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Sample records for adoptive transfer system

  1. Efficacy of systemic adoptive transfer immunotherapy targeting NY-ESO-1 for glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Everson, Richard G.; Antonios, Joseph P.; Lisiero, Dominique N.; Soto, Horacio; Scharnweber, Rudi; Garrett, Matthew C.; Yong, William H.; Li, Ning; Li, Gang; Kruse, Carol A.; Liau, Linda M.; Prins, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy is an ideal treatment modality to specifically target the diffusely infiltrative tumor cells of malignant gliomas while sparing the normal brain parenchyma. However, progress in the development of these therapies for glioblastoma has been slow due to the lack of immunogenic antigen targets that are expressed uniformly and selectively by gliomas. Methods We utilized human glioblastoma cell cultures to induce expression of New York–esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (NY-ESO-1) following in vitro treatment with the demethylating agent decitabine. We then investigated the phenotype of lymphocytes specific for NY-ESO-1 using flow cytometry analysis and cytotoxicity against cells treated with decitabine using the xCelligence real-time cytotoxicity assay. Finally, we examined the in vivo application of this immune therapy using an intracranially implanted xenograft model for in situ T cell trafficking, survival, and tissue studies. Results Our studies showed that treatment of intracranial glioma–bearing mice with decitabine reliably and consistently induced the expression of an immunogenic tumor-rejection antigen, NY-ESO-1, specifically in glioma cells and not in normal brain tissue. The upregulation of NY-ESO-1 by intracranial gliomas was associated with the migration of adoptively transferred NY-ESO-1–specific lymphocytes along white matter tracts to these tumors in the brain. Similarly, NY-ESO-1–specific adoptive T cell therapy demonstrated antitumor activity after decitabine treatment and conferred a highly significant survival benefit to mice bearing established intracranial human glioma xenografts. Transfer of NY-ESO-1–specific T cells systemically was superior to intracranial administration and resulted in significantly extended and long-term survival of animals. Conclusion These results reveal an innovative, clinically feasible strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26330563

  2. Isolation of Immune Cells for Adoptive Transfer.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Tlili; Paradis, Pierre; Mann, Koren K; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2017-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes is a useful technique to characterize the role of the immune system in hypertension and vascular disease. Here we describe as an example the isolation of splenic T regulatory cells from donor mice processed to obtain a single cell suspension, followed by negative and positive selection to obtain CD4(+) T cells and CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells, respectively. Treg cells can be subsequently transferred to recipient animals.

  3. Adoptive cell transfer in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Albert J

    2015-06-01

    Adoptive cell transfer is an intervention in which autologous immune cells that have been expanded ex vivo are re-introduced to mitigate a pathological process. Tregs, mesenchymal stromal cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells have been transferred in diverse immune-mediated diseases, and Tregs have been the focus of investigations in autoimmune hepatitis. Transferred Tregs have improved histological findings in animal models of autoimmune hepatitis and autoimmune cholangitis. Key challenges relate to discrepant findings among studies, phenotypic instability of the transferred population, uncertain side effects and possible need for staged therapy involving anti-inflammatory drugs. Future investigations must resolve issues about the purification, durability and safety of these cells and consider alternative populations if necessary.

  4. Adoptive cell transfer therapy for malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Eiichi; Takano, Shingo; Ohno, Tadao; Tsuboi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To date, various adoptive immunotherapies have been attempted for treatment of malignant gliomas using nonspecific and/or specific effector cells. Since the late 1980s, with the development of rIL-2, the efficacy of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell therapy with or without rIL-2 for malignant gliomas had been tested with some modifications in therapeutic protocols. With advancements in technology, ex vivo expanded tumor specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) or those lineages were used in clinical trials with higher tumor response rates. In addition, combinations of those adoptive cell transfer using LAK cells, CTLs or natural killer (NK) cells with autologous tumor vaccine (ATV) therapy were attempted. Also, a strategy of high-dose (or lymphodepleting) chemotherapy followed by adoptive cell transfer has been drawing attentions recently. The most important role of these clinical studies using cell therapy was to prove that these ex vivo expanded effector cells could kill tumor cells in vivo. Although recent clinical results could demonstrate radiologic tumor shrinkage in a number of cases, cell transfer therapy alone has been utilized less frequently, because of the high cost of ex vivo cell expansion, the short duration of antitumor activity in vivo, and the recent shift of interest to vaccine immunotherapy. Nevertheless, NK cell therapy using specific feeder cells or allergenic NK cell lines have potentials to be a good choice of treatment because of easy ex vivo expansion and their efficacy especially when combined with vaccine therapy as they are complementary to each other. Also, further studies are expected to clarify the efficacy of the high-dose chemotherapy followed by a large scale cell transfer therapy as a new therapeutic strategy for malignant gliomas.

  5. Policy Borrowing and Transfer, and Policy Convergence: Justifications for the Adoption of the Bologna Process in the CEMAC Region and the Cameroonian Higher Education System through the LMD Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor

    2015-01-01

    The borrowing and transfer of policies, ideas and practices from one system to another may in part explain the convergence of educational systems. Using text documents as research material, this paper examines the adoption and transfer of Bologna Process (BP) ideas in the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) and in the…

  6. Studying Neutrophil Migration In Vivo Using Adoptive Cell Transfer.

    PubMed

    Miyabe, Yoshishige; Kim, Nancy D; Miyabe, Chie; Luster, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer experiments can be used to study the roles of cell trafficking molecules on the migratory behavior of specific immune cell populations in vivo. Chemoattractants and their G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors regulate migration of cells in vivo, and dysregulated expression of chemoattractants and their receptors is implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inflammatory arthritides, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory cells into joints. The K/BxN serum transfer mouse model of inflammatory arthritis shares many similar features with RA. In this autoantibody-induced model of arthritis, neutrophils are the critical immune cells necessary for the development of joint inflammation and damage. We have used adoptive neutrophil transfer to define the contributions of chemoattractant receptors, cytokines, and activation receptors expressed on neutrophils that critically regulate their entry into the inflamed joint. In this review, we describe the procedure of neutrophil adoptive transfer to study the influence of neutrophil-specific receptors or mediators upon the their recruitment into the joint using the K/BxN model of inflammatory arthritis as a model of how adoptive cell transfer studies can be used to study immune cell migration in vivo.

  7. Information Transfer and the Adoption of Agricultural Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Rose Mary Juliano

    1990-01-01

    Data collected in the Federal District of Brazil were analyzed in terms of information transfer through mass media and interpersonal communication and how they influence farmers in the Federal District of Brazil in their decisions to adopt agricultural innovations. (42 references) (EAM)

  8. Adoptive Transfer of Renal Allograft Tolerance in a Large Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Villani, V; Yamada, K; Scalea, J R; Gillon, B C; Arn, J S; Sekijima, M; Tasaki, M; Cormack, T A; Moran, S G; Torabi, R; Shimizu, A; Sachs, D H

    2016-01-01

    Our recent studies in an inbred swine model demonstrated that both peripheral and intra-graft regulatory cells were required for the adoptive transfer of tolerance to a second, naïve donor-matched kidney. Here, we have asked whether both peripheral and intra-graft regulatory elements are required for adoptive transfer of tolerance when only a long-term tolerant (LTT) kidney is transplanted. Nine highly-inbred swine underwent a tolerance-inducing regimen to prepare LTT kidney grafts which were then transplanted to histocompatible recipients, with or without the peripheral cell populations required for adoptive transfer of tolerance to a naïve kidney. In contrast to our previous studies, tolerance of the LTT kidney transplants alone was achieved without transfer of additional peripheral cells and without strategies to increase the number/potency of regulatory T cells in the donor. This tolerance was systemic, since most subsequent, donor-matched challenge kidney grafts were accepted. These results confirm the presence of a potent tolerance-inducing and/or tolerance-maintaining cell population within LTT renal allografts. They suggest further that additional peripheral tolerance mechanisms, required for adoptive transfer of tolerance to a naïve donor-matched kidney, depend on peripheral cells that, if not transferred with the LTT kidney, require time to develop in the adoptive host.

  9. Pathogen boosted adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy to treat solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Xin, Gang; Schauder, David M; Jing, Weiqing; Jiang, Aimin; Joshi, Nikhil S; Johnson, Bryon; Cui, Weiguo

    2017-01-24

    Because of insufficient migration and antitumor function of transferred T cells, especially inside the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), the efficacy of adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is much curtailed in treating solid tumors. To overcome these challenges, we sought to reenergize ACT (ReACT) with a pathogen-based cancer vaccine. To bridge ACT with a pathogen, we genetically engineered tumor-specific CD8 T cells in vitro with a second T-cell receptor (TCR) that recognizes a bacterial antigen. We then transferred these dual-specific T cells in combination with intratumoral bacteria injection to treat solid tumors in mice. The dual-specific CD8 T cells expanded vigorously, migrated to tumor sites, and robustly eradicated primary tumors. The mice cured from ReACT also developed immunological memory against tumor rechallenge. Mechanistically, we have found that this combined approach reverts the immunosuppressive TME and recruits CD8 T cells with an increased number and killing ability to the tumors.

  10. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Adoption KidsHealth > For Teens > Adoption Print A A A ... of Adoption en español La adopción What Is Adoption? Caz knew she'd been adopted as a ...

  11. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  12. The Consumer Health Information System Adoption Model.

    PubMed

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    Derived from overlapping concepts in consumer health, a consumer health information system refers to any of the broad range of applications, tools, and educational resources developed to empower consumers with knowledge, techniques, and strategies, to manage their own health. As consumer health information systems become increasingly popular, it is important to explore the factors that impact their adoption and success. Accumulating evidence indicates a relationship between usability and consumers' eHealth Literacy skills and the demands consumer HISs place on their skills. Here, we present a new model called the Consumer Health Information System Adoption Model, which depicts both consumer eHealth literacy skills and system demands on eHealth literacy as moderators with the potential to affect the strength of relationship between usefulness and usability (predictors of usage) and adoption, value, and successful use (actual usage outcomes). Strategies for aligning these two moderating factors are described.

  13. Transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Kurosawa, Kanji; Koga, Bunichiro; Ito, Hideki; Kiriyama, Shigeru; Higuchi, Shizuo

    2003-05-20

    A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

  14. Host T cells are the main producers of IL-17 within the central nervous system during initiation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by adoptive transfer of Th1 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lees, Jason R; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Russell, John H

    2008-06-15

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, has long been thought to be mediated by Th1 CD4(+) T cells. Using adoptive transfer techniques, transfer of CNS specific Th1 T cells was sufficient to induce EAE in naive mice. However, recent studies found a vital role for IL-17 in induction of EAE. These studies suggested that a fraction of IL-17-producing T cells that contaminate Th1 polarized cell lines are largely responsible for initiation of EAE. In this study, we tracked the appearance and cytokine production capacity of adoptively transferred cells within the CNS of mice throughout EAE disease. IL-17-producing, adoptively transferred cells were not enriched over the low percentages present in vitro. Thus, there was no selective recruitment and/or preferential proliferation of adoptively transferred IL-17-producing cells during the induction of EAE. Instead a large number of CNS infiltrating host T cells in mice with EAE were capable of producing IL-17 following ex vivo stimulation. The IL-17-producing T cells contained both alphabeta and gammadelta TCR(+) T cells with a CD4(+)CD8(-) or CD4(-)CD8(-) phenotype. These cells concentrated within the CNS within 3 days of adoptive transfer, and appeared to play a role in EAE induction as adoptive transfer of Th1 lines derived from wild-type mice into IL-17-deficient mice induced reduced EAE clinical outcomes. This study demonstrates that an encephalitogenic Th1 cell line induces recruitment of host IL-17-producing T cells to the CNS during the initiation of EAE and that these cells contribute to the incidence and severity of disease.

  15. Adoptive T cell transfer for cancer immunotherapy in the era of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Kalos, Michael; June, Carl H

    2013-07-25

    Adoptive T cell transfer for cancer and chronic infection is an emerging field that shows promise in recent trials. Synthetic-biology-based engineering of T lymphocytes to express high-affinity antigen receptors can overcome immune tolerance, which has been a major limitation of immunotherapy-based strategies. Advances in cell engineering and culture approaches to enable efficient gene transfer and ex vivo cell expansion have facilitated broader evaluation of this technology, moving adoptive transfer from a "boutique" application to the cusp of a mainstream technology. The major challenge currently facing the field is to increase the specificity of engineered T cells for tumors, because targeting shared antigens has the potential to lead to on-target off-tumor toxicities, as observed in recent trials. As the field of adoptive transfer technology matures, the major engineering challenge is the development of automated cell culture systems, so that the approach can extend beyond specialized academic centers and become widely available.

  16. Targeting STAT3 in adoptively transferred T cells promotes their in vivo expansion and antitumor effects

    PubMed Central

    Kujawski, Maciej; Zhang, Chunyan; Herrmann, Andreas; Reckamp, Karen; Scuto, Anna; Jensen, Michael; Deng, Jiehui; Forman, Stephen; Figlin, Robert; Yu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with engineered T cells to improve natural immune response and antitumor functions has shown promise for treating cancer. However, the requirement for extensive ex vivo manipulation of T cells and the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment limit this therapeutic modality. In the present study, we investigated the possibility to circumvent these limitations by engineering Stat3-deficient CD8+ T cells or by targeting Stat3 in the tumor microenvironment. We show that ablating Stat3 in CD8+ T cells prior to their transfer allows their efficient tumor infiltration and robust proliferation, resulting in increased tumor antigen-specific T cell activity and tumor growth inhibition. For potential clinical translation, we combined adoptive T cell therapy with an FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, in renal cell carcinoma and melanoma tumor models. Sunitinib inhibited Stat3 in dendritic cells and T cells, reduced conversion of transferred Foxp3− T cells to tumor-associated T regulatory cells while increasing transferred CD8+ T cell infiltration and activation at the tumor site, leading to inhibition of primary tumor growth. These data demonstrate that adoptively transferred T cells can be expanded and activated in vivo either by engineering Stat3 silenced T cells or by targeting Stat3 systemically with small-molecule inhibitors. PMID:21118964

  17. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... biological families) and where they came from. This curiosity often becomes more intense as part of the ... adoptive family or feel close to them. This curiosity, which can feel quite intense, is a normal ...

  18. The use of endogenous T cells for adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Yee, Cassian

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy involves the ex vivo enrichment and expansion of tumor-reactive T cells for infusion. As an immune-based approach, adoptive therapy has become an increasingly attractive modality for the treatment of patients with cancer due to its potential for high specificity, non-cross resistance with conventional therapies, and promise of long-term immunoprotection. In recent years, a resurgence in discoveries underlying T-cell recognition, tumor immune evasion, and T-cell memory and differentiation coupled with the development of several enabling technologies have facilitated a renewed focus in the field of adoptive therapy and its transition to the clinical arena as a treatment modality for patients with cancer. In this review, endogenous T cells derived from peripheral blood or tumor sites will be presented as a source of effector cells for adoptive therapy and strategies to isolate, manipulate, and enhance the function of antigen-specific T cells in vitro and to augment their in vivo efficacy and persistence by host immunomodulation are presented in the context of an ever-increasing inventory of preclinical and clinically available reagents. Optimizing the combination of adoptive cellular therapy and other immune-based and conventional approaches will herald a new generation of research and clinical opportunities for cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Classification system adopted for fixed cutter bits

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.J.; Doiron, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The drilling industry has begun adopting the 1987 International Association of Drilling Contractors' (IADC) method for classifying fixed cutter drill bits. By studying the classification codes on bit records and properly applying the new IADC fixed cutter dull grading system to recently run bits, the end-user should be able to improve the selection and usage of fixed cutter bits. Several users are developing databases for fixed cutter bits in an effort to relate field performance to some of the more prominent bit design characteristics.

  20. Adoptive transfer of CD34(+) cells during murine sepsis rebalances macrophage lipopolysaccharide responses.

    PubMed

    Brudecki, Laura; Ferguson, Donald A; McCall, Charles E; El Gazzar, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Effective treatment of the acute systemic inflammatory response associated with sepsis is lacking, but likely will require new ways to rebalance dysregulated immune responses. One challenge is that human sepsis often is diagnosed too late to reduce the hyperinflammation of early sepsis. Another is that the sequential response to sepsis inflammation rapidly generates an adaptive and immunosuppressive state, which by epigenetic imprint may last for months or years. Emerging data support that the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis can both directly reprogram gene expression of circulating and tissue cells, and disrupt development and differentiation of myeloid precursor cells into competent immunocytes. We recently reported that adoptive transfer of bone marrow CD34(+) cells into mice after sepsis induction by cecal ligation and puncture significantly improves late-sepsis survival by enhancing bacterial clearance through improved neutrophil and macrophage phagocytosis. That study, however, did not examine whether CD34(+) transfer can modify noninfectious acute systemic inflammatory responses. Here, we report that CD34(+) cell transfer mice that have survived late sepsis also resist lethal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory shock (88% lived vs 0% of naive mice). The CD34(+) cell-recipient survivor mice administered LPS had globally reduced levels of circulating inflammatory mediators compared with naive mice, but their peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), unlike those from naïve mice, remained LPS responsive ex vivo. We further found that CD34(+) cell transfer into LPS-challenged naïve mice had diminished immunosuppression, as assessed by ex vivo responses of peritoneal and BMDMs to LPS challenge. We conclude that CD34(+) cell adoptive transfer rebalances dysregulated immune responses associated with sepsis and endotoxin shock.

  1. Dissecting memory T cell responses to TB: concerns using adoptive transfer into immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ancelet, Lindsay; Rich, Fenella J; Delahunt, Brett; Kirman, Joanna R

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have used adoptive transfer of purified T cell subsets into immunodeficient mice to determine the subset of T cells responsible for mediating protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These studies suggested that CD62L(hi) memory CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice are key for protection against tuberculosis. Importantly, we observed that transfer of naïve CD4(+) T cells into Rag1-/- recipients protected against a mycobacterial challenge as well as transfer of BCG-experienced CD4(+) T cells. We found that transfer of total CD4(+) T cells from naïve mice or enriched CD62L(hi)CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice into Rag1-/- recipients induced severe colitis by 3 weeks post cell transfer, whereas transfer of CD62L(lo)CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice did not. Naïve and CD62L(hi)CD4(+) T cells proliferated extensively upon transfer and developed an activated effector phenotype in the lung, even in the absence of infectious challenge. The induction of colitis and systemic cytokine response induced by the transfer and subsequent activation of CD4(+) T cells from naïve mice or CD62L(hi)CD4(+) T cells from BCG-vaccinated mice, into immunodeficient recipients, may heighten their ability to protect against mycobacterial challenge. This raises doubts about the validity of this model to study CD4(+) T cell-mediated protection against tuberculosis.

  2. 77 FR 1555 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... and 162 Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic Funds... Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers (EFTs) and Remittance Advice AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS... facilitate health care EFT transmissions. DATES: Effective Date: These regulations are effective on...

  3. Successful immunotherapy of autoimmune cholangitis by adoptive transfer of forkhead box protein 3(+) regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Zhang, W; Yang, G-X; Ando, Y; Tomiyama, T; Tsuneyama, K; Leung, P; Coppel, R L; Ansari, A A; Lian, Z X; Ridgway, W M; Joh, T; Gershwin, M E

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has lagged behind that of other autoimmune diseases. In this study we have addressed the potential utility of immunotherapy using regulatory T cells (Treg ) to treat murine autoimmune cholangitis. In particular, we have taken advantage of our ability to produce portal inflammation and bile duct cell loss by transfer of CD8(+) T cells from the dominant negative form of transforming growth factor beta receptor type II (dnTGF-βRII) mice to recombination-activating gene (Rag)1(-/-) recipients. We then used this robust established adoptive transfer system and co-transferred CD8(+) T cells from dnTGF-βRII mice with either C57BL/6 or dnTGF-βRII forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3(+) ) T cells. Recipient mice were monitored for histology, including portal inflammation and intralobular biliary cell damage, and also included a study of the phenotypical changes in recipient lymphoid populations and local and systemic cytokine production. Importantly, we report herein that adoptive transfer of Treg from C57BL/6 but not dnTGF-βRII mice significantly reduced the pathology of autoimmune cholangitis, including decreased portal inflammation and bile duct damage as well as down-regulation of the secondary inflammatory response. Further, to define the mechanism of action that explains the differential ability of C57BL/6 Treg versus dnTGF-βRII Treg on the ability to down-regulate autoimmune cholangitis, we noted significant differential expression of glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), CD73, CD101 and CD103 and a functionally significant increase in interleukin (IL)-10 in Treg from C57BL/6 compared to dnTGF-βRII mice. Our data reflect the therapeutic potential of wild-type CD4(+) FoxP3(+) Treg in reducing the excessive T cell responses of autoimmune cholangitis, which has significance for the potential immunotherapy of PBC.

  4. Elimination of metastatic melanoma using gold nanoshell-enabled photothermal therapy and adoptive T cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Bear, Adham S; Kennedy, Laura C; Young, Joseph K; Perna, Serena K; Mattos Almeida, Joao Paulo; Lin, Adam Y; Eckels, Phillip C; Drezek, Rebekah A; Foster, Aaron E

    2013-01-01

    Ablative treatments such as photothermal therapy (PTT) are attractive anticancer strategies because they debulk accessible tumor sites while simultaneously priming antitumor immune responses. However, the immune response following thermal ablation is often insufficient to treat metastatic disease. Here we demonstrate that PTT induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and promotes the maturation of dendritic cells within tumor-draining lymph nodes, thereby priming antitumor T cell responses. Unexpectedly, however, these immunomodulatory effects were not beneficial to overall antitumor immunity. We found that PTT promoted the infiltration of secondary tumor sites by CD11b(+)Ly-6G/C(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells, consequently failing to slow the growth of poorly immunogenic B16-F10 tumors and enhancing the growth of distant lung metastases. To exploit the beneficial effects of PTT activity against local tumors and on antitumor immunity whilst avoiding the adverse consequences, we adoptively transferred gp100-specific pmel T cells following PTT. The combination of local control by PTT and systemic antitumor immune reactivity provided by adoptively transferred T cells prevented primary tumor recurrence post-ablation, inhibited tumor growth at distant sites, and abrogated the outgrowth of lung metastases. Hence, the combination of PTT and systemic immunotherapy prevented the adverse effects of PTT on metastatic tumor growth and optimized overall tumor control.

