diameter of 2 pixels and above transferred. Although soil transfer patterns were easily identifiable by naked-eye alone, image processing software provided objective numerical data to support this traditional (but subjective) interpretation. Image software soil colour analysis assigned a range of Munsell colours to identify and compare trace soil on fabric to other trace soil evidence from the same location; without requiring a spectrophotometer. Trace soil from the same location was identified by linking soils with similar dominant and sub-dominant Munsell colour peaks. Image processing numerical data on the quantity of soil transferred to fabric, enabled a relationship to be discovered between soil type, clay mineralogy (smectite), particle size and

  3. Elimination of spin diffusion effects in saturation transfer experiments: application to hydrogen exchange in proteins.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Kristensen, Søren M; Led, Jens J

    2007-03-01

    The NMR saturation transfer experiment is widely used to characterize exchange processes in proteins that take place on the ms-s timescale. However, spin diffusion effects are inherently associated with the saturation transfer experiment and may overshadow the effect of the exchange processes of interest. As shown here, the effects from spin diffusion and exchange processes can be separated by varying the field strength of the saturation pulse, thereby allowing correct exchange rates to be obtained. The method is demonstrated using the hydrogen exchange process in the protein Escherichia coli thioredoxin as an example.

  4. Encouraging PV Adoption in New Market-Rate ResidentialConstruction: A Critical Review of Program Experiences to Date

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-04-24

    In this paper, we review experiences with programs to support the deployment of photovoltaics (PV) in new, market-rate homes, drawing upon interviews with program managers around the country, project data, and publicly-available documentation on program design, impacts, and experiences. We focus on state clean energy funds, which have been established in 14 U.S. states to build markets for clean energy resources, as well as a select number of other state or local organizations whose activities are particularly noteworthy. We describe the types of programs implemented and their impacts to date, and discuss key issues and lessons learned for initiatives aimed at growing the new home market for PV.

  5. The experience of irrigation management transfer in two irrigation schemes in Malawi, 1960s 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkhoma, Bryson G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.

    This study examines the process of irrigation management transfer (IMT) in Malawi using the case studies of Likangala and Domasi irrigation schemes in the lake Chilwa basin. It observes that the concept of irrigation management transfer has been adopted against the background of poor performance of irrigation schemes in Malawi and the desire of the state to conform to global trends and approaches in the management of irrigation schemes. In the context of Malawi, the process of IMT involves rehabilitation of schemes and training of farmers before handing them over. The paper notes that so far the handover process has been fraught with many challenges, not least of which includes lack of adequate funds, delays, lack of public awareness and farmers’ conflicting perceptions on the handover of irrigation schemes. These problems militate against the success of IMT in the Domasi and Likangala irrigation schemes in particular and other schemes in the country as a whole.

  6. Initial experience with personal digital assistant-based reflectance photoplethysmograph for free tissue transfer monitoring.

    PubMed

    Stack, Brendan C; Futran, Neal D; Zang, Billy; Scharf, John E

    2003-08-01

    Improved microsurgical technique has resulted in a high percentage of successful free tissue transfers. When a tissue transfer fails in the head and neck, however, the results are orocutaneous fistulas, carotid artery exposure, and deformity that adds morbidity, expense, and may delay adjuvant therapy. Postoperative monitoring of tissue perfusion can detect early problems in free tissue transfer that may allow for early intervention and salvage. The authors have demonstrated that reflectance photoplethysmography can detect perfusion changes in free tissue transfer within 5 minutes of a pedicle "insult" intraoperatively. Normative data for viable flaps from various donor sites have been established. The authors now report their initial experience with a newly developed reflectance photoplethysmograph based on a hand-held computer for routine clinical use. Their results are compared with a conventional surveillance protocol that included observation, bleeding to pin prick, and bedside duplex scanning of the vascular pedicle. In a series of 30 free tissue transfers (29 patients), there was one ischemic event (skin paddle loss only), which was detected by the monitor. The monitor was able to predict correctly (one flap) survival of a free tissue transfer even when duplex ultrasonic data were indicative of an absence of perfusion. Personal digital assistant-based photoplethysmography appears to be a promising device for bedside diagnosis of free tissue transfer viability or ischemia.

  7. Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Experiments in Smooth and Rough Verticla Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    P Symolon; W Neuhaus; R Odell

    2004-12-22

    The mixed convection regime is a transitional heat transfer regime between forced convection and natural convection, where both the forced component of flow, and the buoyancy induced component are important. Aiding flow is when buoyancy forces act in the same direction as the forced flow (heated upflow or cooled downflow), while opposing flow is when the buoyancy force is in the opposite direction of the forced flow (cooled upflow or heated downflow). For opposing flow the buoyancy always increases the rate of heat transfer over the forced convection value. For aiding flow, as the heat flux increased, a reduction in heat transfer is encountered until a condition known as laminarization occurs, where the heat transfer is at a minimum value. Further increases in the wall heat flux causes re-transition to turbulence, and increased heat transfer. In this paper, for the first time, experiments were performed to characterize the effect of surface roughness on heat transfer in mixed convection, for the case of aiding flow. A correlation was developed to allow calculation of mixed convection heat transfer coefficients for rough or smooth tubes.

  8. Adoption of security and confidentiality features in an operational community health information network: the Comox Valley experience--case example.

    PubMed

    Moehr, J R; McDaniel, J G

    1998-03-01

    Since 1993, a budding community health information network (CHIN) has been in operation in the Comox Valley in Canada. A general hospital and three multi-doctor clinics are linked electronically. The clinics operate without paper charts using a comprehensive clinic information system. The link is provided by RSALink, a commercial message exchange service, based on Health Link, a system developed at the University of Victoria (McDaniel et al., Can. Med. Inform. 1 (1994) 40-41; McDaniel, Dissertation, University of Victoria, Canada, 1994). Health Link is a highly adaptable message exchange service with rich functionality. Despite this, the system is used exclusively to receive laboratory results transmitted by the hospital's laboratory system (RSAStat). The results are deposited in the patient data base of a commercial clinic information system (CliniCare). This case is instructive because the users' selection of services available through Health Link allows us to observe the preferences in this informational sophisticated environment. Laboratory data transmission is appreciated as highly beneficial. The reliability, security and ample privacy protection and authentication features of Health Link, in contrast, are used in a black box mode and are not consciously exploited. This is consistent with our experience of the use of other systems which have operated for a substantial time, essentially without serious protection features. Our experience suggests that security and confidentiality features are exploited only to the extent that they do not require additional effort or conscientious intervention. This puts the system provider in the difficult position of either offering interactive systems that nobody will use, or providing automated features that nobody is aware of and that are therefore not used to full advantage--if at all.

  9. Exploring hurdles to transfer : student experiences of applying knowledge across disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Jouni; Rosqvist, Juho

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores the ways students perceive the transfer of learned knowledge to new situations - often a surprisingly difficult prospect. The novel aspect compared to the traditional transfer studies is that the learning phase is not a part of the experiment itself. The intention was only to activate acquired knowledge relevant to the transfer target using a short primer immediately prior to the situation where the knowledge was to be applied. Eight volunteer students from either mathematics or computer science curricula were given a task of designing an adder circuit using logic gates: a new context in which to apply knowledge of binary arithmetic and Boolean algebra. The results of a phenomenographic classification of the views presented by the students in their post-experiment interviews are reported. The degree to which the students were conscious of the acquired knowledge they employed and how they applied it in a new context emerged as the differentiating factors.

  10. The 1994 International Transatlantic Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer Experiment: Preliminary Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 International Transatlantic Iho-Way Satellite Time and Frequency lkansfer Experiment: Preliminary Results J. A. DeYoung, W. J...Klepczynski, A. D. McKinley, W. Powell & F! Mai U.S. Naval Observatory, Time Service Department Washington, DC, USA F! Hetzel & A. Bauch, Physikalisch...Corporation Delft, The Netherlands Washington, DC, USA Abstract The international transatlantic time and frequency transfer experiment was designed by

  11. TRANSFER EFFECTS OF DIRECTED CLASSROOM EXPERIENCE TO AN ELEMENTARY METHODS CLASS AND STUDENT TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEST, SISTER G.

    CLASSROOM EXPERIENCE INITIATED PRIOR TO METHODS INSTRUCTION AND STUDENT TEACHING WAS STUDIED TO DETERMINE IF MEASURABLE TRANSFER EXISTED BETWEEN THEM. FORTY ELEMENTARY TEACHER CANDIDATES WHO HAD COMPLETED THEIR JUNIOR YEAR COMPRISED THE POPULATION. THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP (20) PARTICIPATED IN A 6-WEEK SUMMER SESSION PROGRAM OF TEACHING SMALL GROUPS…

  12. Knowledge Transfer at the Research-Policy Interface: The Geography Postgraduates' Experiences of Collaborative Studentships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Louise A.; McCormick, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    The need for effective knowledge transfer has been well documented; however, few narratives reflect on postgraduates as brokers of knowledge when participating in collaborative studentships. This paper reports on the authors' experiences of undertaking Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and Scottish Government (SG) collaborative PhD…

  13. Chemical Kinetics, Heat Transfer, and Sensor Dynamics Revisited in a Simple Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sad, Maria E.; Sad, Mario R.; Castro, Alberto A.; Garetto, Teresita F.

    2008-01-01

    A simple experiment about thermal effects in chemical reactors is described, which can be used to illustrate chemical reactor models, the determination and validation of their parameters, and some simple principles of heat transfer and sensor dynamics. It is based in the exothermic reaction between aqueous solutions of sodium thiosulfate and…

  14. Combustion and Energy Transfer Experiments: A Laboratory Model for Linking Core Concepts across the Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Jose C.; Dubetz, Terry A.; Schmidt, Diane L.; Isern, Sharon; Beatty, Thomas; Brown, David W.; Gillman, Edward; Alberte, Randall S.; Egiebor, Nosa O.

    2007-01-01

    Core concepts can be integrated throughout lower-division science and engineering courses by using a series of related, cross-referenced laboratory experiments. Starting with butane combustion in chemistry, the authors expanded the underlying core concepts of energy transfer into laboratories designed for biology, physics, and engineering. This…

  15. Lymph node-derived donor encephalitogenic CD4+ T cells in C57BL/6 mice adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis highly express GM-CSF and T-bet.

    PubMed

    Cravens, Petra D; Hussain, Rehana Z; Zacharias, Tresa E; Ben, Li-Hong; Herndon, Emily; Vinnakota, Ramya; Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Nessler, Stefan; Zamvil, Scott S; Eagar, Todd N; Stüve, Olaf

    2011-06-24

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a relevant animal model for the human demyelinating inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), multiple sclerosis (MS). Induction of EAE by adoptive transfer allows studying the role of the donor T lymphocyte in disease pathogenesis. It has been challenging to reliably induce adoptive transfer EAE in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice. The goal of this study was to develop a reproducible and high yield protocol for adoptive transfer EAE in C57BL/6 mice. A step-wise experimental approach permitted us to develop a protocol that resulted in a consistent relatively high disease incidence of ~70% in recipient mice. Donor mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)p35-55 in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) followed by pertussis toxin (PT). Only lymph node cells (LNC) isolated at day 12 post immunization, and restimulated in vitro for 72 hours with 10 μg/mL of MOGp35-55 and 0.5 ng/mL of interleukin-12 (IL-12) were able to transfer disease. The ability of LNC to transfer disease was associated with the presence of inflammatory infiltrates in the CNS at day 12. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) was produced at comparable levels in cell cultures prepared from mice at both day 6 and day 12 post immunization. By contrast, there was a trend towards a negative association between IL-17 and disease susceptibility in our EAE model. The amount of GM-CSF secreted was significantly increased in the culture supernatants from cells collected at day 12 post immunization versus those collected at day 6 post-immunization. Activated CD4+ T cells present in the day 12 LNC cultures maintained expression of the transcription factor T-bet, which has been shown to regulate the expression of the IL-23 receptor. Also, there was an increased prevalence of MOGp35-55-specific CD4+ T cells in day 12 LNC after in vitro re-stimulation. In summary, encephalitogenic LNC that adoptively transfer EAE in C57BL/6 mice were not characterized

  16. Tumor-Specific Effector CD8+ T Cells That Can Establish Immunological Memory in Humans after Adoptive Transfer Are Marked by Expression of IL7 Receptor and c-myc.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Smita S; Paria, Biman C; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Rothermel, Luke D; Stephens, Daniel J; Kammula, Udai S

    2015-08-15

    The optimal T-cell attributes for adoptive cancer immunotherapy are unclear. Recent clinical trials of ex vivo-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes indicated that differentiated T effector cells can elicit durable antitumor responses in some patients with cancer, with their antitumor activity tightly correlated with their persistence in the host. Thus, there is great interest in the definition of intrinsic biomarkers that can predict the conversion of short-lived tumor antigen-specific T effector cells into long-lived T memory cells. Long-term persistence of ex vivo-expanded tumor-specific CD8+ T effector clones has been reported in refractory metastatic melanoma patients after adoptive T-cell transfer. By using highly homogeneous clone populations from these preparations, we performed a comparative transcriptional profiling to define preinfusion molecular attributes that can be ascribed to an effector-to-memory transition. Through this route, we discovered that preinfusion T-cell clones that expressed the IL7 receptor (IL7R) and c-myc were more likely to persist longer after adoptive transfer to patients. The predictive value of these two biomarkers was strengthened by using IL7R protein, IL7-induced pSTAT5, and c-myc mRNA expression to prospectively identify human tumor-specific T effector clones capable of engraftment into immunodeficient mice. Overall, our findings reveal IL7R and c-myc expression as intrinsic biomarkers that can predict the fate of CD8+ T effector cells after adoptive transfer.

  17. Radiometer experiment for the aeroassist flight experiment. [Thermal protection data for Orbital Transfer Vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davy, W. C.; Park, C.; Arnold, J. O.; Balakrishnan, A.

    1985-01-01

    A forthcoming NASA flight experiment is described that provides an opportunity to obtain a large base of radiometric data for high-altitude, high-velocity thermochemically nonequilibrated-flow conditions. As a preliminary to the design of a radiometer for this experiment, an approximate method for predicting both equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiative surface fluxes is described. Spectral results for one trajectory state, a velocity of 10 km/sec at an altitude of 85 km, are presented. These results are then used to develop some of the instrument parameters that will be needed for designing of the three genre of radiometers that are proposed for this experiment.

  18. Human effector T cells derived from central memory cells rather than CD8(+)T cells modified by tumor-specific TCR gene transfer possess superior traits for adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenglin; Zhang, Wenfeng; Shao, Hongwei; Bo, Huaben; Shen, Han; Li, Jiandong; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Teng; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Shulin

    2013-10-10

    Adoptive cell therapy provides an attractive treatment of cancer, and our expanding capacity to target tumor antigens is driven by genetically engineered human T lymphocytes that express genes encoding tumor-specific T cell receptors (TCRs). The intrinsic properties of cultured T cells used for therapy were reported to have tremendous influences on their persistence and antitumor efficacy in vivo. In this study, we isolated CD8(+) central memory T cells from peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors, and then transferred with the gene encoding TCR specific for tumor antigen using recombinant adenovirus vector Ad5F35-TRAV-TRBV. We found effector T cells derived from central memory T cells improved cell viability, maintained certain level of CD62L expression, and reacquired the CD62L(+)CD44(high) phenotype of central memory T cells after effector T cells differentiation. We then compared the antitumor reactivity of central memory T cells and CD8(+)T cells after TCR gene transferred. The results indicated that tumor-specific TCR gene being transferred to central memory T cells effectively increased the specific killing of antigen positive tumor cells and the expression of cytolytic granule protein. Furthermore, TCR gene transferred central memory T cells were more effective than TCR gene transferred CD8(+)T cells in CTL activity and effector cytokine secretion. These results implicated that isolating central memory T cells rather than CD8(+)T cells for insertion of gene encoding tumor-specific TCR may provide a superior tumor-reactive T cell population for adoptive transfer.

  19. Adoption: A Lifelong Journey for Children & Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn, C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Several issues surrounding adoption are addressed in this journal. "Openness in Adoption," by Ruth G. McRoy and others, explores the movement away from confidentiality in adoption. "Mid-Life Reflections on Adoption" by Carol Yttri and "An Adoption Journey" by Shannon Latimer detail the experiences of adults who were…

  20. An air transfer experiment confirms the role of volatile cues in communication between plants.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard; Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies reported that sagebrush plants near experimentally clipped neighbors experienced less herbivory than did plants near unclipped neighbors. Blocking air flow with plastic bags made this effect undetectable. However, some scientists remained skeptical about the possibility of volatile communication between plants since the existence and identity of a cue that operates in nature have never been demonstrated. We conducted an air transfer experiment that collected air from the headspace of an experimentally clipped donor plant and delivered it to the headspace of an unclipped assay plant. We found that assay plants treated with air from clipped donors were less likely to be damaged by naturally occurring herbivores in a field experiment. This simple air transfer experiment fulfills the most critical of Koch's postulates and provides more definitive evidence for volatile communication between plants. It also provides an inexpensive experimental protocol that can be used to screen plants for interplant communication in the field.

  1. Experiments of Transient Condensation Heat Transfer on the Heat Flux Senor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuwen; Liu, Qiusheng; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xue

    2015-09-01

    The influence of transient heat transfer in different condensation condition was investigated experimentally in the present paper. Getting condensation heat and mass transfer regularity and characteristics in space can provide theoretical basis for thermodynamic device such as heat pipes, loop heat pipes and capillary pumped loops as well as other fluid management engineering designing. In order to study the condensation process in space, an experimental study has been carried out on the ground for space experiment. The results show that transit heat transfer coefficient of film condensation is related to the condensation film width, the flow condition near the two phase interface and the pressure of the vapor and non-condensable gas in chamber. On the ground, the condensation heat flux on vertical surface is higher than it on horizontal surface. The transit heat flux of film condensation is affected by the temperature of superheated vapor, the temperature of condensation surface and non-condensable gas pressure. Condensation heat flux with vapor forced convection is many times more than it with natural convection. All of heat flux for both vapor forced convection and natural convection condensation in limited chamber declines dramatically over time. The present experiment is preliminary work for our future space experiments of the condensation and heat transfer process onboard the Chinese Spacecraft "TZ-1" to be launched in 2016.

  2. The 1994 international transatlantic two-way satellite time and frequency transfer experiment: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, James A.; Klepczynski, William J.; Mckinley, Angela Davis; Powell, William M.; Mai, Phu V.; Hetzel, P.; Bauch, A.; Davis, J. A.; Pearce, P. R.; Baumont, Francoise S.

    1995-01-01

    The international transatlantic time and frequency transfer experiment was designed by participating laboratories and has been implemented during 1994 to test the international communications path involving a large number of transmitting stations. This paper will present empirically determined clock and time scale differences, time and frequency domain instabilities, and a representative power spectral density analysis. The experiments by the method of co-location which will allow absolute calibration of the participating laboratories have been performed. Absolute time differences and accuracy levels of this experiment will be assessed in the near future.

  3. Inverse problems and optimal experiment design in unsteady heat transfer processes identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artyukhin, Eugene A.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental-computational methods for estimating characteristics of unsteady heat transfer processes are analyzed. The methods are based on the principles of distributed parameter system identification. The theoretical basis of such methods is the numerical solution of nonlinear ill-posed inverse heat transfer problems and optimal experiment design problems. Numerical techniques for solving problems are briefly reviewed. The results of the practical application of identification methods are demonstrated when estimating effective thermophysical characteristics of composite materials and thermal contact resistance in two-layer systems.

  4. A proposed time transfer experiment between the USA and the South Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luck, John; Dunkley, John; Armstrong, Tim; Gifford, Guy A.; Landis, Paul; Rasmussen, Scott; Wheeler, Paul J.; Bartholomew, Thomas R.; Stein, Samuel R.

    1992-01-01

    Described here are the concept, architecture and preliminary details of an experiment directed towards providing continuous Ultra High Precision (UHP) time transfer between Washington, DC; Salisbury, SA Australia; Orroral Valley, ACT Australia; and Lower Hutt, New Zealand. A proposed method of distributing UTC(USNO) at a high level of precision to passive users over a broad area of the South Pacific is described. The concept is based on active two-way satellite time transfer from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) to the proposed USNO Master Clock West (MCW) in Wahiwa, HI at the 1 nanosecond level using active satellite two-way time transfer augmented by Precise Positioning Service (PPS) of the Global Positioning System (GPS). MCW would act as an intermediate transfer/reference station, again linked to Salisbury at the 1 nanosecond level using active satellite two-way time transfer augmented by PPS GPS. From this point, time would be distributed within the region by two methods. The first is an existing TV line sync system using an Australian communications satellite (AUSSAT K1) which is useful to the 20 nanosecond level. The second approach is RF ranging and multilateration between Salisbury, Orroral Observatory, Lower Hutt and the AUSSAT B1 and B2 to be launched in 1992. Orroral Observatory will provide precise laser ranging to the AUSSAT B1/B2 retro reflectors which will reduce ephemeris related time transfer errors to below 1 nanosecond. The corrected position will be transmitted by both the time transfer modem and the existing TV line sync dissemination process. Multilateration has the advantage of being an all weather approach and when used with the laser ranging technique will provide a precise measurement of the propagation path delays. This will result in time transfer performance levels on the order of 10 nanoseconds to passive users in both Australia and New Zealand.

  5. Putting PrEP into Practice: Lessons Learned from Early-Adopting U.S. Providers’ Firsthand Experiences Providing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Care

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Magnus, Manya; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Krakower, Douglas S.; Eldahan, Adam I.; Gaston Hawkins, Lauren A.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Underhill, Kristen; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Dovidio, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers’ adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers’ firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription—financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation)—as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014–2015). One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18) primarily practiced in the Northeastern (67%) or Southern (22%) U.S. Nearly all (94%) were medical doctors (MDs), most of whom self-identified as infectious disease specialists. Prior experience prescribing PrEP ranged from 2 to 325 patients. Overall, providers reported favorable experiences with PrEP implementation and indicated that commonly anticipated problems were minimal or manageable. PrEP was covered via insurance or other programs for most patients; however, pre-authorization requirements, laboratory/service provision costs, and high deductibles sometimes presented challenges. Various models of PrEP care and coordination with other providers were utilized, with several providers highlighting the value of clinical staff support. Eligibility was determined through joint decision-making with patients; CDC guidelines were commonly referenced but not considered absolute. Patient adherence was variable, with particularly strong adherence noted among patients who had actively sought PrEP (self-referred). Providers observed minimal adverse effects or increases in risk behavior. However, they identified several barriers with respect to accessing and engaging PrEP candidates. Providers offered

  6. Open adoption: adoptive parents' reactions two decades later.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began in 1988. Every seven years these parents who adopted infants in open adoptions have participated in tape-recorded interviews to explore their evolving reactions to their open adoption experiences. This article reports the results of in-depth interviews with these parents now that their children have reached young adulthood. This longitudinal research illuminates how open adoptions change over the course of childhood and adolescence, parents' feelings about open adoption, challenges that emerge in their relationships with their children's birth families, how those challenges are managed and viewed, and parents' advice for others living with open adoption and for clinical social work practice and policy. Findings reveal that regardless of the type of openness, these adoptive parents generally feel positive about knowing the birth parents and having contact with them, are comfortable with open adoption, and see it serving the child's best interests.

  7. Theory and experiment on the cuprous-cupric electron transfer rate at a copper electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halley, J. W.; Smith, B. B.; Walbran, S.; Curtiss, L. A.; Rigney, R. O.; Sutjianto, A.; Hung, N. C.; Yonco, R. M.; Nagy, Z.

    1999-04-01

    We describe results of experiment and theory of the cuprous-cupric electron transfer rate in an aqueous solution at a copper electrode. The methods are similar to those we reported earlier for the ferrous-ferric rate. The comparison strongly suggests that, in marked distinction to the ferrous-ferric case, the electron transfer reaction is adiabatic. The model shows that the activation barrier is dominated by the energy required for the ion to approach the electrode, rather than by the energy required for rearrangement of the solvation shell, also in sharp distinction to the case of the ferric-ferrous electron transfer at a gold electrode. Calculated activation barriers based on this image agree with the experimental results reported here.

  8. Coupled heat transfer model and experiment study of semitransparent barrier materials in aerothermal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Da-Lin; Qi, Hong

    Semi-transparent materials (such as IR optical windows) are widely used for heat protection or transfer, temperature and image measurement, and safety in energy , space, military, and information technology applications. They are used, for instance, ceramic coatings for thermal barriers of spacecrafts or gas turbine blades, and thermal image observation under extreme or some dangerous environments. In this paper, the coupled conduction and radiation heat transfer model is established to describe temperature distribution of semitransparent thermal barrier medium within the aerothermal environment. In order to investigate this numerical model, one semi-transparent sample with black coating was considered, and photothermal properties were measured. At last, Finite Volume Method (FVM) was used to solve the coupled model, and the temperature responses from the sample surfaces were obtained. In addition, experiment study was also taken into account. In the present experiment, aerodynamic heat flux was simulated by one electrical heater, and two experiment cases were designed in terms of the duration of aerodynamic heating. One case is that the heater irradiates one surface of the sample continually until the other surface temperature up to constant, and the other case is that the heater works only 130 s. The surface temperature responses of these two cases were recorded. Finally, FVM model of the coupling conduction-radiation heat transfer was validated based on the experiment study with relative error less than 5%.

  9. Coupling heat and chemical tracer experiments for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildemeersch, S.; Jamin, P.; Orban, P.; Hermans, T.; Klepikova, M.; Nguyen, F.; Brouyère, S.; Dassargues, A.

