Science.gov

Sample records for adoptive transfer studies

  1. Interorganizational transfer of technology - A study of adoption of NASA innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. K.; Rubenstein, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes a study on the effects of top management support, various techno-economic factors, organizational climate, and decision-making modes on the adoption of NASA innovations. Field research consisted of interviews and questionnaires directed to sixty-five organizations. Forty-five test cases where different decisions for adoption of ideas for new products or processes were made on NASA Tech Briefs were studied in relation to the effects of various factors on the degree of success of adoption, including: (1) the degree of general connection of the technology to the firm's existing operation, (2) the specificity of the relationship between the technology and some existing and recognized problem, (3) the degree of urgency of the problem to which the technology was related, (4) maturity of technology available to implement the technology, (5) availability of personnel and financial resources to implement the technology, (6) degree of top management interest, (7) the use of confrontation in joint-decision, (8) the use of smoothing in decision-making, and (9) the use of forcing in decision-making. It was found that top managements interest was important in the product cases only, and that the success of process innovations was dependent on the quality of information and the specificity of the relationship between the technology and some recognized existing problem.

  2. Companion animal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Neidhart, Laura; Boyd, Renee

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption. PMID:12578739

  3. Leukocytes expressing green fluorescent protein as novel reagents for adoptive cell transfer and bone marrow transplantation studies.

    PubMed

    Manfra, D J; Chen, S C; Yang, T Y; Sullivan, L; Wiekowski, M T; Abbondanzo, S; Vassileva, G; Zalamea, P; Cook, D N; Lira, S A

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were generated to provide a source of labeled leukocytes for cell transfer studies. The transgene comprises the GFP coding region under the transcriptional control of the chicken ss-actin promoter and human cytomegalovirus enhancer. Mice expressing this GFP transgene were generated in the B6D2 and in the 129SvEv backgrounds. Flow cytometric analysis of cells from the blood, spleen, and bone marrow of these transgenic mice revealed that most leukocytes, including dendritic cells and memory T cells, express GFP. In allogeneic cell transfers, donor GFP+ splenocytes were detected in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of recipient mice within 2 hours after transfer and for at least 9 days thereafter. In syngeneic experiments using 129-derived GFP+ donor splenocytes, donor cells were detected in multiple tissues of 129 recipients from 2 hours to 3 weeks after transfer. In bone-marrow transplantation experiments using irradiated allogeneic recipients, the percent of GFP+ donor cells in recipients at 3 weeks was comparable to that seen in similar tissues of GFP+ donor mice. These data demonstrate that GFP+ transgenic mice provide a ready source of GFP-expressing primary cells that can be easily monitored after their transfer to recipient animals. PMID:11141477

  4. Leukocytes Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein as Novel Reagents for Adoptive Cell Transfer and Bone Marrow Transplantation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Manfra, Denise J.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Yang, Tong-Yuan; Sullivan, Lee; Wiekowski, Maria T.; Abbondanzo, Susan; Vassileva, Galya; Zalamea, Petronio; Cook, Donald N.; Lira, Sergio A.

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were generated to provide a source of labeled leukocytes for cell transfer studies. The transgene comprises the GFP coding region under the transcriptional control of the chicken β-actin promoter and human cytomegalovirus enhancer. Mice expressing this GFP transgene were generated in the B6D2 and in the 129SvEv backgrounds. Flow cytometric analysis of cells from the blood, spleen, and bone marrow of these transgenic mice revealed that most leukocytes, including dendritic cells and memory T cells, express GFP. In allogeneic cell transfers, donor GFP+ splenocytes were detected in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of recipient mice within 2 hours after transfer and for at least 9 days thereafter. In syngeneic experiments using 129-derived GFP+ donor splenocytes, donor cells were detected in multiple tissues of 129 recipients from 2 hours to 3 weeks after transfer. In bone-marrow transplantation experiments using irradiated allogeneic recipients, the percent of GFP+ donor cells in recipients at 3 weeks was comparable to that seen in similar tissues of GFP+ donor mice. These data demonstrate that GFP+ transgenic mice provide a ready source of GFP-expressing primary cells that can be easily monitored after their transfer to recipient animals. PMID:11141477

  5. Adoptive transfer of murine relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lublin, F D

    1985-02-01

    Relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an autoimmune disorder resembling multiple sclerosis, has been produced by inoculating SJL/J mice with spinal cord or myelin basic protein in appropriate adjuvants. To determine whether initially sensitized lymphocytes or the persistence of antigen depots in the animal were responsible for the relapsing episodes of inflammatory demyelination, adoptive transfer studies were undertaken utilizing lymphocytes from relapsing EAE-immunized donors transferred directly or after in vitro culture. In direct-transfer studies donor lymphocytes produced clinical and pathological signs of relapsing EAE in 3 of 7 recipients of lymph node lymphocytes and 1 of 5 recipients of splenic lymphocytes. In vitro culture of lymphocytes in myelin basic protein or T cell growth factor prior to transfer increased both the incidence of disease and the number of animals having relapses, and allowed transfer with fewer lymphocytes. Because all animals had delayed onset of disease, this study demonstrates that the ability to develop relapsing inflammatory demyelination is transferable with lymphocytes and does not require the presence of antigen. PMID:3977301

  6. Adoptions Without Agencies: A Study of Independent Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meezan, William; And Others

    The purposes of this national study of independent, nonagency adoptions were: (1) to determine the experience of the parties involved (biological parents, adoptive parents, agencies, intermediaries, and law enforcement agents); (2) to identify agency policies, procedures and resources that deter agency adoptions and thus encourage independent…

  7. An adopted analysand's transference of a 'hole-object'.

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, D

    1996-04-01

    The author describes the vicissitudes of the transference and countertransference in cases where the internal object transferred by the patient on to the analyst is experienced by the former as non-existent. A case history involving a 'hole-object' of this kind is presented, the patient concerned having been adopted at the age of six months and having the fantasy that she did not exist before her adoption. The hole-object is created by the patient to defend against psychic suffering and aggressive drives towards the object. A careful distinction is made between the hole-object, which is defined in terms of its non-existence, and the absent object, the 'psychic hole', the melancholic object and the bad-breast feeling, all of which exist or have existed at some time. The author describes the 'double transference', in which she represented both the idealised albeit well cathected adoptive parents and the disavowed, abandoning biological parents; in the latter case indifference took the place of love and hate in the transference. The analyst in this situation must in the author's view interpret his transference role as a hole-object so as to confer existence on this object and make it representable, and for this purpose a vital role falls to the countertransference. The split between the abandoning and the adopting aspects of the parents can then be resolved, giving rise to a single identificatory parental image. PMID:8771381

  8. Information Transfer and the Adoption of Agricultural Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Rose Mary Juliano

    1990-01-01

    Data collected in the Federal District of Brazil were analyzed in terms of information transfer through mass media and interpersonal communication and how they influence farmers in the Federal District of Brazil in their decisions to adopt agricultural innovations. (42 references) (EAM)

  9. An Investigation of the Adoption Process in Training Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freda, Jon S.; Shields, Joyce L.

    A study investigated the influence of users' attitudes and sources of information on their adoption of a training research project. A two-part questionnaire was administered to 111 Army participants attending TRADOC/FORSCOM Training and Evaluation Workshops to gather attitudinal and usage information relating to the adoption of the Training…

  10. Adoptive Transfer of Dying Cells Causes Bystander-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Schwulst, Steven J.; Davis, Christopher G.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein has the remarkable ability to prevent cell death from several noxious stimuli. Intriguingly, Bcl-2 overexpression in one cell type has been reported to protect against cell death in neighboring non-Bcl-2 overexpressing cell types. The mechanism of this “trans” protection has been speculated to be secondary to the release of a cytoprotective factor by Bcl-2 overexpressing cells. We employed a series of adoptive transfer experiments in which lymphocytes that overexpress Bcl-2 were administered to either wild type mice or mice lacking mature T and B cells (Rag-1-/-) to detect the presence or absence of the putative protective factor. We were unable to demonstrate “trans” protection. However, adoptive transfer of apoptotic or necrotic cells exacerbated the degree of apoptotic death in neighboring non-Bcl-2 overexpressing cells (p≤0.05). Therefore, this data suggests that dying cells emit signals triggering cell death in neighboring non-Bcl-2 overexpressing cells, i.e. a “trans” destructive effect. PMID:17194455

  11. Adoptive transfer of dying cells causes bystander-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Schwulst, Steven J; Davis, Christopher G; Coopersmith, Craig M; Hotchkiss, Richard S

    2007-02-16

    The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein has the remarkable ability to prevent cell death from several noxious stimuli. Intriguingly, Bcl-2 overexpression in one cell type has been reported to protect against cell death in neighboring non-Bcl-2 overexpressing cell types. The mechanism of this "trans" protection has been speculated to be secondary to the release of a cytoprotective factor by Bcl-2 overexpressing cells. We employed a series of adoptive transfer experiments in which lymphocytes that overexpress Bcl-2 were administered to either wild type mice or mice lacking mature T and B cells (Rag-1-/-) to detect the presence or absence of the putative protective factor. We were unable to demonstrate "trans" protection. However, adoptive transfer of apoptotic or necrotic cells exacerbated the degree of apoptotic death in neighboring non-Bcl-2 overexpressing cells (p < or= 0.05). Therefore, this data suggests that dying cells emit signals triggering cell death in neighboring non-Bcl-2 overexpressing cells, i.e., a "trans" destructive effect. PMID:17194455

  12. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... the birth nor adoptive parents know the others' identities. Other adoptions are handled more openly. Open adoptions, ... desire to seek out more information about the identity of the birth family. Most of us (whether ...

  13. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  14. Trial Watch: Adoptive cell transfer for oncological indications

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Fernando; Buqué, Aitziber; Bloy, Norma; Castoldi, Francesca; Eggermont, Alexander; Cremer, Isabelle; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Spisek, Radek; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    One particular paradigm of anticancer immunotherapy relies on the administration of (potentially) tumor-reactive immune effector cells. Generally, these cells are obtained from autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) ex vivo (in the context of appropriate expansion, activation and targeting protocols), and re-infused into lymphodepleted patients along with immunostimulatory agents. In spite of the consistent progress achieved throughout the past two decades in this field, no adoptive cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapeutic regimen is currently approved by regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients. Nonetheless, the interest of oncologists in ACT-based immunotherapy continues to increase. Accumulating clinical evidence indicates indeed that specific paradigms of ACT, such as the infusion of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing autologous T cells, are associated with elevated rates of durable responses in patients affected by various neoplasms. In line with this notion, clinical trials investigating the safety and therapeutic activity of ACT in cancer patients are being initiated at an ever increasing pace. Here, we review recent preclinical and clinical advances in the development of ACT-based immunotherapy for oncological indications. PMID:26451319

  15. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  16. Permissive expansion and homing of adoptively transferred T cells in tumor-bearing hosts.

    PubMed

    Perez, C; Jukica, A; Listopad, J J; Anders, K; Kühl, A A; Loddenkemper, C; Blankenstein, T; Charo, J

    2015-07-15

    Activated T cells expressing endogenous or transduced TCRs are two cell types currently used in clinical adoptive T-cell therapy. The ability of these cells to recognize their antigen, expand and traffic to the tumor site are the initial steps necessary for successful therapy. In this study, we used in vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) of Renilla luciferase (RLuc) expressing T cells to evaluate the ability of adoptively transferred T cells to survive, expand and home to tumor site in vivo. Using this method, termed RT-Rack (Rluc T cell tracking), we followed T-cell response against tumors in vivo. Expansion and homing of adoptively transferred T cells were antigen dependent, but independent of the host immune status. Moreover, we successfully detected T-cell response to small and large tumors, including autochthonous liver tumors. The adoptively transferred T cells were not ignorant or excluded in a partially tolerant host, which expressed low level of the target in the periphery. Using T cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells, we showed the ability of these cells to respond in tumor-bearing hosts by expanding and homing to the tumor site. In all these models, the host immune status, the nature of the tumor or of the antigen, the tumor size and the presence of the targeted antigen in the periphery did not prevent the adoptively transferred T cells from responding by expanding and homing to the tumor. However, T cells had higher expression of the inhibitory receptor PD1 and reduced functional activity when a self-antigen was targeted. PMID:25530110

  17. Adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: recipient response to myelin basic protein-reactive lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bouwer, H G; Hinrichs, D J

    1994-10-01

    We have used adoptive transfer of myelin basic protein (MBP)-reactive lymphocytes in the Lewis rat model of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) to identify stages of effector cell development and to investigate the nature of the subsequent recipient response to the transferred cells. Depending on the timing of cell collection, lymph node cells (LNC) obtained from MBP-CFA (MBP emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant)-immunized donors may directly transfer clinical disease; however, independent of disease development, recipients of LNC develop early onset of clinical disease following immunization of the recipients with MBP-CFA, consistent with the presence of MBP-memory cells in the LNC transfer inoculum. Similarly obtained spleen cells do not directly transfer disease and do not contain MBP-memory cells (as defined by the early onset of clinical disease following MBP-CFA challenge). Spleen cells adoptively transfer clinical disease only following in vitro culture stimulation with antigen or selected mitogens. Recipients of the primary culture-derived encephalitogenic spleen cells also develop an accelerated onset of clinical disease following MBP-CFA challenge, indicative of the presence of MBP-memory cells, and are not vaccinated. Encephalitogenic T cell lines adoptively transfer clinical disease, and in most cases recipients are vaccinated to MBP-CFA-induced active disease, but remain susceptible to adoptively transferred disease. Co-transfer of encephalitogenic T cell line cells with MBP-reactive lymph node or encephalitogenic spleen cells does not alter the vaccination response. We have found that during the process of T cell line development, the vaccinating phenotype is acquired following the second antigen stimulation cycle. These studies also demonstrate that regulation induced by T cell vaccination blocks the development of effector cells from precursor cells and that such regulation is also equally effective in blocking disease development in

  18. Accelerated type 1 diabetes induction in mice by adoptive transfer of diabetogenic CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Berry, Gregory; Waldner, Hanspeter

    2013-01-01

    The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes after 12 weeks of age and is the most extensively studied animal model of human Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Cell transfer studies in irradiated recipient mice have established that T cells are pivotal in T1D pathogenesis in this model. We describe herein a simple method to rapidly induce T1D by adoptive transfer of purified, primary CD4+ T cells from pre-diabetic NOD mice transgenic for the islet-specific T cell receptor (TCR) BDC2.5 into NOD.SCID recipient mice. The major advantages of this technique are that isolation and adoptive transfer of diabetogenic T cells can be completed within the same day, irradiation of the recipients is not required, and a high incidence of T1D is elicited within 2 weeks after T cell transfer. Thus, studies of pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions in T1D can proceed at a faster rate than with methods that rely on heterogenous T cell populations or clones derived from diabetic NOD mice. PMID:23685789

  19. Effect of Adoptive Transfer or Depletion of Regulatory T Cells on Triptolide-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinzhi; Sun, Lixin; Zhang, Luyong; Jiang, Zhenzhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to clarify the role of regulatory T cell (Treg) in triptolide (TP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Female C57BL/6 mice received either adoptive transfer of Tregs or depletion of Tregs, then underwent TP administration and were sacrificed 24 h after TP administration. Liver injury was determined according to alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels in serum and histopathological change in liver tissue. Hepatic frequencies of Treg cells and the mRNA expression levels of transcription factor Forkhead box P3 and retinoid orphan nuclear receptor γt (RORγt), interleukin-10 (IL-10), suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), and Notch/Notch ligand were investigated. Results: During TP-induced liver injury, hepatic Treg and IL-10 decreased, while T helper 17 cells cell-transcription factor RORγt, SOCS and Notch signaling increased, accompanied with liver inflammation. Adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated the severity of TP-induced liver injury, accompanied with increased levels of hepatic Treg and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs remarkably inhibited the expression of RORγt, SOCS3, Notch1, and Notch3. On the contrary, depletion of Treg cells in TP-administered mice resulted in a notable increase of RORγt, SOCS1, SOCS3, and Notch3, while the Treg and IL-10 of liver decreased. Consistent with the exacerbation of liver injury, higher serum levels of ALT and AST were detected in Treg-depleted mice. Conclusion: These results showed that adoptive transfer or depletion of Tregs attenuated or aggravated TP-induced liver injury, suggesting that Tregs could play important roles in the progression of liver injury. SOCS proteins and Notch signaling affected Tregs, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of TP-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27148057

  20. Dissecting memory T cell responses to TB: concerns using adoptive transfer into immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ancelet, Lindsay; Rich, Fenella J; Delahunt, Brett; Kirman, Joanna R

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have used adoptive transfer of purified T cell subsets into immunodeficient mice to determine the subset of T cells responsible for mediating protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These studies suggested that CD62L(hi) memory CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice are key for protection against tuberculosis. Importantly, we observed that transfer of naïve CD4(+) T cells into Rag1-/- recipients protected against a mycobacterial challenge as well as transfer of BCG-experienced CD4(+) T cells. We found that transfer of total CD4(+) T cells from naïve mice or enriched CD62L(hi)CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice into Rag1-/- recipients induced severe colitis by 3 weeks post cell transfer, whereas transfer of CD62L(lo)CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice did not. Naïve and CD62L(hi)CD4(+) T cells proliferated extensively upon transfer and developed an activated effector phenotype in the lung, even in the absence of infectious challenge. The induction of colitis and systemic cytokine response induced by the transfer and subsequent activation of CD4(+) T cells from naïve mice or CD62L(hi)CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice, into immunodeficient recipients, may heighten their ability to protect against mycobacterial challenge. This raises doubts about the validity of this model to study CD4(+) T cell-mediated protection against tuberculosis. PMID:22738879

  1. A Study of Self-Esteem in Adopted Non-adopted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Lynn, Betty Jane

    This study tested the hypothesis that adopted adolescents have lower self-esteem than do non-adopted adolescents. Male and female students (N=159) between the ages of 18 and 22 were conveniently sampled from college undergraduate populations. Forty-four of the participants reported adoptive status. Each participant completed the Coopersmith…

  2. Restoration of Viral Immunity in Immunodeficient Humans by the Adoptive Transfer of T Cell Clones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddell, Stanley R.; Watanabe, Kathe S.; Goodrich, James M.; Li, Cheng R.; Agha, Mounzer E.; Greenberg, Philip D.

    1992-07-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells to establish immunity is an effective therapy for viral infections and tumors in animal models. The application of this approach to human disease would require the isolation and in vitro expansion of human antigen-specific T cells and evidence that such T cells persist and function in vivo after transfer. Cytomegalovirus-specific CD8^+ cytotoxic T cell (CTL) clones could be isolated from bone marrow donors, propagated in vitro, and adoptively transferred to immunodeficient bone marrow transplant recipients. No toxicity developed and the clones provided persistent reconstitution of CD8^+ cytomegalovirus-specific CTL responses.

  3. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:26645770

  4. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  5. Adoption: Three Alternatives. A Comparative Study of Three Alternative Forms of Adoptive Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.

    This is the second report in a longitudinal study designed to examine experiences of black children adopted by white couples, black couples and single parents. Begun in 1970, the study plan is to follow a cohort of black children, adopted as infants or toddlers, through their childhood years until the age of 20. The present report, based on…

  6. Adoption: Three Alternatives. A Comparative Study of Three Alternative Forms of Adoptive Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.

    This descriptive report covers the first phase of a 20-year longitudinal study of black children adopted under 3 years of age by black couples, white couples, and single persons. The sample of three groups of approximately equal size was selected from the adoptive placements of two private child welfare agencies between June 1970 and June 1972.…

  7. Adoptive transfer of induced-Treg cells effectively attenuates murine airway allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Lan, Qin; Chen, Maogen; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Ning; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Julie; Fan, Huimin; Yan, Chun-Song; Kuang, Jiu-Long; Warburton, David; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Ryffel, Bernhard; Zheng, Song-Guo; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Both nature and induced regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes are potent regulators of autoimmune and allergic disorders. Defects in endogenous Treg cells have been reported in patients with allergic asthma, suggesting that disrupted Treg cell-mediated immunological regulation may play an important role in airway allergic inflammation. In order to determine whether adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells generated in vitro can be used as an effective therapeutic approach to suppress airway allergic inflammation, exogenously induced Treg cells were infused into ovalbumin-sensitized mice prior to or during intranasal ovalbumin challenge. The results showed that adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells prior to allergen challenge markedly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophil recruitment, mucus hyper-production, airway remodeling, and IgE levels. This effect was associated with increase of Treg cells (CD4(+)FoxP3(+)) and decrease of dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes, and with reduction of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell response as compared to the controls. Moreover, adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells during allergen challenge also effectively attenuate airway inflammation and improve airway function, which are comparable to those by natural Treg cell infusion. Therefore, adoptive transfer of in vitro induced Treg cells may be a promising therapeutic approach to prevent and treat severe asthma. PMID:22792275

  8. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  9. CTLA-4 blockade plus adoptive T cell transfer promotes optimal melanoma immunity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mahvi, David A.; Meyers, Justin V.; Tatar, Andrew J.; Contreras, Amanda; Suresh, M.; Leverson, Glen E.; Sen, Siddhartha; Cho, Clifford S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of advanced melanoma have relied on strategies that augment the responsiveness of endogenous tumor-specific T cell populations (e.g., CTLA-4 blockade-mediated checkpoint inhibition) or introduce exogenously-prepared tumor-specific T cell populations (e.g., adoptive cell transfer). Although both approaches have shown considerable promise, response rates to these therapies remain suboptimal. We hypothesized that a combinatorial approach to immunotherapy using both CTLA-4 blockade and non-lymphodepletional adoptive cell transfer could offer additive therapeutic benefit. C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with syngeneic B16F10 melanoma tumors transfected to express low levels of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus peptide GP33 (B16GP33), and treated with no immunotherapy, CTLA-4 blockade, adoptive cell transfer, or combination immunotherapy of CTLA-4 blockade with adoptive cell transfer. Combination immunotherapy resulted in optimal control of B16GP33 melanoma tumors. Combination immunotherapy promoted a stronger local immune response reflected by enhanced tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte populations, as well as a stronger systemic immune responses reflected by more potent tumor antigen-specific T cell activity in splenocytes. In addition, whereas both CTLA-4 blockade and combination immunotherapy were able to promote long-term immunity against B16GP33 tumors, only combination immunotherapy was capable of promoting immunity against parental B16F10 tumors as well. Our findings suggest that a combinatorial approach using CTLA-4 blockade with non-lymphodepletional adoptive cell transfer may promote additive endogenous and exogenous T cell activities that enable greater therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25658614

  10. Adoptive Transfer of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and T Cells in a Prostate Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Libo; Xu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of immune cells for cancer, chronic infection, and autoimmunity is an emerging field that has shown promise in recent trials. The transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) is a classical mouse model of prostate cancer (PCa) and TRAMP cell lines were derived from a TRAMP mouse tumor. TRAMP-C2 is tumorigenic when subcutaneously (s.c.) grafted into syngeneic C57BL/6 host mice (Foster et al., 1997). This protocol will describe the adoptive transfer of purified CD11b+Gr1+ double positive (DP) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and CD3+ T cells in the TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer mouse model in order to establish the intrinsic functionality of these immune cells and to determine their role in tumorigenesis in vivo (Yan et al., 2014).

  11. Adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages promotes locomotor recovery in adult rats after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shan-Feng; Chen, Yue-Juan; Zhang, Jing-Xing; Shen, Lin; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Jian-Sheng; Hu, Jian-Guo; Lü, He-Zuo

    2015-03-01

    Classically activated pro-inflammatory (M1) and alternatively activated anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages populate the local microenvironment after spinal cord injury (SCI). The former type is neurotoxic while the latter has positive effects on neuroregeneration and is less toxic. In addition, while the M1 macrophage response is rapidly induced and sustained, M2 induction is transient. A promising strategy for the repair of SCI is to increase the fraction of M2 cells and prolong their residence time. This study investigated the effect of M2 macrophages induced from bone marrow-derived macrophages on the local microenvironment and their possible role in neuroprotection after SCI. M2 macrophages produced anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor β and infiltrated into the injured spinal cord, stimulated M2 and helper T (Th)2 cells, and produced high levels of IL-10 and -13 at the site of injury. M2 cell transfer decreased spinal cord lesion volume and resulted in increased myelination of axons and preservation of neurons. This was accompanied by significant locomotor improvement as revealed by Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale, grid walk and footprint analyses. These results indicate that M2 adoptive transfer has beneficial effects for the injured spinal cord, in which the increased number of M2 macrophages causes a shift in the immunological response from Th1- to Th2-dominated through the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn induces the polarization of local microglia and/or macrophages to the M2 subtype, and creates a local microenvironment that is conducive to the rescue of residual myelin and neurons and preservation of neuronal function. PMID:25476600

  12. The British Chinese Adoption Study: Orphanage Care, Adoption and Mid-Life Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Alan; Grant, Margaret; Feast, Julia; Simmonds, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: While studies of ex-orphanage care show adverse effects on development, the longer-term impact on mid-life psychosocial functioning and physical health has not been established. Methods: Orphanage records provided baseline data on a sample of 100 Hong Kong Chinese girls who were subsequently adopted into the UK. A mid-life follow-up…

  13. Adoptive transfer of allergic airway responses with sensitized lymphocytes in BN rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Rossi, P; Renzi, P M; Xu, L J; Guttmann, R D; Martin, J G

    1995-07-01

    To evaluate the role of lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of allergic bronchoconstriction, we investigated whether allergic airway responses are adoptively transferred by antigen-primed lymphocytes in Brown Norway (BN) rats. Animals were actively sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) or sham sensitized, and 14 d later mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from intrathoracic lymph nodes, passed through a nylon wool column, and transferred to naive syngeneic rats. Recipients were challenged with aerosolized OA or bovine serum albumin (BSA) (5% wt/vol) and analyzed for changes in lung resistance (RL), airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine (MCh), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. Recipients of MNCs from sensitized rats responded to OA inhalation and exhibited sustained increases in RL throughout the 8-h observation period, but without usual early airway responses. Recipients of sham-sensitized MNCs or BSA-challenged recipients failed to respond to antigen challenge. At 32 h after OA exposure, airway responsiveness to MCh was increased in four of seven rats that had received sensitized MNCs (p = 0.035). BAL eosinophils increased at 32 h in the recipients of both sensitized and sham-sensitized MNCs. However, eosinophil numbers in BAL were inversely correlated with airway responsiveness in the recipients of sensitized MNCs (r = -0.788, p = 0.036). OA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) was undetectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in recipient rats following adoptive transfer. In conclusion, allergic late airway responses (LAR) and cholinergic airway hyperresponsiveness, but not antigen-specific IgE and early responses, were adoptively transferred by antigen-primed lymphocytes in BN rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7599864

  14. Antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1, DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell transfer, inhibits ocular neovascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Han; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Hijioka, Kuniaki; Qiao, Hong; Oshima, Yuji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2009-04-17

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in a wide range of ocular diseases. The exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ocular NV is not yet well understood, and so there is no satisfactory therapy for ocular NV. Here, we describe a strategy targeting Flk-1, a self-antigen overexpressed on proliferating endothelial cells in ocular NV, by antiangiogenic immunotherapy-DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell therapy. An oral DNA vaccine encoding Flk-1 carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium markedly suppressed development of laser-induced choroidal NV. We further demonstrated that adoptive transfer of vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells reduced pathological preretinal NV, with a concomitant facilitation of physiological revascularization after oxygen-induced retinal vessel obliteration. However, physiological retinal vascular development was unaffected in neonatal mice transferred with vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells. These findings suggested that antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1 such as vaccination and adoptive immunotherapy may contribute to future therapies for ocular NV.

  15. Treatment of dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis by adoptive transfer of peritoneal cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xia-wei; Shen, Guo-bo; Liu, Yan-tong; Luo, Min; Xu, Guang-chao; Shao, Bin; Deng, Sen-yi; He, Zhi-yao; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Wen, Yan-Zhu; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li; Deng, Hong-xin; Wei, Yu-quan

    2015-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of the natural regulatory B cells and macrophages should be a useful treatment for inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, it is usually difficult to isolate these cells from the tissues and expand them. Here, we investigated the feasibility of adoptively transferring peritoneal cells (PCs) as a treatment for DSS-induced colitis. We found that peritoneal cavity can provide an easily accessible site for harvesting enough number of PCs, namely, two-dose PCs for the treatment from a mouse in one operation. Adoptive therapy of these cells from healthy mice or those with disease is effectively in reducing the disease activity score. The natural B cells and macrophages of the infused PCs can selectively migrate to lesion sites and regulate the expression of Stat3, NF−κB, Smad3 and Smad7. Additionally, PCs exert dual activity of IL-10 and TGF-β secreted spontaneously by both peritoneal B cells and macrophages, which in turn enhance the induction of regulatory B cells and Macrophages in microenvironment of inflammation. Moreover, PCs can re-establish immunological tolerance in the OVA-immunized mice. Thus, our findings provide a new strategy for colitis therapy and could be of importance in additional exploration of other inflammation and autoimmune diseases therapy. PMID:26565726

  16. Experiences of school bullying among internationally adopted children: results from the Finnish Adoption (FINADO) Study.

    PubMed

    Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Sinkkonen, Jari; Salmivalli, Christina; Matomäki, Jaakko; Mäkipää, Sanna; Elovainio, Marko

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with school bullying and victimization among Finnish international adoptees. The Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was sent to all 9-15-year-old children adopted in Finland between 1985 and 2007 through the mediating organizations officially approved by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The children were identified through official adoption organizations. The response rate in the target sample was 49.4%: the study sample consisted of 364 children (190 girls, 52.2%). The children's background factors and symptoms of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) were evaluated using a FINADO questionnaire. Their learning difficulties and social and language skills were assessed using a standardized parental questionnaire (Five to Fifteen). Of the participants, 19.8% reported victimization by peers while 8% had bullied others. Both victimization and bullying were associated with severe symptoms of RAD at the time of adoption (RR 2.68, 95%CI 1.50-4.77 and RR 2.08, 95%CI 1.17-3.69 for victimization and bullying, respectively). Lack of social skills was associated with victimization (RR 1.74, 95%CI 1.06-2.85) but not independently with being a bully (RR 1.50, 95%CI 0.91-2.45). In a multivariate analysis the child's learning difficulties and language difficulties were not associated with either bullying others or victimization. PMID:22362203

  17. Differences in public and private sector adoption of telemedicine: Indian case study for sectoral adoption.

    PubMed

    Sood, Sanjay P; Negash, Solomon; Mbarika, Victor W A; Kifle, Mengistu; Prakash, Nupur

    2007-01-01

    Telemedicine is the use of communication networks to exchange medical information for providing healthcare services and medical education from one site to another. The application of telemedicine is more promising in economically developing countries with agrarian societies. The American Telemedicine Association (ATA) identifies three healthcare services: clinical medical services, health and medical education, and consumer health information. However, it is not clear how these services can be adopted by different sectors: public and private. This paper looks at four Indian case studies, two each in public and private sectors to understand two research questions: Are there differences in telemedicine adoption between public and private hospitals. If there are differences: What are the differences in telemedicine adoption between public and private sectors? Authors have used the extant literature in telemedicine and healthcare to frame theoretical background, describe the research setting, present the case studies, and provide discussion and conclusions about their findings. Authors believe that as India continues to develop its telemedicine infrastructures, especially with continued government support through subsidies to private telemedicine initiatives, its upward trend in healthcare will continue. This is expected to put India on the path to increase its life expectancy rates, especially for it rural community which constitute over 70% of its populace. PMID:17917199

  18. A New Hope in Immunotherapy for Malignant Gliomas: Adoptive T Cell Transfer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Dong-Sup; Shin, Hye-Jin; Hong, Yong-Kil

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapy emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to highly incurable malignant gliomas due to tumor-specific cytotoxicity, minimal side effect, and a durable antitumor effect by memory T cells. But, antitumor activities of endogenously activated T cells induced by immunotherapy such as vaccination are not sufficient to control tumors because tumor-specific antigens may be self-antigens and tumors have immune evasion mechanisms to avoid immune surveillance system of host. Although recent clinical results from vaccine strategy for malignant gliomas are encouraging, these trials have some limitations, particularly their failure to expand tumor antigen-specific T cells reproducibly and effectively. An alternative strategy to overcome these limitations is adoptive T cell transfer therapy, in which tumor-specific T cells are expanded ex vivo rapidly and then transferred to patients. Moreover, enhanced biologic functions of T cells generated by genetic engineering and modified immunosuppressive microenvironment of host by homeostatic T cell expansion and/or elimination of immunosuppressive cells and molecules can induce more potent antitumor T cell responses and make this strategy hold promise in promoting a patient response for malignant glioma treatment. Here we will review the past and current progresses and discuss a new hope in adoptive T cell therapy for malignant gliomas. PMID:25009822

  19. Elimination of Metastatic Melanoma Using Gold Nanoshell-Enabled Photothermal Therapy and Adoptive T Cell Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Serena K.; Mattos Almeida, Joao Paulo; Lin, Adam Y.; Eckels, Phillip C.; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Foster, Aaron E.

    2013-01-01

    Ablative treatments such as photothermal therapy (PTT) are attractive anticancer strategies because they debulk accessible tumor sites while simultaneously priming antitumor immune responses. However, the immune response following thermal ablation is often insufficient to treat metastatic disease. Here we demonstrate that PTT induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and promotes the maturation of dendritic cells within tumor-draining lymph nodes, thereby priming antitumor T cell responses. Unexpectedly, however, these immunomodulatory effects were not beneficial to overall antitumor immunity. We found that PTT promoted the infiltration of secondary tumor sites by CD11b+Ly-6G/C+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells, consequently failing to slow the growth of poorly immunogenic B16-F10 tumors and enhancing the growth of distant lung metastases. To exploit the beneficial effects of PTT activity against local tumors and on antitumor immunity whilst avoiding the adverse consequences, we adoptively transferred gp100-specific pmel T cells following PTT. The combination of local control by PTT and systemic antitumor immune reactivity provided by adoptively transferred T cells prevented primary tumor recurrence post-ablation, inhibited tumor growth at distant sites, and abrogated the outgrowth of lung metastases. Hence, the combination of PTT and systemic immunotherapy prevented the adverse effects of PTT on metastatic tumor growth and optimized overall tumor control. PMID:23935927

  20. The adolescent outcomes of adoption: a 16-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, D M; Lynskey, M; Horwood, L J

    1995-05-01

    The childhood history and adolescent adjustment of children placed in adoptive, biological two parent and single parent families were examined in a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children studied to the age of 16 years. This study suggested that children who entered adoptive families were advantaged throughout childhood in a number of areas including childhood experiences, standards of health care, family material conditions, family stability and mother/child interaction. However, the environmental advantages experienced by children who entered adoptive families were not directly reflected in the pattern of adolescent adjustment of this group. In particular, children placed in adoptive families had rates of externalising behaviours (including conduct disorders, juvenile offending and substance use behaviours) that were significantly higher than children reared in biological two parent families but somewhat lower than those of children who entered single parent families at birth. PMID:7650085

  1. Adoptive transfer of autologous, HER2-specific, cytotoxic T lymphocytes for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Helga; Neudorfer, Julia; Gebhard, Kerstin; Conrad, Heinke; Hermann, Christine; Nährig, Jörg; Fend, Falko; Weber, Wolfgang; Busch, Dirk H; Peschel, Christian

    2008-02-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been targeted as a breast cancer-associated antigen by immunotherapeutical approaches based on HER2-directed monoclonal antibodies and cancer vaccines. We describe the adoptive transfer of autologous HER2-specific T-lymphocyte clones to a patient with metastatic HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. The HLA/multimer-based monitoring of the transferred T lymphocytes revealed that the T cells rapidly disappeared from the peripheral blood. The imaging studies indicated that the T cells accumulated in the bone marrow (BM) and migrated to the liver, but were unable to penetrate into the solid metastases. The disseminated tumor cells in the BM disappeared after the completion of adoptive T-cell therapy. This study suggests the therapeutic potential for HER2-specific T cells for eliminating disseminated HER2-positive tumor cells and proposes the combination of T cell-based therapies with strategies targeting the tumor stroma to improve T-cell infiltration into solid tumors. PMID:17646988

  2. Parent-Offspring Similarity for Drinking: A Longitudinal Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22–28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  3. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  4. Genetic and environmental influences on disordered eating: An adoption study.

    PubMed

    Klump, Kelly L; Suisman, Jessica L; Burt, S Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-11-01

    Twin studies indicate significant genetic, but little shared environmental, influences on eating disorders. However, critics argue that study limitations constrain the conclusions that can be drawn. Adoption studies avoid many of these limitations, but to date, no adoption studies of eating pathology have been conducted. The current study was the first adoption study to examine genetic/environmental effects for disordered eating. Participants included 123 adopted and 56 biological female sibling pairs. Disordered eating (i.e., overall eating pathology, body dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, binge eating) was assessed with the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey (Klump, McGue, & Iacono, 2000; von Ranson, Klump, Iacono, & McGue, 2005). Biometric model fitting indicated significant genetic influences (59%-82%) on all forms of disordered eating, with nonshared environmental factors accounting for the remaining variance. Shared environmental factors did not contribute significantly to any disordered eating symptom. Our findings bolster those from twin studies and provide critical evidence of significant genetic effects on disordered eating symptoms. PMID:19899849

  5. Enhancement of adoptive T cell transfer with single low dose pretreatment of doxorubicin or paclitaxel in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Hui-Yen; Chang, Ya-Fang; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Ex vivo expansion of CD8+ T-cells has been a hindrance for the success of adoptive T cell transfer in clinic. Currently, preconditioning with chemotherapy is used to modulate the patient immunity before ACT, however, the tumor microenvironment beneficial for transferring T cells may also be damaged. Here preconditioning with single low dose of doxorubicin or paclitaxel combined with fewer CD8+ T-cells was investigated to verify whether the same therapeutic efficacy of ACT could be achieved. An E.G7/OT1 animal model that involved adoptive transfer of OVA-specific CD8+ T-cells transduced with a granzyme B promoter-driven firefly luciferase and tomato fluorescent fusion reporter gene was used to evaluate this strategy. The result showed that CD8+ T-cells were activated and sustained longer in mice pretreated with one low-dose Dox or Tax. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy was found in Dox or Tax combined with 2×106 CD8+ T-cells and achieved the same level of tumor growth inhibition as that of 5×106 CD8+ T-cells group. Notably, reduced numbers of Tregs and myeloid derived suppressor cells were shown in combination groups. By contrast, the number of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes and IL-12 were increased. The NF-κB activity and immunosuppressive factors such as TGF-β, IDO, CCL2, VEGF, CCL22, COX-2 and IL-10 were suppressed. This study demonstrates that preconditioning with single low dose Dox or Tax and combined with two fifth of the original CD8+ T-cells could improve the tumor microenvironment via suppression of NF-κB and its related immunosuppressors, and activate more CD8+ T-cells which also stay longer. PMID:26683520

  6. Teacher Adoption of Interactive Whiteboards: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosevear, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This case study investigated the process of adopting and integrating interactive whiteboards into the daily practice of teachers and compared the findings to relevant theoretical models. Participants were drawn from a small international school in Damascus, Syria, where interactive whiteboards were introduced for the first time. The findings…

  7. Predicting Virtual Learning Environment Adoption: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penjor, Sonam; Zander, Pär-Ola

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the significance of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory with regard to the use of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) at the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB). The focus is on different adoption types and characteristics of users. Rogers' DOI theory is applied to investigate the influence of five predictors…

  8. Barriers to Adoption of Special Needs Children: A National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullagh, James G.

    This exploratory study analyzed the incidence and nature of barriers experienced by applicants wishing to adopt special needs children, defined as: "children who are older, have physical disabilities, are emotionally troubled, or are mentally retarded. Many are Black or Hispanic. Some are brothers and sisters who need a home together." Between…

  9. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  10. Fate of gamma-interferon-activated killer blood monocytes adoptively transferred into the abdominal cavity of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, H.C.; Keenan, A.M.; Woodhouse, C.; Ottow, R.T.; Miller, P.; Steller, E.P.; Foon, K.A.; Abrams, P.G.; Beman, J.; Larson, S.M.

    1987-11-15

    Five patients with colorectal cancer widely metastatic to peritoneal surfaces have been treated i.p. with infusions of autologous blood monocytes made cytotoxic by in vitro incubation with human gamma-interferon. The monocytes were purified by a combination of cytapheresis and counter-current centrifugal elutriation procedures; each week approximately 350 million activated monocytes were given to patients as adoptive immunotherapy by a single i.p. instillation. On the eighth cycle of treatment the trafficking of i.p. infused blood monocytes was studied in two patients by prelabeling the cells with /sup 111/In. These activated cells became distributed widely within the peritoneal cavity. Two and 5 days after infusion their position within the peritoneum had not changed. When peritoneal specimens were obtained 36 h after /sup 111/In-labeled monocyte infusion, labeled monocytes were demonstrated to be associated with the serosal surfaces by autoradiographic analysis. Scintiscanning structures outside the abdominal cavity revealed that /sup 111/In-labeled monocytes infused i.p. did not traffic to other organs during the 5 days of the study. We conclude that i.p. adoptive transfer of autologous killer blood monocytes is an effective way of delivering these cytotoxic cells to sites of tumor burden on peritoneal surfaces in these cancer patients.

  11. The adoption of mobile health management services: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Chien; Jen, Wen-Yuan

    2012-06-01

    As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people. In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage the distribution of healthcare resources. This study introduces Mobile Health Management Services (MHMS) and employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the intention of students in Executive Master of Business Management programs to adopt mobile health management technology. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze the collected data, and the results revealed that "perceived usefulness" and "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHMS. Both "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness," significantly affected "attitude," and "perceived ease of use" significantly affected "perceived usefulness" as well. The results also show that the determinants of intention toward MHMS differed with age; young adults had higher intention to adopt MHMS to manage their personal health. Therefore, relevant governmental agencies may profitably promote the management of personal health among this population. Successful promotion of personal health management will contribute to increases in both the level of general health and the efficient management of healthcare resources. PMID:20878452

  12. Gay and Lesbian Adoptive Families: An Exploratory Study of Family Functioning, Adoptive Child's Behavior, and Familial Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…

  13. Transracial Adoption: How It Is 17 Years Later. Family Life Project: A Longitudinal Adoption Study/Phase V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroegh, Karen S.

    In 1970, as part of an effort to meet the needs of black children waiting for adoption by two-parent black families, the Chicago (Illinois) Child Care Society launched a longitudinal study of the growth, development, and family life of transracial adoptees (TRAs), or black and mixed-race children adopted by white families, and inracial adoptees…

  14. Irradiated lymphocytes do not adoptively transfer diabetes or prevent spontaneous disease in the BB/W rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mordes, J.P.; Handler, E.S.; Like, A.A.; Nakano, K.; Rossini, A.A.

    1986-06-01

    Diabetes in the BB/W rat is autoimmune in origin, and lymphocytes from acutely diabetic animals activated by concanavalin A (con A) induce the disease in adoptive recipients. We report that irradiation of these cells prevents adoptive transfer of diabetes. Through 60 days of age, diabetes occurred in none of 47 BB/W rats given irradiated con A cells, but in 21 of 36 (58%) given nonirradiated cells. Between 60 and 130 days of age, however, spontaneous diabetes occurred in 18 of 34 untreated control rats (53%) and 16 of 32 rats (50%) given two injections of irradiated con A activated spleen cells. We conclude that irradiation prevents adoptive transfer of BB/W rat diabetes and that irradiated con A activated lymphocytes from acutely diabetic rats do not protect against spontaneous disease in susceptible recipients.

  15. MUC1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes eradicate tumors when adoptively transferred in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, P; Ginardi, A R; Tinder, T L; Sterner, C J; Gendler, S J

    2001-03-01

    We have reported previously that MUC1 transgenic mice with spontaneous tumors of the pancreas (designated MET) naturally develop MHC class I-restricted, MUC1-specific CTLs as tumors progress (P. Mukherjee et al., J. Immunol., 165: 3451-3460, 2000). From these MET mice, we have isolated, expanded, and cloned naturally occurring MUC1-specific CTLs in vitro. In this report, we show that the CTL line is predominantly CD8+ T cells and expresses T-cell receptor Vbeta chains 5.1/5.2, 11, 13, and 2 and Valpha chains 2, 8.3, 3.2, and 11.1/11.2. These CTLs recognize several epitopes on the MUC1 tandem repeat with highest affinity to APGSTAPPA. The CTL clone, on the other hand, is 100% CD8+ cells and expresses a single Vbeta chain of 5.1/5.2 and Valpha2. It recognizes only the H-2Db class I-restricted epitope of MUC1, APGSTAPPA. When adoptively transferred, the CTLs were effective in eradicating MUC1-expressing injected tumor cells including mammary gland cells (C57mg) and B16 melanomas. These results suggest that MUC1-specific CTLs are capable of possibly preventing, or at least substantially delaying, MUC1-expressing tumor formation. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that demonstrates that the naturally occurring MUC1-specific CTLs isolated from one tumor model has antitumor effects on other MUC1-expressing tumors in vivo. Therefore, our data confirm that MUC1 is an important tumor rejection antigen and can serve as a target for immunotherapy. PMID:11300482

  16. Mars transfer vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    Earth-to-Mars distances vary from 60 to 400 million kilometers over a 14-year cycle. This complicates Mars mission design as a function of calendar time. Stay times at Mars are also strongly driven by opportunities for a return flight path which are within the limits of delta-V associated with practical space vehicles. The biggest difference between Mars and lunar transfer missions is mission time, which grows from a few days for the moon, to as much as a few hundred days for Mars missions. As a result, modules for similarly sized crews must be much larger for Mars missions that for transfer to lunar orbit. Technology challenges for one Mars mission scenario analyzed by Boeing include aerobrakes, propulsion, and life support systems. Mission performance is very sensitive to aerobrake weight fraction and, as a result, there is an incentive to use high performance materials such as advanced composites and thermal protection systems. Lander aerobrake would be used twice (for both planetary capture and descent to the Mars surface), and it would need to survive temperatures up to 3500 degrees.