  5. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  6. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  7. Negotiating the Dance: Consulting with Adoptive Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kent W.; Carson, David K.; Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    For marriage and family therapists and educators who train future marriage and family therapists, families formed by means of adoption offer an abundance of learning opportunities in both the areas of assessment and intervention. The following consultation case represents a composite family designed to highlight the unique features of adoptive…

  8. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  9. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  10. Adoptive transfer of hepatic stellate cells ameliorates liver ischemia reperfusion injury through enriching regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Wang, Quanrongzi; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Guan, Wenxian; Lu, Ling

    2014-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that adoptive transferred regulatory T cells (Tregs) attenuated liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Recent studies demonstrated that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were producers of induced Tregs (iTregs) via retinoic acid. This study aimed to investigate the role of adoptive transferred HSCs in liver IRI. Mice were treated with gradient doses of HSCs before surgery at 24h or 72h. The levels of serum aminotransferases and hepatic cytokines were evaluated after reperfusion. Meanwhile, hepatic Tregs and their subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. We found that adoptive transferred HSCs attenuated liver IRI. Administration of HSCs expanded the number of hepatic iTregs and natural Tregs (nTregs) after reperfusion. In addition, we found that the increased Tregs were almost Helios-Tregs before surgery. These Helios-Tregs were considered as iTregs and protected liver from IRI partially. Furthermore, adoptive transferred HSCs stabilized nTregs and prevented nTregs from reducing after reperfusion. These nTregs also attenuated liver IRI partially. Depletion of Tregs abolished the protective effect of HSCs. Thus, we conclude that adoptive transferred HSCs ameliorate liver IRI in Tregs-dependent manner.

  11. Mobile technology and healthcare: the adoption issues and systemic problems.

    PubMed

    Standing, Susan; Standing, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits that are associated with mobile technology have been recognised as offering great potential in the healthcare sector, its widespread adoption has been lagging. We propose that fundamental systemic issues are likely to be the main barriers to adoption. We explain that the fragmented nature of the conservative healthcare system, the contradictory incentives and improper outcome measures conspire to make the innovative adoption of mobile technology problematic. Researchers can only gain a limited understanding of a technology's potential success by using technology adoption frameworks and need to supplement this with a 'systems' perspective that takes a more strategic view.

  12. Health information systems adoption: findings from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Maryati Mohd; Stergioulas, Lampros; Zugic, Jasmina

    2007-01-01

    Earlier evaluation studies on Health Information Systems (HIS) adoption have highlighted a large number of adoption problems that were attributed to the lack of fit between technology, human and organisation factors. Lessons can be learned from these evaluation studies by identifying the most important factors of HIS adoption. In order to study the adoption issue, a qualitative systematic review has been performed using a recently introduced framework, known as HOT-fit (Human, Organisation and Technology fit). The paper identifies and highlights the following critical adoption factors: technology (ease of use, system usefulness, system flexibility, time efficiency, information accessibility and relevancy); human (user training, user perception, user roles, user skills, clarity of system purpose, user involvement); organisation (leadership and support, clinical process, user involvement, internal communication, inter organisational system, as well as the fit between them. The findings can be used to guide future system development and inform relevant decision making.

  13. Adoptive transfer of fibrocytes enhances splenic T-cell numbers and survival in septic peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Nemzek, Jean A; Fry, Christopher; Moore, Bethany B

    2013-08-01

    Fibrocytes are unique, fibroblast-like cells with diverse functions and the potential for immunomodulation, which prompted investigation of their previously unexplored role in sepsis. Specifically, the study goals were to determine if adoptive transfer of fibrocytes would affect outcome in sepsis and to define relevant immunopathologic changes associated with the outcomes. Initial in vitro studies demonstrated that naive T-cell proliferation was significantly increased in cocultures with tissue-derived fibrocytes as compared with culture either alone or with fibroblasts. In vivo, the adoptive transfer of fibrocytes at the time of cecal ligation and puncture significantly improved survival of mice compared with transfer of fibroblasts or saline. Septic mice had lower blood levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and markers of organ injury after fibrocyte transfer as well as a reduced bacterial burden. Locally, peritoneal lavage fluid yielded lower bacterial counts, lower IL-6, and reduced inflammatory cell counts when fibrocyte transfer was compared with saline. This was also accompanied by significant increases in splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. In vitro stimulation of the splenic T cells demonstrated that, after cecal ligation and puncture and adoptive transfer, the percentages of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with intracellular interferon γ were increased, whereas those with IL-4 remained similar between the groups. Therefore, it appears the adoptive transfer of fibrocytes improves sepsis survival, lowers bacterial burden, and promotes the proliferation of splenic T cells with a T(H)1 phenotype. These results confirm the immunomodulatory effects of exogenous, tissue-derived fibrocytes in sepsis and suggest their potential in cell therapy.

  14. Adoptive transfer of induced-Treg cells effectively attenuates murine airway allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Lan, Qin; Chen, Maogen; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Ning; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Julie; Fan, Huimin; Yan, Chun-Song; Kuang, Jiu-Long; Warburton, David; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Ryffel, Bernhard; Zheng, Song-Guo; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Both nature and induced regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes are potent regulators of autoimmune and allergic disorders. Defects in endogenous Treg cells have been reported in patients with allergic asthma, suggesting that disrupted Treg cell-mediated immunological regulation may play an important role in airway allergic inflammation. In order to determine whether adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells generated in vitro can be used as an effective therapeutic approach to suppress airway allergic inflammation, exogenously induced Treg cells were infused into ovalbumin-sensitized mice prior to or during intranasal ovalbumin challenge. The results showed that adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells prior to allergen challenge markedly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophil recruitment, mucus hyper-production, airway remodeling, and IgE levels. This effect was associated with increase of Treg cells (CD4(+)FoxP3(+)) and decrease of dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes, and with reduction of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell response as compared to the controls. Moreover, adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells during allergen challenge also effectively attenuate airway inflammation and improve airway function, which are comparable to those by natural Treg cell infusion. Therefore, adoptive transfer of in vitro induced Treg cells may be a promising therapeutic approach to prevent and treat severe asthma.

  15. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  16. Adoptive transfer of gut intraepithelial lymphocytes protects against murine infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Buzoni-Gatel, D; Lepage, A C; Dimier-Poisson, I H; Bout, D T; Kasper, L H

    1997-06-15

    Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) of the gut represent a primary immune barrier against infection by orally acquired pathogens. Naturally acquired infection with Toxoplasma gondii induces the proliferation of CD8+ T cells in both the gut and spleen. Gut-derived CD8alpha/beta+ IEL exhibit MHC-restricted cytotoxicity against parasite-infected enterocytes and macrophages. In a murine model, we demonstrate that the adoptive transfer of IEL obtained from inbred mice at day 11 postinfection is able to protect against a virulent challenge in syngenic recipients. In CBA mice, the parasite cyst load within the brain of the recipients receiving primed IEL was reduced by 90%. In BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, a 50% decrease in mortality was observed following adoptive transfer of primed IEL. To determine the T cell subset responsible for protective immunity, a purified CD8alpha/beta+ IEL population was isolated from infected mice at day 11 postinfection. These cells were able to protect naive mice by adoptive transfer against a lethal parasite challenge. RNA analysis by reverse-transcriptase PCR revealed that primed CD8alpha/beta+ IEL produce significant message for IFN-gamma, an essential cytokine for host protection against toxoplasmosis. Administration of anti-IFN-gamma at the time of adoptive transfer of primed IEL abrogated protection. The adoptive transfer of these protective IEL was not restricted to the Ld class I locus. These data demonstrate that IFN-gamma-producing IEL may be an important primary barrier against acute and perhaps recurrent infection with T. gondii.

  17. Development of an Autologous Macrophage-based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to Treat Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis (PTOA) and Osteoarithritis (OA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0228 TITLE: Development of an Autologous Macrophage-based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to Treat Posttraumatic...Final 3. DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2013 - 28 Feb 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of an Autologous Macrophage-based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to...autologous macrophage-based adoptive gene transfer strategy can effectively deliver and confine expression of an anti-catabolic gene (IL-1ra or IL-1β

  18. Interorganizational Systems Adoption: A Socio-Technical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, Deborah; Kautz, Karlheinz; Pyne, Clayton

    This paper discusses a case study of an electronic data interchange (EDI) interorganizational system (IOS) adoption project between two organizations (ProvideCo and BuildCo) highlighting that IOS adoption is not only technological in nature and orientation but that organizational factors also play their part. As a result of the case analysis and key findings, an interorganizational collaboration model (Barratt 2004) is amended to explain and highlight the effect of organizational factors on IOS adoption. The amended model includes the relationship of technology (IOS) adoption to cross-functional collaborative activities and risk, power, opportunism, and trust.

  19. Multifunctional T-cell Analyses to Study Response and Progression in Adoptive Cell Transfer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chao; Cheung, Ann F.; Chodon, Thinle; Koya, Richard C.; Wu, Zhongqi; Ng, Charles; Avramis, Earl; Cochran, Alistair J.; Witte, Owen N.; Baltimore, David; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Economou, James S.; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Ribas, Antoni; Heath, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of genetically engineered T cells expressing cancer-specific T-cell receptors (TCR) is a promising cancer treatment. Here, we investigate the in vivo functional activity and dynamics of the transferred cells by analyzing samples from 3 representative patients with melanoma enrolled in a clinical trial of ACT with TCR transgenic T cells targeted against the melanosomal antigen MART-1. The analyses included evaluating 19 secreted proteins from individual cells from phenotypically defined T-cell subpopulations, as well as the enumeration of T cells with TCR antigen specificity for 36 melanoma antigens. These analyses revealed the coordinated functional dynamics of the adoptively transferred, as well as endogenous, T cells, and the importance of highly functional T cells in dominating the antitumor immune response. This study highlights the need to develop approaches to maintaining antitumor T-cell functionality with the aim of increasing the long-term efficacy of TCR-engineered ACT immunotherapy. SIGNIFICANCE A longitudinal functional study of adoptively transferred TCR–engineered lymphocytes yielded revealing snapshots for understanding the changes of antitumor responses over time in ACT immunotherapy of patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:23519018

  20. Wireless power transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  1. Technical Considerations for the Generation of Adoptively Transferred T Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Visioni, Anthony; Skitzki, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    A significant function of the immune system is the surveillance and elimination of aberrant cells that give rise to cancer. Even when tumors are well established and metastatic, immune-mediated spontaneous regressions have been documented. While there are have been various forms of immunotherapy, one of the most widely studied for almost 40 years is adoptive cellular immunotherapy, but its success has yet to be fully realized. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is a therapeutic modality that has intrigued physicians and researchers for its many theoretical benefits. Preclinical investigations and human trials have utilized natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells (DC), macrophages, T-cells or B-cells for ACT with the most intense research focused on T-cell ACT. T-cells are exquisitely specific to the target of its T-cell receptor (TCR), thus potentially reducing the amount of collateral damage and off-target effects from treatment. T-cells also possess a memory subset that may reduce the risk of recurrence of a cancer after the successful treatment of the primary disease. There are several options for the source of T-cells used in the generation of cells for ACT. Perhaps the most widely known source is T-cells generated from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). However, studies have also employed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), lymph nodes, and even induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) as a source of T-cells. Several important technical considerations exist regarding benefits and limitations of each source of T-cells. Unique aspects of T-cells factor into their ability to be efficacious in ACT including the total number of cells available for ACT, the anti-tumor efficacy on a per cell basis, the repertoire of TCRs specific to tumor cells, and their ability to traffic to various organs that harbor tumor. Current research is attempting to unlock the full potential of these cells to effectively and safely treat cancer. PMID:27657129

  2. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  3. Natural Killer Cell Adoptive Transfer Therapy: Exploiting the First Line of Defense Against Cancer.

    PubMed

    Davis, Zachary B; Felices, Martin; Verneris, Michael R; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells constitute an important component of the initial immunological response against transformed cells. However, chronic exposure to the tumor microenvironment can fundamentally alter the ability of NK cells to sufficiently control tumor progression. Thus, the adoptive transfer of healthy, functional NK cells as an interventional therapy has been an area of great interest for improving patient outcomes. Recent developments in the field have provided a better understanding of what makes the NK compartment effective against malignant cells. Moreover, there are now multiple potential sources of NK cell products for infusion as well as techniques to manipulate these cells to enhance their antitumor functions. This review explores the advantages and disadvantages of various sources of NK cells as well as prospective therapeutic enhancements to adoptively transferred NK cells.

  4. T-cell-based Immunotherapy: Adoptive Cell Transfer and Checkpoint Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Houot, Roch; Schultz, Liora Michal; Marabelle, Aurélien; Kohrt, Holbrook

    2015-10-01

    Tumor immunotherapy has had demonstrable efficacy in patients with cancer. The most promising results have been with T-cell-based therapies. These include adoptive cell transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, genetically engineered T cells, and immune checkpoint inhibitor antibodies. In this review, we describe the different T-cell-based strategies currently in clinical trials and put their applications, present and future, into perspective.

  5. The adoptive transfer of cultured T cells for patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, James C

    2013-01-01

    T cells have been shown to be capable of rejecting a patient's tumor. Weak responses to current vaccines and the toxicity of exogenously administered cytokines limit the intensity of the T-cell response that can be actively generated in vivo. Adoptive T-cell transfer enhances an intrinsically weak immune response to cancer by activating and expanding tumor reactive T cells in vitro and manipulating the environment of the host at the time of transfer. One can frequently find tumor-reactive T cells in metastatic lesions in patients with melanoma, and expand them in vitro for readministration. When successful, this adoptive cellular immunotherapy has resulted in sustainable curative outcomes. Subsequently, the applicability of adoptive T-cell transfer has been greatly expanded by the development of methods to genetically engineer open-repertoire human T-cells to confer tumor reactivity. This re-direction of T-cell specificity can be achieved by introducing a variety of receptors that ligate tumor-associated antigens and then trigger the normal activation mechanism of T cells. Future T-cell engineering will add a new dimension by reprogramming T-cell functions for optimal tumor rejection. The antigens recognized by T cells, the techniques to procure and grow tumor reactive T cells, the conditioning of the recipient to optimize efficacy, and the results of clinical protocols are reviewed herein.

  6. Thermal flux transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freggens, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A thermal flux transfer system for use in maintaining the thrust chamber of an operative reaction motor at given temperatures is described. The system is characterized by an hermetically sealed chamber surrounding a thrust chamber to be cooled, with a plurality of parallel, longitudinally spaced, disk-shaped wick members formed of a metallic mesh and employed in delivering a working fluid, in its liquid state, radially toward the thrust chamber and delivering the working fluid, in its vapor state, away from the nozzle for effecting a cooling of the nozzle, in accordance with known principles of an operating heat pipe.

  7. Accelerated type 1 diabetes induction in mice by adoptive transfer of diabetogenic CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Berry, Gregory; Waldner, Hanspeter

    2013-05-06

    The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes after 12 weeks of age and is the most extensively studied animal model of human Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Cell transfer studies in irradiated recipient mice have established that T cells are pivotal in T1D pathogenesis in this model. We describe herein a simple method to rapidly induce T1D by adoptive transfer of purified, primary CD4+ T cells from pre-diabetic NOD mice transgenic for the islet-specific T cell receptor (TCR) BDC2.5 into NOD.SCID recipient mice. The major advantages of this technique are that isolation and adoptive transfer of diabetogenic T cells can be completed within the same day, irradiation of the recipients is not required, and a high incidence of T1D is elicited within 2 weeks after T cell transfer. Thus, studies of pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions in T1D can proceed at a faster rate than with methods that rely on heterogenous T cell populations or clones derived from diabetic NOD mice.

  8. Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-12-14

    The Social Security Act (the Act) requires that ACF regulate a national data collection system that provides comprehensive demographic and case-specific information on children who are in foster care and adopted. This final rule replaces existing Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) regulations and the appendices to require title IV-E agencies to collect and report data to ACF on children in out-of-home care, and who exit out-of-home care to adoption or legal guardianship, children in out-of-home care who are covered by the Indian Child Welfare Act, and children who are covered by a title IV-E adoption or guardianship assistance agreement.

  9. Antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1, DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell transfer, inhibits ocular neovascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Han; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Hijioka, Kuniaki; Qiao, Hong; Oshima, Yuji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2009-04-17

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in a wide range of ocular diseases. The exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ocular NV is not yet well understood, and so there is no satisfactory therapy for ocular NV. Here, we describe a strategy targeting Flk-1, a self-antigen overexpressed on proliferating endothelial cells in ocular NV, by antiangiogenic immunotherapy-DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell therapy. An oral DNA vaccine encoding Flk-1 carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium markedly suppressed development of laser-induced choroidal NV. We further demonstrated that adoptive transfer of vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells reduced pathological preretinal NV, with a concomitant facilitation of physiological revascularization after oxygen-induced retinal vessel obliteration. However, physiological retinal vascular development was unaffected in neonatal mice transferred with vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells. These findings suggested that antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1 such as vaccination and adoptive immunotherapy may contribute to future therapies for ocular NV.

  10. Treatment of dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis by adoptive transfer of peritoneal cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xia-wei; Shen, Guo-bo; Liu, Yan-tong; Luo, Min; Xu, Guang-chao; Shao, Bin; Deng, Sen-yi; He, Zhi-yao; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Wen, Yan-Zhu; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li; Deng, Hong-xin; Wei, Yu-quan

    2015-11-13

    The adoptive transfer of the natural regulatory B cells and macrophages should be a useful treatment for inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, it is usually difficult to isolate these cells from the tissues and expand them. Here, we investigated the feasibility of adoptively transferring peritoneal cells (PCs) as a treatment for DSS-induced colitis. We found that peritoneal cavity can provide an easily accessible site for harvesting enough number of PCs, namely, two-dose PCs for the treatment from a mouse in one operation. Adoptive therapy of these cells from healthy mice or those with disease is effectively in reducing the disease activity score. The natural B cells and macrophages of the infused PCs can selectively migrate to lesion sites and regulate the expression of Stat3, NF-κB, Smad3 and Smad7. Additionally, PCs exert dual activity of IL-10 and TGF-β secreted spontaneously by both peritoneal B cells and macrophages, which in turn enhance the induction of regulatory B cells and Macrophages in microenvironment of inflammation. Moreover, PCs can re-establish immunological tolerance in the OVA-immunized mice. Thus, our findings provide a new strategy for colitis therapy and could be of importance in additional exploration of other inflammation and autoimmune diseases therapy.

  11. Treatment of dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis by adoptive transfer of peritoneal cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xia-wei; Shen, Guo-bo; Liu, Yan-tong; Luo, Min; Xu, Guang-chao; Shao, Bin; Deng, Sen-yi; He, Zhi-yao; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Wen, Yan-Zhu; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li; Deng, Hong-xin; Wei, Yu-quan

    2015-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of the natural regulatory B cells and macrophages should be a useful treatment for inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, it is usually difficult to isolate these cells from the tissues and expand them. Here, we investigated the feasibility of adoptively transferring peritoneal cells (PCs) as a treatment for DSS-induced colitis. We found that peritoneal cavity can provide an easily accessible site for harvesting enough number of PCs, namely, two-dose PCs for the treatment from a mouse in one operation. Adoptive therapy of these cells from healthy mice or those with disease is effectively in reducing the disease activity score. The natural B cells and macrophages of the infused PCs can selectively migrate to lesion sites and regulate the expression of Stat3, NF−κB, Smad3 and Smad7. Additionally, PCs exert dual activity of IL-10 and TGF-β secreted spontaneously by both peritoneal B cells and macrophages, which in turn enhance the induction of regulatory B cells and Macrophages in microenvironment of inflammation. Moreover, PCs can re-establish immunological tolerance in the OVA-immunized mice. Thus, our findings provide a new strategy for colitis therapy and could be of importance in additional exploration of other inflammation and autoimmune diseases therapy. PMID:26565726

  12. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell impact on endogenous and adoptively transferred T cells.

    PubMed

    Arina, Ainhoa; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2015-04-01

    Novel models of autochthonous tumorigenesis and adoptive T cell therapy (ATT) are providing new clues regarding the pro-tumorigenic and immunosuppressive effects of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and their interaction with T cells. New findings are shifting the perception of the main level at which MDSC act, from direct cell-to-cell suppression to others, such as limiting T cell infiltration. Adoptively transferred, high-avidity T cells recognizing peptides with high-affinity for MHC-I eliminated large tumors. However, low-avidity T cells or low-affinity peptides resulted in failure to eradicate tumors. Manipulation of intratumoral myeloid cells improved the outcome of otherwise unsuccessful ATT. Therefore, therapeutic intervention directed at the tumor stroma might be required when using suboptimal T cells for ATT.

  13. The role of privacy protection in healthcare information systems adoption.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chien-Lung; Lee, Ming-Ren; Su, Chien-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Privacy protection is an important issue and challenge in healthcare information systems (HISs). Recently, some privacy-enhanced HISs are proposed. Users' privacy perception, intention, and attitude might affect the adoption of such systems. This paper aims to propose a privacy-enhanced HIS framework and investigate the role of privacy protection in HISs adoption. In the proposed framework, privacy protection, access control, and secure transmission modules are designed to enhance the privacy protection of a HIS. An experimental privacy-enhanced HIS is also implemented. Furthermore, we proposed a research model extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology by considering perceived security and information security literacy and then investigate user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS. The experimental results and analyses showed that user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS is directly affected by social influence, performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, and perceived security. Perceived security has a mediating effect between information security literacy and user adoption. This study proposes several implications for research and practice to improve designing, development, and promotion of a good healthcare information system with privacy protection.

  14. T cell receptor repertoires after adoptive transfer of expanded allogeneic regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Theil, A; Wilhelm, C; Kuhn, M; Petzold, A; Tuve, S; Oelschlägel, U; Dahl, A; Bornhäuser, M; Bonifacio, E; Eugster, A

    2017-02-01

    Regulatory T cell (Treg ) therapy has been exploited in autoimmune disease, solid organ transplantation and in efforts to prevent or treat graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, our knowledge on the in-vivo persistence of transfused Treg is limited. Whether Treg transfusion leads to notable changes in the overall Treg repertoire or whether longevity of Treg in the periphery is restricted to certain clones is unknown. Here we use T cell receptor alpha chain sequencing (TCR-α-NGS) to monitor changes in the repertoire of Treg upon polyclonal expansion and after subsequent adoptive transfer. We applied TCR-α-NGS to samples from two patients with chronic GVHD who received comparable doses of stem cell donor derived expanded Treg . We found that in-vitro polyclonal expansion led to notable repertoire changes in vitro and that Treg cell therapy altered the peripheral Treg repertoire considerably towards that of the infused cell product, to different degrees, in each patient. Clonal changes in the peripheral blood were transient and correlated well with the clinical parameters. We suggest that T cell clonotype analyses using TCR sequencing should be considered as a means to monitor longevity and fate of adoptively transferred T cells.

  15. Factors Critical to the Adoption of Career Guidance Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Ralph J.; Howard, John, Jr.