    2014-11-01

    Geothermal energy systems, closed or open, are increasingly considered for heating and/or cooling buildings. The efficiency of such systems depends on the thermal properties of the subsurface. Therefore, feasibility and impact studies performed prior to their installation should include a field characterization of thermal properties and a heat transfer model using parameter values measured in situ. However, there is a lack of in situ experiments and methodology for performing such a field characterization, especially for open systems. This study presents an in situ experiment designed for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers with focus on the specific heat capacity. This experiment consists in simultaneously injecting hot water and a chemical tracer into the aquifer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and concentration in the recovery well (and possibly in other piezometers located down gradient). Temperature and concentrations are then used for estimating the specific heat capacity. The first method for estimating this parameter is based on a modeling in series of the chemical tracer and temperature breakthrough curves at the recovery well. The second method is based on an energy balance. The values of specific heat capacity estimated for both methods (2.30 and 2.54 MJ/m3/K) for the experimental site in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River (Belgium) are almost identical and consistent with values found in the literature. Temperature breakthrough curves in other piezometers are not required for estimating the specific heat capacity. However, they highlight that heat transfer in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River is complex and contrasted with different dominant process depending on the depth leading to significant vertical heat exchange between upper and lower part of the aquifer. Furthermore, these temperature breakthrough curves could be included in the calibration of a complex heat transfer model for

  10. Coupling heat and chemical tracer experiments for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers.

    PubMed

    Wildemeersch, S; Jamin, P; Orban, P; Hermans, T; Klepikova, M; Nguyen, F; Brouyère, S; Dassargues, A

    2014-11-15

    Geothermal energy systems, closed or open, are increasingly considered for heating and/or cooling buildings. The efficiency of such systems depends on the thermal properties of the subsurface. Therefore, feasibility and impact studies performed prior to their installation should include a field characterization of thermal properties and a heat transfer model using parameter values measured in situ. However, there is a lack of in situ experiments and methodology for performing such a field characterization, especially for open systems. This study presents an in situ experiment designed for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers with focus on the specific heat capacity. This experiment consists in simultaneously injecting hot water and a chemical tracer into the aquifer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and concentration in the recovery well (and possibly in other piezometers located down gradient). Temperature and concentrations are then used for estimating the specific heat capacity. The first method for estimating this parameter is based on a modeling in series of the chemical tracer and temperature breakthrough curves at the recovery well. The second method is based on an energy balance. The values of specific heat capacity estimated for both methods (2.30 and 2.54MJ/m(3)/K) for the experimental site in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River (Belgium) are almost identical and consistent with values found in the literature. Temperature breakthrough curves in other piezometers are not required for estimating the specific heat capacity. However, they highlight that heat transfer in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River is complex and contrasted with different dominant process depending on the depth leading to significant vertical heat exchange between upper and lower part of the aquifer. Furthermore, these temperature breakthrough curves could be included in the calibration of a complex heat transfer model for

  11. Conceptual design of an orbital propellant transfer experiment. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, G. L.; Bassett, C. E.; Merino, F.; Siden, L. E.; Bradley, R. E.; Carr, E. J.; Parker, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The OTV configurations, operations and requirements planned for the period from the 1980's to the 1990's were reviewed and a propellant transfer experiment was designed that would support the needs of these advanced OTV operational concepts. An overall integrated propellant management technology plan for all NASA centers was developed. The preliminary cost estimate (for planning purposes only) is $56.7 M, of which approximately $31.8 M is for shuttle user costs.

  12. International Naval Technology Transfer: Lessons Learned from the Spanish and Chilean Shipbuilding Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    Transfer: Lessons Learned from the Spanish and Chilean Shipbuilding Experience Larrie Ferreiro Defense Acquisition University Published April 30...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Acquisition University ,9820 Belvoir Rd...www.acquisitionresearch.net, at a rate of roughly 140 reports per year. This activity has engaged researchers at over 60 universities and other institutions, greatly

  13. Direct experimental evidence for the high chemical reactivity of α- and β-xylopyranosides adopting a (2,5)B conformation in glycosyl transfer.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Luis; Marcelo, Filipa; Rousseau, Cyril; Nieto, Lidia; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Marrot, Jérôme; Rauter, Amélia P; Sollogoub, Matthieu; Bols, Mikael; Blériot, Yves

    2011-06-20

    The effect of a (2,5)B boat conformation on xyloside reactivity has been investigated by studying the hydrolysis and glycosylation of a series of synthetic xyloside analogues based on a 2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane framework, which forces the xylose analogue to adopt a (2,5)B conformation. The locked β-xylosides were found to hydrolyze 100-1200 times faster than methyl β-D-xylopyranoside, whereas the locked α-xylosides hydrolyzed up to 2×10(4) times faster than methyl α-D-xylopyranoside. A significant rate enhancement was also observed for the glycosylation reaction. The high reactivity of these conformers can be related to the imposition of a (2,5)B conformation, which approximates a transition state (TS) boat conformation. In this way, the energy penalty required to go from the chair to the TS conformation is already paid. These results parallel and support the observation that the GH-11 xylanase family force their substrate to adopt a (2,5)B conformation to achieve highly efficient enzymatic glycosidic bond hydrolysis.

  14. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  15. Phase I/II study of adoptive transfer of γδ T cells in combination with zoledronic acid and IL-2 to patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hirohito; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Yagi, Junji; Minato, Nagahiro; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2011-08-01

    Human Vγ2 Vδ2-bearing T cells have recently received much attention in cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we conducted a phase I/II clinical trial of the adoptive transfer of γδ T cells to patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Eleven patients who had undergone nephrectomy and had lung metastasis were enrolled. Peripheral blood γδ T cells obtained from the patients were stimulated ex vivo with 2-methyl-3-butenyl-1-pyrophosphate (2M3B1PP), a synthetic pyrophosphomonoester antigen, and transferred in combination with zoledronic acid (Zol) and teceleukin (recombinant human interleukin-2). Expanded γδ T cells exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against tumor cells in vitro, and the proportion of peripheral blood γδ T cells among CD3(+) cells typically peaked three to 5 days after transfer. Tumor doubling time was prolonged in all 11 patients, and the best overall responses were 1 CR, 5 SD, and 5 PD, as defined based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Although ten patients developed adverse reactions of grade ≥3, they were likely to have been the result of the concomitant infusion of Zol and IL-2, and most symptoms swiftly reverted to normal during the course of treatment. In conclusion, this clinical trial demonstrated that our regimen for the adoptive transfer of γδ T cells in combination with Zol and IL-2 was well tolerated and that objective clinical responses could be achieved in some patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

  16. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  17. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  18. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  19. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  20. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  1. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: building on success.

    PubMed

    Gattinoni, Luca; Powell, Daniel J; Rosenberg, Steven A; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2006-05-01

    Adoptive cell transfer after host preconditioning by lymphodepletion represents an important advance in cancer immunotherapy. Here, we describe how a lymphopaenic environment enables tumour-reactive T cells to destroy large burdens of metastatic tumour and how the state of differentiation of the adoptively transferred T cells can affect the outcome of treatment. We also discuss how the translation of these new findings might further improve the efficacy of adoptive cell transfer through the use of vaccines, haematopoietic-stem-cell transplantation, modified preconditioning regimens, and alternative methods for the generation and selection of the T cells to be transferred.

  2. Subcooled Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Microgravity: Terrier-improved Orion Sounding Rocket Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; Benton, John; Kucner, Robert

    2000-01-01

    A microscale heater array was used to study boiling in earth gravity and microgravity. The heater array consisted of 96 serpentine heaters on a quartz substrate. Each heater was 0.27 square millimeters. Electronic feedback loops kept each heater's temperature at a specified value. The University of Maryland constructed an experiment for the Terrier-Improved Orion sounding rocket that was delivered to NASA Wallops and flown. About 200 s of high quality microgravity and heat transfer data were obtained. The VCR malfunctioned, and no video was acquired. Subsequently, the test package was redesigned to fly on the KC-135 to obtain both data and video. The pressure was held at atmospheric pressure and the bulk temperature was about 20 C. The wall temperature was varied from 85 to 65 C. Results show that gravity has little effect on boiling heat transfer at wall superheats below 25 C, despite vast differences in bubble behavior between gravity levels. In microgravity, a large primary bubble was surrounded by smaller bubbles, which eventually merged with the primary bubble. This bubble was formed by smaller bubbles coalescing, but had a constant size for a given superheat, indicating a balance between evaporation at the base and condensation on the cap. Most of the heaters under the bubble indicated low heat transfer, suggesting dryout at those heaters. High heat transfer occurred at the contact line surrounding the primary bubble. Marangoni convection formed a "jet" of fluid into the bulk fluid that forced the bubble onto the heater.

  3. Experiments on Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film Flowing Over a Rotating Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaran, Subramanian (Technical Monitor); Ozar, B.; Cetegen, B. M.; Faghri, A.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study of heat transfer into a thin liquid film on a rotating heated disk is described. Deionized water was introduced at the center of a heated. horizontal disk with a constant film thickness and uniform radial velocity. Radial distribution of the disk surface temperatures was measured using a thermocouple/slip ring arrangement. Experiments were performed for a range of liquid flow rates between 3.01pm and 15.01pm. The angular speed of the disk was varied from 0 rpm to 500 rpm. The local heat transfer coefficient was determined based on the heat flux supplied to the disk and the temperature difference between the measured disk surface temperature and the liquid entrance temperature onto the disk. The local heat transfer coefficient was seen to increase with increasing flow rate as well as increasing angular velocity of the disk. Effect of rotation on heat transfer was largest for the lower liquid flow rates with the effect gradually decreasing with increasing liquid flow rates. Semi-empirical correlations are presented in this study for the local and average Nusselt numbers.

  4. Adoptive transfer of genetically modified macrophages elucidated TGF-beta-mediated 'self-defence' of the glomerulus against local action of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, M

    1999-01-01

    TGF-beta has several anti-inflammatory properties which may be relevant to prevention of or recovery from acute glomerular inflammation. Using genetically modified mesangial cells and a technique for in vivo macrophage transfer, this article provides evidence for TGF-beta-mediated 'self-defence' of the glomerulus against macrophages. Rat mesangial cells stably transfected with TGF-beta1 showed a blunted response to the macrophage-derived, proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta. In contrast, mesangial cells expressing the dominant-interfering TGF-beta receptor showed an enhanced response to IL-1. Similarly, externally added TGF-beta1 inhibited the cytokine response of normal glomeruli, and isolated nephritic glomeruli producing active TGF-beta1 showed a depressed response to IL-1beta, compared to normal glomeruli. Consistent with these in vitro results, in vivo transfer of activated macrophages revealed that the TGF-beta-producing glomeruli are insensitive to the effector action of macrophages. These results indicate that TGF-beta1 functions as an endogenous 'defender' that counteracts local action of activated macrophages in the glomerulus.

  5. Experience with a talker can transfer across modalities to facilitate lipreading.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Kauyumari; Dias, James W; Rosenblum, Lawrence D

    2013-10-01

    Rosenblum, Miller, and Sanchez (Psychological Science, 18, 392-396, 2007) found that subjects first trained to lip-read a particular talker were then better able to perceive the auditory speech of that same talker, as compared with that of a novel talker. This suggests that the talker experience a perceiver gains in one sensory modality can be transferred to another modality to make that speech easier to perceive. An experiment was conducted to examine whether this cross-sensory transfer of talker experience could occur (1) from auditory to lip-read speech, (2) with subjects not screened for adequate lipreading skill, (3) when both a familiar and an unfamiliar talker are presented during lipreading, and (4) for both old (presentation set) and new words. Subjects were first asked to identify a set of words from a talker. They were then asked to perform a lipreading task from two faces, one of which was of the same talker they heard in the first phase of the experiment. Results revealed that subjects who lip-read from the same talker they had heard performed better than those who lip-read a different talker, regardless of whether the words were old or new. These results add further evidence that learning of amodal talker information can facilitate speech perception across modalities and also suggest that this information is not restricted to previously heard words.

  6. Adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in combination with zoledronic acid inhibits cancer growth and limits osteolysis in a murine model of osteolytic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zysk, Aneta; DeNichilo, Mark O; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Zinonos, Irene; Liapis, Vasilios; Hay, Shelley; Ingman, Wendy; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Atkins, Gerald; Findlay, David; Zannettino, Andrew; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Bone metastases occur in over 75% of patients with advanced breast cancer and are responsible for high levels of morbidity and mortality. In this study, ex vivo expanded cytotoxic Vγ9Vδ2 T cells isolated from human peripheral blood were tested for their anti-cancer efficacy in combination with zoledronic acid (ZOL), using a mouse model of osteolytic breast cancer. In vitro, expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were cytotoxic against a panel of human breast cancer cell lines, and ZOL pre-treatment further sensitised breast cancer cells to killing by Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells adoptively transferred into NOD/SCID mice localised to osteolytic breast cancer lesions in the bone, and multiple infusions of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells reduced tumour growth in the bone. ZOL pre-treatment potentiated the anti-cancer efficacy of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, with mice showing further reductions in tumour burden. Mice treated with the combination also had reduced tumour burden of secondary pulmonary metastases, and decreased bone degradation. Our data suggests that adoptive transfer of Vγ9Vδ2 T cell in combination with ZOL may prove an effective immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases.

  7. Microvascular free-tissue transfer. The Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center experience.

    PubMed

    Carlson, G W; Coleman, J J

    1989-04-01

    The entire microvascular tissue transfer experience from 1977 through 1987 at the Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center has been reviewed. Seventy-four free flaps were done in 68 patients. Assessable records were available in 52 patients who had 58 reconstructive procedures. The most frequently used flaps were jejunum in 15 patients (25.8%), latissimus dorsi in 11 patients (18.9%), rectus abdominis in eight patients (13.8%), and gracilis in seven patients (12.1%). Major complications occurred in 43.1% of the cases. Total flap loss occurred in eight patients (13.8%); from 1977 through 1982, four (28.6%) of 14 patients had total flap loss, and from 1983 through 1987, four (9.1%) had total flap loss. Partial flap loss occurred in four cases (6.9%). Of the 52 patients, 43 had their problems resolved expeditiously by free-tissue transfer. We conclude that in a university-affiliated Veterans Administration medical center, microvascular reconstruction is an important and necessary surgical tool. Failure rates have decreased markedly with time and increasing experience. Definition of new anatomic microvascular units for transfer has increased the number of reconstructive choices.

  8. The protease inhibitor chagasin of Trypanosoma cruzi adopts an immunoglobulin-type fold and may have arisen by horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Rigden, D J; Monteiro, A C; Grossi de Sá, M F

    2001-08-24

    Chagasin, a protein from Trypanosoma cruzi, is the first member of a new family of tight binding cysteine protease inhibitors [Monteiro, A.C.S., Abrahamson, M., Lima, A.P.C., Vannier-Santos, M.A. and Scharfstein, J. (2001) J. Cell Sci., in press] [corrected]. Despite its lack of significant sequence identity with known proteins, convincing structural models, using variable light chain templates, could be constructed on the basis of threading results. Experimental support for the final structure came from inhibition data for overlapping oligopeptides spanning the chagasin sequence. Chagasin therefore exemplifies a new protease inhibitor structural class and a new natural use for an immunoglobulin-like domain. Limited sequence resemblance suggests that chagasin may represent the result of a rare horizontal gene transfer from host to parasite.

  9. Heat Transfer by Thermo-Capillary Convection. Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a sounding rocket experiment which was partly dedicated to study the heat transfer from a hot wall to a cold liquid with a free surface. Natural or buoyancy-driven convection does not occur in the compensated gravity environment of a ballistic phase. Thermo-capillary convection driven by a temperature gradient along the free surface always occurs if a non-condensable gas is present. This convection increases the heat transfer compared to a pure conductive case. Heat transfer correlations are needed to predict temperature distributions in the tanks of cryogenic upper stages. Future upper stages of the European Ariane V rocket have mission scenarios with multiple ballistic phases. The aims of this paper and of the COMPERE group (French-German research group on propellant behavior in rocket tanks) in general are to provide basic knowledge, correlations and computer models to predict the thermo-fluid behavior of cryogenic propellants for future mission scenarios. Temperature and surface location data from the flight have been compared with numerical calculations to get the heat flux from the wall to the liquid. Since the heat flux measurements along the walls of the transparent test cell were not possible, the analysis of the heat transfer coefficient relies therefore on the numerical modeling which was validated with the flight data. The coincidence between experiment and simulation is fairly good and allows presenting the data in form of a Nusselt number which depends on a characteristic Reynolds number and the Prandtl number. The results are useful for further benchmarking of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as FLOW-3D and FLUENT, and for the design of future upper stage propellant tanks.

  10. Adoption and Single Parents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groze, Vic

    1991-01-01

    Examines the literature about people who choose to become single adoptive parents. Reviews the demographic and personal characteristics of single parents who adopt, and summarizes the experiences of single parents with the children they adopt. Calls for further research on single parents who adopt special needs children. (GH)

  11. Capillary-Driven Heat Transfer Experiment: Keeping It Cool in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekan, Jack F.; Allen, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Capillary-pumped loops (CPL's) are devices that are used to transport heat from one location to another--specifically to transfer heat away from something. In low-gravity applications, such as satellites (and possibly the International Space Station), CPL's are used to transfer heat from electrical devices to space radiators. This is accomplished by evaporating one liquid surface on the hot side of the CPL and condensing the vapor produced onto another liquid surface on the cold side. Capillary action, the phenomenon that causes paper towels to absorb spilled liquids, is used to "pump" the liquid back to the evaporating liquid surface (hot side) to complete the "loop." CPL's require no power to operate and can transfer heat over distances as large as 30 ft or more. Their reliance upon evaporation and condensation to transfer heat makes them much more economical in terms of weight than conventional heat transfer systems. Unfortunately, they have proven to be unreliable in space operations, and the explanation for this unreliability has been elusive. The Capillary-Driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment is investigating the fundamental fluid physics phenomena thought to be responsible for the failure of CPL's in low-gravity operations. If the failure mechanism can be identified, then appropriate design modifications can be developed to make capillary phase-change heat-transport devices a more viable option in space applications. CHT was conducted onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the first Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission, STS-94, which flew from July 1 to 17, 1997. The CHT glovebox investigation, which was conceived by Dr. Kevin Hallinan and Jeffrey Allen of the University of Dayton, focused on studying the dynamics associated with the heating and cooling at the evaporating meniscus within a capillary phase-change device in a low-gravity environment. The CHT experimental hardware was designed by a small team of engineers from Aerospace Design

  12. The Use of Video in Knowledge Transfer of Teacher-Led Psychosocial Interventions: Feeling Competent to Adopt a Different Role in the Classroom (L'utilisation de la vidéo dans le transfert de connaissances dans les interventions psychosociales menées par les enseignants : sentir que l'on a la compétence d'adopter un rôle différent dans la salle de classe)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauregard, Caroline; Rousseau, Cécile; Mustafa, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Because they propose a form of modeling, videos have been recognised to be useful to transfer knowledge about practices requiring teachers to adopt a different role. This paper describes the results of a satisfaction survey with 98 teachers, school administrators and professionals regarding their appreciation of training videos showing teacher-led…

  13. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for MOX Fuel Based on the IFA-597 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E; Ott, Larry J; Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The IFA-597 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the thermal behavior of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and the effects of an annulus on fission gas release in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for MOX fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the first 20 time steps ( 6 GWd/MT(iHM)) for explicit comparison between the codes. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole, dish, and chamfer. The analysis demonstrated relative agreement for both solid (rod 1) and annular (rod 2) fuel in the experiment, demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for MOX fuel, while also revealing a small energy loss artifact in how gap conductance is currently handled in Exnihilo for chamfered fuel pellets. The within-pellet power shape was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for MOX fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  14. Generation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients for adoptive T-cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, Silvia; Delbue, Serena; Signorini, Lucia; Setola, Elisabetta; Bagliani, Anna; Della Valle, Alberto; Galli, Andrea; Ferrante, Pasquale; Bregni, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This study designs a strategy for an adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) protocol based on the ex-vivo selection of autologous peripheral blood-derived CD8-enriched T-cells, stimulated with dendritic cells (DCs) that had been pulsed with apoptotic tumor cells to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with anti-tumor activity. Seventy-eight colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were enrolled in this study. Tumor tissues and peripheral blood (PB) were obtained at surgery. Tissues were mechanically dissociated and cultured to obtain a primary tumor cell line from each patient. DCs were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using magnetic positive selection of CD14+ monocytes. Anti-tumor CTLs were elicited in co-/micro-cultures using DCs as antigen-presenting cells, autologous apoptotic tumor cells as a source of antigens, and CD8+ T lymphocytes as effectors. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion was assessed by ELISpot assays to evaluate the activation of the CTLs against the autologous tumor cells. Primary tumor cell lines were obtained from 20 of 78 patients (25.6%). DCs were generated from 26 patients, and of them, corresponding tumor cell lines were derived from six patients. ELISpot results showed that significant IFN-γ secretion was detected after different numbers of stimulations for two patients, whereas weak secretion was observed for three patients. Despite difficulties due to contamination of several primary tumor cell lines with gut intestinal flora, the results suggest that the generation of tumor-specific CTLs is feasible from patients with CRC, and could be useful for supporting an ACT approach in CRC.

  15. The experience of cash transfers in alleviating childhood poverty in South Africa: mothers' experiences of the Child Support Grant.

    PubMed

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Surender, Rebecca; Surrender, Rebecca; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra; Doherty, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Cash transfer (CT) programmes are increasingly being used as policy instruments to address child poverty and child health outcomes in developing countries. As the largest cash-transfer programme in Africa, the South African Child Support Grant (CSG) provides an important opportunity to further understand how a CT of its kind works in a developing country context. We explored the experiences and views of CSG recipients and non-recipients from four diverse settings in South Africa. Four major themes emerged from the data: barriers to accessing the CSG; how the CSG is utilised and the ways in which it makes a difference; the mechanisms for supplementing the CSG; and the impact of not receiving the grant. Findings show that administrative factors continue to be the greatest barrier to CSG receipt, pointing to the need for further improvements in managing queues, waiting times and coordination between departments for applicants trying to submit their applications. Many recipients, especially those where the grant was the only source of income, acknowledged the importance of the CSG, while also emphasising its inadequacy. To maximise their impact, CT programmes such as the CSG need to be fully funded and form part of a broader basket of poverty alleviation strategies.

  16. The experience of cash transfers in alleviating childhood poverty in South Africa: Mothers' experiences of the Child Support Grant

    PubMed Central

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Surrender, Rebecca; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra; Doherty, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Cash transfer (CT) programmes are increasingly being used as policy instruments to address child poverty and child health outcomes in developing countries. As the largest cash-transfer programme in Africa, the South African Child Support Grant (CSG) provides an important opportunity to further understand how a CT of its kind works in a developing country context. We explored the experiences and views of CSG recipients and non-recipients from four diverse settings in South Africa. Four major themes emerged from the data: barriers to accessing the CSG; how the CSG is utilised and the ways in which it makes a difference; the mechanisms for supplementing the CSG; and the impact of not receiving the grant. Findings show that administrative factors continue to be the greatest barrier to CSG receipt, pointing to the need for further improvements in managing queues, waiting times and coordination between departments for applicants trying to submit their applications. Many recipients, especially those where the grant was the only source of income, acknowledged the importance of the CSG, while also emphasising its inadequacy. To maximise their impact, CT programmes such as the CSG need to be fully funded and form part of a broader basket of poverty alleviation strategies. PMID:25685927

  17. Adoptive transfer of IL-4Rα+ macrophages is sufficient to enhance eosinophilic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) chain has a broad expression pattern and participates in IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, allowing it to influence several pathological components of allergic lung inflammation. We previously reported that IL-4Rα expression on both bone marrow-derived and non-bone marrow-derived cells contributed to the severity of allergic lung inflammation. There was a correlation between the number of macrophages expressing the IL-4Rα, CD11b, and IAd, and the degree of eosinophilia in ovalbumin challenged mice. The engagement of the IL-4Rα by IL-4 or IL-13 is able to stimulate the alternative activation of macrophages (AAM). The presence of AAM has been correlated with inflammatory responses to parasites and allergens. Therefore, we hypothesized that IL-4Rα+ AAM play an active role in allergic lung inflammation. To directly determine the role of AAM in allergic lung inflammation, M-CSF-dependent macrophages (BMM) were prepared from the bone-marrow of IL-4Rα positive and negative mice and transferred to IL-4RαxRAG2-/- mice. Wild type TH2 cells were provided exogenously. Results Mice receiving IL-4Rα+/+ BMM showed a marked increase in the recruitment of eosinophils to the lung after challenge with ovalbumin as compared to mice receiving IL-4Rα-/- BMM. As expected, the eosinophilic inflammation was dependent on the presence of TH2 cells. Furthermore, we observed an increase in cells expressing F4/80 and Mac3, and the AAM marker YM1/2 in the lungs of mice receiving IL-4Rα+/+ BMM. The BAL fluid from these mice contained elevated levels of eotaxin-1, RANTES, and CCL2. Conclusions These results demonstrate that transfer of IL-4Rα + macrophages is sufficient to enhance TH2-driven, allergic inflammation. They further show that stimulation of macrophages through IL-4Rα leads to their alternative activation and positive contribution to the TH2-driven allergic inflammatory response in the lung. Since an increase in AAM and their products has

  18. Adoptive transfer of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells to C57BL/6J mice during acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii down modulates the exacerbated Th1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Jonadab E; Fernández, Jacquelina; Salinas, Nohemí; Juárez, Imelda; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Campuzano, Jaime; Castellanos, Carlos; Saavedra, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Infection of C57BL/6J mice with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii triggers a powerful Th1 immune response that is detrimental to the host. During acute infection, a reduction in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) has been reported. We studied the role of Treg during T. gondii infection by adoptive transfer of cells purified from transgenic Foxp3(EGFP) mice to infected wild type animals. We found a less severe weight loss, a significant delayed mortality in infected Treg-transferred mice, and reduced pathology of the small intestine that were associated with lower IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. Nevertheless, higher cyst number and parasite load in brain were observed in these mice. Treg-transferred infected mice showed reduced levels of both IFN-γ and TNF-α in sera. A reduced number of CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ was detected in these mice, while IL-2 producing CD4(+) T cells were restored to levels nearly similar to uninfected mice. CD25 and CD69 expression of CD4(+) T cells were also down modulated. Our data show that the low Treg cell number are insufficient to modulate the activation of CD4(+) T cells and the production of high levels of IFN-γ. Thus, a delicate balance between an optimal immune response and its modulation by Treg cells must exist.