  17. Mars transfer vehicle studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1993-02-01

    Earth-to-Mars distances vary from 60 to 400 million kilometers over a 14-year cycle. This complicates Mars mission design as a function of calendar time. Stay times at Mars are also strongly driven by opportunities for a return flight path which are within the limits of delta-V associated with practical space vehicles. The biggest difference between Mars and lunar transfer missions is mission time, which grows from a few days for the moon, to as much as a few hundred days for Mars missions. As a result, modules for similarly sized crews must be much larger for Mars missions that for transfer to lunar orbit. Technology challenges for one Mars mission scenario analyzed by Boeing include aerobrakes, propulsion, and life support systems. Mission performance is very sensitive to aerobrake weight fraction and, as a result, there is an incentive to use high performance materials such as advanced composites and thermal protection systems. Lander aerobrake would be used twice (for both planetary capture and descent to the Mars surface), and it would need to survive temperatures up to 3500 degrees.

  18. Passive adoptive transfer of antitumor immunity induced by laser-dye-immunoadjuvant treatment in a rat metastatic breast cancer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong; Singhal, Anil K.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    The ideal cancer treatment modalities should not only cause tumor regression and eradication but also induce a systemic anti-tumor immunity. This is essential for control of metastatic tumors and for long-term tumor resistance. Laser immunotherapy using a laser, a laser-absorbing dye and an immunoadjuvant has induced such a long-term immunity in treatment of a mammary metastatic tumor. The successfully treated rats established total resistance to multiple subsequent tumor challenges. For further mechanistic studies of the antitumor immunity induced by this novel treatment modality, passive adoptive transfer was performed using splenocytes as immune cells. The spleen cells harvested from successfully treated tumor-bearing rats provided 100% immunity in the naive recipients. The passively protected first cohort rats were immune to tumor challenge with an increased tumor dose; their splenocytes also prevented the establishment of tumor in the second cohort of naive recipient rats. This immunity transfer was accomplished without the usually required T-cell suppression in recipients.

  19. Hurdling barriers through market uncertainty: Case studies ininnovative technology adoption

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher T.; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Payne, Jack

    2002-08-18

    The crisis atmosphere surrounding electricity availability in California during the summer of 2001 produced two distinct phenomena in commercial energy consumption decision-making: desires to guarantee energy availability while blackouts were still widely anticipated, and desires to avoid or mitigate significant price increases when higher commercial electricity tariffs took effect. The climate of increased consideration of these factors seems to have led, in some cases, to greater willingness on the part of business decision-makers to consider highly innovative technologies. This paper examines three case studies of innovative technology adoption: retrofit of time-and-temperature signs on an office building; installation of fuel cells to supply power, heating, and cooling to the same building; and installation of a gas-fired heat pump at a microbrewery. We examine the decision process that led to adoption of these technologies. In each case, specific constraints had made more conventional energy-efficient technologies inapplicable. We examine how these barriers to technology adoption developed over time, how the California energy decision-making climate combined with the characteristics of these innovative technologies to overcome the barriers, and what the implications of hurdling these barriers are for future energy decisions within the firms.

  20. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use. PMID:27161024

  1. An Extended Swedish National Adoption Study of Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Ji, Jianguang; Edwards, Alexis C.; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Alcohol use disorder (AUD) runs strongly in families. It is unclear to what extent the cross-generational transmission of AUD results from genetic vs environmental factors. OBJECTIVE To determine to what extent genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk for AUD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Follow-up in 8 public data registers of adoptees, their biological and adoptive relatives, and offspring and parents from stepfamilies and not-lived-with families in Sweden. In this cohort study, subtypes of AUD were assessed by latent class analysis. A total of 18 115 adoptees (born 1950–1993) and 171 989 and 107 696 offspring of not-lived-with parents and stepparents, respectively (born 1960–1993). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Alcohol use disorder recorded in medical, legal, or pharmacy registry records. RESULTS Alcohol use disorder in adoptees was significantly predicted by AUD in biological parents (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.29–1.66) and siblings (odds ratio, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.55–2.44) as well as adoptive parents (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09–1.80). Genetic and environmental risk indices created from biological and adoptive relatives acted additively on adoptee AUD liability. Results from biological and adoptive relatives were replicated and extended from examinations of, respectively, not-lived-with parents and stepparents. Multivariate models in these families showed that AUD in offspring was significantly predicted by AUD, drug abuse, psychiatric illness, and crime in not-lived-with parents and by AUD, drug abuse, crime, and premature death in stepparents. Latent class analyses of adoptees and offspring of not-lived-with parents with AUDs revealed 3 AUD classes characterized by (1) female preponderance and high rates of psychiatric illness, (2) mild nonrecurrent symptoms, and (3) early-onset recurrence, drug abuse, and crime. These classes had distinct genetic signatures in the patterns of risk for various disorders in their not

  2. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Daniel L; O'Neil, Richard T; Foster, Aaron E; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans. PMID:26473608

  3. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Aaron E.; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M.; Wilson, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans. PMID:26473608

  4. Cutting Edge: Induction of Inflammatory Disease by Adoptive Transfer of an Atypical NK Cell Subset.

    PubMed

    Voynova, Elisaveta; Qi, Chen-Feng; Scott, Bethany; Bolland, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    Several mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus, including FcγRIIB-KO and TLR7tg mice, develop an expansion of an atypical NK cell subset with functional similarity to cells referred as IFN-producing killer DCs or pre-mature NKs in other systems. In this study, we show that atypical NKs purified from spleens of systemic lupus erythematosus-prone mice, and identified as NK1.1(+)CD11c(+)CD122(+)MHC-II(+), induce persistent autoimmune disease in an IFN-I- and CD40L-dependent manner when transferred to wild-type mice. A single transfer of 4 × 10(6) NK1.1(+) cells from TLR7tg into wild-type induces a 2-wk-long wave of inflammatory cytokines in the serum; a sustained increase in T cell activation and follicular helper cells for the following months; and a progressive expansion of dendritic cells, monocytes, and granulocytes. Furthermore, IL-15 deficiency, which impedes development of NK cells, ameliorates the autoimmune pathology of TLR7tg mice. These results suggest that cells of the NK lineage can develop into cytokine-producing/APCs that affect the priming and progression of systemic autoimmune disease. PMID:26109646

  5. miR-23a blockade enhances adoptive T cell transfer therapy by preserving immune-competence in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Regina; Sampson, John H; Li, Qi-Jing; Zhu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In adoptive T cell transfer therapy (ACT), the antitumor efficacy of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs) has been limited by tumor-induced immunosuppression. We have demonstrated that miR-23a blockade in tumor-specific CTLs conferred resilience to TGFβ-mediated immunosuppression, resulting in superior tumor control. Our studies highlight miR-23a in tumor-specific CTLs as a clinically relevant target to enhance ACT. PMID:25949909

  6. Induction of Murine Intestinal Inflammation by Adoptive Transfer of Effector CD4+CD45RBhigh T Cells into Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Erin C.; Gipson, Gregory R.; Sheikh, Shehzad Z.

    2015-01-01

    There are many different animal models available for studying the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), each with its own advantages and disadvantages. We describe here an experimental colitis model that is initiated by adoptive transfer of syngeneic splenic CD4+CD45RBhigh T cells into T and B cell deficient recipient mice. The CD4+CD45RBhigh T cell population that largely consists of naïve effector cells is capable of inducing chronic intestinal inflammation, closely resembling key aspects of human IBD. This method can be manipulated to study aspects of disease onset and progression. Additionally it can be used to study the function of innate, adaptive, and regulatory immune cell populations, and the role of environmental exposures, i.e., the microbiota, in intestinal inflammation. In this article we illustrate the methodology for inducing colitis with a step-by-step protocol. This includes a video demonstration of key technical aspects required to successfully develop this murine model of experimental colitis for research purposes. PMID:25938395

  7. Microbial translocation augments the function of adoptively transferred self/tumor-specific CD8+ T cells via TLR4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Paulos, Chrystal M.; Wrzesinski, Claudia; Kaiser,, Andrew; Hinrichs, Christian S.; Chieppa, Marcello; Cassard, Lydie; Palmer, Douglas C.; Boni, Andrea; Muranski, Pawel; Yu, Zhiya; Gattinoni, Luca; Antony, Paul A.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2007-01-01

    Lymphodepletion with total body irradiation (TBI) increases the efficacy of adoptively transferred tumor-specific CD8+ T cells by depleting inhibitory lymphocytes and increasing homeostatic cytokine levels. We found that TBI augmented the function of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells in mice genetically deficient in all lymphocytes, indicating the existence of another TBI mechanism of action. Additional investigation revealed commensal gut microflora in the mesenteric lymph nodes and elevated LPS levels in the sera of irradiated mice. These findings correlated with increased dendritic cell activation and heightened levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines. Reduction of host microflora using antibiotics, neutralization of serum LPS using polymyxin B, or removal of LPS signaling components using mice genetically deficient in CD14 and TLR4 reduced the beneficial effects of TBI on tumor regression. Conversely, administration of microbial ligand–containing serum or ultrapure LPS from irradiated animals to nonirradiated antibody-lymphodepleted mice enhanced CD8+ T cell activation and improved tumor regression. Administration of ultrapure LPS to irradiated animals further enhanced the number and function of the adoptively transferred cells, leading to long-term cure of mice with large B16F10 tumors and enhanced autoimmune vitiligo. Thus, disruption of the homeostatic balance between the host and microbes can enhance cell-based tumor immunotherapy. PMID:17657310

  8. Adoptive transfer of dendritic cells modulates immunogenesis and tolerogenesis in a neonatal model of murine cutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Loida V; Corado, José; Díaz, Nilka L; Tapia, Felix J

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the adoptive transfer of DCs on Leishmania (L.) mexicana-infected neonatal BALB/c mice. DCs were isolated and purified from the spleens of the following donor groups: a) Adult BALB/c mice infected during adulthood with L. (L) mexicana; b) Adult BALB/c mice infected during neonatal life; c) Healthy neonatal BALB/c mice; d) Healthy adult BALB/c mice. A neonatal model of infection, generated after inoculation with 5 × 105 promastigotes of L. (L) mexicana, was used as the infection control group. Sixteen hours after intraperitoneal transfer of DCs (1 × 103, 1 × 105, or 1 × 106 cells/ml), neonatal recipient BALB/c mice were infected. The adoptive transfer of DCs diminished disease progression in neonatal mice. This reduction depends on the quantity and provenance of transferred DCs, since the effect was more evident with high numbers of DCs from adult mice infected during adulthood and healthy neonatal mice. Protection was significantly reduced in animals receiving DCs from healthy adult mice but it was absent in mice receiving DCs from adult mice infected during neonatal life. These results suggest that genetic susceptibility to Leishmania infection can be modified during neonatal life, and that the period of life when antigens are encountered is crucial in influencing the capacity of DCs to induce resistance or tolerance. PMID:15670331

  9. Modulation of tumor response to photodynamic therapy in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice by adoptively transferred lymphoid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd; Krosl, Jana; Dougherty, Graeme J.

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic treatment, consisting of intravenous injection of PhotofrinR (10 mg/kg) followed by exposure to 110 J/cm2 of 630 plus or minus 10 nm light 24 hours later, cured 100% of EMT6 tumors (murine mammary sarcoma) growing in syngeneic immunocompetent BALB/C mice. In contrast, the same treatment produced no cures of EMT6 tumors growing in either nude or SCID mice (immunodeficient strains). EMT6 tumors growing in BALB/C and SCID mice showed no difference in either the level of PhotofrinR accumulated per gram of tumor tissue, or the extent of tumor cell killing during the first 24 hours post photodynamic therapy (PDT). In an attempt to improve the sensitivity to PDT of EMT6 tumors growing in SCID mice, these hosts were given either splenic T lymphocytes or whole bone marrow from BALB/C mice. The adoptive transfer of lymphocytes 9 days before PDT was successful in delaying tumor recurrence but produced no cures. A better improvement in PDT response was obtained with tumors growing in SCID mice reconstituted with BALB/C bone marrow (tumor cure rate of 63%). The results of this study demonstrate that, at least with the EMT6 tumor model, antitumor immune activity mediated by lymphoid cell populations makes an important contribution to the curative effect of PDT.

  10. 77 FR 1555 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... regulatory history, see the August 22, 2008 (73 FR 49742) proposed rule entitled ``Health Insurance Reform..., 2000 Federal Register (65 FR 50312), we published a final rule entitled ``Health Insurance Reform... and 162 Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic...

  11. Adoptive transfer of natural antibodies to non-immunized chickens affects subsequent antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Aart; Klomp, Marcel E V; Nieuwland, Mike G B; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Parmentier, Henk K

    2004-01-01

    To determine a regulatory function of natural antibodies in the immune response of chickens, pooled plasma obtained from non-immunized (naïve) 15 months old hens was subjected to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen-affinity chromatography. Purified KLH-binding antibodies were adoptively transferred intravenously to 5 weeks-old cocks that were subsequently immunized subcutaneously 24 h later with KLH. Control groups consisted of birds that were either adoptively transferred with KLH-binding antibodies purified from plasma of KLH-immunized chickens, or PBS, or a salt precipitated total immunoglobulin fraction obtained from the corresponding pooled nai;ve chicken plasma, respectively.Total, IgM and IgY antibody titers to KLH in the plasma of recipients adoptively transferred with KLH-NAb, but not in the plasma of the groups transferred with salt precipitate or KLH-binding specific antibodies, were significantly enhanced as compared to the non-treated, KLH immunized group. Titers of IgA antibodies binding KLH were decreased in the plasma of the group that received specific KLH-binding antibodies, but not in the plasma of the other groups. Proliferation from peripheral blood leucocytes in whole blood from the KLH-NAb treated group, the group treated with KLH-binding specific antibodies and the group treated with salt precipitate, respectively, to both concanavalin A and KLH were significantly decreased as compared to the group receiving PBS. Our data show that antigen-specific antibodies can be isolated from plasma obtained from non-immunized chickens. Such antibodies that resemble natural antibodies as described in mammals may perform an important role in the enhancement of subsequent antigen-specific antibody responses or the maturation of the immune system, which may differ from the role of specific antibodies. PMID:12962982

  12. Nature-nurture and intelligence: the twin and adoption studies agree.

    PubMed

    Horn, J M; Loehlin, J C; Willerman, L

    1976-01-01

    A large-scale adoption study is underway at the University of Texas where IQ test scores are available for over 1200 women who gave up their children for adoption immediately following delivery. The adopted children and their adoptive families are now being located and tested and, if current trends continue, complete data should eventually be available on over 400 families. About half of these families will contain two or more adopted children or both adopted and natural children. At present, data are available for 89 families. The results are consistent with twin data and support a genetic hypothesis. The biological mother-adopted child correlation is 0.37 whereas the adoptive mother-adopted child and adoptive father-adopted child correlations are only 0.22 and 0.04 respectively. There are 59 pairs of unrelated children reared together in this sample and the IQ correlation for these children is only 0.13. PMID:1036363

  13. Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples in Open Adoption Arrangements: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

    2011-01-01

    Little research has attended to the role of gender and sexual orientation in shaping open adoption dynamics. This qualitative, longitudinal study of 45 adoptive couples (15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 15 heterosexual couples) examined adopters' motivations for open adoption, changes in attitudes about openness, and early relationship dynamics. Key…

  14. Adoptive transfer of Tc1 or Tc17 cells elicits antitumor immunity against established melanoma through distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yu; Cho, Hyun-Ii; Wang, Dapeng; Kaosaard, Kane; Anasetti, Claudio; Celis, Esteban; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2013-02-15

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of ex vivo-activated autologous tumor-reactive T cells is currently one of the most promising approaches for cancer immunotherapy. Recent studies provided some evidence that IL-17-producing CD8(+) (Tc17) cells may exhibit potent antitumor activity, but the specific mechanisms have not been completely defined. In this study, we used a murine melanoma lung-metastasis model and tested the therapeutic effects of gp100-specific polarized type I CD8(+) cytotoxic T (Tc1) or Tc17 cells combined with autologous bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation. Bone marrow transplantation combined with ACT of antitumor (gp100-specific) Tc17 cells significantly suppressed the growth of established melanoma, whereas Tc1 cells induced long-term tumor regression. After ACT, Tc1 cells maintained their phenotype to produce IFN-γ, but not IL-17. However, although Tc17 cells largely preserved their ability to produce IL-17, a subset secreted IFN-γ or both IFN-γ and IL-17, indicating the plasticity of Tc17 cells in vivo. Furthermore, after ACT, the Tc17 cells had a long-lived effector T cell phenotype (CD127(hi)/KLRG-1(low)) as compared with Tc1 cells. Mechanistically, Tc1 cells mediated antitumor immunity primarily through the direct effect of IFN-γ on tumor cells. In contrast, despite the fact that some Tc17 cells also secreted IFN-γ, Tc17-mediated antitumor immunity was independent of the direct effects of IFN-γ on the tumor. Nevertheless, IFN-γ played a critical role by creating a microenvironment that promoted Tc17-mediated antitumor activity. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that both Tc1 and Tc17 cells can mediate effective antitumor immunity through distinct effector mechanisms, but Tc1 cells are superior to Tc17 cells in mediating tumor regression. PMID:23315072

  15. High vitamin D3 diet administered during active colitis negatively affects bone metabolism in an adoptive T cell transfer model

    PubMed Central

    Larmonier, C. B.; McFadden, R.-M. T.; Hill, F. M.; Schreiner, R.; Ramalingam, R.; Besselsen, D. G.; Ghishan, F. K.

    2013-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) represents an extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D3 has been considered a viable adjunctive therapy in IBD. However, vitamin D3 plays a pleiotropic role in bone modeling and regulates the bone formation-resorption balance, depending on the physiological environment, and supplementation during active IBD may have unintended consequences. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation during the active phase of disease on colonic inflammation, BMD, and bone metabolism in an adoptive IL-10−/− CD4+ T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 days during established disease had negligible effects on mucosal inflammation. Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites correlated with diet, but not disease, status. Colitis significantly reduced BMD. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not affect cortical bone but led to a further deterioration of trabecular bone morphology. In mice fed a high vitamin D3 diet, colitis more severely impacted bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and increased bone resorption markers, ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand to osteoprotegrin transcript, plasma osteoprotegrin level, and the osteoclast activation marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACp5). Bone vitamin D receptor expression was increased in mice with chronic colitis, especially in the high vitamin D3 group. Our data suggest that vitamin D3, at a dose that does not improve inflammation, has no beneficial effects on bone metabolism and density during active colitis or may adversely affect BMD and bone turnover. These observations should be taken into consideration in the planning of further clinical studies with high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with active IBD. PMID:23639807

  16. Systemic Combination Virotherapy for Melanoma with Tumor Antigen-Expressing Vesicular Stomatitis Virus and Adoptive T-cell Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Rommelfanger, Diana M.; Wongthida, Phonphimon; Diaz, Rosa M.; Kaluza, Karen M.; Thompson, Jill M.; Kottke, Timothy J.; Vile, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy offers the potential to treat tumors both as a single agent and in combination with traditional modalities such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Here we describe an effective, fully systemic treatment regimen, which combines virotherapy, acting essentially as an adjuvant immunotherapy, with adoptive cell transfer (ACT). The combination of ACT with systemic administration of a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) engineered to express the endogenous melanocyte antigen glycoprotein 100 (gp100) resulted in regression of established melanomas and generation of antitumor immunity. Tumor response was associated with in vivo T-cell persistence and activation as well as treatment-related vitiligo. However, in a proportion of treated mice, initial tumor regressions were followed by recurrences. Therapy was further enhanced by targeting an additional tumor antigen with the VSV-antigen + ACT combination strategy, leading to sustained response in 100% of mice. Together, our findings suggest that systemic virotherapy combined with antigen-expressing VSV could be used to support and enhance clinical immunotherapy protocols with adoptive T-cell transfer, which are already used in the clinic. PMID:22836753

  17. Administrative simplification: adoption of operating rules for health care electronic funds transfers (EFT) and remittance advice transactions. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2012-08-10

    This interim final rule with comment period implements parts of section 1104 of the Affordable Care Act which requires the adoption of operating rules for the health care electronic funds transfers (EFT) and remittance advice transaction. PMID:22888504

  18. Induction of autoimmune disease by adoptive transfer of an atypical NK cell subset

    PubMed Central

    Voynova, Elisaveta; Qi, Chen-Feng; Scott, Bethany; Bolland, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Several mouse models of SLE, including FcγRIIB-KO and TLR7tg mice, develop an expansion of an atypical NK cell subset with functional similarity to cells referred as IKDCs or pre-mNKs in other systems. Here we show that atypical NKs purified from spleens of SLE-prone mice, and identified as NK1.1+CD11c+CD122+MHC-II+, induce persistent autoimmune disease in an IFN-I and CD40L-dependent manner when transferred to WT mice. A single transfer of 4x106 NK1.1+ cells from TLR7tg into WT induces a 2-week-long wave of inflammatory cytokines in the serum, a sustained increase in T cell activation and follicular helper cells for the following months, and a progressive expansion of dendritic cells, monocytes and granulocytes. Furthermore IL15 deficiency, which impedes development of NK cells, ameliorates the autoimmune pathology of TLR7tg mice. These results suggest that cells of the NK lineage can develop into cytokine producing/antigen-presenting cells that affect the priming and progression of systemic autoimmune disease. PMID:26109646

  19. Teacher Adoption of Moodle LMS: A K-12 Diffusion Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the diffusion of Moodle within Cherokee County Schools. The diffusion is evaluated using the Bass Model and the RIPPLES model in order to evaluate relative success or failure. The Bass Model of Diffusion was calculated utilizing forecasting by analogy in order to analyze the adoption rates in a county high school. The adoption…

  20. Administrative simplification: adoption of standards for health care electronic funds transfers (EFTs) and remittance advice. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2012-01-10

    This interim final rule with comment period implements parts of section 1104 of the Affordable Care Act which requires the adoption of a standard for electronic funds transfers (EFT). It defines EFT and explains how the adopted standards support and facilitate health care EFT transmissions. PMID:22359791

  1. Black Identity and the Grow-Shapiro Study on Trans-racial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimezie, Amuzie

    1976-01-01

    This paper evaluated the Grow-Shapiro study of transracial adoption of black children by white parents and assessed its relevance to the controversy over transracial adoption finding that the study failed to seriously address itself to the question of black identity and its correlates--the crux of the adoption controversy. Some suggestions made…

  2. A Case Study on the Adoption and Use of Synchronous Virtual Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Florence; Parker, Michele; Allred, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study of faculty adoption and use of Horizon Wimba Virtual Classroom in online courses at a Southeastern University in the United States. The purpose of this case study was to explore faculty adoption and use of Horizon Wimba in their online courses. This inquiry is based on Yen et al. (2010) adoption factors (organizational,…

  3. Program for transfer research and impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusnak, J.; Staskin, E. R.; Hartley, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Research activities conducted under the program for Transfer Research and impact studies are reviewed. Programs include: Tech Brief - Technical Support Package (TSP) Program; transfer documentation; and technology transfer profiles. An analysis of user behavior patterns is made by studying questionnaires filled out by users of the Tech Brief - TSP program. The process of technology transfer is discussed in terms of improving its effectiveness.

  4. Adoptive transfer of resistance to acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection with T-lymphocyte-enriched spleen cells.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, S G

    1980-01-01

    Inbred C57BL/10 mice immunized with live culture forms of Trypanosoma cruzi were resistant to acute infection after challenge with bloodstream forms. Splenic leukocytes or serum from immunized mice were transferred to syngeneic recipients 2 days before of 2 days after challenge. Protection was not observed in recipients of serum, although the serum contained high levels of agglutinating antibody. Unfractionated splenic leukocytes from immunized donors conferred partial protection, and preparations enriched for T lymphocytes were significantly more effective than preparations enriched for B lymphocytes. Recipients of T-lymphocyte-enriched spleen cells had significantly higher survival times and significantly lower parasitemias than did recipients of B-lymphocyte-enriched spleen cells. PMID:6772557

  5. Data Transfer Study HPSS Archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Wynne, James; Parete-Koon, Suzanne T; Mitchell, Quinn; White, Stanley R

    2015-01-01

    The movement of the large amounts of data produced by codes run in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment can be a bottleneck for project workflows. To balance filesystem capacity and performance requirements, HPC centers enforce data management policies to purge old files to make room for new computation and analysis results. Users at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) and many other HPC user facilities must archive data to avoid data loss during purges, therefore the time associated with data movement for archiving is something that all users must consider. This study observed the difference in transfer speed from the originating location on the Lustre filesystem to the more permanent High Performance Storage System (HPSS). The tests were done with a number of different transfer methods for files that spanned a variety of sizes and compositions that reflect OLCF user data. This data will be used to help users of Titan and other Cray supercomputers plan their workflow and data transfers so that they are most efficient for their project. We will also discuss best practice for maintaining data at shared user facilities.

  6. Hoofbeats From the Currituck Outer Banks: A Study of the Corolla Wild Horse Fund Adoption Program.

    PubMed

    Koncel, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Research on the adoption and relinquishment of horses, both domestic and wild, remains limited. As a result, little is known about adopters, their adopted horses, and their adoption experience. This study surveyed and interviewed 17 adopters of Colonial Spanish mustangs through the Corolla Wild Horse Fund (CWHF). Together, they adopted 22 horses of varying ages and genders from 2002 to 2012. The participants, who had a range of previous experience with and knowledge of horses, were generally very satisfied with their horses and their adoption experience. Being able to adopt a gentled/trained mustang and receiving support from the CWHF during the adoption process played key roles in adoption success. Additionally, participants' strong desire to preserve a perceived endangered species or national treasure appeared to be a major reason for adopting a Colonial Spanish mustang and served as motivation for making the adoption successful. The results of the study provide insights into ways to improve the number and success of adoptions through other equine programs, especially the Bureau of Land Management's wild horse and burro program. PMID:26480204

  7. Adoptive transfer of the generalized lymphoproliferative disease (gld) syndrome in nude beige mice.

    PubMed Central

    Froidevaux, S; Rosenblatt, N; Loor, F

    1992-01-01

    C57BL/6 nude beige mice (B6 nubg) were used as recipients for the transfer of haematopoietic cells from either B6 wild as control mice, or systemic lupus erythematous B6 mice homozygous for the recessive generalized lymphadenopathy disease (gld) locus. Both gld and wild cell grafts prolonged survival of the short-living B6 nubg recipients and restored some T-cell functions, as monitored by the presence of T-dependent Ig isotypes in the serum and responsiveness of spleen cells to a T-cell mitogen. Moreover, the [gld----nubg] chimeras but not the [wild----nubg] chimeras showed several similarities with gld control mice, particularly, a spleen and lymph node hyperplasia, elevated anti-single-stranded DNA antibody titres and a hyperglobulinaemia. This hyperglobulinaemia was however qualitatively different from the gld-type hyperglobulinaemia with an important contribution of the IgG1 isotype; the lymph node hyperplasia was also less marked than in B6 gld mice. PMID:1592442

  8. Memory T cells specific for murine cytomegalovirus re-emerge after multiple challenges and recapitulate immunity in various adoptive transfer scenarios.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael; Turula, Holly; Tandon, Mayank; Deslouches, Berthony; Moghbeli, Toktam; Snyder, Christopher M

    2015-02-15

    Reconstitution of CMV-specific immunity after transplant remains a primary clinical objective to prevent CMV disease, and adoptive immunotherapy of CMV-specific T cells can be an effective therapeutic approach. Because of viral persistence, most CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells become terminally differentiated effector phenotype CD8(+) T cells (TEFF). A minor subset retains a memory-like phenotype (memory phenotype CD8(+) T cells [TM]), but it is unknown whether these cells retain memory function or persist over time. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells with different phenotypes have different abilities to reconstitute sustained immunity after transfer. The immunology of human CMV infections is reflected in the murine CMV (MCMV) model. We found that human CMV- and MCMV-specific T cells displayed shared genetic programs, validating the MCMV model for studies of CMV-specific T cells in vivo. The MCMV-specific TM population was stable over time and retained a proliferative capacity that was vastly superior to TEFF. Strikingly, after transfer, TM established sustained and diverse T cell populations even after multiple challenges. Although both TEFF and TM could protect Rag(-/-) mice, only TM persisted after transfer into immune replete, latently infected recipients and responded if recipient immunity was lost. Interestingly, transferred TM did not expand until recipient immunity was lost, supporting that competition limits the Ag stimulation of TM. Ultimately, these data show that CMV-specific TM retain memory function during MCMV infection and can re-establish CMV immunity when necessary. Thus, TM may be a critical component for consistent, long-term adoptive immunotherapy success. PMID:25595792

  9. Faculty Adoption of Distance Education Innovations in a Southwestern Rural Community College: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Diane June

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal case study was to examine the faculty adoption of distance education in a rural community college over a span of ten years in the southwestern United States, beginning in 1999 with the adoption and implementation of an instructional television (ITV) system and ending in 2009 with the adoption and implementation of…

  10. The Adoption of an Innovation in Physics Teaching: A Study of Factors Related to the Adoption of the Project Physics Course in American High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yegge, John Frederick

    Factors related to the decisions of schools to adopt or not adopt an innovation in science education were studied. The investigations tested a five-factor model of the adoption process which was developed by the author and others during a previous investigation. Data were collected from a sample of 219 American physics teachers who had attended…

  11. Adoption, non-adoption, and abandonment of a personal electronic health record: case study of HealthSpace

    PubMed Central

    Hinder, Susan; Stramer, Katja; Bratan, Tanja; Russell, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the policy making process, implementation by NHS organisations, and patients’ and carers’ experiences of efforts to introduce an internet accessible personal electronic health record (HealthSpace) in a public sector healthcare system. Design Mixed method, multilevel case study. Setting English National Health Service; the basic HealthSpace technology (available throughout England) and the advanced version (available in a few localities where this option had been introduced) were considered. Main outcome measures National statistics on invitations sent, HealthSpace accounts created, and interviews and ethnographic observation of patients and carers. Data analysis was informed by a socio-technical approach which considered macro and micro influences on both adoption and non-adoption of innovations, and by the principles of critical discourse analysis. Participants 56 patients and carers (of whom 21 opened a basic HealthSpace account, 20 had diabetes but were not initially using HealthSpace, and 15 used advanced HealthSpace accounts to exchange messages with their general practitioner), 3000 pages of documents (policies, strategies, business plans, minutes of meetings, correspondence), observational field notes, and 160 interviews with policy makers, project managers, and clinical staff. Results Between 2007 and October 2010, 172 950 people opened a basic HealthSpace account. 2913 (0.13% of those invited) opened an advanced account, compared with 5-10% of the population anticipated in the original business case. Overall, patients perceived HealthSpace as neither useful nor easy to use and its functionality aligned poorly with their expectations and self management practices. Those who used email-style messaging were positive about its benefits, but enthusiasm beyond three early adopter clinicians was low, and fewer than 100 of 30 000 patients expressed interest. Policy makers’ hopes that “deploying” HealthSpace would lead to

  12. Extending the lifespan and efficacies of immune cells used in adoptive transfer for cancer immunotherapies–A review

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Sandeep; Dasgupta, Prokar; Galustian, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Cells used in adoptive cell-transfer immunotherapies against cancer include dendritic cells (DCs), natural-killer cells, and CD8+ T-cells. These cells may have limited efficacy due to their lifespan, activity, and immunosuppressive effects of tumor cells. Therefore, increasing longevity and activity of these cells may boost their efficacy. Four cytokines that can extend immune effector-cell longevity are IL-2, IL-7, IL-21, and IL-15. This review will discuss current knowledge on effector-cell lifespans and the mechanisms by which IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 can extend effector-cell longevity. We will also discuss how lifespan and efficacy of these cells can be regulated to allow optimal clinical benefits. PMID:26155387

  13. [Attachment and Cognitive and Motor Development in the First Years after Adoption: A Review of Studies on Internationally Adopted Children from China].

    PubMed

    Juffer, Femmie; Finet, Chloe; Vermeer, Harriet; van den Dries, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Due to early-childhood adversity, adopted children often display delays in their cognitive and motor development and have problems developing secure attachment relationships with their adoptive parents. In this review we present the results of all available studies on the attachment and the cognitive and motor development of internationally adopted children from China in the first years after arriving in the adoptive family. Seven pertinent studies were found, based on five samples examined in the USA, Canada, and the Netherlands. Regarding cognitive and motor development (five studies) the adoptees showed a delayed development at arrival in the adoptive family. As soon as six months after arrival the adoptees were, on average, functioning within normal ranges, although their catch-up to non-adopted children was not yet complete. Two years after arrival the catch-up to non-adopted peers appeared to be complete. Regarding attachment (two studies) observations of attachment six and twelve months after adoption showed less secure and more disorganized attachment for the adopted children compared to the normative distribution of non-adopted children. Two years after adoption, observations of attachment confirmed a catch-up in secure attachment, but the adoptees still displayed more insecure disorganized attachment than children in the norm group. PMID:26645774

  14. Adopting object-oriented technology: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Trythall, S.

    1996-12-01

    Interest in object orientation has surged in the last couple of years. A considerable number of groups have evaluated the technology; some have produced prototypes, and an increasing number have developed applications. A few groups have built significant applications frameworks, most notably the SPIRIT application framework developed by Shell Services in Houston. There are now nascent attempts to define a standard for object-oriented infrastructures with the Petrotechnical Open Software Corp. (POSC) community. The Petroleum Science and Technology Inst. (PSTI) was one of the early adopters of this technology within the E and P industry. PSTI has been constructing a basin modeling toolbox using object-oriented technologies for the last 6 years. This paper introduces the techniques, describes their use of the technology within the Hedera project, and outlines their experience of the suitability of the techniques for use within the E and P industry.

  15. A single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of viral-specific T-cells from healthy donors: implications for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, Guillaume; Bollard, Catherine M; Kunz, Hawley; Hanley, Patrick J; Simpson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The adoptive transfer of donor-derived viral-specific cytotoxic T-cells (VSTs) is an effective treatment for controlling CMV and EBV infections after HSCT; however, new practical methods are required to augment the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors. This study investigated the effects of a single exercise bout on the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs. PBMCs isolated from healthy CMV/EBV seropositive participants before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) 30-minutes of cycling exercise were stimulated with CMV (pp65 and IE1) and EBV (LMP2A and BMLF1) peptides and expanded over 8 days. The number (fold difference from PRE) of T-cells specific for CMV pp65 (2.6), EBV LMP2A (2.5), and EBV BMLF1 (4.4) was greater among the VSTs expanded POST. VSTs expanded PRE and POST had similar phenotype characteristics and were equally capable of MHC-restricted killing of autologous target cells. We conclude that a single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors without altering their phenotype or function and may serve as a simple and economical adjuvant to boost the production of multi-VSTs for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy. PMID:27181409

  16. A single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of viral-specific T-cells from healthy donors: implications for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Spielmann, Guillaume; Bollard, Catherine M.; Kunz, Hawley; Hanley, Patrick J.; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The adoptive transfer of donor-derived viral-specific cytotoxic T-cells (VSTs) is an effective treatment for controlling CMV and EBV infections after HSCT; however, new practical methods are required to augment the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors. This study investigated the effects of a single exercise bout on the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs. PBMCs isolated from healthy CMV/EBV seropositive participants before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) 30-minutes of cycling exercise were stimulated with CMV (pp65 and IE1) and EBV (LMP2A and BMLF1) peptides and expanded over 8 days. The number (fold difference from PRE) of T-cells specific for CMV pp65 (2.6), EBV LMP2A (2.5), and EBV BMLF1 (4.4) was greater among the VSTs expanded POST. VSTs expanded PRE and POST had similar phenotype characteristics and were equally capable of MHC-restricted killing of autologous target cells. We conclude that a single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors without altering their phenotype or function and may serve as a simple and economical adjuvant to boost the production of multi-VSTs for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy. PMID:27181409

  17. Deletion of Plasmodium berghei-Specific CD4+ T Cells Adoptively Transferred into Recipient Mice after Challenge with Homologous Parasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirunpetcharat, Chakrit; Good, Michael F.

    1998-02-01

    The immune response to malaria parasites includes T cell responses that reduce parasites by effector T cell responses and by providing help for antibody responses. Some parasites are more sensitive to antibody and others are more sensitive to cell-mediated immunity. We demonstrate that cultured CD4+ T cells that produce interferon CD4+ and interleukin 2, but not interleukin 4, in response to stimulation with the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei can reduce but not eliminate parasites in vivo after adoptive transfer. Although cells can persist in vivo for up to 9 months in uninfected mice, infection results in elimination of up to 99% of specific T cells in different tissues, as judged by tracking T cells labeled with the fluorescent dye 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. T cells specific for ovalbumin are unaffected. In vivo activation and division of transferred T cells per se are not responsible for deletion because T cells positive for 5-(and -6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester divide up to six times within 7 days in uninfected mice and are not deleted. Understanding the factors responsible for parasite-mediated specific deletion of T cells would enhance our knowledge of parasite immunity.

  18. Transfer Reaction Studies with JENSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, P.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Chipps, K. A.; Greife, U.; Linhardt, L. E.; Kontos, A.; Kozub, R. L.; Matos, M.; Montes, F.; Pain, S. D.; Pittman, S. T.; Sachs, A.; Schatz, H.; Schmitt, K. T.; Smith, M. S.; Jensa Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics (JENSA) gas jet target system was designed to provide a gas target that was pure, localized, and dense. Several commissioning experiments with the JENSA target, performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), were undertaken to demonstrate the unique capability of JENSA for transfer reaction studies. JENSA has since completed its move from ORNL to the ReA3 reaccelerated beam hall at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). An overview of the JENSA design and operation will be presented, as well as a brief discussion of the experiments performed at ORNL with JENSA, with a focus on preliminary results from the 20Ne(p,t)18Ne commissioning experiment.

  19. Adoptive transfer of immune subsets prior to MCAO does not exacerbate stroke outcome in splenectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianming; Dotson, Abby L.; Murphy, Stephanie J.; Offner, Halina; Saugstad, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    The peripheral immune response contributes to neurologic impairment after stroke and the extent of initial damage is greater in males than females. We have previously shown that spleen cells directly contribute to ischemic damage in males, as splenectomy prior to experimental stroke eliminates the sex differences in infarct volume. This study aims to determine which specific subset of immune cells exert pathogenic effects when injected 24 hours before MCAO induction into splenectomized male and female WT mice. The results demonstrate that CD4/CD8/CD11b treated mice had no significant effect on infarct volumes vs. vehicle-treated control mice after MCAO. However, there were significant alterations to the resident peripheral immune composition. These results suggest that there are regulatory factors resulting from splenectomy or other possible influences that inhibit peripheral immune cell contribution to neuroinflammation and thus contributing to differential effects of the spleen on stroke outcome in males and female mice. PMID:26634148

  20. Adoptive transfer of pTRP2-specific CTLs expanding by bead-based artificial antigen-presenting cells mediates anti-melanoma response.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoling; Jiang, Xiaobing; Liu, Ruen; Zhao, Hongyang; Liang, Zhihui

    2008-11-18

    Cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are key effectors in the immunotherapy of malignant and viral diseases. However, the lack of efficient methods for their in vitro priming and expansion has become a bottleneck to the development of vaccines and adoptive transfer strategies. Synthetic artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) are now emerging as an attractive tool for eliciting and expanding CTL responses. This study reported a novel approach for targeting malignant melanoma with pTRP2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) expanded from the C57BL/6 splenocytes by multiple stimulations with aAPCs made by coating H-2K(b)-Ig/pTRP2 dimeric complexes, anti-CD28 antibody, 4-1BBL molecules and CD83 molecules to cell-sized latex beads. The induced CTLs exhibited specific lysis against RMA-S cells pulsed with the peptide pTRP2 and H-2K(b+) melanoma cells expressing TRP2, while a murine Lewis lung carcinoma cell line 3LL could not be recognized by the CTLs. The peptide-specific activity was inhibited by anti-H-2K(b) monoclonal antibody Y3. Adoptive Transfer of CTLs specific for malignant melanoma expanding by the aAPCs can mediate effective anti-melanoma response. These results suggested the bead-based aAPCs coated with an MHC-Ig/peptide complex, anti-CD28 antibody, 4-1BBL and CD83 could provide a useful tool for the reproducible expansion of specific CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:18621475

  1. Microturbine Economic Competitiveness: A Study of Two PotentialAdopters

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-12-31

    This project evaluates what $/kW subsidy on microturbines (MT's) makes them economically competitive with natural gas internal combustion engines (ICE's). The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is used to determine least cost solutions, including distributed generation (DG) investment and operation, to sites' energy demands. The first site considered is a hospital in New York City. The small hospital (90 beds) has a peak electric load (including cooling) of 1200 kW, with heat loads comparable to electric loads. Consolidated Edison electricity and natural gas tariffs for 2003 are used. A 60% minimum DG system efficiency is imposed on DG operation to avoid the standby tariff, which is less amenable to DG than the parent tariff. The second site considered is the Naval Base Ventura County commissary in Southern California. The commissary has 13,000 m{sup 2} of floor space and contains a large retail store, supermarket, food court, and other small businesses. The site peak electric load (including cooling) is 1050 kW. Electricity and natural gas supply are from direct access contracts, and delivery service is provided by Southern California Edison and Southern California Gas, respectively. 2003 supply and delivery rates are used.

  2. Adoptive Transfer of Dendritic Cells Expressing Fas Ligand Modulates Intestinal Inflammation in a Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Edelmarie Rivera; Isidro, Raymond A; Cruz, Myrella L; Marty, Harry; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing inflammatory conditions of unknown cause and likely result from the loss of immunological tolerance, which leads to over-activation of the gut immune system. Gut macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for maintaining tolerance, but can also contribute to the inflammatory response in conditions such as IBD. Current therapies for IBD are limited by high costs and unwanted toxicities and side effects. The possibility of reducing intestinal inflammation with DCs genetically engineered to over-express the apoptosis-inducing FasL (FasL-DCs) has not yet been explored. Objective Investigate the immunomodulatory effect of administering FasL-DCs in the rat trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model of acute colitis. Methods Expression of FasL on DCs isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of normal and TNBS-colitis rats was determined by flow cytometry. Primary rat bone marrow DCs were transfected with rat FasL plasmid (FasL-DCs) or empty vector (EV-DCs). The effect of these DCs on T cell IFNγ secretion and apoptosis was determined by ELISPOT and flow cytometry for Annexin V, respectively. Rats received FasL-DCs or EV-DCs intraperitoneally 96 and 48 hours prior to colitis induction with TNBS. Colonic T cell and neutrophil infiltration was determined by immunohistochemistry for CD3 and myeloperoxidase activity assay, respectively. Macrophage number and phenotype was measured by double immunofluorescence for CD68 and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase. Results MLN dendritic cells from normal rats expressed more FasL than those from colitic rats. Compared to EV-DCs, FasL-DCs reduced T cell IFNγ secretion and increased T cell apoptosis in vitro. Adoptive transfer of FasL-DCs decreased macroscopic and microscopic damage scores and reduced colonic T cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory macrophages when compared to EV-DC adoptive transfer. Conclusion FasL-DCs are effective at treating colonic

  3. Experimental Approaches to Studying Biological Electron Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Provides an overview on biological electron-transfer reactions, summarizing what is known about how distance, spatial organization, medium, and other factors affect electron transfer. Experimental approaches, including studies of bimolecular electron transfer reactions (electrostatic effects and precursor complexes), are considered. (JN)

  4. What Can an Adoption Study Tell Us About the Effect of Prenatal Environment on a Trait?

    PubMed

    Loehlin, John C

    2016-05-01

    Adoption studies provide possibilities for estimating the extent to which prenatal environmental events account for individual differences on a trait. Correlations with birth mothers but not adoptive mothers suggest the presence of genetic or prenatal environmental effects; higher correlations with birth mothers than with birth fathers suggest the presence of the latter. Changes over time may also be relevant. The concepts involved are illustrated with parent-child IQ correlations from the Texas and Colorado Adoption Projects. PMID:26210352

  5. Elementary Engineering Education (EEE) Adoption and Expertise Development Framework: An Inductive and Deductive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yan; Strobel, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Elementary engineering education (EEE) is an educational innovation. Using Rogers's innovation diffusion model, the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), and Dreyfus's skill acquisition model as its theoretical frameworks, this study investigated elementary teachers' EEE adoption and EEE expertise development. Data of this study were collected…

  6. Organizational Influences in Technology Adoption Decisions: A Case Study of Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the organizational level decision factors in technology adoption in the context of digital libraries. A qualitative case study approach was used to investigate the adoption of a specific technology, XML-based Web services, in digital libraries. Rogers' diffusion of innovations and Wenger's communities of…

  7. Faculty Adoption Behaviour about Web-Based Distance Education: A Case Study from China Agricultural University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yan; Lindner, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine China Agricultural University's (CAU's) faculty adoption behaviour about web-based distance education (WBDE). Rogers' (2003) model of five stages in the innovation-decision process was adopted and modified as the theoretical base for the study. Quantitative research was employed and the research design…

  8. A National Study of Fluoride Mouthrinse Adoption: Implications for School Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Jeanne A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The ongoing adoption of school-based fluoride mouthrinse programs has provided the opportunity to study issues surrounding the adoption and implementation of health technology by public schools. This article reports data on and implications of the National Study on the Diffusion of Preventive Health Measures to Schools. (Authors/CJ)

  9. The Study of Adopting Problem Based Learning in Normal Scale Class Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chia-ling

    2014-01-01

    This study adopts the Problem Based Learning (PBL) for pre-service teachers in teacher education program. The reasons to adopt PBL are the class scale is not a small class, the contents are too many to teach, and the technologies are ready to be used in classroom. This study used an intermediary, movie, for scenario to student to define the…

  10. MELOE-1 is a new antigen overexpressed in melanomas and involved in adoptive T cell transfer efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Godet, Yann; Moreau-Aubry, Agnès; Guilloux, Yannik; Vignard, Virginie; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Jotereau, Francine; Labarriere, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone was derived from a tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) population infused to a melanoma patient who remained relapse free for 10 yr after this adoptive transfer. This clone recognized all melanoma cell lines tested and, to a lower extent, melanocytes, in the context of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen A2 (HLA-A2), but it did not recognize other tumor cell types. The gene coding for the antigen recognized by this clone was identified by the screening of a melanoma complementary DNA expression library. This antigen is overexpressed in melanomas, compared with other cancer cell lines and healthy tissues, and was thus called melanoma-overexpressed antigen (meloe). Remarkably, the structure of meloe was unusual, with multiple short open reading frames (ORFs). The peptide recognized by the CTL clone was encoded by one of these ORFs, called MELOE-1. Using a specific HLA-A2/peptide tetramer, we showed a correlation between the infusion of TILs containing MELOE-1–specific T cells and relapse prevention in HLA-A2 patients. Indeed, 5 out of 9 patients who did not relapse were infused with TILs that contained MELOE-1–specific T cells, whereas 0 out of the 21 patients who relapsed was infused with such TIL-containing lymphocytes. Overall, our results suggest that this new antigen is involved in immunosurveillance and, thus, represents an attractive target for immunotherapy protocols of melanoma. PMID:18936238

  11. Metabolic phenotyping of an adoptive transfer mouse model of experimental colitis and impact of dietary fish oil intake.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Lichti, Pia; Bosco, Nabil; Brahmbhatt, Viral; Oliveira, Manuel; Haller, Dirk; Benyacoub, Jalil

    2015-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are acute and chronic disabling inflammatory disorders with multiple complex etiologies that are not well-defined. Chronic intestinal inflammation has been linked to an energy-deficient state of gut epithelium with alterations in oxidative metabolism. Plasma-, urine-, stool-, and liver-specific metabonomic analyses are reported in a naïve T cell adoptive transfer (AT) experimental model of colitis, which evaluated the impact of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet. Metabolic profiles of AT animals and their controls under chow diet or fish oil supplementation were compared to describe the (i) consequences of inflammatory processes and (ii) the differential impact of n-3 fatty acids. Inflammation was associated with higher glycoprotein levels (related to acute-phase response) and remodeling of PUFAs. Low triglyceride levels and enhanced PUFA levels in the liver suggest activation of lipolytic pathways that could lead to the observed increase of phospholipids in the liver (including plasmalogens and sphingomyelins). In parallel, the increase in stool excretion of most amino acids may indicate a protein-losing enteropathy. Fecal content of glutamine was lower in AT mice, a feature exacerbated under fish oil intervention that may reflect a functional relationship between intestinal inflammatory status and glutamine metabolism. The decrease in Krebs cycle intermediates in urine (succinate, α-ketoglutarate) also suggests a reduction in the glutaminolytic pathway at a systemic level. Our data indicate that inflammatory status is related to this overall loss of energy homeostasis. PMID:25751005

  12. Catching the spirit: a study of Bureau of Land Management wild horse adopters in New England.

    PubMed

    Koncel, Mary A; Rutberg, Allen T

    2012-01-01

    Between 1971 and 2009, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) adopted out nearly 225,000 horses and burros in the wild (wild horses and burro) who were removed from public lands (BLM, 2009). The inability of the BLM to adopt out wild horses as quickly as they are removed and recurring reports that many wild horse adoptions fail suggests that a better understanding of the adoption program is warranted. This study surveyed and interviewed 38 New Englanders who collectively adopted 68 wild horses directly from the BLM during the last 15 years. Adopters who participated in the study generally described their experiences as positive. They desired a range of horses in terms of age, gender, and color; they were flexible when deciding the activities that best suited their horses. Adopters' past knowledge of, and experience with, horses appeared not to play a major role in the success of the adoption. However, willingness to seek assistance and the availability of support were crucial for many of them. Based on the findings, the study made recommendations for better marketing of the program and improvement of the quality of adoptions. PMID:22233214

  13. Improved anti-leukemia activities of adoptively transferred T cells expressing bispecific T-cell engager in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Barrett, D M; Jiang, S; Fang, C; Kalos, M; Grupp, S A; June, C H; Zhao, Y

    2016-01-01

    Despite the impressive clinical efficacy of T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-Ts), the current applications of CAR-T cell therapy are limited by major treatment-related toxicity. Thus, safer yet effective alternative approaches must be developed. In this study, we compared CD19 bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE)-transferred T cells that had been transfected by RNA electroporation with CD19 CAR RNA-transferred T cells both in vitro and in an aggressive Nalm6 leukemia mouse model. BiTEs were secreted from the transferred T cells and enabled both the transferred and bystander T cells to specifically recognize CD19(+) cell lines, with increased tumor killing ability, prolonged functional persistence, increased cytokine production and potent proliferation compared with the CAR-T cells. More interestingly, in comparison with CD3/CD28 bead-stimulated T cells, T cells that were expanded by a rapid T-cell expansion protocol (REP) showed enhanced anti-tumor activities for both CAR and BiTE RNA-electroporated T cells both in vitro and in a Nalm6 mouse model (P<0.01). Furthermore, the REP T cells with BiTE RNAs showed greater efficacy in the Nalm6 leukemia model compared with REP T cells with CAR RNA (P<0.05) and resulted in complete leukemia remission. PMID:27258611

  14. Correlation of natural killer cell activity and clearance of Cryptococcus neoformans from mice after adoptive transfer of splenic nylon wool-nonadherent cells.