    The study endeavors to describe, assess, and trace the progress of six high schools as the faculty and staff responded to the adoption of an innovative career guidance system. The study provides a model, a method, and some generalizations about factors influencing the process. The document is organized according to: (1) definitions of basic…

  16. Perceived Attributes Predict Course Management System Adopter Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesee, Gayla S.; Shepard, MaryFriend

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative, nonexperimental study utilized Rogers's diffusion of innovation theory as the theoretical base to determine instructors' perceptions of the attributes (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability) of the course management system used in order to predict adopter status. The study used a convenience…

  17. Online System Adoption and K-12 Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the relationship between K-12 online system adoption (e.g., Blackboard, Edmodo, WordPress) and school-level academic achievement ratings. Utilizing a novel approach to data collection via website data extraction and indexing of all school websites in a target state in the United States (n?=?732) and merging these…

  18. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Transfer Parametric System Identification 6. AUTHOR(S Parker, Gregory K. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...distribution is unlimited. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification by Gregory K. Parker Lieutenant, United States Navy BS., DeVry Institute of...Modeling Concept ........ ........... 3 2. Lumped Parameter Approach ...... ......... 4 3. Parametric System Identification ....... 4 B. BASIC MODELING

  19. Experimental Myocardial Infarction Induces Altered Regulatory T Cell Hemostasis, and Adoptive Transfer Attenuates Subsequent Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Sharir, Rinat; Semo, Jonathan; Shimoni, Sara; Ben-Mordechai, Tamar; Landa-Rouben, Natalie; Maysel-Auslender, Sofia; Shaish, Aviv; Entin–Meer, Michal; Keren, Gad; George, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Background Ischemic cardiac damage is associated with upregulation of cardiac pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as invasion of lymphocytes into the heart. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to exert a suppressive effect on several immune cell types. We sought to determine whether the Treg pool is influenced by myocardial damage and whether Tregs transfer and deletion affect cardiac remodeling. Methods and Results The number and functional suppressive activity of Tregs were assayed in mice subjected to experimental myocardial infarction. The numbers of splenocyte-derived Tregs in the ischemic mice were significantly higher after the injury than in the controls, and their suppressive properties were significantly compromised. Compared with PBS, adoptive Treg transfer to mice with experimental infarction reduced infarct size and improved LV remodeling and functional performance by echocardiography. Treg deletion with blocking anti-CD25 antibodies did not influence infarct size or echocardiographic features of cardiac remodeling. Conclusion Treg numbers are increased whereas their function is compromised in mice with that underwent experimental infarction. Transfer of exogeneous Tregs results in attenuation of myocardial remodeling whereas their ablation has no effect. Thus, Tregs may serve as interesting potential interventional targets for attenuating left ventricular remodeling. PMID:25436994

  20. Recombinant interleukin 2 stimulates in vivo proliferation of adoptively transferred lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinghausen, S.E.; Lipford, E.H. 3d.; Mule, J.J.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1985-11-01

    The authors previously reported that the adoptive transfer of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells plus repetitive injections of recombinant interleukin 2 (IL 2) produced a marked reduction in established pulmonary metastases from a variety of murine sarcomas. The requirement for the exogenous administration of IL 2 prompted a subsequent examination of the role of IL 2 in the in vivo function of transferred LAK cells. The in vivo proliferation and migration patterns of lymphoid cells in C57BL/6 mice were examined after i.v. transfer of LAK cells alone, i.p. injection of IL 2 alone, or the combination of LAK cells and IL 2. A model for in vivo labeling of the DNA of dividing cells was used in which mice were injected with 5-( SVI)-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ( SVIUdR) and, 20 hr later, their tissues were removed and were counted in a gamma analyzer. A proliferation index (PI) was calculated by dividing the mean cpm of organs of experimentally treated mice by the mean cpm of organs of control mice. In animals given LAK cells alone, the lungs and liver demonstrated little if any uptake of SVIUdR above saline-treated controls, whereas the same organs of mice receiving 6000 U of IL 2 alone displayed higher radiolabel incorporation. When mice were given LAK cells plus 6000 U of IL 2, their tissues showed an additional increase in SVIUdR uptake.

  1. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  2. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-07-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  3. Skewing the T-cell repertoire by combined DNA vaccination, host conditioning, and adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, Annelies; Bins, Adriaan D; Schumacher, Ton N M; Haanen, John B A G

    2008-04-01

    Approaches for T-cell-based immunotherapy that have shown substantial effects in clinical trials are generally based on the adoptive transfer of high numbers of antigen-specific cells, and the success of these approaches is thought to rely on the high magnitude of the tumor-specific T-cell responses that are induced. In this study, we aimed to develop strategies that also yield a T-cell repertoire that is highly skewed toward tumor recognition but do not rely on ex vivo generation of tumor-specific T cells. To this end, the tumor-specific T-cell repertoire was first expanded by DNA vaccination and then infused into irradiated recipients. Subsequent vaccination of the recipient mice with the same antigen resulted in peak CD8(+) T-cell responses of approximately 50%. These high T-cell responses required the presence of antigen-experienced tumor-specific T cells within the graft because only mice that received cells of previously vaccinated donor mice developed effective responses. Tumor-bearing mice treated with this combined therapy showed a significant delay in tumor outgrowth, compared with mice treated by irradiation or vaccination alone. Furthermore, this antitumor effect was accompanied by an increased accumulation of activated and antigen-specific T cells within the tumor. In summary, the combination of DNA vaccination with host conditioning and adoptive transfer generates a marked, but transient, skewing of the T-cell repertoire toward tumor recognition. This strategy does not require ex vivo expansion of cells to generate effective antitumor immunity and may therefore easily be translated to clinical application.

  4. Adoption of Clinical Information Systems in Health Services Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Charles J.; Holland, Gloria J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of factors which influence organizational decisions to invest in the installation of clinical information systems. Using results of previous research as a framework, the relative influence of clinical, fiscal, and strategic-institutional decision structures are examined. These adoption decisions are important in health services organizations because clinical information is essential for managing demand and allocating resources, managing quality of care, and controlling costs.

  5. Adoptive transfer of unresponsiveness to allogeneic skin grafts with hepatic gamma delta + T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gorczynski, R M

    1994-01-01

    C3H/HEJ mice injected with irradiated multiple minor incompatible B10.BR lymphoid cells via the portal vein showed delayed rejection of subsequent B10.BR skin grafts. Similar delayed rejection was produced by lateral tail vein injection of B10.BR hepatic mononuclear cells or H-2k cells pulsed in vivo with B10 minor histocompatibility antigens. Inhibition of C3H anti-B10.BR immunity in vivo (assessed by delayed graft rejection) and in vitro (assessed by B10.BR-induced lymphokine production) can be transferred by radioresistant, plastic-adherent F4/80+33D1-CD4-CD8-alpha beta TcR-gamma delta TcR- mononuclear hepatic cells from (C3H/HEJ x C3H.SW)F1 mice injected 36 hr earlier with 100 x 10(6) irradiated spleen cells. By 10 days post-injection, cells transferring delayed rejection are radiosensitive, plastic non-adherent, F4/80-33D1-CD4-CD8- alpha beta Tc+- gamma delta TcR+ cells. Injection of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in vivo into mice receiving pretreatment with B10.BR cells via the portal vein, or adoptive transfer into such mice of immune anti-B10.BR lymphoid cells, abolished delayed rejection on subsequent skin grafting. Delayed rejection or modulation of lymphokine production was associated in all cases with suppression of IL-2 production and preferential retention of IL-4 production from cells stimulated in vitro. PMID:8132216

  6. Motivations for enterprise system adoption in transition economies: insights from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Piotr; Weistroffer, Heinz Roland

    2016-06-01

    Enterprise system (ES) adoption can bring many benefits, but may also put tremendous strain on an organisation or business, sometimes with disastrous outcomes. The specific motivations and expectations that lead to ES adoption may impact the success or failure of these endeavours, and understanding these motivations may be useful in predicting the success of ES projects. Most of the published research on ES adoption motivation has been in the context of highly developed countries. The social, cultural, economic and political conditions in developing, emerging and transition economies make for a different business environment, and insights obtained from developed countries may not always transfer to these settings. This study seeks to identify and help understand the motivations for ES adoption specifically in transition economies, as these economies play a significant role in the global market, but have not been receiving adequate research attention. Drawing on the experience of 129 ES adopters in Poland, a transition economy, this study categorises motivations into coherent groups of issues and evaluates the influence of discovered motivations on ES adoption success. Further, motivations revealed by this study are compared with motivations reported by prior research conducted in developed countries.

  7. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  8. CANISTER TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-23

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling

  9. Canister Transfer System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane/hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling

  10. Effect of adoptive transfer of cloned Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-specific T helper cells on periodontal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, K; Eastcott, J W; Taubman, M A; Smith, D J; Cox, D S

    1991-01-01

    Previously we isolated several Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-specific T-cell clones from the spleens and lymph nodes of immunized Rowett rats. These clones were characterized as W3/13+, W3/25+, OX8-, and OX22-, suggesting a T helper (Th) phenotype. In the current experiments, 10(6) cells from a single A. actinomycetemcomitans-specific clone (A3) were adoptively transferred to a group (AaTh; n = 13) of normal heterozygous rats (rnu/+) at 28 days of age. A second group received no T cells (AaNT; n = 15), and a third group also received no T cells (NAaNT, n = 11). Beginning 1 day after transfer, the first and second groups were infected orally with A. actinomycetemcomitans for 5 consecutive days. The presence of infection was confirmed immediately after challenge and after 5 months, when the experiments were ended. Significantly higher numbers of lymphocytes were recovered from the gingival tissues of the first group than from those of either of the other groups. Also, this group showed significantly elevated (P less than 0.01) serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibody to A. actinomycetemcomitans in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay when compared with both other groups. Bone loss was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) in recipients of A. actinomycetemcomitans-specific cloned cells when compared with the other infected group and was approximately equal to the bone loss of the uninfected group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that T-cell regulation can affect periodontal disease. In this regulation, T helper cells appear to interfere with periodontal bone loss. PMID:1825991

  11. ENERGY-TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Thonemann, P.C.; Cowhig, W.T.; Davenport, P.A.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to the transfer of energy in a traveling electromagnetic wave to direct-current electrical energy in a gaseous medium. The traveling wave is generated by means of a radio-frequency oscillator connected across a capacitance-loaded helix wound around a sealed tube enclosing the gaseous medium. The traveling wave causes the electrons within the medium to drift towards one end of the tube. The direct current appearing across electrodes placed at each end of the tube is then used by some electrical means. (AEC)

  12. Power Transfer in Physical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaeck, Jack A.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the power transfer using (1) a simple electric circuit consisting of a power source with internal resistance; (2) two different mechanical systems (gravity driven and constant force driven); (3) ecological examples; and (4) a linear motor. (YP)

  13. Adoptively transferred TRAIL+ T cells suppress GVHD and augment antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arnab; Dogan, Yildirim; Moroz, Maxim; Holland, Amanda M.; Yim, Nury L.; Rao, Uttam K.; Young, Lauren F.; Tannenbaum, Daniel; Masih, Durva; Velardi, Enrico; Tsai, Jennifer J.; Jenq, Robert R.; Penack, Olaf; Hanash, Alan M.; Smith, Odette M.; Piersanti, Kelly; Lezcano, Cecilia; Murphy, George F.; Liu, Chen; Palomba, M. Lia; Sauer, Martin G.; Sadelain, Michel; Ponomarev, Vladimir; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Current strategies to suppress graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) also compromise graft-versus-tumor (GVT) responses. Furthermore, most experimental strategies to separate GVHD and GVT responses merely spare GVT function without actually enhancing it. We have previously shown that endogenously expressed TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is required for optimal GVT activity against certain malignancies in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In order to model a donor-derived cellular therapy, we genetically engineered T cells to overexpress TRAIL and adoptively transferred donor-type unsorted TRAIL+ T cells into mouse models of allo-HSCT. We found that murine TRAIL+ T cells induced apoptosis of alloreactive T cells, thereby reducing GVHD in a DR5-dependent manner. Furthermore, murine TRAIL+ T cells mediated enhanced in vitro and in vivo antilymphoma GVT response. Moreover, human TRAIL+ T cells mediated enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity against both human leukemia cell lines and against freshly isolated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Finally, as a model of off-the-shelf, donor-unrestricted antitumor cellular therapy, in vitro–generated TRAIL+ precursor T cells from third-party donors also mediated enhanced GVT response in the absence of GVHD. These data indicate that TRAIL-overexpressing donor T cells could potentially enhance the curative potential of allo-HSCT by increasing GVT response and suppressing GVHD. PMID:23676461

  14. Adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells promotes intestinal tumorigenesis and is associated with decreased NK cells and IL-22 binding protein.

    PubMed

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Bryant, Taylor; Brewer, Misty; Biddick, Laura; Lightfoot, Stan; Lang, Mark L; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-10-01

    High number of regulatory T cells (Tregs), both circulating and at the tumor site, often indicates a poor prognosis in CRC patient's possibly impairing natural killer (NK) cell function. To determine the role of Tregs in CRC development and their effects on NK cells, we created novel transgenic Rag-Apc mice that lack T cells and develop spontaneous intestinal tumors, and we adoptively transferred Tregs or transiently depleted NK cells during initial stages of tumorigenesis. In 6-weeks old Rag-Apc mice containing microscopic intestinal tumors adoptive transfer of Tregs or transient NK cell depletion dramatically associated with an increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity and tumor size, with significantly decreased survival rates. Importantly, Treg transfer increased small intestinal polyp formation up to 65% (P < 0.0005) and increased colon tumors multiplicities by 84% (P < 0.0001) with a significant decrease in NK cells as compared to control mice. Similarly, in NK depleted mice, colon tumor multiplicities increased up to 40% and small intestinal polyp formation up to 60% (P < 0.0001). Treg transfer or NK cell transient depletion markedly increased interleukin (IL)-22 systemically and the inflammatory signaling molecules P2X7R, and STAT3 in the tumors; and impaired production of the tumor suppressor interferon (IFN)-γ systemically. Notably, IL-22 binding protein (IL-22 BP) was associated with NKs and a significant decrease was seen at the tumor site in mice adoptively transferred with Tregs or depleted of NK cells. Our results suggest that adoptive transfer of Tregs aggressively promote intestinal tumorigenesis by decreasing NK cell number and activity by modulating IL-22 BP.

  15. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Daniel L; O'Neil, Richard T; Foster, Aaron E; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans.

  16. Study on cellular events in postthymectomy autoimmune oophoritis in mice. I. Requirement of Lyt-1 effector cells for oocytes damage after adoptive transfer

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Neonatal thymectomy during the critical period, 2-4 d after birth, can induce various organ-specific autoimmune diseases including oophoritis in A/J mice. The oophoritis thus induced was passively transferred into neonatal mice by injection of spleen cells obtained from syngeneic donors with the disease. Recipient ovaries were rapidly damaged with remarkable mononuclear cell infiltration and destruction of follicular structures. The phenotype of effector cells responsible for successful adoptive transfer was found to be Thy-1+, Lyt-1+,23-, Ia-, Qa-1-, and was sensitive to antithymocyte serum treatment but resistant to cyclophosphamide treatment or in vitro X-ray irradiation. The compatibility between donor and recipient at the major histocompatibility complex was not required for the effector phase of transfer. The oophoritis induced in BALB/c (nu/+ or +/+) was also shown to be transferred into athymic BALB/c nude mice with resulting ovarian lesion and circulating autoantibodies against oocytes. In this transfer system, the effector cells were also demonstrated to be T cells with the Lyt-1+,23- phenotype. Adoptive transfer experiments in both systems revealed that the destruction of ovaries in postthymectomy autoimmune oophoritis was mediated by Lyt-1 T cells. Whether these T cells can be distinguished from other Lyt-1 cells, such as T helper cells and effector T cells in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), is not clear at present, but the results suggest that the effector mechanisms may be closely related to a DTH reaction. PMID:6983557

  17. Passive adoptive transfer of antitumor immunity induced by laser-dye-immunoadjuvant treatment in a rat metastatic breast cancer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong; Singhal, Anil K.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    The ideal cancer treatment modalities should not only cause tumor regression and eradication but also induce a systemic anti-tumor immunity. This is essential for control of metastatic tumors and for long-term tumor resistance. Laser immunotherapy using a laser, a laser-absorbing dye and an immunoadjuvant has induced such a long-term immunity in treatment of a mammary metastatic tumor. The successfully treated rats established total resistance to multiple subsequent tumor challenges. For further mechanistic studies of the antitumor immunity induced by this novel treatment modality, passive adoptive transfer was performed using splenocytes as immune cells. The spleen cells harvested from successfully treated tumor-bearing rats provided 100% immunity in the naive recipients. The passively protected first cohort rats were immune to tumor challenge with an increased tumor dose; their splenocytes also prevented the establishment of tumor in the second cohort of naive recipient rats. This immunity transfer was accomplished without the usually required T-cell suppression in recipients.

  18. Review of integrated digital systems: evolution and adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Lawrence W.

    The factors that are influencing the evolution of photogrammetric and remote sensing technology to transition into fully integrated digital systems are reviewed. These factors include societal pressures for new, more timely digital products from the Spatial Information Sciencesand the adoption of rapid technological advancements in digital processing hardware and software. Current major developments in leading government mapping agencies of the USA, such as the Digital Production System (DPS) modernization programme at the Defense Mapping Agency, and the Automated Nautical Charting System II (ANCS-II) programme and Integrated Digital Photogrammetric Facility (IDPF) at NOAA/National Ocean Service, illustrate the significant benefits to be realized. These programmes are examples of different levels of integrated systems that have been designed to produce digital products. They provide insights to the management complexities to be considered for very large integrated digital systems. In recognition of computer industry trends, a knowledge-based architecture for managing the complexity of the very large spatial information systems of the future is proposed.

  19. Adoptive transfer of effector CD8+ T cells derived from central memory cells establishes persistent T cell memory in primates.

    PubMed

    Berger, Carolina; Jensen, Michael C; Lansdorp, Peter M; Gough, Mike; Elliott, Carole; Riddell, Stanley R

    2008-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells that have been expanded ex vivo is being actively pursued to treat infections and malignancy in humans. The T cell populations that are available for adoptive immunotherapy include both effector memory and central memory cells, and these differ in phenotype, function, and homing. The efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy requires that transferred T cells persist in vivo, but identifying T cells that can reproducibly survive in vivo after they have been numerically expanded by in vitro culture has proven difficult. Here we show that in macaques, antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell clones derived from central memory T cells, but not effector memory T cells, persisted long-term in vivo, reacquired phenotypic and functional properties of memory T cells, and occupied memory T cell niches. These results demonstrate that clonally derived CD8+ T cells isolated from central memory T cells are distinct from those derived from effector memory T cells and retain an intrinsic capacity that enables them to survive after adoptive transfer and revert to the memory cell pool. These results could have significant implications for the selection of T cells to expand or to engineer for adoptive immunotherapy of human infections or malignancy.

  20. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-26

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  1. Preparation for a Clinical Trial Using Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TGF_Beta-Insensitive CD8+ T Cells for Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    W81XWH-05-1-0450 TITLE: Preparation for a Clinical Trial Using Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TGF_Beta- Insensitive CD8+ T Cells for...CONTRACT NUMBER Preparation for a Clinical Trial Using Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TGF_Beta- Insensitive CD8+ T Cells for Treatment of Prostate...that adoptive transfer of tumor-reactive TGF-beta- insensitive CD8+ T cells to hosts bearing mouse prostate tumors resulted in a complete rejection

  2. Adoptive transfer of Mammaglobin-A epitope specific CD8 T cells combined with a single low dose of total body irradiation eradicates breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Lerret, Nadine M; Rogozinska, Magdalena; Jaramillo, Andrés; Marzo, Amanda L

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy has proven to be beneficial in a number of tumor systems by targeting the relevant tumor antigen. The tumor antigen targeted in our model is Mammaglobin-A, expressed by approximately 80% of human breast tumors. Here we evaluated the use of adoptively transferred Mammaglobin-A specific CD8 T cells in combination with low dose irradiation to induce breast tumor rejection and prevent relapse. We show Mammaglobin-A specific CD8 T cells generated by DNA vaccination with all epitopes (Mammaglobin-A2.1, A2.2, A2.4 and A2.6) and full-length DNA in vivo resulted in heterogeneous T cell populations consisting of both effector and central memory CD8 T cell subsets. Adoptive transfer of spleen cells from all Mammaglobin-A2 immunized mice into tumor-bearing SCID/beige mice induced tumor regression but this anti-tumor response was not sustained long-term. Additionally, we demonstrate that only the adoptive transfer of Mammaglobin-A2 specific CD8 T cells in combination with a single low dose of irradiation prevents tumors from recurring. More importantly we show that this single dose of irradiation results in the down regulation of the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 on dendritic cells within the tumor and reduces lipid uptake by tumor resident dendritic cells potentially enabling the dendritic cells to present tumor antigen more efficiently and aid in tumor clearance. These data reveal the potential for adoptive transfer combined with a single low dose of total body irradiation as a suitable therapy for the treatment of established breast tumors and the prevention of tumor recurrence.

  3. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in

  4. Stable activity of diabetogenic cells with age in NOD mice: dynamics of reconstitution and adoptive diabetes transfer in immunocompromised mice.

    PubMed

    Kaminitz, Ayelet; Mizrahi, Keren; Ash, Shifra; Ben-Nun, Avi; Askenasy, Nadir

    2014-07-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a prevalent disease model of type 1 diabetes. Immune aberrations that cause and propagate autoimmune insulitis in these mice are being continually debated, with evidence supporting both dominance of effector cells and insufficiency of suppressor mechanisms. In this study we assessed the behaviour of NOD lymphocytes under extreme expansion conditions using adoptive transfer into immunocompromised NOD.SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice. CD4(+)  CD25(+) T cells do not cause islet inflammation, whereas splenocytes and CD4(+)  CD25(-) T cells induce pancreatic inflammation and hyperglycaemia in 80-100% of the NOD.SCID recipients. Adoptively transferred effector T cells migrate to the lymphoid organs and pancreas, proliferate, are activated in the target organ in situ and initiate inflammatory insulitis. Reconstitution of all components of the CD4(+) subset emphasizes the plastic capacity of different cell types to adopt effector and suppressor phenotypes. Furthermore, similar immune profiles of diabetic and euglycaemic NOD.SCID recipients demonstrate dissociation between fractional expression of CD25 and FoxP3 and the severity of insulitis. There were no evident and consistent differences in diabetogenic activity and immune reconstituting activity of T cells from pre-diabetic (11 weeks) and new onset diabetic NOD females. Similarities in immune phenotypes and variable distribution of effector and suppressor subsets in various stages of inflammation commend caution in interpretation of quantitative and qualitative aberrations as markers of disease severity in adoptive transfer experiments.