  19. Analysis of transgene-specific immune responses that limit the in vivo persistence of adoptively transferred HSV-TK–modified donor T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Carolina; Flowers, Mary E.; Warren, Edus H.; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of an inducible suicide gene such as the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) might allow exploitation of the antitumor activity of donor T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) without graft versus host disease. However, HSV-TK is foreign, and immune responses to gene-modified T cells could lead to their premature elimination. We show that after the infusion of HSV-TK–modified donor T cells to HCT recipients, CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses to HSV-TK are rapidly induced and coincide with the disappearance of transferred cells. Cytokine flow cytometry using an overlapping panel of HSV-TK peptides allowed rapid detection and quantitation of HSV-TK–specific T cells in the blood and identified multiple immunogenic epitopes. Repeated infusion of modified T cells boosted the induced HSV-TK–specific T cells, which persisted as memory cells. These studies demonstrate the need for nonimmunogenic suicide genes and identify a strategy for detection of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to transgene products that should be generally applicable to monitoring patients on gene therapy trials. The potency of gene-modified T cells to elicit robust and durable immune responses imply this approach might be used for vaccination to elicit T-cell responses to viral or tumor antigens. PMID:16282341

  20. Reference layer exchange in spin transfer torque experiment using magnetic-coated nanometric point contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, R. O.; Baptista, D. L.; Heinemann, M.; Kuhn, M. F.; Schmidt, J. E.; Pereira, L. G.

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the importance of using nanotips on a point contact spin-transfer torque (STT) experiment. A systematic analysis comparing the STT in a magnetic thin film in current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) geometry sample for magnetic coated and uncoated tungsten nanotips is shown. The STT effect presents a reverse resistance to current behavior when using a magnetic coating layer on the nanotips. We demonstrate that the magnetic layer on the tip may assume the role of a polarizer layer. This effect opens up the possibility of exploiting simpler architectures in STT-based devices, such as STT-random access memory (STT-RAM).

  1. Mi fuerza/my strength. The academic and personal experiences of Chicana/Latina transfer students in math and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Yvonne

    This study unravels Chicana/Latina college students' perceptions of their experiences after transfer to two four-year universities. The study expands current research and provides a richer, detailed perspective of transfer students' experiences in the fields of math and science through the lens of a Feminist Critical Race Theory. The study specifically focuses on the experience of these students through their narratives, including their academic preparation, reasons for campus selection, and their academic and social integration after transferring to the senior institution. The study includes students who transferred from Santa Ana College, a Hispanic Serving Institution, that enrolls over 24,000 students, 42% of which are from "Hispanic" backgrounds. Female students who transferred from Santa Ana College to one of two four-year universities, University of California, Irvine, or California State University, Fullerton, were selected for participation. A comparative analysis of experiences at the two senior institutions was conducted. Also included was an examination of how each campus promoted or hindered the success of students. Findings will guide policy recommendations at the two- and four-year college level, and may impact statewide policies regarding transfer of Chicanas/Latinas into math and science fields. Moreover, this study will add to the limited research available in the field of community college students and transfer student experiences.

  2. Status of the proton and electron transfer lines for the AWAKE Experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. S.; Bauche, J.; Biskup, B.; Bracco, C.; Doebert, S.; Goddard, B.; Gschwendtner, E.; Jensen, L. K.; Jones, O. R.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Velotti, F. M.; Vorozhtsov, A.

    2016-09-01

    The AWAKE project at CERN is planned to study proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration with an externally injected electron beam. Therefore two transfer lines are being designed in order to provide the proton beam from the SPS and the electron beam from an RF gun to the plasma cell. The commissioning of the proton line will take place in 2016 for the first phase of the experiment, which is focused on the self-modulation of a 12 cm long proton bunch in the plasma. The electron line will be added for the second phase of AWAKE in 2017, when the wakefield will be probed with an electron beam of 10-20 MeV/c. The challenge for these transfer lines lies in the parallel operation of the proton, electron and laser beam used to ionize the plasma and seed the self-modulation. These beams, of different characteristics, need to be synchronized and positioned for optimized injection conditions into the wakefield. This task requires great flexibility in the transfer line optics. The status of these designs will be presented in this paper.

  3. Microvascular free-tissue transfers in elderly patients: the leeds experience.

    PubMed

    Malata, C M; Cooter, R D; Batchelor, A G; Simpson, K H; Browning, F S; Kay, S P

    1996-12-01

    Free-tissue transfer in the elderly has received increasing attention in the literature. Existing reports are limited by small samples or inadequate definition of the term elderly. This study reviewed 5 years' experience with free-tissue transfer in a geriatric population (mean age 75 years, range 70 to 83 years). Forty-nine free flaps were performed in 42 patients between 1986 and 1991. This review focuses on the 39 flaps undertaken in 33 head and neck cancer patients, the main indication being reconstruction after tumor resection (80 percent). In the head and neck cancer group, donor sites included the radial forearm (20), rectus abdominis (6), jejunum (5), and others (8). Thirty-four flaps (87 percent) were primarily successful. Reexploration was required in 10 patients (26 percent) for compromised flaps (5) and bleeding (5). Three of the compromised flaps were salvaged, giving an overall flap success rate of 95 percent. One patient (3 percent) died within 30 days of surgery. These results compare favorably with other published series in elderly patients, as well as with larger cohorts of younger subjects. Free flaps are safe in the elderly. Chronologic age alone should not be an exclusion criterion when selecting patients for free-tissue transfer.

  4. Fundamental Drop Dynamics and Mass Transfer Experiments to Support Solvent Extraction Modeling Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Kristi Christensen; Veronica Rutledge; Troy Garn

    2011-09-01

    In support of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling Simulation Safeguards and Separations (NEAMS SafeSep) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to further a modeling effort designed to predict mass transfer behavior for selected metal species between individual dispersed drops and a continuous phase in a two phase liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) system. The purpose of the model is to understand the fundamental processes of mass transfer that occur at the drop interface. This fundamental understanding can be extended to support modeling of larger LLE equipment such as mixer settlers, pulse columns, and centrifugal contactors. The work performed at the INL involved gathering the necessary experimental data to support the modeling effort. A custom experimental apparatus was designed and built for performing drop contact experiments to measure mass transfer coefficients as a function of contact time. A high speed digital camera was used in conjunction with the apparatus to measure size, shape, and velocity of the drops. In addition to drop data, the physical properties of the experimental fluids were measured to be used as input data for the model. Physical properties measurements included density, viscosity, surface tension and interfacial tension. Additionally, self diffusion coefficients for the selected metal species in each experimental solution were measured, and the distribution coefficient for the metal partitioning between phases was determined. At the completion of this work, the INL has determined the mass transfer coefficient and a velocity profile for drops rising by buoyancy through a continuous medium under a specific set of experimental conditions. Additionally, a complete set of experimentally determined fluid properties has been obtained. All data will be provided to LANL to support the modeling effort.

  5. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells decreases inhibitory and regulatory T-cell differentiation and improves survival in murine polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Yang, Wen; Gao, Lei; Kang, Jia-Rui; Qin, Jia-Jian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Lu, Jiang-Yang

    2015-05-01

    A decrease in the number of dendritic cells (DCs) is a major cause of post-sepsis immunosuppression and opportunistic infection and is closely associated with poor prognosis. Increasing the number of DCs to replenish their numbers post sepsis can improve the condition. This therapeutic approach could improve recovery after sepsis. Eighty C57BL/6 mice were subjected to sham or caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery. Mice were divided into four groups: (i) Sham + vehicle, (ii) Sham + DC, (iii) CLP + vehicle, and (iv) CLP + DC. Bone-marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were administered at 6, 12 and 24 hr after surgery. After 3 days, we assessed serum indices of organ function (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, amylase and lipase), organ tissue histopathology (haematoxylin and eosin staining), cytokine [interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-12p70 (IL-12p70), IL-6 and IL-10] levels in the serum, programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression on T cells, regulatory T-cell differentiation in the spleen, and the survival rate (monitored for 7 days). BMDC transfer resulted in the following changes: a significant reduction in damage to the liver, kidney and pancreas in the CLP-septic mice as well as in the pathological changes seen in the liver, lung, small intestine and pancreas; significantly elevated levels of the T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12p70 in the serum; decreased levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 in the serum; reduced expression of PD-1 molecules on CD4(+) T cells; reduced the proliferation and differentiation of splenic suppressor T cells and CD4(+)  CD25(+)  Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, and a significant increase in the survival rate of the septic animals. These results show that administration of BMDCs may have modulated the differentiation and immune function of T cells and contributed to alleviate immunosuppression, hence reducing organ damage and mortality post sepsis. Hence

  6. Evaluation of technology transferring: The experiences of the first Navy Domestic Technology Transfair. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    In August 1989 the Office of the Chief of Naval Research and the American Defense Preparedness Association conducted the first Navy Domestic Technology Transfair. The objective of the Transfair was to expose the US Navy`s years of solid experience across a broad span of technology to organizations outside of the Navy. It was an opportunity for private industry to capitalize on the Navy developed technology and this opening for industry was the primary focus of the Transfair. The event provided a unique forum to meet leading Navy scientific and engineering innovators face-to-face. Information was available concerning licensing of naval technology that was for sale to the private sector. Further, discussions covered opportunities for new cooperative research and development agreements with Navy laboratories and R&D activities. These agreements were authorized under the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. The Transfair program was conducted in such a manner as to allow each Navy inventor, either scientist or engineer, to present a system, piece of hardware, or licensable concept in a formal paper presentation. Then, the Navy inventors were available in two, two-hour periods in which individual discussions were conducted, with attendees pursuing specific venues of cooperative agreements as desired. This report provides specifics concerning the technologies that were made available for transfer to the private sector during the Transfair. The Transfair concept sought to add special emphasis to the opening that the 1988 Technology Transfer Act brought to the marketplace. The experience was a step in the education of the possibilities for cooperation between the government and the private sector to share technology. Of additional significance is the economic enhancement for business expansion with the application of the technology to markets beyond defense.

  7. Heat Transfer by Thermo-capillary Convection -Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Michael; Fuhrmann, Eckart

    The sounding rocket COMPERE experiment SOURCE was successfully flown on MASER 11, launched in Kiruna (ESRANGE), May 15th, 2008. SOURCE has been intended to partly ful-fill the scientific objectives of the European Space Agency (ESA) Microgravity Applications Program (MAP) project AO-2004-111 (Convective boiling and condensation). Three parties of principle investigators have been involved to design the experiment set-up: ZARM for thermo-capillary flows, IMFT (Toulouse, France) for boiling studies, EADS Astrium (Bremen, Ger-many) for depressurization. The topic of this paper is to study the effect of wall heat flux on the contact line of the free liquid surface and to obtain a correlation for a convective heat trans-fer coefficient. The experiment has been conducted along a predefined time line. A preheating sequence at ground was the first operation to achieve a well defined temperature evolution within the test cell and its environment inside the rocket. Nearly one minute after launch, the pressurized test cell was filled with the test liquid HFE-7000 until a certain fill level was reached. Then the free surface could be observed for 120 s without distortion. Afterwards, the first depressurization was started to induce subcooled boiling, the second one to start saturated boiling. The data from the flight consists of video images and temperature measurements in the liquid, the solid, and the gaseous phase. Data analysis provides the surface shape versus time and the corresponding apparent contact angle. Computational analysis provides information for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient in a compensated gravity environment where a flow is caused by the temperature difference between the hot wall and the cold liquid. The paper will deliver correlations for the effective contact angle and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the relevant dimensionsless parameters as well as physical explanations for the observed behavior. The data will be used

  8. Group transfer theory of single molecule imaging experiments in the F-ATPase biomolecular motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkan-Kacso, Sandor; Marcus, Rudolph

    I describe a chemo-mechanical theory to treat single molecule imaging and ``stalling'' experiments on the F-ATPase enzyme. This enzyme is an effective stepping biomolecular rotary motor with a rotor shaft and a stator ring. Using group transfer theoretical approach the proposed structure-based theory couples the binding transition of nucleotides in the stator subunits and the physics of torsional elasticity in the rotor. The twisting of the elastic rotor domain acts as a perturbation upon the driving potential, the Gibbs free energy. In the theory, without the use of adjustastable parameters, we predict the rate and equilibrium constant dependence of steps such as ATP binding and phosphate release as a function of manipulated rotor angle. Then we compare these predictions to available data from stalling experiments. Besides treating experiments, the theory can provide guides for atomistic simulations, which could calculate the reorganization parameter and the torsional spring constant. The framework is generic and I discuss its application to other single molecule experiments, such as controlled rotation and other biomolecular motors, including motor-DNA complexes and linear motors.[PNAS, Early Edition, Oct. 19, 2015, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1518489112] The authors would like to acknowledge support from the Office of the Naval Research, the Army Research Office, and the James W. Glanville Foundation.

  9. Group transfer theory of single molecule imaging experiments in the F-ATPase biomolecular motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkan-Kacso, Sandor; Marcus, Rudolph

    I describe a chemo-mechanical theory to treat single molecule imaging and ``stalling'' experiments on the F-ATPase enzyme. This enzyme is an effective stepping biomolecular rotary motor with a rotor shaft and a stator ring. Using group transfer theoretical approach the proposed structure-based theory couples the binding transition of nucleotides in the stator subunits and the physics of torsional elasticity in the rotor. The twisting of the elastic rotor domain acts as a perturbation upon the driving potential, the Gibbs free energy. In the theory, without the use of adjustastable parameters, we predict the rate and equilibrium constant dependence of steps such as ATP binding and phosphate release as a function of manipulated rotor angle. Then we compare these predictions to available data from stalling experiments. Besides treating experiments, the theory can provide guides for atomistic simulations, which could calculate the reorganization parameter and the torsional spring constant. The framework is generic and I discuss its application to other single molecule experiments, such as controlled rotation and other biomolecular motors, including motor-DNA complexes and linear motors.[PNAS, Early Edition, Oct. 19, 2015, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1518489112

  10. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play ... Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen Español Text ...

  11. Experiment 2028: Flowing Temperature Logs and Evaluation of Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficients with the Nitrogen Blankets – Revision I

    SciTech Connect

    Zyvoloski, George A.; Dash, Zora V.; Murphy, Hugh D.

    1983-06-20

    The accurate assessment of temperatures in the casing and liner is critical to the safety of EE-3 during the upcoming fracturing experiment. The purpose of this experiment is to obtain heat transfer coefficients for the nitrogen filled annulus as well as the water filled annulus below the nitrogen water interface. In addition the flowing temperature logs that were not obtained during Experiment 2026 because of an obstruction; will now be obtained in this experiment.

  12. Adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis after in vitro treatment with recombinant murine interleukin-12. Preferential expansion of interferon-gamma-producing cells and increased expression of macrophage-associated inducible nitric oxide synthase as immunomodulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Waldburger, K. E.; Hastings, R. C.; Schaub, R. G.; Goldman, S. J.; Leonard, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    In an adoptive transfer model of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, stimulation of lymph node cells with proteolipid protein and recombinant murine interleukin (rmIL)-12 before cell transfer accelerated the onset and exacerbates clinical disease. In vitro stimulation with proteolipid protein in the presence of rmIL-12 was associated with an increase in interferon-gamma-producing cells and a decrease in IL-4-producing cells, indicating a preferential expansion of Th1 effector cells. This was supported by the finding that severe disease with rapid onset could be transferred with as few as 10 x 10(6) rmIL-12-stimulated lymph node cells. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the accelerated onset of disease after in vitro stimulation with rmIL-12 coincided with an acute inflammatory response in the central nervous system. At peak disease, both control and rmIL-12 treatment groups exhibited extensive cellular infiltration with characteristic perivascular cuffing. No notable differences in either the cellular composition or cytokine expression within the lesions were seen between groups. However, the frequency of macrophages that stained positively for inducible nitric oxide synthase was increased in animals challenged with rmIL-12-treated lymph node cells. The results suggest that, in addition to promoting the preferential expansion of interferon-gamma-producing cells by rmIL-12 in vitro, secondary in vivo effects leading to macrophage activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression may contribute to the severe and protracted course of central nervous system inflammation in this model. Images Figure 2 PMID:8579100

  13. On computational experiments in some inverse problems of heat and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilchenko, G. G.; Bilchenko, N. G.

    2016-11-01

    The results of mathematical modeling of effective heat and mass transfer on hypersonic aircraft permeable surfaces are considered. The physic-chemical processes (the dissociation and the ionization) in laminar boundary layer of compressible gas are appreciated. Some algorithms of control restoration are suggested for the interpolation and approximation statements of heat and mass transfer inverse problems. The differences between the methods applied for the problem solutions search for these statements are discussed. Both the algorithms are realized as programs. Many computational experiments were accomplished with the use of these programs. The parameters of boundary layer obtained by means of the A.A.Dorodnicyn's generalized integral relations method from solving the direct problems have been used to obtain the inverse problems solutions. Two types of blowing laws restoration for the inverse problem in interpolation statement are presented as the examples. The influence of the temperature factor on the blowing restoration is investigated. The different character of sensitivity of controllable parameters (the local heat flow and local tangent friction) respectively to step (discrete) changing of control (the blowing) and the switching point position is studied.

  14. Vented Tank Resupply Experiment Demonstrated Vane Propellant Management Device for Fluid Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The Vented Tank Resupply Experiment (VTRE) flown on STS-77 confirmed the design approaches presently used in the development of vane-type propellant management devices (PMD) for use in resupply and tank-venting situations, and it provided the first practical demonstration of an autonomous fluid transfer system. All the objectives were achieved. Transfers were more stable than drop tower testing indicated. Liquid was retained successfully at the highest flow rate tested (2.73 gal/min), demonstrating that rapid fills could be achieved. Liquid-free vents were achieved for two different tanks, although the flow rate was higher for the spherical tank (0.1591 cu ft/min) than for the tank with a short barrel section (0.0400 cu ft/min). Recovery from a thruster firing, which moved the liquid to the opposite end of the tank from the PMD, was achieved in 30 sec, showing that liquid rewicked more quickly into the PMD after thruster firing than pretest projections had predicted. In addition, researchers obtained great insights into the PMD behavior from the video footage provided, and discovered new considerations for future PMD designs that would not have been seen without this flight test.

  15. Application of transfer entropy to causality detection and synchronization experiments in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gelfusa, M.; Garzotti, L.; Frigione, D.; Lungaroni, M.; Pisano, F.; Gaudio, P.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Determination of causal-effect relationships can be a difficult task even in the analysis of time series. This is particularly true in the case of complex, nonlinear systems affected by significant levels of noise. Causality can be modelled as a flow of information between systems, allowing to better predict the behaviour of a phenomenon on the basis of the knowledge of the one causing it. Therefore, information theoretic tools, such as the transfer entropy, have been used in various disciplines to quantify the causal relationship between events. In this paper, Transfer Entropy is applied to determining the information relationship between various phenomena in Tokamaks. The proposed approach provides unique insight about information causality in difficult situations, such as the link between sawteeth and ELMs and ELM pacing experiments. The application to the determination of disruption causes, and therefore to the classification of disruption types, looks also very promising. The obtained results indicate that the proposed method can provide a quantitative and statistically sound criterion to address the causal-effect relationships in various difficult and ambiguous situations if the data is of sufficient quality.

  16. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  17. Solute mass transfer from near field to far field in a HLWR experiment at real scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buil, B.; Peña, J.; Gómez, P.; Garralón, A.; Turrero, M. J.; Sánchez, L.; Durán, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    The FEBEX experiment located in Grimsel (Switzerland) is a 1:1 simulation of a high level waste disposal facility in crystalline rock according to the Spanish concept: two electrical heaters of dimension and weight equivalent to those of the real canisters were installed concentrically with the drift and simulated the thermal effect of the wastes and surrounded by a clay barrier constructed from highly-compacted bentonite blocks. This experiment started in 1996 and the external rim of bentonite is saturated with the granitic water. The difference between the chemical gradients generated by the bentonite porewater and the granitic water made possible the movement of solute into the geosphere. The experiment reproduces in the most realistic conditions, all the processes affecting the radionuclide migration in a HLWR. Two boreholes parallel to the axis of the FEBEX drift were drilled in granite relatively close to the bentonite surface (20 and 60cm) in order to highlight the solute migration mechanisms in crystalline host rock, influenced by the presence of the bentonite buffer and by the geochemical gradients generated at the bentonite/granite interface. After three years of periodic water sampling campaigns in those boreholes, the chemical composition of waters reveal that there is an appreciable increase of Na and Cl concentration in time in the waters sampled from the borehole located at 20cm from the bentonite surface. On the other hand, the Na/Cl ratio in waters is similar to the Na/Cl ratio in the bentonite porewater. For this reason Cl and Na are considered as the main natural tracers indicating the mass transfer process between the bentonite porewater and the granite. A diffusion transport modelling (PHREEQC) was used to describe the mass transfer process. The results show that the Cl and Na concentration in the granitic waters is the result of a diffusive transport from the bentonite to the granite, with a calculated De≈ 5,0E-11 m2/s. These results could

  18. Using Tracer Experiments To Study Phosphorus Transfer From Soil To Overland Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, T.; Stamm, C.; Schaerer, M.; Sinaj, S.; Frossard, E.; Fluehler, H.

    Diffuse phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land contribute to the eutrophication of surface water bodies in Switzerland. Grassland soils in areas of high animal stock densities are often prone to high P losses due to over-fertilization and a strong accumu- lation of P in the topsoil. In order to understand the effects of management practices and remediation measures on P transfer into runoff water at a small scale it is impor- tant to localize the sources of this phosphorus within the soil profile and to describe the water flows within the topsoil­overland flow system. We are studying the effects of remediation measures on P availability in the soil and on P concentrations in overland flow in a field experiment. We are using tracer exper- iments to examine the mixing behavior of water applied with a sprinkling device onto the soil surface with pre-event soil water and to trace the contribution of those two water sources to overland flow. Two plots were pre-irrigated with a solution of KBr in order to label the soil solu- tion. After a few days of equilibration, two fluorescent dyes were applied to different areas of the plots at a constant rate of 40 mm h-1. Surface runoff was analyzed for tracer concentrations. Small soil monoliths (0.35 * 0.25 *0.20 m3) were excavated and the tracer distribution within the blocks was mapped using a digital camera, optical filters, and tracer specific excitation light source. This tracing technique allowed for independent mapping of the distribution of two simultaneously applied tracers. The experiments demonstrated heterogenous infiltration of the dyes, negligible lat- eral translocation of the dyes within the soil, minimal transfer of the pre-applied Br- into overland flow, early breakthrough of the dye tracers in overland flow which was independent of the tracers sorption properties and a recovery of the dyes that corre- sponded to the runoff ratio. In all, the experiments indicate a very restricted interac- tion between

  19. The Influence of Framing on Transfer: Initial Evidence from a Tutoring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Randi A.; Nguyen, Phi D.; Mendelson, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the idea that the framing of learning and transfer contexts can influence students' propensity to transfer what they have learned. We predicted that transfer would be promoted by framing contexts in an expansive manner in which students are positioned as having the opportunity to contribute to larger conversations that…

  20. Transfer from paediatric rheumatology to the adult rheumatology setting: experiences and expectations of young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hilderson, Deborah; Eyckmans, Leen; Van der Elst, Kristien; Westhovens, Rene; Wouters, Carine; Moons, Philip

    2013-05-01

    Adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are transferred from paediatrics to adult-oriented healthcare when they reach early adulthood. Research on the extent to which patients' expectations about the adult healthcare setting match their actual experience after transfer, may promote successful transfer from paediatrics to adult care. As part of the 'Don't Retard' project ( http://www.kuleuven.be/switch2/rheuma.html ), experiences and expectations of young adults regarding their transfer from paediatric rheumatology to adult rheumatology were explored. A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured, in-depth interviews of 11 patients with JIA, aged 18 to 30. Data were analysed using procedures inherent to the content analysis approach. For both concepts, experiences and expectations, three main themes emerged: 'preparation', 'parental involvement' and an 'adapted setting for the late-adolescent or early adult'. The need for a gradual process covered the themes 'preparation' and 'parental involvement'. Young people with JIA prefer to have a say in the moment of transfer and in the reduction of parental involvement. The majority of the participants like their parents' presence at the first consultation at the adult rheumatology department. They expect a healthcare setting adapted to their needs and the possibility to meet peers in this setting. Sudden confrontation with older patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis at adult rheumatology was an unsettling experience for some of the young patients and they declared that better preparation is needed. This study enabled us to define three main themes important in transfer. These themes can facilitate healthcare professionals in developing specific interventions to prepare the young people to transfer, to regulate parental involvement and to arrange an adapted setting for them. Since we included patients who were in follow-up at one tertiary care centre, in which both paediatric and adult

  1. Use of an holistic approach for effective adoption of User-Centred-Design techniques in diabetes disease management: Experiences in user need elicitation.

    PubMed

    Fico, Giuseppe; Arredondo, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges of designing eHealth tools for Chronic Disease Management is to understand how transforming cutting-edge innovations in something that can impact the current clinical practice and improve the performance of the health care systems. The adoption of User Centered Design techniques is fundamental in order to integrate these systems in an effective and successful way. The work presented in this paper describe the methodologies used in the context of two multidisciplinary research projects, METABO and MOSAIC. The adoption of the methodologies have been driven by the CeHRes Roamap, a holistic framework that support participatory development of eHealth. The work reported in this paper describes the results of the first two (out of the five) phases in eliciting user needs.

  2. In what ways do the experiences of students in PhD programs in the molecular biosciences foster knowledge transfer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevost, Amy C.