    PubMed

    Hidore, M R; Murphy, J W

    1986-02-01

    Previous reports demonstrate that natural killer (NK) cells inhibit the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro, but conclusive evidence supporting the effectiveness of NK cells in host resistance to cryptococci is not available. The objective of these studies was to assess the ability of NK cells to clear C. neoformans from the lungs, livers, and spleens of infected mice. CBA/J mice were depleted of NK cells, as well as other natural effector cells, by an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (Cy), 240 mg/kg of body weight. One day later, 7.5 X 10(7) nylon wool-nonadherent (NWN) spleen cells, either untreated or treated with anti-asialo GM1 and complement to remove NK cells, were adoptively transferred to Cy-pretreated mice. On day 2 after Cy treatment, the mice were injected intravenously with 2 X 10(4) cryptococci. At 4 and 6 days after Cy treatment, tissues were assayed for NK reactivity, using a 4-h 51Cr-release assay, and for in vivo clearance of cryptococci as reflected by mean log10 CFU per organ. We observed that Cy treatment depleted NK activity against YAC-1 targets and reduced in vivo clearance of C. neoformans from the tissues of infected mice. Additionally, Cy treatment depleted the total lung and spleen cellularity and the total number of peripheral blood lymphocytes when compared with those in normal untreated control mice. Also, spleen weights were significantly decreased in comparison with those of untreated animals 4 days after Cy treatment. Adoptive transfer of untreated NWN spleen cells into Cy-depressed mice restored the NK cell activity which correlated with enhanced clearance of cryptococci from lungs, livers, and spleens. In contrast, treatment of NWN spleen cells with anti-asialo GM1 and complement before adoptive transfer abrogated the ability of these cells to restore NK activity or reduce the numbers of cryptococci present in tissues of infected mice. Taken together, these data indicate that NK cells are the cells effective

  15. A Trend Study: Technology Adoption in the Teaching-Learning Process by Secondary Agriscience Teachers--2002 and 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotrlik, Joe W.; Redmann, Donna H.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine agriscience teachers' adoption of technology for use in instruction and to determine if their technology adoption and perceived barriers to technology adoption had changed since the 2002 benchmark study. This study was part of a larger study of technology adoption by secondary career and technical education…

  16. 8 CFR 204.311 - Convention adoption home study requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... child, as specified in 22 CFR 96.48(c), and the plans for post-placement monitoring specified in 22 CFR... or entity defined under 8 CFR 204.301 as a home study preparer for Convention cases may complete a... placed in the home. See 8 CFR 204.309(a) for the consequences of failure to disclose information...

  17. 8 CFR 204.311 - Convention adoption home study requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... child, as specified in 22 CFR 96.48(c), and the plans for post-placement monitoring specified in 22 CFR... or entity defined under 8 CFR 204.301 as a home study preparer for Convention cases may complete a... placed in the home. See 8 CFR 204.309(a) for the consequences of failure to disclose information...

  18. 8 CFR 204.311 - Convention adoption home study requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... child, as specified in 22 CFR 96.48(c), and the plans for post-placement monitoring specified in 22 CFR... or entity defined under 8 CFR 204.301 as a home study preparer for Convention cases may complete a... placed in the home. See 8 CFR 204.309(a) for the consequences of failure to disclose information...

  19. 8 CFR 204.311 - Convention adoption home study requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... child, as specified in 22 CFR 96.48(c), and the plans for post-placement monitoring specified in 22 CFR... or entity defined under 8 CFR 204.301 as a home study preparer for Convention cases may complete a... placed in the home. See 8 CFR 204.309(a) for the consequences of failure to disclose information...

  20. 8 CFR 204.311 - Convention adoption home study requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... child, as specified in 22 CFR 96.48(c), and the plans for post-placement monitoring specified in 22 CFR... or entity defined under 8 CFR 204.301 as a home study preparer for Convention cases may complete a... placed in the home. See 8 CFR 204.309(a) for the consequences of failure to disclose information...

  1. Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Black Adoptions: Single Parent Transracial, and Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.

    1986-01-01

    This longitudinal study of Black children reared in single-parent, transracial, and traditional adoptive homes reveals that most children grow well in these homes. Interest at this reporting is chiefly focused on the transracially adopted children because their pattern of racial identity development differs from that of children in Black homes.…

  3. The Economics of Policy Borrowing and Lending: A Study of Late Adopters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2006-01-01

    The article draws on interpretive frameworks from diffusion research and social network analysis to explore one particular "travelling reform"--outcomes-based education--that went global. The argument is made that by virtue of studying late adopters of a travelling reform one is examining globalisation. The cases in point for late adoption are…

  4. Benefit Transfer Studies: Myths, Pragmatism, and Idealism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Kevin J.; Bergstrom, John C.

    1992-03-01

    Benefit transfer has been an ongoing, practical analysis for years in legal proceedings and government policy analyses where timely benefit estimates are critically dependent on the use of existing data. Most benefit transfer studies to date have been conducted behind closed doors and have not been open to scholarly review, and no systematic research agenda has been established to determine whether benefit transfer estimates are valid for public policy analyses. In this paper we propose a systematic, conceptual foundation for conducting benefit transfer studies, and suggest a research agenda to identify conditions under which valid benefit transfer estimates can be derived. We conclude, however, that this research agenda must be accompanied by improved conduct and reporting of original valuation studies before benefit transfer can become a widely used tool in public policy analyses.

  5. High-level managers' considerations for RFID adoption in hospitals: an empirical study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hui-Min; Lin, I-Chun; Tseng, Ling-Tzu

    2014-02-01

    Prior researches have indicated that an appropriate adoption of information technology (IT) can help hospitals significantly improve services and operations. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is believed to be the next generation innovation technology for automatic data collection and asset/people tracking. Based on the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework, this study investigated high-level managers' considerations for RFID adoption in hospitals. This research reviewed literature related IT adoption in business and followed the results of a preliminary survey with 37 practical experts in hospitals to theorize a model for the RFID adoption in hospitals. Through a field survey of 102 hospitals and hypotheses testing, this research identified key factors influencing RFID adoption. Follow-up in-depth interviews with three high-level managers of IS department from three case hospitals respectively also presented an insight into the decision of RFID's adoption. Based on the research findings, cost, ubiquity, compatibility, security and privacy risk, top management support, hospital scale, financial readiness and government policy were concluded to be the key factors influencing RFID adoption in hospitals. For practitioners, this study provided a comprehensive overview of government policies able to promote the technology, while helping the RFID solution providers understand how to reduce the IT barriers in order to enhance hospitals' willingness to adopt RFID. PMID:24445396

  6. Cutaneous sensitivity induced by immunization with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. I. Induction, elicitation, and adoptive transfer analysis of cell-mediated cutaneous sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ch'ang, L.Y.; Colley, D.G.

    1986-06-01

    Exposure of C57BL/6 mice to highly irradiated (50 kR) cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni leads to the development of partial resistance against subsequent challenge with unattenuated cercariae. We have analyzed the cellular immune responses that occur during the afferent and efferent phases of this protective sensitization. Mice were immunized by exposure to irradiated S. mansoni cercariae. After challenge with irradiated cercariae, delayed-type (18-72 hr) cutaneous sensitivity reaction sites were rich in mononuclear cells and eosinophils. This reactivity was established by 4 days after sensitization, reached its maximum between 7 and 14 days after sensitization, and was maintained for over 20 weeks. These challenge reactions could be abrogated by treatment with either 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or 5 mg of hydrocortisone. Syngeneic adoptive transfer of cutaneous sensitivity was accomplished with lymphoid cells from the draining lymph nodes or spleens of mice sensitized 7-14 days previously. Negative selection studies of nylon-wool non-adherent cells from sensitized donors demonstrated that the cells responsible for transferring this eosinophil-rich, delayed-type cutaneous sensitivity to S. mansoni irradiated cercariae were Thy/sup -1 +/, Lyt/sup 1 +/, Lyt/sup 2 -/, surface Ig/sup -/ lymphocytes.

  7. The heritability of alcohol use disorders: a meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, B.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental risk factors in alcohol use disorders (AUDs), we performed a meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies and explored the impact of sex, assessment method (interview v. hospital/population records), and study design (twin v. adoption study) on heritability estimates. Method The literature was searched for all unique twin and adoption studies of AUD and identified 12 twin and five adoption studies. The data were then reconstructed and analyzed using ordinal data full information maximum likelihood in the OpenMx program. Heterogeneity was tested with likelihood ratio tests by equating the parameters across studies. Results There was no evidence for heterogeneity by study design, sex or assessment method. The best-fit estimate of the heritability of AUD was 0.49 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43–0.53], and the proportion of shared environmental variance was 0.10 (95% CI 0.03–0.16). Estimates of unique environmental proportions of variance differed significantly across studies. Conclusions AUD is approximately 50% heritable. The multiple genetically informative studies of this syndrome have produced consistent results that support the validity of this heritability estimate, especially given the different potential methodological weaknesses of twin and adoption designs, and of assessments of AUD based on personal interviews v. official records. We also found evidence for modest shared environmental effects suggesting that environmental factors also contribute to the familial aggregation of AUDs. PMID:25171596

  8. Program for transfer research and impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusnak, J. J.; Freeman, J. E.; Hartley, J. M.; Kottenstette, J. P.; Staskin, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Research activities conducted under the Program for Transfer Research and Impact Studies (TRIS) during 1972 included: (1) preparation of 10,196 TSP requests for TRIS application analysis; (2) interviews with over 500 individuals concerning the technical, economic, and social impacts of NASA-generated technology; (3) preparation of 38 new technology transfer example files and 101 new transfer cases; and (4) maintenance of a technology transfer library containing more than 2,900 titles. Six different modes of technology utilization are used to illustrate the pervasiveness of the transfer and diffusion of aerospace innovations. These modes also provide a basis for distinguishing the unique characteristics of the NASA Technology Utilization Program. An examination is reported of the ways in which NASA-generated technology is contributing to beneficial social change in five major areas of human concern: health, environment, safety, transportation, and communication.

  9. An experimental study of homophily in the adoption of health behavior.

    PubMed

    Centola, Damon

    2011-12-01

    How does the composition of a population affect the adoption of health behaviors and innovations? Homophily--similarity of social contacts--can increase dyadic-level influence, but it can also force less healthy individuals to interact primarily with one another, thereby excluding them from interactions with healthier, more influential, early adopters. As a result, an important network-level effect of homophily is that the people who are most in need of a health innovation may be among the least likely to adopt it. Despite the importance of this thesis, confounding factors in observational data have made it difficult to test empirically. We report results from a controlled experimental study on the spread of a health innovation through fixed social networks in which the level of homophily was independently varied. We found that homophily significantly increased overall adoption of a new health behavior, especially among those most in need of it. PMID:22144624

  10. Determinants affecting consumer adoption of contactless credit card: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Min

    2008-12-01

    The contactless credit card is one of the most promising technological innovations in the field of electronic payments. It provides consumers with greater control of payments, convenience, and transaction speed. However, contactless credit cards have yet to gain significant rates of adoption in the marketplace. Thus, effort must be made to identify factors affecting consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. Based on the technology acceptance model, innovation diffusion theory, and the relevant literature, seven variables (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, perceived risk, trust, consumer involvement, availability of infrastructure) are proposed to help predict consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. Data collected from 312 respondents in Taiwan is tested against the proposed prediction model using the logistic regression approach. The results and implications of our study contribute to an expanded understanding of the factors that affect consumer adoption of contactless credit cards. PMID:19072149

  11. Combination immunotherapy using adoptive T-cell transfer and tumor antigen vaccination on the basis of hTERT and survivin after ASCT for myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Aqui, Nicole A.; Stadtmauer, Edward A.; Vogl, Dan T.; Fang, Hong-Bin; Cai, Ling; Janofsky, Stephen; Chew, Anne; Storek, Jan; Akpek, Gorgun; Badros, Ashraf; Yanovich, Saul; Tan, Ming T.; Veloso, Elizabeth; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Cross, Alan; Philip, Sunita; Murphy, Heather; Bhagat, Rita; Zheng, Zhaohui; Milliron, Todd; Cotte, Julio; Cannon, Andrea; Levine, Bruce L.; Vonderheide, Robert H.; June, Carl H.

    2011-01-01

    In a phase 1/2 two-arm trial, 54 patients with myeloma received autografts followed by ex vivo anti-CD3/anti-CD28 costimulated autologous T cells at day 2 after transplantation. Study patients positive for human leukocyte antigen A2 (arm A, n = 28) also received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunizations before and after transplantation and a multipeptide tumor antigen vaccine derived from the human telomerase reverse transcriptase and the antiapoptotic protein survivin. Patients negative for human leukocyte antigen A2 (arm B, n = 26) received the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine only. Patients exhibited robust T-cell recoveries by day 14 with supraphysiologic T-cell counts accompanied by a sustained reduction in regulatory T cells. The median event-free survival (EFS) for all patients is 20 months (95% confidence interval, 14.6-24.7 months); the projected 3-year overall survival is 83%. A subset of patients in arm A (36%) developed immune responses to the tumor antigen vaccine by tetramer assays, but this cohort did not exhibit better EFS. Higher posttransplantation CD4+ T-cell counts and a lower percentage of FOXP3+ T cells were associated with improved EFS. Patients exhibited accelerated polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery compared with patients without T-cell transfers. Adoptive transfer of tumor antigen vaccine-primed and costimulated T cells leads to augmented and accelerated cellular and humoral immune reconstitution, including antitumor immunity, after autologous stem cell transplantation for myeloma. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00499577. PMID:21030558

  12. Diffusion of Innovation: A Case Study of Course Management System Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Phillip, Ed.D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the processes of evaluation, selection, adoption and diffusion of a course management system (CMS). This study incorporated a cross-case analysis using a multiple case study approach, which included two institutions, each having six participants. The participants were placed into three categories: faculty,…

  13. Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Waldman, Irwin D

    2002-05-01

    A meta-analysis of 51 twin and adoption studies was conducted to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior. The best fitting model included moderate proportions of variance due to additive genetic influences (.32), nonadditive genetic influences (.09), shared environmental influences (.16), and nonshared environmental influences (.43). The magnitude of familial influences (i.e., both genetic and shared environmental influences) was lower in parent-offspring adoption studies than in both twin studies and sibling adoption studies. Operationalization, assessment method, zygosity determination method, and age were significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior, but there were no significant differences in the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences for males and females. PMID:12002699

  14. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. PMID:27247964

  15. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. PMID:27247964

  16. Adoptive transfer of activated marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes induces measurable antitumor immunity in the bone marrow in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Kimberly A.; Huff, Carol A.; Davis, Janice; Lemas, M. Victor; Fiorino, Susan; Bitzan, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Anna; Emerling, Amy; Luznik, Leo; Matsui, William; Powell, Jonathan; Fuchs, Ephraim; Rosner, Gary L.; Epstein, Caroline; Rudraraju, Lakshmi; Ambinder, Richard F.; Jones, Richard J.; Pardoll, Drew; Borrello, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Successful adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) requires the ability to activate tumor-specific T cells with the ability to traffic to the tumor site and effectively kill their target as well as persist over time. We hypothesized that ACT using marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs) in multiple myeloma (MM) could impart greater antitumor immunity in that they were obtained from the tumor microenvironment. We describe the results from the first clinical trial using MILs in MM. Twenty-five patients with either newly diagnosed or relapsed disease had their MILs harvested, activated and expanded, and subsequently infused on the third day after myeloablative therapy. Cells were obtained and adequately expanded in all patients with anti-CD3/CD28 beads plus interleukin-2, and a median of 9.5 × 108 MILs were infused. Factors indicative of response to MIL ACT included (i) the presence of measurable myeloma-specific activity of the ex vivo expanded product, (ii) low endogenous bone marrow T cell interferon-γ production at baseline, (iii) a CD8+ central memory phenotype at baseline, and (iv) the generation and persistence of myeloma-specific immunity in the bone marrow at 1 year after ACT. Achieving at least a 90% reduction in disease burden significantly increased the progression-free survival (25.1 months versus 11.8 months; P = 0.01). This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of MILs as a form of ACT with applicability across many hematologic malignancies and possibly solid tumors infiltrating the bone marrow. PMID:25995224

  17. Adoptive transfer of activated marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes induces measurable antitumor immunity in the bone marrow in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Kimberly A; Huff, Carol A; Davis, Janice; Lemas, M Victor; Fiorino, Susan; Bitzan, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Anna; Emerling, Amy; Luznik, Leo; Matsui, William; Powell, Jonathan; Fuchs, Ephraim; Rosner, Gary L; Epstein, Caroline; Rudraraju, Lakshmi; Ambinder, Richard F; Jones, Richard J; Pardoll, Drew; Borrello, Ivan

    2015-05-20

    Successful adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) requires the ability to activate tumor-specific T cells with the ability to traffic to the tumor site and effectively kill their target as well as persist over time. We hypothesized that ACT using marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs) in multiple myeloma (MM) could impart greater antitumor immunity in that they were obtained from the tumor microenvironment. We describe the results from the first clinical trial using MILs in MM. Twenty-five patients with either newly diagnosed or relapsed disease had their MILs harvested, activated and expanded, and subsequently infused on the third day after myeloablative therapy. Cells were obtained and adequately expanded in all patients with anti-CD3/CD28 beads plus interleukin-2, and a median of 9.5 × 10(8) MILs were infused. Factors indicative of response to MIL ACT included (i) the presence of measurable myeloma-specific activity of the ex vivo expanded product, (ii) low endogenous bone marrow T cell interferon-γ production at baseline, (iii) a CD8(+) central memory phenotype at baseline, and (iv) the generation and persistence of myeloma-specific immunity in the bone marrow at 1 year after ACT. Achieving at least a 90% reduction in disease burden significantly increased the progression-free survival (25.1 months versus 11.8 months; P = 0.01). This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of MILs as a form of ACT with applicability across many hematologic malignancies and possibly solid tumors infiltrating the bone marrow. PMID:25995224

  18. Faculty Perceptions of the Adoption and Use of Clickers in the Legal Studies in Business Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farag, Denise M.; Park, Susan; Kaupins, Gundars

    2015-01-01

    The use of clickers in the classroom can improve student engagement and motivation. However, few studies have been conducted on faculty opinions of the use of clickers. The authors measured clicker use in legal studies among business faculty and investigated perceptions and factors associated with the adoption of clickers in the discipline. Survey…

  19. Re-Invention in Adoption: A Study of Community Mental Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Judith K.; Agarwala-Rogers, Rekha

    The present study re-analyzed data from a previous study in order to explore the issue of re-invention of innovations in the process of implementation by organizations following recommendations from consultants. It was hypothesized that ideas with certain characteristics would be more likely to be re-invented than adopted without change. The…

  20. The Development of Adopted Children after Institutional Care: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorria, Panayiota; Papaligoura, Zaira; Sarafidou, Jasmin; Kopakaki, Maria; Dunn, Judy; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Kontopoulou, Antigoni

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research suggests that institutional care has long-lasting effects on children. However, no study has longitudinally studied infants in an institution and their subsequent development at age four. Methods: Sixty-one adopted children aged four years who had spent their first two years of life in an institution were compared to 39…

  1. The Question of Best Interest of the Child in Failed Adoptions: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Stacey; Weinberg, Anita

    2001-01-01

    This case study details a problematic adoption. The study briefly describes the requirements of constitutional and Illinois law that set the framework for the ChildLaw Center's internal debate on the case, presents the competing considerations confronted in the case, and the decision made and the implications of the appellate court ruling in the…

  2. Benefits of ICT adoption and use in regional general medical practices: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Rob; Hyland, Peter; Harvei, Charles; Lee, Boon-Chye; Dalley, Andrew; Ramu, Sangeetha

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a pilot study of benefits derived from information and communications technology(ICT) adoption and use in medical practices in regional Australia. The study involved 122 regional medical practitioners. The results show that like the more general small business sector, the perception of certain benefits is associated with the size of the practice (in terms of employee levels) and/or the gender of the respondent practitioner. The data also showed that the level of skill of certain software used within the practice was significantly associated with the level of perceived benefit derived from ICT adoption and use. PMID:18195425

  3. Heat transfer studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, R.; Chen, Y.T.

    1996-04-12

    Many simple (without thermal effects) ground-water flow models have been used for analysis of water resource problems since the 1960`s. The emphasis on more complicated ground-water flow models began to shift with the focus on waste management problems during the 1970`s. The ground-water flow model development has shifted to unsaturated flow models because the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was selected as a potential high-level radioactive waste disposal site. Many unsaturated flow models have been developed and used since the mid-1980`s. A few unsaturated flow models have also been developed in the 1990`s. Under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) has the responsibility to review, evaluate, and document the existing computer models; to conduct performance assessments; and to develop performance assessment models, where necessary. Two major regulatory requirements are the main criteria for selection of ground-water flow models in the unsaturated zone. One is of calculating the pre-emplacement ground-water travel time. Our work has focused on visualization techniques, and experiments that could have more application quantitatively. Many studies are summarized in this report.

  4. Orbital transfer vehicle engine integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    NASA-LeRC is sponsoring industry studies to establish the technology base for an advanced engine for orbital transfer vehicles for mid-1990s IOC. Engine contractors are being assisted by vehicle contractors to define the requirements, interface conditions, and operational design criteria for new LO2-LH2 propulsion systems applicable to future orbit transfer vehicles and to assess the impacts on space basing, man rating, and low-G transfer missions on propulsion system design requirements. The results of a study is presented. The primary study emphasis was to determine what the OTV engine thrust level should be, how many engines are required on the OTV, and how the OTV engine should be designed. This was accomplished by evaluating planned OTV missions and concepts to determine the requirements for the OTV propulsion system, conducting tradeoffs and comparisons to optimize OTV capability, and evaluating reliability and maintenance to determine the recommended OTV engine design for future development.

  5. Studying Transfer Students. Part II: Dimensions of Transfer Students' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laanan, Frankie Santos

    2007-01-01

    The movement of students from community colleges to 4-year colleges or universities has been an area of inquiry that has received attention from researchers and policy makers. A plethora of research has focused on the academic outcomes of transfer students at senior institutions. Specifically, the concept of "transfer shock" has been used to…

  6. Early adversity, hypocortisolism, and behavior problems at school entry: A study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Koss, Kalsea J; Mliner, Shanna B; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-04-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is influenced by early life adversity; however, less is known about the potential for recovery following marked improvements in care. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children's cortisol reactivity in the laboratory (4 assessments over 2 years) after adoption. Post-institutionalized (N=65) and post-foster care children (N=49) demonstrated blunted reactivity relative to non-adopted peers (N=53). Furthermore, post-institutionalized children exhibited no evidence of expected adaptation to repeated sessions in the 2 years following adoption. As evidenced by blunted cortisol reactivity, flatter diurnal slope, and lower home morning cortisol, we found support for hypocortisolism among children experiencing adverse early care. Hypocortisolism served as a mediator between adversity and teacher-reported attention and externalizing problems during kindergarten. Early adversity appears to contribute to the down-regulation of the HPA axis under both basal and stress conditions. PMID:26773398

  7. Cultural Socialization in Families with Adopted Korean Adolescents: A Mixed-Method, Multi-Informant Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Oh Myo; Reichwald, Reed; Lee, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Transracial, transnational families understand and transmit cultural socialization messages in ways that differ from same-race families. This study explored the ways in which transracial, transnational adoptive families discuss race and ethnicity and how these family discussions compared to self-reports from adoptive parents and adolescents regarding the level of parental engagement in cultural socialization. Of the thirty families with at least one adolescent-aged child (60% female, average age 17.8 years) who was adopted from South Korea, nine families acknowledged racial and ethnic differences, six families rejected racial and ethnic differences, and fifteen families held a discrepancy of views. Parents also reported significantly greater engagement in cultural socialization than adolescents’ reports of parental engagement. However, only adolescent self-reports of parental engagement in cultural socialization matched the qualitative coding of family conversations. PMID:24235782

  8. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

  9. Adoption of Computer Communication Technology by Communication Faculty: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herling, Thomas J.

    A comparative case study investigated the extent of adoption of computer communication in two schools of communication. S. Ram's model of resistance to innovation was used as a theoretical framework. Subjects, 16 faculty at a medium-sized state school in the southern United States and 16 faculty at a large private institution in the Northeast,…

  10. The Diffusion and Adoption of STS in the Social Studies: Some Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Gerald W.

    This paper examines the rapid changes in technology that enables cloning of human embryos and explores the issues related to teaching students about the use of such technologies. STS adoption has made only minimal impact on mainline social studies curriculum, although the topic has been included in discussion for decades. The paper outlines five…

  11. Adopting Creative Pedagogy into Asian Classrooms?--"Case Studies of Primary School Teachers' Responses and Dilemma"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-sien

    2012-01-01

    Albeit school teachers' traditional concepts are believed one of the obstacles of fostering children's creativity, their voices and demands were not heard among the attempts of promoting creativity education in Taiwan. This study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of primary school teachers' responses of adopting creative pedagogy in an Asian…

  12. The Challenge for Change in Rural Chile; A Study on Diffusion and Adoption of Agricultural Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menanteau-Horta, Dario

    Purposes of the study were (1) to present some of the problems of the organizational structure of Chilean agriculture, and (2) to explore some of the factors related to diffusion and adoption of agricultural practices as aspects of social and technological change and development. Two central factors considered in the research problem were (1)…

  13. Organizational and Social Factors in the Adoption of Intranet 2.0: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bohyun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the intranet implementation and adoption process of a SharePoint intranet at a small academic library and investigates why the many Web 2.0 tools of the library intranet are currently underused. Staff interviews showed that common goals for an intranet, such as information dissemination, knowledge sharing,…

  14. Adoption of an Outdoor Residential Hall Smoking Policy in a California Public University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Trit; Fradkin, Nicholas; Moskowitz, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Because secondhand smoke is a public health concern, many colleges have adopted bans to ensure healthier environments. This study demonstrates how outdoor smoking policy change can be accomplished at a large public university. Participants: The participants were 1,537 students housed in residential communities at the University of…

  15. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  16. The Influence of the Social Network: A Phenomenological Study of Early Adopter Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrange Coston, Rita Louise

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of 20 early adopter consumers, who used social networks in their decision-making process to purchase a component or complete high-technology home entertainment system. Four core themes of communication, convenience, cost, and technology emerged. Subthemes encompassed…

  17. A Study of the Readability of Reading Textbooks Adopted for Use in California Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Russell W., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference in the readability of three collections of reading textbooks adopted for use in California for four student groups--culturally disadvantaged, slow, average, and fast. The Botel readability formula was applied to nine, 100-word samples taken from a total of twenty-four…

  18. Incorporating social impact on new product adoption in choice modeing: A case study in green vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lin; Wang, Mingxian; Chen, Wei; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2014-10-01

    While discrete choice analysis is prevalent in capturing consumer preferences and describing their choice behaviors in product design, the traditional choice modeling approach assumes that each individual makes independent decisions, without considering the social impact. However, empirical studies show that choice is social - influenced by many factors beyond engineering performance of a product and consumer attributes. To alleviate this limitation, we propose a new choice modeling framework to capture the dynamic influence from social networks on consumer adoption of new products. By introducing social influence attributes into a choice utility function, social network simulation is integrated with the traditional discrete choice analysis in a three-stage process. Our study shows the need for considering social impact in forecasting new product adoption. Using hybrid electric vehicles as an example, our work illustrates the procedure of social network construction, social influence evaluation, and choice model estimation based on data from the National Household Travel Survey. Our study also demonstrates several interesting findings on the dynamic nature of new technology adoption and how social networks may influence hybrid electric vehicle adoption. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  19. Organizational Culture Shapes the Adoption and Incorporation of Simulation into Nursing Curricula: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Susan M.; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To create a substantive mid-range theory explaining how the organizational cultures of undergraduate nursing programs shape the adoption and incorporation of mid-to high-level technical fidelity simulators as a teaching strategy within curricula. Method. A constructivist grounded theory was used to guide this study which was conducted in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-12. Semistructured interviews (n = 43) with participants that included nursing administrators, nursing faculty, and simulation leaders across multiple programs (n = 13) informed this study. Additionally, key documents (n = 67) were reviewed. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Data were compared among and between sites. Findings. The organizational elements that shape simulation in nursing (OESSN) model depicts five key organizational factors at the nursing program level that shaped the adoption and incorporation of simulation: (1) leaders working in tandem, (2) information exchange, (3) physical locale, (4) shared motivators, and (5) scaffolding to manage change. Conclusions. The OESSN model provides an explanation of the organizational factors that contributed to the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Nursing programs that use the OESSN model may experience a more rapid or broad uptake of simulation when organizational factors that impact adoption and incorporation are considered and planned for. PMID:24818018

  20. Early deprivation and home basal cortisol levels: a study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Kertes, Darlene A; Gunnar, Megan R; Madsen, Nicole J; Long, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    Animal studies reveal that early deprivation impairs regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, potentially increasing vulnerability to stressors throughout life. To examine early deprivation effects on basal HPA axis activity in humans, basal cortisol levels were examined in 164 internationally adopted children who had experienced varying degrees of preadoption deprivation. Duration of institutional care, age at adoption, and parent ratings of preadoption neglect indexed a latent factor of Deprived Care. Adoption measures of height and weight standardized to World Health Organisation norms indexed a latent factor of Growth Delay that was viewed as another reflection of deprivation. Cortisol samples were collected 3.3-11.6 years postadoption (Md = 7.3 years) at home on 3 days approximately 30 min after wakeup and before bedtime. Both early a.m. levels and the decrease in cortisol across the day were examined. A structural equation model revealed that preadoption Deprived Care predicted Growth Delay at adoption and Growth Delay predicted higher morning cortisol levels and a larger diurnal cortisol decrease. PMID:18423090

  1. Why clinical nurse educators adopt innovative teaching strategies: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janet M; Vinten, Sharon A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to describe intentions to adopt innovative teaching strategies in clinical educators who have participated in an online course focusing on the role of clinical teaching (N = 71). Innovative teaching strategies were defined as those that embrace the tenets of sociocultural theory, a student-centered approach whereby the role of the nurse educator is to motivate and support the student and, in mutual process, to push students to reach toward their learning potential by using guiding techniques that can be erected or gradually reduced based on the individual student's learning needs. Participants stated that three factors proposed in the Rogers theory of diffusion of innovation (compatibility, trialability, and relative advantage) would be most influential in the adoption of innovative teaching strategies. Encouraging students to explore and apply new knowledge was described as the teaching strategy most likely to be adopted. Intent to adopt innovative teaching strategies may provide insight into the development of organizational climates in schools of nursing that could foster needed changes in clinical teaching. PMID:20882862

  2. Phase I Trial of Adoptive Cell Transfer with Mixed-Profile Type-I/Type-II Allogeneic T Cells for Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Nancy M.; Mossoba, Miriam E.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Fellowes, Vicki; Yan, Xiao-Yi; Hakim, Frances T.; Babb, Rebecca R.; Avila, Daniele; Gea-Banacloche, Juan; Sportès, Claude; Levine, Bruce L.; June, Carl H.; Khuu, Hahn M.; Carpenter, Ashley E.; Krumlauf, Michael C.; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Gress, Ronald E.; Fowler, Daniel H.; Bishop, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) response to allogeneic lymphocytes requires donor T-cell engraftment and is limited by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In mice, Type-II-polarized T cells promote engraftment and modulate GVHD whereas Type-I-polarized T cells mediate more potent graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects. This Phase-I translational study evaluated adoptive transfer of ex-vivo-costimulated Type-I/Type-II (T1/T2) donor T cells with T-cell-depleted (TCD) allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (AlloSCT) for MBC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Patients had received anthracycline, taxane and antibody therapies, been treated for metastatic disease and an HLA-identical-sibling donor. Donor lymphocytes were costimulated ex vivo with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibody-coated magnetic beads in IL-2/IL-4-supplemented media. Patients received reduced-intensity conditioning, donor stem cells and T1/T2 cells, and monitoring for toxicity, engraftment, GVHD and tumor response; results were compared with historical controls, identically treated except for T1/T2-product infusions. RESULTS Mixed Type-I/Type-II CD4+-T cells predominated in T1/T2 products. Nine patients received T1/T2 cells at Dose-Level 1 (5×106 cells/kg). T-cell donor chimerism reached 100% by a median of 28 days. Seven (78%) developed acute GVHD. At Day +28, five patients had partial responses (56%) and none had MBC progression; thereafter, two patients had continued responses. Donor-T-cell engraftment and tumor responses appeared faster than in historical controls, but GVHD rates were similar and responders progressed early, often following treatment of acute GVHD. CONCLUSION Allogeneic T1/T2 cells were safely infused with TCD-AlloSCT, appeared to promote donor engraftment, and may have contributed to transient early tumor responses. PMID:21948234

  3. Social networks and physician adoption of electronic health records: insights from an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Padman, Rema; Krackhardt, David; Johnson, Michael P; Diamond, Herbert S

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study how social interactions influence physician adoption of an electronic health records (EHR) system. Design A social network survey was used to delineate the structure of social interactions among 40 residents and 15 attending physicians in an ambulatory primary care practice. Social network analysis was then applied to relate the interaction structures to individual physicians' utilization rates of an EHR system. Measurements The social network survey assessed three distinct types of interaction structures: professional network based on consultation on patient care-related matters; friendship network based on personal intimacy; and perceived influence network based on a person's perception of how other people have affected her intention to adopt the EHR system. EHR utilization rates were measured as the proportion of patient visits in which sentinel use events consisting of patient data documentation or retrieval activities were recorded. The usage data were collected over a time period of 14 months from computer-recorded audit trail logs. Results Neither the professional nor the perceived influence network is correlated with EHR usage. The structure of the friendship network significantly influenced individual physicians' adoption of the EHR system. Residents who occupied similar social positions in the friendship network shared similar EHR utilization rates (p<0.05). In other words, residents who had personal friends in common tended to develop comparable levels of EHR adoption. This effect is particularly prominent when the mutual personal friends of these ‘socially similar’ residents were attending physicians (p<0.001). Conclusions Social influence affecting physician adoption of EHR seems to be predominantly conveyed through interactions with personal friends rather than interactions in professional settings. PMID:20442152

  4. A novel multimeric form of FasL modulates the ability of diabetogenic T cells to mediate type 1 diabetes in an adoptive transfer model

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Deanna D.H.; Yolcu, Esma S.; Alard, Pascale; Kosiewicz, Michele M.; Shirwan, Haval

    2007-01-01

    Activation induced cell death (AICD) via Fas/FasL is the primary homeostatic molecular mechanism employed by the immune system to control activated T-cell responses and promote tolerance to self-antigens. We herein investigated the ability of a novel multimeric form of FasL chimeric with streptavidin (SA-FasL) having potent apoptotic activity to induce apoptosis in diabetogenic T cells and modulate insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes (IDDM) in an adoptive transfer model. Diabetogenic splenocytes from NOD/Lt females were co-cultured in vitro with SA-FasL, SA control protein, or alone without protein, and adoptively transferred into NOD/Lt-Rag1null recipients for diabetes development. All animals receiving control (Alone: n=16 or SA: n=17) cells developed diabetes on average by 6 weeks, whereas animals receiving SA-FasL-treated (n = 25) cells exhibited significantly delayed progression (p<.001) and decreased incidence (70%). This effect was associated with an increase in CD4+CD25+ T cells and correlated with FoxP3 expression in pancreatic lymph nodes. Extracorporeal treatment of peripheral blood lymphocytes using SA-FasL during disease onset represents a novel approach that may alter the ability of pathogenic T cells to mediate diabetes and have therapeutic utility in clinical management of IDDM. PMID:17324464

  5. Perspectives on the enablers of e-heath adoption: an international interview study of leading practitioners.

    PubMed

    Moxham, Claire; Chambers, Naomi; Girling, Jeff; Garg, Shruti; Jelfs, Elizabeth; Bremner, Jeni

    2012-08-01

    Studies examining the application of information technology to the delivery of health-care services often highlight the anticipated benefits. In consequence, the benefits of health-care information technology adoption, often referred to as 'e-health', are widely reported yet there is limited empirical evidence as to how such benefits can be realized. Design and implementation guidelines have been considered from a socio-technical perspective and there is support for the successful application of these principles. There are also some global surveys on the topic, but these often report only statistical data and lack richness of content. This study draws on existing literature to examine whether the principles of health-care information technology adoption are currently applied in practice. The paper presents a timely international analysis of the drivers, critical enablers and successful deployment strategies for e-health from the perspective of leading practitioners. The study considers the adoption of e-health in 15 countries. A qualitative research design was used and semistructured interviews were conducted with 38 thought leaders with expertise in health-care information systems and technology. The study presents a comparative analysis of the lessons learned from implementing, integrating and embedding e-health in practice, and presents a four-phase approach from the perspective of practitioners for the accelerated deployment of e-health systems: (i) develop a strategic approach, (ii) engage the workforce, (iii) capitalize on information technology and (iv) partner with the patient/citizen. PMID:23135887

  6. Translating Training Science into Practice: A Study of Managers' Reactions to Posttraining Transfer Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huint, Philip; Saks, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    In a randomized 2x2 study, 174 managers and students read one of four scenarios with one of two posttraining transfer interventions (relapse prevention, supervisor support training) and information types (utility analysis, research). They showed no preference for adopting either intervention to increase staff productivity. Research information was…

  7. Lunar Wireless Power Transfer Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon Freid, et al.

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a multi-kilowatt wireless radio frequency (RF) power system to transfer power between lunar base facilities. Initial analyses, show that wireless power transfer (WPT) systems can be more efficient and less expensive than traditional wired approaches for certain lunar and terrestrial applications. The study includes evaluations of the fundamental limitations of lunar WPT systems, the interrelationships of possible operational parameters, and a baseline design approach for a notionial system that could be used in the near future to power remote facilities at a lunar base. Our notional system includes state-of-the-art photovoltaics (PVs), high-efficiency microwave transmitters, low-mass large-aperture high-power transmit antennas, high-efficiency large-area rectenna receiving arrays, and reconfigurable DC combining circuitry.

  8. Transfer research and impact studies program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. E. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Methods developed for stimulating interest in the transfer of NASA-originated technology are described. These include: new information packaging concepts; technology transfer via people transfer; information management systems; data bank operations; and professional communication activities.

  9. Transactions between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence from a Prospective Adoption Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months…

  10. Orbital transfer vehicle engine integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Industry studies were undertaken to establish the technology base for an advanced engine for Orbital Transfer Vehicles for mid-1990s IOC. This paper presents the results of a study conducted by General Dynamics Convair Division, under contract to Aerojet TechSystems Company for NASA-LeRC, to define requirements, interface conditions, and operational design criteria for new LO2/LH2 propulsion systems applicable to future Orbit Transfer Vehicles, and to assess the impacts of space basing, man rating, and low-g transfer on propulsion system design requirements. The primary study emphasis was to determine what the OTV engine thrust level should be, how many engines are required on the OTV, and how the OTV engine should be designed. This was accomplished by evaluating planned OTV missions and concepts to determine the requirements for the OTV propulsion system, conducting tradeoffs and comparisons to optimize OTV capability, and evaluating reliability and maintenance to determine the recommended OTV engine design for future development.