  5. Stable activity of diabetogenic cells with age in NOD mice: dynamics of reconstitution and adoptive diabetes transfer in immunocompromised mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaminitz, Ayelet; Mizrahi, Keren; Ash, Shifra; Ben-Nun, Avi; Askenasy, Nadir

    2014-01-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a prevalent disease model of type 1 diabetes. Immune aberrations that cause and propagate autoimmune insulitis in these mice are being continually debated, with evidence supporting both dominance of effector cells and insufficiency of suppressor mechanisms. In this study we assessed the behaviour of NOD lymphocytes under extreme expansion conditions using adoptive transfer into immunocompromised NOD.SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice. CD4+ CD25+ T cells do not cause islet inflammation, whereas splenocytes and CD4+ CD25− T cells induce pancreatic inflammation and hyperglycaemia in 80–100% of the NOD.SCID recipients. Adoptively transferred effector T cells migrate to the lymphoid organs and pancreas, proliferate, are activated in the target organ in situ and initiate inflammatory insulitis. Reconstitution of all components of the CD4+ subset emphasizes the plastic capacity of different cell types to adopt effector and suppressor phenotypes. Furthermore, similar immune profiles of diabetic and euglycaemic NOD.SCID recipients demonstrate dissociation between fractional expression of CD25 and FoxP3 and the severity of insulitis. There were no evident and consistent differences in diabetogenic activity and immune reconstituting activity of T cells from pre-diabetic (11 weeks) and new onset diabetic NOD females. Similarities in immune phenotypes and variable distribution of effector and suppressor subsets in various stages of inflammation commend caution in interpretation of quantitative and qualitative aberrations as markers of disease severity in adoptive transfer experiments. PMID:24601987

  6. Adoptive transfer of natural killer cells promotes the anti-tumor efficacy of T cells.

    PubMed

    Goding, Stephen R; Yu, Shaohong; Bailey, Lisa M; Lotze, Michael T; Basse, Per H

    2016-07-01

    The density of NK cells in tumors correlates positively with prognosis in many types of cancers. The average number of infiltrating NK cells is, however, quite modest (approximately 30 NK cells/sq.mm), even in tumors deemed to have a "high" density of infiltrating NK cells. It is unclear how such low numbers of tumor-infiltrating NK cells can influence outcome. Here, we used ovalbumin-expressing tumor cell lines and TCR transgenic, OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (OT-I-CTLs) to determine whether the simultaneous attack by anti-tumor CTLs and IL-2-activated NK (A-NK) cells synergistically increases the overall tumor cell kill and whether upregulation of tumor MHC class-I by NK cell-derived interferon-gamma (IFNγ) improves tumor-recognition and kill by anti-tumor CTLs. At equal E:T ratios, A-NK cells killed OVA-expressing tumor cells better than OT-I-CTLs. The cytotoxicity against OVA-expressing tumor cells increased by combining OT-I-CTLs and A-NK cells, but the increase was additive rather than synergistic. A-NK cells adenovirally-transduced to produce IL-12 (A-NK(IL-12)) produced high amounts of IFNγ. The addition of a low number of A-NK(IL-12) cells to OT-I-CTLs resulted in a synergistic, albeit modest, increase in overall cytotoxicity. Pre-treatment of tumor cells with NK cell-conditioned medium increased tumor MHC expression and sensitivity to CTL-mediated killing. Pre-treatment of CTLs with NK cell-conditioned medium had no effect on CTL cytotoxicity. In vivo, MHC class-I expression by OVA-expressing B16 melanoma lung metastases increased significantly within 24-48h after adoptive transfer of A-NK(IL-12) cells. OT-I-CTLs and A-NK(IL-12) cells localized selectively and equally well into OVA-expressing B16 lung metastases and treatment of mice bearing 7-days-old OVA-B16 lung metastases with both A-NK(IL-12) cells and OT-I-CTLs lead to a significant prolongation of survival. Thus, an important function of tumor-infiltrating NK cells may be to increase

  7. Adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus-specific effector CD4+ T cells provides antiviral protection from murine CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Jeitziner, Sanja Mandaric; Walton, Senta M; Torti, Nicole; Oxenius, Annette

    2013-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects a majority of the human population and establishes a life-long persistence. CMV infection is usually asymptomatic but the virus carries pathogenic potential and causes severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. T-cell-mediated immunity plays an essential role in control of CMV infection and adoptive transfer of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells restores viral immunity in immunosuppressed patients but a role for CD4(+) T cells remains elusive. Here, we analyzed in adoptive transfer studies the features and antiviral functions of virus-specific CD4(+) T cells during primary murine CMV (MCMV) infection. MCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells expanded upon MCMV infection and displayed an effector phenotype and function. Adoptive transfer of in vivo activated MCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells to immune-compromised mice was protective during pathogenic MCMV infection and IFN-γ was a crucial mediator of this protective capacity. Moreover, co-transfer of low doses of both MCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells synergized in control of lytic viral replication in immune-compromised mice. Our data reveal a pivotal antiviral role for virus-specific CD4(+) T cells in protection from pathogenic CMV infection and provide evidence for their antiviral therapeutic potential.

  8. Development of an SSVEP-based BCI spelling system adopting a QWERTY-style LED keyboard.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Han-Jeong; Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Jung, Young-Jin; Choi, Han; Lee, Sang Woo; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2012-06-30

    In this study, we introduce a new mental spelling system based on steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), adopting a QWERTY style layout keyboard with 30 LEDs flickering with different frequencies. The proposed electroencephalography (EEG)-based mental spelling system allows the users to spell one target character per each target selection, without the need for multiple step selections adopted by conventional SSVEP-based mental spelling systems. Through preliminary offline experiments and online experiments, we confirmed that human SSVEPs elicited by visual flickering stimuli with a frequency resolution of 0.1 Hz could be classified with classification accuracy high enough to be used for a practical brain-computer interface (BCI) system. During the preliminary offline experiments performed with five participants, we optimized various factors influencing the performance of the mental spelling system, such as distances between adjacent keys, light source arrangements, stimulating frequencies, recording electrodes, and visual angles. Additional online experiments were conducted with six participants to verify the feasibility of the optimized mental spelling system. The results of the online experiments were an average typing speed of 9.39 letters per minute (LPM) with an average success rate of 87.58%, corresponding to an average information transfer rate of 40.72 bits per minute, demonstrating the high performance of the developed mental spelling system. Indeed, the average typing speed of 9.39 LPM attained in this study was one of the best LPM results among those reported in previous BCI literatures.

  9. Comparing decision-support systems in adopting sustainable intensification criteria.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Bouda Vosough; Moran, Dominic; Barnes, Andrew P; Baret, Philippe V

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable intensification (SI) is a multifaceted concept incorporating the ambition to increase or maintain the current level of agricultural yields while reduce negative ecological and environmental impacts. Decision-support systems (DSS) that use integrated analytical methods are often used to support decision making processes in agriculture. However, DSS often consist of set of values, objectives, and assumptions that may be inconsistent or in conflict with merits and objectives of SI. These potential conflicts will have consequences for adoption and up-take of agricultural research, technologies and related policies and regulations such as genetic technology in pursuit of SI. This perspective paper aimed at comparing a number of frequently used socio-economic DSS with respect to their capacity in incorporating various dimensions of SI, and discussing their application to analyzing farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR) policies. The case of FAnGR policies was chosen because of its great potential in delivering merits of SI. It was concluded that flexible DSS, with great integration capacity with various natural and social sciences, are needed to provide guidance on feasibility, practicality, and policy implementation for SI.

  10. Adoptive Transfer of Dendritic Cells Expressing Fas Ligand Modulates Intestinal Inflammation in a Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Edelmarie Rivera; Isidro, Raymond A; Cruz, Myrella L; Marty, Harry; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing inflammatory conditions of unknown cause and likely result from the loss of immunological tolerance, which leads to over-activation of the gut immune system. Gut macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for maintaining tolerance, but can also contribute to the inflammatory response in conditions such as IBD. Current therapies for IBD are limited by high costs and unwanted toxicities and side effects. The possibility of reducing intestinal inflammation with DCs genetically engineered to over-express the apoptosis-inducing FasL (FasL-DCs) has not yet been explored. Objective Investigate the immunomodulatory effect of administering FasL-DCs in the rat trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model of acute colitis. Methods Expression of FasL on DCs isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of normal and TNBS-colitis rats was determined by flow cytometry. Primary rat bone marrow DCs were transfected with rat FasL plasmid (FasL-DCs) or empty vector (EV-DCs). The effect of these DCs on T cell IFNγ secretion and apoptosis was determined by ELISPOT and flow cytometry for Annexin V, respectively. Rats received FasL-DCs or EV-DCs intraperitoneally 96 and 48 hours prior to colitis induction with TNBS. Colonic T cell and neutrophil infiltration was determined by immunohistochemistry for CD3 and myeloperoxidase activity assay, respectively. Macrophage number and phenotype was measured by double immunofluorescence for CD68 and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase. Results MLN dendritic cells from normal rats expressed more FasL than those from colitic rats. Compared to EV-DCs, FasL-DCs reduced T cell IFNγ secretion and increased T cell apoptosis in vitro. Adoptive transfer of FasL-DCs decreased macroscopic and microscopic damage scores and reduced colonic T cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory macrophages when compared to EV-DC adoptive transfer. Conclusion FasL-DCs are effective at treating colonic

  11. Generation of memory T cells for adoptive transfer using clinical-grade anti-CD62L magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Verfuerth, S; Sousa, P S E; Beloki, L; Murray, M; Peters, M D; O'Neill, A T; Mackinnon, S; Lowdell, M W; Chakraverty, R; Samuel, E R

    2015-10-01

    Pre-clinical studies of allogeneic stem cell transplantation suggest that depletion of naive T cells from donor lymphocytes will reduce the risk of GvHD but preserve immunity to infectious pathogens. In this study, we have established a clinical-grade protocol under good manufacturing practice conditions for purging CD62L(+) naive T cells from steady-state leukapheresis products using the CliniMACS system. The efficacy of immunomagnetic CD62L depletion was assessed by analysis of cell composition and functional immune responses. A median 2.9 log CD62L depletion was achieved with no evidence of CD62L shedding during the procedure and a mean T-cell yield of 47%. CD62L(-) cells comprised an equal mix of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, with elimination of B cells but maintenance of regulatory T cells and natural killer cell populations. CD62L-depleted T cells were predominantly CD45RA(-) and CD45RA(+) effector memory (>90%) and contained the bulk of pentamer-staining antivirus-specific T cells. Functional assessment of CD62L(-) cells revealed the maintenance of antiviral T-cell reactivity and a reduction in the alloreactive immune response compared with unmanipulated cells. Clinical-grade depletion of naive T cells using immunomagnetic CD62L beads from steady-state leukapheresis products is highly efficient and generates cells suitable for adoptive transfer in the context of clinical trials.

  12. Metabolic phenotyping of an adoptive transfer mouse model of experimental colitis and impact of dietary fish oil intake.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Lichti, Pia; Bosco, Nabil; Brahmbhatt, Viral; Oliveira, Manuel; Haller, Dirk; Benyacoub, Jalil

    2015-04-03

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are acute and chronic disabling inflammatory disorders with multiple complex etiologies that are not well-defined. Chronic intestinal inflammation has been linked to an energy-deficient state of gut epithelium with alterations in oxidative metabolism. Plasma-, urine-, stool-, and liver-specific metabonomic analyses are reported in a naïve T cell adoptive transfer (AT) experimental model of colitis, which evaluated the impact of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet. Metabolic profiles of AT animals and their controls under chow diet or fish oil supplementation were compared to describe the (i) consequences of inflammatory processes and (ii) the differential impact of n-3 fatty acids. Inflammation was associated with higher glycoprotein levels (related to acute-phase response) and remodeling of PUFAs. Low triglyceride levels and enhanced PUFA levels in the liver suggest activation of lipolytic pathways that could lead to the observed increase of phospholipids in the liver (including plasmalogens and sphingomyelins). In parallel, the increase in stool excretion of most amino acids may indicate a protein-losing enteropathy. Fecal content of glutamine was lower in AT mice, a feature exacerbated under fish oil intervention that may reflect a functional relationship between intestinal inflammatory status and glutamine metabolism. The decrease in Krebs cycle intermediates in urine (succinate, α-ketoglutarate) also suggests a reduction in the glutaminolytic pathway at a systemic level. Our data indicate that inflammatory status is related to this overall loss of energy homeostasis.

  13. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  14. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  15. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  16. The Unintended Consequences of the Adoption of Electronic Medical Record Systems on Healthcare Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganju, Kartik K.

    2016-01-01

    In my dissertation, I study unintended consequences of the adoption of EMR systems. In my three essays, I examine how the adoption of EMR systems affects neighboring hospitals (spillover effects), can be used by hospitals to further its objectives in an unconventional manner ("upcoding" of patient case mix data), and how EMR adoption may…

  17. Adoptive transfer of tracer alloreactive CD4(+) TCR-transgenic T cells alters the endogenous immune response to an allograft.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle L; Chen, Jianjun; Daniels, Melvin D; McKeague, Matthew G; Wang, Ying; Yin, Dengping; Vu, Vinh; Chong, Anita S; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2016-04-11

    T cell receptor transgenic (TCR-Tg) T cells are often used as tracer populations of antigen-specific responses to extrapolate findings to endogenous T cells. The extent to which TCR-Tg T cells behave purely as tracer cells or modify the endogenous immune response is not clear. To test the impact of TCR-Tg T cell transfer on endogenous alloimmunity, recipient mice were seeded with CD4(+) or CD8(+) TCR-Tg or polyclonal T cells at the time of cardiac allograft transplantation. Only CD4(+) TCR-Tg T cells accelerated rejection, and unexpectedly led to a dose-dependent decrease in both transferred and endogenous T cells infiltrating the graft. In contrast, recipients of CD4(+) TCR-Tg cell exhibited enhanced endogenous donor-specific CD8(+) T-cell activation in the spleen and accelerated alloantibody production. Introduction of CD4(+) TCR-Tg T cells also perturbed the intra-graft accumulation of innate cell populations. Thus, transferred CD4(+) TCR-Tg T cells alter many aspects of endogenous alloimmunity, suggesting that caution should be used when interpreting experiments utilizing these adoptively-transferred cells, as the overall nature of allograft rejection may be altered. These results may also have implications for adoptive CD4(+) T cell immunotherapy in tumor and infectious clinical settings as cell infusion may have additional effects on natural immune responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing the development of murine plasmacytoid dendritic cells in Peyer's patches using adoptive transfer of hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan S; Watowich, Stephanie S

    2014-03-17

    This protocol details a method to analyze the ability of purified hematopoietic progenitors to generate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in intestinal Peyer's patch (PP). Common dendritic cell progenitors (CDPs, lin(-) c-kit(lo) CD115(+) Flt3(+)) were purified from the bone marrow of C57BL6 mice by FACS and transferred to recipient mice that lack a significant pDC population in PP; in this case, Ifnar(-/-) mice were used as the transfer recipients. In some mice, overexpression of the dendritic cell growth factor Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) was enforced prior to adoptive transfer of CDPs, using hydrodynamic gene transfer (HGT) of Flt3L-encoding plasmid. Flt3L overexpression expands DC populations originating from transferred (or endogenous) hematopoietic progenitors. At 7-10 days after progenitor transfer, pDCs that arise from the adoptively transferred progenitors were distinguished from recipient cells on the basis of CD45 marker expression, with pDCs from transferred CDPs being CD45.1(+) and recipients being CD45.2(+). The ability of transferred CDPs to contribute to the pDC population in PP and to respond to Flt3L was evaluated by flow cytometry of PP single cell suspensions from recipient mice. This method may be used to test whether other progenitor populations are capable of generating PP pDCs. In addition, this approach could be used to examine the role of factors that are predicted to affect pDC development in PP, by transferring progenitor subsets with an appropriate knockdown, knockout or overexpression of the putative developmental factor and/or by manipulating circulating cytokines via HGT. This method may also allow analysis of how PP pDCs affect the frequency or function of other immune subsets in PPs. A unique feature of this method is the use of Ifnar(-/-) mice, which show severely depleted PP pDCs relative to wild type animals, thus allowing reconstitution of PP pDCs in the absence of confounding effects from lethal irradiation.

  19. Enhancing adoption of site-specific variable rate sprinkler systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than twenty years of private and public research on site-specific variable-rate sprinkler irrigation (SS-VRI) has resulted in very limited commercial adoption of the technology. Documented and proven water conservation strategies using site-specific irrigation are quite limited, and its cost-ef...

  20. Teacher Adoption of a Web-Based Instructional Planning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldivar, Manuel Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Many policymakers, administrators, and other K-12 stakeholders have long advocated the use of computers and information technology in schools. Even in settings where such technologies have been introduced, however, evidence suggests that the impact on student outcomes has been mixed. In some cases, teachers simply do not adopt the new…

  1. Development of allogeneic NK cell adoptive transfer therapy in metastatic melanoma patients: in vitro preclinical optimization studies.

    PubMed

    Besser, Michal J; Shoham, Tsipi; Harari-Steinberg, Orit; Zabari, Naama; Ortenberg, Rona; Yakirevitch, Arkadi; Nagler, Arnon; Loewenthal, Ron; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have long been considered as potential agents for adoptive cell therapy for solid cancer patients. Until today most studies utilized autologous NK cells and yielded disappointing results. Here we analyze various modular strategies to employ allogeneic NK cells for adoptive cell transfer, including donor-recipient HLA-C mismatching, selective activation and induction of melanoma-recognizing lysis receptors, and co-administration of antibodies to elicit antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). We show that NK cell activation and induction of the relevant lysis receptors, as well as co-administration of antibodies yield substantial anti-cancer effects, which are functionally superior to HLA-C mismatching. Combination of the various strategies yielded improved effects. In addition, we developed various clinically-compatible ex vivo expansion protocols that were optimized according to fold expansion, purity and expression of lysis receptors. The main advantages of employing allogeneic NK cells are accessibility, the ability to use a single donor for many patients, combination with various strategies associated with the mechanism of action, e.g. antibodies and specific activation, as well as donor selection according to HLA or CD16 genotypes. This study rationalizes a clinical trial that combines adoptive transfer of highly potent allogeneic NK cells and antibody therapy.

  2. Interorganizational transfer of technology - A study of adoption of NASA innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. K.; Rubenstein, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes a study on the effects of top management support, various techno-economic factors, organizational climate, and decision-making modes on the adoption of NASA innovations. Field research consisted of interviews and questionnaires directed to sixty-five organizations. Forty-five test cases where different decisions for adoption of ideas for new products or processes were made on NASA Tech Briefs were studied in relation to the effects of various factors on the degree of success of adoption, including: (1) the degree of general connection of the technology to the firm's existing operation, (2) the specificity of the relationship between the technology and some existing and recognized problem, (3) the degree of urgency of the problem to which the technology was related, (4) maturity of technology available to implement the technology, (5) availability of personnel and financial resources to implement the technology, (6) degree of top management interest, (7) the use of confrontation in joint-decision, (8) the use of smoothing in decision-making, and (9) the use of forcing in decision-making. It was found that top managements interest was important in the product cases only, and that the success of process innovations was dependent on the quality of information and the specificity of the relationship between the technology and some recognized existing problem.

  3. Suppression of colitis by adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-treated dendritic cells requires interleukin-4 receptor-α signaling

    PubMed Central

    Matisz, C. E.; Faz-López, B.; Thomson, E.; Al Rajabi, A.; Lopes, F.; Terrazas, L. I.; Wang, A.; Sharkey, K. A.; McKay, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Infection with helminth parasites has been explored as a treatment for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. As helminth antigens have potent immunomodulation properties capable of inducing regulatory programs in a variety of cell types, transferring cells treated with helminth antigens represents a novel extension to helminth therapy. Previous work determined that transfer of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with a crude extract of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (HD) can suppress colitis in recipient mice. The present study explored the mechanism of disease suppression and the importance of interleukin (IL)-4 signaling. Transfer of HD-DCs suppressed dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis through activation of recipient IL-4 receptor-α. The transferred HD-DCs required IL-4Rα and the capacity to secrete IL-10 to drive IL-4 and IL-10 production and to suppress colitis in recipient mice. Treatment of DCs with IL-4 evokes an alternatively activated phenotype, but adoptive transfer of these cells did not affect the outcome of colitis. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the complexity between IL-4 and IL-10 in donor cells and recipient, and the requirement for parasite- and host-derived factors in this novel form of cell therapy. Thus IL-4Rα signaling is revealed as a pathway that could be exploited for helminth antigen cell-based therapy. PMID:28094779

  4. The Determinants of the Post-Adoption Satisfaction of Educators with an E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, A. K. M. Najmul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines factors that influence the post-adoption satisfaction of educators with e-learning systems. Based on the expectation-confirmation framework, we propose a research model that demonstrates how post-adoption beliefs affect post-adoption satisfaction. The model was tested at a university by educators (n = 175) who use an e-learning…

  5. Electronic Learning Systems in Hong Kong Business Organizations: A Study of Early and Late Adopters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Simon C. H.; Ngai, Eric W. T.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the diffusion of innovation theory (E. M. Rogers, 1983, 1995), the authors examined the antecedents of the adoption of electronic learning (e-learning) systems by using a time-based assessment model (R. C. Beatty, J. P. Shim, & M. C. Jones, 2001), which classified adopters into categories upon point in time when adopting e-learning…

  6. An Examination of U.S. Secondary Teachers' Concerns in Adopting Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochner, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Teacher concerns play an important role in the adoption of new technologies in educational settings. The purpose of this nonexperimental, correlational study was to examine the type of concerns secondary teachers have regarding the adoption of a learning management system (LMS) using the concerns-based adoption model. A sample of 206 full-time…

  7. Optical fiber data transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    This Phase 2 effort applies the results of Phase 1 to design and fabricate an optical slip ring system for a helicopter rotor blade/wind tunnel application. In this application, there are two assemblies: one on the rotating portion of the mechanical system, one on the stationary portion. The assembly on the rotating portion digitizes and encodes 128 transducer signals from various parts of the blade, and optically transfers data across the noncontacting coupling. Two complete identical independent channels are provided. On the stationary side, the signals are decoded and one channel is transmitted in digital form to a computer for recording and analysis. The second channel reconstructs the analog transducer signals for real time observation. In the opposite direction, eight signal channels enable control signals to be passed from the stationary to the rotating part of the system. Power to the rotor mounted electronics is supplied via power slip rings. The advantages of the optical over the traditional electro-mechanical slip ring method of data transfer across a rotating joint are long life, low-maintenance, immunity to crosstalk, and wider bandwidth. Successful completion of this effort demonstrated that this method is practical and reliable, and can be implemented under difficult conditions of available space, power, environment, and stringent performance and equipment life requirements.