    Doctoral training in the molecular biosciences often fails to prepare students for academic and alternate careers. Several studies of doctoral training have reported a need to improve doctoral education; outlining specific criticisms related to the need to broaden the scope of the doctoral degree in order to prepare students for careers. The development of doctoral students' knowledge transfer skills is the key to making this transition. The theory advanced in this study extends the literature on doctoral education related to student experiences that foster the development of knowledge transfer skills. These insights will be a resource for academic leaders as they develop new programs and the re-develop existing ones; to students and graduates as they become leaders in their field; and to mentors, who have a large role in the development of doctoral students. Research conducted for this dissertation led to the development of theory about elements of the doctoral experience that foster the development of knowledge transfer skills in the molecular biosciences. In exploring ways the experiences of students in PhD programs in the molecular biosciences foster knowledge transfer, I was able to develop a framework for understanding these experiences in the context of doctoral programs. Students' experiences are affected by different elements of doctoral education. As they develop identities as researchers and scientists, and transition from novices to experts, students' experiences are shaped by their mentors, peers, programs and departments. Subjects spoke about their experiences in interviews. This study exposed a need to balance support and challenge for doctoral students to allow them to develop the capacity to perform scientific research and act as leaders. The development of knowledge transfer skills within this context is important preparation for students in the molecular biosciences. Doctoral students in this area need to apply their expertise in increasingly

  3. Transmission from theory to practice: Experiences using open-source code development and a virtual short course to increase the adoption of new theoretical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Even amongst the academic community, new theoretical tools can remain underutilized due to the investment of time and resources required to understand and implement them. This surely limits the frequency that new theory is rigorously tested against data by scientists outside the group that developed it, and limits the impact that new tools could have on the advancement of science. Reducing the barriers to adoption through online education and open-source code can bridge the gap between theory and data, forging new collaborations, and advancing science. A pilot venture aimed at increasing the adoption of a new theory of time-variable transit time distributions was begun in July 2015 as a collaboration between Johns Hopkins University and The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science (CUAHSI). There were four main components to the venture: a public online seminar covering the theory, an open source code repository, a virtual short course designed to help participants apply the theory to their data, and an online forum to maintain discussion and build a community of users. 18 participants were selected for the non-public components based on their responses in an application, and were asked to fill out a course evaluation at the end of the short course, and again several months later. These evaluations, along with participation in the forum and on-going contact with the organizer suggest strengths and weaknesses in this combination of components to assist participants in adopting new tools.

  4. Whole-body imaging of adoptively transferred T cells using magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography techniques, with a focus on regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Leech, J M; Sharif-Paghaleh, E; Maher, J; Livieratos, L; Lechler, R I; Mullen, G E; Lombardi, G; Smyth, L A

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based therapies using natural or genetically modified regulatory T cells (Tregs) have shown significant promise as immune-based therapies. One of the main difficulties facing the further advancement of these therapies is that the fate and localization of adoptively transferred Tregs is largely unknown. The ability to dissect the migratory pathway of these cells in a non-invasive manner is of vital importance for the further development of in-vivo cell-based immunotherapies, as this technology allows the fate of the therapeutically administered cell to be imaged in real time. In this review we will provide an overview of the current clinical imaging techniques used to track T cells and Tregs in vivo, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition, we will discuss how the finding of these studies can be used, in the context of transplantation, to define the most appropriate Treg subset required for cellular therapy. PMID:23574314

  5. Abnormal T-cell reactivity against paternal antigens in spontaneous abortion: adoptive transfer of pregnancy-induced CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells prevents fetal rejection in a murine abortion model.

    PubMed

    Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Gerlof, Katrin; Zenclussen, Maria Laura; Sollwedel, André; Bertoja, Annarosa Zambon; Ritter, Thomas; Kotsch, Katja; Leber, Joachim; Volk, Hans-Dieter

    2005-03-01

    Mammalian pregnancy is thought to be a state of immunological tolerance. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still poorly understood. Here, we determined whether an inappropriate function of T regulatory (Treg) cells is involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous abortion. We evaluated spleen and decidual lymphocytes from CBA/J mice undergoing immunological abortion (DBA/2J-mated) or having normal pregnancy (BALB/c-mated) on day 14 of gestation for ex vivo cytokine production after PMA or paternal antigen (alloantigen) stimulation. Treg activity was characterized by quantifying CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, foxp3 expression, and interleukin-10 secretion. Decidual lymphocytes from abortion CBA/J mice contained a significantly higher frequency of interferon-gamma-producing T cells specific for paternal antigens compared to those from normal pregnancy (7.8% versus 2.7%, P < 0.05). Compared to virgin CBA/J females, normal pregnant mice showed strongly elevated numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+) and interleukin-10(+) Treg cells in the thymus whereas significantly lower frequencies of Treg cells were observed in abortion mice. Very interestingly, CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from normal pregnant and nonpregnant CBA/J mice could inhibit both proliferation and interferon-gamma secretion of lymphocytes from abortion mice in vitro whereas in vivo prevention of fetal rejection could only be achieved after adoptive transfer of Treg cells from normal pregnant mice. Our data suggest that pregnancy-induced Treg cells play a vital role in maternal tolerance to the allogeneic fetus.

  6. Textbook Evaluation and Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Marcy; Stuen, Carol; Carnine, Douglas; Long, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    Encourages educators to carefully examine the textbook adoption process, especially the way in which adoption committees evaluate and select instructional materials. Reviews the available research literature on the textbook adoption process and includes recommendations for improving the process. Discusses guidelines for designing evaluation…

  7. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  8. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  9. Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment. NCEE 2014-4004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Protik, Ali; Teh, Bing-ru; Bruch, Julie; Max, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    One way to improve struggling schools' access to effective teachers is to use selective transfer incentives. Such incentives offer bonuses for the highest-performing teachers to move into schools serving the most disadvantaged students. In this report, we provide evidence from a randomized experiment that tested whether such a policy intervention…

  10. Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment. Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Protik, Ali; Teh, Bing-ru; Bruch, Julie; Max, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    One way to improve struggling schools' access to effective teachers is to use selective transfer incentives. Such incentives offer bonuses for the highest-performing teachers to move into schools serving the most disadvantaged students. In this report, we provide evidence from a randomized experiment that tested whether such a policy intervention…

  11. Transferring Young People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities from Pediatric to Adult Medical Care: Parents' Experiences and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindels-de Heus, Karen G. C. B.; van Staa, AnneLoes; van Vliet, Ingeborg; Ewals, Frans V. P. M.; Hilberink, Sander R.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) now reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to elicit parents' experiences with the transfer from pediatric to adult medical care. A convenience sample of 131 Dutch parents of young people with PIMD (16--26 years) completed a web-based questionnaire. Twenty-two percent of…

  12. Hidden in Plain Sight: The Experiences of Three Twice-Exceptional Students During Their Transfer to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Susan J.; Hill, Mary F.; Rawlinson, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Twice-exceptional students are characterized by the almost paradoxical combination of giftedness accompanied by learning difficulties that hinder their ability to reach their potential in a traditional academic setting. This qualitative study examined the experiences of three twice-exceptional students during transfer to a New Zealand high school.…

  13. Welcome to a New World: Experiences of American Indian Tribal College and University Transfer Students at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makomenaw, Matthew Van Alstine

    2012-01-01

    This study utilizes an Indigenous methodology and phenomenological methods to better understand the experiences of eight American Indian tribal college and university (TCU) students who transferred to four-year Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). The participants attended TCUs and PWIs located in the Midwest, a geographic area that is…

  14. Transfer Students Experiences within Learning Communities at a Four-Year Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachedina, Shadia A.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to conduct an assessment of a transfer retention program at a four year, commuter institution, and to examine its influence on the retention and academic performance of transfer students. A mixed methods case study utilizing both institutional quantitative data and qualitative interviews investigated the influence of this program…

  15. From the Barrio to the Bucolic: The Student Transfer Experience from Hsis to Smith College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Twombly, Susan; Morphew, Christopher; Sopcich, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The study reported in this article examined two Hispanic-serving institutions, Miami-Dade Community College and Santa Monica College, and the innovative transfer agreements they have with Smith College, a highly selective private women's college. Factors that influence the successful transfer of women students to Smith from these HSIs are…

  16. The University Side of the College Transfer Experience: Insights from University Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Rosemary A.; Gawley, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    University staff members play a key role in the college articulation process. They implement articulation agreements and shepherd college transfer students through the academic and cultural changes encountered at university. Based on in-depth interviews with university staff, the paper describes five major themes including: transfer credits--the…

  17. Achieving timely adoption.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Moore, Megan; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    While family reunification is the primary permanency objective for children who must be placed temporarily outside of their homes, reunification is not possible for all children. For those children who do not return to their parents and cannot find permanent homes with other family members, adoption is the favored outcome. This review examines the composite measure in the federal Child and Family Services Review that measures agency performance related to the timeliness of adoptions of foster children. It summarizes the multiple factors that research has found to be associated with increased risk for adoption delay and disruption. These include child characteristics, family of origin and adoptive family characteristics, and features of child welfare services and systems. Practices that have been broadly linked to adoption timeliness or address risk factors associated with delays in adoption are described, including social worker activities and agency or system-wide practice.

  18. The immunosuppressive effects of phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy in mice are mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and can be adoptively transferred to naïve recipients

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Katiyar, Santosh K; Elmets, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for malignant tumors but it is also immunosuppressive which may reduce its therapeutic efficacy. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in PDT immunosuppression. Using silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) as photosensitizer, non-tumor bearing CD4 knockout (CD4−/−) mice and their wild type (WT) counterparts were subjected to Pc4-PDT in a manner identical to that used for tumor regression (1 cm spot size, 0.5 mg/kg Pc4, 110 J/cm2 light) to assess the effect of Pc4-PDT on cell-mediated immunity. There was a decrease in immunosuppression in CD4−/− mice as compared to WT mice. We next examined the role of CD8+ T-cells in Pc4-PDT induced immunosuppression using CD8−/− mice following the same treatment regimen used for CD4−/− mice. Similar to CD4−/− mice, CD8−/− mice exhibited less immunosuppression than WT mice. Pc4-PDT induced immunosuppression could be adoptively transferred with spleen cells from Pc4-PDT treated donor mice to syngenic naive recipients (p<0.05) and was mediated primarily by T cells, although macrophages were also found to play a role. Procedures that limit PDT induced immunosuppression but do not affect PDT induced regression of tumors may prove superior to PDT alone in promoting long term anti-tumor responses. PMID:18208456

  19. Post adoption depression.

    PubMed

    Fields, Eve S; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Chiara J; Jha, Manish; Payne, Jennifer L

    2010-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the prevalence rate and factors associated with post adoption depression. One hundred and twelve adoptive mothers of infants under 12 months of age were recruited from local and national adoption organizations. A modified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting medical and psychiatric history, perceived stress, and demographics were administered retrospectively. The rates of significant depressive symptoms (defined as EPDS >or=12) were calculated at three time points post adoption, and associations with specific clinical variables (personal or family psychiatric history, stress, and adjustment difficulty) were assessed. Eighty-six mothers were included. Rates of significant depressive symptoms (EPDS >or=12) were found in 27.9% of subjects at 0-4 weeks, 25.6% at 5-12 weeks, and 12.8% at 13-52 weeks post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were not associated with personal or family psychiatric history but were associated with stress (p = 0.0011) and adjustment difficulties (p = 0.042) post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were relatively common in adoptive mothers within the first year after adoption and were associated with environmental stress. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the existence of post adoption depression and the factors associated with it.

  20. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... a malaria-endemic area (See Chapter 3, Malaria ). Tuberculosis All internationally adopted children should be screened for tuberculosis (TB) after arriving in the United States. Internationally ...

  1. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  2. OECD/NEA Data Bank Scientific and Intergral Experiments Databases in Support of Knowledge Preservation and Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    J. B. Briggs; E. Sartori; J. Gado; A. Hasegawa; P. D'hondt; I. Kodeli; F. J. Mompean; W. Wiesenack; A. Zaetta

    2004-09-01

    The OECD/Nuclear Energy Data Bank was established by its member countries as an institution to allow effective sharing of knowledge and its basic underlying information and data in key areas of nuclear science and technology. The activities as regards preserving and transferring knowledge consist of the: — Acquisition of basic nuclear data, computer codes and experimental system data needed over a wide range of nuclear and radiation applications. — Independent verification and validation of these data using quality assurance methods, adding value through international benchmark exercises, workshops and meetings and by issuing relevant reports with conclusions and recommendations, as well as by organising training courses to ensure their qualified and competent use. — Dissemination of the different products to authorised establishments in member countries and collecting and integrating user feedback. Of particular importance has been the establishment of basic and integral experiments databases and the methodology developed with the aim of knowledge preservation and transfer. Databases established thus far include: — IRPhE – International Reactor Physics Experimental Benchmarks Evaluations, — SINBAD – a radiation shielding experiments database (nuclear reactors, fusion neutronics and accelerators), — IFPE – International Fuel Performance Benchmark Experiments Database, — TDB – The Thermochemical Database Project, — ICSBE – International Nuclear Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluations [1], — CCVM – CSNI Code Validation Matrix of Thermal-hydraulic Codes for LWR LOCA and Transients [2]. This paper will concentrate on knowledge preservation and transfer concepts and methods related to some of the integral experiments and TDB.

  3. Adoption: Misunderstood, Mythologized, Marginalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.

    2003-01-01

    Implications are discussed in response to the Major Contribution in this issue reviewing the history, controversies, and theoretical and research literature related to adoption. Practice recommendations for therapists working with adopted children and their families are clustered around three prominent themes in the reviews by Lee, O'Brien and…

  4. Subsidized Adoption in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula; Katz, Sanford N.

    The Model State Subsidized Adoption Act, developed to supplement existing state statutes, is presented in full, with accompanying Model Regulations. The act is designed to help provide a child in special circumstances with a permanent adoptive home. When efforts to achieve placement without subsidy have failed, the Act would provide that the child…

  5. Learning the Ropes: A Case Study of the Academic and Social Experiences of College Transfer Students within a Developing University-College Articulation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawley, Timothy; McGowan, Rosemary A.

    2006-01-01

    The number of articulation agreements between Canadian colleges and universities has been increasing steadily since the early 2000s. Though various implications of these agreements have been discussed, missing are the students' grounded transfer experiences. This paper discusses the academic and social experiences of college transfer students at a…

  6. Healthy depictions? Depicting adoption and adoption news events on broadcast news.

    PubMed

    Kline, Susan L; Chatterjee, Karishma; Karel, Amanda I

    2009-01-01

    Given that the public uses the media to learn about adoption as a family form, this study analyzes U.S. television news coverage of adoption between 2001 and 2005 (N = 309 stories), to identify the types of news events covered about adoption. A majority of news stories covered fraud, crime, legal disputes, and negative international adoption cases. Adoptees as defective or unhealthy were depicted more in negative news event stories, birth parents appeared less overall, and adoptive parents were most likely to have healthy depictions in positively oriented adoption experience, big family, and reunion stories. Although three quarters of the stories used primary adoption participants as news sources, one-third of the negative event stories did not contain healthy depictions of adoption participants. The authors discuss ways journalists and researchers might improve adoption news coverage.

  7. 'Edutainment' as a Proxy to Transfer of Experience in Marine Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, D. R.; Buskop, J.; Drutjons, M.; Culp, J.; Seidel, J.

    2013-12-01

    It is hard to convey the difficulties that accompany marine exploration. Veterans joke about the difficulties with mixing electricity, computers, saltwater, and boats. Often, it's declared a minor miracle when a seafloor-mapping program is successfully completed. During the summer of 2013 2 high school students and 1 undergraduate worked alongside a field scientist using geophysical techniques to try and identify a shipwreck found in shallow waters of the Chester River near Chestertown, Maryland. Over the course of 2 weeks, these 'interns' became intimately familiar with the trials and tribulations of marine fieldwork. They learned how to mobilize a small survey boat from scratch, installing and troubleshooting multiple systems from inception to operation. For example; they mobilized the Side Scan Sonar that involved shop mobilization and system checks, transfer to the boat, connecting the tow-cable, rub tests, troubleshooting the power supply, computer 'handshake' and configuring the comm ports for GPS connectivity. They designed the survey plan, directed us to the site, deployed the system, devised the file naming protocol, and collected the data. In addition to the Side Scan, they did the same for the Sub Bottom Profiler. Once the wreck was confidently located they deployed a buoy to ease the wreck location for underwater camera work. This work was compromised when the wreck was not found at the marked site and it was determined that the buoy had moved from the original deployment. When the camera was dropped, wreck identification was impossible because of the lack of visibility and the biologic growth on the boat's structure. In short, they learned that in the field 'If something could go wrong, it would'. The Interns were tasked with creating a board game that conveyed the real world activity that accompanies the good, bad, and ugly of an actual exploration including; technical, social, ethical, environmental, archaeological, historical, legal, and social

  8. Cage-to-cage migration rates of Xe atoms in zeolite NaA from magnetization transfer experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, A. Keith; Jameson, Cynthia J.; Gerald, Rex E., II

    1994-08-01

    Xenon trapped in the alpha cages of zeolite NaA exhibits distinct NMR signals for clusters Xe1, Xe2, Xe3,..., up to Xe8. Using multisite magnetization transfer experiments, we have measured the rate constants kmn for the elementary processes that are involved in the cage-to-cage transfer of Xe atoms in the zeolite NaA, that is, for a single Xe atom leaving a cage containing Xen to appear in a neighboring cage containing Xem-1, thereby forming Xem. In a random walk simulation, these rate constants reproduce over a hundred magnetization decay/recovery curves that we have measured in four samples of Xe in zeolite NaA at room temperature, in selective inversion, and complementary experiments for all the significantly populated clusters. The simulations also lead to the correct experimental equilibrium distributions, that is, the fractions of the alpha cages containing Xe1,Xe2,...,Xe8.

  9. Comparison of Pollen Transfer Dynamics by Multiple Floral Visitors: Experiments with Pollen and Fluorescent Dye

    PubMed Central

    ADLER, LYNN S.; IRWIN, REBECCA E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Most plant species are visited by a diversity of floral visitors. Pollen transfer of the four most common pollinating bee species and one nectar-robbing bee of the distylous plant Gelsemium sempervirens were compared. • Methods Naturally occurring pollen loads carried by the common floral visitor species of G. sempervirens were compared. In addition, dyed pollen donor flowers and sequences of four emasculated recipient flowers in field cages were used to estimate pollen transfer, and the utility of fluorescent dye powder as an analogue for pollen transfer was determined. • Key Results Xylocopa virginica, Osmia lignaria and Habropoda laboriosa carried the most G. sempervirens pollen on their bodies, followed by Bombus bimaculatus and Apis mellifera. However, B. bimaculatus, O. lignaria and H. laboriosa transferred significantly more pollen than A. mellifera. Nectar-robbing X. virginica transferred the least pollen, even when visiting legitimately. Dye particles were strongly correlated with pollen grains on a stigma, and therefore provide a good analogue for pollen in this system. The ratio of pollen : dye across stigmas was not affected by bee species or interactions between bee species and floral morphology. However, dye transfer was more sensitive than pollen transfer to differences in floral morphology. • Conclusions The results from this study add to a growing body of literature highlighting that floral visitors vary in pollination effectiveness, and that visitors carrying the most pollen on their bodies may not always be the most efficient at depositing pollen on stigmas. Understanding the magnitude of variability in pollinator quality is one important factor for predicting how different pollinator taxa may influence the evolution of floral traits. PMID:16299005

  10. Coherent transfer of nuclear spin polarization in field-cycling NMR experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2013-12-28

    Coherent polarization transfer effects in a coupled spin network have been studied over a wide field range. The transfer mechanism is based on exciting zero-quantum coherences between the nuclear spin states by means of non-adiabatic field jump from high to low magnetic field. Subsequent evolution of these coherences enables conversion of spin order in the system, which is monitored after field jump back to high field. Such processes are most efficient when the spin system passes through an avoided level crossing during the field variation. The polarization transfer effects have been demonstrated for N-acetyl histidine, which has five scalar coupled protons; the initial spin order has been prepared by applying RF-pulses at high magnetic field. The observed oscillatory transfer kinetics is taken as a clear indication of a coherent mechanism; level crossing effects have also been demonstrated. The experimental data are in very good agreement with the theoretical model of coherent polarization transfer. The method suggested is also valid for other types of initial polarization in the spin system, most notably, for spin hyperpolarization.

  11. Coherent transfer of nuclear spin polarization in field-cycling NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L

    2013-12-28

    Coherent polarization transfer effects in a coupled spin network have been studied over a wide field range. The transfer mechanism is based on exciting zero-quantum coherences between the nuclear spin states by means of non-adiabatic field jump from high to low magnetic field. Subsequent evolution of these coherences enables conversion of spin order in the system, which is monitored after field jump back to high field. Such processes are most efficient when the spin system passes through an avoided level crossing during the field variation. The polarization transfer effects have been demonstrated for N-acetyl histidine, which has five scalar coupled protons; the initial spin order has been prepared by applying RF-pulses at high magnetic field. The observed oscillatory transfer kinetics is taken as a clear indication of a coherent mechanism; level crossing effects have also been demonstrated. The experimental data are in very good agreement with the theoretical model of coherent polarization transfer. The method suggested is also valid for other types of initial polarization in the spin system, most notably, for spin hyperpolarization.

  12. A microgravity experiment of the on-orbit fluid transfer technique using swirl flow.

    PubMed

    Kawanami, Osamu; Imai, Ryoji; Azuma, Hisao; Ohta, Haruhiko; Honda, Itsuro; Kawashima, Yousuke

    2006-09-01

    The cryogenic fluid transfer technique will prove useful for flexible and low-cost space activities by prolonging the life cycle of satellites, orbital transfer vehicles, and orbital telescopes that employ cryogenic fluids, such as reactants, coolants, and propellants. Although NASA has conducted extensive research on this technique to date, a complicated mechanism is required to control the pressure in the receiver tank and avoid a large liquid loss by vaporization. We have proposed a novel fluid transfer method by using swirl flow combined with vapor condensation facilitated by spray cooling. This technique enables gas-liquid separation in microgravity and effectively facilitates vapor condensation without any special device like a mixer. In addition, since the incoming liquid flows along the tank wall, the tank wall would be cooled effectively, thereby minimizing the liquid loss due to vaporization. In this paper, the influence of the number of inlet points, fluid velocity at the inlet, fluid type, and boiling condition on swirl flow under microgravity conditions is investigated experimentally. The results indicated that the new fluid transfer technique using the swirl flow proposed by us is effective for cryogenic fluids that generally exhibit low surface tension and good wettability. In addition, it is possible to apply this technique to the real system because the swirl flow conditions are determined by the Froude number, which is dimensionless. Thus, the fundamental technique of fluid transfer by using the swirl flow under microgravity conditions was established.

  13. Cross-beam energy transfer to a single f-20 beam: simulations of previous and upcoming experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Thomas; Turnbull, David; Kirkwood, Robert; Michel, Pierre; Wilks, Scott; Berger, Richard; Hinkel, Denise; Moody, John; Langer, Steve; Langdon, Bruce; Strozzi, David

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by materials research applications, cross-beam energy transfer can be used to transfer energy from one or more quads of beamlets at the NIF, which have an effective f-number of 8, to a single f-20 beam. Using plasma comprised of a preheated C5H12 gasbag, a preliminary experiment at the NIF demonstrated amplification of a 750 J f-20 beam by a factor of 2 in both power and energy. A witness plate providing gated x-ray images was used to obtain total energies and transmitted spot intensities for the pump quad, seed beamlet, and a calibration quad. These experimental diagnostics offer the opportunity to perform quantitative comparisons with simulations. We use the laser-plasma interaction code pF3D to simulate the energy transfer process, using plasma conditions obtained from the plasma hydrodynamics code HYDRA. Our simulations of the completed single-pump quad experiment recover the measured seed amplification and transmitted spot power distributions. We also show simulation results for the upcoming two-pump quad experiment.

  14. 14 CFR 221.162 - Receiver shall file adoption notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Receiver shall file adoption notices. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.162 Receiver shall file adoption notices. A...

  15. 14 CFR 221.162 - Receiver shall file adoption notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Receiver shall file adoption notices. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.162 Receiver shall file adoption notices. A...

  16. 14 CFR 221.162 - Receiver shall file adoption notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Receiver shall file adoption notices. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.162 Receiver shall file adoption notices. A...

  17. 14 CFR 221.162 - Receiver shall file adoption notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Receiver shall file adoption notices. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.162 Receiver shall file adoption notices. A...

  18. 14 CFR 221.162 - Receiver shall file adoption notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Receiver shall file adoption notices. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.162 Receiver shall file adoption notices. A...

  19. Evaluation of the Transfer of Permanent Formation: Analysis of an Experience of Workshops on Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Elena; Fabregat, Jaime; Ros, Rosa M.

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of a European project to bring astronomy near to children, several permanent teachers training activities were developed. These actions included workshops with teachers from various stages of the educational system. This paper presents the process and results of the evaluation of that training program. It intends to assess the satisfaction of the participants, as well as their learning and their later transfer of formation to the classroom. Barriers encountered in the transfer of formation, some of them linked to the type of training method chosen and other factors derived from personal and institutional conditions, are outlined. Finally, some guidelines for improving the transfer of scientific formation to the classroom in the future are pointed out.

  20. Transfer reaction experiments with radioactive beams: from halos to the r-process

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K. L.