  11. First Parent-Child Meetings in International Adoptions: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Radjack, Rahmeth; Sibeoni, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    International adoptions involve approximately 30000 children worldwide each year. Nearly all of the adoptive parents travel to the child's country of birth to meet them and bring them home. The objective of this study is to analyze the adoptive parents' account of their first meetings with their child. The study includes 46 parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on these first parent-child meetings. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from the analysis of the interviews were: the scene when the child is entrusted to the parents, the discovery of the child's body, and the first parent-child interaction. Within these three principal themes, several subthemes dealt with difficult experiences: moments of solitude and anxiety, shocking images of the children's living conditions, lack of preparation and of information about the child, poor health, parental reactions of rejection, worry about the child's body, aggressive reactions by the child, worry about the child's reactions, and contrast with the expected interaction. Thirty-two interviews included at least one of these subthemes. At the structural level of the discourse; the characteristics of 33 interviews are those described in the literature as significantly more frequent in traumatized than in non-traumatized subjects. These results raise questions about the consequences of difficult, possibly traumatic experiences, at the moment of meeting the child, and they underline the need for work on preparation and prevention before the parents leave on their journey. PMID:24086500

  12. Awareness, diffusion of information and reasons for adoption of vasectomy: a study of family planning in Bihar.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R P

    1973-03-01

    A survey carried out to study problems related to Indian vasectomy camps organized at Patna and Jamue towns had the following major purposes: 1) to determine to what extent vasectomy adopters were aware of the family planning program; 2) to determine advantages perceived of adopting vasectomy; 3) to determine how the adopters became aware of the vasectomy camps; and 4) to determine why adopters chose permanent conception control. 200 adopters from Patna and an equal number from Jamue were selected, based on an accidental sampling technique whereby each adopter was contacted and persuaded to be interviewed. It was found that a majority of the adopters were illiterates. Among advantages listed by adopters, the importance of family planning seemed to be subdued by propensity to better their economic condition. It was seen that the literate adopters have a much higher proportion of awareness of the need for family planning and population control. Concerning diffusion of information, the informal and interpersonal sources were equally effective and conducive for the adopters. More than l/2 of the adopters relied upon information provided by friends. In general, higher levels of education correlate with less influence of friends as communicators. The official sources turned out to be effective for the more highly educated adopters. The following advantages were called out as reasons for vasectomy adoption by adopter : 1) permanence; 2) economical reasons; 3) no reason; or 4) many reasons. Whatever the reasons, it is obvious that vasectomy is gaining momentum gradually and people are becoming aware of the underlying advantages of permanent conception control. PMID:12277430

  13. Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government

  14. Policy Borrowing and Transfer, and Policy Convergence: Justifications for the Adoption of the Bologna Process in the CEMAC Region and the Cameroonian Higher Education System through the LMD Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor

    2015-01-01

    The borrowing and transfer of policies, ideas and practices from one system to another may in part explain the convergence of educational systems. Using text documents as research material, this paper examines the adoption and transfer of Bologna Process (BP) ideas in the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) and in the…

  15. The Adoption and Diffusion of eLearning in UK Universities: A Comparative Case Study Using Giddens's Theory of Structuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardaker, Glenn; Singh, Gurmak

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study seeks to identify the factors that influence the adoption and diffusion of instructional technology at five prominent universities in the UK. The study aims to examine the organisational factors that enable and inhibit organisational adoption and diffusion of innovation. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative…

  16. Adoptive transfer of allergen-specific CD4+ T cells induces airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in brown-Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Haczku, A; Macary, P; Huang, T J; Tsukagoshi, H; Barnes, P J; Kay, A B; Kemeny, D M; Chung, K F; Moqbel, R

    1997-06-01

    Following allergen exposure, sensitized Brown-Norway rats develop airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophilic inflammation together with an increase in activated T cells (CD25+) in the airways. We tested the hypothesis that CD4+ T cells are involved directly in the acquisition of AHR. Spleen T cells from animals that were injected intraperitoneally on three consecutive days with ovalbumin/Al(OH)3, showed a dose-dependent proliferative response in vitro to ovalbumin, but not to bovine serum albumin, as measured by [3H]thymidine uptake. For total T-cell transfer, spleen cells obtained from donor rats 4 days after sensitization were depleted of adherent cells by a nylon wool column separation. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were purified by immunomagnetic beads cell separation. Recipient naive rats were injected intravenously with 50 x 10(6) total T cells, 20 x 10(6) and 5 x 10(6) CD4+ cells, and 5 x 10(6) CD8+ cells, and were exposed to ovalbumin aerosol 24 hr afterwards. After a further 24 hr, airway responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) was measured and provocative concentration (PC) values PC100, PC200 and PC300) (the ACh concentration needed to achieve 100, 200 and 300% increase in lung resistance above baseline) were calculated. Airway responsiveness was significantly increased in recipients of sensitized total T cells compared with recipients of cells from saline-injected donor rats (P < 0.05). There were significantly increased eosinophil major basic protein (MBP)+ cell counts/mm2 in airway submucosal tissue in the hyperreactive rats and a significant correlation was found between the number of MBP+ cells and PC100 (r = 0.75; P < 0.03) in recipients of sensitized total T cells. Purified CD4+ T cells from sensitized donors induced AHR in naive recipients (P < 0.05), while sensitized CD8+ and naive CD4+ cells failed to do so. Our data indicate that T cells may induce AHR through an eosinophilic airway inflammation and that CD4+ T cells may have a direct effect in

  17. Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction Develops at the Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, and Can Be Induced by Adoptive Transfer of Auto-Reactive T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Mehrnaz; Bredberg, Anders; Weström, Björn; Lavasani, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a pathogenesis involving a dysfunctional blood-brain barrier and myelin-specific, autoreactive T cells. Although the commensal microbiota seems to affect its pathogenesis, regulation of the interactions between luminal antigens and mucosal immune elements remains unclear. Herein, we investigated whether the intestinal mucosal barrier is also targeted in this disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the prototypic animal model of MS, was induced either by active immunization or by adoptive transfer of autoreactive T cells isolated from these mice. We show increased intestinal permeability, overexpression of the tight junction protein zonulin and alterations in intestinal morphology (increased crypt depth and thickness of the submucosa and muscularis layers). These intestinal manifestations were seen at 7 days (i.e., preceding the onset of neurological symptoms) and at 14 days (i.e., at the stage of paralysis) after immunization. We also demonstrate an increased infiltration of proinflammatory Th1/Th17 cells and a reduced regulatory T cell number in the gut lamina propria, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. Adoptive transfer to healthy mice of encephalitogenic T cells, isolated from EAE-diseased animals, led to intestinal changes similar to those resulting from the immunization procedure. Our findings show that disruption of intestinal homeostasis is an early and immune-mediated event in EAE. We propose that this intestinal dysfunction may act to support disease progression, and thus represent a potential therapeutic target in MS. In particular, an increased understanding of the regulation of tight junctions at the blood-brain barrier and in the intestinal wall may be crucial for design of future innovative therapies. PMID:25184418

  18. The Endogenous Th17 Response in NO2-Promoted Allergic Airway Disease Is Dispensable for Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Distinct from Th17 Adoptive Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rebecca A.; Ather, Jennifer L.; Daggett, Rebecca; Hoyt, Laura; Alcorn, John F.; Suratt, Benjamin T.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Lundblad, Lennart K. A.; Poynter, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    Severe, glucocorticoid-resistant asthma comprises 5-7% of patients with asthma. IL-17 is a biomarker of severe asthma, and the adoptive transfer of Th17 cells in mice is sufficient to induce glucocorticoid-resistant allergic airway disease. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an environmental toxin that correlates with asthma severity, exacerbation, and risk of adverse outcomes. Mice that are allergically sensitized to the antigen ovalbumin by exposure to NO2 exhibit a mixed Th2/Th17 adaptive immune response and eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment to the airway following antigen challenge, a phenotype reminiscent of severe clinical asthma. Because IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling is critical in the generation of the Th17 response in vivo, we hypothesized that the IL-1R/Th17 axis contributes to pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in NO2-promoted allergic airway disease and manifests in glucocorticoid-resistant cytokine production. IL-17A neutralization at the time of antigen challenge or genetic deficiency in IL-1R resulted in decreased neutrophil recruitment to the airway following antigen challenge but did not protect against the development of AHR. Instead, IL-1R-/- mice developed exacerbated AHR compared to WT mice. Lung cells from NO2-allergically inflamed mice that were treated in vitro with dexamethasone (Dex) during antigen restimulation exhibited reduced Th17 cytokine production, whereas Th17 cytokine production by lung cells from recipient mice of in vitro Th17-polarized OTII T-cells was resistant to Dex. These results demonstrate that the IL-1R/Th17 axis does not contribute to AHR development in NO2-promoted allergic airway disease, that Th17 adoptive transfer does not necessarily reflect an endogenously-generated Th17 response, and that functions of Th17 responses are contingent on the experimental conditions in which they are generated. PMID:24069338

  19. Combined IL-15 and IL-12 drives the generation of CD34+-derived natural killer cells with superior maturation and alloreactivity potential following adoptive transfer

    PubMed Central

    Cany, Jeannette; van der Waart, Anniek B; Spanholtz, Jan; Tordoir, Marleen; Jansen, Joop H; van der Voort, Robbert; Schaap, Nicolaas M; Dolstra, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells represents a promising treatment approach against cancer, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previously, we reported a cytokine-based culture method for the generation of NK cell products with high cell number and purity. In this system, CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) were expanded and differentiated into NK cells under stroma-free conditions in the presence of IL-15 and IL-2. We show that combining IL-15 with IL-12 drives the generation of more mature and highly functional NK cells. In particular, replacement of IL-2 by IL-12 enhanced the cytolytic activity and IFNγ production of HPC-NK cells toward cultured and primary AML cells in vitro, and improved antileukemic responses in NOD/SCID-IL2Rγnull (NSG) mice bearing human AML cells. Phenotypically, IL-12 increased the frequency of HPC-NK cells expressing NKG2A and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR), which were more responsive to target cell stimulation. In addition, NK15/12 cell products demonstrated superior maturation potential, resulting in >70% positivity for CD16 and/or KIR within 2 weeks after infusion into NSG mice. We predict that higher functionality and faster in vivo maturation will favor HPC-NK cell alloreactivity toward malignant cells in patients, making this cytokine combination an attractive strategy to generate clinical HPC-NK cell products for cancer adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:26140247

  20. C-C chemokine receptor type-4 transduction of T cells enhances interaction with dendritic cells, tumor infiltration and therapeutic efficacy of adoptive T cell transfer

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Moritz; Grassmann, Simon; Chaloupka, Michael; Layritz, Patrick; Kruger, Stephan; Ormanns, Steffen; Rataj, Felicitas; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Endres, Stefan; Anz, David; Kobold, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT T cell infiltration at the tumor site has been identified as a major predictor for the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. The chemokine C-C motif ligand 22 (CCL22) is highly expressed by immune cells in murine and human pancreatic cancer. Expression of its corresponding receptor, C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4), is restricted to regulatory T cells (Treg). We show that transduction of cytotoxic T cells (CTL) with CCR4 enhances their immigration into a pancreatic cancer model. Further, we show that binding of CCR4 with CCL22 strengthens the binding of T cell LFA-1 to dendritic cell (DC) ICAM-1 and increases CTL activation. In vivo, in a model of subcutaneous pancreatic cancer, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with CCR4-transduced CTL led to the eradication of established tumors in 40% of the mice. In conclusion, CCR4 overexpression in CTL is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance the efficacy of adoptive T cell transfer (ACT). PMID:27195186

  1. Exploring the factors influencing the cloud computing adoption: a systematic study on cloud migration.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rashmi; Sahoo, Gadadhar; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2015-01-01

    Today, most of the organizations trust on their age old legacy applications, to support their business-critical systems. However, there are several critical concerns, as maintainability and scalability issues, associated with the legacy system. In this background, cloud services offer a more agile and cost effective platform, to support business applications and IT infrastructure. As the adoption of cloud services has been increasing recently and so has been the academic research in cloud migration. However, there is a genuine need of secondary study to further strengthen this research. The primary objective of this paper is to scientifically and systematically identify, categorize and compare the existing research work in the area of legacy to cloud migration. The paper has also endeavored to consolidate the research on Security issues, which is prime factor hindering the adoption of cloud through classifying the studies on secure cloud migration. SLR (Systematic Literature Review) of thirty selected papers, published from 2009 to 2014 was conducted to properly understand the nuances of the security framework. To categorize the selected studies, authors have proposed a conceptual model for cloud migration which has resulted in a resource base of existing solutions for cloud migration. This study concludes that cloud migration research is in seminal stage but simultaneously it is also evolving and maturing, with increasing participation from academics and industry alike. The paper also identifies the need for a secure migration model, which can fortify organization's trust into cloud migration and facilitate necessary tool support to automate the migration process. PMID:25977891

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity: A meta-analysis of twin, family and adoption studies

    PubMed Central

    Bezdjian, Serena; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis of twin, family and adoption studies was conducted to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity. The best fitting model for 41 key studies (58 independent samples from 14 month old infants to adults; N = 27,147) included equal proportions of variance due to genetic (0.50) and non-shared environmental (0.50) influences, with genetic effects being both additive (0.38) and non-additive (0.12). Shared environmental effects were unimportant in explaining individual differences in impulsivity. Age, sex, and study design (twin vs. adoption) were all significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity. The relative contribution of genetic effects (broad sense heritability) and unique environmental effects were also found to be important throughout development from childhood to adulthood. Total genetic effects were found to be important for all ages, but appeared to be strongest in children. Analyses also demonstrated that genetic effects appeared to be stronger in males than in females. Method of assessment (laboratory tasks vs. questionnaires), however, was not a significant moderator of the genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity. These results provide a structured synthesis of existing behavior genetic studies on impulsivity by providing a clearer understanding of the relative genetic and environmental contributions in impulsive traits through various stages of development. PMID:21889436

  3. A case study of one school system's adoption and implementation of an elementary science program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Michael Patrick

    2000-10-01

    The researcher's purpose in this study was to examine the process used by the Minot Public Schools to adopt and implement a new elementary science program from Silver Burdett Ginn called Discovery Works. Using case study methods within a naturalistic design, the researcher investigated teachers' concerns as they adopted and implemented Discovery Works in their classrooms. Data were gathered using the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) instrument, interviews with adoption committee members, classroom teachers, grade level meetings, and document analysis of field notes related to each phase of the study. Content analysis methods were used to analyze the data. Emergent themes were presented and substantiated in the data, in terms of six research questions that guided this research. The data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively to provide a rich, thick description that and enabled the researcher to confirm and triangulate the concerns of teachers in this study. The quantitative data revealed a general nonuser profile by teachers as they implemented Discovery Works. Three major themes of concerns emerged from a qualitative analysis of the data. The first theme was implementation, including issues related to teacher attitudes and inservice needs. The second theme, management issues, had five concerns subsumed within it. These included concerns related to time, materials, storage, reorder, and cooperative groups. The third theme, effects on students, included issues concerning hands-on methods of teaching science, vocabulary, especially at the upper elementary, and assessment issues. Possible solutions to resolve each of the concerns were presented. Major conclusions are that teacher concerns about Discovery Works were normal for any group experiencing a new innovation. Teachers and students enjoyed using the hands-on materials, and that Minot Public Schools has taken a small, but important step forward on the road to science education reform. Although

  4. Studies of radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1984-01-01

    Progress is reported in modeling cometary emission in the 18-cm OH transition with specific application and predictions for Comet Halley. Radiative transfer is also being studied in rough and porous media. The kinematics of the cold, dark interstellar cloud Li34N were examined, and CO monitoring of Venus and Mars continues. Analysis of 3.4 mm maps of the lunar surface shows thermal anomalies associated with such surface features as the Crater Copernicus, Mare Imbrium, Mare Nubium, Mare Serenitatis, and Mare Tranquillatis.

  5. Advanced orbit transfer vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. A.; Cooper, T. W.; Corringrato, R. M.; Cronau, S. T.; Forgie, S. C.; Harder, M. J.; Mcallister, J. G.; Rudman, T. J.; Stoneback, V. W.

    1985-01-01

    A reuseable orbit transfer vehicle concept was defined and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine were presented. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include a low lift to drag aerocapture capability, main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with an attitude control system for backup or three main engines to meet the failure criteria. A maintenance and servicing approach was also established for the advanced vehicle and engine concepts. Design tradeoff study conclusions were based on the consideration of reliability, performance, life cycle costs, and mission flexibility.

  6. Water market transfers in South Africa: Two case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwoudt, W. L.; Armitage, R. M.

    2004-09-01

    Statistical analyses (discriminant, logit, and principal components) of water transfers in the Lower Orange River showed that water rights were transferred to farmers with the highest return per unit of water applied, those producing table grapes, and with high-potential arable "outer land" without water rights. Only unused water (sleeper right) was transferred, while water saved (through adoption of conservation practices) was retained possibly for security purposes. A second study in the Nkwaleni Valley in northern KwaZulu-Natal found that no water market had emerged despite the scarcity of water in the area. No willing sellers of water rights existed. Demand for institutional change to establish tradable water rights may take more time in the second area since crop profitability in this area is similar for potential buyers and nonbuyers. Transaction costs appear larger than benefits from market transactions. Farmers generally use all their water rights in the second area and retain surplus water rights as security against drought because of unreliable river flow. This study indicates that these irrigation farmers are highly risk averse (downside risk). Government policies that increase the level of risk and reduce security of licenses are estimated to have a significant effect on future investment in irrigation. In an investment model the following variables explain future investment: expected profits, liquidity, risk aversion (Arrow-Pratt), and security of water use rights. The study is seen in the light of the New South African Water Act of 1998. According to this act, the ownership of water in South Africa has changed from private to public. This reform may not impede the development of water markets in South Africa since in the well-developed water markets of the United States, western states claim ownership of water within their boundaries. All states in the western United States allow private rights in the use of water to be established and sold.

  7. Scholastic Attainment Following Severe Early Institutional Deprivation: A Study of Children Adopted from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Celia; Maughan, Barbara; Rutter, Michael; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Kreppner, Jana; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between severe early institutional deprivation and scholastic attainment at age 11 in 127 children (68 girls and 59 boys) adopted from institutions in Romania was compared to the attainment of 49 children (17 girls and 32 boys) adopted within the UK from a non-institutional background. Overall, children adopted from Romania had…

  8. Assessing Lesbian and Gay Prospective Foster and Adoptive Families: A Focus on the Home Study Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Gerald P.

    2007-01-01

    Foster care and adoption by gay men and lesbians is not a new phenomenon. Children and youth have always been placed by states and public agencies in homes with gay and lesbian parents. Some gay men and lesbians have fostered or adopted children independently from private agencies or have made private adoption arrangements with individual…

  9. Adoption Actions and Attitudes of Couples Seeking In Vitro Fertilization: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda S.

    1992-01-01

    Examined adoption actions and attitudes of 16 childless women, and husbands of 14 of the women, who applied for or underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF). Found that IVF and adoption were sought concurrently by most and that wives were more in favor of adoption than were husbands. (Author/NB)

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Service Use in Families of Children Adopted from Romanian Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Mare, Lucy; Audet, Karyn; Kurytnik, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Post-adoption service use and unmet service needs were examined longitudinally in three matched groups of children: children adopted from Romanian orphanages following a minimum of eight months' institutional experience (RO: n = 36); children from Romania who were destined for orphanages but were adopted early in infancy (EA: n = 25); and Canadian…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Language and Speech in Children Who Were Internationally Adopted at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The author followed 56 internationally adopted children during the first 3 years after adoption to determine how and when they reached age-expected language proficiency in Standard American English. The influence of age of adoption was measured, along with the relationship between early and later language and speech outcomes. Method:…

  12. Adoption Agency Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Prospective Parents: A National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodzinsky, David M.; Patterson, Charlotte J.; Vaziri, Mahnoush

    2002-01-01

    A nation-wide survey of adoption agencies examined policies, practices, and attitudes regarding lesbian/gay prospective adoptive parents. Attitudes and practices were found to vary as a function of agency religious affiliation. Many adoption professionals were willing to work with lesbian/gay prospective parents, and nearly 38 percent of…

  13. Electronic Learning Systems in Hong Kong Business Organizations: A Study of Early and Late Adopters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Simon C. H.; Ngai, Eric W. T.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the diffusion of innovation theory (E. M. Rogers, 1983, 1995), the authors examined the antecedents of the adoption of electronic learning (e-learning) systems by using a time-based assessment model (R. C. Beatty, J. P. Shim, & M. C. Jones, 2001), which classified adopters into categories upon point in time when adopting e-learning…

  14. Characteristics of German hospitals adopting health IT systems - results from an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Jan-David; Egbert, Nicole; Frey, Andreas; Hübner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Hospital characteristics that facilitate IT adoption have been described by the literature extensively, however with controversial results. The aim of this study therefore is to draw a set of the most important variables from previous studies and include them in a combined analysis for testing their contribution as single factors and their interactions. Total number of IT systems installed and number of clinical IT systems in the hospital were used as criterion variables. Data from a national survey of German hospitals served as basis. Based on a stepwise multiple regression analysis four variables were identified to significantly explain the degree of IT adoption (60% explained variance): 1) hospital size, 2) IT department, 3) reference customer and 4) ownership (private vs. public). Our results replicate previous findings with regard to hospital size and ownership. In addition our study emphasizes the importance of a reliable internal structure for IT projects (existence of an IT department) and the culture of testing and installing most recent IT products (being a reference customer). None of the interactions between factors was significant. PMID:21893768

  15. A Trend Study: Technology Adoption in the Teaching-Learning Process by Secondary Business Teachers--2002 and 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmann, Donna H.; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    This study determined Louisiana secondary business teachers' adoption of technology for use in instruction. Teachers have increased their technology adoption for use in instruction over the past five years, although they still do not have access to the technology they need to utilize technology fully. Moderate barriers exist that prevent them from…

  16. Assessing lesbian and gay prospective foster and adoptive families: a focus on the home study process.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Gerald P

    2007-01-01

    Foster care and adoption by gay men and lesbians is not a new phenomenon. Children and youth have always been placed by states and public agencies in homes with gay and lesbian parents. Some gay men and lesbians have fostered or adopted children independently from private agencies or have made private adoption arrangements with individual birthmothers, while others have fostered or adopted through the public system. Drawing on research literature, practice wisdom from 31 years of child welfare experiences, and case examples, this article offers child welfare professionals guidelines for competent assessment with prospective foster or adoptive parents who identify as lesbian or gay. PMID:17533773

  17. Patients' adoption of the e-appointment scheduling service: A case study in primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Ping; Yan, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate patients' initial acceptance and ongoing use of a simple but typical type of consumer e-health service - an e-appointment scheduling (EAS) system - in order to identify facilitators and barriers for patients' adoption of e-health services in primary healthcare. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted to gather patients' background information, their awareness of the system, their feedbacks on the characteristics of the system, and their reasons for use or not use the system. A total of 125 patients aged between 17 and 74 were interviewed. Study results show that 89% of the interviewed patients had shown reluctance to adopt this online service. The identified barriers for acceptance include many patients' lack of access to the internet, lack of awareness of the service, low computer skills and incompatibility of the online appointment service with many patients' habits of face-to-face or phone-call based medical appointment making. Health service providers need to consider the general public's acceptance for online services before implementing consumer e-health systems. PMID:25087546

  18. Adoptive transfer of osteoclast-expanded natural killer cells for immunotherapy targeting cancer stem-like cells in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, Anna K; Kaur, Kawaljit; Topchyan, Paytsar; Jewett, Anahid

    2016-07-01

    Based on data obtained from oral, pancreatic and lung cancers, glioblastoma, and melanoma, we have established that natural killer (NK) cells target cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). CSCs displaying low MHC class I, CD54, and PD-L1 are killed by cytotoxic NK cells and are differentiated by split anergized NK cells through both membrane bound and secreted forms of TNF-α and IFN-γ. NK cells select and differentiate both healthy and transformed stem-like cells, resulting in target cell maturation and shaping of their microenvironment. In our recent studies, we have observed that oral, pancreatic, and melanoma CSCs were capable of forming large tumors in humanized bone marrow, liver, thymus (hu-BLT) mice with fully reconstituted human immune system. In addition, major human immune subsets including NK cells, T cells, B cells, and monocytes were present in the spleen, bone marrow, peripheral blood, and tumor microenvironment. Similar to our previously published in vitro data, CSCs differentiated with split anergized NK cells prior to implantation in mice formed smaller tumors. Intravenous injection of functionally potent osteoclast-expanded NK cells inhibited tumor growth through differentiation of CSCs in humanized mice. In this review, we present current approaches, advances, and existing limitations in studying interactions of the immune system with the tumor, in particular NK cells with CSCs, using in vivo preclinical hu-BLT mouse model. In addition, we discuss the use of osteoclast-expanded NK cells in targeting cancer stem-like tumors in humanized mice-a strategy that provides a much-needed platform to develop effective cancer immunotherapies. PMID:27034236

  19. Interhospital Facility Transfers in the United States: A Nationwide Outcomes Study

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Davies, Sheryl; McDonald, Kathryn; Wang, N. Ewen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patient transfers between hospitals are becoming more common in the United States. Disease-specific studies have reported varying outcomes associated with transfer status. However, even as national quality improvement efforts and regulations are being actively adopted, forcing hospitals to become financially accountable for the quality of care provided, surprisingly little is known about transfer patients or their outcomes at a population level. This population-wide study provides timely analyses of the characteristics of this particularly vulnerable and sizable inpatient population. We identified and compared characteristics and outcomes of transfer and nontransfer patients. Methods With the use of the 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative sample of U.S. hospitalizations, we examined patient characteristics, in-hospital adverse events, and discharge disposition for transfer versus nontransfer patients in this observational study. Results We identified 1,397,712 transfer patients and 31,692,211 nontransfer patients. Age, sex, race, and payer were significantly associated with odds of transfer (P < 0.05). Transfer patients had higher risk-adjusted inpatient mortality (4.6 versus 2.1, P < 0.01), longer length of stay (13.3 versus 4.5, P < 0.01), and fewer routine disposition discharges (53.6 versus 68.7, P < 0.01). In-hospital adverse events were significantly higher in transfer patients compared with nontransfer patients (P < 0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that transfer patients have inferior outcomes compared with nontransfer patients. Although they are clinically complex patients and assessing accountability as between the transferring and receiving hospitals is methodologically difficult, transfer patients must nonetheless be included in quality benchmark data to assess the potential impact this population has on hospital outcome profiles. With hospital accountability and value-based payments constituting an integral

  20. Therapeutic regulatory T-cell adoptive transfer ameliorates established murine chronic GVHD in a CXCR5-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    McDonald-Hyman, Cameron; Flynn, Ryan; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Peterson, Nicholas; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Hill, Geoffrey R; Luznik, Leo; Serody, Jonathan S; Murphy, William J; Maillard, Ivan; Munn, David H; Turka, Laurence A; Koreth, John; Cutler, Corey S; Soiffer, Robert J; Antin, Joseph H; Ritz, Jerome; Blazar, Bruce R

    2016-08-18

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In cGVHD, alloreactive T cells and germinal center (GC) B cells often participate in GC reactions to produce pathogenic antibodies. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) can inhibit GC reactions, Treg numbers are reduced in cGVHD, contributing to cGVHD pathogenesis. Here, we explored 2 means to increase Tregs in cGVHD: interleukin-2/monoclonal antibody (IL-2/mAb) complexes and donor Treg infusions. IL-2/mAb complexes given over 1 month were efficacious in expanding Tregs and treating established cGVHD in a multi-organ-system disease mouse model characterized by GC reactions, antibody deposition, and lung dysfunction. In an acute GVHD (aGVHD) model, IL-2/mAb complexes given for only 4 days resulted in rapid mortality, indicating IL-2/mAb complexes can drive conventional T-cell (Tcon)-mediated injury. In contrast, Treg infusions, which uniformly suppress aGVHD, increased Treg frequency and were effective in preventing the onset of, and treating, established cGVHD. Efficacy was dependent upon CXCR5-sufficient Tregs homing to, and inhibiting, GC reactions. These studies indicate that the infusion of Tregs, especially ones enriched for GC homing, may be desirable for cGVHD therapy. Although IL-2/mAb complexes can be efficacious in cGVHD, a cautious approach needs to be taken in settings in which aGVHD elements, and associated Tcon, are present. PMID:27385791

  1. A time-series study of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale: premature adoption?

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Kian Nian; Angelini, Gianni D; Hollingworth, William

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance in January 2005 and subsequent trial evidence on the adoption of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PCPFO). Methods A retrospective time series study was conducted using the Inpatient Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) England. A total of 3801 patients, aged ≥18 and ≤60 years, who had PCPFO from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2012 in England. Percentage change annualised (PCA) in PCPFO procedure rates between initial NICE guidance and publication of trial results was analysed. Results Between Quarter 2, 2006 and Quarter 4, 2009, 2163 PCPFO procedures were performed, with an increasing PCA of 48.4%. The procedure rate peaked before the presentation of equivocal results from the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) in late 2010, and declined between Quarter 4, 2009 and Quarter 4, 2011 (PCA=−15.3%). Of more than 2300 patients recruited to three RCTs, only 71 were recruited in English hospitals. Conclusions PCPFO was rapidly adopted after the publication of initial NICE guidance despite the absence of RCT evidence of efficacy. Very few English patients participated in international RCTs of PCPFO, suggesting that NICE recommendations also failed to encourage the generation of RCT evidence. PMID:26835140

  2. A case study of one school system's adoption and implementation of an elementary science program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Michael P.; Staver, John R.

    2005-01-01

    In this investigation we employed a case study approach with qualitative and quantitative data sources to examine and discover the characteristics of the processes used by a midwestern U.S. school system to adopt and implement a new K-6 science curriculum. Analysis of data yielded several results. Elementary teachers received what they requested, a hands-on science program with texts and kits. Teachers as a group remained in the early stages of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model profile of concerns. Many K-6 teachers remained uncomfortable with teaching science. Teachers' attitudes regarding the new program were positive, and they taught more science. Teachers struggled with science-as-inquiry, with a science program they believe contained too many concepts and too much vocabulary, and with their beliefs that students learned more and loved the new hands-on program. Traditional science teaching remained the norm. Administrative support was positive but insufficient to facilitate full implementation of the new program and more substantial change in teaching. Standardized science achievement test scores did not show an observable pattern of growth. It is concluded that a systematic, ongoing program of professional development is necessary to address teachers' concerns and help the district realize its goal of standards-based K-6 science instruction.

  3. Quantitative assessment of barriers to the clinical development and adoption of cellular therapies: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Rikabi, Sarah; French, Anna; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Morrey, Mark E; Wartolowska, Karolina; Judge, Andrew; MacLaren, Robert E; Mathur, Anthony; Williams, David J; Wall, Ivan; Birchall, Martin; Reeve, Brock; Atala, Anthony; Barker, Richard W; Cui, Zhanfeng; Furniss, Dominic; Bure, Kim; Snyder, Evan Y; Karp, Jeffrey M; Price, Andrew; Carr, Andrew; Brindley, David A

    2014-01-01

    There has been a large increase in basic science activity in cell therapy and a growing portfolio of cell therapy trials. However, the number of industry products available for widespread clinical use does not match this magnitude of activity. We hypothesize that the paucity of engagement with the clinical community is a key contributor to the lack of commercially successful cell therapy products. To investigate this, we launched a pilot study to survey clinicians from five specialities and to determine what they believe to be the most significant barriers to cellular therapy clinical development and adoption. Our study shows that the main concerns among this group are cost-effectiveness, efficacy, reimbursement, and regulation. Addressing these concerns can best be achieved by ensuring that future clinical trials are conducted to adequately answer the questions of both regulators and the broader clinical community. PMID:25383173

  4. Willingness to Adopt Telemedicine in Major Iraqi Hospitals: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Jaber, Mustafa Musa

    2015-01-01

    The Iraqi healthcare services are struggling to regain their lost momentum. Many physicians and nurses left Iraq because of the current situation in the country. Despite plans of calling back the skilled health workforce, they are still worried by the disadvantages of their return. Hence, technology plays a central role in taking advantage of their profession through the use of telemedicine. Studying the factors that affect the implementation of telemedicine is necessary. Telemedicine covers network services, policy makers, and patient understanding. A framework that includes the influencing factors in adopting telemedicine in Iraq was developed in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among physicians in Baghdad Medical City to examine the hypothesis on each factor. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was utilized to verify the reliability of the questionnaire and Cronbach's alpha test shows that the factors have values more than 0.7, which are standard. PMID:26557848

  5. Willingness to Adopt Telemedicine in Major Iraqi Hospitals: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Jaber, Mustafa Musa

    2015-01-01

    The Iraqi healthcare services are struggling to regain their lost momentum. Many physicians and nurses left Iraq because of the current situation in the country. Despite plans of calling back the skilled health workforce, they are still worried by the disadvantages of their return. Hence, technology plays a central role in taking advantage of their profession through the use of telemedicine. Studying the factors that affect the implementation of telemedicine is necessary. Telemedicine covers network services, policy makers, and patient understanding. A framework that includes the influencing factors in adopting telemedicine in Iraq was developed in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among physicians in Baghdad Medical City to examine the hypothesis on each factor. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was utilized to verify the reliability of the questionnaire and Cronbach's alpha test shows that the factors have values more than 0.7, which are standard. PMID:26557848

  6. Transactions Between Child Social Wariness and Observed Structured Parenting: Evidence From a Prospective Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the mutual influences between structured parenting and child social wariness during toddlerhood using a longitudinal adoption design. The sample consisted of 361 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Heightened social wariness in children at age 18 months predicted reduced levels of observed structured parenting (i.e., less directive parenting with fewer commands and requests) in adoptive mothers at age 27 months. Adoptive fathers’ lower structured parenting at age 18 months predicted subsequent elevation in child social wariness. Birth mothers’ history of fear-related anxiety disorders was not associated with child social wariness. Findings highlight the role of dynamic family transactions in the development of social wariness during toddlerhood. PMID:23448430

  7. Similarities and differences between internationally adopted and nonadopted children in their toddler years: Outcomes from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dalen, Monica; Theie, Steinar

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we compare internationally adopted children's communication, gross motor development, temperament, and challenging behavior with the same characteristics in nonadopted children at age 24 and 36 months. At 24 months, adopted children lag behind in communication and in gross motor development. The adopted children are less active and show less physically challenging behavior. At age 36 months, most of these differences have diminished, but the adopted children still lag behind in communication. This is an important finding because communication skills in the toddler years are a crucial factor in children's attachment, social development, and later language and cognitive development. Looking at the overall outcomes during early toddler years, internationally adopted children are developing very well considering the preadoption adversity to which many of them have been exposed. PMID:24999525

  8. Adoptive Transfer of CD8+ T Cells Generated from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Triggers Regressions of Large Tumors Along with Immunological Memory.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hidehito; Okita, Keisuke; Chang, Alfred E; Ito, Fumito

    2016-06-15

    Current approaches to adoptive T-cell therapy are limited by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient numbers of T cells against targeted antigens with useful in vivo characteristics. Theoretically, this limitation could be overcome by using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) that could provide an unlimited source of autologous T cells. However, the therapeutic efficacy of iPSC-derived regenerated T cells remains to be demonstrated. Here, we report the first successful reprogramming of T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic CD8(+) T cells into pluripotency. As part of the work, we established a syngeneic mouse model for evaluating in vitro and in vivo antitumor reactivity of regenerated T cells from iPSCs bearing a rearranged TCR of known antigen specificity. Stably TCR retained T-cell-derived iPSCs differentiated into CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells that expressed CD3 and the desired TCR in vitro Stimulation of iPSC-derived CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells with the cognate antigen in the presence of IL7 and IL15 followed by expansion with IL2, IL7, and IL15 generated large numbers of less-differentiated CD8(+) T cells with antigen-specific potent cytokine production and cytolytic capacity. Furthermore, adoptively transferred iPSC-derived CD8(+) T cells escaped immune rejection, mediated effective regression of large tumors, improved survival, and established antigen-specific immunological memory. Our findings illustrate the translational potential of iPSCs to provide an unlimited number of phenotypically defined, functional, and expandable autologous antigen-specific T cells with the characteristics needed to enable in vivo effectiveness. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3473-83. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197199

  9. Adoptive and Nonadoptive Mother–Child Behavioral Interaction: A Comparative Study at 4 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Padilla, Christina M.; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Horn, E. Parham; Bradley, Alexandra L.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Comparable samples of low-risk adopted and nonadopted children and mothers were observed during 3 tasks at age 4 years. Quality of mother-child interactions, child level of functioning in 4 domains, and maternal parenting satisfaction and social support were assessed. Adopted children were as competent as nonadopted children on measures of developmental functioning. Both groups of mothers expressed high satisfaction and support as parents. However, ratings of child, maternal, and dyadic behavior when interacting were all lower for adoptive dyads than for nonadoptive dyads, and adoptive dyads with boys accounted for the maternal and dyadic group differences. PMID:27134518

  10. A longitudinal, naturalistic study of U.S. smokers' trial and adoption of snus.

    PubMed

    Burris, Jessica L; Wahlquist, Amy E; Alberg, Anthony J; Cummings, K Michael; Gray, Kevin M; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    To refine public health policy amidst a changing landscape of tobacco products in the United States, it is first necessary to describe fully the nature of smokers' alternative product use. Little research addresses smokers' snus use, and most studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional designs, and crude outcome measurement. This study sample includes 626 adult US smokers who denied intention to quit in the next month and were randomized to receive free snus during a 6-week sampling period, after which no snus was provided. Participants were then followed for one year. Outcome data were collected via phone. Participants (mean age: 48.7years) were predominately female, White non-Hispanic. Eighty-four percent reported trial of snus. Eleven percent reported purchase (i.e., adoption). Current use declined from 47.1% at the end of the sampling period to 6.5% at the end of follow-up. Frequency and quantity of snus use among current users was low. Among snus users, 79.3% said it functioned as an alternative to smoking and 58.4% said it provided a means of coping with smoking restrictions; options not mutually exclusive. In logistic regressions, men were more likely to report trial (odds ratio [OR]=2.33, p<0.01) and adoption (OR=1.84, p<0.05) than women. Baseline expectations about the nature of snus use also predicted snus outcomes (OR=1.28-1.78, p<0.05). Smokers showed willingness to try snus, but product interest waned over time. Snus as currently marketed is unlikely to play a prominent role in US tobacco control efforts. PMID:27450153

  11. Adoption potential of conservation agriculture practices in sub-Saharan Africa: results from five case studies.

    PubMed

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Schuler, Johannes; Uthes, Sandra; Zander, Peter; Traore, Karim; Gama, Mphatso-S; Nyagumbo, Isaiah; Triomphe, Bernard; Sieber, Stefan; Corbeels, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reported benefits of conservation agriculture (CA), its wider up-scaling in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remained fairly limited. This paper shows how a newly developed qualitative expert assessment approach for CA adoption (QAToCA) was applied to determine its adoption potential in SSA. CA adoption potential is not a predictor of observed adoption rates. Instead, our aim was to systematically check relevant factors that may be influencing its adoption. QAToCA delivers an assessment of how suitable conditions "and thus the likelihood for CA adoption" are. Results show that the high CA adoption potentials exhibited by the Malawi and Zambia case relate mostly to positive institutional factors. On the other hand, the low adoption potential of the Zimbabwe case, in spite of observed higher estimates, is attributed mainly to unstable and less secured market conditions for CA. In the case of Southern Burkina Faso, the potential for CA adoption is determined to be high, and this assessment deviates from lower observed figures. This is attributed mainly to strong competition of CA and livestock for residues in this region. Lastly, the high adoption potential found in Northern Burkina Faso is explained mainly by the fact that farmers here have no alternative other than to adopt the locally adapted CA system-Zaï farming. Results of this assessment should help promoters of CA in the given regions to reflect on their activities and to eventually adjust or redesign them based on a more explicit understanding of where problems and opportunities are found. PMID:24337194

  12. Adoption Potential of Conservation Agriculture Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa: Results from Five Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Schuler, Johannes; Uthes, Sandra; Zander, Peter; Traore, Karim; Gama, Mphatso-S.; Nyagumbo, Isaiah; Triomphe, Bernard; Sieber, Stefan; Corbeels, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reported benefits of conservation agriculture (CA), its wider up-scaling in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remained fairly limited. This paper shows how a newly developed qualitative expert assessment approach for CA adoption (QAToCA) was applied to determine its adoption potential in SSA. CA adoption potential is not a predictor of observed adoption rates. Instead, our aim was to systematically check relevant factors that may be influencing its adoption. QAToCA delivers an assessment of how suitable conditions "and thus the likelihood for CA adoption" are. Results show that the high CA adoption potentials exhibited by the Malawi and Zambia case relate mostly to positive institutional factors. On the other hand, the low adoption potential of the Zimbabwe case, in spite of observed higher estimates, is attributed mainly to unstable and less secured market conditions for CA. In the case of Southern Burkina Faso, the potential for CA adoption is determined to be high, and this assessment deviates from lower observed figures. This is attributed mainly to strong competition of CA and livestock for residues in this region. Lastly, the high adoption potential found in Northern Burkina Faso is explained mainly by the fact that farmers here have no alternative other than to adopt the locally adapted CA system—Zaï farming. Results of this assessment should help promoters of CA in the given regions to reflect on their activities and to eventually adjust or redesign them based on a more explicit understanding of where problems and opportunities are found.

  13. Adoptive transfer of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells to C57BL/6J mice during acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii down modulates the exacerbated Th1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Jonadab E; Fernández, Jacquelina; Salinas, Nohemí; Juárez, Imelda; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Campuzano, Jaime; Castellanos, Carlos; Saavedra, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Infection of C57BL/6J mice with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii triggers a powerful Th1 immune response that is detrimental to the host. During acute infection, a reduction in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) has been reported. We studied the role of Treg during T. gondii infection by adoptive transfer of cells purified from transgenic Foxp3(EGFP) mice to infected wild type animals. We found a less severe weight loss, a significant delayed mortality in infected Treg-transferred mice, and reduced pathology of the small intestine that were associated with lower IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. Nevertheless, higher cyst number and parasite load in brain were observed in these mice. Treg-transferred infected mice showed reduced levels of both IFN-γ and TNF-α in sera. A reduced number of CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ was detected in these mice, while IL-2 producing CD4(+) T cells were restored to levels nearly similar to uninfected mice. CD25 and CD69 expression of CD4(+) T cells were also down modulated. Our data show that the low Treg cell number are insufficient to modulate the activation of CD4(+) T cells and the production of high levels of IFN-γ. Thus, a delicate balance between an optimal immune response and its modulation by Treg cells must exist. PMID:25899946

  14. Single Parent Adoptive Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews research and reports on a longitudinal study of 15 single-parent adoptive homes over a 14-year period that demonstrated that these homes have the capacity to be successful adoptive placements. Identifies unique characteristics of single-parent adoptive homes, and notes the need for additional research to identify children for whom these…

  15. Program for transfer research and impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottenstette, J. P.; Rusnak, J. J.; Staskin, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The progress made in achieving TRIS research objectives during the first six months of 1972 is reviewed. The Tech Brief-Technical Support Package Program and technology transfer profiles are presented along with summaries of technology transfer in nondestructive testing, and visual display systems.

  16. Factors Affecting Teachers' Adoption of Educational Computer Games: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebritchi, Mansureh

    2010-01-01

    Even though computer games hold considerable potential for engaging and facilitating learning among today's children, the adoption of modern educational computer games is still meeting significant resistance in K-12 education. The purpose of this paper is to inform educators and instructional designers on factors affecting teachers' adoption of…

  17. Factors Driving the Adoption of M-Learning: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu; Carlsson, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Even if m-learning is spreading rapidly in many regions of the world, research addressing the driving factors of m-learning adoption is in short supply. Built on the Technology Acceptance Model, this paper proposes a hypothesized model of m-learning adoption. Employing structural equation modeling technology, the model was assessed based on the…

  18. Adopting a Blended Learning Approach: Challenges Encountered and Lessons Learned in an Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Jane; Newcombe, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Adopting a new teaching approach is often a daunting task especially if one is an early adopter in a limited-resource environment. This article describes the challenges encountered and the strategies used in pilot testing a blended instructional method in a large size class within the college of education at a medium-sized university. The main…

  19. The 2005 Minnesota Internet Study: An Examination of Metro/Rural Differences in Digital Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Policy and Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001 the Center for Rural Policy & Development (CRPD) has annually conducted surveys of rural Minnesota households to discern the level of computer ownership, Internet connectivity and broadband adoption throughout rural Minnesota. Since the beginning of this longitudinal effort, significant increases in technology adoption have been…

  20. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Cultural Differences on the Adoption of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpaci, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to understand the impact of cultural differences on mobile learning adoption through identifying key adoption characteristics in Canada and Turkey, which have markedly different cultural backgrounds. A multi-group analysis was employed to test the hypothesised relationships based on the data collected by means of…

  1. Adopting Web-Based Learning and Teaching: A Case Study in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samarawickrema, Gayani; Stacey, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Most universities worldwide are becoming distance education providers through adopting web-based learning and teaching via the introduction of learning management systems that enable them to open their courses to both on- and off-campus students. Whether this is an effective introduction depends on factors that enable and impede the adoption of…

  2. The Adoption of Grid Computing Technology by Organizations: A Quantitative Study Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udoh, Emmanuel E.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in grid technology have enabled some organizations to harness enormous computational power on demand. However, the prediction of widespread adoption of the grid technology has not materialized despite the obvious grid advantages. This situation has encouraged intense efforts to close the research gap in the grid adoption process. In this…

  3. The Adoption of Children from Public Care: A Prospective Study of Outcome in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Alan; Dance, Cherilyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discover the outcomes for children placed late for adoption (between 5 and 11 years old) from public care and to establish which factors predict poorer outcome. Method: Data were collected prospectively (1993-2003) from a representative sample of domestic U.K. adoptive placements (N = 108) at the start of placement, at 1 year, and 6…

  4. Adoption of Technological Innovations: A Case Study of the ASSESS Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah; Brown, Shane; Davis, Denny; LeBeau, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In engineering education, assessment instruments are often developed to evaluate programs and projects. Unfortunately, these innovations are not always adopted by intended audiences. Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations (DI) Theory provides a framework to analyze characteristics of an innovation that will affect adoption. The Appraisal System for…

  5. The adult antisocial syndrome with and without antecedent conduct disorder: comparisons from an adoption study.

    PubMed

    Langbehn, D R; Cadoret, R J

    2001-01-01

    DSM antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) requires a retrospective diagnosis of conduct disorder-historical behavior not present in everyone with adult ASPD criteria. Using adoption study data, we examined the impact of this requirement on biological and environmental risk associations. We also compared clinical correlates of adult antisocial behavior with and without prior conduct disorder. We defined three subgroups: DSM-III ASPD (n = 30), adult antisocials without conduct disorder (n = 25), and controls (n = 142). By design, the sample had a high incidence of biological parent ASPD, which was partially confounded with fetal alcohol exposure. We compared the associations of both of these putative risk factors with subgroup membership after controlling for gender and adverse adoptive environment. We also examined differences in two sociopathy scales and the incidence of co-occurring affective, alcohol, and other substance use disorders. Finally, we explored differences in individual antisocial symptoms. Having an antisocial biological parent was a specific risk factor for ASPD. In contrast, fetal alcohol exposure, male gender, and adverse environment were associated with the adult antisocial syndrome, regardless of conduct disorder history. The two antisocial groups were similar with respect to sociopathy scales, co-occurring diagnoses, and the incidence of most individual symptoms. However, several adult and conduct disorder symptoms had significant specific associations with biological or environmental background or their interaction. Phenotypic expression of the biological-possibly genetic-risk for ASPD appears to be manifest before adulthood. The influence of other risk factors may not depend on antecedent conduct disorder. Despite this, we could not detect clinically important differences between the two sociopathic groups. The conduct disorder requirement therefore may be more relevant to etiological than clinical understanding of adult antisocial behavior

  6. The Early Growth and Development Study: Using the Prospective Adoption Design to Examine Genotype–Environment Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2009-01-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS) is a prospective adoption design consisting of 360 linked sets of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children followed from 3 months postpartum through child age 7 years, and an additional 200 linked sets for whom recruitment is underway. The EGDS brings together the study of genotype–environment correlation (rGE) and Genotype x Environment (GxE) interaction to inform intervention development by examining mechanisms whereby family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences. Participants in the EGDS are recruited through domestic adoption agencies located throughout the United States of America. The assessments occur at 6-month intervals until child age 4-½ years and at ages 6 and 7, when the children are in their 1st and 2nd years of formal schooling (kindergarten and first grade). The data collection includes measures of child characteristics, birth and adoptive parent characteristics, adoptive parenting, prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress, birth parent and adopted child salivary cortisol reactivity, and DNA from all participants. The preliminary analyses suggest evidence for GxE interaction beginning in infancy. An intervention perspective on future developments in the field of behavioral genetics is described. PMID:19458782

  7. Heat Transfer Study for HTS Power Transfer Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S.; Fesmire, J.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal losses are a key factor in the successful application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. Existing concepts and prototypes rely on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) systems that are subject to large variations in actual performance. The small space available for the thermal insulation materials makes the application even more difficult because of bending considerations, mechanical loading, and the arrangement between the inner and outer piping. Each of these mechanical variables affects the heat leak rate. These factors of bending and spacing are examined in this study. Furthermore, a maintenance-free insulation system (high vacuum level for 20 years or longer) is a practical requirement. A thermal insulation system simulating a section of a flexible FITS power cable was constructed for test and evaluation on a research cryostat. This paper gives experimental data for the comparison of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping. A section of insulated flexible piping was tested under cryogenic vacuum conditions including simulated bending and spacers.