  8. Reinforcement of cancer immunotherapy by adoptive transfer of cblb-deficient CD8+ T cells combined with a DC vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lutz-Nicoladoni, Christina; Wallner, Stephanie; Stoitzner, Patrizia; Pircher, Magdalena; Gruber, Thomas; Wolf, Anna Maria; Gastl, Günther; Penninger, Josef M; Baier, Gottfried; Wolf, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    The success of cancer immunotherapy is limited by potent endogenous immune-evasion mechanisms, which are at least in part mediated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). The E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b is a key regulator of T cell activation and is established to regulate TGF-β sensitivity. cblb-deficient animals reject tumors via CD8(+) T cells, which make Cbl-b an ideal target for improvement of adoptive T-cell transfer (ATC) therapy. In this study, we show that cblb-deficient CD8(+) T cells are hyper-responsive to T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD28-stimulation and are in part protected against the negative cues induced by TGF-β in vitro. Notably, adoptive transfer of polyclonal, non-TCR transgenic cblb-deficient CD8(+) T cells is not sufficient to reject B16-ova or EG7 tumors in vivo. Thus, cblb-deficient ATC requires proper in vivo re-activation by a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine. In strict contrast to ATC monotherapy, this approach delayed tumor outgrowth and significantly increased survival rates, which is paralleled by increased CD8(+) T-cells infiltration to the tumor site and enrichment of ova-specific and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-secreting CD8(+) T cell in the draining lymph node (LN). Moreover, CD8(+) T cells from cblb-deficient mice vaccinated with the DC vaccine show increased cytolytic activity in vivo. In summary, our data using cblb-deficient polyclonal, non-TCR-transgenic adoptively transferred CD8(+) T cells into immuno-competent non-lymphodepleted recipients suggest that targeting Cbl-b might serve as a novel 'adjuvant approach', suitable to augment the effectiveness of established anti-cancer immunotherapies.

  9. Swelling agent adopted decal transfer method for membrane electrode assembly fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Doo Hee; Lee, So Young; Shin, Dong Won; Hwang, Doo Sung; Lee, Young Moo

    2014-07-01

    The decal transfer method is regarded as an effective membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabrication method for industrial processes due to the improved adhesion between the catalyst layers and the hydrocarbon membrane. In this study, three swelling agents (ethanol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol) are introduced to the conventional decal methods in order to improve both the transfer ratio of electrodes on the membrane surface and the electrochemical properties. These swelling agents affect the surface energy differences between the swollen catalyst layer and the membrane substrate. Swelling agents also change the structure of the catalyst layer during the preparation (hot pressing) of the MEA. Changing the catalyst layer structure by introducing swelling agents diminishes the charge transfer resistance and internal resistances of MEAs. These improved electrochemical properties lead to the remarkably enhanced single cell performance of a SPAES MEA of 1380 mA cm-2 at 0.6 V, compared to a SPAES MEA fabricated by the conventional decal method (500 mA cm-2).

  10. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  11. Smart crane ammunition transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Killough, S.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) project is to demonstrate robotic/telerobotic controls technology for a mobile articulated crane for missile/ munitions handling, delivery, and reload. Missile resupply and reload have been manually intensive operations up to this time. Currently, reload missiles are delivered by truck to the site of the launcher. A crew of four to five personnel reloads the missiles from the truck to the launcher using a hydraulic-powered crane. The missiles are handled carefully for the safety of the missiles and personnel. Numerous steps are required in the reload process and the entire reload operation can take over 1 h for some missile systems. Recent U.S. Army directives require the entire operation to be accomplished in a fraction of that time. Current requirements for the development of SCATS are being based primarily on reloading Patriot missiles. The planned development approach will integrate robotic control and sensor technology with a commercially available hydraulic articulated crane. SCATS is being developed with commercially available hardware as much as possible. Development plans include adding a 3-D.F. end effector with a grapple to the articulating crane; closed-loop position control for the crane and end effector; digital microprocessor control of crane functions; simplified operator interface; and operating modes which include rectilinear movement, obstacle avoidance, and partial automated operation. The planned development will include progressive technology demonstrations. Ultimate plans are for this technology to be transferred and utilized in the military fielding process.

  12. Hymenolepis nana: adoptive transfer of protective immunity and delayed type hypersensitivity response with mesenteric lymph node cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Asano, K; Muramatsu, K; Okamoto, K

    1991-01-01

    A marked degree of footpad swelling was observed in BALB/c mice infected with Hymenolepis nana eggs, when soluble egg antigen was injected into their footpads 4 to 21 days after the egg infection, indicating delayed type hypersensitivity responses in infected mice. Adoptive transfer with mesenteric lymph node cells from donor mice (BALB/c strain; +/+) infected with eggs 4 days before cell collection could confer this hypersensitivity to recipient nude mice (BALB/c strain; nu/nu). These mesenteric lymph node cells were then divided into two fractions, blast-enriched and blast-depleted cells, by density gradient centrifugation with Percoll. The recipients intravenously injected with the blast-depleted cell fraction showed a marked increase in footpad thickness, whereas the intravenous transfer of the blast-enriched cell fraction resulted in an insignificant increase in footpad thickness. The transfer of the blast-enriched cell fraction, but not of the blast-depleted cell fraction, conferred a strong adoptive immunity on syngeneic recipient nude mice, when the immunity transferred was assessed by examining cysticercoids developed in the intestinal villi on Day 4 of challenge infection. The lack of delayed type hypersensitivity response in mice that received the blast-enriched cell population was not due to a lack of the capacity of the cells to induce the response, because the cells were capable of inducing a significant increase in thickness of footpads of normal mice when these cells were locally injected into the footpad together with soluble egg antigen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Charge transfer on the metallic atom-pair bond, and the crystal structures adopted by intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rajasekharan, T; Seshubai, V

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued in our recent papers that the heat of formation of intermetallic compounds is mostly concentrated in the nearest neighbor unlike atom-pair bonds, and that the positive term in Miedema's equation is associated with charge transfer on the bond to maintain electroneutrality. In this paper, taking examples of some well populated crystal-structure types such as MgCu(2), AsNa(3), AuCu(3), MoSi(2) and SiCr(3) types, the effect of such charge transfer on the crystal structures adopted by intermetallic compounds is examined. It is shown that the correlation between the observed size changes of atoms on alloying and their electronegativity differences is supportive of the idea of charge transfer between atoms. It is argued that the electronegativity and valence differences need to be of the required magnitude and direction to alter, through charge transfer, the elemental radius ratios R(A)/R(B) to the internal radius ratios r(A)/r(B) allowed by the structure types. Since the size change of atoms on alloying is highly correlated to how different R(A)/R(B) is from the ideal radius ratio for a structure type, the lattice parameters of intermetallic compounds can be predicted with excellent accuracy knowing R(A)/R(B). A practical application of the approach developed in our recent papers to superalloy design is presented.

  14. Adoptive transfer of experimental autoimmune hepatitis in mice: cellular interaction between donor and recipient mice

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, M.; Mori, Y.; Mori, T.; Ueda, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kato, I.; Iesato, K.; Wakashin, Y.; Azemoto, R.; Wakashin, M.; Okuda, K.; Ohto, M.

    1988-01-01

    This report extends our previous study on experimental autoimmune hepatitis in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Cellular immunity involved in the induction of liver injury in this model was studied by transfer of primed spleen cells from hepatitis donor mice to syngeneic normal recipient mice. The most prominent liver damage in recipient B6 mice was induced by transfer of nylon wool adherent spleen cells from hepatitis donor mice, and T cells in this fraction were the essential requirement for the liver damage in the recipient mice. Nylon wool adherent spleen cells from hepatitis donor mice after depletion of the suppressor T-cell function by low-dose (300 rad) irradiation induced more severe liver injury compared to the same cells without irradiation. When the recipient mice were depleted of lymphocytes by low or high dose (700 rad) whole body irradiation, transfer of primed spleen cells from hepatitis donor mice did not induce liver lesion in the lymphocyte-depleted mice. This low susceptibility of lymphocyte-depleted recipient mice to primed spleen cells of hepatitis mice was no longer demonstrated after reconstitution with normal spleen cells. In a cell-migration study using 51Cr-labelled spleen cells, it was shown that a considerable number of infiltrating cells in the liver of recipient mice were derived from recipient mice themselves. These results seem to indicate that cell-to-cell interaction between radiosensitive precursor cells of recipient mice and liver-antigen-primed T cells from hepatitis donor mice play an essential role in the induction of liver injury in the recipient mice. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:3052945

  15. BC Transfer System: New Members Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The mandate of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) includes the responsibility to manage and coordinate the British Columbia (BC) Transfer System. Upon its inception in 1989, the Council inherited a Transfer System that included all BC public institutions, Yukon College, and three private institutions. Since then, new…

  16. An Update on the Learning Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Myungweon; Ruona, Wendy E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Learning transfer in organizations is a central issue in HRD. Much of the research of the 1980-1990's informed the development of the learning transfer system inventory (Holton, Bates, & Ruona, 2000). However, it's vitally important to continually enhance our understanding of the learning transfer system. In this paper, we reviewed the new…

  17. Predicting re-involvement for children adopted out of a public child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Some of the approximately 400,000 children currently placed out-of-home in a public child welfare system will not reunify with their family of origin. They may instead be adopted into a new family. Adoption placements can be characterized by poor adjustment for children; some such placements even result in disruption or dissolution. We conducted a stratified Cox regression of 4,016 children from the Colorado public child welfare system. All of the children had a finalized adoption during the years 2002 through 2006. The two outcomes analyzed were new child protection and youth-in-conflict referrals and assessments for these previously adopted children. New child welfare referrals and assessments may be early indicators of poor adjustment for adopted children within the adoptive family. Study results indicate that older children and Hispanic children had higher rates of referral and assessment. Children with a pre-adoption history including longer time out-of-home or a larger number of out-of-home placements also experienced higher referral and assessment rates. Additional factors which predicted subsequent system re-involvement included presence of paid adoption assistance, adoption by a non-relative foster parent and younger adoptive parent age. Several study results were moderated by the presence or absence of an ethnic match between the child and the adoptive parents. We provide an overview of the statistical model used for analysis and we discuss implications of the study results for child welfare practice.

  18. Adoptive transfer of dendritic cells isolated from helminth-infected mice enhanced T regulatory cell responses in airway allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, J-Y; Li, L-Y; Yang, X-Z; Li, J; Zhong, G; Wang, J; Li, L-J; Ji, B; Wu, Z-Q; Liu, H; Yang, X; Liu, P-M

    2011-10-01

    Our and others' previous studies have shown that Schistosoma japonicum (SJ) infection can inhibit allergic reactions. Moreover, we found that adoptive transfer of dendritic cells (DCs) from inhibited mice showed a similar inhibitory effect on allergy, suggesting a critical role of DCs in SJ-infected mediated inhibition of allergy. In this study, we further examined the mechanism by which DCs contribute to inhibition of allergy. Our results showed that DCs from SJ-infected mice (SJDCs) produced significantly higher levels of IL-10 compared to those from naive control mice (NDCs). Adoptive transfer of SJDCs, unlike NDCs, significantly increased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and CD4+CD25+IL-10+ T cells regulatory T-cell responses in vivo. This was correlated with significantly reduced production of IL-4 and IL-5 by CD4+ T cells, eotaxin in lung tissues and reduced airway allergic inflammation in the SJDC recipients following allergen sensitization and challenge. These data suggest that helminth infection may induce tolerogenic DCs that can inhibit the development of airway allergic inflammation through enhancing T regulatory cell responses.

  19. Design of auto-tuning capacitive power transfer system for wireless power transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kai; Kiong Nguang, Sing

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the design of capacitive wireless power transfer systems based on a Class-E inverter approach. The main reason for adopting the Class-E inverter approach is because of its high efficiency, theoretically 100%. However, the operation of a Class-E inverter is highly sensitive to its circuit's parameters. In a typical capacitive wireless power transfer application, the capacitive coupling distance between plates is subject to changes, and hence its power transfer efficiency is greatly affected if the Class-E inverter is properly tuned. This drawback motivates us to develop an auto frequency tuning algorithm for a Class-E inverter which maintains its power transfer efficiency in spite of the variations of capacitive coupling distances between plates and circuit's parameters. Finally, simulation and experiment are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the auto frequency tuning algorithm.

  20. Administrative simplification: adoption of operating rules for health care electronic funds transfers (EFT) and remittance advice transactions. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2012-08-10

    This interim final rule with comment period implements parts of section 1104 of the Affordable Care Act which requires the adoption of operating rules for the health care electronic funds transfers (EFT) and remittance advice transaction.

  1. Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived myeloid suppressor cell (MDSC) adoptive transfer in mouse models of autoimmunity and allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Drujont, Lucile; Carretero-Iglesia, Laura; Bouchet-Delbos, Laurence; Beriou, Gaelle; Merieau, Emmanuel; Hill, Marcelo; Delneste, Yves; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Louvet, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic use of immunoregulatory cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of uncontrolled immunity. During the last decade, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as novel key regulatory players in the context of tumor growth, inflammation, transplantation or autoimmunity. Recently, MDSC have been successfully generated in vitro from naive mouse bone marrow cells or healthy human PBMCs using minimal cytokine combinations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of adoptive transfer of such cells to control auto- and allo-immunity in the mouse. Culture of bone marrow cells with GM-CSF and IL-6 consistently yielded a majority of CD11b+Gr1hi/lo cells exhibiting strong inhibition of CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro. However, adoptive transfer of these cells failed to alter antigen-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in vivo. Furthermore, MDSC could not prevent the development of autoimmunity in a stringent model of type 1 diabetes. Rather, loading the cells prior to injection with a pancreatic neo-antigen peptide accelerated the development of the disease. Contrastingly, in a model of skin transplantation, repeated injection of MDSC or single injection of LPS-activated MDSC resulted in a significant prolongation of allograft survival. The beneficial effect of MDSC infusions on skin graft survival was paradoxically not explained by a decrease of donor-specific T cell response but associated with a systemic over-activation of T cells and antigen presenting cells, prominently in the spleen. Taken together, our results indicate that in vitro generated MDSC bear therapeutic potential but will require additional in vitro factors or adjunct immunosuppressive treatments to achieve safe and more robust immunomodulation upon adoptive transfer.

  2. Enhancement of adoptive T cell transfer with single low dose pretreatment of doxorubicin or paclitaxel in mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Fei-Ting; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Chuang, Hui-Yen; Chang, Ya-Fang; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2015-12-29

    Ex vivo expansion of CD8+ T-cells has been a hindrance for the success of adoptive T cell transfer in clinic. Currently, preconditioning with chemotherapy is used to modulate the patient immunity before ACT, however, the tumor microenvironment beneficial for transferring T cells may also be damaged. Here preconditioning with single low dose of doxorubicin or paclitaxel combined with fewer CD8+ T-cells was investigated to verify whether the same therapeutic efficacy of ACT could be achieved. An E.G7/OT1 animal model that involved adoptive transfer of OVA-specific CD8+ T-cells transduced with a granzyme B promoter-driven firefly luciferase and tomato fluorescent fusion reporter gene was used to evaluate this strategy. The result showed that CD8+ T-cells were activated and sustained longer in mice pretreated with one low-dose Dox or Tax. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy was found in Dox or Tax combined with 2x106 CD8+ T-cells and achieved the same level of tumor growth inhibition as that of 5x106 CD8+ T-cells group. Notably, reduced numbers of Tregs and myeloid derived suppressor cells were shown in combination groups. By contrast, the number of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes and IL-12 were increased. The NF-κB activity and immunosuppressive factors such as TGF-β, IDO, CCL2, VEGF, CCL22, COX-2 and IL-10 were suppressed. This study demonstrates that preconditioning with single low dose Dox or Tax and combined with two fifth of the original CD8+ T-cells could improve the tumor microenvironment via suppression of NF-κB and its related immunosuppressors, and activate more CD8+ T-cells which also stay longer.

  3. Adoptive transfer of MART-1 T cell receptor transgenic lymphocytes and dendritic cell vaccination in patients with metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chodon, Thinle; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Koya, Richard C; Wu, Zhongqi; Auerbach, Martin; Ng, Charles; Avramis, Earl; Seja, Elizabeth; Villanueva, Arturo; McCannel, Tara A.; Ishiyama, Akira; Czernin, Johannes; Radu, Caius G.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gjertson, David W.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wong, Deborah J.L.; Kaplan-lefko, Paula; Hamid, Omid; Samlowski, Wolfram; Cohen, Peter A.; Daniels, Gregory A.; Mukherji, Bijay; Yang, Lili; Zack, Jerome A.; Kohn, Donald B.; Heath, James R.; Glaspy, John A.; Witte, Owen N.; Baltimore, David; Economou, James S.; Ribas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It has been demonstrated that large numbers of tumor-specific T cells for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) can be manufactured by retroviral genetic engineering of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes and expanding them over several weeks. In mouse models, this therapy is optimized when administered with dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. We developed a short one-week manufacture protocol to determine the feasibility, safety and antitumor efficacy of this double cell therapy. Experimnetal Design A clinical trial (NCT00910650) adoptively transferring MART-1 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic lymphocytes together with MART-1 peptide pulsed DC vaccination in HLA-A2.1 patients with metastatic melanoma. Autologous TCR transgenic cells were manufactured in 6 to 7 days using retroviral vector gene transfer, and re-infused with (n = 10) or without (n = 3) prior cryopreservation. Results 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were enrolled and nine out of 13 treated patients (69%) showed evidence of tumor regression. Peripheral blood reconstitution with MART-1-specific T cells peaked within two weeks of ACT indicating rapid in vivo expansion. Administration of freshly manufactured TCR transgenic T cells resulted in a higher persistence of MART-1-specific T cells in the blood as compared to cryopreserved. Evidence that DC vaccination could cause further in vivo expansion was only observed with ACT using non-cryopreserved T cells. Conclusion Double cell therapy with ACT of TCR engineered T cells with a very short ex vivo manipulation and DC vaccines is feasible and results in antitumor activity, but improvements are needed to maintain tumor responses. PMID:24634374

  4. Sodium phenylacetate inhibits adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice at multiple steps.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Subhajit; Zhou, You; Jana, Malabendu; Banik, Naren L; Pahan, Kalipada

    2003-04-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the animal model for multiple sclerosis. The present study underlines the importance of sodium phenylacetate (NaPA), a drug approved for urea cycle disorders, in inhibiting the disease process of adoptively transferred EAE in female SJL/J mice at multiple steps. Myelin basic protein (MBP)-primed T cells alone induced the expression of NO synthase (iNOS) and the activation of NF-kappaB in mouse microglial cells through cell-cell contact. However, pretreatment of MBP-primed T cells with NaPA markedly inhibited its ability to induce microglial expression of iNOS and activation of NF-kappaB. Consistently, adoptive transfer of MBP-primed T cells, but not that of NaPA-pretreated MBP-primed T cells, induced the clinical symptoms of EAE in female SJL/J mice. Furthermore, MBP-primed T cells isolated from NaPA-treated donor mice were also less efficient than MBP-primed T cells isolated from normal donor mice in inducing iNOS in microglial cells and transferring EAE to recipient mice. Interestingly, clinical symptoms of EAE were much less in mice receiving NaPA through drinking water than those without NaPA. Similar to NaPA, sodium phenylbutyrate, a chemically synthesized precursor of NaPA, also inhibited the disease process of EAE. Histological and immunocytochemical analysis showed that NaPA inhibited EAE-induced spinal cord mononuclear cell invasion and normalized iNOS, nitrotyrosine, and p65 (the RelA subunit of NF-kappaB) expression within the spinal cord. Taken together, our results raise the possibility that NaPA or sodium phenylbutyrate taken through drinking water or milk may reduce the observed neuroinflammation and disease process in multiple sclerosis patients.

  5. Transfer function characteristics of super resolving systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, Tom D.; Curtis, Craig H.

    1992-01-01

    Signal quality in an optical storage device greatly depends on the optical system transfer function used to write and read data patterns. The problem is similar to analysis of scanning optical microscopes. Hopkins and Braat have analyzed write-once-read-many (WORM) optical data storage devices. Herein, transfer function analysis of magnetooptic (MO) data storage devices is discussed with respect to improving transfer-function characteristics. Several authors have described improving the transfer function as super resolution. However, none have thoroughly analyzed the MO optical system and effects of the medium. Both the optical system transfer function and effects of the medium of this development are discussed.

  6. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  7. Looking under the Bonnet: Factors Affecting Student Adoption of E-Learning Systems in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbad, Muneer Mahmood; Morris, David; de Nahlik, Carmel

    2009-01-01

    The primary questions addressed in this paper are the following: what are the factors that affect students' adoption of an e-learning system and what are the relationships among these factors? This paper investigates and identifies some of the major factors affecting students' adoption of an e-learning system in a university in Jordan. E-learning…

  8. Improving Adoptive T Cell Therapy: The Particular Role of T Cell Costimulation, Cytokines, and Post-Transfer Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Redeker, Anke; Arens, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) is a form of immunotherapy whereby antigen-specific T cells are isolated or engineered, expanded ex vivo, and transferred back to patients. Clinical benefit after ACT has been obtained in treatment of infection, various hematological malignancies, and some solid tumors; however, due to poor functionality and persistence of the transferred T cells, the efficacy of ACT in the treatment of most solid tumors is often marginal. Hence, much effort is undertaken to improve T cell function and persistence in ACT and significant progress is being made. Herein, we will review strategies to improve ACT success rates in the treatment of cancer and infection. We will deliberate on the most favorable phenotype for the tumor-specific T cells that are infused into patients and on how to obtain T cells bearing this phenotype by applying novel ex vivo culture methods. Moreover, we will discuss T cell function and persistence after transfer into patients and how these factors can be manipulated by means of providing costimulatory signals, cytokines, blocking antibodies to inhibitory molecules, and vaccination. Incorporation of these T cell stimulation strategies and combinations of the different treatment modalities are likely to improve clinical response rates further. PMID:27656185

  9. Improving Adoptive T Cell Therapy: The Particular Role of T Cell Costimulation, Cytokines, and Post-Transfer Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Redeker, Anke; Arens, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) is a form of immunotherapy whereby antigen-specific T cells are isolated or engineered, expanded ex vivo, and transferred back to patients. Clinical benefit after ACT has been obtained in treatment of infection, various hematological malignancies, and some solid tumors; however, due to poor functionality and persistence of the transferred T cells, the efficacy of ACT in the treatment of most solid tumors is often marginal. Hence, much effort is undertaken to improve T cell function and persistence in ACT and significant progress is being made. Herein, we will review strategies to improve ACT success rates in the treatment of cancer and infection. We will deliberate on the most favorable phenotype for the tumor-specific T cells that are infused into patients and on how to obtain T cells bearing this phenotype by applying novel ex vivo culture methods. Moreover, we will discuss T cell function and persistence after transfer into patients and how these factors can be manipulated by means of providing costimulatory signals, cytokines, blocking antibodies to inhibitory molecules, and vaccination. Incorporation of these T cell stimulation strategies and combinations of the different treatment modalities are likely to improve clinical response rates further.