    2013-01-01

    Transfer reactions are a powerful probe of the properties of atomic nuclei. When used in inverse kinematics with radioactive ion beams they can provide detailed information on the structure of exotic nuclei and can inform nucleosynthesis calculations. There are a number of groups around the world who use these reactions, usually with particle detection in large silicon arrays. Sometimes these arrays are coupled to gamma-ray detectors, and occasionally smaller arrays of silicon detectors are mounted within a solenoid magnet. Modern techniques using transfer reactions in inverse kinematics are covered, with specific examples, many from measurements made with beams from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  1. Proton transfer in acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-water clusters: Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization experiment and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Troy, Tyler P.; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2015-03-01

    Acetaldehyde, a probable human carcinogen and of environmental importance, upon solvation provides a test bed for understanding proton transfer pathways and catalytic mechanisms. In this study, we report on single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of small acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-water clusters. Appearance energies of protonated clusters are extracted from the experimental photoionization efficiency curves and compared to electronic structure calculations. The comparison of experimental data to computational results provides mechanistic insight into the fragmentation mechanisms of the observed mass spectra. Using deuterated water for isotopic tagging, we observe that proton transfer is mediated via acetaldehyde and not water in protonated acetaldehyde-water clusters.

  2. Preliminary experience with air transfer of patients for rescue endovascular therapy after failure of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Masanori; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Enomoto, Yukiko; Yamada, Noriaki; Matsumaru, Naoki; Kumada, Keisuke; Toyoda, Izumi; Ogura, Shinji; Iwama, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The present report describes our experience with air transfer of patients with acute ischemic stroke in whom intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV t-PA) failed for rescue endovascular therapy (EVT). Twenty-three consecutive patients in whom IV t-PA failed were transferred to our hospital for rescue EVT between February 2011 and April 2013. The amount of time required for transfer, distance, clinical outcomes, and complications were compared between patients transferred by ground (TG group; n = 17) and by air (TA group; n = 6). Computed tomography imaging on arrival revealed hemorrhagic transformation in 1 (5.9%) patient in the TG group, whereas none of the patients in the TA group developed any type of complication. The remaining 22 patients received rescue EVT. The elapsed time from the request call to arrival at our hospital did not significantly differ between the TG and TA groups (45.8 ± 4.9 min vs. 41.6 ± 2.3 min). However, the distance from the primary hospital to our institution was significantly longer for the TA group than for the TG group (38.8 ± 10.4 km vs. 13.5 ± 1.2 km, p = 0.001). The frequency of favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 0-1 at 90 days after onset) in the TG and TA groups were 25.0% and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.267). Air transfer for patients after IV t-PA failure allowed for more rapid delivery of patients over longer distances than ground transfer.

  3. Preliminary Experience with Air Transfer of Patients for Rescue Endovascular Therapy after Failure of Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator

    PubMed Central

    TSUJIMOTO, Masanori; YOSHIMURA, Shinichi; ENOMOTO, Yukiko; YAMADA, Noriaki; MATSUMARU, Naoki; KUMADA, Keisuke; TOYODA, Izumi; OGURA, Shinji; IWAMA, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The present report describes our experience with air transfer of patients with acute ischemic stroke in whom intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV t-PA) failed for rescue endovascular therapy (EVT). Twenty-three consecutive patients in whom IV t-PA failed were transferred to our hospital for rescue EVT between February 2011 and April 2013. The amount of time required for transfer, distance, clinical outcomes, and complications were compared between patients transferred by ground (TG group; n = 17) and by air (TA group; n = 6). Computed tomography imaging on arrival revealed hemorrhagic transformation in 1 (5.9%) patient in the TG group, whereas none of the patients in the TA group developed any type of complication. The remaining 22 patients received rescue EVT. The elapsed time from the request call to arrival at our hospital did not significantly differ between the TG and TA groups (45.8 ± 4.9 min vs. 41.6 ± 2.3 min). However, the distance from the primary hospital to our institution was significantly longer for the TA group than for the TG group (38.8 ± 10.4 km vs. 13.5 ± 1.2 km, p = 0.001). The frequency of favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 0–1 at 90 days after onset) in the TG and TA groups were 25.0% and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.267). Air transfer for patients after IV t-PA failure allowed for more rapid delivery of patients over longer distances than ground transfer. PMID:25739430

  4. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  5. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  6. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  7. MSW Students' Attitudes toward Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaegoo; Crolley-Simic, Josie; Vonk, M. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the attitudes of MSW students ("N"?=?147) toward transracial adoption and included an investigation of the students' personal experiences that may affect their attitudes. Statistical analyses revealed that although the majority of students supported the practice of transracial adoption, a number of students gave…

  8. SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF TEXT MATERIALS AND TRANSFER OF LEARNING, PART 1--EXPERIMENTS IN DISCOVERY LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DELLA-PIANA, GABRIEL M.; AND OTHERS

    THE TRANSFER EFFECTS OF DISCOVERY AND EXPOSITORY INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR SEQUENCING OF INSTRUCTION WERE THE PURPOSE OF THIS TWO-PART STUDY. THE FIRST STUDY COMPARED THE TWO PROCEDURES IN A PROGRAMED UNIT ON SUMMING NUMBER SERIES. SAMPLES FOR THIS PART OF THE STUDY CONSISTED OF 96 NINTH-GRADE ALGEBRA STUDENTS, WHO WERE ASSIGNED TO EITHER OF…

  9. 2011 Admissions and Transfer Experiences of Students Continuing the Studies in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis of admissions and transfer data from the 2011 BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey). This province-wide survey contacted former students 9 to 20 months after they completed all, or a significant…

  10. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects including introduction and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the heat transfer rate through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20% to 50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15% to 20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: the effect of initial boundary layer thickness, the effect of freestream velocity, the effect of freestream acceleration, the effect of unheated starting length, and the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. An existing curvature prediction model was tested against this broad heat transfer data base to determine where it could appropriately be used for heat transfer predictions.

  11. A Case Study of How Kinesthetic Experiences Can Participate in and Transfer to Work with Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; Rasmussen, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The broad goal of this report is to describe a form of knowing and a way of participating in mathematics learning that contribute to and further alternative views of transfer of learning. We selected an episode with an undergraduate student engaged in a number of different tasks involving a physical tool called "water wheel". The embodied…

  12. Mass transfer in thin films under counter-current gas: experiments and numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Lavalle, Gianluca; Schmidt, Patrick; Ausner, Ilja; Wehrli, Marc; O Naraigh, Lennon; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-11-01

    Mass transfer in liquid-gas stratified flows is strongly affected by the waviness of the interface. For reactive flows, the chemical reactions occurring at the liquid-gas interface also influence the mass transfer rate. This is encountered in several technological applications, such as absorption units for carbon capture. We investigate the absorption rate of carbon dioxide in a liquid solution. The experimental set-up consists of a vertical channel where a falling film is sheared by a counter-current gas flow. We measure the absorption occurring at different flow conditions, by changing the liquid solution, the liquid flow rate and the gas composition. With the aim to support the experimental results with numerical simulations, we implement in our level-set flow solver a novel module for mass transfer taking into account a variant of the ghost-fluid formalism. We firstly validate the pure mass transfer case with and without hydrodynamics by comparing the species concentration in the bulk flow to the analytical solution. In a final stage, we analyse the absorption rate in reactive flows, and try to reproduce the experimental results by means of numerical simulations to explore the active role of the waves at the interface.

  13. International Education Policy Transfer--Borrowing Both Ways: The Hong Kong and England Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forestier, Katherine; Crossley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how the impact of international student achievement studies and the recent economic crisis in Europe are influencing the development of educational policy transfer and borrowing, from East to West. This is contrasted with education reform movements in East Asia, which have long legacies of borrowing from so-called…

  14. The role of body size in host specificity: reciprocal transfer experiments with feather lice.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Clayton, Dale H

    2006-10-01

    Although most parasites show at least some degree of host specificity, factors governing the evolution of specificity remain poorly understood. Many different groups of host-specific parasites show a striking correlation between parasite and host body size, suggesting that size reinforces specificity. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the relative fitness of host-specific feather lice transferred to pigeons and doves that differ in size by an order of magnitude. To test the general influence of size, we transferred unrelated groups of wing and body lice, which are specialized for different regions of the host. Lice were transferred in both directions, from a large native host species, the rock pigeon (Columba livia), to several progressively smaller hosts, and from a small native host species, the common ground dove (Columbina passerina), to several larger hosts. We measured the relative fitness (population size) of lice transferred to these novel host species after two louse generations. Neither wing lice nor body lice could survive on novel host species that were smaller in size than the native host. However, when host defense (preening behavior) was blocked, both groups survived and reproduced on all novel hosts tested. Thus, host defense interacted with host size to govern the ability of lice to establish on small hosts. Neither wing lice nor body lice could survive on larger hosts, even when preening was blocked. In summary, host size influenced the fitness of both types of feather lice, but through different mechanisms, depending on the direction of the transfer. Our results indicate that host switching is most likely between hosts of similar body size. This finding has important implications for studies of host-parasite coevolution at both the micro- and macroevolutionary scales.

  15. Ultrasonic power transfer from a spherical acoustic wave source to a free-free piezoelectric receiver: Modeling and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, S.; Gray, M.; Erturk, A.

    2015-03-01

    Contactless powering of small electronic components has lately received growing attention for wireless applications in which battery replacement or tethered charging is undesired or simply impossible, and ambient energy harvesting is not a viable solution. As an alternative to well-studied methods of contactless energy transfer, such as the inductive coupling method, the use of ultrasonic waves transmitted and received by piezoelectric devices enables larger power transmission distances, which is critical especially for deep-implanted electronic devices. Moreover, energy transfer by means of acoustic waves is well suited in situations where no electromagnetic fields are allowed. The limited literature of ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer is mainly centered on proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this method, lacking experimentally validated modeling efforts for the resulting multiphysics problem that couples the source and receiver dynamics with domain acoustics. In this work, we present fully coupled analytical, numerical, and experimental multiphysics investigations for ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer from a spherical wave source to a piezoelectric receiver bar that operates in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity. The fluid-loaded piezoelectric receiver under free-free mechanical boundary conditions is shunted to an electrical load for quantifying the electrical power output for a given acoustic source strength of the transmitter. The analytical acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling framework is validated experimentally, and the effects of system parameters are reported along with optimal electrical loading and frequency conditions of the receiver.

  16. Ultrasonic power transfer from a spherical acoustic wave source to a free-free piezoelectric receiver: Modeling and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shahab, S.; Gray, M.; Erturk, A.

    2015-03-14

    Contactless powering of small electronic components has lately received growing attention for wireless applications in which battery replacement or tethered charging is undesired or simply impossible, and ambient energy harvesting is not a viable solution. As an alternative to well-studied methods of contactless energy transfer, such as the inductive coupling method, the use of ultrasonic waves transmitted and received by piezoelectric devices enables larger power transmission distances, which is critical especially for deep-implanted electronic devices. Moreover, energy transfer by means of acoustic waves is well suited in situations where no electromagnetic fields are allowed. The limited literature of ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer is mainly centered on proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this method, lacking experimentally validated modeling efforts for the resulting multiphysics problem that couples the source and receiver dynamics with domain acoustics. In this work, we present fully coupled analytical, numerical, and experimental multiphysics investigations for ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer from a spherical wave source to a piezoelectric receiver bar that operates in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity. The fluid-loaded piezoelectric receiver under free-free mechanical boundary conditions is shunted to an electrical load for quantifying the electrical power output for a given acoustic source strength of the transmitter. The analytical acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling framework is validated experimentally, and the effects of system parameters are reported along with optimal electrical loading and frequency conditions of the receiver.

  17. Primary care clinicians’ experiences prescribing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis at a specialized community health centre in Boston: lessons from early adopters

    PubMed Central

    Krakower, Douglas S; Maloney, Kevin M; Grasso, Chris; Melbourne, Katherine; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 1.2 million Americans have indications for using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV acquisition. For many of these at-risk individuals, the best opportunity to learn about and receive PrEP will be during routine visits to their generalist primary care clinicians. However, few generalist clinicians have prescribed PrEP, primarily because of practical concerns about providing PrEP in primary care settings. The experiences of specialized primary care clinicians who have prescribed PrEP can inform the feasibility of PrEP provision by generalists. Methods During January to February 2015, 35 primary care clinicians at a community health centre in Boston that specializes in the care of sexual and gender minorities completed anonymous surveys about their experiences and practices with PrEP provision. Responses were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results and discussion Thirty-two clinicians (response rate=91%) completed the surveys. Nearly all clinicians (97%) had prescribed PrEP (median 20 patients, interquartile range 11–33). Most clinicians reported testing and risk-reduction counselling practices concordant with U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for PrEP. Clinicians indicated that patients using PrEP experienced medication toxicities infrequently and generally reported high adherence. However, some clinicians’ practices differed from guideline recommendations, and some clinicians observed patients with increased risk behaviours. Most clinicians (79%) rated PrEP provision as easy to accomplish, and 97% considered themselves likely to prescribe PrEP in the future. Conclusions In a primary care clinic with specialized expertise in HIV prevention, clinicians perceived that PrEP provision to large numbers of patients was safe, feasible and potentially effective. Efforts to engage generalist primary care clinicians in PrEP provision could facilitate scale-up of this efficacious

  18. Design and experiment of wireless power transfer systems via electromagnetic field near-zone region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wensong; Chen, Yinchao; Yang, Shuhui; Chan, Allan; Wang, Yi; Cao, Qunsheng

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the fundamental principle, circuit implementation and measurement of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology through both Colpitts and Hartley oscillation prototype circuits. The Colpitts and Hartley oscillation prototypes are used to convert DC voltages into AC ones. Meanwhile, both half- and full-wave rectification circuits are designed correspondingly for AC/DC voltage conversion. In addition, the orientation and distance effects between the transmitting and receiving coils are investigated. The self-inductance, mutual-inductance and coupling coefficient for the coupled inductors are extracted as a function of distance and frequency by using an equivalent T-circuit network and a derived Z-parameter matrix. The proposed WPT systems operate at around 3.6 MHz and the transferred voltage is measured at the WPT receiving terminal. The measured results indicate that the two proposed WPT systems can operate properly for potential short-distance applications.

  19. Objective outcomes analysis following microvascular gracilis transfer for facial reanimation: a review of 10 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Bhama, Prabhat K; Weinberg, Julie S; Lindsay, Robin W; Hohman, Marc H; Cheney, Mack L; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Objective assessment of smile outcome after microvascular free gracilis transfer is challenging, and quantification of smile outcomes in the literature is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To report objective excursion and symmetry outcomes from a series of free gracilis cases and investigate the predictive value of intraoperative measurements on final outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective medical chart review was undertaken of all patients who underwent microvascular free gracilis transfer for smile at our institution over the past 10 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcome measures included the following: smile excursion, angle of smile with respect to the vertical midline, and facial symmetry during repose and with smile. Measurements were obtained using an automated tool for assessment of facial landmarks (FACE-Gram). An exhaustive set of intraoperative parameters including degree of recoil of the gracilis muscle following harvest, the degree to which the muscle foreshortened during stimulation of the obturator nerve, final stretched length of the inset muscle, surgeon assessment of neurorrhaphy and pulse pressure, ischemia time, number of sutures used during neurorrhaphy, nerve used to innervate the flap, and surgeon assessment of oral commissure overcorrection were recorded and placed into a linear regression model to investigate correlations with smile. RESULTS From March 2003 to March 2013, 154 microvascular free gracilis transfers were performed for facial reanimation at our institution, 14 (9%) of which were deemed failures. Of the remaining 140 flaps, 127 fulfilled inclusion criteria and constituted the study cohort. Smile excursion, angle excursion, and symmetry of the oral commissure at repose and with smile all improved following gracilis free flap (P < .05). Associations between selected outcomes measures and intraoperative gracilis measurements were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Facial reanimation using free

  20. Transferring young people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities from pediatric to adult medical care: parents' experiences and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bindels-de Heus, Karen G C B; van Staa, Anneloes; van Vliet, Ingeborg; Ewals, Frans V P M; Hilberink, Sander R

    2013-06-01

    Many children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) now reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to elicit parents' experiences with the transfer from pediatric to adult medical care. A convenience sample of 131 Dutch parents of young people with PIMD (16-26 years) completed a web-based questionnaire. Twenty-two percent of the young persons were still in pediatric care; 22% of the others had no care coordinator, although their health needs were the same. Parents valued the care provided by the pediatrician, and wished to see it continued. They were critical about how they had been prepared for transfer to adult care. Parents provided suggestions to improve transitional care, such as early start, information provision, and a joint consultation between pediatric and adult care.

  1. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  2. Single Neutron Transfer Experiments Close to the r-Process Path

    SciTech Connect

    Grzywacz-Jones, Kate L; Adekola, Aderemi S; Bardayan, Daniel W; Blackmon, Jeff C; Chae, Kyung Yuk; Chipps, K.; Cizewski, Jolie; Dean, David Jarvis; Erikson, Luke; Fitzgerald, R. P.; Gaddis, A. L.; Greife, U.; Harlin, Christopher W; Hatarik, Robert; Howard, Joshua A; Johnson, Micah; Kozub, R. L.; Liang, J Felix; Livesay, Jake; Ma, Zhanwen; Moazen, Brian; O'Malley, Patrick; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Pain, S. D.; Patterson, N. P.; Paulauskas, Stanley V; Shapira, Dan; ShrinerJr., J. F.; Sissom, D. J.; Smith, Michael Scott; Swan, T. P.; Thomas, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    The first measurements using the (d, p) transfer reaction to study single- particle states in nuclei on the expected r-process path have been made at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. The shell closure at N = 50 has been crossed using the 82Ge(d, p) and 84Se(d, p) reactions. The prop- erties of the lowest-lying states have been determined. Furthermore, the 132Sn(d, p) reaction has been used for the first time to populate single- particle states in 133Sn.

  3. Investigation of Aggregates as a Model for Titan's Aerosols Using Microwave Analog Experiments and Radiative Transfer Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Osip, J. E.; Gustafson, B. Å. S.

    1996-09-01

    It has been suggested that the aerosols in the atmosphere of Titan have an aggregate morphology (Bar-Nun et al., 1988: West and Smith, 1991). Previous studies were based on formulations of the Discrete Dipole Approximation to calculate the single scattering properties of such aggregates. These studies were limited in the size of the individual spheres and total size of the aggregate. We present microwave to light analog scattering measurements and radiative transfer calculations for aggregates of 250-500 individual spheres near the Raleigh size limit in a plane parallel atmosphere. The advantages of using microwave analog experiments include the possibility of investigating a broad range of particle sizes and morphologies.

  4. Admissions and Transfer Experiences of Students Continuing Their Studies in British Columbia: Findings from the BC College & Institute Student Outcomes Survey, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrance, Jill

    The British Columbia (B.C.) Council on Admissions and Transfer commissioned this report to investigate the admissions and transfer-related experiences of former students who had attended a B.C. college, institute, university college, or the Open Learning Agency. The analysis presented here is based on data collected through the 2002 B.C. College…

  5. 2005 Admissions and Transfer Experiences of Students Continuing Their Studies in British Columbia: Findings from the BC College & Institute Student Outcomes Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis of admissions and transfer data from the 2005 British Columbia (BC) College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey. A number of issues related to the admissions and transfer experiences of former students from BC's college, university college, and institute sector are addressed from the student…

  6. WWC Review of the Report "Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the 2013 study, "Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment," researchers examined the impact of the Talent Transfer Initiative (TTI) on students' reading and mathematics achievement in 10 school districts. The TTI enabled principals of low-performing schools to provide…

  7. Verification testing of the superfluid helium on-orbit transfer (SHOOT) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, S.; Conaty, C.; Weintz, K.

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) project is a secondary shuttle crossbay payload which flew on the STS-57/Endeavour mission. It was designed to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to resupply liquid helium containers in space, and to develop new technologies that may be used in other future space cryogenic systems. The SHOOT payload consists of two superfluid helium Dewars with helium management cryostats connected by a transfer line, and six avionics boxes for valve and heater control, temperature, pressure and fluid position monitoring and data processing and telemetry. The cryostats contain numerous specialized helium management components; including high and low flow phase separators, liquid/vapour discriminators, flowmeters, liquid level detectors, cryogenic mechanical valves and cryogenic relief valves and burst discs, and two varieties of fluid acquisition systems. To prepare the SHOOT payload for launch a series of functional, structural, thermal and reliability tests were conducted at every level of hardware assembly, from materials tests to system level thermal, structural and functional performance tests. We present here the verification tests and analyses developed and completed at each level of assembly. We discuss the trade-offs considered for, and the success (or failure) of, models and analyses to predict performance results. Finally, we present some lessons learned of potential interest to future cryogenic missions, whether on the Space Shuttle or on expendable launch vehicles.

  8. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects, including introduction and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Heat transfer rates were measured through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20-50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15-20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: (1) the effect of initial boundary layer thickness; (2) the effect of freestream velocity; (3) the effect of freestream acceleration; (4) the effect of unheated starting length; and (5) the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. Regardless of the initial state, curvature eventually forced the boundary layer into an asymptotic curved condition. The slope, minus one, is believed to be significant.

  9. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Corley, Robin P

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated-sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP's history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP's initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study's multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development.

  10. School Adoption Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Doris

    Zions First National Bank in Utah adopted a local school in Garrison with a student body of 11, and invited them to participate in their Christmas tree program and a field trip to Salt Lake City. The venture proved so popular and rewarding for the children and bank staff that more field trips were funded and later, when the school burned down, the…

  11. Transferable skills of incoming medical students and their development over the first academic year: The United Arab Emirates experience.

    PubMed

    McLean, Michelle; Shaban, Sami; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, it is being recognised in higher and medical education that learners should be adequately prepared for the unpredictable nature of professional practice. Several generic or transferable skills or capabilities (e.g., communication, information handling) that will enable graduates to function in an ever-changing professional world have been identified. Using a validated inventory comprising six categories of transferable skills, three cohorts of incoming male and female medical students at a Gulf university documented their level of practice and confidence for 31 skills. The exercise was repeated a year later. New medical students identified computer and organisational skills and the ability to manage their learning as strengths, but scores for technical and numeracy, information handling and presentation and communication skills suggested that learners generally required guidance. A year later, despite considerable self-reported information handling and communication skills development, learners generally did not consider themselves self-sufficient. A significant gender difference emerged, with incoming males reporting less experience and confidence in many skills. This gap was reduced but did not disappear over the first academic year. An audit such as this may be useful for identifying individual skills levels as well as providing insight into shortcomings in the academic programme in terms of opportunities for transferable skills development.

  12. Some Operational Aspects of the International Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) Experiment Using INTELSAT Satellites at 307 Degrees East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    SOME OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL TWO-WAY SATELLITE TIME AND FREQUENCY TRANSFER (TWSTFT) EXPERIMENT USING INTELSAT SATELLITES AT 307...DEGREES EAST J. A. DeYoung and A. McKinley U.S. Naval Observatory Time Service Department (USNO) Washington, D.C. 20392 USA J. A. Davis National...Germany Abstract Eight labondoris are participating in an international TWSTFT experiment. Roguh time and frequency transfers have been performed

  13. Calculations of Mode-Specific Tunneling of Double-Hydrogen Transfer in Porphycene Agree with and Illuminate Experiment.

    PubMed

    Homayoon, Zahra; Bowman, Joel M; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2014-08-07

    We report a theoretical study of mode-specific tunneling splittings in double-hydrogen transfer in trans-porphycene. We use a novel, mode-specific "Qim path method", in which the reaction coordinate is the imaginary-frequency normal mode of the saddle point separating the equivalent minima. The model considers all 108 normal modes and uses no adjustable parameters. The method gives the ground vibrational-state tunneling splitting, as well the increase in the splitting upon excitation of certain modes, in good agreement with experiment. Interpretation of these results is also transparent with this method. In addition, predictions are made for mode excitations not investigated experimentally. Results for d1 and d2 isotopolgues are also in agreement with experiment.

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in NIF Polar-Drive Exploding-Pusher Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenty, P. W.; Marshall, F. J.; Hohenberger, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Marozas, J. A.; Delettrez, J. A.; Shvydky, A.; Froula, D. H.; Michel, D. T.; Edgell, D. H.; Seka, W.; Olson, P. A.; To, S.; Cao, D.; Moses, G.; Le Pape, S.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Ma, T.

    2013-10-01

    Polar-drive (PD) target implosions have been designed and fielded for neutron diagnostic development on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Experimental results evaluating the overall hydrodynamic assembly have previously indicated a significant discrepancy with DRACO predictions of the in-flight shell evolution. New physics models, addressing nonlocal electron thermal transport and cross-beam energy transfer within the incoming laser light, have been implemented into DRACO. Results detailing comparisons of experiments with simulations using these models will be presented that indicate significantly better agreement and may provide insight into the application of these models in other inertial confinement fusion experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944. A. M. Cok, R. S. Craxton, and P. W. McKenty, Phys. Plasmas 15, 082705 (2008).

  15. Alternating Delays Achieve Polarization Transfer (ADAPT) to heteronuclei in PHIP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanato, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    A new methodology for producing hyperpolarized 13C nuclei in small organic systems via parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is proposed: ADAPT (Alternating Delays Achieve Polarization Transfer). The theoretical foundation of the process is investigated in some detail and experimental examples demonstrating the viability of the approach are provided as well. The number of adjustable parameters is fewer than most of other conversion schemes. The achieved theoretical heteronuclear polarization is close to unity for any examined magnetic equivalence regime. The duration of the pulse sequence, which was successfully implemented, can be shorter than other established methods reducing possible relaxation losses. The conversion scheme is robust to B1 inhomogeneities, but more sensitive to off-resonance RF irradiation.

  16. A novel calibration method for an infrared thermography system applied to heat transfer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, M.; Horbach, T.; Schulz, A.; Koch, R.; Bauer, H.-J.

    2009-07-01

    In heat transfer measurements with highly non-uniform wall heat fluxes, high spatial resolution of wall temperatures is required to fully capture the complex thermal situation. Infrared thermography systems provide that spatial resolution. To meet the thermal accuracy, they are usually calibrated in situ using thermocouples embedded in the test surface, which have to cover the complete temperature range of interest. However, thermocouples which are placed in regions of high temperature and heat flux gradients often cannot be used for the calibration and the overall accuracy of the calibration decreases significantly. Therefore, in the present work a novel in situ calibration method is presented which does not require thermocouples over the complete surface temperature range. The number of free parameters of the calibration function is reduced by an optimized insensitivity of the system with respect to changes in operating conditions. Reference measurements demonstrate the advantages of the new method.