  8. Adoptive transfer of T cells transduced with a chimeric antigen receptor to treat relapsed or refractory acute leukemia: efficacy and feasibility of immunotherapy approaches.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guoliang; Chen, Hu

    2016-07-01

    Treatment outcomes of acute leukemia (AL) have not improved over the past several decades and relapse rates remain high despite the availability of aggressive therapies. Conventional relapsed leukemia treatment includes second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), which in most cases mediate, at best, a modest graft-versus-leukemia effect, although their clinical efficacy is still limited. Although allo-HSCT following myeloablative conditioning is a curative treatment option for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a first complete remission (CR), allo-HSCT as a clinical treatment is usually limited because of treatment-related toxicity. The overall DLI remission rate is only 15%-42% and 2-year overall survival (OS) is approximately 15%-20%, with a high (40%-60%) incidence of DLI-related graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Therefore, development of new, targeted treatment strategies for relapsed and refractory AL patients is ongoing. Adoptive transfer of T cells with genetically engineered chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is an encouraging approach for treating hematological malignancies. These T cells are capable of selectively recognizing tumor-associated antigens and may overcome many limitations of conventional therapies, inducing remission in patients with chemotherapy-refractory or relapsed AL. In this review, we aimed to highlight the current understanding of this promising treatment modality, discussing its adverse effects and efficacy. PMID:27142351

  9. Aerosol Delivery of Interleukin-2 in Combination with Adoptive Transfer of Natural Killer Cells for the Treatment of Lung Metastasis: Methodology and Effect.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Simin; Gordon, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a subtype of lymphocytes with a major role as a host defense mechanism against tumor cells. Allogeneic NK cell therapy is being used as an alternative promising therapy for many different cancers. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a critical cytokine for NK cell proliferation, survival, and effector functions. Cytokine support is essential to activate, expand, and increase the life span of NK cells. Aerosol delivery of IL-2 in combination with adoptive transfer of NK cells offers a reasonable approach for the treatment of lung metastases as it avoids the deleterious side effects of systemic IL-2. Using a human OS mouse model, we demonstrated the efficacy of this approach. Combination therapy of aerosol IL-2 with NK cells resulted in a better therapeutic effect against OS lung metastases as compared with each therapy alone. Aerosol IL-2 selectively increased infiltration, retention, and proliferation of infused NK cells in the lung, and there was no local inflammation or toxicity in the lungs or any other organ. Our results demonstrate that delivery of IL-2 via the aerosol route offers a feasible and innovative approach to enhance the immunotherapeutic effect of NK cells against pulmonary metastases. In the following chapter, we describe the methodology and effect of this innovative therapeutic approach. PMID:27177675

  10. Studies of radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1986-01-01

    Schloerb and Claussen continued their analysis of the very high quality data set obtained on the 18 centimeter OH line from the Comet P/Halley with the NRAO 43 meter antenna. The high spectral resolution (0.22 km/sec) and high signal-to-noise of the OH spectra make them ideal for the study of kinematics in the coma. Synthetic profiles were initiated for comparison with the data. A vectorial model was developed using the Monte Carlo techniques originated by Combi and Delsemme. Analysis of the millimeter wavelength observations of HCN emission from P/Halley obtained throughout much of the recent apparition were continued using the University of Massachusetts 14 millimeter-wavelength (FCRAO) antenna. A detailed analysis of the HCN lineshpaes was performed over the last six months. The excitation of HCN in the coma was studied to obtain a detailed match to the observed spectra. The passive millimeter wave radiometer was used to probe the physical and chemical nature of comets from spacecraft. Work was continued on an improved theory of radiative transfer for rough and porous surfaces, such as the regoliths of satellites, asteroids, and comets.

  11. ATM Technology Adoption in U.S. Campus Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Engui; Perry, John F.; Anderson, Larry S.; Brook, R. Dan; Hare, R. Dwight; Moore, Arnold J.; Xu, Xiaohe

    This study examined the relationships between ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) adoption in universities and four organizational variables: university size, type, finances, and information processing maturity. Another purpose of the study was to identify the current status of ATM adoption in campus networking. Subjects were university domain LAN…

  12. Midwives' adoption of the reproductive life plan in contraceptive counselling: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Stern, J.; Bodin, M.; Grandahl, M.; Segeblad, B.; Axén, L.; Larsson, M.; Tydén, T.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How is the reproductive life plan (RLP) adopted in midwifery contraceptive counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER A majority of midwives adopted the RLP in their counselling, had predominantly positive experiences and considered it a feasible tool for promoting reproductive health. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The RLP is a health-promoting tool recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA for improving preconception health. It was recently used in a clinical setting in Sweden and was found to increase women's knowledge about fertility and to influence women's wishes to have their last child earlier in life. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION An exploratory mixed methods study among 68 midwives who provided contraceptive counselling in primary health care to at least 20 women each during the study period. Midwives received an introduction and materials for using the RLP in contraceptive counselling. Three months later, in the spring of 2014, they were invited to complete a questionnaire and participate in a focus group interview about their adoption of the RLP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Data collection was through a questionnaire (n = 53 out of 68; participation rate 78%) and five focus group interviews (n = 22). Participants included both younger and older midwives with longer and shorter experiences of contraceptive counselling in public and private health care in one Swedish county. Quantitative data were analysed for differences between users and non-users, and qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis to explore the midwives experiences and opinions of using the RLP. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Sixty-eight per cent of midwives had used the RLP in their contraceptive counselling. Four categories emerged through the focus group interviews: (i) A predominantly positive experience; (ii) The RLP—a health-promoting tool; (iii) individual and societal factors influence the RLP counselling; and (4) long

  13. Study of low gravity propellant transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of a program to perform an analytical assessment of potential methods for replenishing the auxiliary propulsion, fuel cell and life support cryogens which may be aboard an orbiting space station. The fluids involved are cryogenic H2, O2, and N2. A complete transfer system was taken to consist of supply storage, transfer, and receiver tank fluid conditioning (pressure and temperature control). In terms of supply storage, the basic systems considered were high pressure (greater than critical), intermediate pressure (less than critical), and modular (transfer of the tanks). Significant findings are included.

  14. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  15. Factors Affecting Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors Based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Afshin; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hossein; Enjezab, Behnaz; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    One of the most preventable cancers in women is cervical cancer. Pap smear test is an effective screening program; however, it is not conducted very frequently. The aim of this study is explaining the determinants affecting women’s participation in the Pap smear test based on precaution adoption process model with a qualitative approach. This study was a qualitative approach using a Directed Content Analysis methodology which was conducted in 2014. Participants were 30 rural women who participated in this study voluntarily in sarvabad, Iran. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data collection. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and continuous comparisons. Women`s information and awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear is insufficient and most of them believed that they were not at risk; however, they perceived the severity of the disease. Some of them had no adequate understanding of the test benefits. They pointed to the lack of time, financial difficulties, fear of test result and lack of awareness as the main barriers against the Pap smear test; however, they did not say that they were not willing to do the test. Findings could help health policy makers to find the right area and purpose to facilitate the participation of women in the Pap smear test. PMID:26755465

  16. Load-bearing masonry system adoption and performance: A case study of construction company in a developing country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Nor Azlinda; Abdullah, Che Sobry; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Bahaudin, Ahmad Yusni

    2016-08-01

    This study addresses the factors that influence the adoption of load-bearing masonry (LBM) system. A case study of the load-bearing masonry (LBM) system adoption is conducted through an interview to explore the situation of the technology adoption in a construction company. The finding indicates the factors influence the adoption of LBM system for the construction company are: organizational resources, usefulness, less maintenance, reduce construction time and cost. From the findings, these factors consistent with previous literature. Furthermore, the performance of the company was measured by looking into the financial and non-financial aspects. The LBM system brings good performance as it increased the profits of the company, a good quality of product and attracts more demand from customers. Thus, these factors should be considered for the other companies that are interested in implementing the LBM system in their projects.

  17. Adopting and implementing nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities: Public and private sector roles. A multiple case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recreational facilities are an important community resource for health promotion because they provide access to affordable physical activities. However, despite their health mandate, many have unhealthy food environments that may paradoxically increase the risk of childhood obesity. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are government-initiated, voluntary guidelines intended to facilitate children’s access to healthy food and beverage choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities, however few recreational facilities are using them. Methods We used mixed methods within an exploratory multiple case study to examine factors that influenced adoption and implementation of the ANGCY and the nature of the food environment within three cases: an adopter, a semi-adopter and a non-adopter of the ANGCY. Diffusion of Innovations theory provided the theoretical platform for the study. Qualitative data were generated through interviews, observations, and document reviews, and were analysed using directed content analysis. Set theoretic logic was used to identify factors that differentiated adopters from the non-adopter. Quantitative sales data were also collected, and the quality of the food environment was scored using four complementary tools. Results The keys to adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities related to the managers’ nutrition-related knowledge, beliefs and perceptions, as these shaped his decisions and actions. The manager, however, could not accomplish adoption and implementation alone. Intersectoral linkages with schools and formal, health promoting partnerships with industry were also important for adoption and implementation to occur. The food environment in facilities that had adopted the ANGCY did not appear to be superior to the food environment in facilities that had not adopted the ANGCY. Conclusions ANGCY uptake may continue to falter under the current voluntary

  18. Temporal pattern of ICAM-I mediated regulatory T cell recruitment to sites of inflammation in adoptive transfer model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Doerck, Sebastian; Göbel, Kerstin; Weise, Gesa; Schneider-Hohendorf, Tilman; Reinhardt, Michael; Hauff, Peter; Schwab, Nicholas; Linker, Ralf; Mäurer, Mathias; Meuth, Sven G; Wiendl, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Migration of immune cells to the target organ plays a key role in autoimmune disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the exact underlying mechanisms of this active process during autoimmune lesion pathogenesis remain elusive. To test if pro-inflammatory and regulatory T cells migrate via a similar molecular mechanism, we analyzed the expression of different adhesion molecules, as well as the composition of infiltrating T cells in an in vivo model of MS, adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats. We found that the upregulation of ICAM-I and VCAM-I parallels the development of clinical disease onset, but persists on elevated levels also in the phase of clinical remission. However, the composition of infiltrating T cells found in the developing versus resolving lesion phase changed over time, containing increased numbers of regulatory T cells (FoxP3) only in the phase of clinical remission. In order to test the relevance of the expression of cell adhesion molecules, animals were treated with purified antibodies to ICAM-I and VCAM-I either in the phase of active disease or in early remission. Treatment with a blocking ICAM-I antibody in the phase of disease progression led to a milder disease course. However, administration during early clinical remission aggravates clinical symptoms. Treatment with anti-VCAM-I at different timepoints had no significant effect on the disease course. In summary, our results indicate that adhesion molecules are not only important for capture and migration of pro-inflammatory T cells into the central nervous system, but also permit access of anti-inflammatory cells, such as regulatory T cells. Therefore it is likely to assume that intervention at the blood brain barrier is time dependent and could result in different therapeutic outcomes depending on the phase of CNS lesion development. PMID:21085578

  19. Dendritic cells in irradiated mice trigger the functional plasticity and antitumor activity of adoptively transferred Tc17 cells via IL-12 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Jacob S.; Nelson, Michelle H.; Kundimi, Sreenath; Bailey, Stefanie R.; Huff, Logan W.; Schwartz, Kristina M.; Cole, David J.; Rubinstein, Mark P.; Paulos, Chrystal M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of CD8+ T cells is a promising treatment for advanced malignancies. Lymphodepletion prior to ACT enhances IFN-γ+CD8+ T cell (Tc0) mediated tumor regression. Yet, how lymphodepletion regulates the function and antitumor activity of IL-17A+CD8+ T cells (Tc17) is unknown. Experimental Design To address this question, pmel-1 CD8+ T cells were polarized to secrete either IL-17A or IFN-γ. These subsets were then infused into mice with B16F10 melanoma that were lymphoreplete (no TBI), or lymphodepleted with non-myeloablative (5 Gy) or myeloablative (9 Gy requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) TBI. The activation of innate immune cells and function of donor T cell subsets was monitored in these preconditioned mice. Results Tc17 cells regress melanoma in myeloablated mice to a greater extent than in lymphoreplete or non-myeloablated mice. TBI induced functional plasticity in Tc17 cells causing conversion from IL-17A to IFN-γ producers. Additional investigation revealed that Tc17 plasticity and antitumor activity was mediated by IL-12 secreted by irradiated host dendritic cells. Neutralization of endogenous IL-12 reduced the antitumor activity of Tc17 cells in myeloablated mice, while ex vivo priming with IL-12 enhanced their capacity to regress melanoma in non-myeloablated animals. This, coupled with exogenous administration of low dose IL-12, obviated the need for host preconditioning creating curative responses in non-irradiated mice, Conclusions Our findings indicate that TBI-induced IL-12 augments Tc17 cell-mediated tumor immunity and underline the substantial implications of in vitro preparation of antitumor Tc17 cells with IL-12 in the design of T cell immunotherapies. PMID:25904754

  20. Factors Affecting Mobile Diabetes Monitoring Adoption Among Physicians: Questionnaire Study and Path Model

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda, José Alberto; Sanz, Silvia; Henseler, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes often find it difficult to control their blood glucose level on a daily basis because of distance or physical incapacity. With the increase in Internet-enabled smartphone use, this problem can be resolved by adopting a mobile diabetes monitoring system. Most existing studies have focused on patients’ usability perceptions, whereas little attention has been paid to physicians’ intentions to adopt this technology. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the perceptions and user acceptance of mobile diabetes monitoring among Japanese physicians. Methods A questionnaire survey of physicians was conducted in Japan. The structured questionnaire was prepared in a context of a mobile diabetes monitoring system that controls blood glucose, weight, physical activity, diet, insulin and medication, and blood pressure. Following a thorough description of mobile diabetes monitoring with a graphical image, questions were asked relating to system quality, information quality, service quality, health improvement, ubiquitous control, privacy and security concerns, perceived value, subjective norms, and intention to use mobile diabetes monitoring. The data were analyzed by partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Results In total, 471 physicians participated from 47 prefectures across Japan, of whom 134 were specialized in internal and gastrointestinal medicine. Nine hypotheses were tested with both the total sample and the specialist subsample; results were similar for both samples in terms of statistical significance and the strength of path coefficients. We found that system quality, information quality, and service quality significantly affect overall quality. Overall quality determines the extent to which physicians perceive the value of mobile health monitoring. However, in contrast to our initial predictions, overall quality does not have a significant direct effect on the intention to use mobile diabetes

  1. Distributed energy resources in practice: A case study analysis and validation of LBNL's customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen; Creighton, Charles; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael

    2003-02-01

    This report describes a Berkeley Lab effort to model the economics and operation of small-scale (<500 kW) on-site electricity generators based on real-world installations at several example customer sites. This work builds upon the previous development of the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment, and idealized operating schedule, that would minimize the site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a historic test period, usually a recent year. This study offered the first opportunity to apply DER-CAM in a real-world setting and evaluate its modeling results. DER-CAM has three possible applications: first, it can be used to guide choices of equipment at specific sites, or provide general solutions for example sites and propose good choices for sites with similar circumstances; second, it can additionally provide the basis for the operations of installed on-site generation; and third, it can be used to assess the market potential of technologies by anticipating which kinds of customers might find various technologies attractive. A list of approximately 90 DER candidate sites was compiled and each site's DER characteristics and their willingness to volunteer information was assessed, producing detailed information on about 15 sites of which five sites were analyzed in depth. The five sites were not intended to provide a random sample, rather they were chosen to provide some diversity of business activity, geography, and technology. More importantly, they were chosen in the hope of finding examples of true business decisions made based on somewhat sophisticated analyses, and pilot or demonstration projects were avoided. Information on the benefits and pitfalls of implementing a DER system was also presented from an additional ten sites including agriculture, education, health

  2. Factors Influencing Beliefs for Adoption of a Learning Analytics Tool: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Liaqat; Asadi, Mohsen; Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Hatala, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Present research and development offer various learning analytics tools providing insights into different aspects of learning processes. Adoption of a specific tool for practice is based on how its learning analytics are perceived by educators to support their pedagogical and organizational goals. In this paper, we propose and empirically validate…

  3. An Empirical Study of Factors Driving the Adoption of Mobile Learning in Omani Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarrab, Mohamed; Al Shibli, Ibtisam; Badursha, Nabeela

    2016-01-01

    Mobile learning (M-learning) provides a new learning channel in which learners can access content and just in time information as required irrespective of the time and location. Even though M-learning is fast evolving in many regions of the world, research addressing the driving factors of M-learning adoption is in short supply. This article…

  4. Are Associations between Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment Genetically Mediated? An Adoption Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Caspi, Avshalom; DeFries, John C.; Plomin, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Data from Colorado Adoption Project were used to examine hypothesis that association between parental divorce and children's adjustment is mediated by genetic factors. Findings for psychopathology were consistent with an environmentally mediated explanation for the association. Findings for achievement and social adjustment were consistent with a…

  5. Origins of Familial Similarity in Parenting: A Study of Twins and Adoptive Siblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoya, Sandra H.; Callor, Suzanne; Rowe, David C.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    1997-01-01

    Parents who were identical twins, fraternal twins, or adopted siblings completed questionnaires assessing attitudes toward parenting and specific parenting practices, the emotional atmosphere of the home, and parental personality. Model-fitting results implicated modest genetic effects on affect-related aspects of parenting, such as parental…

  6. The Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development: An Adoption Study of Two- and Three-Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, L. A.; Plomin, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Data from 226 adoptive and 224 nonadoptive families was used to explore the etiology of individual differences in communication development. Children's scores from the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) were compared with verbal and cognitive ability measures of their parents. Sibling correlations were also examined. (SKC)

  7. Accepting Technology as a Solution: A Quantitative Study Investigating the Adoption of Technology at Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Leroy G., III.

    2010-01-01

    Adopting a new technology is an important decision for many academic institutions. Colleges have had to upgrade technology or face diminishing enrollment as students choose to attend other, more responsive institutions. New and imaginative approaches to technology have been developed and implemented by faculty, support staff, and students to…

  8. Determinants of Taxpayers' Adoption of Electronic Filing Methods in Taiwan: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Jen-Ruei; Chao, Wen-Pin; Farn, Cheng-Kiang

    2004-01-01

    Using the personal income tax filing as an example of e-governmental services, this paper seeks to develop an understanding of the factors that influence citizens' adoption of electronic tax-filing services based on empirical data gathered from a large-scale nationwide survey. The taxpayers' satisfaction and usage intention regarding the use of…

  9. The Study of Electronic Medical Record Adoption in a Medicare Certified Home Health Agency Using a Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joy L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to examine the experiences of clinicians in the adoption of Electronic Medical Records in a Medicare certified Home Health Agency. An additional goal for this study was to triangulate qualitative research between describing, explaining, and exploring technology acceptance. The experiences…

  10. Adopted Children's Language Difficulties and Their Relation to Symptoms of Reactive Attachment Disorder: FinAdo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaska, Hanna; Elovainio, Marko; Sinkkonen, Jari; Stolt, Suvi; Jalonen, Iina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential association between symptoms of reactive attachment disorder and language difficulties among internationally adopted children in Finland (the FinAdo study). The language difficulties were assessed using a standardised Five to Fifteen (FTF) parental questionnaire and the symptoms of reactive attachment disorder…

  11. A study of the perceived recognition affecting the adoption of innovation with respect to the online game in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Julia Ying-Chao; Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Kao, Leticia L Y; Cheng, Julian Ming-Sung

    2007-12-01

    The potential of online games to become a major global business and the existence of limited related references led to the current study. In this study, Rogers's diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory is applied to investigate the principles for the adoption of online games in Taiwan. The findings suggest that relative advantages and compatibility both have a significant effect on the adoption of online games for purposes of amusement, with the former being more important for early gamers and the latter being regarded as more critical for later gamers. In addition, complexity is found to impede online game diffusion and is regarded as the most important facilitator. PMID:18085969

  12. The secret: study of a perverse transference.

    PubMed

    Carignan, L

    1999-10-01

    This clinical communication describes the analysis of a perverse transference in an overtly bisexual man. An intricate interplay between heterosexual and homosexual relations enabled him to maintain some heterosexual functioning and to counteract or evacuate intolerable affects and vengeful impulses--originating from early traumas--through perverse acting out with sexual partners. Building on the notion that patients with sexual perversions recreate aspects of their perversion in the transference/countertransference relationship, where it must be analysed, the author illustrates through detailed clinical material how she was drawn into the fabric of her patient's perversion and how this was worked through. She offers an object-relational understanding of his perversion as a complex erotised defensive/reparative/vengeful manoeuvre permitting the disavowal and magical reversal into triumph and sexual pleasure of perceived threats to his personal or sexual identity. Engaging or changing in analysis evoked fears of losing his identity by surrendering to the analyst, rooted in the patient's early experience of serving as his mother's fetish-object. The author suggests that the patient needed to turn the analyst into a perverse partner (disavowing her other-ness) in order to reverse and triumph over this core trauma. She attributes the good treatment outcome to the detection and working through of the perverse transference and monitoring of her countertransference. PMID:10643571

  13. Issues Pertaining to the Transfer Function of the California Community Colleges: A Report Adopted by the Executive Committee of the Academic Senate for California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Maryamber

    Designed as a formal response to the Report of the Task Group on Retention and Transfer (HE 014 825), by Gerald Kissler, which is sharply critical of the community college transfer program, this report examines issues related to the transfer of community college students to the University of California (UC) and the California State Universities…

  14. Demoscene Platforms: A Case Study on the Adoption of Home Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reunanen, Markku; Silvast, Antti

    This paper discusses the adoption of new technology by a hobbyist community known as the demoscene. The demoscene is chiefly a European community that originates from the mid-1980s and continues to exist even today. During its twenty years of existence, the demoscene has had to react to several changes in the field of information technology, in particular new hardware and software platforms. Based on the contemporary communication found in disk magazines and Internet forums we present case examples of the transitions and analyze the adoption processes. At large, the observations made serve as examples of the rich and unexpected ways in which the home computers were domesticated since the early 1980s.

  15. Visualization study on pool boiling heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, Shuya; Hirata, Masaru

    1991-04-01

    The visualized boiling phenomena were observed by means of high speed photographic shadowgraphy using a rotating prism camera (nac HIGH SPEED CAMERA model-16HD) with the speed of about 3500 frames per second. The photographs show that pool boiling heat transfer phenomena are varied for the boiling curve based on the experiments. Experiments have been carried out to investigate pool boiling heat transfer phenomena on a horizontal thin filament in subcooled and saturated distilled water. The experiments were performed for atmospheric pressure,for filament diameters of about 0.3 mm, for region of natural convection to film boiling. The color-film made by high speed movie camera are converted to high speed color video-tape. It is convenient to edit and show the tape for visualization with teaching the students. The high speed color video showed that the successive motion and shape of bubbles during their process of detachment varied with increasing heat flux on the heated surface of a filament. From these results, it was confirmed that the high speed phenomena of boiling by the slow motion video pictures could be estimated clearly.

  16. Microwave radiative transfer studies of precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bringi, V. N.; Vivekanandan, J.; Turk, F. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Since the deployment of the DMSP SSM/I microwave imagers in 1987, increased utilization of passive microwave radiometry throughout the 10 - 100 GHz spectrum has occurred for measurement of atmospheric constituents and terrestrial surfaces. Our efforts have focused on observations and analysis of the microwave radiative transfer behavior of precipitating clouds. We have focused particular attention on combining both aircraft and SSM/I radiometer imagery with ground-based multiparameter radar observations. As part of this and the past NASA contract, we have developed a multi-stream, polarized radiative transfer model which incorporates scattering. The model has the capability to be initialized with cloud model output or multiparameter radar products. This model provides the necessary 'link' between the passive microwave radiometer and active microwave radar observations. This unique arrangement has allowed the brightness temperatures (TB) to be compared against quantities such as rainfall, liquid/ice water paths, and the vertical structure of the cloud. Quantification of the amounts of ice and water in precipitating clouds is required for understanding of the global energy balance.

  17. The effects of shared environment on adult intelligence: a critical review of adoption, twin, and MZA studies.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jack S

    2012-09-01

    There has been a vigorous debate for decades concerning the heritability of intelligence. In recent years, the debate has been focused on whether the components of IQ variability change with age and on separating environmental effects into shared and unshared components. Citing evidence from adoption studies, studies comparing identical and fraternal twins, and studies of identical twins raised apart, some prominent psychologists have concluded that the shared environment has a significant effect on the intelligence of children but little or no effect on the intelligence of adults. In this article, the evidence from such studies is reviewed. The article reaches the conclusion that while there is some evidence from adoption studies supporting the claim that shared environment has little or no effect on adult intelligence, that evidence is inconclusive and is inconsistent with evidence from twin studies and from studies of identical twins reared apart. PMID:22746221

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study of Teacher Perspectives on Teacher Roles and Adoption of Online Collaborative Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Valcke, Martin; Schellens, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to understand teachers' perspectives on their roles in higher education, their views about the adoption of a social-constructivist approach to teaching and learning and the integration of online collaborative learning in blended learning environments in higher education from a cross cultural perspective. We interviewed 60 Chinese…

  19. Training Corporate Managers to Adopt a More Autonomy-Supportive Motivating Style toward Employees: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2009-01-01

    Management style is treated in a variety of ways across the training and development literature. Yet few studies have tested the training-based malleability of management style in a for-profit, authentic work context. The present research tested whether or not training intervention would help managers adopt a more autonomy-supportive motivating…

  20. Reliability and Validity Study of the Mobile Learning Adoption Scale Developed Based on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Aydin, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mobile learning adoption scale (MLAS) was developed on the basis of Rogers' (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory. The scale that was developed consists of four sections. These sections are as follows: Stages in the innovation-decision process, Types of m-learning decision, Innovativeness level and attributes of m-learning.…

  1. Reliability and Validity Study of the Mobile Learning Adoption Scale Developed Based on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Aydin, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mobile learning adoption scale (MLAS) was developed on the basis of Rogers' (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory. The scale that was developed consists of four sections. These sections are as follows: Stages in the innovation-decision process, Types of m-learning decision, Innovativeness level and attributes of m-learning. There…

  2. Addressing the Local in Localization: A Case Study of Open Textbook Adoption by Three South African Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimes, Cynthia; Weiss, Shenandoah; Keep, Renae

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the adoption and use of open textbooks by three high school teachers in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The textbooks, collaboratively authored and distributed through the South African initiative, Siyavula, are available online and are openly licensed, allowing teachers to freely use, modify,…

  3. The Importance of Parenting in the Development of Disorganized Attachment: Evidence from a Preventive Intervention Study in Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: As infant disorganized attachment is a serious risk factor for later child psychopathology, it is important to examine whether attachment disorganization can be prevented or reduced. Method: In a randomized intervention study involving 130 families with 6-month-old adopted infants, two attachment-based intervention programs were…

  4. Case Study of Implementation of Flexible Grouping in One School Framed within the Change Based Adoption Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaydon, Donda

    2013-01-01

    This case study was designed to investigate the implementation of flexible grouping at one elementary school framed within the Change Based Adoption Model. Using interviews and observations, data were compiled to answer research questions related to the steps taken to implement flexible grouping, challenges faced, overall effects of flexible…

  5. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  6. Study of cryogenic container thermodynamics during propellant transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brogan, J. J.; Vernon, R. M.

    1968-01-01

    Study of thermodynamic phenomena occurring during transfer of cryogenic liquids from dewar to receiver tank reveals that the basic cause of tank implosion is evaporation rate of droplets entering the tank in the early transfer phase. Analyses of the thermodynamics involved and implosion prevention techniques are included.

  7. Ultrafast spectroscopy of electron transfer dynamics in liquids; excitation transfer studies of phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goun, Alexei A.

    The transfer of an electron from a donor to an acceptor is the fundamental step in a wide range of chemical and biological processes. As a result, electron-transfer reactions have been the focus of numerous theoretical and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the kinetics and mechanism of the transfer event. Liquid solvents are an important medium for electron-transfer processes. The influences of the distance dependence, diffusion, the radial distribution function, and the hydrodynamic effect have been incorporated into the theory of electron transfer in solution, as well as into the theory of electron transfer between donors and acceptors in the head group regions of micelles. The development of new laser system with a pulse duration of tens of femtoseconds, with tunable wavelength allowed us to study these processes on a considerably shorter time scale than previous studies. This allowed us to observe not only the diffusion controlled but also the kinetics of electron transfer for donor/acceptor pairs that are in close proximity. In one set of experiments we have studied the kinetics of electron transfer in electron accepting molecule (rhodamine 3B) dissolved in electron donating solvent (N,N-dimethylaniline). The data for the forward electron transfer and geminate recombination are approximated by the statistical theory of the electron transfer. Optical anisotropy observed in the experiment demonstrates the orientation dependence of the electron transfer rate. In further experiments we investigated the electron transfer in non-hydrogen bonding liquids of increasing viscosity. The effective value of the donor/acceptor electronic coupling was found to decrease with viscosity. Electron transfer experiments were also carried out on the surface of micelles. The systems studied are the hole donor octadecyl-rhodamine B (ODRB) and the hole acceptor N,N-dimethyl-aniline (DMA) in micelles made of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and

  8. An Exploratory Study of Adoption of Course Management Software and Accompanying Instructional Changes by Faculty in the Liberal Arts and Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yohon, Teresa; Zimmerman, Don; Keeler, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated liberal arts and science faculty's (1) overall adoption of WebCT, a course management software, (2) use of different WebCT functions, (3) perceptions of technology's impact on teaching, and (4) demographic factors that might explain the differences between WebCT adopters and non-adopters. Only 37% of respondents reported…

  9. Low-G fluid transfer technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Technology gaps and system characteristics critical to cryogenic and noncryogenic in-orbit fluid transfer were identified. Four different supply systems were conceptually designed as space shuttle payloads. These were; (1) space tug supply - LH2, LO2, N2H4, He - linear acceleration for liquid acquisition with supply module and tug separated from shuttle, (2) tug supply using orbiter drag, (3) orbiter supply - N2O4,MMH,He, H2,O2 - surface tension screens, (4) multiple receivers supply 0 solar electric propulsion stage, Hg, diaphragm - HEAO B, HEe, paddle fluid rotation-satellite control section, N2H4, screens. It was found that screens had the best overall potential for low weight and simplicity, however, thermal problems with cryogenics still need final resolution.

  10. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  11. Barriers to Adoption of New Treatments: An Internet Study of Practicing Community Psychotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Over 1,600 North American psychotherapists from a wide range of disciplines and practice settings completed an open-ended question on perceived barriers to adoption of new treatments as part of an internet survey. Content analysis indicated that there were five overall themes: clinician attitudes, client characteristics, contextual or institutional factors, training issues and other. The most frequently endorsed theme revolved around training issues, particularly, insufficient time and cost for training, lack of confidence in mastering the technique, and lack of opportunities for refining skills. Specific ideas for overcoming these barriers are identified. PMID:19104928

  12. Barriers to the widespread adoption of health data standards: an exploratory qualitative study in tertiary healthcare organizations in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Although health data standards are perceived to be the essential solution for interoperability barriers within medical IT systems, the level of adoption of those standards still remains frustratingly low. Little is known about the barriers facing their adoption within the healthcare organizations context. In addressing this gap in the literature, based on IT related standards adoption theories such as Diffusion of Innovation Theory and the theories surrounding the Economics of Standards, a qualitative multiple-case study was undertaken in Saudi Arabia to investigate those barriers. The results exposed that few standards were adopted because of four broad reasons, managerial, technical, educational and governmental. While some of the findings can be rooted to those related standards theories, others can be underpinned through the normative literature. Core barriers are the lack of a national regulator and a data exchange plan, and the lack of an adequate policy regarding medical IT systems and information management and national healthcare system; also important are technical barriers and the switching costs to the standards. The outcome of this study can be used in forming effective interventions when planning to use health data standards and, in particular those in developing countries. PMID:23321966

  13. An empirical study of adopting mobile healthcare service: the family's perspective on the healthcare needs of their elderly members.

    PubMed

    Jen, Wen-Yuan; Hung, Ming-Chien

    2010-01-01

    In an aging society, the issue of increased medical costs troubles both government agencies and families with aging parents. Many elderly people require long-term care, and the medical and financial problems associated with long-term care worry their entire family. Mobile healthcare service (MHS) has been widely applied by medical practitioners and researchers for years. Unfortunately, the elderly often fear both the technology and the cost its use incurs; hence, they seldom actively adopt MHS without the prompting and support of other family members. This study highlights this issue of long-term healthcare for the elderly and extracts the factors affecting their family's intentions in adopting MHS. Based on the integration of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Technology Acceptance Model, the factors associated with the family's intention of the aging people toward MHS are explored. Data were collected from 200 students in the "Job Master" track in a local "Executive Master of Business Administration" program. Half of them had at least one immediate family member who was older than 65 years of age. A partial least squares (PLS) analysis shows that "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHS, and "perceived usefulness" and "perceived ease-of-use" had an indirect effect via "attitude." The PLS model explains the variance in intention (64.1%), attitude (58.1%), and perceived usefulness (33.8%). Overall, this study shows that attitude was an important determinant of MHS adoption. Gender also significantly affected the relationship between attitude and behavioral intention to adopt MHS. PMID:20070162

  14. Experimental study of heat transfer to falling liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerholm, N. E.; Kivioja, K.; Ghazanfari, A. R.; Jaervinen, E.

    1985-12-01

    This project was initiated in order to obtain more knowledge about thermal design of falling film heat exchangers and to find methods to improve heat transfer in film flow. A short literature survey of film flow characteristics and heat transfer is presented. An experimental apparatus designed and built for studying falling film evaporation is described. The first experiments were made with smooth Cu tube 25/22 mm and refrigerant R114 as evaporating liquid. A significant amount of droplet entrainment was observed during the tests. The measured average heat transfer coefficient varied from 1000 to 1800 W/m K when Re=1300 to 11000 respectively and when the transfer mode is surface evaporation. This could be predicted accurately with the experimental correlation of Chun and Seban. When nucleate boiling is dominant the heat transfer could be predicted well with pool boiling correlation of VDI-84.

  15. Gene Transfer & Hybridization Studies in Hyperthermophilic Species

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Karen E.

    2005-10-14

    A. ABSTRACT The importance of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in the evolution of microbial species has become increasingly evident with each completed microbial genome sequence. Most significantly, the genome of Thermotoga maritima MSB8, a hyperthermophilic bacterium isolated by Karl Stetter and workers from Vulcano Italy in 1986, and sequenced at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in Rockville Maryland in 1999, revealed extensive LGT between % . this bacterium and members of the archaeal domain (in particular Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and Pyracoccus frcriosus species). Based on whole genome comparisons, it was estimated that 24% of the genetic information in this organism was acquired by genetic exchange with archaeal species, Independent analyses including periodicity analysis of the T. maritimu genomic DNA sequence, phylogenetic reconstruction based on genes that appear archaeal-like, and codon and amino acid usage, have provided additional evidence for LGT between T. maritima and the archaea. More recently, DiRuggiero and workers have identified a very recent LGT event between two genera of hyperthermophilic archaea, where a nearly identical DNA fragment of 16 kb in length flanked by insertion sequence (IS) elements, exists. Undoubtedly, additional examples of LGT will be identified as more microbial genomes are completed. For the present moment however, the genome sequence of T. maritima and other hyperthermophiles including P. furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Pyrococcus abyssi, A. fulgidus, and Aquifex aeolicus, have significantly increased out awareness of evolution being a web of life rather than a tree of life, as suggested by single gene phylogenies. In this proposal, we will aim to determine the extent of LGT across the hyperthemophiles, employing iY maritima as the model organism. A variety of biochemical techniques and phylogenetic reconstructions will allow for a detailed and thorough characterization of the extent of LGT in this species. The

  16. An experimental study of the flow and heat transfer between enhanced heat transfer plates for PHEs

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiao-wei; Meng, Ji-an; Li, Zhi-xin

    2010-11-15

    The flow and heat transfer between inclined discrete rib plates for plate heat exchangers have been experimentally studied. Dye injection method is used to visualize the flow structures. The visualization results show that front vortex, rear vortex and main vortex are formed between the plates. The rib parameter influence is also studied using visualization method. The pressure drop and heat transfer between the inclined discrete rib plates as well as that between inclined continuous rib plates and smooth plates are also measured. The measured results show that the inclined discrete rib plate can enhanced heat transfer 20-25% at the same pumping power compared with the commonly used inclined continuous rib plates. (author)

  17. Whole-body imaging of adoptively transferred T cells using magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography techniques, with a focus on regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Leech, J M; Sharif-Paghaleh, E; Maher, J; Livieratos, L; Lechler, R I; Mullen, G E; Lombardi, G; Smyth, L A

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based therapies using natural or genetically modified regulatory T cells (Tregs) have shown significant promise as immune-based therapies. One of the main difficulties facing the further advancement of these therapies is that the fate and localization of adoptively transferred Tregs is largely unknown. The ability to dissect the migratory pathway of these cells in a non-invasive manner is of vital importance for the further development of in-vivo cell-based immunotherapies, as this technology allows the fate of the therapeutically administered cell to be imaged in real time. In this review we will provide an overview of the current clinical imaging techniques used to track T cells and Tregs in vivo, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition, we will discuss how the finding of these studies can be used, in the context of transplantation, to define the most appropriate Treg subset required for cellular therapy. PMID:23574314

  18. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

    2013-10-01

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of (137)Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the (137)Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10(-1) and 1.8 × 10(-1) for (137)Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of (137)Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10(-2) d L(-1) and 4.6 × 10(-2) d L(-1), respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10(-2) d L(-1) for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10(-3) d L(-1) for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of (137)Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for (137)Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content ((40)K and stable K) in

  19. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Processing flows. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) processing flow and Resource Identification Sheets (RISs) for the ground based orbit transfer vehicle and for the space based orbit transfer vehicle are the primary source of information for the rest of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) OTV Launch Operations Study. Work is presented which identifies KSC facility requirements for the OTV Program, simplifies or automates either flow though the application technology, revises test practices and identifies crew sizes or skills used. These flows were used as the primary point of departure from current operations and practices. Analyses results were documented by revising the appropriate RIS page.

  20. A Comparative Study of Heat Transfer in Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pǎucǎ, Adina; Hepuţ, Teodor; Pinca-Bretotean, Camelia; Stoica, Diana

    2011-09-01

    Rolling of metallic materials with heat transfer occurs as a result of interaction between the workpiece and the rolling cylinders incandescent. Heat transferred by diffusion into the cylinders generates variable temperature fields. These fields produce variable temperature thermal stress in each rotation cycle of rolling cylinders. This paper aims at mathematical modeling of variable temperature fields, using Matlab. These diagrams obtained are compared with those obtained following experimental study of the thermal lamination cylinders for 5 states isochronous temperature.

  1. Information transfer satellite concept study. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergin, P.; Kincade, C.; Kurpiewski, D.; Leinhaupel, F.; Millican, F.; Onstad, R.

    1971-01-01

    Briefly reviewed are the various documents which supply background information for the information transfer satellite study. The sixteen papers reviewed are evaluated in terms of: (1) the category of service or demand being treated; (2) the extent to which information transfer predictions are quantified; (3) the degree to which the data supplied is adequate for the purposes of system synthesis; (4) some assessment as to the overall utility of the data presented in the paper.

  2. CFD study of temperature distribution in full scale boiler adopting in-furnace coal blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadhil, S. S. A.; Hasini, H.; Shuaib, N. H.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the investigation of temperature characteristics of an in-furnace combustion using different coals in a 700 MW full scale boiler. Single mixture fraction approach is adopted for combustion model of both primary and secondary coals. The primary coal was based on the properties of Adaro which has been used as the design coal for the boiler under investigation. The secondary blend coal was selected based on sub-bituminous coal with higher calorific value. Both coals are simultaneously injected into the furnace at alternate coal burner elevations. The general prediction of the temperature contours at primary combustion zone shows identical pattern compared with conventional single coal combustion in similar furnace. Reasonable agreement was achieved by the prediction of the average temperature at furnace exit. The temperature distribution is at different furnace elevation is non-uniform with higher temperature predicted at circumferential "ring-like" region at lower burner levels for both cases. The maximum flame temperature is higher at the elevation where coal of higher calorific value is injected. The temperature magnitude is within the accepTable limit and the variations does not differ much compared to the conventional single coal combustion.

  3. The Reality of Rhetoric in Information Systems Adoption: A Case Study Investigation of the Uk National Health Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Ferneley, Elaine

    The UK National Health Service is undergoing a tremendous IS -led change, the purpose of which is to create a service capable of meeting the demands of the 21st century. The aim of this paper is to examine the extent to which persuasive discourse, or rhetoric, influences and affects the adoption of information systems within the health sector. It seeks to explore the ways in which various actors use rhetoric to advance their own agendas and the impact this has on the system itself. As such, the paper seeks to contribute to diffusion research through the use of a case study analysis of the implementation of an Electronic Single Patient Care Record system within one UK Health Service Trust. The findings of the paper suggest that rhetoric is an important and effective persuasive tool, employed by system trainers to coax users into not only adopting the system but also using the system in a predefined manner.

  4. The California Clinical Data Project: a case study in the adoption of clinical data standards for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Sujansky, Walter; Chang, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    The California Clinical Data Project is a statewide initiative to remove barriers to the widespread and effective use of information technology to improve chronic disease care. The project is a case study in the development and widespread adoption of clinical data standards by varied and often competing stakeholders. As an initial step, the project defined precise data standards for the batch reporting of pharmacy claims data and laboratory results data. These uniform standards facilitate the flow of existing electronic clinical information into disease registries and electronic health record systems. Pharmacy and lab results data now are being exchanged electronically with this standard among the largest health plans, medical groups, and clinical laboratories participating in California's pay-for-performance programs. Lessons from this project may apply to the development and adoption of data standards for other states and locales and for the emerging national health information infrastructure. PMID:16903664

  5. Media Competition Implementation for the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD): Adoption and Reach

    PubMed Central

    Criss, Shaniece; Cheung, Lilian; Giles, Catherine; Gortmaker, Steven; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Davison, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD) was a multi-level, multi-sector community intervention with a media competition component to provide an overarching synergy and promote awareness of target behaviors to reduce childhood obesity. Students participating in the media competition were tasked with developing videos, song/rap lyrics, and artwork that reflected the goals. The aim of this study is to document the process used to develop and implement the media competition along with its reach and adoption. An adapted version of Neta and colleagues’ 2015 framework on dissemination and implementation was used to summarize the process by which the media competition was developed and implemented. Adoption was defined by whether eligible schools or afterschool programs decided to implement the media competition. Reach was defined by student participation rates within schools/programs and the number of votes cast for the finalists on the coalition website and students’ paper ballots. A total of 595 students participated in the media competition from 18 school and afterschool programs in two communities. Adoption of the media competitions ranged from 22% to 100% in programs and reach ranged from 3% to 33% of the student population. The documentation of the implementation should contribute to the replication of the media competition. PMID:27058549

  6. Media Competition Implementation for the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD): Adoption and Reach.

    PubMed

    Criss, Shaniece; Cheung, Lilian; Giles, Catherine; Gortmaker, Steven; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Davison, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD) was a multi-level, multi-sector community intervention with a media competition component to provide an overarching synergy and promote awareness of target behaviors to reduce childhood obesity. Students participating in the media competition were tasked with developing videos, song/rap lyrics, and artwork that reflected the goals. The aim of this study is to document the process used to develop and implement the media competition along with its reach and adoption. An adapted version of Neta and colleagues' 2015 framework on dissemination and implementation was used to summarize the process by which the media competition was developed and implemented. Adoption was defined by whether eligible schools or afterschool programs decided to implement the media competition. Reach was defined by student participation rates within schools/programs and the number of votes cast for the finalists on the coalition website and students' paper ballots. A total of 595 students participated in the media competition from 18 school and afterschool programs in two communities. Adoption of the media competitions ranged from 22% to 100% in programs and reach ranged from 3% to 33% of the student population. The documentation of the implementation should contribute to the replication of the media competition. PMID:27058549

  7. Key factors influencing adoption of an innovation in primary health care: a qualitative study based on implementation theory

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bridging the knowledge-to-practice gap in health care is an important issue that has gained interest in recent years. Implementing new methods, guidelines or tools into routine care, however, is a slow and unpredictable process, and the factors that play a role in the change process are not yet fully understood. There is a number of theories concerned with factors predicting successful implementation in various settings, however, this issue is insufficiently studied in primary health care (PHC). The objective of this article was to apply implementation theory to identify key factors influencing the adoption of an innovation being introduced in PHC in Sweden. Methods A qualitative study was carried out with staff at six PHC units in Sweden where a computer-based test for lifestyle intervention had been implemented. Two different implementation strategies, implicit or explicit, were used. Sixteen focus group interviews and two individual interviews were performed. In the analysis a theoretical framework based on studies of implementation in health service organizations, was applied to identify key factors influencing adoption. Results The theoretical framework proved to be relevant for studies in PHC. Adoption was positively influenced by positive expectations at the unit, perceptions of the innovation being compatible with existing routines and perceived advantages. An explicit implementation strategy and positive opinions on change and innovation were also associated with adoption. Organizational changes and staff shortages coinciding with implementation seemed to be obstacles for the adoption process. Conclusion When implementation theory obtained from studies in other areas was applied in PHC it proved to be relevant for this particular setting. Based on our results, factors to be taken into account in the planning of the implementation of a new tool in PHC should include assessment of staff expectations, assessment of the perceived need for the

  8. Study of transfer and breakup reactions with the plastic box

    SciTech Connect

    Stokstad, R.G.; Albiston, C.R.; Bantel, M.; Chan, Y.; Countryman, P.J.; Gazes, S.; Harvey, B.G.; Homeyer, H.; Murphy, M.J.; Tserruya, I.