  10. Adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-pulsed dendritic cells protects against the development of experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Matisz, Chelsea E; Leung, Gabriella; Reyes, Jose Luis; Wang, Arthur; Sharkey, Keith A; McKay, Derek M

    2015-11-01

    Infection with helminth parasites and treatment with worm extracts can suppress inflammatory disease, including colitis. Postulating that dendritic cells (DCs) participated in the suppression of inflammation and seeking to move beyond the use of helminths per se, we tested the ability of Hymenolepis diminuta antigen-pulsed DCs to suppress colitis as a novel cell-based immunotherapy. Bone marrow derived DCs pulsed with H. diminuta antigen (HD-DCs), or PBS-, BSA-, or LPS-DCs as controls, were transferred into wild-type (WT), interleukin-10 (IL-10) knock-out (KO), and RAG-1 KO mice, and the impact on dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis and splenic cytokine production assessed 72 h later. Mice receiving HD-DCs were significantly protected from DNBS-induced colitis and of the experimental groups only these mice displayed increased Th2 cytokines and IL-10 production. Adoptive transfer of HD-DCs protected neither RAG-1 nor IL-10 KO mice from DNBS-colitis. Furthermore, the transfer of CD4(+) splenocytes from recipients of HD-DCs protected naïve mice against DNBS-colitis, in an IL-10 dependent manner. Thus, HD-DCs are a novel anti-colitic immunotherapy that can educate anti-colitic CD4(+) T cells: mechanistically, the anti-colitic effect of HD-DCs requires that the host has an adaptive immune response and the ability to mobilize IL-10.

  11. Extending the lifespan and efficacies of immune cells used in adoptive transfer for cancer immunotherapies-A review.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Sandeep; Dasgupta, Prokar; Galustian, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Cells used in adoptive cell-transfer immunotherapies against cancer include dendritic cells (DCs), natural-killer cells, and CD8(+) T-cells. These cells may have limited efficacy due to their lifespan, activity, and immunosuppressive effects of tumor cells. Therefore, increasing longevity and activity of these cells may boost their efficacy. Four cytokines that can extend immune effector-cell longevity are IL-2, IL-7, IL-21, and IL-15. This review will discuss current knowledge on effector-cell lifespans and the mechanisms by which IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 can extend effector-cell longevity. We will also discuss how lifespan and efficacy of these cells can be regulated to allow optimal clinical benefits.

  12. Adopting Industry Standards for Control Systems Within Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, James Scott; Boulanger, Richard

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a description of OPC (Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control) standards for process control and outlines the experiences at JSC with using these standards to interface with I/O hardware from three independent vendors. The I/O hardware was integrated with a commercially available SCADA/HMI software package to make up the control and monitoring system for the Environmental Systems Test Stand (ESTS). OPC standards were utilized for communicating with I/O hardware and the software was used for implementing monitoring, PC-based distributed control, and redundant data storage over an Ethernet physical layer using an embedded din-rail mounted PC.

  13. Suppression of disease in New Zealand Black/New Zealand White lupus-prone mice by adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Scalapino, Kenneth J; Tang, Qizhi; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Bonyhadi, Mark L; Daikh, David I

    2006-08-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that a subset of CD4(+) T cells with regulatory capacity (regulatory T cells; T(regs)) can function to control organ-specific autoimmune disease. To determine whether abnormalities of thymic-derived T(regs) play a role in systemic lupus erythematosus, we evaluated T(reg) prevalence and function in (New Zealand Black x New Zealand White)F(1) (B/W) lupus-prone mice. To explore the potential of T(regs) to suppress disease, we evaluated the effect of adoptive transfer of purified, ex vivo expanded thymic-derived T(regs) on the progression of renal disease. We found that although the prevalence of T(regs) is reduced in regional lymph nodes and spleen of prediseased B/W mice compared with age-matched non-autoimmune mice, these cells increase in number in older diseased mice. In addition, the ability of these cells to proliferate in vitro was comparable to those purified from non-autoimmune control animals. Purified CD4(+)CD25(+)CD62L(high) B/W T(regs) were expanded ex vivo 80-fold, resulting in cells with a stable suppressor phenotype. Adoptive transfer of these exogenously expanded cells reduced the rate at which mice developed renal disease; a second transfer after treated animals had developed proteinuria further slowed the progression of renal disease and significantly improved survival. These studies indicate that thymic-derived T(regs) may have a significant role in the control of autoimmunity in lupus-prone B/W mice, and augmentation of these cells may constitute a novel therapeutic approach for systemic lupus erythematosus.

  14. Phenotype and function of T cells infiltrating visceral metastases from gastrointestinal cancers and melanoma: implications for adoptive cell transfer therapy.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Simon; Gros, Alena; Hogan, Katherine; Tran, Eric; Hinrichs, Christian S; Wunderlich, John R; Dudley, Mark E; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2013-09-01

    Adoptive cell transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate cancer regression in patients with metastatic melanoma, but whether this approach can be applied to common epithelial malignancies remains unclear. In this study, we compared the phenotype and function of TILs derived from liver and lung metastases from patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers (n = 14) or melanoma (n = 42). Fewer CD3(+) T cells were found to infiltrate GI compared with melanoma metastases, but the proportions of CD8(+) cells, T cell differentiation stage, and expression of costimulatory molecules were similar for both tumor types. Clinical-scale expansion up to ~50 × 10(9) T cells on average was obtained for all patients with GI cancer and melanoma. From GI tumors, however, TIL outgrowth in high-dose IL-2 yielded 22 ± 1.4% CD3(+)CD8(+) cells compared with 63 ± 2.4% from melanoma (p < 0.001). IFN-γ ELISA demonstrated MHC class I-mediated reactivity of TIL against autologous tumor in 5 of 7 GI cancer patients tested (9% of 188 distinct TIL cultures) and in 9 of 10 melanoma patients (43% of 246 distinct TIL cultures). In these assays, MHC class I-mediated up-regulation of CD137 (4-1BB) expression on CD8(+) cells suggested that 0-3% of TILs expanded from GI cancer metastases were tumor-reactive. This study implies that the main challenge to the development of TIL adoptive cell transfer for metastatic GI cancers may not be the in vitro expansion of bulk TILs, but the ability to select and enrich for tumor-reactive T cells.

  15. Fate of gamma-interferon-activated killer blood monocytes adoptively transferred into the abdominal cavity of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, H.C.; Keenan, A.M.; Woodhouse, C.; Ottow, R.T.; Miller, P.; Steller, E.P.; Foon, K.A.; Abrams, P.G.; Beman, J.; Larson, S.M.

    1987-11-15

    Five patients with colorectal cancer widely metastatic to peritoneal surfaces have been treated i.p. with infusions of autologous blood monocytes made cytotoxic by in vitro incubation with human gamma-interferon. The monocytes were purified by a combination of cytapheresis and counter-current centrifugal elutriation procedures; each week approximately 350 million activated monocytes were given to patients as adoptive immunotherapy by a single i.p. instillation. On the eighth cycle of treatment the trafficking of i.p. infused blood monocytes was studied in two patients by prelabeling the cells with /sup 111/In. These activated cells became distributed widely within the peritoneal cavity. Two and 5 days after infusion their position within the peritoneum had not changed. When peritoneal specimens were obtained 36 h after /sup 111/In-labeled monocyte infusion, labeled monocytes were demonstrated to be associated with the serosal surfaces by autoradiographic analysis. Scintiscanning structures outside the abdominal cavity revealed that /sup 111/In-labeled monocytes infused i.p. did not traffic to other organs during the 5 days of the study. We conclude that i.p. adoptive transfer of autologous killer blood monocytes is an effective way of delivering these cytotoxic cells to sites of tumor burden on peritoneal surfaces in these cancer patients.

  16. Secondary Teachers' Concerns in Adopting Learning Management Systems: A U.S. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochner, Bianca; Conrad, Rita-Marie; Graham, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the concerns of U.S. secondary teachers regarding the adoption of learning management systems (LMSs) utilizing the concerns-based adoption model (CBAM). The stages of concern questionnaire used enabled the strength of teacher concerns to be measured for seven distinct stages of concerns: awareness, informational, personal,…

  17. University Staff Perspectives on Change Management Strategies in Student Information System Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang-Kosma, Winnie W.

    2010-01-01

    The process of information technology adoption and use is critical to deriving benefits of information technology. Thus, one of the most challenging issues in information systems research is to understand how people have experienced the adoption process that may lead to insights to why they accept or reject the information technology (Davis,…

  18. Promoting Evidence-Based Practices: The Adoption of a Prevention Support System in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Sarah B.; Paddock, Susan M.; Ebener, Patricia; Burkhart, A. K.; Chinman, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Prevention support systems (PSSs) are designed to help communities implement evidence-based practices (EBPs). Little is known about the factors that influence their adoption. In this article, we examined adoption of a PSS for substance abuse prevention called Getting To Outcomes (GTO)[R] among staff in two community coalitions with varying levels…

  19. Deficiency of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 aggravates colitogenic potential of adoptively transferred effector T cells.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Beng San; Saha, Piu; Singh, Vishal; Xiao, Xia; Ying, Yun; Vanamala, Jairam K; Kennett, Mary J; Harvatine, Kevin J; Joe, Bina; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2016-10-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is a lipogenic enzyme involved in the de novo biosynthesis of oleate (C18:1, n9), a major fatty acid in the phospholipids of lipid bilayers of cell membranes. Accordingly, Scd1KO mice display substantially reduced oleate in cell membranes. An altered SCD1 level was observed during intestinal inflammation; however, its role in modulating inflammatory bowel disease remains elusive. Herein, we investigated the colitogenic capacity of Scd1KO effector T cells by employing the adoptive T-cell transfer colitis model. Splenic effector T cells (CD4(+)CD25(-)) from age- and sex-matched wild-type (WT) and Scd1KO mice were isolated by FACS and intraperitoneally administered to Rag1KO mice, which were monitored for the development of colitis. At day 60 postcell transfer, Rag1KO mice that received Scd1KO CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells displayed accelerated and exacerbated colitis than mice receiving WT CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. Intriguingly, Scd1KO CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells display augmented inflammatory cytokine profile and cellular membrane fluidity with a concomitant increase in proinflammatory saturated fatty acids, which we postulate to potentially underlie their augmented colitogenic potential.

  20. Deletion of Plasmodium berghei-Specific CD4+ T Cells Adoptively Transferred into Recipient Mice after Challenge with Homologous Parasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirunpetcharat, Chakrit; Good, Michael F.

    1998-02-01

    The immune response to malaria parasites includes T cell responses that reduce parasites by effector T cell responses and by providing help for antibody responses. Some parasites are more sensitive to antibody and others are more sensitive to cell-mediated immunity. We demonstrate that cultured CD4+ T cells that produce interferon CD4+ and interleukin 2, but not interleukin 4, in response to stimulation with the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei can reduce but not eliminate parasites in vivo after adoptive transfer. Although cells can persist in vivo for up to 9 months in uninfected mice, infection results in elimination of up to 99% of specific T cells in different tissues, as judged by tracking T cells labeled with the fluorescent dye 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. T cells specific for ovalbumin are unaffected. In vivo activation and division of transferred T cells per se are not responsible for deletion because T cells positive for 5-(and -6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester divide up to six times within 7 days in uninfected mice and are not deleted. Understanding the factors responsible for parasite-mediated specific deletion of T cells would enhance our knowledge of parasite immunity.

  1. Lunox storage and transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This semester, efforts were concentrated on the design of the Lunox transfer line from the storage area to the launch site. Emphasis was placed on flow and heat transfer problems and their remedies by reducing the effect of radiation by selecting materials for storage tanks, transfer lines and insulation. The design for the storage tank was based on a medium sized Lunox production facility of 6,000 metric tons per year and the frequency of transportation of Lunox from lunar launch site to lower lunar orbit of four launches per month. The design included the selection of materials for cryogenic storage, insulation and radiation shielding. Lunox was pumped to the storage area near the launch site through a piping network designed for maximum mass flow rate with a minimum boil off. The entire network incorporated specially designed radiation shields made of material which was lightweight and low in secondary radiation.

  2. Wheels for the Future: Should the U.S. Army Adopt an Armored Wheeled System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-05

    firepower, maneuver, and protection. These three measurements of combat power are more defined in six inherent capabilities of armored wheeled systems...AD-A234 372 Wheuls for the Future: Should the U.S. Army Adopt ar, Armored Wheeled System? A MonograpL by Major Glenn Davis Infantry School of...TITLE (nudScutClassification) Wheels For the ýFuture-- Should the US Army Adopt an Armored Wncc led Sybtem?, 2, PERSONAL AUTHCOI S ’ATIA Glenn W, Davis

  3. Vaccination of Lewis rats with temperature-sensitive mutants of Mycoplasma pulmonis: adoptive transfer of immunity by spleen cells but not by sera.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, W C; Bennett, M; Lu, Y S; Pakes, S P

    1991-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutant vaccines protect rats against Mycoplasma pulmonis infection. The role of the humoral or cellular immune response in resistance to mycoplasma infection was investigated by adoptive-transfer experiments. Spleen cells from Lewis rats vaccinated but not challenged with wild-type organisms (vaccinated) and spleen cells from rats vaccinated (or not) and challenged were effective in preventing syngeneic recipients from developing respiratory disease. There was also a significant reduction in the incidence and number of challenging organisms in the respiratory system. In contrast, sera from the same donors had no detectable effect on the number of mycoplasmas recovered or on lesion development in the respiratory tract. We conclude that cellular immunity rather than humoral immunity generated in vaccinated rats confers protection against subsequent infection. PMID:1987049

  4. Saturn facility oil transfer automation system

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Nathan R.; Thomas, Rayburn Dean; Lewis, Barbara Ann; Malagon, Hector M.

    2014-02-01

    The Saturn accelerator, owned by Sandia National Laboratories, has been in operation since the early 1980s and still has many of the original systems. A critical legacy system is the oil transfer system which transfers 250,000 gallons of transformer oil from outside storage tanks to the Saturn facility. The oil transfer system was iden- ti ed for upgrade to current technology standards. Using the existing valves, pumps, and relay controls, the system was automated using the National Instruments cRIO FGPA platform. Engineered safety practices, including a failure mode e ects analysis, were used to develop error handling requirements. The uniqueness of the Saturn Oil Automated Transfer System (SOATS) is in the graphical user interface. The SOATS uses an HTML interface to communicate to the cRIO, creating a platform independent control system. The SOATS was commissioned in April 2013.

  5. The intrinsic features of Environmental Management Systems that facilitate adoption and encourage innovation in primary industries.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Genevieve; Vanclay, Frank

    2012-11-15

    This paper examines the theoretical underpinnings of the adoption of innovations, and applies this knowledge to the uptake of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) amongst Australian farmers. We examine the specific features of the EMS process that might encourage or inhibit EMS adoption. We also consider elements of the EMS process to assess their utility in promoting adoption of various other innovations. We evaluate the EMS process in the light of two characteristics previously found to influence adoption of improved natural resource management practices - 'relative advantage' and 'trialability'. Drawing on literature, and our research and experience with farmers, we conclude that there are inherent features of EMS that promote the adoption of new practices, and that the elements of the EMS process actually create an on-going process of culture change as it is implemented. We believe that the EMS process offers significant advantages to farmers seeking to improve production whilst simultaneously meeting societal expectations for enhanced natural resource management.

  6. [How to carry out work on family planning after adopting production responsibility systems in rural areas].

    PubMed

    Xiao, S H

    1982-05-29

    After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful.

  7. Preparation for a Clinical Trial Using Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TGF_Beta-Insensitive CD8+ T Cells for Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    W81XWH-05-1-0450 TITLE: Preparation for a Clinical Trial Using Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TGF_Beta-Insensitive CD8+ T Cells for...CONTRACT NUMBER Preparation for a Clinical Trial Using Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TGF_Beta-Insensitive CD8+ T Cells for Treatment of Prostate...technology to clinical trial. At present, I have submitted a R21/R33 application to NCI for a combination of pre-clinical and clinical trial for the use of

  8. Exploring the business case for ambulatory electronic health record system adoption.

    PubMed

    Song, Paula H; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Robbins, Julie; McCullough, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    Widespread implementation and use of electronic health record (EHR) systems has been recognized by healthcare leaders as a cornerstone strategy for systematically reducing medical errors and improving clinical quality. However, EHR adoption requires a significant capital investment for healthcare providers, and cost is often cited as a barrier. Despite the capital requirements, a true business case for EHR system adoption and implementation has not been made. This is of concern, as the lack of a business case can influence decision making about EHR investments. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of business case analysis in healthcare organizations' decisions to invest in ambulatory EHR systems, and to identify what factors organizations considered when justifying an ambulatory EHR. Using a qualitative case study approach, we explored how five organizations that are considered to have best practices in ambulatory EHR system implementation had evaluated the business case for EHR adoption. We found that although the rigor of formal business case analysis was highly variable, informants across these organizations consistently reported perceiving that a positive business case for EHR system adoption existed, especially when they considered both financial and non-financial benefits. While many consider EHR system adoption inevitable in healthcare, this viewpoint should not deter managers from conducting a business case analysis. Results of such an analysis can inform healthcare organizations' understanding about resource allocation needs, help clarify expectations about financial and clinical performance metrics to be monitored through EHR systems, and form the basis for ongoing organizational support to ensure successful system implementation.

  9. Adoptive Transfer of Tumor-Specific Tc17 Effector T Cells Controls the Growth of B16 Melanoma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez, Maria; Hamada, Hiromasa; Reome, Joyce B.; Misra, Sara K.; Tighe, Michael P.; Dutton, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro generated OVA-specific IL-17–producing CD8 T effector cells (Tc17) from OT-1 mice, adoptively transferred into B16-OVA tumor-bearing mice, controlled tumor growth in early and late stage melanoma. IL-17, TNF, and IFN-γ from the Tc17 effectors all played a role in an enhanced recruitment of T cells, neutrophils, and macrophages to the tumor. In addition, Tc17 cells and recently recruited, activated neutrophils produced further chemokines, including CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10, responsible for the attraction of type 1 lymphocytes (Th1 and Tc1) and additional neutrophils. Neutrophils were rapidly attracted to the tumor site by an IL-17 dependent mechanism, but at later stages the induction of the chemokine CXCL2 by Tc17-derived TNF and IFN-γ contributed to sustain neutrophil recruitment. Approximately 10–50 times as many Tc17 effectors were required compared with Tc1 effectors to exert the same level of control over tumor growth. The recruitment of neutrophils was more prominent when Tc17 rather than Tc1 were used to control tumor and depletion of neutrophils resulted in a diminished capacity to control tumor growth. PMID:20237297

  10. Adoption and utilization of electronic health record systems by long-term care facilities in Texas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiankai; Biedermann, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) is an important sector in the healthcare industry; however, the adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems in LTC facilities lags behind that in other sectors of healthcare. This study examines the adoption and utilization of EHRs in LTC facilities in Texas and identifies the barriers preventing implementation of EHRs. A survey instrument was mailed to all Texas LTC facilities between October 2010 and March 2011. The survey found that in Texas, 39.5 percent of LTC facilities have fully or partially implemented EHR systems and 15 percent of LTC facilities have no plans to adopt EHRs yet. There is significant variation in the use of EHR functionalities across the LTC facilities in Texas. In the LTC facilities, the administrative functions of EHRs have been more widely adopted and are more widely utilized than the clinical functions of EHRs. Among the clinical functions adopted, the resident assessment, physician orders, care management plan, and census management are the leading functions used by the LTC facilities in Texas. Lack of capital resources is still the greatest barrier to EHR adoption and implementation. Policy makers, vendors, LTC administrators, educators, and researchers should make more effort to improve EHR adoption in LTC facilities.

  11. Insight into a reversible energy transfer system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming Xuan; Zou, Hong Yan; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Yue; Li, Na; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-09-15

    Resonance energy transfer (RET) processes have wide applications; these processes involve a unidirectional energy transfer from a particular donor to a particular acceptor. Here, we report a plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET), which occurs from the surface of gold nanoparticles to fluorescent organic dyes, and coexists with a nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) that operates in the reverse direction. The coexistence of both PRET and NSET in opposite directions means that the roles of both donor and acceptor can be interchanged, which could be identified by using spectrofluorometric measurements and light scattering dark field microscopic imaging. The experimental data could be further theoretically supported using Persson and Lang's model, the quasi-static approximation and finite-difference time-domain simulation. Moreover, disruption of the PRET process by altering the energy transfer pairs suggests that interactions occur inside the reversible energy transfer system, which manifest by increasing the fluorescence quenching efficiency of the NSET process.

  12. Combined IL-15 and IL-12 drives the generation of CD34(+)-derived natural killer cells with superior maturation and alloreactivity potential following adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Cany, Jeannette; van der Waart, Anniek B; Spanholtz, Jan; Tordoir, Marleen; Jansen, Joop H; van der Voort, Robbert; Schaap, Nicolaas M; Dolstra, Harry

    2015-07-01

    Adoptive transfer of allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells represents a promising treatment approach against cancer, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previously, we reported a cytokine-based culture method for the generation of NK cell products with high cell number and purity. In this system, CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) were expanded and differentiated into NK cells under stroma-free conditions in the presence of IL-15 and IL-2. We show that combining IL-15 with IL-12 drives the generation of more mature and highly functional NK cells. In particular, replacement of IL-2 by IL-12 enhanced the cytolytic activity and IFNγ production of HPC-NK cells toward cultured and primary AML cells in vitro, and improved antileukemic responses in NOD/SCID-IL2Rγnull (NSG) mice bearing human AML cells. Phenotypically, IL-12 increased the frequency of HPC-NK cells expressing NKG2A and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR), which were more responsive to target cell stimulation. In addition, NK15/12 cell products demonstrated superior maturation potential, resulting in >70% positivity for CD16 and/or KIR within 2 weeks after infusion into NSG mice. We predict that higher functionality and faster in vivo maturation will favor HPC-NK cell alloreactivity toward malignant cells in patients, making this cytokine combination an attractive strategy to generate clinical HPC-NK cell products for cancer adoptive immunotherapy.

  13. Electron transfer and energy transfer through bridged systems. I. Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, J. R.; Hush, N. S.

    1989-07-01

    A time-dependent formalism is developed for reactions in which energy (vibrational or electronic excitation, electron or hole transfer, etc.) is transferred coherently between centres through a bridge. This approach is inspired by the Robinson and Frosch model of energy transfer within two-level systems. This formalism yields a completely general algorithm which, in particular limits, reduces to a generalised form of both Fermi's golden rule and Rabi's rate equation, and, in so doing, unifies many existing theories. It is shown that, only in the limit of the bridge states being non-resonant with the initial and final states, can the full problem be represented by an effective two-level model. Existing methods based upon Löwdin diagonalization are shown to be appropriate only when this limit applies, and ambiguities which arise from the ad hoc nature of these methods are resolved. Also, it is typically only in this limit that the transfer of energy proceeds exponentially in time and can be described by a simple single-parameter rate constant. Only problems which can be modelled using a single set of quantum numbers are treated in this paper. Applications and more general problems are treated in subsequent papers.

  14. 77 FR 49991 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... 3245-AG47 Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System... North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), identified as NAICS 2012, into its table of small..., replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System, effective October 1, 2000 (65 FR 30836 (May...