  17. Cash transfer programme, productive activities and labour supply: Evidence from randomized experiment in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Asfaw, Solomon; Davis, Benjamin; Dewbre, Josh; Handa, Sudhanshu; Winters, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports analysis of the impact of Kenya’s Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programme on the household decisions on productive activities using data from a randomized experimental design. Results show that the programme had a positive and significant impact on food consumption coming from home production, accumulation of productive assets, especially on the ownership of small livestock and on formation of nonfarm enterprise, especially for females. The programme has provided more flexibility to families in terms of labour allocation decisions, particularly for those who are geographically isolated. The programme was also found to have reduced child labour, an important objective of the programme. However we find very little impact of the programme on direct indicators of crop production. PMID:25663712

  18. Cash transfer programme, productive activities and labour supply: Evidence from randomized experiment in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Solomon; Davis, Benjamin; Dewbre, Josh; Handa, Sudhanshu; Winters, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports analysis of the impact of Kenya's Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programme on the household decisions on productive activities using data from a randomized experimental design. Results show that the programme had a positive and significant impact on food consumption coming from home production, accumulation of productive assets, especially on the ownership of small livestock and on formation of nonfarm enterprise, especially for females. The programme has provided more flexibility to families in terms of labour allocation decisions, particularly for those who are geographically isolated. The programme was also found to have reduced child labour, an important objective of the programme. However we find very little impact of the programme on direct indicators of crop production.

  19. Consider a non-spherical elephant: computational fluid dynamics simulations of heat transfer coefficients and drag verified using wind tunnel experiments.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Peter N; Bonazza, Riccardo; Porter, Warren P

    2013-07-01

    Animal momentum and heat transfer analysis has historically used direct animal measurements or approximations to calculate drag and heat transfer coefficients. Research can now use modern 3D rendering and computational fluid dynamics software to simulate animal-fluid interactions. Key questions are the level of agreement between simulations and experiments and how superior they are to classical approximations. In this paper we compared experimental and simulated heat transfer and drag calculations on a scale model solid aluminum African elephant casting. We found good agreement between experimental and simulated data and large differences from classical approximations. We used the simulation results to calculate coefficients for heat transfer and drag of the elephant geometry.

  20. Analysis of reactor material experiments investigating corium crust stability and heat transfer in jet impingement flow

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Presented is an analysis of the results of the CSTI-1, CSTI-3, and CWTI-11 reactor material experiments in which a jet of molten corium initially at 3080/sup 0/K was directed downward upon a stainless steel plate. The experiments are a continuation of a program of reactor material tests investigating LWR severe accident phenomena. Objective of the present analysis is to determine the existence or nonexistence of a corium crust during impingement from comparison of the measured heatup of the plate (as measured by thermocouples imbedded immediately beneath the steel surface) with model calculations assuming alternately the presence and absence of a stable crust during impingement.

  1. A method for estimating distributions of mass transfer rate coefficients with application to purging and batch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenbeck, K. J.; Harvey, C. F.; Haggerty, R.; Werth, C. J.

    1999-04-01

    Mass transfer between aquifer material and groundwater is often modeled as first-order rate-limited sorption or diffusive exchange between mobile zones and immobile zones with idealized geometries. Recent improvements in experimental techniques and advances in our understanding of pore-scale heterogeneity demonstrate that two (or even a few) rate coefficients are insufficient in many cases. Here, we investigate a piece-wise linear model for a continuous distribution of rate coefficients, that has several advantages over previously used `statistical' distribution models (with functional form from gamma or lognormal PDF's): (1) distributions of arbitrary, even bimodal, shapes can be represented; (2) linear estimation methods can be applied to determine the distribution from experimental data; (3) the uncertainty in the distribution can be determined for each of its sections; and (4) the relationship between the time scales of available data and those of estimatable mass transfer processes can be investigated. A statistical model refinement algorithm is presented that reduces the number of parameters (sections of the piece-wise linear model) to the admissible minimum. We show that purging experiments allow estimation of a wider zone of the rate distribution than do batch experiments, and hence will provide predictions that are accurate over a wider range of time scales. Finally, in an application to TCE gas-purging desorption data, the piece-wise linear rate-distribution model has a higher probability of being adequate than those using a gamma or lognormal distribution or a single rate coefficient.

  2. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for UO2 Fuel Based on the IFA-432 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E; Ott, Larry J; Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    The IFA-432 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the effects of gap size, fuel density, and fuel densification on fuel centerline temperature in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for uranium dioxide (UO$_2$) fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the densification stage (2.2 \\unitfrac{GWd}{MT(UO$_{2}$)}). In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole. The analysis demonstrated excellent agreement for rods 1, 2, 3, and 5 (varying gap thicknesses and density with traditional fuel), demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for traditional fuel. For rod 6, which contained unstable fuel that densified an order of magnitude more than traditional, stable fuel, the magnitude of densification was over-predicted and the temperatures were outside of the experimental uncertainty. The radial power shape within the fuel was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures, whereas modeling the fuel at the thermocouple location as either annular or solid was relatively negligible. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for UO$_2$ fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  3. Quantitative ATP synthesis in human liver measured by localized 31P spectroscopy using the magnetization transfer experiment.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A I; Chmelík, M; Szendroedi, J; Krssák, M; Brehm, A; Moser, E; Roden, M

    2008-06-01

    The liver plays a central role in intermediate metabolism. Accumulation of liver fat (steatosis) predisposes to various liver diseases. Steatosis and abnormal muscle energy metabolism are found in insulin-resistant and type-2 diabetic states. To examine hepatic energy metabolism, we measured hepatocellular lipid content, using proton MRS, and rates of hepatic ATP synthesis in vivo, using the 31P magnetization transfer experiment. A suitable localization scheme was developed and applied to the measurements of longitudinal relaxation times (T1) in six healthy volunteers and the ATP-synthesis experiment in nine healthy volunteers. Liver 31P spectra were modelled and quantified successfully using a time domain fit and the AMARES (advanced method for accurate, robust and efficient spectral fitting of MRS data with use of prior knowledge) algorithm describing the essential components of the dataset. The measured T1 relaxation times are comparable to values reported previously at lower field strengths. All nine subjects in whom saturation transfer was measured had low hepatocellular lipid content (1.5 +/- 0.2% MR signal; mean +/- SEM). The exchange rate constant (k) obtained was 0.30 +/- 0.02 s(-1), and the rate of ATP synthesis was 29.5 +/- 1.8 mM/min. The measured rate of ATP synthesis is about three times higher than in human skeletal muscle and human visual cortex, but only about half of that measured in perfused rat liver. In conclusion, 31P MRS at 3 T provides sufficient sensitivity to detect magnetization transfer effects and can therefore be used to assess ATP synthesis in human liver.

  4. Experiment and mathematical model for the heat transfer in water around 4 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Naohisa; Kaneko, Fumitoshi

    2017-03-01

    Water, which is the habitat for a variety of living creatures, has a maximum density at 4.0 °C. This crucial property is considered to play a very important role in the biology of a lake and also has a close relationship with the areas of environmentology and geoscience. It would be desirable for students to confirm this important property of water themselves by carrying out simple experiments. However, it is not easy to detect the maximum density at 4.0 °C because the temperature dependence of the water density is very small close to its freezing point. For example, the density of water is 0.999 975 g cm-3 at 4.0 °C and 0.999 850 g cm-3 at 0.1 °C. The aim in this manuscript is to demonstrate a simple experiment to detect 4.0 °C as the temperature of maximum density, in which the time dependence of the water temperature is measured at several different depths by chilling the water surface. This is a simple experiment that can also be performed by high school students. We also present a mathematical model that can explain the results of this experiment.

  5. The adoption of residential solar photovoltaic systems in the presence of a financial incentive: A case study of consumer experiences with the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program in Ontario (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Christopher William Junji

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, high initial capital costs and lengthy payback periods have been identified as the most significant barriers that limit the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In response, the Ontario Government, through the Ontario Power Authority (OPA), introduced the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program (RESOP) in November, 2006. The RESOP offers owners of solar PV systems with a generation capacity under 10MW a 20 year contract to sell electricity back to the grid at a guaranteed rate of $0.42/kWh. While it is the intent of incentive programs such as the RESOP to begin to lower financial barriers in order to increase the uptake of solar PV systems, there is no guarantee that the level of participation will in fact rise. The "on-the-ground" manner in which consumers interact with such an incentive program ultimately determines its effectiveness. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the relationship between the RESOP and solar PV system consumers. To act on this purpose, the experiences of current RESOP participants are presented, wherein the factors that are either hindering or promoting utilization of the RESOP and the adoption of solar PV systems are identified. This thesis was conducted in three phases--a literature review, preliminary key informant interviews, and primary RESOP participant interviews--with each phase informing the scope and design of the subsequent stage. First, a literature survey was completed to identify and to understand the potential drivers and barriers to the adoption of a solar PV system from the perspective of a consumer. Second, nine key informant interviews were completed to gain further understanding regarding the specific intricacies of the drivers and barriers in the case of Ontario, as well as the overall adoption system in the province. These interviews were conducted between July and September, 2008. Third, interviews with 24 RESOP participants were conducted; they constitute the primary data set. These

  6. Guide to CASE Adoption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    from Ovum Ltd. and the Software Technology Support Center at Hill Air Force Base (UT 84056). Overviews of relevant issues, including CASE adoption, can...Integration Battle." Ovum , 1989. Feuche, M. "How to Use CASE Technology." MIS Week, 10, 37 (Sep 1989), 29. Firth, R., Mosley, V., Pethia, R., Roberts, L...Computer Science Berkeey CA 94704 symllable on Internet. anonomcus FTP laGpll ubicatkin sue-isnodeunomc~Icasa-nniduct-11 hax OVUM Ltd 7 Rathbon Street A

  7. AN EXPERIMENT TO STUDY PEBBLE BED LIQUID-FLUORIDE-SALT HEAT TRANSFER

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Aaron, Adam M; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne; Holcomb, David Eugene; Kisner, Roger A; McCarthy, Mike; Peretz, Fred J; Wilgen, John B; Wilson, Dane F

    2011-01-01

    A forced-convection liquid-fluoride-salt loop is being constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This loop was designed as a versatile experimental facility capable of supporting general thermal/fluid/corrosion testing of liquid fluoride salts. The initial test configuration is designed to support the Pebble Bed Advanced High-Temperature Reactor and incorporates a test section designed to examine the heat transfer behavior of FLiNaK salt in a heated pebble bed. The loop is constructed of Inconel 600 and is capable of operating at up to 700oC. It contains a total of 72 kg of FLiNaK salt and uses an overhung impeller centrifugal sump pump that can provide FLiNaK flow at 4.5 kg/s with a head of 0.125 MPa. The test section is made of silicon carbide (SiC) and contains approximately 600 graphite spheres, 3 cm in diameter. The pebble bed is heated using a unique inductive technique. A forced induction air cooler removes the heat added to the pebble bed. The salt level within the loop is maintained by controlling an argon cover gas pressure. Salt purification is performed in batch mode by transferring the salt from the loop into a specially made nickel crucible system designed to remove oxygen, moisture and other salt impurities. Materials selection for the loop and test section material was informed by 3 months of Inconel 600 and SiC corrosion testing as well as tests examining subcomponent performance in the salt. Several SiC-to-Inconel 600 mechanical joint designs were considered before final salt and gas seals were chosen. Structural calculations of the SiC test section were performed to arrive at a satisfactory test section configuration. Several pump vendors provided potential loop pump designs; however, because of cost, the pump was designed and fabricated in-house. The pump includes a commercial rotating dry gas shaft seal to maintain loop cover gas inventory. The primary instrumentation on the loop includes temperature, pressure, and loop flow rate

  8. LDEF Experiment P0006 Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement (LETSME) quick look report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the various passive radiation detector materials included in the P0006 LETSME experiment flown on LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility) is presented. It consists of four tasks: (1) readout and analysis of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD); (2) readout and analysis of fission foil/mica detectors; (3) readout and analysis of (6)LiF/CR-39 detectors; and (4) preliminary processing and readout of CR-39 and polycarbonate plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD).

  9. The NASA/Baltimore Applications Project: An experiment in technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, T. S.

    1981-01-01

    Conclusions drawn from the experiment thus far are presented. The problems of a large city most often do not require highly sophisticated solutions; the simpler the solution, the better. A problem focused approach is a greater help to the city than a product focused approach. Most problem situations involve several individuals or organized groups within the city. Mutual trust and good interpersonal relationships between the technologist and the administrator is as important for solving problems as technological know-how.

  10. Phenylnaphthalene Derivatives as Heat Transfer Fluids for Concentrating Solar Power: Loop Experiments and Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Bell, Jason R; Felde, David K; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; Qualls, A L; Weaver, Samuel P

    2013-02-01

    ORNL and subcontractor Cool Energy completed an investigation of higher-temperature, organic thermal fluids for solar thermal applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C showed that the material isomerized at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components such as the waste heat rejection exchanger may become coated or clogged and loop performance will decrease. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the increased temperatures of interest. Hence a decision was made not to test the ORNL fluid in the loop at Cool Energy Inc. Instead, Cool Energy tested and modeled power conversion from a moderate-temperature solar loop using coupled Stirling engines. Cool Energy analyzed data collected on third and fourth generation SolarHeart Stirling engines operating on a rooftop solar field with a lower temperature (Marlotherm) heat transfer fluid. The operating efficiencies of the Stirling engines were determined at multiple, typical solar conditions, based on data from actual cycle operation. Results highlighted the advantages of inherent thermal energy storage in the power conversion system.

  11. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  12. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  13. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  14. Seawater mesocosm experiments in the Arctic uncover differential transfer of marine bacteria to aerosols.

    PubMed

    Fahlgren, Camilla; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Zábori, Julia; Lindh, Markus V; Krejci, Radovan; Mårtensson, E Monica; Nilsson, Douglas; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-06-01

    Biogenic aerosols critically control atmospheric processes. However, although bacteria constitute major portions of living matter in seawater, bacterial aerosolization from oceanic surface layers remains poorly understood. We analysed bacterial diversity in seawater and experimentally generated aerosols from three Kongsfjorden sites, Svalbard. Construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from paired seawater and aerosol samples resulted in 1294 sequences clustering into 149 bacterial and 34 phytoplankton operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Bacterial communities in aerosols differed greatly from corresponding seawater communities in three out of four experiments. Dominant populations of both seawater and aerosols were Flavobacteriia, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Across the entire dataset, most OTUs from seawater could also be found in aerosols; in each experiment, however, several OTUs were either selectively enriched in aerosols or little aerosolized. Notably, a SAR11 clade OTU was consistently abundant in the seawater, but was recorded in significantly lower proportions in aerosols. A strikingly high proportion of colony-forming bacteria were pigmented in aerosols compared with seawater, suggesting that selection during aerosolization contributes to explaining elevated proportions of pigmented bacteria frequently observed in atmospheric samples. Our findings imply that atmospheric processes could be considerably influenced by spatiotemporal variations in the aerosolization efficiency of different marine bacteria.

  15. The Gas Transfer through Polar Sea ice experiment: Insights into the rates and pathways that determine geochemical fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovely, A.; Loose, B.; Schlosser, P.; McGillis, W.; Zappa, C.; Perovich, D.; Brown, S.; Morell, T.; Hsueh, D.; Friedrich, R.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice is a defining feature of the polar marine environment. It is a critical domain for marine biota and it regulates ocean-atmosphere exchange, including the exchange of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. In this study, we determined the rates and pathways that govern gas transport through a mixed sea ice cover. N2O, SF6, 3He, 4He, and Ne were used as gas tracers of the exchange processes that take place at the ice-water and air-water interfaces in a laboratory sea ice experiment. Observation of the changes in gas concentrations during freezing revealed that He is indeed more soluble in ice than in water; Ne is less soluble in ice, and the larger gases (N2O and SF6) are mostly excluded during the freezing process. Model estimates of gas diffusion through ice were calibrated using measurements of bulk gas content in ice cores, yielding gas transfer velocity through ice (kice) of ˜5 × 10-4 m d-1. In comparison, the effective air-sea gas transfer velocities (keff) ranged up to 0.33 m d-1 providing further evidence that very little mixed-layer ventilation takes place via gas diffusion through columnar sea ice. However, this ventilation is distinct from air-ice gas fluxes driven by sea ice biogeochemistry. The magnitude of keff showed a clear increasing trend with wind speed and current velocity beneath the ice, as well as the combination of the two. This result indicates that gas transfer cannot be uniquely predicted by wind speed alone in the presence of sea ice.

  16. Combining Experiments and Simulation of Gas Absorption for Teaching Mass Transfer Fundamentals: Removing CO2 from Air Using Water and NaOH

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William M.; Jackson, Yaminah Z.; Morin, Michael T.; Ferraro, Giacomo P.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments and computer models for studying the mass transfer process of removing CO2 from air using water or dilute NaOH solution as absorbent are presented. Models tie experiment to theory and give a visual representation of concentration profiles and also illustrate the two-film theory and the relative importance of various…

  17. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are used to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion.

  18. The Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX)-A demonstration of high power arcjets for orbit transfer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromaghim, D. R.; Salasovich, R. M.; Leduc, J. R.; Johnson, L. K.

    1998-01-01

    The Electric Propulsion Space Experiment (ESEX) is a high power (30 kW) ammonia arcjet space demonstration sponsored by the Propulsion Directorate of the Phillips Laboratory with TRW as the prime contractor. ESEX is one of nine experiments being launched in early 1998 on board the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). ESEX will demonstrate the feasibility of using a high power arcjet for orbit transfer. ESEX is instrumented with various sensors to address all of the expected interactions with ARGOS including electromagnetic interference, contamination, and radiated thermal loading. The performance of the arcjet will also be measured using ground tracking, an on-board GPS receiver, and on-board accelerometer. In addition to the performance and spacecraft interaction studies, ground-based spectroscopic and radiometric measurements will be performed to observe plume species as well as determine the effect of the arcjet firing on the space environment. ESEX is currently undergoing integrated testing with the spacecraft bus and the eight other experiments to verify the full operability of ARGOS while on-orbit. These tests include basic functionality of the system in addition to the normal suite of environmental tests including electromagnetic interference and compatibility, acoustic and pyroshock testing, and thermal vacuum tests.

  19. Laser absorption, power transfer, and radiation symmetry during the first shock of inertial confinement fusion gas-filled hohlraum experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bradley, D. K.; Divol, L.; Ho, D. D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Schneider, M. B.; Town, R. P. J.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-12-15

    Temporally resolved measurements of the hohlraum radiation flux asymmetry incident onto a bismuth coated surrogate capsule have been made over the first two nanoseconds of ignition relevant laser pulses. Specifically, we study the P2 asymmetry of the incoming flux as a function of cone fraction, defined as the inner-to-total laser beam power ratio, for a variety of hohlraums with different scales and gas fills. This work was performed to understand the relevance of recent experiments, conducted in new reduced-scale neopentane gas filled hohlraums, to full scale helium filled ignition targets. Experimental measurements, matched by 3D view factor calculations, are used to infer differences in symmetry, relative beam absorption, and cross beam energy transfer (CBET), employing an analytic model. Despite differences in hohlraum dimensions and gas fill, as well as in laser beam pointing and power, we find that laser absorption, CBET, and the cone fraction, at which a symmetric flux is achieved, are similar to within 25% between experiments conducted in the reduced and full scale hohlraums. This work demonstrates a close surrogacy in the dynamics during the first shock between reduced-scale and full scale implosion experiments and is an important step in enabling the increased rate of study for physics associated with inertial confinement fusion.

  20. The Presence and Preferential Activation of Regulatory T Cells Diminish Adoptive Transfer of Autoimmune Diabetes by Polyclonal Nonobese Diabetic (NOD) T Cell Effectors into NSG versus NOD-scid Mice.

    PubMed

    Presa, Maximiliano; Chen, Yi-Guang; Grier, Alexandra E; Leiter, Edward H; Brehm, Michael A; Greiner, Dale L; Shultz, Leonard D; Serreze, David V

    2015-10-01

    NOD-scid.Il2rg(null) (NSG) mice are currently being used as recipients to screen for pathogenic autoreactive T cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. We questioned whether the restriction of IL-2R γ-chain (Il-2rγ)-dependent cytokine signaling only to donor cells in NSG recipients differently influenced the activities of transferred diabetogenic T cells when they were introduced as a monoclonal/oligoclonal population versus being part of a polyclonal repertoire. Unexpectedly, a significantly decreased T1D transfer by splenocytes from prediabetic NOD donors was observed in Il-2rγ(null)-NSG versus Il-2rγ-intact standard NOD-scid recipients. In contrast, NOD-derived monoclonal/oligoclonal TCR transgenic β cell-autoreactive T cells in either the CD8 (AI4, NY8.3) or CD4 (BDC2.5) compartments transferred disease significantly more rapidly to NSG than to NOD-scid recipients. The reduced diabetes transfer efficiency by polyclonal T cells in NSG recipients was associated with enhanced activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediated by NSG myeloid APC. This enhanced suppressor activity was associated with higher levels of Treg GITR expression in the presence of NSG than NOD-scid APC. These collective results indicate NSG recipients might be efficiently employed to test the activity of T1D patient-derived β cell-autoreactive T cell clones and lines, but, when screening for pathogenic effectors within polyclonal populations, Tregs should be removed from the transfer inoculum to avoid false-negative results.

  1. Evaluation of several MS/MS search algorithms for analysis of spectra derived from electron transfer dissociation experiments.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Kumaran; Pandey, Akhilesh; Molina, Henrik

    2009-09-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is increasingly becoming popular for high-throughput experiments especially in the identification of the labile post-translational modifications. Most search algorithms that are currently in use for querying MS/MS data against protein databases have been optimized on the basis of matching fragment ions derived from collision induced dissociation of peptides, which are dominated by b and y ions. However, electron transfer dissociation of peptides generates completely different types of fragments: c and z ions. The goal of our study was to test the ability of different search algorithms to handle data from this fragmentation method. We compared four MS/MS search algorithms (OMSSA, Mascot, Spectrum Mill, and X!Tandem) using approximately 170,000 spectra generated from a standard protein mix, as well as from complex proteomic samples which included a large number of phosphopeptides. Our analysis revealed (1) greater differences between algorithms than has been previously reported for CID data, (2) a significant charge state bias resulting in >60-fold difference in the numbers of matched doubly charged peptides, and (3) identification of 70% more peptides by the best performing algorithm than the algorithm identifying the least number of peptides. Our results indicate that the search engines for analyzing ETD derived MS/MS spectra are still in their early days and that multiple search engines could be used to reduce individual biases of algorithms.

  2. Interresidue carbonyl-carbonyl polarization transfer experiments in uniformly 13C, 15N-labeled peptides and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Rafal; Ritz, Emily; Gravelle, Andrew; Shi, Lichi; Peng, Xiaohu; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that Homonuclear Rotary Resonance Recoupling (HORROR) can be used to reintroduce carbonyl-carbonyl interresidue dipolar interactions and to achieve efficient polarization transfer between carbonyl atoms in uniformly 13C, 15N-labeled peptides and proteins. We show that the HORROR condition is anisotropically broadened and overall shifted to higher radio frequency intensities because of the CSA effects. These effects are analyzed theoretically using Average Hamiltonian Theory. At spinning frequencies used in this study, 22 kHz, this broadening is experimentally found to be on the order of a kilohertz at a proton field of 600 MHz. To match HORROR condition over all powder orientations, variable amplitude radio frequency (RF) fields are required, and efficient direct transfers on the order of 20-30% can be straightforwardly established. Two- and three-dimensional chemical shift correlation experiments establishing long-range interresidue connectivities (e.g., (N[i]-CO[i - 2])) are demonstrated on the model peptide N-acetyl-valine-leucine, and on the third immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G. Possible future developments are discussed.

  3. After adoption: dissolution or permanence?

    PubMed

    Festinger, Trudy

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented on the whereabouts of 516 adopted children, based on a random sample of children adopted from placement in New York City in 1996. Data from interviews with adoptive parents were augmented by information from adoption subsidy records and state child tracking files, as well as interviews with caregivers of children whose adoptive parents were deceased. There were few dissolutions, but postadoption service needs were many.

  4. ATM Technology Adoption in U.S. Campus Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Engui; Perry, John F.; Anderson, Larry S.; Brook, R. Dan; Hare, R. Dwight; Moore, Arnold J.; Xu, Xiaohe

    This study examined the relationships between ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) adoption in universities and four organizational variables: university size, type, finances, and information processing maturity. Another purpose of the study was to identify the current status of ATM adoption in campus networking. Subjects were university domain LAN…

  5. Phenylnaphthalene as a Heat Transfer Fluid for Concentrating Solar Power: High-Temperature Static Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Jason R; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; McFarlane, Joanna; Qualls, A L

    2012-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) may be an alternative to generating electricity from fossil fuels; however, greater thermodynamic efficiency is needed to improve the economics of CSP operation. One way of achieving improved efficiency is to operate the CSP loop at higher temperatures than the current maximum of about 400 C. ORNL has been investigating a synthetic polyaromatic oil for use in a trough type CSP collector, to temperatures up to 500 C. The oil was chosen because of its thermal stability and calculated low vapor and critical pressures. The oil has been synthesized using a Suzuki coupling mechanism and has been tested in static heating experiments. Analysis has been conducted on the oil after heating and suggests that there may be some isomerization taking place at 450 C, but the fluid appears to remain stable above that temperature. Tests were conducted over one week and further tests are planned to investigate stabilities after heating for months and in flow configurations. Thermochemical data and thermophysical predictions indicate that substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be useful for applications that run at higher temperatures than possible with commercial fluids such as Therminol-VP1.