    1984-12-01

    The study of transfer reactions with heavy-ion projectiles is complicated by the frequent presence of three or more nuclei in the final state. One prolific source of three-body reactions is the production of a primary ejectile in an excited state above a particle threshold. A subset of transfer reactions, viz., those producing ejectiles in bound states, can be identified experimentally. This has been accomplished with a 4..pi.. detector constructed of one-millimeter-thick scintillator paddles of dimension 20 cm x 20 cm. The paddles are arranged in the form of a cube centered around the target with small entrance and exit apertures for the beam and the projectile-like fragments, (PLF). The detection of a light particle (e.g., a proton or an alpha particle) in coincidence with a PLF indicates a breakup reaction. The absence of any such coincidence indicates a reaction in which all the charge lost by the projectile was transferred to the target. With this technique we have studied the transfer and breakup reactions induced by 220 and 341 MeV /sup 20/Ne ions on a gold target. Ejectiles from Li to Ne have been measured at several scattering angles. The absolute cross sections, angular distributions and energy spectra for the transfer and breakup reactions are presented. Relatively large cross sections are observed for the complete transfer of up to seven units of charge (i.e., a nitrogen nucleus). The relatively large probabilities for ejectiles to be produced in particle-bound states suggest that on the average, most of the excitation energy in a collision resides in the heavy fragment when mass is transferred from the lighter to the heavier fragment. The gross features and trends in the energy spectra for transfer and breakup reactions are similar. 20 references.

  9. Factors Driving the Adoption of Quality Improvement Initiatives in Local Health Departments: Results From the 2010 Profile Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Huabin; Sotnikov, Sergey; McLees, Anita; Stokes, Shereitte

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, quality improvement (QI) has become a major focus in advancing the goal of improving performance of local health departments (LHDs). However, limited empirical data exists on the current implementation of QI initiatives in LHDs and factors associated with adoption of QI initiatives. Objectives (1) To examine the current implementation of QI implementation initiatives by LHDs and (2) to identify factors contributing to LHDs’ decision to implement QI initiatives. Methods In this study, a novel theoretical framework based on analysis of QI in medicine was applied to analyze QI by LHDs. LHDs’ QI adoption was assessed by the number of formal QI projects reported by LHDs that responded to module 1 of the 2010 National Profile of Local Health Department Study (Profile Study) conducted by the National Association of County & City Health Officials. The Profile Study data were merged with data from the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Area Resource Files and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials’ 2010 Survey. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using Stata 11 SVY procedure to account for the complex sampling design. Results The Profile Study data indicated that about 73% of the LHDs reported implementing 1 or more QI projects. LHDs with large jurisdiction population (>50 000), higher per capita public health expenditure, a designated QI staff member, or prior participation in performance improvement programs were more likely to have undertaken QI initiatives. Conclusion According to the Profile Study, more than a quarter of LHDs surveyed did not report implementing any formal QI projects. Greater investments in QI programs and designation of QI staff can be effective strategies to promote QI adoption. The validity of the definition of a formal QI project needs to be established. More research to identify the barriers to successful QI implementation at LHDs is also needed. PMID:24978615

  10. A review of the evidence from family, twin and adoption studies for a genetic contribution to adult psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Shih, Regina A; Belmonte, Pamela L; Zandi, Peter P

    2004-11-01

    Family, twin and adoption studies have provided major evidence for the role of genetics in numerous psychiatric disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. As the search for patterns of inheritance and candidate genes of these complex disorders continues, we review relevant findings from quantitative genetic studies and outline the main challenges for the field of psychiatric genetics to focus on in order to more definitively establish the underpinnings of genetic and environmental influences of adult psychopathology. PMID:16194760

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN TRANSFER OF TRAINING, SECTION TWO--BIBLIOGRAPHY OF STUDIES OF TRANSFER OF TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOLUROW, LAWRENCE M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY ON TRANSFER OF LEARNING STUDIES WAS COMPLETED FOR U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION CONTRACT NO. 4-20-002 AS APPENDIX "A" (SECTION TWO) TO THE FINAL REPORT. IT CONTAINS 1,775 TITLES FROM THE PERIOD 1890 TO 1966 ON TRANSFER OF LEARNING. THE CONCERN WAS TO COMPILE THE EMPIRICALLY BASED PRINCIPLES RELATING TO TRANSFER OF TRAINING IN A FORM…

  12. Transfer Students in Theatre: A Narrative Study of Transferring from Community Colleges to Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry Boyenga, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The transfer student phenomenon in higher education is as increasingly complex as the transfer students causing the phenomenon. The collection of narratives in this study reflected transfer experiences of theatre students who were navigating the educational pipeline from community colleges to four-year institutions to major in the theatre…

  13. An Alternative Study of Transfer of Learning in Clinical Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Vimla; Cranton, Patricia A.

    The use of an alternative methodology to study transfer of learning in clinical instruction during medical school was investigated. The environment in which clinical instruction takes place was examined, after which hypotheses were proposed and tested in a quasi-experimental design. The first phase of the study, an ethnographic analysis of the…

  14. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The…

  15. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  16. Fission Study Using Multi-Nucleon Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, K.; Hirose, K.; Lėguillon, R.; Makii, H.; Nishinaka, I.; Orlandi, R.; Smallcombe, J.; Ishii, T.; Tsukada, K.; Asai, M.; Chiba, S.; Ohtsuki, T.; Tatsuzawa, R.; Takaki, N.

    2015-06-01

    Fission study using multi-nucleon transfer reaction will be discussed. This approach has an advantage that we can study fission of neutron-rich nuclei which cannot be accessed by particle or charged-particle capture reactions. Unique feature in our setup is that we can produce fission data for many nuclei using many transfer-channels. Also wide excitation energy range can be covered in this set up, allowing us to measure the excitation energy dependence of the fission properties. Preliminary data obtained in the 18O + 238U reaction will be presented..

  17. Adopting Online Lecturing for Improved Learning: A Case Study from Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Marie; Kennedy-Clark, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that examined the integration of video lectures into a pre-service teacher unit of study. The aim of the research was to ascertain how students used the pre-recorded videos to complement their learning. The focus was on the pedagogy, and explored three factors: convenience, self-regulation of learning and…

  18. Factors Affecting Adoption of Facebook: An Exploratory Study of the LIS Community Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to investigate whether information professionals, as well as LIS students, are ready to assimilate Facebook in their work and educational environments. The study uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as well as some characteristics of the "Big Five" model of personality as a theoretical base from which to predict…

  19. Florida's Instructional Materials Specifications. K-12 Social Studies, 2004-2005 Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    An effective social studies program provides coordinated, systematic study, drawing upon such disciplines as economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion, and sociology. It prepares students to be personally and socially aware, promotes multiple perspectives, encourages intellectual curiosity, promotes…

  20. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  1. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  2. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  3. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  4. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  5. Dogmatism and Attitudes Toward Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembroski, Betty G.; Johnson Dale L.

    1969-01-01

    Using Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale and an Adoption Attitude Scale administered to 113 college students study supports hypothesis that among males dogmatism and intolerance toward areas relating to adoption would be positively correlated. Negative correlation for females suggests that emphasis on maternal role makes adoption attitudes exception to…

  6. Using community insight to understand physical activity adoption in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Thompson, Deborah I; Diamond, Pamela M; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-06-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m(2)), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women. PMID:25504569

  7. Using Community Insight to Understand Physical Activity Adoption in Overweight and Obese African American and Hispanic Women: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Thompson, Deborah I.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m2), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women. PMID:25504569

  8. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  9. Study on radiation transfer in human skin for cosmetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Jun; Kawamura, Ayumu; Miura, Yoshimasa; Takata, Sadaki; Ogawa, Katsuki

    2005-06-01

    In order to design cosmetics producing the optical properties that are required for a beautiful skin, the radiation transfer in the skin has been numerically investigated by the Monte Carlo method and the effects of skin texture and cosmetics on the radiation transfer have been empirically investigated using an artificial skin. The numerical analysis showed that the total internal reflection suppresses large portion of radiation going out through the skin surface Additionally, the experimental study revealed that skin texture and cosmetics not only diffusely reflect the incoming radiation, but also lead the internally reflected radiation to the outside of the skin.

  10. Locating the Doctoral Study in the "Paradigm Skirmishes": Challenges and Prospects for Adopting a Paradigm Cradle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruto-Korir, Rose; Lubbe, Carien

    2010-01-01

    It is important to understand the thought patterns of students and supervisors that underlie the choice of paradigm and determine the progression of doctoral studies as an integral part of articulating scholarship at the doctoral level and subsequently, to completing the research. This paper traces a student's and a supervisor's thought patterns…

  11. Retention and Transfer: University of California Undergraduate Enrollment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Office of the Academic Vice President.

    Student retention and transfer was studied at the University of California (UC) system as one aspect of undergraduate enrollment planning. A task group examined the following questions: (1) What is known about attrition? (2) When do students leave? (3) Who are the high-risk students? (4) Why do students leave? and (5) What is being done about it?…

  12. Theoretical studies on shaking processes in nuclear transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, Tapan

    2015-09-01

    The probabilities of shaking processes during nuclear transfer reactions have been studied using the Mukoyama formalism after the re-examination of formalism for β-decay processes. Electron shakeoff probabilities have been calculated for the α-transfer reaction in the range of Z = 10- 50. The Z-dependence on the shakeoff probabilities so obtained has been represented by an analytical equation with two parameters. The formalism has been applied on a typical nuclear transfer reaction Fe5626 +C126 →Ni6028 +Be84 and it is found that electron shakeup, shakedown and shakeoff probabilities dominate for low l quantum number of the respective shells of the projectile-like fragment ion. However, for a particular value of l these processes show high probabilities for low values of n quantum number.

  13. Strategies for Dealing with Low Adoption of Agricultural Innovations: A Case Study of Farmers in Udenu L.G.A. of Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguru, Chike; Ajayi, S. L.; Ogbu, Oliver C.

    2015-01-01

    A study to access the level of acceptance/adoption of agricultural innovations by farmers in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State was carried out. The aim was to find out the reasons behind the low acceptance/adoption of agricultural innovations by farmers in the area and to suggest possible strategies to address this ugly situation; as a…

  14. A Study of the Adoption Process of a Family Living Practice by Homemakers in a Selected North Carolina County. Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Maidred Morris

    This study sought to determine the stage (awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, or adoption) reached by homemakers in adopting the water blanching of vegetables for freezing; to identify information sources (mass media, agencies, experts, informal personal contacts, and organizations); and to assess the relationship of certain personal, social,…

  15. Information transfer satellite concept study. Volume 2: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergin, P.; Kincade, C.; Kurpiewski, D.; Leinhaupel, F.; Millican, F.; Onstad, R.

    1971-01-01

    The ITS concept study is preceded by two requirements studies whose primary objectives are to identify viable demands and to develop the functional requirements associated with these demands. In addition to continuing this basic activity the ITS concept study objectives are to: (1) develop tools and techniques for planning advanced information transfer satellite communications systems, and to (2) select viable systems for further analysis both in their near-term and in the far-term aspects.

  16. Genetic and environmental effects on openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness: an adoption/twin study.

    PubMed

    Bergeman, C S; Chipuer, H M; Plomin, R; Pedersen, N L; McClearn, G E; Nesselroade, J R; Costa, P T; McCrae, R R

    1993-06-01

    Previous research has indicated that extraversion and neuroticism are substantially affected both by genotype and environment. This study assesses genetic and environmental influences on the other three components of the five-factor model of personality: Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. An abbreviated version of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) was administered to 82 pairs of identical twins and 171 pairs of fraternal twins reared apart and 132 pairs of identical twins and 167 pairs of fraternal twins reared together. Estimates of genetic and environmental effects for Openness and Conscientiousness were similar to those found in other studies of personality: Genetic influence was substantial and there was little evidence of shared rearing environment. Results for Agreeableness were different: Genetic influence accounted for only 12% of the variance and shared rearing environment accounted for 21% of the variance. Few significant gender or age differences for genetic and environmental parameters were found in model-fitting analyses. PMID:8345444

  17. Adopting a blended learning approach to teaching evidence based medicine: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is a core unit delivered across many medical schools. Few studies have investigated the most effective method of teaching a course in EBM to medical students. The objective of this study was to identify whether a blended-learning approach to teaching EBM is more effective a didactic-based approach at increasing medical student competency in EBM. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted consisting of a controlled trial and focus groups with second year graduate medical students. Students received the EBM course delivered using either a didactic approach (DID) to learning EBM or a blended-learning approach (BL). Student competency in EBM was assessed using the Berlin tool and a criterion-based assessment task, with student perceptions on the interventions assessed qualitatively. Results A total of 61 students (85.9%) participated in the study. Competency in EBM did not differ between the groups when assessed using the Berlin tool (p = 0.29). Students using the BL approach performed significantly better in one of the criterion-based assessment tasks (p = 0.01) and reported significantly higher self-perceived competence in critical appraisal skills. Qualitative analysis identified that students had a preference for the EBM course to be delivered using the BL approach. Conclusions Implementing a blended-learning approach to EBM teaching promotes greater student appreciation of EBM principles within the clinical setting. Integrating a variety of teaching modalities and approaches can increase student self-confidence and assist in bridging the gap between the theory and practice of EBM. PMID:24341502

  18. A study on the necessity of medical facilities safety design adoption.

    PubMed

    Park, Bora; Yang, Yeongae; Yang, Dongjoo; Shin, Joong-Il; Park, Sujong; Park, Soohee; Park, Yunhee

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the requirements of the introduction of a safety design and certification system for medical facilities. [Subjects] A survey was carried out of one hundred nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech and language therapists from May to August in 2012. [Methods] The survey was conducted after giving subjects some information about safety design. [Results] The participants were aware of the need for establishing a safety design certification system. Total responses to services, facilities and space were analyzed in order to evaluate the priorities of safety, user characteristics, functionality, convenience and aesthetics. Regarding the application of a safety design certification system to services, items were prioritized in the order of children's items, household supplies and hospital supplies. For facilities, the priorities were, living space, social welfare and medical facilities; space, they were public and transportation-related places. The requirements for operating a safety design system were in order development of: highly skilled manpower, the legal system, educational promotion and qualifying facilities. [Conclusion] In conclusion, in order to implement safety design in medical facilities, a safety design certification system should be introduced first, and to do this a systematic and comprehensive study is needed. PMID:24259877

  19. The Place of Adoption in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Jessup, Martha A.; Guydish, Joseph; Manser, Sarah Turcotte; Tajima, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) was established in 1999 to determine effectiveness of drug abuse treatment interventions among diverse client populations and settings. To address dissemination of research findings, the CTN also has as its mission the transfer of research findings to treatment providers. In a qualitative study of adoption of evidence based practice in the context of two CTN clinical trials, we interviewed 29 participants from seven organizational levels of the multisite study organization about post-trial adoption, their role in the clinical trial, and interactions between the research initiative and clinic staff and setting. Analysis of interview data revealed a range of opinion among participants on the place of adoption within the CTN. Innovation within the CTN to support adoption and further observational research on dynamics of adoption within the CTN can increase dissemination of evidence-based drug abuse treatment interventions in the future. PMID:20126428

  20. Adopting drought indices for estimating soil moisture: A North Carolina case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Aaron P.; Niyogi, Dev dutta S.; Raman, Sethu

    2002-04-01

    Soil moisture availability has a significant impact on environmental processes of different scales. Errors in initializing soil moisture in numerical weather forecasting models tend to cause errors in short-term weather and medium range predictions. We study the use of two drought indices: Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) values and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for estimating soil moisture. SPI and PDSI values are compared for three climate divisions: western mountains, central piedmont, and the coastal plain in North Carolina, USA. Results suggest SPI to be more representative of short-term precipitation and soil moisture variation and hence a better indicator of soil wetness. A regression equation that uses SPI is proposed to estimate soil moisture.

  1. Adoption of online health management tools among healthy older adults: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Zettel-Watson, Laura; Tsukerman, Dmitry

    2016-06-01

    As the population ages and chronic diseases abound, overburdened healthcare systems will increasingly require individuals to manage their own health. Online health management tools, quickly increasing in popularity, have the potential to diminish or even replace in-person contact with health professionals, but overall efficacy and usage trends are unknown. The current study explored perceptions and usage patterns among users of online health management tools, and identified barriers and barrier-breakers among non-users. An online survey was completed by 169 computer users (aged 50+). Analyses revealed that a sizable minority (37%) of participants use online health management tools and most users (89%) are satisfied with these tools, but a limited range of tools are being used and usage occurs in relatively limited domains. Improved awareness and education for online health management tools could enhance people's abilities to remain at home as they age, reducing the financial burden on formal assistance programs. PMID:25149210

  2. Medical Issues in Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Issues in Adoption KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Issues in Adoption Print ... or emotional abuse of the child continue Agency Adoptions If you adopt through an agency, you might ...

  3. How do physicians adopt and apply opioid prescription guidelines in the emergency department? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kilaru, Austin S.; Gadsden, Sarah M.; Perrone, Jeanmarie; Paciotti, Breah; Barg, Frances K; Meisel, Zachary F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A rise in prescriptions for opioid pain medications has coincided with increasing opioid overdose deaths. Guidelines designed to optimize opioid prescriptions written in the emergency department have been implemented with substantial controversy. Little is known about how physicians perceive and apply these guidelines. We sought to identify key themes regarding emergency physicians’ definition, awareness, use, and opinions of opioid prescribing guidelines. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 61 emergency physicians attending the American College of Emergency Physicians Scientific Assembly (October 2012; Denver, Colorado). Participants varied with respect to age, gender, geographic region, practice setting, and years of practice experience. We analyzed the interview content using modified grounded theory, an iterative coding process to identify patterns of responses and derive key themes. The study team examined discrepancies in the coding process to ensure reliability and establish consensus. Results When aware of opioid prescribing guidelines, emergency physicians often defined them as policies developed by individual hospitals that sometimes reflected guidelines at the state or national level. Guidelines were primarily used by physicians to communicate decisions to limit prescriptions to patients upon discharge rather than as decision-making tools. Attitudes toward guidelines varied with regard to general attitudes toward opioid medications as well as the perceived effects of guidelines on physician autonomy, public health, liability, and patient diversion. Conclusion These exploratory findings suggest that hospital-based opioid guidelines complement and occasionally supersede state and national guidelines and that emergency physicians apply guidelines primarily as communication tools. The perspectives of providers should inform future policy actions that seek to address the problem of opioid abuse

  4. Adoptive cell transfer of contact sensitivity-initiation mediated by nonimmune cells sensitized with monoclonal IgE antibodies. Dependence on host skin mast cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Ushio, H; Paliwal, V; Ptak, W; Askenase, P W

    1995-05-15

    A role for mast cell release of serotonin (5-HT), via Ag-specific factors derived from Thy-1+ B220+ lymphoid cells in the initiation of murine contact sensitivity (CS) has been suggested. However, because CS in mast cell-deficient mice was intact, a role for mast cells in CS initiation was unclear. Therefore, we examined whether CS could be initiated by i.v. injection of nonimmune mixed lymphoid cells that were sensitized in vitro with IgE. When naive mice received IgE-sensitized nonimmune spleen or lymph node cells, or IgE-sensitized purified mast cells, together with immune CS-effector B220- T cells, which therefore were depleted of CS-initiating, Thy-1+, B220+ cells, which could not transfer CS, then reconstitution of CS occurred. Mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice could not elicit this IgE-dependent CS ear swelling, but when mast cell deficiency was reversed by ear injection of normal bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells, then CS was restored. In vitro pretreatment with irrelevant monoclonal anti-OVA IgE prevented CS initiation mediated by Ag-specific, IgE mAb-sensitized cells, presumably by blocking sensitization with IgE. Thus Fc epsilon R on the normal lymphoid cells were involved. When ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, was injected i.v. before cell transfer, CS initiation via IgE-sensitized cells and CS were no longer elicited. Thus, in this system, IgE Abs bound to circulating IgE Fc epsilon R bearing lymphoid cells sensitized in vitro (most likely basophils), probably mediated early activation of these circulating basophils to release mediators, causing 5-HT release from cutaneous mast cells, to mediate CS initiation. PMID:7730614

  5. Light Nuclei Studied with Nucleon Transfer Reactions Using Exotic Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A. H.; Rehm, K. E.; Greene, J. P.; Henderson, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Jiang, C. L.; Moore, E. F.; Pardo, R. C.; Peterson, D.; Pieper, S. C.; Savard, G.; Schiffer, J. P.; Sinha, S.; Tang, X.; Wiringa, R. B.; Jisonna, L.; Segel, R. E.; Paul, M.

    2006-04-26

    Single-neutron transfer with the (d,p) reaction in inverse kinematics has been used to study the properties of the light nuclei 9Li and 7He. The results for 9Li and 7He are compared to the predictions of ab-initio models of nuclear structure. Different possibilities for excited states in 7He are discussed in the context of other recent experimental studies of 7He.

  6. The Use of Video in Knowledge Transfer of Teacher-Led Psychosocial Interventions: Feeling Competent to Adopt a Different Role in the Classroom (L'utilisation de la vidéo dans le transfert de connaissances dans les interventions psychosociales menées par les enseignants : sentir que l'on a la compétence d'adopter un rôle différent dans la salle de classe)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauregard, Caroline; Rousseau, Cécile; Mustafa, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Because they propose a form of modeling, videos have been recognised to be useful to transfer knowledge about practices requiring teachers to adopt a different role. This paper describes the results of a satisfaction survey with 98 teachers, school administrators and professionals regarding their appreciation of training videos showing teacher-led…

  7. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  8. Adoption Failure: A Social Work Postmortem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadushin, Alfred; Seidl, Frederick W.

    1971-01-01

    Failed adoption is defined as removal of the adoptive child at any time between placement and legal adoption. A study of failed adoptions in a statewide adoption agency found a failure rate of less than 3 percent. Reasons for failure are analyzed and implications for practice are suggested. (Author)

  9. The adoption of provider-based rural health clinics by rural hospitals: a study of market and institutional forces.

    PubMed Central

    Krein, S L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the response of rural hospitals to various market and organizational signals by determining the factors that influence whether or not they establish a provider-based rural health clinic (RHC) (a joint Medicare/Medicaid program). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Several secondary sources for 1989-1995: the AHA Annual Survey, the PPS Minimum Data Set and a list of RHCs from HCFA, the Area Resource File, and professional associations. The analysis includes all general medical/surgical rural hospitals operating in the United States during the study period. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal design and pooled cross-sectional data were used, with the rural hospital as the unit of analysis. Key variables were examined as sets and include measures of competitive pressures (e.g., hospital market share), physician resources, nurse practitioner/physician assistant (NP/PA) practice regulation, hospital performance pressures (e.g., operating margin), innovativeness, and institutional pressure (i.e., the cumulative force of adoption). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adoption of provider-based RHCs by rural hospitals appears to be motivated less as an adaptive response to observable economic or internal organizational signals than as a reaction to bandwagon pressures. CONCLUSIONS: Rural hospitals with limited resources may resort to imitating others because of uncertainty or a limited ability to fully evaluate strategic activities. This can result in actions or behaviors that are not consistent with policy objectives and the perceived need for policy changes. Such activity in turn could have a negative effect on some providers and some rural residents. Images Figure 1 PMID:10201851

  10. [Experimental study of vascular gene transfer using soluble stent].

    PubMed

    Huang, Z; Gou, J; Li, X

    1997-05-01

    We assessed the possibility of gene transfer into anastomotic arteries in vivo using soluble stent containing Adv5-CMV/LacZ. After being soaked in a high concentration solution of glucose containing Adv5-CMV (control group) or Adv5-CMV/LacZ (treatment group) for 30 minutes, we inserted soluble stents into the lumina of cut rat carotid arteries, and end-to-end anastomoses of cut rat carotid were performed with standard microvascular surgical technique. 16 rats were killed after two weeks, the segments of anastomotic carotid arteries were prepared for assessing beta-galactosidase activity and histochemical staining. In the control group, the anastomotic arteries did not have detectable level of beta-galactosidase expression. In the treatment group, the amount of beta-galactosidase expression was 9.80 x 10-3 u/g tissue. Microscopic examination of histochemically stained arteries demonstrated that gene transfered not only to endothelial cells but also to smooth muscle cells, and all anastomotic arteries were transfered in the treatment group, but none of arteries revealed blue in the control group. The results of this experimental study suggested that soluble stent be a new method of direct gene transfer into arteries in vivo. PMID:10374573

  11. Numerical study of heat transfer enhancement in a channel flow using an oscillating vortex generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.-J.

    2002-04-01

    A numerical simulation is performed to study the unsteady flow and heat transfer in a channel with an oscillating bar, which is called an oscillating vortex generator. The behavior of the oscillating bar and flow is coupled, and the variation of the flow and thermal fields is classified as a moving boundary problem. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian kinematic description method is adopted to describe the flow and thermal fields, and a Galerkin finite element formulation with moving meshes is applied to solve the governing equations. The effects of Reynolds number, maximum oscillating speed, oscillating amplitude, and oscillating frequency of the bar on the flow and heat transfer are examined in details. The results show that the unsteady flow of transverse vortices is actively and largely formed behind the bar as the bar oscillates in the channel. The transverse vortices transport the low-temperature and high-speed core flow toward the heated regions of the channel. Also, the high-temperature wall flow is carried away from the heated regions of the channel to mix with the low-temperature core flow by transverse vortices. Based upon the fixed heat transfer area, the efficiency index is greater than 1.0 for almost all cases.

  12. Adoptive T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Lokhorst, H M; Liebowitz, D

    1999-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy, or the transfer of immunocompetent cells, has been shown to be a promising new strategy for treatment of a variety of malignancies, including leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The possibility that it may likewise benefit patients with multiple myeloma is now being explored by researchers in Europe and the United States. Two alternatives, one using donor leukocyte infusions (DLIs) and the other using autologous T cells, are described. In the Netherlands, researchers studied the use of DLIs in 17 patients with multiple myeloma who relapsed after bone marrow transplant (BMT). Of 16 evaluable patients, 10 (62%) responded, with six (37%) achieving a complete response (CR). After a median follow-up duration of 28 months, five patients relapsed and five remained in remission. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in nine patients. In the United States, adoptive immunotherapy is currently being tested in eight patients with chemotherapy-resistant lymphoma. Autologous T cells were obtained prior to BMT and expanded using an anti-CD3/CD28 culture system. After BMT, the cells were reinfused into the patient. At approximately day 14, granulocyte levels began to recover in the six evaluable patients, and levels remained relatively stable over the posttreatment course. Two patients developed severe autoimmune toxicity, which responded to treatment in one and resolved spontaneously in the other. PMID:9989486

  13. A study of Monte Carlo radiative transfer through fractal clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, C.; Lavallec, D.; O`Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P.

    1996-04-01

    An understanding of radiation transport (RT) through clouds is fundamental to studies of the earth`s radiation budget and climate dynamics. The transmission through horizontally homogeneous clouds has been studied thoroughly using accurate, discreet ordinates radiative transfer models. However, the applicability of these results to general problems of global radiation budget is limited by the plane parallel assumption and the fact that real clouds fields show variability, both vertically and horizontally, on all size scales. To understand how radiation interacts with realistic clouds, we have used a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model to compute the details of the photon-cloud interaction on synthetic cloud fields. Synthetic cloud fields, generated by a cascade model, reproduce the scaling behavior, as well as the cloud variability observed and estimated from cloud satellite data.

  14. Organization-wide adoption of computerized provider order entry systems: a study based on diffusion of innovations theory

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems have been introduced to reduce medication errors, increase safety, improve work-flow efficiency, and increase medical service quality at the moment of prescription. Making the impact of CPOE systems more observable may facilitate their adoption by users. We set out to examine factors associated with the adoption of a CPOE system for inter-organizational and intra-organizational care. Methods The diffusion of innovation theory was used to understand physicians' and nurses' attitudes and thoughts about implementation and use of the CPOE system. Two online survey questionnaires were distributed to all physicians and nurses using a CPOE system in county-wide healthcare organizations. The number of complete questionnaires analyzed was 134 from 200 nurses (67.0%) and 176 from 741 physicians (23.8%). Data were analyzed using descriptive-analytical statistical methods. Results More nurses (56.7%) than physicians (31.3%) stated that the CPOE system introduction had worked well in their clinical setting (P < 0.001). Similarly, more physicians (73.9%) than nurses (50.7%) reported that they found the system not adapted to their specific professional practice (P = < 0.001). Also more physicians (25.0%) than nurses (13.4%) stated that they did want to return to the previous system (P = 0.041). We found that in particular the received relative advantages of the CPOE system were estimated to be significantly (P < 0.001) higher among nurses (39.6%) than physicians (16.5%). However, physicians' agreements with the compatibility of the CPOE and with its complexity were significantly higher than the nurses (P < 0.001). Conclusions Qualifications for CPOE adoption as defined by three attributes of diffusion of innovation theory were not satisfied in the study setting. CPOE systems are introduced as a response to the present limitations in paper-based systems. In consequence, user expectations are often high on their relative

  15. An Empirical Study of Factors Affecting Mobile Wireless Technology Adoption for Promoting Interactive Lectures in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Chin Lay; Balakrishnan, Vimala

    2016-01-01

    Use of mobile technology is widespread, particularly among the younger generation. There is a huge potential for utilizing such technology in lecture classes with large numbers of students, serving as an interaction tool between the students and lecturers. The challenge is to identify significant adoption factors to ensure effective adoption of…

  16. Results from a Case Study Investigation on the Adoption of Learner-Centered Strategies in Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Janelle M.; Nagamine, K.

    2008-05-01

    Recent research in science education suggests that learner-centered instructional strategies can promote more learning than traditional teacher-based strategies such as lecture. However, the adoption of such strategies by instructors can elicit many concerns, including, for example, concerns of increased time requirements for preparation and grading, reduced content coverage, reactions of students and colleagues, and, of course, student achievement. Ethan, an astronomy instructor early in his career, recently adopted learner-centered strategies into his introductory course for nonscience majors on stars and galaxies. He shared the concerns listed above, but after receiving training in learner-centered strategies from the Center for Astronomy Education and support from an experienced colleague while implementing the changes for the first time, Ethan's overall reaction was a positive one. Although the preparation time was somewhat higher than would have been required had he repeated his previous semester, Ethan felt that it was worth it to move away from lecture-only style and to incorporate learner-centered strategies into his course. For him, it simply felt more gratifying when he walked out of the classroom after using learner-centered methods than it had when he used only lecture. He also felt that many students learned more than those in previous lecture-based course offerings, and that their increased active participation during the class was a constructive change. In fact, average exam scores were comparable or higher than two previous semesters, as were student evaluations. Overall, Ethan felt that the integration of learner-centered strategies was well worth the time and effort, as evidenced by his statement, "I'll never go back to lecture-only again!" This project is supported by the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Division of Research and Graduate Studies.

  17. IL-2 / α-IL-2 Complex Treatment Cannot Be Substituted for the Adoptive Transfer of Regulatory T cells to Promote Bone Marrow Engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Mahr, Benedikt; Unger, Lukas; Hock, Karin; Pilat, Nina; Baranyi, Ulrike; Schwarz, Christoph; Maschke, Svenja; Farkas, Andreas Michael; Wekerle, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy with recipient Tregs achieves engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow (BM) without the need for cytoreductive conditioning (i.e., without irradiation or cytotoxic drugs). Thereby mixed chimerism and transplantation tolerance are established in recipients conditioned solely with costimulation blockade and rapamycin. However, clinical translation would be substantially facilitated if Treg-stimulating pharmaceutical agents could be used instead of individualized cell therapy. Recently, it was shown that interleukin-2 (IL-2) complexed with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) (clone JES6-1A12) against IL-2 (IL-2 complexes) potently expands and activates Tregs in vivo. Therefore, we investigated whether IL-2 complexes can replace Treg therapy in a costimulation blockade-based and irradiation-free BM transplantation (BMT) model. Unexpectedly, the administration of IL-2 complexes at the time of BMT (instead of Tregs) failed to induce BM engraftment in non-irradiated recipients (0/6 with IL-2 complexes vs. 3/4 with Tregs, p<0.05). Adding IL-2 complexes to an otherwise effective regimen involving recipient irradiation (1Gy) but no Treg transfer indeed actively triggered donor BM rejection at higher doses (0/8 with IL-2 complexes vs. 9/11 without, p<0.01) and had no detectable effect at two lower doses (3/5 vs. 9/11, p>0.05). CD8 T cells and NK cells of IL-2 complex-treated naïve mice showed an enhanced proliferative response towards donor antigens in vitro despite the marked expansion of Tregs. However, IL-2 complexes also expanded conventional CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, NK cells, NKT cells and notably even B cells, albeit to a lesser extent. Notably, IL-2 complex expanded Tregs featured less potent suppressive functions than in vitro activated Tregs in terms of T cell suppression in vitro and BM engraftment in vivo. In conclusion, these data suggest that IL-2 complexes are less effective than recipient Tregs in promoting BM engraftment and in contrast actually trigger BM

  18. IL-2/α-IL-2 Complex Treatment Cannot Be Substituted for the Adoptive Transfer of Regulatory T cells to Promote Bone Marrow Engraftment.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Benedikt; Unger, Lukas; Hock, Karin; Pilat, Nina; Baranyi, Ulrike; Schwarz, Christoph; Maschke, Svenja; Farkas, Andreas Michael; Wekerle, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy with recipient Tregs achieves engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow (BM) without the need for cytoreductive conditioning (i.e., without irradiation or cytotoxic drugs). Thereby mixed chimerism and transplantation tolerance are established in recipients conditioned solely with costimulation blockade and rapamycin. However, clinical translation would be substantially facilitated if Treg-stimulating pharmaceutical agents could be used instead of individualized cell therapy. Recently, it was shown that interleukin-2 (IL-2) complexed with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) (clone JES6-1A12) against IL-2 (IL-2 complexes) potently expands and activates Tregs in vivo. Therefore, we investigated whether IL-2 complexes can replace Treg therapy in a costimulation blockade-based and irradiation-free BM transplantation (BMT) model. Unexpectedly, the administration of IL-2 complexes at the time of BMT (instead of Tregs) failed to induce BM engraftment in non-irradiated recipients (0/6 with IL-2 complexes vs. 3/4 with Tregs, p<0.05). Adding IL-2 complexes to an otherwise effective regimen involving recipient irradiation (1Gy) but no Treg transfer indeed actively triggered donor BM rejection at higher doses (0/8 with IL-2 complexes vs. 9/11 without, p<0.01) and had no detectable effect at two lower doses (3/5 vs. 9/11, p>0.05). CD8 T cells and NK cells of IL-2 complex-treated naïve mice showed an enhanced proliferative response towards donor antigens in vitro despite the marked expansion of Tregs. However, IL-2 complexes also expanded conventional CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, NK cells, NKT cells and notably even B cells, albeit to a lesser extent. Notably, IL-2 complex expanded Tregs featured less potent suppressive functions than in vitro activated Tregs in terms of T cell suppression in vitro and BM engraftment in vivo. In conclusion, these data suggest that IL-2 complexes are less effective than recipient Tregs in promoting BM engraftment and in contrast actually trigger BM

  19. Optics Studies of the LHC Beam Transfer Line TI8

    SciTech Connect

    J. Wenninger; G. Arduini; B. Goddard; D. Jacquet; V. Kain; M. Lamont; V. Mertens; J.A. Uythoven; Y.-C. Chao

    2005-05-16

    The optics of the newly commissioned LHC beam transfer line TI 8 was studied with beam trajectories, dispersion and profile measurements. Steering magnet response measurements were used to analyze the quality of the steering magnets and of the beam position monitors. A simultaneous fit of the quadrupole strengths was used to search for setting or calibration errors. Residual coupling between the planes was evaluated using high statistics samples of trajectories. Initial conditions for the optics at the entrance of the transfer line were reconstructed from beam profile measurements with Optical Transition Radiation monitors. The paper presents the various analysis methods and their errors. The expected emittance growth arising from optical mismatch into the LHC is evaluated.

  20. CERTS customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F. Javier; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi,Kristina S.

    2000-03-01

    This effort represents a contribution to the wider distributed energy resources (DER) research of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS, http://certs.lbl.gov) that is intended to attack and, hopefully, resolve the technical barriers to DER adoption, particularly those that are unlikely to be of high priority to individual equipment vendors. The longer term goal of the Berkeley Lab effort is to guide the wider technical research towards the key technical problems by forecasting some likely patterns of DER adoption. In sharp contrast to traditional electricity utility planning, this work takes a customer-centric approach and focuses on DER adoption decision making at, what we currently think of as, the customer level. This study reports on Berkeley Lab's second year effort (completed in Federal fiscal year 2000, FY00) of a project aimed to anticipate patterns of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER). Marnay, et al., 2000 describes the earlier FY99 Berkeley Lab work. The results presented herein are not intended to represent definitive economic analyses of possible DER projects by any means. The paucity of data available and the importance of excluded factors, such as environmental implications, are simply too important to make such an analysis possible at this time. Rather, the work presented represents a demonstration of the current model and an indicator of the potential to conduct more relevant studies in the future.

  1. Toward a Theory of Adaptive Transfer: Expanding Disciplinary Discussions of "Transfer" in Second-Language Writing and Composition Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Michael-John; Ringer, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition studies have focused primarily on the reuse of past learning and thus have not adequately accounted for the adaptation of learned writing knowledge in unfamiliar situations. In an effort to expand disciplinary discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition…

  2. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine study. Phase A: Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobin, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    An orbital transfer vehicle OTV engine study program was undertaken to provide additional expander and staged combustion cycle data in the design definition of the OTV engine. The proposed program effort optimizes the expander cycle engine concept (consistent with identified OTV engine requirements), investigates the feasibility of kitting the staged combustion cycle engine to provide extended low thrust operation, and conducts in-depth analysis of development risk, crew safety, and reliability for both cycles. Additional tasks to establish the cost of a 10K thrust expander cycle engine and to render support of OTV systems study contractors are reported.

  3. Study of interspouse communication and adoption of family planning and immunization services in a rural block of Varanasi District.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V M; Jain, R; Sen, P

    2001-01-01

    Interspouse communication was studied in some pertinent areas which have an important bearing on day to day transactions. The level of such communication measured on a three-point scale was studied for its role on acceptance of family planning and immunization services. 200 currently married females residing with their husbands in a rural block of Varanasi, in the reproductive age group, with at least one child aged 1-3 years were selected and interviewed. Scores were ascribed for 12 selected items of conversation according to frequency of conversation on a three point scale based on which high, medium and low communicators were delineated. In this study high, medium and low communicators were found to be 14%, 40% and 45% respectively. Topics of importance which never featured in interspouse communication were menstrual problems (44%), when to have first child (82.5%) and birth spacing (48.5%). Interspouse communication was better in upper castes and joint families. Literacy status of both husband and wife and per capita income of the family revealed positive relationship with inter-spouse communication. Adoption and practice of family planning methods as well as full immunization coverage of the child in the family were observed to be higher among high and medium communicators as compared to low degree of communcators (p < 0.001). PMID:11917331

  4. Cirrus microphysics and radiative transfer: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, Stefan A.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    During the Cirrus Intensive Field Operations of FIRE, data collected by the NCAR King Air in the vicinity of Wausau, WI on October 28 were selected to study the influence of cirrus cloud microphysics on radiative transfer and the role of microphysical approximations in radiative transfer models. The instrumentation of the King Air provided, aside from temperature and wind data, up-and downwelling broadband solar and infrared fluxes as well as detailed microphysical data. The aircraft data, supplied every second, are averaged over the 7 legs to represent the properties for that altitude. The resulting vertical profiles, however, suffer from the fact that each leg represents a different cloud column path. Based on the measured microphysical data particle size distributions of equivalent spheres for each cloud level are developed. Accurate radiative transfer calculations are performed, incorporating atmospheric and radiative data from the ground and the stratosphere. Comparing calculated to the measured up- and downwelling fluxes at the seven cloud levels for both the averaged and the three crossover data will help to assess the validity of particle size and shape approximation as they are frequently used to model cirrus clouds. Once agreement is achieved the model results may be applied to determine, in comparison to a cloudfree case, the influence of this particular cirrus on the radiation budget of the earth atmosphere system.

  5. Millimeter wave radiative transfer studies for precipitation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Evans, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Scattering calculations using the discrete dipole approximation and vector radiative transfer calculations were performed to model multiparameter radar return and passive microwave emission for a simple model of a winter storm. The issue of dendrite riming was addressed by computing scattering properties of thin ice disks with varying bulk density. It was shown that C-band multiparameter radar contains information about particle density and the number concentration of the ice particles. The radiative transfer modeling indicated that polarized multifrequency passive microwave emission may be used to infer some properties of ice hydrometers. Detailed radar modeling and vector radiative transfer modeling is in progress to enhance the understanding of simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements, as in the case of the proposed TRMM field program. A one-dimensional cloud model will be used to simulate the storm structure in detail and study the microphysics, such as size and density. Multifrequency polarized radiometer measurements from the SSMI satellite instrument will be analyzed in relation to dual-frequency and dual-polarization radar measurements.

  6. Adoption and Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Byung Hoon

    1989-01-01

    Because of Korean attitudes towards adoption and other reasons, attempts to promote intracountry adoption have met with limited success, and intercountry adoption is used as an alternative way of meeting children's needs. (RJC)

  7. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media ... Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen ...

  8. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care Adoption & Foster Care Article Body ​Each year, many children join families through adoption and foster care. These families may face unique ...

  9. Design Thinking and Metacognitive Reflective Scaffolds: A Graphic Design-Industrial Design Transfer Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chien-Sing; Wong, Kuok-Shoong Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolding is crucial as transfer of learning does not occur naturally and teaching-learning strategies found to be effective for experts may not be suitably adopted as is for novice learners. Furthermore, opportunities are often "found" or "made." The quality of solutions, however, is mediated by different conceptualizations…

  10. Sodium Benzoate, a Food Additive and a Metabolite of Cinnamon, Modifies T Cells at Multiple Steps and Inhibits Adoptive Transfer of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis1

    PubMed Central

    Brahmachari, Saurav; Pahan, Kalipada

    2007-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the animal model for multiple sclerosis. This study explores a novel use of sodium benzoate (NaB), a commonly used food additive and a Food and Drug Administration-approved nontoxic drug for urea cycle disorders, in treating the disease process of relapsing-remitting EAE in female SJL/J mice. NaB, administered through drinking water at physiologically tolerable doses, ameliorated clinical symptoms and disease progression of EAE in recipient mice and suppressed the generation of encephalitogenic T cells in donor mice. Histological studies reveal that NaB effectively inhibited infiltration of mononuclear cells and demyelination in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Consequently, NaB also suppressed the expression of proinflammatory molecules and normalized myelin gene expression in the CNS of EAE mice. Furthermore, we observed that NaB switched the differentiation of myelin basic protein-primed T cells from Th1 to Th2 mode, enriched regulatory T cell population, and down-regulated the expression of various contact molecules in T cells. Taken together, our results suggest that NaB modifies encephalitogenic T cells at multiple steps and that NaB may have therapeutic importance in multiple sclerosis. PMID:17579047

  11. Information transfer satellite concept study. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergin, P.; Kincade, C.; Kurpiewski, D.; Leinhaupel, F.; Millican, F.; Onstad, R.

    1971-01-01

    A wide range of information transfer demands were identified and analyzed. They were then combined into an appropriate set of requirements for satellite communication services. In this process the demands were ranked and combined into single and multipurpose satellite systems. A detailed analysis was performed on each satellite system to determine: total system cost, including both ground and space segments; sensitivities of the systems to various system tradeoffs; and forcing functions which control the system variations. A listing of candidate missions for detailed study is presented, along with a description of the conceptual system design and an identification of the technology developments required to bring these systems to fruition.

  12. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for the orbit transfer vehicle engine were examined. Engine performance/weight sensitivities, the effect of a service life of 300 start/shutdown cycles between overalls on the maximum engine operating pressure, and the sensitivity of the engine design point (i.e., thrust chamber pressure and nozzle area ratio) to the performance requirements specified are among the factors studied. Preliminary engine systems analyses were conducted on the stage combustion, expander, and gas generator engine cycles. Hydrogen and oxygen pump discharge pressure requirements are shown for various engine cycles. Performance of the engine cycles is compared.

  13. Transfers from College to One Ontario University: A Four-Year Outcome Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinello, Felice; Stewart, Jo

    2015-01-01

    In this follow-up study, college students who transferred to one Ontario university in 2008-2009 were compared to non-transfer students using several different measures of academic success at university. When compared to non-transfer students, college transfer students earned fewer credits each year, had lower GPAs, and were less able to earn…

  14. A Study of Transfer Students at Public Institutions of Higher Education in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board of Higher Education, Bismarck.

    A four-part study conducted during 1987-88 examined transfer among public institutions of higher education in North Dakota to assess the impact of the transfer process on college students. Focus was on the process of transferring credits from one public North Dakota campus to another and also on the opinions of the transfer students. The four…

  15. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Jeffrey H.; Vinopal, Tim; Andrews, Dana; Richards, Bill; Weber, Gary; Paddock, Greg; Maricich, Peter; Bouton, Bruce; Hagen, Jim; Kolesar, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This final report is a compilation of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 study findings and is intended as a Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) 'users guide' rather than an exhaustive explanation of STV design details. It provides a database for design choices in the general areas of basing, reusability, propulsion, and staging; with selection criteria based on cost, performance, available infrastructure, risk, and technology. The report is organized into the following three parts: (1) design guide; (2) STV Phase 1 Concepts and Requirements Study Summary; and (3) STV Phase 2 Concepts and Requirements Study Summary. The overall objectives of the STV study were to: (1) define preferred STV concepts capable of accommodating future exploration missions in a cost-effective manner; (2) determine the level of technology development required to perform these missions in the most cost effective manner; and (3) develop a decision database of programmatic approaches for the development of an STV concept.

  16. Orbit transfer vehicle engine study. Phase A: Continuation (study results)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Studies included: selection of boost pump designs for low NPSH operation and generation of associated programmatic data; evaluation of OTV engine operation at intermediate thrust levels and impact on programmatics; and assessments of OTV engine operation at idle-mode thrusts under conditions experienced during aerobraking maneuvers of the ABOTV. As a result of the studies, it was recommended that the original OTV boost pump designs be used without change for low NPSH operation. Intermediate thrust operation is feasible for both the expander cycle and staged combustion cycles.

  17. Remaining or becoming secure: parental sensitive support predicts attachment continuity from infancy to adolescence in a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2012-09-01

    In a longitudinal study with 125 early adopted adolescents, we examined continuity of attachment from infancy to adolescence and the role of parental sensitive support in explaining continuity or discontinuity of attachment. Assessments of maternal sensitive support and infant attachment (Strange Situation Procedure) were completed when infants were 12 months old. When the children were 14 years old, we observed mothers' sensitive support during a conflict discussion. The adolescents' attachment representations were assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. Mothers of secure adolescents showed significantly more sensitive support during conflicts than did mothers of insecure adolescents. Overall, no continuity of attachment from infancy to adolescence was found. However, maternal sensitive support in early childhood and adolescence predicted continuity of secure attachment from 1 to 14 years, whereas less maternal sensitive support in early childhood but more maternal sensitive support in adolescence predicted children's change from insecurity in infancy to security in adolescence. We conclude that both early and later parental sensitive support are important for continuity of attachment across the first 14 years of life. PMID:22369333

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Typhoid Diagnostic Accuracy Studies: A Recommendation to Adopt a Standardized Composite Reference.