  15. Open Online System Adoption in K-12 as a Democratising Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, Royce

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to understand how district size and wealth factors influence the adoption of open-source online systems in primary and secondary (K-12) education. Most schools now utilise online systems (e.g. CMS, LMS, SIS) for a number of purposes, and it is anticipated that no-cost and open-source systems could be of great value for…

  16. Efficient tumor regression by adoptively transferred CEA-specific CAR-T cells associated with symptoms of mild cytokine release syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linan; Ma, Ning; Okamoto, Sachiko; Amaishi, Yasunori; Sato, Eiichi; Seo, Naohiro; Mineno, Junichi; Takesako, Kazutoh; Kato, Takuma; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell surface antigen highly expressed in various cancer cell types and in healthy tissues. It has the potential to be a target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cell therapy; however, the safety of this approach in terms of on-target/off-tumor effects needs to be determined. To address this issue in a clinically relevant model, we used a mouse model in which the T cells expressing CEA-specific CAR were transferred into tumor-bearing CEA-transgenic (Tg) mice that physiologically expressed CEA as a self-antigen. The adoptive transfer in conjunction with lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning mediated significant tumor regression but caused weight loss in CEA-Tg, but not in wild-type mice. The weight loss was not associated with overt inflammation in the CEA-expressing gastrointestinal tract but was associated with malnutrition, reflected in elevated systemic levels of cytokines linked to anorexia, which could be controlled by the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody without compromising efficacy. The apparent relationship between lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning, efficacy, and off-tumor toxicity of CAR-T cells would necessitate the development of CEA-specific CAR-T cells with improved signaling domains that require less stringent preconditioning for their efficacy. Taken together, these results suggest that CEA-specific CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy may be effective for patients with CEA(+) solid tumors. Distinguishing the fine line between therapeutic efficacy and off-tumor toxicity would involve further modifications of CAR-T cells and preconditioning regimens.

  17. Intestinal barrier dysfunction develops at the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and can be induced by adoptive transfer of auto-reactive T cells.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mehrnaz; Bredberg, Anders; Weström, Björn; Lavasani, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a pathogenesis involving a dysfunctional blood-brain barrier and myelin-specific, autoreactive T cells. Although the commensal microbiota seems to affect its pathogenesis, regulation of the interactions between luminal antigens and mucosal immune elements remains unclear. Herein, we investigated whether the intestinal mucosal barrier is also targeted in this disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the prototypic animal model of MS, was induced either by active immunization or by adoptive transfer of autoreactive T cells isolated from these mice. We show increased intestinal permeability, overexpression of the tight junction protein zonulin and alterations in intestinal morphology (increased crypt depth and thickness of the submucosa and muscularis layers). These intestinal manifestations were seen at 7 days (i.e., preceding the onset of neurological symptoms) and at 14 days (i.e., at the stage of paralysis) after immunization. We also demonstrate an increased infiltration of proinflammatory Th1/Th17 cells and a reduced regulatory T cell number in the gut lamina propria, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. Adoptive transfer to healthy mice of encephalitogenic T cells, isolated from EAE-diseased animals, led to intestinal changes similar to those resulting from the immunization procedure. Our findings show that disruption of intestinal homeostasis is an early and immune-mediated event in EAE. We propose that this intestinal dysfunction may act to support disease progression, and thus represent a potential therapeutic target in MS. In particular, an increased understanding of the regulation of tight junctions at the blood-brain barrier and in the intestinal wall may be crucial for design of future innovative therapies.

  18. Efficient tumor regression by adoptively transferred CEA-specific CAR-T cells associated with symptoms of mild cytokine release syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linan; Ma, Ning; Okamoto, Sachiko; Amaishi, Yasunori; Sato, Eiichi; Seo, Naohiro; Mineno, Junichi; Takesako, Kazutoh; Kato, Takuma; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell surface antigen highly expressed in various cancer cell types and in healthy tissues. It has the potential to be a target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cell therapy; however, the safety of this approach in terms of on-target/off-tumor effects needs to be determined. To address this issue in a clinically relevant model, we used a mouse model in which the T cells expressing CEA-specific CAR were transferred into tumor-bearing CEA-transgenic (Tg) mice that physiologically expressed CEA as a self-antigen. The adoptive transfer in conjunction with lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning mediated significant tumor regression but caused weight loss in CEA-Tg, but not in wild-type mice. The weight loss was not associated with overt inflammation in the CEA-expressing gastrointestinal tract but was associated with malnutrition, reflected in elevated systemic levels of cytokines linked to anorexia, which could be controlled by the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody without compromising efficacy. The apparent relationship between lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning, efficacy, and off-tumor toxicity of CAR-T cells would necessitate the development of CEA-specific CAR-T cells with improved signaling domains that require less stringent preconditioning for their efficacy. Taken together, these results suggest that CEA-specific CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy may be effective for patients with CEA+ solid tumors. Distinguishing the fine line between therapeutic efficacy and off-tumor toxicity would involve further modifications of CAR-T cells and preconditioning regimens. PMID:27757303

  19. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruella, Marco; Kalos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical success has underscored the potential for immunotherapy based on the adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of engineered T lymphocytes to mediate dramatic, potent, and durable clinical responses. This success has led to the broader evaluation of engineered T-lymphocyte-based adoptive cell therapy to treat a broad range of malignancies. In this review, we summarize concepts, successes, and challenges for the broader development of this promising field, focusing principally on lessons gleaned from immunological principles and clinical thought. We present ACT in the context of integrating T-cell and tumor biology and the broader systemic immune response.

  20. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.

  1. An HSV-2 based oncolytic virus can function as an attractant to guide migration of adoptively transferred T cells to tumor sites.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinping; Rivera, Armando; Tao, Lihua; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2015-01-20

    Adoptive T-cell therapy has shown promises for cancer treatment. However, for treating solid tumors, there is a need for improving the ability of the adoptively transferred T cells to home to tumor sites. We explored the possibility of using an oncolytic virus derived from HSV-2, which can actively pull T effector cells to the site of infection, as a local attractant for migration of adoptively transferred T cells. Our data show that intratumoral administration of this virus can indeed attract active migration of the adoptively transferred T cells to the treated tumor. Moreover, once attracted to the tumor site by the virus, T cells persisted in there significantly longer than in mock-treated tumor. Chemokine profiling identified significant elevation of CXCL9 and CXCL10, as well as several other chemokines belonging to the inflammatory chemokine family in the virus-treated tumors. These chemokines initially guided the T-cell migration to and then maintained their persistence in the tumor site, leading to a significantly enhanced therapeutic effect. Our data suggests that this virotherapy may be combined with adoptive T-cell therapy to potentiate its therapeutic effect against solid tumors that are otherwise difficult to manage with the treatment alone.

  2. External factors in hospital information system (HIS) adoption model: a case on Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heng Wei; Ramayah, Thurasamy; Zakaria, Nasriah

    2012-08-01

    Studies related to healthcare ICT integration in Malaysia are relatively little, thus this paper provide a literature review of the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the healthcare sector in Malaysia through the hospital information system (HIS). Our study emphasized on secondary data to investigate the factors related to ICT integration in healthcare through HIS. Therefore this paper aimed to gather an in depth understanding of issues related to HIS adoption, and contributing in fostering HIS adoption in Malaysia and other countries. This paper provides a direction for future research to study the correlation of factors affecting HIS adoption. Finally a research model is proposed using current adoption theories and external factors from human, technology, and organization perspectives.

  3. Estimating The Rate of Technology Adoption for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffmann, Paul; Stough, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    In February 1997, President Clinton announced a national goal to reduce the weather related fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% in ten years. To support that goal, NASA established an Aviation Weather Information Distribution and Presentation Project to develop technologies that will provide timely and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers. This information should enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards and support an improvement in the fatal accident rate related to weather. A critical issue in the success of NASA's weather information program is the rate at which the market place will adopt this new weather information technology. This paper examines that question by developing estimated adoption curves for weather information systems in five critical aviation segments: commercial, commuter, business, general aviation, and rotorcraft. The paper begins with development of general product descriptions. Using this data, key adopters are surveyed and estimates of adoption rates are obtained. These estimates are regressed to develop adoption curves and equations for weather related information systems. The paper demonstrates the use of adoption rate curves in product development and research planning to improve managerial decision processes and resource allocation.

  4. Adoptive transfer of Tc1 or Tc17 cells elicits antitumor immunity against established melanoma through distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yu; Cho, Hyun-Ii; Wang, Dapeng; Kaosaard, Kane; Anasetti, Claudio; Celis, Esteban; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2013-02-15

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of ex vivo-activated autologous tumor-reactive T cells is currently one of the most promising approaches for cancer immunotherapy. Recent studies provided some evidence that IL-17-producing CD8(+) (Tc17) cells may exhibit potent antitumor activity, but the specific mechanisms have not been completely defined. In this study, we used a murine melanoma lung-metastasis model and tested the therapeutic effects of gp100-specific polarized type I CD8(+) cytotoxic T (Tc1) or Tc17 cells combined with autologous bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation. Bone marrow transplantation combined with ACT of antitumor (gp100-specific) Tc17 cells significantly suppressed the growth of established melanoma, whereas Tc1 cells induced long-term tumor regression. After ACT, Tc1 cells maintained their phenotype to produce IFN-γ, but not IL-17. However, although Tc17 cells largely preserved their ability to produce IL-17, a subset secreted IFN-γ or both IFN-γ and IL-17, indicating the plasticity of Tc17 cells in vivo. Furthermore, after ACT, the Tc17 cells had a long-lived effector T cell phenotype (CD127(hi)/KLRG-1(low)) as compared with Tc1 cells. Mechanistically, Tc1 cells mediated antitumor immunity primarily through the direct effect of IFN-γ on tumor cells. In contrast, despite the fact that some Tc17 cells also secreted IFN-γ, Tc17-mediated antitumor immunity was independent of the direct effects of IFN-γ on the tumor. Nevertheless, IFN-γ played a critical role by creating a microenvironment that promoted Tc17-mediated antitumor activity. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that both Tc1 and Tc17 cells can mediate effective antitumor immunity through distinct effector mechanisms, but Tc1 cells are superior to Tc17 cells in mediating tumor regression.

  5. High vitamin D3 diet administered during active colitis negatively affects bone metabolism in an adoptive T cell transfer model

    PubMed Central

    Larmonier, C. B.; McFadden, R.-M. T.; Hill, F. M.; Schreiner, R.; Ramalingam, R.; Besselsen, D. G.; Ghishan, F. K.

    2013-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) represents an extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D3 has been considered a viable adjunctive therapy in IBD. However, vitamin D3 plays a pleiotropic role in bone modeling and regulates the bone formation-resorption balance, depending on the physiological environment, and supplementation during active IBD may have unintended consequences. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation during the active phase of disease on colonic inflammation, BMD, and bone metabolism in an adoptive IL-10−/− CD4+ T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 days during established disease had negligible effects on mucosal inflammation. Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites correlated with diet, but not disease, status. Colitis significantly reduced BMD. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not affect cortical bone but led to a further deterioration of trabecular bone morphology. In mice fed a high vitamin D3 diet, colitis more severely impacted bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and increased bone resorption markers, ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand to osteoprotegrin transcript, plasma osteoprotegrin level, and the osteoclast activation marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACp5). Bone vitamin D receptor expression was increased in mice with chronic colitis, especially in the high vitamin D3 group. Our data suggest that vitamin D3, at a dose that does not improve inflammation, has no beneficial effects on bone metabolism and density during active colitis or may adversely affect BMD and bone turnover. These observations should be taken into consideration in the planning of further clinical studies with high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with active IBD. PMID:23639807

  6. A Model for Instructors' Adoption of Learning Management Systems: Empirical Validation in Higher Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findik Coskuncay, Duygu; Ozkan, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    Through the rapid expansion of information technologies, Learning Management Systems have become one of the most important innovations for delivering education. However, successful implementation and management of these systems are primarily based on the instructors' adoption. In this context, this study aims to understand behavioral intentions…

  7. Use and Adoption of an Assisted Cognition System to Support Therapies for People with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Favela, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive deficits in persons with dementia (PwD) can produce significant functional impairment from early stages. Although memory decline is most prominent, impairments in attention, orientation, language, reasoning, and executive functioning are also common. Dementia is also characterized by changes in personality and behavioral functioning that can be very challenging for caregivers and patients. This paper presents results on the use and adoption of an assisted cognition system to support occupational therapy to address psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia. During 16 weeks, we conducted an in situ evaluation with two caregiver-PwD dyads to assess the adoption and effectiveness of the system to ameliorate challenging behaviors and reducing caregiver burden. Evaluation results indicate that intervention personalization and a touch-based interface encouraged the adoption of the system, helping reduce challenging behaviors in PwD and caregiver burden. PMID:27648106

  8. Use and Adoption of an Assisted Cognition System to Support Therapies for People with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Navarro, René F; Rodríguez, Marcela D; Favela, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive deficits in persons with dementia (PwD) can produce significant functional impairment from early stages. Although memory decline is most prominent, impairments in attention, orientation, language, reasoning, and executive functioning are also common. Dementia is also characterized by changes in personality and behavioral functioning that can be very challenging for caregivers and patients. This paper presents results on the use and adoption of an assisted cognition system to support occupational therapy to address psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia. During 16 weeks, we conducted an in situ evaluation with two caregiver-PwD dyads to assess the adoption and effectiveness of the system to ameliorate challenging behaviors and reducing caregiver burden. Evaluation results indicate that intervention personalization and a touch-based interface encouraged the adoption of the system, helping reduce challenging behaviors in PwD and caregiver burden.

  9. Adoptive Transfer of Treg Cells Combined with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitates Repopulation of Endogenous Treg Cells in a Murine Acute GVHD Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sol; Lim, Jung-Yeon; Im, Keon-Il; Kim, Nayoun; Nam, Young-Sun; Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of combined cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have recently been studied in acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) models. However, the underlying, seemingly synergistic mechanism behind combined cell therapy has not been determined. We investigated the origin of Foxp3+ Treg cells and interleukin 17 (IL-17+) cells in recipients following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) to identify the immunological effects of combined cell therapy. Treg cells were generated from eGFP-expressing C57BL/6 mice (Tregegfp cells) to distinguish the transferred Treg cells; recipients were then examined at different time points after BMT. Systemic infusion of MSCs and Treg cells improved survival and GVHD scores, effectively downregulating pro-inflammatory Th×and Th17 cells. These therapeutic effects of combined cell therapy resulted in an increased Foxp3+ Treg cell population. Compared to single cell therapy, adoptively transferred Tregegfp cells only showed prolonged survival in the combined cell therapy group on day 21 after allogeneic BMT. In addition, Foxp3+ Treg cells, generated endogenously from recipients, significantly increased. Significantly higher levels of Tregegfp cells were also detected in aGVHD target organs in the combined cell therapy group compared to the Treg cells group. Thus, our data indicate that MSCs may induce the long-term survival of transferred Treg cells, particularly in aGVHD target organs, and may increase the repopulation of endogenous Treg cells in recipients after BMT. Together, these results support the potential of combined cell therapy using MSCs and Treg cells for preventing aGVHD.

  10. Level of Adoption of Quality Management Systems Into the Mexican Pork Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Siman, Em; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; Núñez-Domínguez, Rafael; González-Alcorta, Mariano; Hernández-Rodríguez, Bertha Alicia

    This research studies the characteristics of the Mexican pork sector; adoption status of quality management systems, and product destinations. Ninety six percent of fifty enterprises have fully answered a questionnaire. Ninety percent are small and medium-sized, the rest are large-sized firms. Nineteen percent of them have totally adopted HACCP, sixty three percent are implementing or planning to do it, the rest have no plans to adopt it. Thirteen percent of the enterprises had ISO 9000. Thirty four percent of their sales go to supermarkets, 57% to other retail chains and 9% to exportation. Product destinations are mainly Central America, United States of America, Asia and Mexico. To improve efficiency and the quality of process it is necessary to implement HACCP. Besides, customers and legal requirements are the external factors, which result in this adoption. In the process of implementing, there are some problems, such as staff motivation and training. The results suggest that HACCP system operating is important for the Mexican pork industry. It also has relevant implications in domestic trade. It is necessary to encourage adoption of quality management systems in the sector.

  11. Critical Factors Influencing Decision to Adopt Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Beh, Loo-See; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore factors influencing the management decisions to adopt human resource information system (HRIS) in the hospital industry of Bangladesh—an emerging developing country. To understand this issue, this paper integrates two prominent adoption theories—Human-Organization-Technology fit (HOT-fit) model and Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework. Thirteen factors under four dimensions were investigated to explore their influence on HRIS adoption decisions in hospitals. Employing non-probability sampling method, a total of 550 copies of structured questionnaires were distributed among HR executives of 92 private hospitals in Bangladesh. Among the respondents, usable questionnaires were 383 that suggesting a valid response rate of 69.63%. We classify the sample into 3 core groups based on the HRIS initial implementation, namely adopters, prospectors, and laggards. The obtained results specify 5 most critical factors i.e. IT infrastructure, top management support, IT capabilities of staff, perceived cost, and competitive pressure. Moreover, the most significant dimension is technological dimension followed by organisational, human, and environmental among the proposed 4 dimensions. Lastly, the study found existence of significant differences in all factors across different adopting groups. The study results also expose constructive proposals to researchers, hospitals, and the government to enhance the likelihood of adopting HRIS. The present study has important implications in understanding HRIS implementation in developing countries. PMID:27494334

  12. Design Criteria for Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-26

    This document provides the criteria for the design and installation of a Bagless Transfer System (BTS); Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and Supercritical Fluid Extraction System (SFE). The project consists of 3 major modules: (1) Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Module; (2) Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and (3) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) Module.

  13. Transfer Function Control for Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for acquiring biometric data may include circuitry operative to receive an input signal indicative of a biometric condition, the circuitry being configured to process the input signal according to a transfer function thereof and to provide a corresponding processed input signal. A controller is configured to provide at least one control signal to the circuitry to programmatically modify the transfer function of the modular system to facilitate acquisition of the biometric data.

  14. Maximizing energy transfer in vibrofluidized granular systems.

    PubMed

    Windows-Yule, C R K; Rosato, A D; Parker, D J; Thornton, A R

    2015-05-01

    Using discrete particle simulations validated by experimental data acquired using the positron emission particle tracking technique, we study the efficiency of energy transfer from a vibrating wall to a system of discrete, macroscopic particles. We demonstrate that even for a fixed input energy from the wall, energy conveyed to the granular system under excitation may vary significantly dependent on the frequency and amplitude of the driving oscillations. We investigate the manner in which the efficiency with which energy is transferred to the system depends on the system variables and determine the key control parameters governing the optimization of this energy transfer. A mechanism capable of explaining our results is proposed, and the implications of our findings in the research field of granular dynamics as well as their possible utilization in industrial applications are discussed.

  15. Adoptive transfer of allogeneic liver sinusoidal endothelial cells specifically inhibits T-cell responses to cognate stimuli.

    PubMed

    Banshodani, Masataka; Onoe, Takashi; Shishida, Masayuki; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Shinji; Igarashi, Yuka; Tanaka, Yuka; Ohdan, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that liver allografts are often accepted by recipients, leading to donor-specific tolerance of further organ transplants, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We had previously used an in vitro model and showed that mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) selectively suppress allospecific T-cells across major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barriers. In the present study, we established an in vivo model for evaluating the immunomodulatory effects of allogeneic LSECs on corresponding T-cells. Allogeneic BALB/cA LSECs were injected intraportally into recombination activating gene 2 γ-chain double-knockout (RAG2/gc-KO, H-2(b)) mice lacking T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. In order to facilitate LSEC engraftment, the RAG2/gc-KO mice were injected intraperitoneally with monocrotaline 2 days before the adoptive transfer of LSECs; this impaired the host LSECs, conferring a proliferative advantage to the transplanted LSECs. After orthotopic allogeneic LSEC engraftment, the RAG2/gc-KO mice were immune reconstituted intravenously with C57BL/6 splenocytes. After immune reconstitution, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay using splenocytes from the recipients revealed that specific inhibition of host CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation was greater in response to allostimulation with irradiated BALB/cA splenocytes rather than to stimulation with irradiated third party SJL/jorllco splenocytes. This inhibitory effect was attenuated by administering anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody during immune reconstitution in the above-mentioned mice, but not in RAG2/gc-KO mice engrafted with Fas ligand (FasL)-deficient BALB/cA LSECs. Furthermore, engraftment of allogeneic BALB/cA LSECs significantly prolonged the survival of subsequently grafted cognate allogeneic BALB/cA hearts in RAG2/gc-KO mice immune reconstituted with bone marrow transplantation from C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, murine LSECs have been proven

  16. Energy transfer in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelbring, H.

    2013-12-01

    Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

  17. Factors Predicting Oncology Care Providers' Behavioral Intention to Adopt Clinical Decision Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfenden, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine the predictors of user behavioral intention on the decision of oncology care providers to adopt or reject the clinical decision support system. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) formed the foundation of the research model and survey instrument. The…

  18. A Social System Analysis of Beautification Project Adoption in Two Wisconsin Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apps, Darrel Arvin

    A study was made to identify factors which contribute to community interest in, and adoption of, beautification projects and to identify personal and social characteristics of participants, related to a broad interpretation of beautification. A social system analysis approach was used as the framework of the study. Two Wisconsin cities' social…

  19. Factors Related to Faculty Members' Attitude and Adoption of a Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichadee, Saovapa

    2015-01-01

    Learning Management Systems (LMS) play a crucial role in organizing the course contents. However, some instructors use LMS in their classes while some do not. This study aimed to discover the factors in relation to the instructors' attitude toward LMS and adoption of LMS in their course. A survey was administered to 62 instructors to follow up the…

  20. Diffusion of Innovation: A Case Study of Course Management System Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Phillip, Ed.D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the processes of evaluation, selection, adoption and diffusion of a course management system (CMS). This study incorporated a cross-case analysis using a multiple case study approach, which included two institutions, each having six participants. The participants were placed into three categories: faculty,…

  1. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  2. Technology transfer potential of an automated water monitoring system. [market research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Hillman, M. E. D.; Eischen, M. A.; Stilwell, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the potential economic need (markets) for a highly integrated water quality monitoring system were investigated. The technological, institutional and marketing factors that would influence the transfer and adoption of an automated system were studied for application to public and private water supply, public and private wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring of rivers and lakes.