  6. Effect of collisional heat transfer in ICRF power modulation experiment on ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, N.; D'Inca, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, Vl. V.; Brambilla, M.; van Eester, D.; Harvey, R. W.; Jaeger, E. F.; Lerche, E. A.; Schneider, P.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-02-01

    ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) heating experiments were performed in D-H plasmas at various H concentrations on ASDEX Upgrade. The rf power was modulated to measure the electron power deposition profile from electron temperature modulation. To minimize the contribution from indirect collisional heating and the effect of radial transport, the rf power was modulated at 50 Hz. However, peaking of electron temperature modulation was still observed around the hydrogen cyclotron resonance indicating collisional heating contribution. Time dependent simulation of the hydrogen distribution function was performed for the discharges, using the full-wave code AORSA (E.F. Jaeger, et al., Phys. Plasmas, Vol. 8, page 1573 (2001)) coupled to the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D (R.W. Harvey, et al., Proc. IAEA (1992)). In the present experimental conditions, it was found that modulation of the collisional heating was comparable to that of direct wave damping. Impact of radial transport was also analyzed and found to appreciably smear out the modulation profile and reduce the phase delay.

  7. Exploring the Academic and Social Experiences of Latino Engineering Community College Transfer Students at a 4-Year Institution: A Qualitative Research Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagler, LaTesha R.

    As the number of historically underrepresented populations transfer from community college to university to pursue baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), little research exists about the challenges and successes Latino students experience as they transition from 2-year colleges to 4-year universities. Thus, institutions of higher education have limited insight to inform their policies, practices, and strategic planning in developing effective sources of support, services, and programs for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. This qualitative research study explored the academic and social experiences of 14 Latino engineering community college transfer students at one university. Specifically, this study examined the lived experiences of minority community college transfer students' transition into and persistence at a 4-year institution. The conceptual framework applied to this study was Schlossberg's Transition Theory, which analyzed the participant's social and academic experiences that led to their successful transition from community college to university. Three themes emerged from the narrative data analysis: (a) Academic Experiences, (b) Social Experiences, and (c) Sources of Support. The findings indicate that engineering community college transfer students experience many challenges in their transition into and persistence at 4-year institutions. Some of the challenges include lack of academic preparedness, environmental challenges, lack of time management skills and faculty serving the role as institutional agents.

  8. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  9. Post-Adoption Depression: Clinical Windows on an Emerging Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speilman, Eda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of post-adoption depression--with both parallels and differences from postpartum depression--has emerged as a salient descriptor of the experience of a significant minority of newly adoptive parents. This article offers a clinical perspective on post-adoption depression through the stories of several families seen in…

  10. MPEG-2 Over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Over Satellite Quality of Service (QoS) Experiments: Laboratory Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Frantz, Brian D.; Spells, Marcus J.

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service (QoS) experiments were performed using MPEG-2 (ATM application layer 5, AAL5) over ATM over an emulated satellite link. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the free-space link quality necessary to transmit high-quality multimedia information by using the ATM protocol. The detailed test plan and test configuration are described herein as are the test results. MPEG-2 transport streams were baselined in an errored environment, followed by a series of tests using, MPEG-2 over ATM. Errors were created both digitally as well as in an IF link by using a satellite modem and commercial gaussian noise test set for two different MPEG-2 decoder implementations. The results show that ITU-T Recommendation 1.356 Class 1, stringent ATM applications will require better link quality than currently specified; in particular, cell loss ratios of better than 1.0 x 10(exp -8) and cell error ratios of better than 1.0 x 10(exp -7) are needed. These tests were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of satellite-ATM interoperability research.

  11. Analysis of reactor material experiments investigating oxide fuel crust stability and heat transfer in jet impingement flow

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the crust stability and heat transfer behavior in the CSTI-1, CSTI-3, and CWTI-11 reactor material experiments in which a jet of molten oxide fuel at approx. 160/sup 0/K above its freezing temperature was impinged normally upon stainless steel plates initially at 300 and 385 K. The major issue is the existence of nonexistence of a stable solidified layer of fuel, or crust, interstitial to the flowing hot fuel and the steel substrate, tending to insulate the steel from the hot molten fuel. A computer model was developed to predict the heatup of thermocouples imbedded immediately beneath the surface of the plate for both of the cases in which a stable crust is assumed to be either present or absent during the impingement phase. Comparison of the model calculations with the measured thermocouple temperatures indicates that a protective crust was present over nearly all of the plate surface area throughout the impingement process precluding major melting of the plate steel. However, the experiments also show evidence for very localized and isolated steel melting as revealed by localized and isolated pitting of the steel surface and the response of thermocouples located within the pitted region.

  12. Parenting Your Adopted Teenager

    MedlinePlus

    ... be struggling with questions of sexual orientation and gender identity and may experience additional stressors related to acceptance ... they are different. Questions regarding sexual orientation and gender identity can add an extra layer of confusion for ...

  13. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  14. Efficient post-disaster patient transportation and transfer: experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue in Aceh after the 2004 Asian tsunami.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Hui; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2014-08-01

    This descriptive study aimed to present experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue after the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of transportation and transfer of patients and coordination of medical rescue forces. After the tsunami, numerous rescue institutions and international organizations rushed to Aceh province to aid in the rescue work. To coordinate various aspects of medical rescue efforts, an airport-based joint patient transfer center was developed. Within the framework of the joint transport center, rescue teams, militaries, and international institutions worked together to jointly triage, rapidly treat, and transfer patients. As members of the Chinese International Search and Rescue team, we were involved in the rescue efforts in the joint patient transfer center, and treated and transferred a total of 217 injured patients, the majority of whom were triaged as level II, followed by level III, and level I. The top three diseases were trauma/wound infection, respiratory system disease, and digestive system disease. The airport-based joint patient transfer center provided an efficient mechanism for successfully coordinating various aspects of the medical rescue efforts to transfer patients. Large-scale air transport, available health resources, and effective triage criteria also played an essential role in patient transportation and transfer.

  15. Motivations for enterprise system adoption in transition economies: insights from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Piotr; Weistroffer, Heinz Roland

    2016-06-01

    Enterprise system (ES) adoption can bring many benefits, but may also put tremendous strain on an organisation or business, sometimes with disastrous outcomes. The specific motivations and expectations that lead to ES adoption may impact the success or failure of these endeavours, and understanding these motivations may be useful in predicting the success of ES projects. Most of the published research on ES adoption motivation has been in the context of highly developed countries. The social, cultural, economic and political conditions in developing, emerging and transition economies make for a different business environment, and insights obtained from developed countries may not always transfer to these settings. This study seeks to identify and help understand the motivations for ES adoption specifically in transition economies, as these economies play a significant role in the global market, but have not been receiving adequate research attention. Drawing on the experience of 129 ES adopters in Poland, a transition economy, this study categorises motivations into coherent groups of issues and evaluates the influence of discovered motivations on ES adoption success. Further, motivations revealed by this study are compared with motivations reported by prior research conducted in developed countries.

  16. The Relationships between Selected Organizational Variables and ATM Technology Adoption in Campus Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Engui

    1998-01-01

    Determines the relationships between ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) adoption and four organizational variables: university size, type, finances, and information-processing maturity. Identifies the current status of ATM adoption in campus networking in the United States. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  17. Subsidized Adoption across the Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Malcolm; Triseliotis, John

    1991-01-01

    Notes differences between American and British contexts and formulations of adoption payments. Highlights key findings from a research project that evaluated the impact of adoption allowances in Scotland. Gives particular attention to children's views about being adopted with financial help. (GH)

  18. Unsteady heat transfer and direct comparison to steady-state measurements in a rotor-wake experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, J. E.; Simoneau, R. J.; Lagraff, J. E.; Morehouse, K. A.

    1986-01-01

    Circumferentially local and time-resolved heat transfer measurements were obtained for a circular cylinder in crossflow located downstream of a rotating spoked wheel wake generator in a steady flow tunnel. The unsteady heat transfer effects were obtained by developing an extension of a thin film gauge technique employed to date exclusively in short-duration facilities. The time-average thin film results and conventional steady-state heat transfer measurements were compared. Time-averaged wake-induced stagnation heat transfer enhancement levels above the nowake case were about 10% for the four cylinder Reynolds numbers. This enhancement level was nearly independent of bar passing frequency and was related directly to the time integral of the heat transfer spikes observed at the bar passing frequency. It is observed that the wake-induced heat transfer spikes have peak magnitudes averaging 30 to 40% above the interwake heat transfer level.

  19. International adoption families: a unique health care journey.

    PubMed

    Smit, Eileen M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the health care experiences of families with an internationally adopted child. Content analysis of data from 107 adoptive parents was used to identify themes that characterized health care experiences of the families. Four themes were identified: a) Coming home: Like a lobster thrown into a boiling pot; b) Vigilance: Is my child healthy today? Will my child be healthy tomorrow?; c) Unique health care needs of international adoption families: We are different; and d) Importance of support by health care providers: Do they know or care? Health care providers need to be aware of the unique experiences of the increasing number of international adoption families. The themes identified provide insight into the health care experiences of international adoption families and the crucial role of health care providers in helping international adoption families feel supported on their journey.

  20. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: harnessing the T cell response.

    PubMed

    Restifo, Nicholas P; Dudley, Mark E; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2012-03-22

    Immunotherapy based on the adoptive transfer of naturally occurring or gene-engineered T cells can mediate tumour regression in patients with metastatic cancer. Here, we discuss progress in the use of adoptively transferred T cells, focusing on how they can mediate tumour cell eradication. Recent advances include more accurate targeting of antigens expressed by tumours and the associated vasculature, and the successful use of gene engineering to re-target T cells before their transfer into the patient. We also describe how new research has helped to identify the particular T cell subsets that can most effectively promote tumour eradication.

  1. J-ONLY-TOCSY: efficient suppression of RDC-induced transfer in homonuclear TOCSY experiments using JESTER-1-derived multiple pulse sequences.

    PubMed

    Klages, Jochen; Kessler, Horst; Glaser, Steffen J; Luy, Burkhard

    2007-12-01

    The main purpose of homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn or TOCSY experiments is the assignment of spin systems based on efficient coherence transfer via scalar couplings. In partially aligned samples, however, magnetization is also transferred via residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and therefore through space correlations can be observed in COSY and TOCSY experiments that make the unambiguous assignment of covalently bound spins impossible. In this article, we show that the JESTER-1 multiple pulse sequence, originally designed for broadband heteronuclear isotropic Hartmann-Hahn transfer, efficiently suppresses the homonuclear dipolar coupling Hamiltonian. This suppression can be enhanced even further by variation of the supercycling scheme. The application of the resulting element in homonuclear TOCSY periods results in coherence transfer via J-couplings only. As a consequence, the assignment of scalar coupled spin systems is also possible in partially aligned samples. The bandwidth of coherence transfer for the JESTER-1-derived sequences is comparable to existing TOCSY multiple pulse sequences. Results are demonstrated in theory and experiment.

  2. Analysis and optimization of saturation transfer difference NMR experiments designed to map early self-association events in amyloidogenic peptides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Milojevic, Julijana; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2008-05-08

    Saturation transfer difference (STD) methods recently have been proposed to be a promising tool for self-recognition mapping at residue and atomic resolution in amyloidogenic peptides. Despite the significant potential of the STD approach for systems undergoing oligomer/monomer (O/M) equilibria, a systematic analysis of the possible artifacts arising in this novel application of STD experiments is still lacking. Here, we have analyzed the STD method as applied to O/M peptides, and we have identified three major sources of possible biases: offset effects, intramonomer cross-relaxation, and partial spin-diffusion within the oligomers. For the purpose of quantitatively assessing these artifacts, we employed a comparative approach that relies on 1-D and 2-D STD data acquired at different saturation frequencies on samples with different peptide concentrations and filtration states. This artifact evaluation protocol was applied to the Abeta(12-28) model system, and all three types of artifacts appear to affect the measured STD spectra. In addition, we propose a method to minimize the biases introduced by these artifacts in the Halpha STD distributions used to obtain peptide self-recognition maps at residue resolution. This method relies on the averaging of STD data sets acquired at different saturation frequencies and provides results comparable to those independently obtained through other NMR pulse sequences that probe oligomerization, such as nonselective off-resonance relaxation experiments. The artifact evaluation protocol and the multiple frequencies averaging strategy proposed here are of general utility for the growing family of amyloidogenic peptides, as they provide a reliable analysis of STD spectra in terms of polypeptide self-recognition epitopes.

  3. Adoption: medical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, C K

    1978-06-01

    The problem of abandoned children is of great magnitude in India. Placement of these children in a family environment is essential for their physical, mental, and emotional development. Adoption must be approached from the child welfare perspective. The pediatrician can play an important role in the adoption process. The pediatrician should perform a thorough medical examination of infants to be adopted, both to ensure the child's welfare and to give adoptive parents an assessment of the child's health. Information should be collected on the medical history of the child's biologic parents to aid in the evaluation process. Adoptive parents should also undergo medical and pyschological examinations. Pediatricians can additionally work with social welfare departments in establishing criteria for matching children with adoptive parents. Adoptions in India are currently governed by provisions or the 1956 Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act. Since this legislation excludes groups such as Muslims, Christians, and Parsis from its purview, there has been a demand for national legislation providing a uniform adoption law for all the communities in India. The Union Government introduced such a comprehensive bill in 1972, the Adoption of Children Bill; however, no action was ever taken. It is urged that this legislation be reactivated, and that the restriction on the removal of children for adoption outside India be lifted.

  4. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  5. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  6. Cryogenic Liquid Experiments in Orbit. Volume 2. Bubble Mechanics, Boiling Heat Transfer, and Propellant Tank Venting in a Zero-Gravity Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-12-01

    Thermophoresis Experimental Apparatus . . . 27 8 Bubble Thermophoresis Lighting and Viewing Schematic ....... ..................... .... 28 9 Bubble... Thermophoresis Experimental Apparatus (with- out bubble holder) ...... ................ ... 29 10 Bubble Force Experiment Bubble Insertion Technique (Expanded View...several interesting and important ef- fects in bubble behavior and boiling heat transfer. These ef- fects are discussed below. 2. Bubble Thermophoresis

  7. Generating Faculty Dialogue across Colleges: A Personal Experience. Transfer Working Papers, Volume 2, Number 1, January 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossbach, Barry L.

    In 1989, a 1-week summer workshop involving faculty from the Community College of Philadelphia (CCP), and LaSalle and Temple Universities (Philadelphia) was held to discuss student transfer bewteen institutions with special emphasis on the rate of successful enrollment and transfer of minority students. CCP coordinated this first workshop,…

  8. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  9. The Market Forces in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the second in a series to use an ethics-based…

  10. Some Operational Aspects of the International Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) Experiment Using INTELSAT Satellites at 307 Degrees East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, J. A.; McKinley, A.; Davis, J. A.; Hetzel, P.; Bauch, A.

    1996-01-01

    Eight laboratories are participating in an international two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) experiment. Regular time and frequency transfers have been performed over a period of almost two years, including both European and transatlantic time transfers. The performance of the regular TWSTFT sessions over an extended period has demonstrated conclusively the usefulness of the TWSTFT method for routine international time and frequency comparisons. Regular measurements are performed three times per week resulting in a regular but unevenly spaced data set. A method is presented that allows an estimate of the values of delta (sub y)(gamma) to be formed from these data. In order to maximize efficient use of paid satellite time an investigation to determine the optimal length of a single TWSTFT session is presented. The optimal experiment length is determined by evaluating how long white phase modulation (PM) instabilities are the dominant noise source during the typical 300-second sampling times currently used. A detailed investigation of the frequency transfers realized via the transatlantic TWSTFT links UTC(USNO)-UTC(NPL), UTC(USNO)-UTC(PTB), and UTC(PTB)-UTC(NPL) is presented. The investigation focuses on the frequency instabilities realized, a three cornered hat resolution of the delta (sub y) (gamma) values, and a comparison of the transatlantic and inter-European determination of UTC(PTB)-UTC(NPL). Future directions of this TWSTFT experiment are outlined.

  11. The Temporal Context of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    This paper analyzes the amount of time required by farmers in four villages on the western edge of the central plain of Thailand to adopt four agricultural innovations--fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide. The general objective is to help researchers interested in the relationship of the adoption of new ideas to economic development…

  12. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  13. Parents’ Feelings Towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent–child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child of the couple, and tested whether the links between parent feelings and child maladjustment included effects of passive gene–environment correlation. Parents reported more negativity and less positivity as well as higher levels of externalizing behaviour for the adopted child compared to the non-adopted child, although effect sizes were small and no longer statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Fathers and mothers did not differ significantly in their reports of positive and negative feelings towards their children or in regard to child externalizing and internalizing behaviours. The correlations between parental negativity and positivity and child externalizing and internalizing were similar for fathers and mothers, and for adopted and non-adopted children. The findings suggest similar parent–child relationship processes for fathers and mothers, and that genetic transmission of behaviour from parent to child does not account for the association between parental warmth and hostility and child-adjustment problems. PMID:21088705

  14. Superfluid helium orbital resupply - The status of the SHOOT flight experiment and preliminary user requirements. [Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, Michael J.; Kittel, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment is designed to demonstrate the components and techniques necessary to resupply superfluid helium to satellites or Space Station based facilities. A top level description as well as the development status of the critical components to be used in SHOOT are discussed. Some of these components include the thermomechanical pump, the fluid acquisition system, the normal helium and superfluid helium phase separators, Venturi flow meter, cryogenic valves, burst disks, and astronaut-compatible EVA coupler and transfer line. The requirements for the control electronics and software are given. A preliminary description of the requirements that must be met by a satellite requiring superfluid helium servicing is given. In particular, minimum and optimum plumbing arrangements are shown, transfer line flow impedance and heat input impacts are assessed, instrumentation is described, and performance parameters are considered.

  15. Cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage acquisition and transfer (COLD-SAT) experiment subsystem instrumentation and wire harness design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Lawrence G.

    1994-01-01

    Subcritical cryogens such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) are required for space based transportation propellant, reactant, and life support systems. Future long-duration space missions will require on-orbit systems capable of long-term cryogen storage and efficient fluid transfer capabilities. COLD-SAT, which stands for cryogenic orbiting liquid depot-storage acquisition and transfer, is a free-flying liquid hydrogen management flight experiment. Experiments to determine optimum methods of fluid storage and transfer will be performed on the COLD-SAT mission. The success of the mission is directly related to the type and accuracy of measurements made. The instrumentation and measurement techniques used are therefore critical to the success of the mission. This paper presents the results of the COLD-SAT experiment subsystem instrumentation and wire harness design effort. Candidate transducers capable of fulfilling the COLD-SAT experiment measurement requirements are identified. Signal conditioning techniques, data acquisition requirements, and measurement uncertainty analysis are presented. Electrical harnessing materials and wiring techniques for the instrumentation designed to minimize heat conduction to the cryogenic tanks and provide optimum measurement accuracy are listed.

  16. Cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage acquisition and transfer (COLD-SAT) experiment subsystem instrumentation and wire harness design report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Lawrence G.

    1994-03-01

    Subcritical cryogens such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) are required for space based transportation propellant, reactant, and life support systems. Future long-duration space missions will require on-orbit systems capable of long-term cryogen storage and efficient fluid transfer capabilities. COLD-SAT, which stands for cryogenic orbiting liquid depot-storage acquisition and transfer, is a free-flying liquid hydrogen management flight experiment. Experiments to determine optimum methods of fluid storage and transfer will be performed on the COLD-SAT mission. The success of the mission is directly related to the type and accuracy of measurements made. The instrumentation and measurement techniques used are therefore critical to the success of the mission. This paper presents the results of the COLD-SAT experiment subsystem instrumentation and wire harness design effort. Candidate transducers capable of fulfilling the COLD-SAT experiment measurement requirements are identified. Signal conditioning techniques, data acquisition requirements, and measurement uncertainty analysis are presented. Electrical harnessing materials and wiring techniques for the instrumentation designed to minimize heat conduction to the cryogenic tanks and provide optimum measurement accuracy are listed.

  17. Cellular Immunotherapy for Neuroblastoma: A Review of Current Vaccine and Adoptive T Cell Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Louis, C.U.; Brenner, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapy is an attractive option for patients with high risk neuroblastoma due to their poor long-term survival rates after conventional treatment. Neuroblastoma cells are derived from the embryonic neural crest and therefore express tumor antigens not widely seen in normal cells, making them potential targets for immunologic attack. There is already considerable experience with monoclonal antibodies that target these tumor associated antigens, and in this review we focus on more exploratory approaches, using tumor vaccines and adoptive transfer of tumor-directed T cells. PMID:19199969

  18. Theory and experimental results of transfer-NOE experiments. 1. The influence of the off rate versus cross-relaxation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippens, R. M.; Cerf, C.; Hallenga, K.

    The theory of the transferred nuclear Overhauser effect is presented in the framework of an extended relaxation matrix representation. This matrix representation allows a coherent description of all one- and two-dimensional experiments. We present analytical solutions for the buildup of magnetization in the 2D transfer-NOE experiment, for all ratios of the off rate k to the cross-relaxation rates R involved. We show that systematic deviations in distance determination occur when the off rate becomes comparable to or smaller than the relaxation rates. Experimental results on the peptide/protein system oxytocin/neurophysin confirming this analysis are presented. The importance of residual mobility in the bound ligand, as demonstrated by the experimental data, is also discussed.

  19. Investigations of Scalar Transfer Coefficients in Fog During the Coupled Boundary Layers and Air-Sea Transfer Experiment: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    mentioned, the disadvantage is that the important processes in fog formation take place below one meter (Wang 2004; Binhua 1985; Turton and Brown...formula under these conditions by examining the physical processes that are unique to these boundary layers. Particular attention will be paid to the...to moderate wind conditions. The experiment was designed to measure fluxes and their associated profiles so that every term within the turbulent

  20. The transition into adoptive parenthood: Adoption as a process of continued unsafe uncertainty when family scripts collide.

    PubMed

    Tasker, Fiona; Wood, Sally

    2016-10-01

    Our prospective study investigated couples' expectations of adoptive parenthood and explored how these changed with their actual experience of parenthood. Six heterosexual couples were interviewed just before placement began and 6 months after the children had arrived. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse both sets of interview data. Expectations of adoptive parenthood mostly transformed smoothly into adoption experience for couples, but challenges were experienced when family scripts collided and a continued feeling of unsafe uncertainty then prevailed within these newly formed family systems. Family script collision seemed a particular problem for couples adopting sibling pairs. To further professional practice in working with families over the transition to adoptive parenting, we suggest that professionals keep in mind a framework that includes the following: Internal and external world influences on family members, Intergenerational issues, Family scripts and the Structural challenges of adoption (IIFS).

  1. Childhood adoption: long-term effects in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Smyer, M A; Gatz, M; Simi, N L; Pedersen, N L

    1998-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers have characterized early life experiences as permanent and stable influences on the personality and subsequent life experiences of an individual. Recent conceptualizations have suggested that personal and environmental factors influencing development are not deterministic. Multiple pathways into adulthood are possible. Adoption is one potential early life stressor that may illustrate the usefulness of such conceptualizations for assessing long-term effects in adulthood. Previous studies of adoption have characterized the effects of adoption into adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the long-term impact of adoption. The participants were taken from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. From the original sample, we identified a subsample of 60 pairs of twins who were separated and reared apart, with one member being raised by a biological parent or parents and the other by an adoptive parent or parents with no biological relationship. A series of univariate and multivariate analyses were undertaken to assess the elements associated with being reared in either an adoptive home or the home of biological parent(s). The results suggest few significant effects of adoption on the adult adjustment of adoptees. In particular, the results reflect the important mediating role of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting that the stress of adoption itself is mediated by the type of rearing environment provided by the adoption process.

  2. Role of memory T cell subsets for adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Busch, Dirk H; Fräßle, Simon P; Sommermeyer, Daniel; Buchholz, Veit R; Riddell, Stanley R

    2016-02-01

    Adoptive transfer of primary (unmodified) or genetically engineered antigen-specific T cells has demonstrated astonishing clinical results in the treatment of infections and some malignancies. Besides the definition of optimal targets and antigen receptors, the differentiation status of transferred T cells is emerging as a crucial parameter for generating cell products with optimal efficacy and safety profiles. Long-living memory T cells subdivide into phenotypically as well as functionally different subsets (e.g. central memory, effector memory, tissue-resident memory T cells). This diversification process is crucial for effective immune protection, with probably distinct dependencies on the presence of individual subsets dependent on the disease to which the immune response is directed as well as its organ location. Adoptive T cell therapy intends to therapeutically transfer defined T cell immunity into patients. Efficacy of this approach often requires long-term maintenance of transferred cells, which depends on the presence and persistence of memory T cells. However, engraftment and survival of highly differentiated memory T cell subsets upon adoptive transfer is still difficult to achieve. Therefore, the recent observation that a distinct subset of weakly differentiated memory T cells shows all characteristics of adult tissue stem cells and can reconstitute all types of effector and memory T cell subsets, became highly relevant. We here review our current understanding of memory subset formation and T cell subset purification, and its implications for adoptive immunotherapy.

  3. Adopting a Districtwide Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Washington school district's eight-step process leading to the adoption of a districtwide reading program. Includes data collection, research analysis, skill tracing, and field-testing. (PKP)

  4. Superheroes and Heroic Journeys: Re-Claiming Loss in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lawrence C.

    2005-01-01

    This manuscript addresses adoption and the related gifts and challenges faced by adoptees. Challenges such as the search for identity, reconciliation, and identifying how they belong are also discussed. This manuscript also addresses common myths and misconceptions about the adoption experience. A creative intervention, using super heroes and…

  5. Intercountry Adoption: A Comparison between France and England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Joanna

    1995-01-01

    Examined the intercountry adoption experiences of 100 French and 100 English families, comparing policy in each country. Found a lack of effective and sensitive management of the introductory meetings between prospective parents and adoptive children, and of adequate birth records information. (HTH)

  6. Associations between Discussions of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families and Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adopted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kayla N.; Lee, Richard M.; Rueter, Martha A.; Kim, Oh Myo

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents’ delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior. PMID:25729119

  7. Associations between Discussions of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families and Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adopted Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kayla N; Lee, Richard M; Rueter, Martha A; Kim, Oh Myo

    2015-04-01

    Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents' delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior.