    PubMed

    Storey, Helen L; Huang, Ying; Crudder, Chris; Golden, Allison; de los Santos, Tala; Hawkins, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Novel typhoid diagnostics currently under development have the potential to improve clinical care, surveillance, and the disease burden estimates that support vaccine introduction. Blood culture is most often used as the reference method to evaluate the accuracy of new typhoid tests; however, it is recognized to be an imperfect gold standard. If no single gold standard test exists, use of a composite reference standard (CRS) can improve estimation of diagnostic accuracy. Numerous studies have used a CRS to evaluate new typhoid diagnostics; however, there is no consensus on an appropriate CRS. In order to evaluate existing tests for use as a reference test or inclusion in a CRS, we performed a systematic review of the typhoid literature to include all index/reference test combinations observed. We described the landscape of comparisons performed, showed results of a meta-analysis on the accuracy of the more common combinations, and evaluated sources of variability based on study quality. This wide-ranging meta-analysis suggests that no single test has sufficiently good performance but some existing diagnostics may be useful as part of a CRS. Additionally, based on findings from the meta-analysis and a constructed numerical example demonstrating the use of CRS, we proposed necessary criteria and potential components of a typhoid CRS to guide future recommendations. Agreement and adoption by all investigators of a standardized CRS is requisite, and would improve comparison of new diagnostics across independent studies, leading to the identification of a better reference test and improved confidence in prevalence estimates. PMID:26566275

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Typhoid Diagnostic Accuracy Studies: A Recommendation to Adopt a Standardized Composite Reference

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Helen L.; Huang, Ying; Crudder, Chris; Golden, Allison; de los Santos, Tala; Hawkins, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Novel typhoid diagnostics currently under development have the potential to improve clinical care, surveillance, and the disease burden estimates that support vaccine introduction. Blood culture is most often used as the reference method to evaluate the accuracy of new typhoid tests; however, it is recognized to be an imperfect gold standard. If no single gold standard test exists, use of a composite reference standard (CRS) can improve estimation of diagnostic accuracy. Numerous studies have used a CRS to evaluate new typhoid diagnostics; however, there is no consensus on an appropriate CRS. In order to evaluate existing tests for use as a reference test or inclusion in a CRS, we performed a systematic review of the typhoid literature to include all index/reference test combinations observed. We described the landscape of comparisons performed, showed results of a meta-analysis on the accuracy of the more common combinations, and evaluated sources of variability based on study quality. This wide-ranging meta-analysis suggests that no single test has sufficiently good performance but some existing diagnostics may be useful as part of a CRS. Additionally, based on findings from the meta-analysis and a constructed numerical example demonstrating the use of CRS, we proposed necessary criteria and potential components of a typhoid CRS to guide future recommendations. Agreement and adoption by all investigators of a standardized CRS is requisite, and would improve comparison of new diagnostics across independent studies, leading to the identification of a better reference test and improved confidence in prevalence estimates. PMID:26566275

  20. The adoption of the Reference Framework for diabetes care among primary care physicians in primary care settings: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Martin C S; Wang, Harry H X; Kwan, Mandy W M; Chan, Wai Man; Fan, Carmen K M; Liang, Miaoyin; Li, Shannon Ts; Fung, Franklin D H; Yeung, Ming Sze; Chan, David K L; Griffiths, Sian M

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been increasing both globally and locally. Primary care physicians (PCPs) are in a privileged position to provide first contact and continuing care for diabetic patients. A territory-wide Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults has been released by the Hong Kong Primary Care Office in 2010, with the aim to further enhance evidence-based and high quality care for diabetes in the primary care setting through wide adoption of the Reference Framework.A valid questionnaire survey was conducted among PCPs to evaluate the levels of, and the factors associated with, their adoption of the Reference Framework.A total of 414 completed surveys were received with the response rate of 13.0%. The average adoption score was 3.29 (SD 0.51) out of 4. Approximately 70% of PCPs highly adopted the Reference Framework in their routine practice. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the PCPs perceptions on the inclusion of sufficient local information (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.748, 95%CI 1.597-14.115, P = 0.005) and reduction of professional autonomy of PCPs (aOR = 1.859, 95%CI 1.013-3.411, P = 0.045) were more likely to influence their adoption level of the Reference Framework for diabetes care in daily practices.The overall level of guideline adoption was found to be relatively high among PCPs for adult diabetes in primary care settings. The adoption barriers identified in this study should be addressed in the continuous updating of the Reference Framework. Strategies need to be considered to enhance the guideline adoption and implementation capacity. PMID:27495018

  1. Parametric study of boiling heat transfer in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, B.; Jones, B.G.; Pan, C.

    1996-04-01

    Detailed numerical modeling and parametric variation studies were conducted on boiling heat transfer processes in porous deposits with emphasis on applications associated with light water nuclear power reactor systems. The processes of boiling heat transfer in the porous corrosion deposits typically involve phase changes in finite volumetric regions in the porous media. The study examined such processes in two porous media configurations, without chimneys (homogeneous porous structures) and with chimneys (heterogeneous porous structures). A 1-D model and a 2-D model were developed to simulate two-phase flows with phase changes, without dry-out, inside the porous media for both structural configurations. For closure of the governing equations, an empirical correlation of the evaporation rate for phase changes inside the porous media was introduced. In addition, numerical algorithms were developed to solve the coupled nonlinear equations of mass, momentum, energy, capillary pressure, and evaporation rate. The distributions of temperature, thermodynamic saturation, liquid pressure, vapor pressure, liquid velocity, and vapor velocity were predicted. Furthermore, the effects of heat flux, system pressure, porosity, particle diameter, chimney population density, chimney radius, and crud thickness on the all superheat, critical heat flux, and minimum saturation were examined. The predictions were found to be in good agreement with the available experimental results.

  2. TWIN BINARIES: STUDIES OF STABILITY, MASS TRANSFER, AND COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, J. C.; Holtzman, W.; Gearity, K.; Dooley, K. L.; Kalogera, V.; Rasio, F. A.

    2011-08-20

    Motivated by suggestions that binaries with almost equal-mass components ('twins') play an important role in the formation of double neutron stars and may be rather abundant among binaries, we study the stability of synchronized close and contact binaries with identical components in circular orbits. In particular, we investigate the dependency of the innermost stable circular orbit on the core mass, and we study the coalescence of the binary that occurs at smaller separations. For twin binaries composed of convective main-sequence stars, subgiants, or giants with low-mass cores (M{sub c} {approx}< 0.15M, where M is the mass of a component), a secular instability is reached during the contact phase, accompanied by a dynamical mass transfer instability at the same or at a slightly smaller orbital separation. Binaries that come inside this instability limit transfer mass gradually from one component to the other and then coalesce quickly as mass is lost through the outer Lagrangian points. For twin giant binaries with moderate to massive cores (M{sub c} {approx}> 0.15M), we find that stable contact configurations exist at all separations down to the Roche limit, when mass shedding through the outer Lagrangian points triggers a coalescence of the envelopes and leaves the cores orbiting in a central tight binary. In addition to the formation of binary neutron stars, we also discuss the implications of our results for the production of planetary nebulae with double degenerate central binaries.

  3. Inherited and Environmental Influences on a Childhood Co-Occurring Symptom Phenotype: Evidence From an Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Leslie E.; Fisher, Philip A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for the childhood development of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing symptoms are not well understood, despite a high prevalence and poor clinical outcomes associated with this co-occurring phenotype. We examined inherited and environmental risk factors for co-occurring symptoms in a sample of children adopted at birth and their birth mothers and adoptive mothers (N = 293). Inherited risk factors (i.e., birth mothers’ processing speed and internalizing symptoms) and environmental risk factors (i.e., adoptive mothers’ processing speed, internalizing symptoms, and uninvolved parenting) were examined as predictors for the development of internalizing-only, externalizing-only, or co-occurring symptoms using structural equation modeling. Results suggested a unique pattern of predictive factors for the co-occurring phenotype, with risk conferred by adoptive mothers’ uninvolved parenting, birth mothers’ slower processing speed, and the birth mothers’ slower processing speed in tandem with adoptive mothers’ higher internalizing symptoms. Additional analyses indicated that when co-occurring-symptom children were incorporated into internalizing and externalizing symptom groups, differential risk factors for externalizing and internalizing symptoms emerged. The findings suggest that spurious results may be found when children with co-occurring symptoms are not examined as a unique phenotypic group. PMID:25851306

  4. Inherited and environmental influences on a childhood co-occurring symptom phenotype: Evidence from an adoption study.

    PubMed

    Roos, Leslie E; Fisher, Philip A; Shaw, Daniel S; Kim, Hyoun K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Natsuaki, Misake N; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-02-01

    Risk factors for the childhood development of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing symptoms are not well understood, despite a high prevalence and poor clinical outcomes associated with this co-occurring phenotype. We examined inherited and environmental risk factors for co-occurring symptoms in a sample of children adopted at birth and their birth mothers and adoptive mothers (N = 293). Inherited risk factors (i.e., birth mothers' processing speed and internalizing symptoms) and environmental risk factors (i.e., adoptive mothers' processing speed, internalizing symptoms, and uninvolved parenting) were examined as predictors for the development of internalizing-only, externalizing-only, or co-occurring symptoms using structural equation modeling. Results suggested a unique pattern of predictive factors for the co-occurring phenotype, with risk conferred by adoptive mothers' uninvolved parenting, birth mothers' slower processing speed, and the birth mothers' slower processing speed in tandem with adoptive mothers' higher internalizing symptoms. Additional analyses indicated that when co-occurring-symptom children were incorporated into internalizing and externalizing symptom groups, differential risk factors for externalizing and internalizing symptoms emerged. The findings suggest that spurious results may be found when children with co-occurring symptoms are not examined as a unique phenotypic group. PMID:25851306

  5. In the Trainer's Voice: A Study of Training Transfer Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Holly M.

    2009-01-01

    Data were gathered from members of a large professional training organization regarding their practices for supporting training transfer. Transfer factor categories grounded in the literature were used to code the data using content analysis procedures. Commensurate with the transfer literature, results suggest that trainers reported strategies…

  6. Flight Simulation for the Study of Skill Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintern, Gavan

    1992-01-01

    Discusses skill transfer as a human performance issue based on experiences with computerized flight simulators. Highlights include the issue of similarity; simulation and the design of training devices; an information theory of transfer; invariants for flight control; and experiments involving the transfer of flight skills. (21 references) (LRW)

  7. Urban development applications project. Urban technology transfer study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology transfer is defined along with reasons for attempting to transfer technology. Topics discussed include theoretical models, stages of the innovation model, communication process model, behavior of industrial organizations, problem identification, technology search and match, establishment of a market mechanism, applications engineering, commercialization, and management of technology transfer.

  8. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  9. In Their Own Words: Adopted Persons' Experiences of Adoption Disclosure and Discussion in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wydra, Maria; O'Brien, Karen M.; Merson, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored adoption disclosure in a sample of 18 adult adoptees who were adopted as infants. A qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with adoptees was used to learn about participants' experiences of adoption disclosure. The majority always knew they were adopted, were able to talk openly with parents about adoption, and had…

  10. A retrospective study of single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Eun Kyung; Song, Seung Hyun; Yoon, San Hyun; Lim, Kyung Sil; Lee, Won Don; Lim, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical outcomes of single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles according to the hatching status of frozen-thawed blastocysts. Methods Frozen-thawed blastocysts were divided into three groups according to their hatching status as follows: less-than-expanded blastocyst (≤EdB), hatching blastocyst (HgB), and hatched blastocyst (HdB). The female age and infertility factors of each group were evaluated. The quality of the single frozen-thawed blastocyst was also graded as grade A, tightly packed inner cell mass (ICM) and many cells organized in the trophectoderm epithelium (TE); grade B, several and loose ICM and TE; and grade C, very few ICM and a few cells in the TE. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were compared between each group. The data were analyzed by either t-test or chi-square analysis. Results There were no statistically significant differences in average female ages, infertility factors, or the distribution of blastocyst grades A, B, and C in each group. There was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate of each group according to their blastocyst grade. However, there was a significant difference in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate between each group. In the HdB group, the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were similar regardless of the blastocyst quality. Conclusion There was an effect on the clinical outcomes depending on whether the blastocyst hatched during single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer. When performing single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, the hatching status of the frozen-thawed blastocyst may be a more important parameter for clinical outcomes than the quality of the frozen-thawed blastocyst. PMID:27358829

  11. Prion domain of yeast Ure2 protein adopts a completely disordered structure: a solid-support EPR study.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Sam; Chiang, Vicky; Ho, Elaine; Le, Linh; Guo, Zhefeng

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid fibril formation is associated with a range of neurodegenerative diseases in humans, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prion diseases. In yeast, amyloid underlies several non-Mendelian phenotypes referred to as yeast prions. Mechanism of amyloid formation is critical for a complete understanding of the yeast prion phenomenon and human amyloid-related diseases. Ure2 protein is the basis of yeast prion [URE3]. The Ure2p prion domain is largely disordered. Residual structures, if any, in the disordered region may play an important role in the aggregation process. Studies of Ure2p prion domain are complicated by its high aggregation propensity, which results in a mixture of monomer and aggregates in solution. Previously we have developed a solid-support electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) approach to address this problem and have identified a structured state for the Alzheimer's amyloid-β monomer. Here we use solid-support EPR to study the structure of Ure2p prion domain. EPR spectra of Ure2p prion domain with spin labels at every fifth residue from position 10 to position 75 show similar residue mobility profile for denaturing and native buffers after accounting for the effect of solution viscosity. These results suggest that Ure2p prion domain adopts a completely disordered structure in the native buffer. A completely disordered Ure2p prion domain implies that the amyloid formation of Ure2p, and likely other Q/N-rich yeast prion proteins, is primarily driven by inter-molecular interactions. PMID:23077577

  12. Experiences of Black Families as Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Gwendolyn S.; King, Lula T.

    1988-01-01

    Conducted descriptive study in which 12 Black families shared their ideas about adoptive parenthood. Found most common reason for adopting was inability to have children biologically. Found need for post-adoptive services for Black families on an as-needed basis. Recommends adoption agencies and communities build on positive experiences of Black…

  13. Numerical study of vorticity-enhanced heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas

    2013-11-01

    Vortices produced by vibrated reeds and flapping foils can improve heat transfer efficiency in electronic hardware. Vortices enhance forced convection by boundary layer separation and thermal mixing in the bulk flow. In this work, we modeled and simulated the fluid flow and temperature in a 2-D channel flow with vortices injected at the upstream boundary. We classified four types of vortex streets depending on the Reynolds number and vortices' strengths and spacings, and studied the different vortex dynamics in each situation. We then used Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) to study the effect of the vortices on mixing and determined how the Nusselt number and Coefficients of performance vary with flow parameters and Peclet numbers.

  14. Study of multi-nucleon transfer reactions with light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Benzoni, G.; Montanari, D.; Bracco, A.; Blasi, N.; Camera, F.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Corsi, A.; Leoni, S.; Million, B.; Nicolini, R.; Wieland, O.; Zalite, A.; Zocca, F.; Azaiez, F.; Franchoo, S.; Stefan, I.; Ibrahim, F.; Verney, D.; Battacharyya, S.; De France, G.

    2008-05-12

    Multi-nucleon transfer reactions are useful tools to populate exotic nuclei, particularly the neutron-rich ones. In this view, two different experiments have been performed employing a stable ({sup 22}Ne) and a radioactive ({sup 24}Ne) beam, both impinging on a {sup 208}Pb target. The first reaction has been studied using the CLARA-PRISMA-DANTE set-up at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Legnaro-Italy), while the second reaction was performed at Ganil (Caen-France) employing a SPIRAL radioactive beam of {sup 24}Ne. In this case recoils and coincident {gamma} rays were detected with the VAMOS-EXOGAM set-up.The data show that MNT reactions can selectively populate states of different nature and, therefore, are a good tool to study nuclear structure further away from stability.

  15. Numerical study of forced convective heat transfer around airships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qiumin; Fang, Xiande

    2016-02-01

    Forced convective heat transfer is an important factor that affects the thermal characteristics of airships. In this paper, the steady state forced convective heat transfer around an ellipsoid is numerically investigated. The numerical simulation is carried out by commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software over the extended Re range from 20 to 108 and the aspect ratio from 2 to 4. Based on the regression and optimization with software, a new piecewise correlation of the Nusselt number at constant wall temperature for ellipsoid is proposed, which is suitable for applications to airships and other ellipse shaped bodies such as elliptical balloons. The thermal characteristics of a stratospheric airship in midsummer located in the north hemisphere are numerical studied. The helium temperature predicated using the new correlation is compared to those predicted by correlations applicable for spheres and flat plates. The results show that the helium temperature obtained using the new correlation at noon is about 5.4 K lower than that using the correlation of spheres and about 2.1 K higher than that of flat plates.

  16. Family environment and the malleability of cognitive ability: a Swedish national home-reared and adopted-away cosibling control study.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Turkheimer, Eric; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-04-14

    Cognitive ability strongly aggregates in families, and prior twin and adoption studies have suggested that this is the result of both genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used a powerful design--home-reared and adopted-away cosibling controls--to investigate the role of the rearing environment in cognitive ability. We identified, from a complete national Swedish sample of male-male siblings, 436 full-sibships in which at least one member was reared by one or more biological parents and the other by adoptive parents. IQ was measured at age 18-20 as part of the Swedish military service conscription examination. Parental educational level was rated on a 5-point scale. Controlling for clustering of offspring within biological families, the adopted siblings had an IQ 4.41 (SE = 0.75) points higher than their nonadopted siblings. Each additional unit of rearing parental education was associated with 1.71 (SE = 0.44) units of IQ. We replicated these results in 2,341 male-male half-sibships, in which, controlling for clustering within families, adoption was associated with a gain of IQ of 3.18 (SE = 0.34) points. Each additional unit of rearing parental education was associated with 1.94 (SE = 0.18) IQ units. Using full- and half-sibling sets matched for genetic background, we found replicated evidence that (i) rearing environment affects IQ measured in late adolescence, and (ii) a portion of the IQ of adopted siblings could be explained by the educational level of their adoptive parents. PMID:25831538

  17. Point-of-care C reactive protein for the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection in NHS primary care: a qualitative study of barriers and facilitators to adoption

    PubMed Central

    Huddy, Jeremy R; Ni, Melody Z; Barlow, James; Hanna, George B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Point-of-care (POC) C reactive protein (CRP) is incorporated in National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines for the diagnosis of pneumonia, reduces antibiotic prescribing and is cost effective. Aim To determine the barriers and facilitators to adoption of POC CRP testing in National Health Service (NHS) primary care for the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection. Design The study followed a qualitative methodology based on grounded theory. The study was undertaken in 2 stages. Stage 1 consisted of semistructured interviews with 8 clinicians from Europe and the UK who use the test in routine practice, and focused on their subjective experience in the challenges of implementing POC CRP testing. Stage 2 was a multidisciplinary-facilitated workshop with NHS stakeholders to discuss barriers to adoption, impact of adoption and potential adoption scenarios. Emergent theme analysis was undertaken. Participants Participants included general practitioners (including those with commissioning experience), biochemists, pharmacists, clinical laboratory scientists and industry representatives from the UK and abroad. Results Barriers to the implementation of POC CRP exist, but successful adoption has been demonstrated abroad. Analysis highlighted 7 themes: reimbursement and incentivisation, quality control and training, laboratory services, practitioner attitudes and experiences, effects on clinic flow and workload, use in pharmacy and gaps in evidence. Conclusions Successful adoption models from the UK and abroad demonstrate a distinctive pattern and involve collaboration with central laboratory services. Incorporating antimicrobial stewardship into quality improvement frameworks may incentivise adoption. Further research is needed to develop scaling-up strategies to address the resourcing, clinical governance and economic impact of widespread NHS implementation. PMID:26940107

  18. Acceptance Factors Influencing Adoption of National Institute of Standards and Technology Information Security Standards: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiriakou, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of a comprehensive information security governance model and security controls is the best option organizations may have to protect their information assets and comply with regulatory requirements. Understanding acceptance factors of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF) comprehensive…

  19. Schools Going Mobile: A Study of the Adoption of Mobile Handheld Technologies in Western Australian Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegrum, Mark; Oakley, Grace; Faulkner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the adoption of mobile handheld technologies in ten Western Australian independent schools, based on interviews with staff conducted in 2011. iPads were the most popular device, followed by iPod Touches and iPhones. Class sets were common at lower levels, with 1:1 models becoming increasingly common at higher levels. Mobile…

  20. A Study on E-Learning Take-Up Intention from an Innovation Adoption Perspective: A Case in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Yanqing; He, Qile; Feng, Weizhe; Li, Daoliang; Fu, Zetian

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to examine, from an innovation adoption perspective, Chinese students' intention of taking up e-learning degrees. A survey of Chinese students was conducted to reveal their perceptions concerning innovation attributes relevant to e-learning and their intentions of taking e-learning programmes provided by UK universities. Given…

  1. Electronic energy transfer and electron transfer in flexible bichromophoric molecules studied in a supersonic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to use laser spectroscopy in supersonic jets to investigate the dynamics and mechanism of Electronic Energy Transfer (EET) and Photon-induced Electron Transfer (PET) in bichromophoric molecules with flexible bridges. Molecular geometry computations using molecular mechanism methods have been applied to the interpretations of experimental results. In the investigations of a series of molecules: (1- naphthalene) -(CH 2)n- (9-anthracene) (n = 1, 3 and 6), EET rate from the naphthalene moiety to the anthracene moiety has been found to be much faster than the naphthalene fluorescence lifetime. The importance of exchange mechanism has been demonstrated in the n = 3 and 6 molecules, which is explained by the formation of face-to-face inter- chromophore configurations. In the investigation of a methyldisilane-linked bichromophoric molecule containing anthracene and dimethyl-aniline, it has been found that this molecule can be directly excited to the Charge Transfer state without being excited to the Locally Excited state first. The unusually low-lying Charge Transfer state indicates a significant contribution to the electron transfer mechanism from the through Si-Si bond coupling. The silicon molecular wire is therefore shown to be a better electron conductor than the carbon molecular wire.

  2. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Explain the Degree of English Teachers' Adoption of Interactive Whiteboards in the Modern Systems School in Jordan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jwaifell, Mustafa; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explain the use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) by English female teachers in Modern Systems School in Jordan. Viewed from the lens of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the study examined and reported teachers' use of IWB and its features that have impact on their decisions to adopt it in Modern Systems School . The…

  3. A Transfer of Training Study of Control Loader Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardullo, Frank M.; Stanco, Anthony A.; Kelly, Lon C.; Houck, Jacob A.; Grube, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    The control inceptor used in a simulated vehicle is an important part in maintaining the fidelity of a simulation. The force feedback provided by the control inceptor gives the operator important cues to maintain adequate performance. The dynamics of a control inceptor are typically based on a second order spring mass damper system with damping, force gradient, breakout force, and natural frequency parameters. Changing these parameters can have a great effect on pilot or driver control of the vehicle. The neuromuscular system has a very important role in manipulating the control inceptor within a vehicle. Many studies by McRuer, Aponso, and Hess have dealt with modeling the neuromuscular system and quantifying the effects of a high fidelity control loader as compared to a low fidelity control loader. Humans are adaptive in nature and their control behavior changes based on different control loader dynamics. Humans will change their control behavior to maintain tracking bandwidth and minimize tracking error. This paper reports on a quasi-transfer of training experiment which was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The quasi transfer of training study used a high fidelity control loader and a low fidelity control loader. Subjects trained in both simulations and then were transferred to the high fidelity control loader simulation. The parameters for the high fidelity control loader were determined from the literature. The low fidelity control loader parameters were found through testing of a simple computer joystick. A disturbance compensatory task is employed. The compensatory task involves implementing a simple horizon out the window display. A disturbance consisting of a sum of sines is used. The task consists of the subject compensating for the disturbance on the roll angle of the aircraft. The vehicle dynamics are represented as 1/s and 1/s2. The subject will try to maintain level flight throughout the experiment. The subjects consist of non-pilots to

  4. Studies on Resistance Transfer Factor Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Richard P.; Falkow, Stanley

    1970-01-01

    A variant of the derepressed R factor, R1, which does not contain any of the drug resistance markers, and represents, in large part, the resistance transfer factor (RTF) was studied in Escherichia coli. RTF deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was specifically labeled in a female cell after conjugation. Physical characterization of the molecule showed that RTF possessed an average molecular weight of 50 × 106 daltons and a buoyant density of 1.709 g/cm3. By comparison to R1, we calculate that the region of DNA carrying the drug resistance genes is therefore about 20% of the R1 molecule and has a buoyant density of approximately 1.716 g/cm3. These results support the hypothesis that the single species of R-factor DNA observed in E. coli represents a composite of the 1.709 and 1.716 g/cm3 replicons seen in Proteus. PMID:4919749

  5. Application of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in protein studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Linlin; Yang, Fan; Zheng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Since the physical process of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was elucidated more than six decades ago, this peculiar fluorescence phenomenon has turned into a powerful tool for biomedical research due to its compatibility in scale with biological molecules as well as rapid developments in novel fluorophores and optical detection techniques. A wide variety of FRET approaches have been devised, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Especially in the last decade or so, we are witnessing a flourish of FRET applications in biological investigations, many of which exemplify clever experimental design and rigorous analysis. Here we review the current stage of FRET methods development with the main focus on its applications in protein studies in biological systems, by summarizing the basic components of FRET techniques, most established quantification methods, as well as potential pitfalls, illustrated by example applications. PMID:25368432

  6. Experimental study of low-energy charge transfer in nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A.

    1979-01-01

    Total charge transfer cross sections were obtained for the N2(+)-N2 system with relative translational ion energies between 9 and 441 eV. Data were obtained to examine the dependence of total cross section on ion energy. The effect of ion excitation on the cross sections was studied by varying the electron ionization energy in the mass spectrometer ion source over an electron energy range between 14.5 and 32.1 eV. The dependence of total cross section on the neutralization chamber gas pressure was examined by obtaining data at pressure values from 9.9 to 0.000199 torr. Cross section values obtained were compared with experimental and theoretical results of other investigations.

  7. Gene-transfer study approval awaits more data

    SciTech Connect

    Marwick, C.

    1988-11-18

    Approval of the gene-transfer study in cancer patients has been delayed. The proposal was recommended for approval by a National Institutes of Health (NIH) advisory committee, but has been put on hold by James B. Wyngaarden, MD, NIH director, pending submission in writing of further information. Some of this information, now forthcoming, had been withheld because data on preliminary studies had been submitted to peer-reviewed journals. The study involves placing the gene for neomycin-resistance to tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as a marker. When these cells are injected into the patient, the presence of the marker should enable their fate to be studied over a prolonged period and an improved antitumor regimen could result. The use of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as immunotherapy has been studied for two years at the NIH's National Cancer Institute. The patients' tumors are removed and the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are cultivated to obtain several billion cells. These cells are then injected back into the patient. Early clinical experience has shown a substantial decease in tumor size in some patients, but not in all, an no one knows why.

  8. A Study of Relationships between L1 Pragmatic Transfer and L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bu, Jiemin

    2012-01-01

    Studies in interlanguage pragmatics have shown that L2 learners' proficiency has an influence on the occurrences of L1 pragmatic transfer. However, questions remain whether the relationship between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency is positive or negative. This paper is designed to study L1 pragmatic transfer in requests made by Chinese…

  9. Hybrid Learning: A Study of Training Environment and Training Transfer in Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Karla

    2013-01-01

    Training transfer can be analyzed in the workplace by studying the results of a validated instrument like the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) developed by Holton and Bates (2011). This correlational study used the Spearman rho correlation coefficient to examine the relationship between transfer design and opportunity to use learning as…

  10. A Study of Best Practices in Training Transfer and Proposed Model of Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lisa A.; Hutchins, Holly M.

    2008-01-01

    Data were gathered from a sample of training professionals of an American Society of Training and Development (ASTD) chapter in the southern United States regarding best practices for supporting training transfer. Content analysis techniques, based on a rigorous methodology proposed by Insch, Moore, & Murphy (1997), were used to analyze the rich…

  11. Experimental study on heat transfer of the magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Gokhan; Genc, Seval

    2013-08-01

    Thermal conductivity of magnetorheological suspensions synthesized with iron powder and silicone oil is experimentally investigated for varying particle volume fractions (5, 20, and 40 vol%) of two different grades of iron (Fe) and magnetic field strengths. In order to determine the temperature range at which the thermal conductivity of MR fluids is more effective for different heat transfer applications, the experiments are done for three different temperature intervals in three different temperature ranges: from -20 to 0  ° C, from 0 to 50  ° C, and from 50 to 100 ° C. In this study, ISO 8301 ‘Thermal insulation—determination of steady state thermal resistance and related properties—heat flow meter apparatus’ is used. The thermal conductivity of the MR fluids shows an increase with increasing magnetic field and volume fraction in the temperature intervals from 0 to 50 ° C and from 50 to 100 ° C. In particular, there is a substantial enhancement in the thermal conductivity for the 50-100 ° C temperature interval (enhancement ratio by almost 134% for 40SM at H = 150 G). However, the thermal conductivity shows a decrease in the lower temperature interval from -20 to 0 ° C (a decrease by 42% for 40SM at 150 G), which could be due the effect of the thermal conductivity of silicone oil at lower temperatures. Although the heat transfer coefficient is higher for higher particle concentrations, the percentage increase is more pronounced for lower particle concentrations, especially in the 0 to 50 ° C temperature interval (for the 40SM sample at 150 G 18% an enhancement for a 20 K temperature difference is observed, whereas for the 20% MR fluid sample, the enhancement is 34%).

  12. Structural studies of photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer in cyclopentadienylnickelnitrosyl

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.X.; Bowman, M.K.; Wang, Zhiyu; Norris, J.R. |; Montano, P.A. |

    1994-03-01

    A structural study based on EXAFS, FTIR, and optical absorption spectroscopies has been conducted on a photogenerated, metastable state of cyclopentadienylnickelnitrosyl (CpNiNO) produced by a reversible photochemical reaction. The photogenerated, metastable state with distinctively different EXAFS, IR, and optical absorption spectra from those of the ground state molecules was created by irradiating the sample with the 365 nm line of a mercury lamp at 20K . At the same temperature, the reverse reaction was induced by irradiation with the 313 nm line from the mercury lamp. Based on the analysis of the EXAFS data, the photogenerated, metastable state of CpNiNO has undergone considerable nuclear rearrangements compared to its ground state. The nuclear movement is characterized by a 0.12{angstrom} elongation of Ni-N bond and by a bending of Ni-N-O. A shift of the N-O stretching frequency from 1824 to 1387 cm{sup {minus}1} was observed in the photoinduced reaction with 365 nm light, implying that a NO{sup {minus}} like species results from intramolecular electron transfer from Ni to NO. The changes in the absorption spectra for the same reaction showed reduced absorption of the 385 nm band and a newly generated broad band near IR region. Temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor of CpNiNO was in good agreement with the diatomic harmonic oscillator for the Ni-N bond, but deviated for the Ni-O and the Ni-C bonds. Based on the structures obtained from EXAFS, ZINDO calculations for both the ground state and the photogenerated, metastable state of CpNiNO reproduced the general features of the observed absorption spectra and qualitatively explained the wavelength dependence of the reaction. The calculated partial charges on each atom in the ground state and the photogenerated, metastable state of CpNiNO are consistent with intramolecular electron transfer upon photoexcitation by 365 nm light.

  13. A study of estrogen metabolic clearance rates and transfer factors

    PubMed Central

    Hembree, W. C.; Bardin, C. W.; Lipsett, M. B.

    1969-01-01

    We have attempted to measure the metabolic clearance rates (MCR) and the transfer factors of estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) during 2-hr and 12-hr infusions. When estradiol-3H was infused for 2 hr, apparent equilibrium was reached at 70 min; the 12-hr infusions showed that plasma estradiol-3H levels increased slowly throughout the infusion. When estrone-3H was infused, constancy of estrone-3H levels was not attained in either the 2-hr infusions or in the two 12-hr infusions. The tritium level in the metabolite of the infused estrogen did not become constant in 50% of the short infusions and increased during all the long infusions. Thus, the conversion ratios CE1E2 and CE2E1 continually changed and transfer factors could not be calculated. The apparent “MCR'S” calculated on the basis of the 2-hr studies expressed as liters/24 hr per m2 ±SD were: “MCRE1” (women) 980 ±94, (men) 1170 ±95; “MCRE2” (women) 615 ±17, (men) 830 ±30. The estradiol “MCR's” differed significantly between men and women. “MCRE2” was the same using either estradiol-14C or -3H and was unchanged by the infusion of 170 μg of estradiol daily. Postmenopausal women had estrogen “MCR's” in the same range as premenopausal women. Excess glucocorticoids increased the “MCRE2.” PMID:5822587

  14. Adoption of a Portal for the Primary Care Management of Pediatric Asthma: A Mixed-Methods Implementation Study

    PubMed Central

    DuRivage, Nathalie; Mayne, Stephanie L; Finch, Stacia; Ross, Michelle E; Giacomini, Kelli; Suh, Andrew; McCarn, Banita; Brandt, Elias; Karavite, Dean; Staton, Elizabeth W; Shone, Laura P; McGoldrick, Valerie; Noonan, Kathleen; Miller, Dorothy; Lehmann, Christoph U; Pace, Wilson D; Grundmeier, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient portals may improve communication between families of children with asthma and their primary care providers and improve outcomes. However, the feasibility of using portals to collect patient-reported outcomes from families and the barriers and facilitators of portal implementation across diverse pediatric primary care settings have not been established. Objective We evaluated the feasibility of using a patient portal for pediatric asthma in primary care, its impact on management, and barriers and facilitators of implementation success. Methods We conducted a mixed-methods implementation study in 20 practices (11 states). Using the portal, parents of children with asthma aged 6-12 years completed monthly surveys to communicate treatment concerns, treatment goals, symptom control, medication use, and side effects. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of portal use with child characteristics and changes to asthma management. Ten clinician focus groups and 22 semistructured parent interviews explored barriers and facilitators of use in the context of an evidence-based implementation framework. Results We invited 9133 families to enroll and 237 (2.59%) used the portal (range by practice, 0.6%-13.6%). Children of parents or guardians who used the portal were significantly more likely than nonusers to be aged 6-9 years (vs 10-12, P=.02), have mild or moderate/severe persistent asthma (P=.009 and P=.04), have a prescription of a controller medication (P<.001), and have private insurance (P=.002). Portal users with uncontrolled asthma had significantly more medication changes and primary care asthma visits after using the portal relative to the year earlier (increases of 14% and 16%, respectively). Qualitative results revealed the importance of practice organization (coordinated workflows) as well as family (asthma severity) and innovation (facilitated communication and ease of use) characteristics for implementation success

  15. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  16. What's Happening in Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula M.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews current issues in adoption: termination of parental rights, rights of unwed fathers, subsidized adoption, the recent influx of Vietnamese children, black market babies, agency accountability in placing children, the right of the adoptee to know his biological parents. (ED)

  17. Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine Study. Phase A, extension 1: Study plan update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The updated study plan for the Space Transportation System orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) engine study is presented. The study program consists of engine system, programmatic, cost, and risk analyses of OTV engine concepts. Detailed task descriptions for the advanced expander cycle engine optimization, alternate low thrust capability, and safety, reliability, and cost comparisons are given.

  18. Innovation Type, Radicalness, and the Adoption Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damanpour, Fariborz

    1988-01-01

    Reviews studies on the impact of organizational factors on the adoption of innovations along three dimensions (innovation type, innovation radicalness, and stages of adoption), finding considerable agreement. Proposes a research agenda for future studies. (SR)

  19. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was to use the operational experience at the launch site to identify, describe and quantify the operational impacts of the various configurations on the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and/or space station launch sites. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) configurations are being developed/defined by contractor teams. Lacking an approved configuration, the KSC Study Team defined a Reference Configuration to be used for this study. This configuration then become the baseline for the identification of the facilities, personnel and crew skills required for processing the OTV in a realistic manner that would help NASA achieve the lowest possible OTV life cycle costs. As the study progressed, researchers' initial apraisal that the vehicle, when delivered, would be a sophisticated, state-of-the-art vehicle was reinforced. It would be recovered and reused many times so the primary savings to be gained would be in the recurring-cycle of the vehicle operations--even to the point where it would be beneficial to break from tradition and make a significant expenditure in the development of processing facilities at the beginning of the program.

  20. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  1. Next-generation transfer reaction studies with JENSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipps, K. A.

    2015-04-01

    Next generation radioactive ion beam facilities are being planned and built across the globe, and with them an incredible new array of exotic isotopes will be available for study. To keep pace with the state of nuclear physics research, both new detector systems and new target systems are needed. The Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics (JENSA) gas jet target is one of these new target systems, designed to provide a target of light gas that is localized, dense, and pure. The JENSA gas jet target was originally constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for testing and characterization, and has now moved to the ReA3 reaccelerated beam hall at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University for use with radioactive beams. The availability of a pure, localized target of light gases will enable exceptional scattering and transfer reaction studies with these exotic beams. Some examples will be given, and future plans will be discussed. This work is supported by the US DOE Office of Science (Office of Nuclear Physics) and the NSF.

  2. Monodisperse droplet generation for microscale mass transfer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Christine; Rao, Rekha; Grillet, Anne; Jove-Colon, Carlos; Brooks, Carlton; Nemer, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Understanding interfacial mass transport on a droplet scale is essential for modeling liquid-liquid extraction processes. A thin flow-focusing microfluidic channel is evaluated for generating monodisperse liquid droplets for microscale mass transport studies. Surface treatment of the microfluidic device allows creation of both oil in water and water in oil emulsions, facilitating a large parameter study of viscosity and flow rate ratios. The unusually thin channel height promotes a flow regime where no droplets form. Through confocal microscopy, this regime is shown to be highly influenced by the contact angle of the liquids with the channel. Drop sizes are found to scale with a modified capillary number. Liquid streamlines within the droplets are inferred by high speed imagery of microparticles dispersed in the droplet phase. Finally, species mass transfer to the droplet fluid is quantitatively measured using high speed imaging. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85.

  3. Orbit transfer vehicle engine study. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) engine study provided parametric performance, engine programmatic, and cost data on the complete propulsive spectrum that is available for a variety of high energy, space maneuvering missions. Candidate OTV engines from the near term RL 10 (and its derivatives) to advanced high performance expander and staged combustion cycle engines were examined. The RL 10/RL 10 derivative performance, cost and schedule data were updated and provisions defined which would be necessary to accommodate extended low thrust operation. Parametric performance, weight, envelope, and cost data were generated for advanced expander and staged combustion OTV engine concepts. A prepoint design study was conducted to optimize thrust chamber geometry and cooling, engine cycle variations, and controls for an advanced expander engine. Operation at low thrust was defined for the advanced expander engine and the feasibility and design impact of kitting was investigated. An analysis of crew safety and mission reliability was conducted for both the staged combustion and advanced expander OTV engine candidates.

  4. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  5. The Preliminary Investigation of the Factors that Influence the E-Learning Adoption in Higher Education Institutes: Jordan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-hawari, Maen; Al-halabi, Sanaa

    2010-01-01

    Creativity and high performance in learning processes are the main concerns of educational institutions. E-learning contributes to the creativity and performance of these institutions and reproduces a traditional learning model based primarily on knowledge transfer into more innovative models based on collaborative learning. In this paper, the…

  6. The Adopted Adolescent. Selected Papers Number 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Anne

    This review of studies on clinical and nonclinical populations explores outcomes of adoption and developmental issues for adolescents, and in particular, developmental problems for adopted adolescents. Studies on nonclinical populations demonstrate that adoption is a highly successful form of substitute care. Prospective longitudinal studies show…

  7. Study of Energy Transfer in Organic Dye Pairs Using Thermal Lens Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, Achamma; Unnikrishnan, K. P.; Gopinath, Pramod; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.

    It is demonstrated that the dual beam thermal lens technique can be very effectively used for the study of energy transfer processes in organic dye mixtures. The energy transfer rate and critical transfer radius in Rhodamine 6G - Rhodamine B are calculated using this technique. The observed results support Forster type resonance transfer due to long-range dipole-dipole interaction as reported by earlier workers using other techniques.

  8. Bridging the Divide: Openness in Adoption and Post-adoption Psychosocial Adjustment among Birth and Adoptive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Martin, David; Leve, Leslie; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Shaw, Daniel S.; Villareal, Georgette; Scaramella, Laura; Reid, John; Reiss, David

    2008-01-01

    Using 323 matched parties of birth mothers and adoptive parents, this study examined the association between the degree of adoption openness (e.g., contact and knowledge between parties) and birth and adoptive parents’ post-adoption adjustment shortly after the adoption placement (6 to 9 months). Data from birth fathers (N=112), an understudied sample, also were explored. Openness was assessed by multiple informants. Results indicated that openness was significantly related to satisfaction with adoption process among adoptive parents and birth mothers. Increased openness was positively associated with birth mothers’ post-placement adjustment as indexed by birth mothers’ self reports and the interviewers’ impression of birth mothers’ adjustment. Birth fathers’ report of openness was associated with their greater satisfaction with the adoption process and better post-adoption adjustment. PMID:18729667

  9. Study of a high performance evaporative heat transfer surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Hamasaki, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    An evaporative surface is described for heat pipes and other two-phase heat transfer applications that consists of a hybrid composition of V-grooves and capillary wicking. Characteristics of the surface include both a high heat transfer coefficient and high heat flux capability relative to conventional open-faced screw thread surfaces. With a groove density of 12.6 cm/1 and ammonia working fluid, heat transfer coefficients in the range of 1 to 2 W/sq cm have been measured along with maximum heat flux densities in excess of 20 W/sq cm. A peak heat transfer coefficient in excess of 2.3 W/sq cm was measured with a 37.8 cm/1 hybrid surface.

  10. Advanced turbine cooling, heat transfer, and aerodynamic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Je-Chin Han; Schobeiri, M.T.

    1995-10-01

    The contractual work is in three parts: Part I - Effect of rotation on enhanced cooling passage heat transfer, Part II - Effect on Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) spallation on surface heat transfer, and Part III - Effect of surface roughness and trailing edge ejection on turbine efficiency under unsteady flow conditions. Each section of this paper has been divided into three parts to individually accommodate each part. Part III is further divided into Parts IIIa and IIIb.

  11. Engineering study: 105KE to 105KW Basin fuel and sludge transfer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, R.G.

    1994-09-20

    In the last five years, there have been three periods at the 105KE fuel storage basin (KE Basin) where the reported drawdown test rates were in excess of 25 gph. Drawdown rates in excess of this amount have been used during past operations as the primary indicators of leaks in the basin. The latest leak occurred in March, 1993. The reported water loss from the KE Basin was estimated at 25 gph. This engineering study was performed to identify and recommend the most feasible and practical method of transferring canisters of irradiated fuel and basin sludge from the KE Basin to the 105KW fuel storage basin (KW Basin). Six alternatives were identified during the performance of this study as possible methods for transferring the fuel and sludge from the KE Basin to the KW Basin. These methods were then assessed with regard to operations, safety, radiation exposure, packaging, environmental concerns, waste management, cost, and schedule; and the most feasible and practical methods of transfer were identified. The methods examined in detail in this study were based on shipment without cooling water except where noted: Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system and water cooling; Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system (without water cooling); Transfer by truck using the K Area fuel transfer cask (K Area cask); Transfer by truck using a DOE shipping cask; Transfer by truck using a commercial shipping cask; and Transfer by truck using a new fuel shipping cask.

  12. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Mass transfer/kinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H{sub 2}0 {yields} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H{sub 2}S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25{degree} and 30{degree}C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30{degree}, 32{degree} or 34{degree}C. The rate of conversion of COs and H{sub 2}O to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30{degree}C was found to be 0.243 h{sup {minus}1}. The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: {mu} = {sub 351} + I{sub o}/{sup 0.152}I{sub o}. Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  13. Transient critical heat flux and blowdown heat-transfer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Objective of this study is to give a best-estimate prediction of transient critical heat flux (CHF) during reactor transients and hypothetical accidents. To accomplish this task, a predictional method has been developed. Basically it involves the thermal-hydraulic calculation of the heated core with boundary conditions supplied from experimental measurements. CHF predictions were based on the instantaneous ''local-conditions'' hypothesis, and eight correlations (consisting of round-tube, rod-bundle, and transient correlations) were tested against most recent blowdown heat-transfer test data obtained in major US facilities. The prediction results are summarized in a table in which both CISE and Biasi correlations are found to be capable of predicting the early CHF of approx. 1 s. The Griffith-Zuber correlation is credited for its prediction of the delay CHF that occurs in a more tranquil state with slowly decaying mass velocity. In many instances, the early CHF can be well correlated by the x = 1.0 criterion; this is certainly indicative of an annular-flow dryout-type crisis. The delay CHF occurred at near or above 80% void fraction, and the success of the modified Zuber pool-boiling correlation suggests that this CHF is caused by flooding and pool-boiling type hydrodynamic crisis.

  14. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the studies of guanine quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Juskowiak, Bernard; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2006-01-01

    A guanine (G)-quadruplex DNA motif has recently emerged as a biologically important structure that is believed to interfere with telomere maintenance by telomerase. G-quadruplexes exhibit four-stranded structures containing one or more nucleic acid strands with central channel able to accommodate metal cations. Coordination of certain metal cations stabilizes G-quadruplex as with some promising small organic molecules that promote the formation and/or stabilization of G-quadruplex. Among many techniques employed to explore properties of G-quadruplexes, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique has been recognized as a powerful tool to study G-quadruplex formation. This review summarizes the current developments in the uses of FRET technique for the fundamental structural investigations and its practical applications. Applications include FRET-based selection of efficient quadruplex-binding ligands, design of a nanomolecular machine, and a molecular aptamer beacon for protein recognition. We also describe a technique for detection of potassium ions in aqueous solution with the use of quadruplex-based sensor (potassium-sensing oligonucleotide). PMID:16785636

  15. Boiling Experiment Facility for Heat Transfer Studies in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; McQuillen, John; Chao, David

    2008-01-01

    Pool boiling in microgravity is an area of both scientific and practical interest. By conducting tests in microgravity, it is possible to assess the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and assess the relative magnitude of effects with regards to other "forces" and phenomena such as Marangoni forces, liquid momentum forces, and microlayer evaporation. The Boiling eXperiment Facility is now being built for the Microgravity Science Glovebox that will use normal perfluorohexane as a test fluid to extend the range of test conditions to include longer test durations and less liquid subcooling. Two experiments, the Microheater Array Boiling Experiment and the Nucleate Pool Boiling eXperiment will use the Boiling eXperiment Facility. The objectives of these studies are to determine the differences in local boiling heat transfer mechanisms in microgravity and normal gravity from nucleate boiling, through critical heat flux and into the transition boiling regime and to examine the bubble nucleation, growth, departure and coalescence processes. Custom-designed heaters will be utilized to achieve these objectives.