  8. Open adoption and adoptive mothers: attitudes toward birthmothers, adopted children, and parenting.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Twaite, J A

    1997-10-01

    The nature and extent of contact between 238 adoptive mothers and their child's biological mother was assessed for the period prior to the birth of the child and during the first two years of the child's life. Adoptive mothers who reported such contact prior to the child's birth had significantly more favorable attitudes toward both the biological mother and the adopted child. Those with contact either before or after the birth also demonstrated significantly more favorable parenting attitudes. Policy implications and the need for further research are noted.

  9. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  10. Design of auto-tuning capacitive power transfer system for wireless power transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kai; Kiong Nguang, Sing

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the design of capacitive wireless power transfer systems based on a Class-E inverter approach. The main reason for adopting the Class-E inverter approach is because of its high efficiency, theoretically 100%. However, the operation of a Class-E inverter is highly sensitive to its circuit's parameters. In a typical capacitive wireless power transfer application, the capacitive coupling distance between plates is subject to changes, and hence its power transfer efficiency is greatly affected if the Class-E inverter is properly tuned. This drawback motivates us to develop an auto frequency tuning algorithm for a Class-E inverter which maintains its power transfer efficiency in spite of the variations of capacitive coupling distances between plates and circuit's parameters. Finally, simulation and experiment are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the auto frequency tuning algorithm.

  11. Teaching Mass Transfer and Filtration Using Crossflow Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Unit Operations Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasio, Daniel; McCutcheon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A crossflow reverse osmosis (RO) system was built for a senior-level chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Intended to teach students mass transfer fundamentals related to membrane separations, students tested several commercial desalination membranes, measuring water flux and salt rejections at various pressures, flow rates, and…

  12. Transferred-NOE NMR experiments on intact human platelets: receptor-bound conformation of RGD-peptide mimics.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Donatella; Belvisi, Laura

    2008-01-21

    The aim of this work is to show that transferred-NOE provides useful and detailed information on membrane-bound receptor-ligand interactions in living cells. Here, we study the interaction between intact human platelets and some ligands containing the RGD sequence. Conformational properties of the free and bound pentapeptides are reported.

  13. Correlates and Predictors of Parenting Stress among Internationally Adopting Mothers: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viana, Andres G.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined correlates and predictors of parenting stress among internationally adopting (IA) mothers with the goal of expanding the knowledge base on the experiences of adoptive parents. One hundred and forty-three IA mothers completed pre-adoption (Time 0) and six months post-adoption (Time 1) surveys with questions regarding child-,…

  14. The Results of Adopting TMMW and TPE Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordoloi, Kiron C.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is the experience in two schools with the adoption of two science curricula, The Man-Made World and The Technology-People-Environment. The success and difficulties with the programs are discussed. (MP)

  15. Development of an SSVEP-based BCI spelling system adopting a QWERTY-style LED keyboard.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Han-Jeong; Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Jung, Young-Jin; Choi, Han; Lee, Sang Woo; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2012-06-30

    In this study, we introduce a new mental spelling system based on steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), adopting a QWERTY style layout keyboard with 30 LEDs flickering with different frequencies. The proposed electroencephalography (EEG)-based mental spelling system allows the users to spell one target character per each target selection, without the need for multiple step selections adopted by conventional SSVEP-based mental spelling systems. Through preliminary offline experiments and online experiments, we confirmed that human SSVEPs elicited by visual flickering stimuli with a frequency resolution of 0.1 Hz could be classified with classification accuracy high enough to be used for a practical brain-computer interface (BCI) system. During the preliminary offline experiments performed with five participants, we optimized various factors influencing the performance of the mental spelling system, such as distances between adjacent keys, light source arrangements, stimulating frequencies, recording electrodes, and visual angles. Additional online experiments were conducted with six participants to verify the feasibility of the optimized mental spelling system. The results of the online experiments were an average typing speed of 9.39 letters per minute (LPM) with an average success rate of 87.58%, corresponding to an average information transfer rate of 40.72 bits per minute, demonstrating the high performance of the developed mental spelling system. Indeed, the average typing speed of 9.39 LPM attained in this study was one of the best LPM results among those reported in previous BCI literatures.

  16. Experiences on p-Version Time-Discontinuous Galerkin's Method for Nonlinear Heat Transfer Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Gene

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the development of analysis and sensitivity analysis equations for nonlinear, transient heat transfer problems modeled by p-version, time discontinuous finite element approximation. The resulting matrix equation of the state equation is simply in the form ofA(x)x = c, representing a single step, time marching scheme. The Newton-Raphson's method is used to solve the nonlinear equation. Examples are first provided to demonstrate the accuracy characteristics of the resultant finite element approximation. A direct differentiation approach is then used to compute the thermal sensitivities of a nonlinear heat transfer problem. The report shows that only minimal coding effort is required to enhance the analysis code with the sensitivity analysis capability.

  17. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees.

  18. Bio-inspired transition metal-organic hydride conjugates for catalysis of transfer hydrogenation: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    McSkimming, Alex; Chan, Bun; Bhadbhade, Mohan M; Ball, Graham E; Colbran, Stephen B

    2015-02-09

    Taking inspiration from yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (yADH), a benzimidazolium (BI(+) ) organic hydride-acceptor domain has been coupled with a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) metal-binding domain to afford a novel multifunctional ligand (L(BI+) ) with hydride-carrier capacity (L(BI+) +H(-) ⇌L(BI) H). Complexes of the type [Cp*M(L(BI) )Cl][PF6 ]2 (M=Rh, Ir) have been made and fully characterised by cyclic voltammetry, UV/Vis spectroelectrochemistry, and, for the Ir(III) congener, X-ray crystallography. [Cp*Rh(L(BI) )Cl][PF6 ]2 catalyses the transfer hydrogenation of imines by formate ion in very goods yield under conditions where the corresponding [Cp*Ir(L(BI) )Cl][PF6 ] and [Cp*M(phen)Cl][PF6 ] (M=Rh, Ir) complexes are almost inert as catalysts. Possible alternatives for the catalysis pathway are canvassed, and the free energies of intermediates and transition states determined by DFT calculations. The DFT study supports a mechanism involving formate-driven RhH formation (90 kJ mol(-1) free-energy barrier), transfer of hydride between the Rh and BI(+) centres to generate a tethered benzimidazoline (BIH) hydride donor, binding of imine substrate at Rh, back-transfer of hydride from the BIH organic hydride donor to the Rh-activated imine substrate (89 kJ mol(-1) barrier), and exergonic protonation of the metal-bound amide by formic acid with release of amine product to close the catalytic cycle. Parallels with the mechanism of biological hydride transfer in yADH are discussed.

  19. Device and methods for the measurement of energy transfer in experiments involving thermal and electrical injuries of skin.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K G; Nielsen, O; Thomsen, H K

    1981-01-01

    This work is part of a larger investigation aiming at tracing differences between injuries caused by heat and electricity. Electrodes and heaters similar to the electrodes of an electric cattle baton are used to dissipate approximately 40 joules in 40 seconds in pig skin. Voltages in the range 40-60 volts (AC or DC) are applied via stainless steel electrodes and temperatures in the range 50-100 degrees C are applied via heaters made of copper wire. Heat transfer is controlled by electronically regulated heaters utilizing the temperature dependence of the heater wire itself as a thermometer. Transfer of electricity takes place from either commercial DC supply, from transformed voltage from the mains or from a sine voltage generator connected to a power amplifier. The energy transfer is in all cases measured by electronic integration of the dissipated power in time. The power supplied to th electrodes or the heaters is found by electronic multiplication of the applied voltage and current. Typical power vs. time curves are presented.

  20. How the adoption of impression management goals alters impression formation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bryan; Poposki, Elizabeth M

    2010-11-01

    Five experiments (N = 390) tested the hypothesis that adopting an impression management goal leads the impression manager to view an interaction partner as having less of the trait he or she is attempting to express. This hypothesis was confirmed for the impression management goals of appearing introverted, extraverted, smart, confident, and happy. Experiment 2 shows that adoption of the impression goal could alter judgments even when participants could not act on the goal. Experiment 3 provides evidence that adopting an impression management goal prompted a comparison mind-set and that this comparison mind-set activation mediated target judgments. Experiment 4 rules out a potential alternative explanation and provides more direct evidence that comparison of the impression manager's self-concept mediates the impression of the target. Experiment 5 eliminates a potential confound and extends the effect to another impression goal. These experiments highlight the dynamic interplay between impression management and impression formation.

  1. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    PubMed

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality.

  2. Healthcare professional and patient codesign and validation of a mechanism for service users to feedback patient safety experiences following a care transfer: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jason; Heavey, Emily; Waring, Justin; Jones, Diana; Dawson, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a mechanism for patients to provide feedback on safety experiences following a care transfer between organisations. Design Qualitative study using participatory methods (codesign workshops) and cognitive interviews. Workshop data were analysed concurrently with participants, and cognitive interviews were thematically analysed using a deductive approach based on the developed feedback mechanism. Participants Expert patients (n=5) and healthcare professionals (n=11) were recruited purposively to develop the feedback mechanism in 2 workshops. Workshop 1 explored principles underpinning safety feedback mechanisms, and workshop 2 included the practical development of the feedback mechanism. Final design and content of the feedback mechanism (a safety survey) were verified by workshop participants, and cognitive interviews (n=28) were conducted with patients. Results Workshop participants identified that safety feedback mechanisms should be patient-centred, short and concise with clear signposting on how to complete, with an option to be anonymous and balanced between positive (safe) and negative (unsafe) experiences. The agreed feedback mechanism consisted of a survey split across 3 stages of the care transfer: departure, journey and arrival. Care across organisational boundaries was recognised as being complex, with healthcare professionals acknowledging the difficulty implementing changes that impact other organisations. Cognitive interview participants agreed the content of the survey was relevant but identified barriers to completion relating to the survey formatting and understanding of a care transfer. Conclusions Participatory, codesign principles helped overcome differences in understandings of safety in the complex setting of care transfers when developing a safety survey. Practical barriers to the survey's usability and acceptability to patients were identified, resulting in a modified survey design. Further research is

  3. Adopting Internet Standards for Orbital Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Lloyd; Ivancic, William; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Jackson, Chris; Stewart, Dave; Shell, Dave; Hodgson, Dave

    2005-01-01

    After a year of testing and demonstrating a Cisco mobile access router intended for terrestrial use onboard the low-Earth-orbiting UK-DMC satellite as part of a larger merged ground/space IP-based internetwork, we reflect on and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of integration and standards reuse for small satellite missions. Benefits include ease of operation and the ability to leverage existing systems and infrastructure designed for general use, as well as reuse of existing, known, and well-understood security and operational models. Drawbacks include cases where integration work was needed to bridge the gaps in assumptions between different systems, and where performance considerations outweighed the benefits of reuse of pre-existing file transfer protocols. We find similarities with the terrestrial IP networks whose technologies we have adopted and also some significant differences in operational models and assumptions that must be considered.

  4. Adopt-A-School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    The Los Angeles Unified School District's Adopt-A-School Program is described as a program where a business or an industry sponsors a school. Some of the ways business and industry can help students are to provide role models, tutor students, give mini-course lectures, share hobbies, offer counseling, give club sponsorship, provide summer…

  5. Adoption Issues, Trends and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, William L.

    Teenage women with unplanned pregnancies constitute one of America's greatest challenges in terms of providing good services and sound counseling on options. Only about 7% of teenagers having babies make alternate childrearing plans either through formal adoption or informally with members of their families. The emphasis on making teenagers good…

  6. International Adoptions: The Quiet Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Richard H.

    1984-01-01

    Examines patterns in the international migration of children for adoption since World War II, with emphasis on those going to Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Relates findings to political and cultural factors. Observes that Latin America became a major source area for the United States in the 1970s, but that Asia remained…

  7. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  8. Internet Adoption: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Junzhao

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has brought significant changes to the retail industry because it revolutionizes how information is transmitted and accessed. The main objective of this research is to enhance our understanding of people's adoption of the Internet and its implications for retail competition. This dissertation consists of two essays. The first essay…

  9. Risk factors for delays between intake and veterinary approval for adoption on medical grounds in shelter puppies and kittens.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette; Allen, Joselyn; Mohamed, Ahmed; He, Shuang

    2011-08-01

    To maximize their capacity to save lives and optimize resource allocation, animal shelters need to identify highly adoptable animals that are unlikely to be delayed on medical grounds before they can be made available for adoption. In this retrospective cohort study, our objective was to identify risk factors for delays from intake to approval for adoption on medical grounds in shelter puppies and kittens. Shelter medical records from 2008 for 335 puppies and 370 kittens were selected randomly at a large metropolitan adoption-guarantee shelter. Data including signalment, source shelter, intake veterinary examination findings, clinical history and days from intake until approval by a veterinarian for adoption on medical grounds were extracted from shelter records and analyzed using multivariate Cox regression. Puppies and kittens with clinical signs of respiratory or gastrointestinal disease at intake took significantly longer to receive approval for adoption on medical grounds (puppies - respiratory p<0.0001; gastrointestinal p<0.0001; kittens - respiratory p<0.0001; gastrointestinal p=0.002). Stray kittens were more likely to be delayed than owner-relinquished kittens or those transferred from other shelters (p<0.01). Older kittens were less likely to be delayed (p<0.0001). Administration of oral or parenteral antibiotics to puppies and kittens with respiratory and/or ocular signs within 24h of intake significantly reduced time to approval on medical grounds for adoption (puppies p=0.02; kittens p=0.03). The analyses suggested that puppies and kittens with respiratory or gastrointestinal signs on intake are more likely to experience delays between intake and veterinary approval for adoption on medical grounds. Prompt antimicrobial treatment of animals with respiratory and/or ocular signs may decrease length of stay in the shelter.

  10. Risk factors for delays between intake and veterinary approval for adoption on medical grounds in shelter puppies and kittens

    PubMed Central

    Litster, Annette; Allen, Joselyn; Mohamed, Ahmed; He, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    To maximize their capacity to save lives and optimize resource allocation, animal shelters need to identify highly adoptable animals that are unlikely to be delayed on medical grounds before they can be made available for adoption. In this retrospective cohort study, our objective was to identify risk factors for delays from intake to approval for adoption on medical grounds in shelter puppies and kittens. Shelter medical records from 2008 for 335 puppies and 370 kittens were selected randomly at a large metropolitan adoption-guarantee shelter. Data including signalment, source shelter, intake veterinary examination findings, clinical history and days from intake until approval by a veterinarian for adoption on medical grounds were extracted from shelter records and analyzed using multivariate Cox regression. Puppies and kittens with clinical signs of respiratory or gastrointestinal disease at intake took significantly longer to receive approval for adoption on medical grounds (puppies - respiratory p<0.0001; gastrointestinal p<0.0001; kittens - respiratory p<0.0001; gastrointestinal p=0.002). Stray kittens were more likely to be delayed than owner-relinquished kittens or those transferred from other shelters (p<0.01). Older kittens were less likely to be delayed (p<0.0001). Administration of oral or parenteral antibiotics to puppies and kittens with respiratory and/or ocular signs within 24 hours of intake significantly reduced time to approval on medical grounds for adoption (puppies p=0.02; kittens p=0.03). The analyses suggested that puppies and kittens with respiratory or gastrointestinal signs on intake are more likely to experience delays between intake and veterinary approval for adoption on medical grounds. Prompt antimicrobial treatment of animals with respiratory and/or ocular signs may decrease length of stay in the shelter. PMID:21621287

  11. Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) Experiment Conceptual Design and Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Edward (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management technologies required for the exploration of the solar system can only be fully developed via space-based experiments. A dedicated spacecraft is the most efficient way to perform these experiments. This report documents the extended conceptual design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft, capable of meeting these experimental requirements. All elements, including the spacecraft, ground segment, launch site modifications and launch vehicle operations, and flight operations are included. Greatly expanded coverage is provided for those areas unique to this cryogenic spacecraft, such as the experiment system, attitude control system, and spacecraft operations. Supporting analyses are included as are testing requirements, facilities surveys, and proposed project timelines.

  12. Parents in transition: Experiences of parents of young people with a liver transplant transferring to adult services.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Elwell, L; McDonagh, J E; Kelly, D A; Wray, J

    2017-02-01

    Predictors of successful transition from pediatric to adult services include ability to self-manage and engage with healthcare services. Parents have a key role in healthcare management throughout childhood and adolescence including encouraging development of self-management skills in their children. Transition to adult services can be challenging for parents and young people, yet parents' views regarding transition remain largely unexplored. Nine parents of pediatric liver transplant recipients (15.2-25.1 yr) participated in semistructured interviews. Interviews were analyzed using IPA. Analysis revealed three key themes: "emotional impact of transplantation," "protection vs. independence," and "ending relationships and changing roles." Parents expressed the dichotomous nature of the desire to promote independence in their child while still maintaining control and protection, and discussed how changing roles and relationships were difficult to navigate. Parents are important facilitators of young people's development of self-management skills for successful transfer to adult services. Parents should be supported to move from a "managerial" to a "supervisory" role during transition to help young people engage independently with the healthcare team. Findings support the development of interventions for parents to emphasize their role in transition and guide the transfer of self-management skills from parent to young person.

  13. Treatment of chronic traumatic bone wounds. Microvascular free tissue transfer: a 13-year experience in 96 patients.

    PubMed Central

    May, J W; Jupiter, J B; Gallico, G G; Rothkopf, D M; Zingarelli, P

    1991-01-01

    During a 13-year period at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, 97 microvascular free tissue transfers have been performed for soft-tissue reconstruction in 96 patients following bone debridement for chronic traumatic bone wounds. These 96 patients comprise a continuation study of 18 original patients reported in 1982. During a 13-year follow-up period (mean, 77.1 months), 95.8% of these 96 patients have enjoyed complete wound closure with a lack of drainage after the debridement and free tissue transfer. Most of the patients (89.6%) encountered in this study are ambulatory without assist and 5.2% of patients have undergone amputation. Twenty-three per cent of patients required subsequent segmental bone defect reconstruction in the lower extremity after infection eradication. The pathophysiology of chronic traumatic bony wounds is different from that of chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis and thus a high incidence of long-term successful management can be seen through complete wound debridement and adequate soft-tissue coverage. Images Fig. 1A and 1B. Fig. 2. Fig. 3A-C. Fig. 3A-C. PMID:1929606

  14. Assessing the role of genetics in crime using adoption cohorts.

    PubMed

    Brennan, P A; Mednick, S A; Jacobsen, B

    1996-01-01

    The role of genetics in criminal behaviour can be assessed through family, twin and adoption studies. This paper discusses the major findings of adoption studies that have focused on criminal outcome. Results from adoption studies have consistently revealed a relationship between biological parent criminal behaviour and adoptee criminal outcome. This finding has been noted in the case of property crime, but not in the case of violent crime. Violent crime in adopted-away offspring is not related to violent crime in biological parents. Findings from the Danish Adoption Cohort suggest that violent crime may be genetically related to other types of behavioural deviance. In the Danish Adoption Cohort, there is an increased rate of schizophrenia in the adopted-away offspring of biological fathers who are convicted of violent crimes. This father violence-adoptee schizophrenia relationship cannot be accounted for by the potential confounding factors of rearing social status, age at transfer, knowledge of family history of crime, or biological parents' mental illness.

  15. 3-D radiative transfer in large-eddy simulations - experiences coupling the TenStream solver to the UCLA-LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakub, Fabian; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    The recently developed 3-D TenStream radiative transfer solver was integrated into the University of California, Los Angeles large-eddy simulation (UCLA-LES) cloud-resolving model. This work documents the overall performance of the TenStream solver as well as the technical challenges of migrating from 1-D schemes to 3-D schemes. In particular the employed Monte Carlo spectral integration needed to be reexamined in conjunction with 3-D radiative transfer. Despite the fact that the spectral sampling has to be performed uniformly over the whole domain, we find that the Monte Carlo spectral integration remains valid. To understand the performance characteristics of the coupled TenStream solver, we conducted weak as well as strong-scaling experiments. In this context, we investigate two matrix preconditioner: geometric algebraic multigrid preconditioning (GAMG) and block Jacobi incomplete LU (ILU) factorization and find that algebraic multigrid preconditioning performs well for complex scenes and highly parallelized simulations. The TenStream solver is tested for up to 4096 cores and shows a parallel scaling efficiency of 80-90 % on various supercomputers. Compared to the widely employed 1-D delta-Eddington two-stream solver, the computational costs for the radiative transfer solver alone increases by a factor of 5-10.

  16. Clinical documentation and data transfer from Ebola and Marburg virus disease wards in outbreak settings: health care workers' experiences and preferences.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Silja; Roddy, Paul; Nolte, Ellen; Borchert, Matthias

    2014-02-19

    Understanding human filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) clinical manifestations and evaluating treatment strategies require the collection of clinical data in outbreak settings, where clinical documentation has been limited. Currently, no consensus among filovirus outbreak-response organisations guides best practice for clinical documentation and data transfer. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care workers (HCWs) involved in FHF outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, and with HCWs experienced in documenting and transferring data from high-risk areas (isolation wards or biosafety level 4 laboratories). Methods for data documentation and transfer were identified, described in detail and categorised by requirement for electricity and ranked by interviewee preference. Some methods involve removing paperwork and other objects from the filovirus disease ward without disinfection. We believe that if done properly, these methods are reasonably safe for certain settings. However, alternative methods avoiding the removal of objects, or involving the removal of paperwork or objects after non-damaging disinfection, are available. These methods are not only safer, they are also perceived as safer and likely more acceptable to health workers and members of the community. The use of standardised clinical forms is overdue. Experiments with by sunlight disinfection should continue, and non-damaging disinfection of impregnated paper, suitable tablet computers and underwater cameras should be evaluated under field conditions.

  17. National Foster Care and Adoption Directory Search

    MedlinePlus

    ... in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs. This person should be contacted by adoption ... in foster care, adoption, residential treatment, or juvenile justice programs in each State or territory. State Postadoption ...

  18. Experiments for the determination of convective diffusion heat/mass transfer to burner rig test targets comparable in size to jet stream diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Gokoglu, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    The application of a recently formulated vapor transport theory to predict deposition rates of corrosive salts from alkali-seeded combustion gases of a small-capacity, high-velocity, atmospheric-pressure burner rig was hampered by the relatively large dimensions of the cylindrical deposit collector compared to the diameter of the combustion gas stream. The relative dimensions lead to a highly nonadiabatic combustion gas flow around the collector and necessitate two series of experiments. In the first series, mass transfer coefficients are determined by utilizing the naphthalene sublimation technique. The second series of experiments determines the dilution effect on the sodium species concentrations due to the entrainment of ambient air. This second series involves the measurement of the temperature variation along the surface of the collector under steady state conditions. Vapor deposition rates are determined exploiting this information and the results are found to compare favorably with experimentally obtained rates.

  19. Experiments for the determination of convective diffusion heat/mass transfer to burner rig test targets comparable in size to jet stream diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Gokoglu, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    The application of a recently formulated vapor transport theory to predict deposition rates of corrosive salts from alkali-seeded combustion gases of a small-capacity, high-velocity, atmospheric-pressure burner rig was hampered by the relatively large dimensions of the cylindrical deposit collector compared to the diameter of the combustion gas stream. The relative dimensions lead to a highly nonadiabatic combustion gas flow around the collector and necessitate two series of experiments. In the first series, mass transfer coefficients are determined by utilizing the naphthalene sublimation technique. The second series of experiments determines the dilution effect on the sodium species concentrations due to the entrainment of ambient air. This second series involves the measurement of the temperature variation along the surface of the collector under steady state conditions. Vapor deposition rates are determined exploiting this information and the results are found to compare favorably with experimentally obtained rates.

  20. Slow proton transfer coupled to unfolding explains the puzzling results of single-molecule experiments on BBL, a paradigmatic downhill folding protein.

    PubMed

    Cerminara, Michele; Campos, Luis A; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Muñoz, Victor

    2013-01-01

    A battery of thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural approaches has indicated that the small α-helical protein BBL folds-unfolds via the one-state downhill scenario. Yet, single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy offers a more conflicting view. Single-molecule experiments at pH 6 show a unique half-unfolded conformational ensemble at mid denaturation, whereas other experiments performed at higher pH show a bimodal distribution, as expected for two-state folding. Here we use thermodynamic and laser T-jump kinetic experiments combined with theoretical modeling to investigate the pH dependence of BBL stability, folding kinetics and mechanism within the pH 6-11 range. We find that BBL unfolding is tightly coupled to the protonation of one of its residues with an apparent pKa of ~ 7. Therefore, in chemical denaturation experiments around neutral pH BBL unfolds gradually, and also converts in binary fashion to the protonated species. Moreover, under the single-molecule experimental conditions (denaturant midpoint and 279 K), we observe that proton transfer is much slower than the ~ 15 microseconds folding-unfolding kinetics of BBL. The relaxation kinetics is distinctly biphasic, and the overall relaxation time (i.e. 0.2-0.5 ms) becomes controlled by the proton transfer step. We then show that a simple theoretical model of protein folding coupled to proton transfer explains quantitatively all these results as well as the two sets of single-molecule experiments, including their more puzzling features. Interestingly, this analysis suggests that BBL unfolds following a one-state downhill folding mechanism at all conditions. Accordingly, the source of the bimodal distributions observed during denaturation at pH 7-8 is the splitting of the unique conformational ensemble of BBL onto two slowly inter-converting protonation species. Both, the unprotonated and protonated species unfold gradually (one-state downhill), but they exhibit different degree of unfolding at any given