  16. Adoption Factors of the Electronic Health Record: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) was a significant piece of legislation in America that served as a catalyst for the adoption of health information technology. Following implementation of the HITECH Act, Health Information Technology (HIT) experienced broad adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR), despite skepticism exhibited by many providers for the transition to an electronic system. A thorough review of EHR adoption facilitator and barriers provides ongoing support for the continuation of EHR implementation across various health care structures, possibly leading to a reduction in associated economic expenditures. Objective The purpose of this review is to compile a current and comprehensive list of facilitators and barriers to the adoption of the EHR in the United States. Methods Authors searched Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and MEDLINE, 01/01/2012–09/01/2015, core clinical/academic journals, MEDLINE full text, and evaluated only articles germane to our research objective. Team members selected a final list of articles through consensus meetings (n=31). Multiple research team members thoroughly read each article to confirm applicability and study conclusions, thereby increasing validity. Results Group members identified common facilitators and barriers associated with the EHR adoption process. In total, 25 adoption facilitators were identified in the literature occurring 109 times; the majority of which were efficiency, hospital size, quality, access to data, perceived value, and ability to transfer information. A total of 23 barriers to adoption were identified in the literature, appearing 95 times; the majority of which were cost, time consuming, perception of uselessness, transition of data, facility location, and implementation issues. Conclusions The 25 facilitators and 23 barriers to the adoption of the EHR continue to reveal a preoccupation on cost, despite

  17. The Place of Genetic Counselling in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockey, Athel; Bain, Jill

    1982-01-01

    An approach combining social worker and geneticist expertise in adoption is outlined in the study involving 180 families. Genetic counseling has shown to be an essential safeguard to the preservation of the adoptive family unit. (Author/SW)

  18. Study of dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer using CFD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriaa, Wassim; Bejaoui, Salma; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we developed a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to simulate dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer (EVA 702). The carrier's motion imposed the choice of a dynamic mesh based on two methods: "spring based smoothing" and "local remeshing". The dryer airflow is considered as turbulent ( Re = 1.09 × 105 at the dryer inlet), therefore the Re-Normalization Group model with Enhanced Wall Treatment was used as a turbulence model. The resolution of the governing equation was performed with Fluent 6.3 whose capacities do not allow the direct resolution of drying problems. Thus, a user defined scalar equation was inserted in the CFD code to model moisture content diffusion into tiles. User-defined functions were implemented to define carriers' motion, thermo-physical properties… etc. We adopted also a "two-step" simulation method: in the first step, we follow the heat transfer coefficient evolution (Hc). In the second step, we determine the mass transfer coefficient (Hm) and the features fields of drying air and ceramic tiles. The found results in mixed convection mode (Fr = 5.39 at the dryer inlet) were used to describe dynamic and thermal fields of airflow and heat and mass transfer close to the ceramic tiles. The response of ceramic tiles to heat and mass transfer was studied based on Biot numbers. The evolutions of averages temperature and moisture content of ceramic tiles were analyzed. Lastly, comparison between experimental and numerical results showed a good agreement.

  19. Interfacial Electron Transfer and Transient Photoconductivity Studied with Terahertz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milot, Rebecca Lee

    Terahertz spectroscopy is distinguished from other far infrared and millimeter wave spectroscopies by its inherent phase sensitivity and sub-picosecond time resolution making it a versatile technique to study a wide range of physical phenomena. As THz spectroscopy is still a relatively new field, many aspects of THz generation mechanisms have not been fully examined. Using terahertz emission spectroscopy (TES), THz emission from ZnTe(110) was analyzed and found to be limited by two-photon absorption and free-carrier generation at high excitation fluences. Due to concerns about the continued use of fossil fuels, solar energy has been widely investigated as a promising source of renewable energy. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been developed as a low-cost alternative to conventional photovoltaic solar cells. To solve the issues of the intermittency and inefficient transport associated with solar energy, researchers are attempting to adapt DSSCs for water oxidation and chemical fuel production. Both device designs incorporate sensitizer molecules covalently bound to metal oxide nanoparticles. The sensitizer, which is comprised of a chromophore and anchoring group, absorbs light and transfers an electron from its excited state to the conduction band of the metal oxide, producing an electric current. Using time-resolved THz spectroscopy (TRTS), an optical pump/THz probe technique, the efficiency and dynamics of electron injection from sensitizers to metal oxides was evaluated as a function of the chromophore, its anchoring group, and the metal oxide identity. Experiments for studying fully functioning DSSCs and water oxidation devices are also described. Bio-inspired pentafluorophenyl porphyrin chromophores have been designed and synthesized for use in photoelectrochemical water oxidation cells. Influences on the efficiency and dynamics of electron injection from the chromophores into TiO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles due to changes in both the central substituent to

  20. Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kozanoglu, Bulent; Zárate, Luis; Gómez-Mares, Mercedes; Casal, Joaquim

    2011-12-15

    The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice. PMID:21962859

  1. Selective single blastocyst transfer study: 604 cases in 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivam, Nirmala; Sadasivam, Narayanan M.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the credibility of single blastocyst transfer (SBT) method in selected group of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of SBT cases based on computerized data in a private Fertility research centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 604 cases of SBTs, done during June 2000 to June 2006, have been analyzed retrospectively to assess the credibility of the method as a method of choice in selective high fertile group of patients. Women between 28 and 42 years have been included in the retrospective analysis, who had adequate number of eggs for fertilization, between 6 and 12. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Grade I blastocyst transfer resulted in 46.6% of clinical pregnancy and grade II blastocyst transfer resulted in 17.4% of clinical pregnancy rates. Overall pregnancy rate was 64%. Pregnancy loss, as early and late fetal wastages, was 11.06%. PMID:19562057

  2. Charge transfer properties of pentacene adsorbed on silver: DFT study

    SciTech Connect

    N, Rekha T.; Rajkumar, Beulah J. M.

    2015-06-24

    Charge transfer properties of pentacene adsorbed on silver is investigated using DFT methods. Optimized geometry of pentacene after adsorption on silver indicates distortion in hexagonal structure of the ring close to the silver cluster and deviations in co-planarity of carbon atoms due to the variations in bond angles and dihedral angles. Theoretically simulated absorption spectrum has a symmetric surface plasmon resonance peak around 486nm corresponding to the transfer of charge from HOMO-2 to LUMO. Theoretical SERS confirms the process of adsorption, tilted orientation of pentacene on silver surface and the charge transfers reported. Localization of electron density arising from redistribution of electrostatic potential together with a reduced bandgap of pentacene after adsorption on silver suggests its utility in the design of electro active organic semiconducting devices.

  3. Polytetrafluoroethylene transfer film studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was rubbed against nickel in ultrahigh vacuum at loads up to 3.9 N and speeds up to 94 mm/sec. The transfer film formed on the nickel was analyzed using X-ray phototectron spectroscopy. The film was indistinguishable from bulk PTFE except for the possible presence of a small amount of NiF2. The transfer film was found to be about 1 molecule (0.5 nm) thick under all conditions; but at speeds above 10 mm/sec, there was evidence of bulk transfer in the form of fragments as well. The thickness measurements required a choice among conflicting published values of the inelastic mean free path for electrons in polymers. The values chosen gave internally consistent results.

  4. XRay Study of Transfer Printed Pentacene Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Y.; Solin, S. A.; Hines, D. R.; Williams, E. D.

    2007-04-10

    We investigated the structural properties and transfer properties of pentacene thin films fabricated by thermal deposition and transfer printing onto SiO2 and plastic substrates, respectively. The dependence of the crystallite size on the printing time, temperature and pressure were measured. The increases of crystalline size were observed when pentacene thin films were printed under specific conditions, e.g. 120 deg. C and 600 psi and can be correlated with the improvement of the field effect mobility of pentacene thin-film transistors.

  5. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 2, book 1: STV concept definition and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Gary A.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: mission analysis; initial and evolutionary space transfer vehicle (STV) concept definition; configuration and subsystem trade studies; and operations and logistics.

  6. Adoptive cell therapy for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Melinda; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for sarcomas, though effective in treating local disease, is often ineffective for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To improve outcomes, novel approaches are needed and cell therapy has the potential to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanisms of conventional therapies. The recent successes of T-cell therapies for hematological malignancies have led to renewed interest in exploring cell therapies for solid tumors such as sarcomas. In this review, we will discuss current cell therapies for sarcoma with special emphasis on genetic approaches to improve the effector function of adoptively transferred cells. PMID:25572477

  7. Ecological niche transferability using invasive species as a case study.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Miguel; Hamilton, Healy

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species' native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species' native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger's I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species' dynamics in the invaded range. PMID:25785858

  8. Study on cholesteryl ester transfer activity in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Fujinuma, Y; Tanaka, A; Maezawa, H

    1991-09-01

    The net cholesterol transfer activity from high density lipoprotein (HDL) to low density lipoprotein (LDL) was determined in the patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) to examine its effect on the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Furthermore, in the CHD patients with high HDL cholesterolemia (more than 60 mg/dl), the HDL particle size was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. A significant cholesteryl ester transfer activity (P less than 0.02) was noted in the CHD patients with low HDL cholesterolemia (less than 60 mg/dl). The rate of cholesteryl ester transfer activity (cholesteryl ester transfer activity/hour) inversely correlated with the serum HDL cholesterol value (r = -0.483, P = 0.096) in the patients with CHD. These results suggest that an increase of CETA caused a low HDL cholesterol value in the CHD patients with low HDL cholesterolemia and it may have the risk of causing CHD. However, an increase of the CETA was not found in the CHD patients with high HDL cholesterolemia compared to the normal subjects, the HDL particle size being significantly greater than that in the normal subjects. In the CHD patients with high HDL cholesterolemia, the large size of HDL may have the risk of causing CHD. PMID:1934199

  9. Organizational Learning, Knowledge and Technology Transfer: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daghfous, Abdelkader

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge-based competition has magnified the importance of learning alliances as a fast and effective mechanism of capability development. This case presents a technology transfer project from a university's engineering research center to a private firm to illuminate learning and knowledge-based determinants of the outcomes of such projects. In…

  10. Satellite services system analysis study: Propellant transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    General servicing requirements, a servicing mission concept and scenario, overall servicing needs, basic servicing equipment, and a general servicing mission configuration layout are addressed. Servicing needs, equipment concepts, system requirements equipment specifications, preliminary designs, and resource requirements for flight hardware for the propellant transfer system are also addressed.

  11. Training Objectives, Transfer, Validation and Evaluation: A Sri Lankan Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a stratified random sample, this paper examines the training practices of setting objectives, transfer, validation and evaluation in Sri Lanka. The paper further sets out to compare those practices across local, foreign and joint-venture companies based on the assumption that there may be significant differences across companies of different…

  12. Ecological Niche Transferability Using Invasive Species as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Miguel; Hamilton, Healy

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species’ native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species’ native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger’s I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species’ dynamics in the invaded range. PMID:25785858

  13. Understanding the Effects of Different Study Methods on Retention of Information and Transfer of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Rylan G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The following study investigates relationships between spaced practice (re-studying after a delay) and transfer of learning. Specifically, the impact on learners ability to transfer learning after participating in spaced model-building or unstructured study of narrated text. Method: Subjects were randomly assigned either to a…

  14. Minimizing Teacher Transfer Requests: A Study of Suba District Secondary Schools, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariko, Collins Oliver; Othuon, Lucas O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher transfer requests interfere with the stability and continuity of teaching thereby causing low student performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate how teacher transfer requests can be minimized. The study employed a descriptive survey design. The population of the study included 16 head teachers, 126 teachers and the provincial…

  15. Single Parent Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Presenting two views of the single-parent family, this pamphlet includes an article by two researchers (William Feigelman and Arnold R. Silverman) and a short statement by a single adoptive parent (Amanda Richards). The first paper summarizes earlier research on single-parent adoptions and discusses the results of a nationwide survey of 713…

  16. 14 CFR 221.162 - Receiver shall file adoption notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Receiver shall file adoption notices. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.162 Receiver shall file adoption notices. A...

  17. 14 CFR 221.162 - Receiver shall file adoption notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Receiver shall file adoption notices. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.162 Receiver shall file adoption notices. A...

  18. 14 CFR 221.162 - Receiver shall file adoption notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Receiver shall file adoption notices. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.162 Receiver shall file adoption notices. A...

  19. 14 CFR 221.162 - Receiver shall file adoption notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Receiver shall file adoption notices. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.162 Receiver shall file adoption notices. A...

  20. 14 CFR 221.162 - Receiver shall file adoption notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Receiver shall file adoption notices. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.162 Receiver shall file adoption notices. A...

  1. Modeling technology adoption in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Besley, T.; Case, A. )

    1993-05-01

    An analysis of technology adoption decisions by poor farmers is provided. Some possible empirical models for studying technology adoption are reviewed. The issue of theoretical consistency is dealt with in terms of the costs of such consistency, measured in data needs and model complexity, and the benefits, measured in terms of understanding the micro-economic foundations of adoption.

  2. Child Adoption in Contemporary Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiguo

    2006-01-01

    Based on qualitative information from in-depth interviews and quantitative data from a survey of 425 adoptive families conducted in summer 2001 in rural China, this study attempts to explain the social and demographic patterns of adoption and investigate the roles of the State and families in adoption processes in contemporary rural China. Within…

  3. A numerical study of vorticity-enhanced heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas

    2012-11-01

    The Glezer lab at Georgia Tech has found that vorticity produced by vibrated reeds can improve heat transfer in electronic hardware. Vortices enhance forced convection by boundary layer separation and thermal mixing in the bulk flow. In this work, we simulate the heat transfer process in a 3-dimensional plate-fin heat sink. We propose a simplified model by considering flow and temperature in a 2-D channel, and extend the model to the third dimension using a 1-D heat fin model. We simulate periodically steady-state solutions. We determine how the global Nusselt number is increased, depending on the vortices' strengths and spacings, in the parameter space of Reynolds and Peclet numbers. We find a surprising spatial oscillation of the local Nusselt number due to the vortices. Support from NSF-DMS grant 1022619 is acknowledged.

  4. Heat transfer studies in waste repository design. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, R.F.; Chen, Y.T.; Izzeldin, A.; Kuharic, W.; Sudan, N.

    1994-04-20

    The main task of this project is the development of visualization methods in heat transfer through porous media. Experiments have been performed related to the determination of the wavelength that gives equality of the refractive indices of the porous material and the liquid. The work has been accomplished using the calibration setup consisting of a 2-in. long test cell filled with 2-mm diameter soda-lime glass beads. A supplemental task is an unsaturated flow experiment with heat transfer in porous media. For this work the medium of interest in quartz beads. Essentially two-dimensional flows of admitted water are able to be examined. During this quarter, the setup and calibration of the experimental instrumentation was done. Also the modification of the main experimental tank and the inflow system was carried out. Initial testing was done.

  5. A multilateral mechanistic study into asymmetric transfer hydrogenation in water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianke; Di Tommaso, Devis; Iggo, Jonathan A; Catlow, C Richard A; Bacsa, John; Xiao, Jianliang

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of aqueous-phase asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) of acetophenone (acp) with HCOONa catalyzed by Ru-TsDPEN has been investigated by stoichiometric reactions, NMR probing, kinetic and isotope effect measurements, DFT modeling, and X-ray structure analysis. The chloride [RuCl(TsDPEN)(p-cymene)] (1), hydride [RuH(TsDPEN)(p-cymene)] (3), and the 16-electorn species [Ru(TsDPEN-H)(p-cymene)] (4) were shown to be involved in the aqueous ATH, with 1 being the precatalyst, and 3 as the active catalyst detectable by NMR in both stoichiometric and catalytic reactions. The formato complex [Ru(OCOH)(TsDPEN)(p-cymene)] (2) was not observed; its existence, however, was demonstrated by its reversible decarboxylation to form 3. Both 1 and 3 were protonated under acidic conditions, leading to ring opening of the TsDPEN ligand. 4 reacted with water, affording a hydroxyl species. In a homogeneous DMF/H(2)O solvent, the ATH was found to be first order in the concentration of catalyst and acp, and inhibited by CO(2). In conjunction with the NMR results, this suggests that hydrogen transfer to ketone is the rate-determining step. The addition of water stabilized the ruthenium catalyst and accelerated the ATH reaction; it does so by participating in the catalytic cycle. DFT calculations revealed that water hydrogen bonds to the ketone oxygen at the transition state of hydrogen transfer, lowering the energy barrier by about 4 kcal mol(-1). The calculations also suggested that the hydrogen transfer is more step-wise in nature rather than concerted. This is supported to some degree by the kinetic isotope effects, which were obscured by extensive H/D scrambling. PMID:18604853

  6. Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer Studied Under Reduced-Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, David F.; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2000-01-01

    Boiling is known to be a very efficient mode of heat transfer, and as such, it is employed in component cooling and in various energy-conversion systems. In space, boiling heat transfer may be used in thermal management, fluid handling and control, power systems, and on-orbit storage and supply systems for cryogenic propellants and life-support fluids. Recent interest in the exploration of Mars and other planets and in the concept of in situ resource utilization on the Martian and Lunar surfaces highlights the need to understand how gravity levels varying from the Earth's gravity to microgravity (1g = or > g/g(sub e) = or > 10(exp -6)g) affect boiling heat transfer. Because of the complex nature of the boiling process, no generalized prediction or procedure has been developed to describe the boiling heat transfer coefficient, particularly at reduced gravity levels. Recently, Professor Vijay K. Dhir of the University of California at Los Angeles proposed a novel building-block approach to investigate the boiling phenomena in low-gravity to microgravity environments. This approach experimentally investigates the complete process of bubble inception, growth, and departure for single bubbles formed at a well-defined and controllable nucleation site. Principal investigator Professor Vijay K. Dhir, with support from researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, is performing a series of pool boiling experiments in the low-gravity environments of the KC 135 microgravity aircraft s parabolic flight to investigate the inception, growth, departure, and merger of bubbles from single- and multiple-nucleation sites as a function of the wall superheat and the liquid subcooling. Silicon wafers with single and multiple cavities of known characteristics are being used as test surfaces. Water and PF5060 (an inert liquid) were chosen as test liquids so that the role of surface wettability and the magnitude of the effect of interfacial tension on boiling in reduced

  7. Repeated Testing Produces Superior Transfer of Learning Relative to Repeated Studying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    The present research investigated whether test-enhanced learning can be used to promote transfer. More specifically, 4 experiments examined how repeated testing and repeated studying affected retention and transfer of facts and concepts. Subjects studied prose passages and then either repeatedly restudied or took tests on the material. One week…

  8. A.A.S. Degree Students Transferring from SUNY Two-Year Colleges: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Two Year Coll. Development Center.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to collect information regarding problems that graduates of two-year colleges with Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.) degrees encountered when transferring to four-year institutions. The study was motivated by an increasing number of A.A.S. degree recipients who were transferring to bachelor's programs even though…

  9. Transfer of Expertise: An Eye Tracking and Think Aloud Study Using Dynamic Medical Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Seppanen, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Expertise research has produced mixed results regarding the problem of transfer of expertise. Is expert performance context-bound or can the underlying processes be applied to more general situations? The present study tests whether expert performance and its underlying processes transfer to novel tasks within a domain. A mixed method study using…

  10. Lessons from a recent adoption study to identify some of the service needs of, and issues for, donor offspring wanting to know about their donors.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2002-02-01

    This paper draws on some of the major findings of a recent large-scale study of over 400 adult adopted people, who either searched for origins information or were sought out by birth relatives, to identify the potential profile of donor offspring seeking origins information. It is predicted that more women than men will search, that people who search will be in their twenties or older, and that the age at which searching begins may be delayed by the effects of the social stigma attached to gamete donation and by the greater likelihood of accidental disclosure in adulthood resulting from the higher incidence of secrecy about donor assisted conception. Two of the single triggers for adopted people to begin searching (as opposed to multiple triggers) - becoming a parent and the death of adoptive parents - may also be among the triggers for donor offspring to begin searching. The search may be complicated further when undertaken after accidental disclosure. Finally, it is argued that some donor offspring will experience a normative urge for identity completion and seeking relationships similar to that experienced by adopted people. This urge may stem from the fact that some donor offspring attach an identity to their donor that extends beyond needing factual details about their physical characteristics (though not necessarily a desire to establish a relationship). Some donor offspring are likely to encounter a desire for face-to-face contact, regardless of whether a face-to-face meeting was the original intention. The need for services to help donor offspring, donors, family members and others affected by the situation is identified. PMID:11897902

  11. Slush hydrogen transfer studies at the NASA K-Site Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study was performed as part of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) effort to determine slush hydrogen production and transfer characteristics. Flow rate and pressure drop characteristics were determined for slush hydrogen flow through a vacuum-jacketed transfer system. These characteristics were compared to similar tests using normal boiling point and triple point hydrogen. In addition, experimental flow characteristic data was compared with predictions from the FLUSH analytical model. Slush hydrogen density loss during the transfer process was also examined.

  12. Study of acetic acid production by immobilized acetobacter cells: oxygen transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Ghommidh, C.; Navarro, J.M.; Durand, G.

    1982-03-01

    The immobilization of living Acetobacter cells by adsorption onto a large-surface-area ceramic support was studied in a pulsed flow reactor. The high oxygen transfer capability of the reactor enabled acetic acid production rates up to 10.4 g/L/h to be achieved. Using a simple mathematical model incorporating both internal and external mass transfer coefficients, it was shown that oxygen transfer in the microbial film controls the reactor productivity. (Refs. 10).

  13. Parenting Your Adopted Teenager

    MedlinePlus

    ... https: / / www. childwelfare. gov/ pubs/ f- openadopt/ .) The Internet and the explosion of social media sites (e. ... 4 Howard, J. (2012). Untangling the web: The Internet’s transformative impact on adoption . New York, NY: Evan ...

  14. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... child in your family should understand her own origins, and those of her brothers and sisters. But ... children can seem exaggerated because of their different origins. For instance, i f your adoptive child does ...

  15. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... preadoption living standards, varying disease epidemiology in the countries of origin, the presence of previously unidentified medical problems, and ... know the disease risks in the adopted child’s country of origin and the medical and social histories of the ...

  16. Enhancing Transfer of Knowledge in Physics through Effective Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the enhancement of transfer of knowledge in physics through the use of effective teaching strategies in Nigerian senior secondary schools. Non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design was adopted for the study. A total of 278 physics students took part in the study. Transfer of Knowledge Test in Physics (TKTP) with the…

  17. Clouds Radiative Transfer Study at Microwave Region-RTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia, S. D.; Masuelli, S.; Caranti, G. M.; Jones, L.

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the recently launched SAC-D/Aquarius satellite mission is to globally and indirectly measure certain geophysical parameters such as: sea surface salinity (Sal), column water vapor (CWV), column liquid water (CLW), rain rate (RR), wind speed (WS), wind direction (WD), ice concentration (SIC) and others. On board the satellite there are several instruments designed for specific purposes like the passive microwave sensor MWR (Fig. 1) whose specifications are shown in Table 1. The aim of the latter is to determine the following parameters: CWV, CLW, RR, WS, WD and SIC. The MWR sensor measures brightness temperatures at two frequencies: 23.8 and 36.5GHz. In the case of 36.5GHz, it measures both polarizations (vertical and horizontal) while for 23.8GHz it only measures the horizontal component. Since this sensor measures brightness temperatures and not geophysical variables, it is necessary to establish a relationship that links both. These relationships are determined by radiative transfer models (RTM). In remote sensing there are two types of models, namely: Forward and Inverse Model. The radiative transfer model in the forward direction obtains brightness temperatures for a given configuration within the pixel (geophysical variables). The most important applications of these models are: * Simulator Development: spectral bands selection to meet the high-level requirements within the expected error. * Intercalibration: in the calculation of corrections due to differences in incidence angles and frequencies between sensors involved in this process. * Inverse Radiative Transfer Models to obtain geophysical variables from brightness temperatures. In this paper, we developed a module that simulates the interaction of radiation with cloud droplets and raindrops. These modules were incorporated into a radiative transfer model from CFRSL (Central Florida Remote Sensing Lab) to calculate the brightness temperatures that would measure a passive microwave sensor

  18. The representation of transference through serial grids: a methodological study.

    PubMed

    Ben-Tovim, D I; Greenup, J

    1983-09-01

    During a patient's psychotherapy serial grids were collected so that aspects of 'transference' defined as the interrelationships of dyadic elements such as 'me now with the therapist', 'me with father when I was a child' could be measured. By forming composite grids of the same two elements from each testing occasion, changes could be traced over time. Content analysis of tape-recordings of the sessions showed that changes on the grid measures could be related to the therapist's interventions. The correlations obtained suggest a process of delayed reconceptualization by the subject. PMID:6626481

  19. Making sense of evidence in management decisions: the role of research-based knowledge on innovation adoption and implementation in healthcare. study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We know that patient care can be improved by implementing evidence-based innovations and applying research findings linked to good practice. Successfully implementing innovations in complex organisations, such as the UK's National Health Service (NHS), is often challenging as multiple contextual dynamics mediate the process. Research studies have explored the challenges of introducing innovations into healthcare settings and have contributed to a better understanding of why potentially useful innovations are not always implemented in practice, even if backed by strong evidence. Mediating factors include health policy and health system influences, organisational factors, and individual and professional attitudes, including decision makers' perceptions of innovation evidence. There has been limited research on how different forms of evidence are accessed and utilised by organisational decision makers during innovation adoption. We also know little about how diverse healthcare professionals (clinicians, administrators) make sense of evidence and how this collective sensemaking mediates the uptake of innovations. Methods The study will involve nine comparative case study sites of acute care organisations grouped into three regional clusters across England. Each of the purposefully selected sites represents a variety of trust types and organisational contexts. We will use qualitative methods, in-depth interviews, observation of key meetings, and systematic analysis of relevant secondary data to understand the rationale and challenges involved in sourcing and utilising innovation evidence in the empirical setting of infection prevention and control. We will use theories of innovation adoption and sensemaking in organisations to interpret the data. The research will provide lessons for the uptake and continuous use of innovations in the English and international health systems. Discussion Unlike most innovation studies, which involve single-level analysis, our

  20. Adhesion and transfer of PTFE to metals studied by auger emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    The adhesion and transfer of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to metals in ultrahigh vacuum has been studied using Auger emission spectroscopy. The transfer was effected both by compressive static contact and by sliding contact. The transfer observed after static contact was independent of the chemical constitution of the substrate. Electron induced desorption of the fluorine in the transferred PTFE showed that the fluorine had no chemical interaction with the metal substrate. The coefficient of friction on metals was independent of the chemical constitution of the substrate. However, sliding PTFE on soft metals such as aluminum, generated wear fragments that lodged in the PTFE and machined the substrate.

  1. Adhesion and transfer of polytetrafluorethylene to metals studied by Auger emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    The adhesion and transfer of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to metals in ultrahigh vacuum were studied. The transfer was effected both by compressive static contact and by sliding contact. The transfer observed after static contact was independent of the chemical constitution of the substrate. Electron-induced desorption of the fluorine in the transferred PTFE showed that the fluorine had no chemical interaction with the metal substrate. The coefficient of friction on metals was independent of the chemical constitution of the substrate. However, sliding PTFE on soft metals, such as aluminum, generated wear fragments that lodged in the PTFE and machined the substrate.

  2. Adoption Practice in Canada: Emerging Trends and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Michael P.; Daly, Kerry

    1995-01-01

    Reports the results of the National Adoption Study of Canada (NAS), which is based on demographic adoption statistics and a survey of adoption agencies and practitioners. The NAS found that between 1981 and 1990 the number of adoptions decreased by 47% and that private adoptions are accounting for an ever-increasing proportion of infant…

  3. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. E.

    1982-01-01

    Missions for future orbit transfer vehicles (1995-2010) are identified and the technology, operations and vehicle concepts that satisfy the transportation requirements are defined. Comparison of reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's was made. Both vehicles used advanced space engines and aero assist capability. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. Comparison of an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet with a fleet of LO2/LH2 OTVs and electric OTV's was also made. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. This provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. The impact of accelerated technology was considered in terms of improvements in performance and cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on-orbit propellant storage and transfer and on-orbit maintenance capability.

  4. Experimental study of surfactant effects on pool boiling heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Liang Tzan; Yu Min Yang )

    1990-02-01

    In the first part of this work, nucleate boiling of aqueous solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) over relatively wide ranges of concentration and heat flux was carried out in a pool boiling apparatus. The experimental results show that a small amount of surface active additive makes the nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient h considerably higher, and that there is an optimum additive concentration for higher heat fluxes. Beyond this optimum point, further increase in additive concentration makes h lower. In the second part of this work, nucleate boiling heat transfer rate for n-propanol-water binary mixtures with various amounts of sodium lauryl sulfate were measured in the same pool boiling apparatus. The importance of the mass diffusion effect, which is caused by preferential evaporation of the more volatile component at the vapor-liquid interface on the boiling of the binary mixture, has been confirmed. However, it is shown that the effect exerted by the addition of a surfactant dominates over the mass diffusion effect in dilute binary mixtures.

  5. MD studies of electron transfer at ambient and elevated pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, Alex; Spooner, Jacob; Weinberg, Noham

    2013-06-01

    The effect of pressure on the rate constants of outer-sphere electron transfer reactions has often been described using the Marcus-Hush theory. This theory agrees well with experiment when internal reorganization of the ionic system is negligible, however it does not offer a recipe for calculation of the effects that result from significant solute restructuring. We have recently developed a molecular dynamics technique that accurately describes structural dependence of molecular volumes in non-polar and weakly polar systems. We are now extending this approach to the case of highly polar ionic systems where both solvent and solute restructuring components are important. For this purpose we construct pressure-dependent two-dimensional surfaces for electron transfer reactions in coordinate system composed of interionic distance and Marcus-type solvent polarization coordinate, and use these surfaces to describe pressure effects on reaction kinetics. R.A. Marcus. J. Chem. Phys. 24, 966 (1956); 24, 979 (1956); 26, 867 (1957). Discuss. Faraday Soc. 29, 21 (1960). Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 74, 7 (1982); N.S. Hush. Trans. Faraday Soc. 57, 557 (1961).

  6. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    PubMed

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality. PMID:23661279

  7. Technology adoption strategy for the Existing Buildings Efficiency Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mihlmester, P.E.; Gonos, J.; Freeman, L.; Brown, M.A.

    1989-06-01

    This study was conducted for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Existing Buildings Efficiency Research Program (EBER) which is implemented for the US Department of Energy's Office of Buildings and Community Systems. The purpose of the study is to characterize the building energy retrofit service industry, describe the technology adoption process within this industry, identify paths through which retrofit technologies can be adopted, and develop a technology adoption strategy to support the EBER Program. This study builds on past research in the technology transfer area and attempts to tailor a technology transfer strategy for the EBER Program while focusing on the retrofit services industry. The retrofit services industry can be defined as the businesses that constitute the path from building retrofit inception to the completion of the project. To accomplish the goals of this study, a three-phased methodology was used. The three phases consisted of (1) background analysis and segmentation of the retrofit industry structure; (2) interviews of building retrofit service industry association members; and (3) conducting an actual building energy retrofit service industry practitioners' workshop for direct information input. 6 refs., 16 figs.

  8. STUDY TO IDENTIFY IMPORTANT PARAMETERS FOR CHARACTERIZING PESTICIDE RESIDUE TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To reduce the uncertainty associated with current estimates of children's exposure to pesticides by dermal contact and non-dietary ingestion, residue transfer data are required. Prior to conducting exhaustive studies, a screening study to identify the important parameters for...

  9. Lymphocyte function associated antigen-1, integrin alpha 4, and L-selectin mediate T-cell homing to the pancreas in the model of adoptive transfer of diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Fabien, N; Bergerot, I; Orgiazzi, J; Thivolet, C

    1996-09-01

    The involvement of adhesion molecule in the process of T-cell homing to the pancreas was investigated in the model of the T-cell transfer of type I diabetes in NOD mice. Treatment of mice using monoclonal anti-lymphocyte function associated antigen (LFA)-1, anti-integrin alpha 4, anti-intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and anti-L-selectin antibodies (monoclonal antibodies [mAbs]) gave rise to a partial or complete prevention of diabetes via different mechanisms of protection. On day 20 posttransfer, diabetes was only observed in control mice (26 of 32) and in few mice treated with the anti-L-selectin mAbs (3 of 24). On day 60, the best protection was observed using the anti-LFA-1 or the anti-integrin alpha 4 mAbs with 3 of 11 and 2 of 5 diabetic mice, respectively. On day 20, no insulitis was observed in the pancreases of mice treated with these mAbs compared with the pancreases of controls, suggesting that such treatment blocked the penetration of T-cells into the islets. In vitro adhesion assays confirmed that adhesion of T-cells to the pancreatic endothelium was blocked, except when using the anti-L-selectin mAb, which induced a modification of the traffic of the transferred T-cells; the ability of T-cells to migrate into the pancreatic lymph nodes was significantly reduced (10.4 vs. 22%). Anti-LFA-1 mAbs did not modify such T-cell trafficking. The present study, therefore, elucidates the role of LFA-1, integrin alpha 4, and L-selectin in T-cell homing to the pancreas, first step of the cascade of events leading to type I diabetes. PMID:8772719

  10. Conducting Studies of Transfer of Learning: A Practical Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Thomas A.

    This document is a guide for use by the practical researcher concerned with conducting studies of transfer of learning from pretraining of pilots in ground-based environments to performance in aircraft. While the material addresses principally transfer of learning of pilots, many of the issues should be applicable to other contexts, to include…

  11. Predisposition Factors of Career and Technical Education Transfer Students: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hioki, Warren; Lester, Derek; Martinez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Six college students, who were career and technical education (CTE) transfer students in the state of Nevada, were interviewed Spring Semester of 2009. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenology framework as the method to identify those predisposition variables that heavily influenced the students in their decision to transfer to a senior…

  12. A Cross-Cultural Study on the Use of Gestures: Evidence for Cross-Linguistic Transfer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pika, Simone; Nicoladis, Elena; Marentette, Paula F.

    2006-01-01

    Anecdotal reports provide evidence of so called "hybrid" gesturer whose non-verbal behavior of one language/culture becomes visible in the other. The direction of this gestural transfer seems to occur from a high to a low frequency gesture language. The purpose of this study was therefore to test systematically 1) whether gestural transfer occurs…

  13. Predictors of the Acquisition and Portability of Transferable Skills: A Longitudinal Portuguese Case Study on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2015-01-01

    The basis for this longitudinal study was to find the predictors of transferable skills acquisition and portability among university sophomore students. The method employed was the path analysis using as variables: (1) the theoretical framework of transferable skills representations (Evers and Rush in "Manag Learn" 27(4):275-300, 1996;…

  14. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation. PMID:26371450

  15. Envisaging the adoption process to strengthen gay- and lesbian-headed families: recommendations for adoption professionals.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John D; Cramer, Elizabeth P

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases of the adoption process-preplacement, placement, and postplacement-as well as provides suggestions for adoption professionals working with gays and lesbians. Data from a recent qualitative study of single, gay adoptive fathers are used to illustrate examples and expose areas of potential strengths of adoptive parents not generally explored in the preplacement or preparatory stage. Special attention also is given to the continuing needs of adoptive families headed by gays and lesbians after adoptive placement. Specifically explored are the needs for developing linkages with similar families, as well as providing resources designed to promote successful outcomes of adopted children raised by gays and lesbians. PMID:16846118

  16. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  17. Raman study of interfacial load transfer in graphene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Iti; Mehta, Rutvik J.; Yu, Zhong-Zhen; Schadler, Linda; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-02-01

    We tracked the strain-sensitive characteristic Raman G-band shift of graphene platelets in polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) nanocomposites revealing the filler-to-matrix interactions. We obtained large debonding strains of ˜7% for graphene in PDMS, with the peak shift rate with strain being ˜2.4 cm-1/composite strain % in comparison to single-walled carbon nanotube composites, where a relatively low rate of ˜0.1 cm-1/composite strain % was obtained, suggesting enhanced load-transfer effectiveness for graphene. A surprising observation was that for large strains (>1.5%) the graphene fillers went into compression under uniaxial tensile deformation and vice versa. We propose that this effect is related to the high mobility of the PDMS chains at room temperature.

  18. Theoretical studies of electron transfer and optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesner, R. A.

    Progress was made in three areas. First, we have made major strides in developing our PSGVB electronic structure code including high level electron correlation methods needed to treat complex structures like semiconductor clusters. Secondly, we have developed a one-electron pseudopotential model for semiconductor clusters which reproduces the experimental bandgap as a function of cluster size without adjustable parameters. We are currently using the model to calculate absorption spectra as opposed to just the bandgap via a dispersed polaron formalism. Finally, we have developed two novel quantum dynamical methods, one involving surface hopping and the second utilizing Redfield theory. These methods will be applied to calculation of the relaxation of an excited electron in a semiconductor cluster and also to electron transfer through DNA.

  19. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Volume 2: Detailed summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A series of Operational Design Drivers were identified. Several of these could have significant impact(s) on program costs. These recommendations, for example, include such items as: complete factory assembly and checkout prior to shipment to the ground launch site to make significant reductions in time required at the launch site as well as overall manpower required to do this work; minimize use of nonstandard equipment when orbiter provided equipment is available; and require commonality (or interchangeability) of subsystem equipment elements that are common to the space station, Orbit Maneuvering Vehicles, and/or Orbit Transfer Vehicles. Several additional items were identified that will require a significant amount of management attention (and direction) to resolve. Key elements of the space based processing plans are discussed.

  20. Applying Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to a Study of Online Course Adoption in Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knabe, Ann Peru

    2012-01-01

    This study used Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to research public relations faculty intentions of teaching online. All of the main predictor variables (Subjective Norms, Attitude toward the Act and Perceived Behavioral Control) were statistically significant at varying degrees in predicting intent to teach public relations online. Of the…

  1. Genetic Risks and ADHD Symptomatology: Exploring the Effects of Parental Antisocial Behaviors in an Adoption-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Nedelec, Joseph L.; Rowland, Meghan W.; Schwartz, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research has examined the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD symptomatologies. Genetic factors are consistently shown to explain a significant proportion of variance in measures of ADHD. The current study adds to this body of research by examining whether genetic liabilities for criminality and…

  2. Using Community Insight to Understand Physical Activity Adoption in Overweight and Obese African American and Hispanic Women: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Thompson, Deborah I.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence…

  3. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of…

  4. The Decision-Adoption of Software Currency and Specificity Levels: A Quantitative Study of Information Technology (IT) Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somsen, W. Randy

    2009-01-01

    IT educators and learners are continually challenged to adapt to software changes and remain current in software applications. This study researched if it is necessary for IT educators to prepare IT students in the most current software releases--i.e., at the highest software currency preparation level and in the same software application that the…

  5. Using community insight to understand physical activity adoption in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the un...

  6. Adopting an International Innovation for Teacher Professional Development: State and District Approaches to Lesson Study in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Wilkinson, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The state of Florida has taken an unprecedented approach to teacher professional development in its Race to the Top (RTTT) Program application by proposing to promote an international innovation that originates in Japan, "lesson study," as a statewide teacher professional development model. Since winning the US$700 million RTTT funding…

  7. A Quantitative Study of Factors Related to Adult E-Learner's Adoption of Web 2.0 Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Johnny Mark

    2012-01-01

    The content created by digital natives via collaborative Web 2.0 applications provides a rich source of unique knowledge and social capital for their virtual communities of interest. The problem addressed in this study was the limited understanding of older digital immigrants who use Web 2.0 applications to access, distribute, or enhance these…

  8. Organizational Culture in the Adoption of the Bologna Process: A Study of Academic Staff at a Ukrainian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.; Chapman, David W.; Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2013-01-01

    The growing influence of the Bologna Process on higher education around the world has raised concerns about the applicability of this set of reforms in diverse cultural contexts. Ukraine provides an instructive case study highlighting the dynamics occurring at the convergence of the new framework with a state-centred model of higher education. The…

  9. Adoption of Web 2.0 Technology in Higher Education: A Case Study of Universities in National Capital Region, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyagi, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in six (6) Indian Universities at NCR (National Capital Region) of India to explore the usage analysis of Web 2.0 technologies in learning environment by faculty members. The investigator conducted a survey with the help of structured questionnaire on 300 respondents. A total of 300 self-administered questionnaires…

  10. Transfer Practices at Skyline College: Case Study #7 of 7 Featuring Colleges with Consistently Higher than Expected Transfer Rates, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mery, Pamela; Johnstone, Rob

    2008-01-01

    In Spring 2007, the State Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges awarded, based on a competitive grant competition, the Transfer Leadership Center (TLC) study to investigate two-to-four year transfer practices and strategies. As part of the study's qualitative component, research teams from the Center for Student Success of the…

  11. Transfer Practices at Porterville College: Case Study #4 of 7 Featuring Colleges with Consistently Higher than Expected Transfer Rates, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mery, Pamela; Schiorring, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In Spring 2007, the State Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges awarded the Transfer Leadership Center (TLC) study to investigate two-to-four year transfer practices and strategies. As part of the study's qualitative component, research teams from the Center for Student Success of the Research & Planning Group of the California…

  12. Transfer Practices at De Anza College: Case Study #1 of 7 Featuring Colleges with Consistently Higher than Expected Transfer Rates, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mery, Pamela; Schiorring, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In Spring 2007, the State Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges awarded the Transfer Leadership Center (TLC) study to investigate two-to-four year transfer practices and strategies. As part of the study's qualitative component, research teams from the Center for Student Success of the Research & Planning Group of the California…

  13. Transfer Practices at Reedley College: Case Study #5 of 7 Featuring Colleges with Consistently Higher than Expected Transfer Rates, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, Rob; Schiorring, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In Spring 2007, the State Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges awarded the Transfer Leadership Center (TLC) study to investigate two-to-four year transfer practices and strategies. As part of the study's qualitative component, research teams from the Center for Student Success of the Research & Planning Group of the California…

  14. Transfer Practices at Irvine Valley College: Case Study #2 of 7 Featuring Colleges with Consistently Higher than Expected Transfer Rates, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Over, Lucinda; Kozeracki, Carol

    2008-01-01

    In Spring 2007, the State Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges awarded the Transfer Leadership Center (TLC) study to investigate two-to-four year transfer practices and strategies. As part of the study's qualitative component, research teams from the Center for Student Success of the Research & Planning Group of the California…

  15. Transfer Practices at San Diego City College: Case Study #6 of 7 Featuring Colleges with Consistently Higher than Expected Transfer Rates, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozeracki, Carol; Inciong, Denice

    2008-01-01

    In Spring 2007, the State Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges awarded the Transfer Leadership Center (TLC) study to investigate two-to-four year transfer practices and strategies. As part of the study's qualitative component, research teams from the Center for Student Success of the Research & Planning Group of the California…

  16. Transfer Practices at Los Angeles Southwest College: Case Study #3 of 7 Featuring Colleges with Consistently Higher than Expected Transfer Rates, Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inciong, Denice; Over, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    In Spring 2007, the State Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges awarded the Transfer Leadership Center (TLC) study to investigate two-to-four year transfer practices and strategies. As part of the study's qualitative component, research teams from the Center for Student Success of the Research & Planning Group of the California…

  17. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees. PMID:25752207

  18. Adoptive immunotherapy against ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mittica, Gloria; Capellero, Sonia; Genta, Sofia; Cagnazzo, Celeste; Aglietta, Massimo; Sangiolo, Dario; Valabrega, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The standard front-line therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is combination of debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the majority of patients experience disease recurrence. Although extensive efforts to find new therapeutic options, cancer cells invariably develop drug resistance and disease progression. New therapeutic strategies are needed to improve prognosis of patients with advanced EOC.Recently, several preclinical and clinical studies investigated feasibility and activity of adoptive immunotherapy in EOC. Our aim is to highlight prospective of adoptive immunotherapy in EOC, focusing on HLA-restricted Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs), and MHC-independent immune effectors such as natural killer (NK), and cytokine-induced killer (CIK). Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has shown activity in several pre-clinical models. Available preclinical and clinical data suggest that adoptive cell therapy may provide the best benefit in settings of low tumor burden, minimal residual disease, or maintenance therapy. Further studies are needed to better define the optimal clinical setting. PMID:27188274

  19. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. E.

    1982-01-01

    Reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's, both advanced space engines and aero assist capability were compared. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. An all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet was also compared with a fleet of LO2/.H2 OTV's and electric OTV's. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. In this case, the LO2/LH2 OTV fleet provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. An accelerated technology LF2/LH2 OTV provided improvements in performance relative to LO2/.H2 OTV but has higher DDT&E cost which negated its cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but still did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on orbit propellant storage and transfer and on orbit maintenance capability.

  20. Design study of an integrated aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, C. D.; Roberts, B. B.; Nagy, K.; Taylor, P.; Gamble, J. D.; Ceremeli, C. J.; Knoll, K. R.; Li, C. P.; Reid, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    An aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) concept, which has an aerobrake structure that is integrated with the propulsion stage, is discussed. The concept vehicle is to be assembled in space and is space-based. The advantages of aeroassist over an all propulsive vehicle are discussed and it is shown that the vehicle considered is very competitive with inflatable and deployable concepts from mass and performance aspects. The aerobrake geometry is an ellipsoidally blunted, raked-off, elliptical wide-angle cone with a toroidal skirt. Propellant tanks, engines, and subsystems are integrated into a closed, isogrid aerobrake structure which provides rigidity. The vehicle has two side-firing, gimbaled RL-10 type engines and carries 38,000 kg of useable propellant. The trajectory during aerobraking is determined from an adaptive guidance logic, and the heating is determined from engineering correlations as well as 3-D Navier-Stokes solutions. The AOTV is capable of placing 13,500 kg payload into geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) or carrying a LEO-GEO-LEO round-trip payload of 7100 kg. A two-stage version considered for lunar missions results in a lunar surface delivery capability of 18,000 kg or a round-trip capability of 6800 kg with 3860 kg delivery-only capability.