  3. Moderating factors influencing adoption of a mobile chronic disease management system in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhangxiang; Liu, Yongmei; Che, Xiaoling; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-01-09

    Mobile chronic disease management systems (MCDMS) have become increasingly important in recent years, but in China, challenges remain for their adoption. Existing empirical studies have not completely explored the adoption behavior of potential MCDMS users. This article presents a study in which we investigated factors that influence chronically ill patients in China and their families to adopt or decline to use MCDMS. We applied a research model based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) as well as four contextual constructs (perceived disease threat, perceived risk, initial trust, and technology anxiety) to a survey of 279 potential MCDMS service participants in China. Our key findings include: (1) as consistent with current research, both perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have positive impact on potential users' MCDMS adoption intention; (2) both perceived disease threat and initial trust have positive impact on MCDMS adoption intention; (3) the impact of perceived risk is negative, and technology anxiety has negative impact on perceived ease of use of MCDMS; (4) young people place more importance on their perceptions of usefulness, ease of operation, and disease threat than middle-aged and older users; (5) family members are more influenced by their perception of ease of use and disease threat than chronically ill patients, while chronically ill patients place more importance on perceived usefulness than family members. This article concludes by discussing the implications of our study for research and practice, as well as limitations and future research directions.

  4. GVHD-associated, inflammasome-mediated loss of function in adoptively transferred myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Brent H; Apostolova, Petya; Haverkamp, Jessica M; Miller, Jeffrey S; McCullar, Valarie; Tolar, Jakub; Munn, David H; Murphy, William J; Brickey, Willie June; Serody, Jonathan S; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Bronte, Vincenzo; Murray, Peter J; Ting, Jenny P-Y; Zeiser, Robert; Blazar, Bruce R

    2015-09-24

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a naturally occurring immune regulatory population associated with inhibition of ongoing inflammatory responses. In vitro generation of MDSCs from bone marrow has been shown to enhance survival in an acute model of lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, donor MDSC infusion only partially ameliorates GVHD lethality. In order to improve the potential therapeutic benefit and ultimately survival outcomes, we set out to investigate the fate of MDSCs after transfer in the setting of acute GVHD (aGVHD). MDSCs transferred to lethally irradiated recipients of allogeneic donor hematopoietic grafts are exposed to an intense inflammatory environment associated with aGVHD, which we now show directly undermines their suppressive capacity. Under a conditioning regimen and GVHD inflammatory settings, MDSCs rapidly lose suppressor function and their potential to inhibit GVHD lethality, which is associated with their induced conversion toward a mature inflammasome-activated state. We find even brief in vitro exposure to inflammasome-activating mediators negates the suppressive potential of cultured murine and human-derived MDSCs. Consistent with a role for the inflammasome, donor MDSCs deficient in the adaptor ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), which assembles inflammasome complexes, conferred improved survival of mice developing GVHD compared with wild-type donor MDSCs. These data suggest the use of MDSCs as a therapeutic approach for preventing GVHD and other systemic inflammatory conditions will be more effective when combined with approaches limiting in vivo MDSC inflammasome activation, empowering MDSCs to maintain their suppressive potential.

  5. GVHD-associated, inflammasome-mediated loss of function in adoptively transferred myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    PubMed Central

    Koehn, Brent H.; Apostolova, Petya; Haverkamp, Jessica M.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; McCullar, Valarie; Tolar, Jakub; Munn, David H.; Murphy, William J.; Brickey, Willie June; Serody, Jonathan S.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.; Bronte, Vincenzo; Murray, Peter J.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.; Zeiser, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a naturally occurring immune regulatory population associated with inhibition of ongoing inflammatory responses. In vitro generation of MDSCs from bone marrow has been shown to enhance survival in an acute model of lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, donor MDSC infusion only partially ameliorates GVHD lethality. In order to improve the potential therapeutic benefit and ultimately survival outcomes, we set out to investigate the fate of MDSCs after transfer in the setting of acute GVHD (aGVHD). MDSCs transferred to lethally irradiated recipients of allogeneic donor hematopoietic grafts are exposed to an intense inflammatory environment associated with aGVHD, which we now show directly undermines their suppressive capacity. Under a conditioning regimen and GVHD inflammatory settings, MDSCs rapidly lose suppressor function and their potential to inhibit GVHD lethality, which is associated with their induced conversion toward a mature inflammasome-activated state. We find even brief in vitro exposure to inflammasome-activating mediators negates the suppressive potential of cultured murine and human-derived MDSCs. Consistent with a role for the inflammasome, donor MDSCs deficient in the adaptor ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), which assembles inflammasome complexes, conferred improved survival of mice developing GVHD compared with wild-type donor MDSCs. These data suggest the use of MDSCs as a therapeutic approach for preventing GVHD and other systemic inflammatory conditions will be more effective when combined with approaches limiting in vivo MDSC inflammasome activation, empowering MDSCs to maintain their suppressive potential. PMID:26265697

  6. The stoichiometric production of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA defines memory T cells that can self-renew after adoptive transfer in humans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anran; Chandran, Smita; Shah, Syed A; Chiu, Yu; Paria, Biman C; Aghamolla, Tamara; Alvarez-Downing, Melissa M; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Singh, Sanmeet; Li, Thomas; Dudley, Mark E; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rosenberg, Steven A; Kammula, Udai S

    2012-08-29

    Adoptive immunotherapy using ex vivo-expanded tumor-reactive lymphocytes can mediate durable cancer regression in selected melanoma patients. Analyses of these trials have associated the in vivo engraftment ability of the transferred cells with their antitumor efficacy. Thus, there is intensive clinical interest in the prospective isolation of tumor-specific T cells that can reliably persist after transfer. Animal studies have suggested that central memory CD8(+) T cells (T(CM)) have divergent capabilities including effector differentiation to target antigen and stem cell-like self-renewal that enable long-term survival after adoptive transfer. We sought to isolate human melanoma-specific T(CM) to define their in vivo fate and function after autologous therapeutic transfer to metastatic patients. To facilitate the high-throughput identification of these rare cells from patients, we report that T(CM) have a defined stoichiometric production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA after antigen stimulation. Melanoma-specific T cells screened for high relative IL-2 production had a T(CM) phenotype and superior in vitro proliferative capacity compared to cells with low IL-2 production. To investigate in vivo effector function and self-renewal capability, we allowed melanoma-specific T(CM) to undergo in vitro expansion and differentiation into lytic effector clones and then adoptively transferred them back into their hosts. These clones targeted skin melanocytes in all five patients and persisted long term and reacquired parental T(CM) attributes in four patients after transfer. These findings demonstrate the favorable engraftment fitness for human T(CM)-derived clones, but further efforts to improve their antitumor efficacy are still necessary.

  7. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  8. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured.

  9. Glyceryl Tribenzoate: A Flavoring Ingredient, Inhibits the Adoptive Transfer of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis via TGF-β: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Susanta; Dasarathi, Sridevi; Pahan, Kalipada

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we have explored a novel use of glyceryl tribenzoate (GTB), a flavoring ingredient, in ameliorating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, via TGF-β. Oral feeding of GTB suppressed clinical symptoms of adoptively-transferred relapsing-remitting (RR) EAE in recipient mice and suppressed the generation of encephalitogenic T cells in donor mice. GTB also attenuated clinical symptoms of RR-EAE in PLP-TCR transgenic mice and chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, GTB also suppressed perivascular cuffing, preserved the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, inhibited inflammation, and stopped demyelination in the CNS of EAE mice. Interestingly, GTB treatment upregulated TGF-β and enriched regulatory T cells (Tregs) in splenocytes as well as in vivo in EAE mice. Blocking TGF-β by neutralizing antibodies abrogated GTB-mediated enrichment of Tregs and protection of EAE. These results suggest that oral GTB may be considered as a possible therapy for MS patients. PMID:28367355

  10. Therapeutic Targeting of CC Ligand 21 or CC Chemokine Receptor 7 Abrogates Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced by the Adoptive Transfer of Human Pulmonary Fibroblasts to Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Elizabeth M.; Carpenter, Kristin; Jakubzick, Claudia; Kunkel, Steven L.; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are a collection of pulmonary fibrotic diseases of unknown etiopathogenesis. CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is expressed in IIP biopsies and primary fibroblast lines, but its role in pulmonary fibrosis was not previously examined. To study the in vivo role of CCR7 in a novel model of pulmonary fibrosis, 1.0 × 106 primary fibroblasts grown from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, or histologically normal biopsies were injected intravenously into C.B-17 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)/beige (bg) mice. At days 35 and 63 after idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia fibroblast injection, patchy interstitial fibrosis and increased hydroxyproline were present in the lungs of immunodeficient mice. Adoptively transferred nonspecific interstitial pneumonia fibroblasts caused a more diffuse interstitial fibrosis and increased hydroxyproline levels at both times, but injected normal human fibroblasts did not induce interstitial remodeling changes in C.B-17SCID/bg mice. Systemic therapeutic immunoneutralization of either human CCR7 or CC ligand 21, its ligand, significantly attenuated the pulmonary fibrosis in groups of C.B-17SCID/bg mice that received either type of IIP fibroblasts. Thus, the present study demonstrates that pulmonary fibrosis is initiated by the intravenous introduction of primary human fibroblast lines into immunodeficient mice, and this fibrotic response is dependent on the interaction between CC ligand 21 and CCR7. PMID:17392156

  11. Orbital transfer systems for lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.; Obersteiner, Michael

    For future Lunar mission operations basically two types of transfer systems can be conceived (a) the conventional direct-injection expendable vehicle approach, and (b) the re-usable orbit-to-orbit (LEO-LLO-LEO round-trip system. The second solution has been studied in Europe in the SPACE TUG Phase A Study in 1971/72 for NASA as a fully reusable system and this is compared to a more recent NASA-MSFC transfer vehicle concept with expendable propellant tanks and aerobraking. The results of an analysis on mission opportunities for LEO-LLO transfers is presented. A European option is also shown for mode (a), using the ARIANE 5 for lunar missions with an optimized cryogenic transfer vehicle, derived from the H.10 Stage (ARIANE 4) plus a lunar vehicle derived from the MMII-CRAF propulsion module using the 27.5 kN engine from the ARIANE L.9 Stage which could land a 3.4 ton vehicle on the lunar surface. Finally a completely new option (c) is discussed: the use of a ballistic SSTO vehicle for lunar landing missions after refuelling in LEO. This seems to be a highly effective single transportation element approach compared to the seven elements SATURN V-APOLLO-LM system of the 60ies.

  12. Information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1988-01-01

    An informal overview is given of the work in progress and the planned work in the area of information transfer that specifically addresses human factors issues in National Airspace System (NAS). The issues of how weather information will be displayed on the flight deck, the development of appropriate decision making technology, and digital datalink transmission are also briefly discussed.

  13. Promoting Transfer by Grounding Complex Systems Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Wilensky, Uri

    2008-01-01

    Understanding scientific phenomena in terms of complex systems principles is both scientifically and pedagogically important. Situations from different disciplines of science are often governed by the same principle, and so promoting knowledge transfer across disciplines makes valuable cross-fertilization and scientific unification possible.…

  14. System Transfer, Education, and Development in Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossa, Jose

    2011-01-01

    In this study the author used conceptual historical method to assess the phenomenon of system transfer and the association between education and development in Mozambique. The assessment was administered through critical analysis of documents pertaining to the Salazar (1924-1966), Machel (1975-1986), and Chissano (1986-2005) administrations. The…

  15. Identification of a Novel Immunodominant HLA-B*07: 02-restricted Adenoviral Peptide Epitope and Its Potential in Adoptive Transfer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Günther, Patrick S; Peper, Janet K; Faist, Benjamin; Kayser, Simone; Hartl, Lena; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Jahn, Gerhard; Neuenhahn, Michael; Busch, Dirk H; Stevanović, Stefan; Dennehy, Kevin M

    2015-09-01

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised patients, particularly following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, are associated with morbidity and mortality. Immunotherapy by adoptive transfer of hexon-specific and penton-specific T cells has been successfully applied, but many approaches are impeded by the low number of HLA class I-restricted adenoviral peptide epitopes described to date. We use a novel method to identify naturally presented adenoviral peptide epitopes from infected human cells, ectopically expressing defined HLA, using peptide elution and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We show that the previously described HLA-A*01:01-restricted peptide epitope LTDLGQNLLY from hexon protein is naturally presented, and demonstrate the functionality of LTDLGQNLLY-specific T cells. We further identify a novel immunodominant HLA-B*07:02-restricted peptide epitope VPATGRTLVL from protein 13.6 K, and demonstrate the high proliferative, cytotoxic, and IFN-γ-producing capacity of peptide-specific T cells. Lastly, LTDLGQNLLY-specific T cells can be detected ex vivo following adoptive transfer therapy, and LTDLGQNLLY-specific and VPATGRTLVL-specific T cells have memory phenotypes ex vivo. Given their proliferative and cytotoxic capacity, such epitope-specific T cells are promising candidates for adoptive T-cell transfer therapy of adenovirus infection.

  16. Enhanced anti-tumor activity induced by adoptive T cell transfer and the adjunctive use of the HDAC Inhibitor LAQ824

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Dan D.; Prins, Robert M.; Begley, Jonathan L.; Donahue, Timothy R.; Morris, Lilah F.; Bruhn, Kevin W.; de la Rocha, Pilar; Yang, Meng-Yin; Mok, Stephen; Garban, Hermes J.; Craft, Noah; Economou, James S.; Marincola, Francesco M.; Wang, Ena; Ribas, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Tumors grow in the presence of antigen-specific T cells, suggesting the existence of intrinsic cancer cell escape mechanisms. We hypothesized that a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor could sensitize tumor cells to immunotherapy because this class of agents has been reported to increase tumor antigen expression and shift gene expression to a pro-apoptotic milieu in cancer cells. To test this question, we treated B16 murine melanoma with the combination of the HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 together with the adoptive transfer (AT) of gp100 melanoma antigen-specific pmel-1 T cells. The combined therapy significantly improved antitumor activity through several mechanisms: 1) increase in MHC and tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expression by tumor cells; 2) decrease in competing endogenous lymphocytes in recipient mice, resulting in a proliferative advantage for the adoptively transferred cells; and 3) improvement in the functional activity of the adoptively transferred lymphocytes. We confirmed the beneficial effects of this HDAC inhibitor as sensitizer to immunotherapy in a different model of prophylactic prime-boost vaccination with the melanoma antigen tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP2), which also demonstrated a significant improvement in antitumor activity against B16 melanoma. In conclusion, the HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 significantly enhances tumor immunotherapy through effects on target tumor cells as well as improving the antitumor activity of tumor antigen-specific lymphocytes. PMID:19861533

  17. Vascular endothelial cells in cell-mediated immunity: adoptive transfer with in vitro conditioned cells is genetically restricted at the endothelial cell barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Standage, B.A.; Vetto, R.M.; Jones, R.; Burger, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is a cell-mediated immune response that can be adoptively transferred in rats when greater than 2 X 10(8) cells from peritoneal exudate, lymph nodes, or spleen are used. We have shown that by using an in vitro conditioning step with antigen, transfer can be subsequently carried out with as few as 2 X 10(7) spleen cells. The magnitude of DTH was reflected in ear swelling after intradermal injection of antigen (tuberculin or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)) and confirmed histologically. The transfer was antigen specific, requiring the sensitizing antigen in both the in vitro conditioning step and in the ear test challenge. Adoptive transfer with conditioned cells was genetically restricted by alleles of the RT-1 region (major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of the rat). Brown Norway strain (n haplotype) immune cells would not transfer DTH to Lewis (1 haplotype), ACI (a haplotype), or Buffalo (b haplotype) rats, whereas each strain would transfer DTH to syngeneic recipients. Moreover, this pattern of restriction held for all strains when tested in reciprocal fashion. In additional experiments, F1 to parental bone marrow chimeras were constructed so that bone-marrow-derived cells and non-bone-marrow-derived cells were of different RT-1 haplotypes. When these chimeras were used as recipients, transfer of DTH was only observed when immune donor cells and recipient non-bone-marrow-derived cells were syngeneic. These results point to the critical role of non-bone-marrow-derived cells (endothelial cells) in the DTH reaction.

  18. Acquisition systems for heat transfer measurement

    SciTech Connect

    De Witt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Practical heat transfer data acquisition systems are normally characterized by the need for high-resolution, low-drift, low-speed recording devices. Analog devices such as strip chart or circular recorders and FM analog magnetic tape have excellent resolution and work well when data will be presented in temperature versus time format only and need not be processed further. Digital systems are more complex and require an understanding of the following components: digitizing devices, interface bus types, processor requirements, and software design. This paper discusses all the above components of analog and digital data acquisition, as they are used in current practice. Additional information on thermocouple system analysis will aid the user in developing accurate heat transfer measuring systems.

  19. Simulation of hydrogen adsorption systems adopting the flow through cooling concept

    SciTech Connect

    Corgnale, Claudio; Hardy, Bruce; Chahine, Richard; Cossement, Daniel; Tamburello, David; Anton, Donald

    2014-10-13

    Hydrogen storage systems based on adsorbent materials have the potential of achieving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) targets, especially in terms of gravimetric capacity. This paper deals with analysis of adsorption storage systems adopting the flow through cooling concept. By this approach the feeding hydrogen provides the needed cold to maintain the tank at low temperatures. Two adsorption systems have been examined and modeled adopting the Dubinin-Astakhov model, to see their performance under selected operating conditions. A first case has been analyzed, modeling a storage tank filled with carbon based material (namely MaxSorb®) and comparing the numerical outcomes with the available experimental results for a 2.5 L tank. Under selected operating conditions (minimum inlet hydrogen temperature of approximately 100 K and maximum pressure on the order of 8.5 MPa) and adopting the flow through cooling concept the material shows a gravimetric capacity of about 5.7 %. A second case has been modeled, examining the same tank filled with metal organic framework material (MOF5®) under approximately the same conditions. The model shows that the latter material can achieve a (material) gravimetric capacity on the order of 11%, making the system potentially able to achieve the DOE 2017 target.

  20. Simulation of hydrogen adsorption systems adopting the flow through cooling concept

    DOE PAGES

    Corgnale, Claudio; Hardy, Bruce; Chahine, Richard; ...

    2014-10-13

    Hydrogen storage systems based on adsorbent materials have the potential of achieving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) targets, especially in terms of gravimetric capacity. This paper deals with analysis of adsorption storage systems adopting the flow through cooling concept. By this approach the feeding hydrogen provides the needed cold to maintain the tank at low temperatures. Two adsorption systems have been examined and modeled adopting the Dubinin-Astakhov model, to see their performance under selected operating conditions. A first case has been analyzed, modeling a storage tank filled with carbon based material (namely MaxSorb®) and comparing the numerical outcomes withmore » the available experimental results for a 2.5 L tank. Under selected operating conditions (minimum inlet hydrogen temperature of approximately 100 K and maximum pressure on the order of 8.5 MPa) and adopting the flow through cooling concept the material shows a gravimetric capacity of about 5.7 %. A second case has been modeled, examining the same tank filled with metal organic framework material (MOF5®) under approximately the same conditions. The model shows that the latter material can achieve a (material) gravimetric capacity on the order of 11%, making the system potentially able to achieve the DOE 2017 target.« less

  1. Forest Resource Information System. Phase 3: System transfer report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mroczynski, R. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Transfer of the forest reserve information system (FRIS) from the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing to St. Regis Paper Company is described. Modifications required for the transfer of the LARYS image processing software are discussed. The reformatting, geometric correction, image registration, and documentation performed for preprocessing transfer are described. Data turnaround was improved and geometrically corrected and ground-registered CCT LANDSAT 3 data provided to the user. The technology transfer activities are summarized. An application test performed in order to assess a Florida land acquisition is described. A benefit/cost analysis of FRIS is presented.

  2. Enhanced neointima formation following arterial injury in immune deficient Rag-1-/- mice is attenuated by adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells.

    PubMed

    Dimayuga, Paul C; Chyu, Kuang-Yuh; Kirzner, Jonathan; Yano, Juliana; Zhao, Xiaoning; Zhou, Jianchang; Shah, Prediman K; Cercek, Bojan

    2011-01-01

    T cells modulate neointima formation after arterial injury but the specific T cell population that is activated in response to arterial injury remains unknown. The objective of the study was to identify the T cell populations that are activated and modulate neointimal thickening after arterial injury in mice. Arterial injury in wild type C57Bl6 mice resulted in T cell activation characterized by increased CD4(+)CD44(hi) and CD8(+)CD44(hi) T cells in the lymph nodes and spleens. Splenic CD8(+)CD25(+) T cells and CD8(+)CD28(+) T cells, but not CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD28(+) T cells, were also significantly increased. Adoptive cell transfer of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells from donor CD8-/- or CD4-/- mice, respectively, to immune-deficient Rag-1-/- mice was performed to determine the T cell subtype that inhibits neointima formation after arterial injury. Rag-1-/- mice that received CD8(+) T cells had significantly reduced neointima formation compared with Rag-1-/- mice without cell transfer. CD4(+) T cell transfer did not reduce neointima formation. CD8(+) T cells from CD4-/- mice had cytotoxic activity against syngeneic smooth muscle cells in vitro. The study shows that although both CD8(+) T cells and CD4(+) T cells are activated in response to arterial injury, adoptive cell transfer identifies CD8(+) T cells as the specific and selective cell type involved in inhibiting neointima formation.

  3. Time and frequency transfer system using GNSS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Lun; Huang, Shi-Yu; Liao, Chia-Shu

    2014-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time and frequency transfer is one of the most useful ways for the comparison of remote clocks, and the comparison results are very important for the calculation of International Atomic Time and UTC (Coordinated Universal Time). For the timing laboratories, it is necessary to calibrate and periodically evaluate their time transfer system to ensure the accuracy and long-term stability of their time and frequency comparison results. Once the calibration is achieved, it can be used as a standard for traceable time and frequency measurements. In this paper, we demonstrate Global Navigation Satellite System receiver calibration campaign between the National Time and Frequency Standard Laboratory of Telecommunication Laboratories in Taiwan and the Measurement Standards Laboratory in New Zealand. Two calibration strategies, receiver calibration and the link calibration, are adopted in this work. The receiver calibration is used for evaluating the performance of the proposed system in domestic traceability network in Taiwan. The link calibration is used for minimizing the total uncertainty budget in calculating UTC. Experimental results indicate that the expanded time and frequency uncertainty of the proposed system (with a coverage factor of k = 2) are less than 25 ns and 1.1 × 10-13, respectively, after 1 day of averaging. The accuracy of GPS time link is reported to be better than 2 ns in long-baseline link (10,000 km) in Asia-Pacific Zone.

  4. Performance assessment and adoption processes of an information monitoring and diagnostic system prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann

    1999-10-01

    This report addresses the problem that buildings do not perform as well as anticipated during design. We partnered with an innovative building operator to evaluate a prototype Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS). The IMDS consists of high-quality measurements archived each minute, a data visualization tool, and a web-based capability. The operators recommend similar technology be adopted in other buildings. The IMDS has been used to identify and correct a series of control problems. It has also allowed the operators to make more effective use of the building control system, freeing up time to take care of other tenant needs. They believe they have significantly improved building comfort, potentially improving tenant health, and productivity. The reduction in hours to operate the building are worth about $20,000 per year, which could pay for the IMDS in about five years. A control system retrofit based on findings from the IMDS is expected to reduce energy use by 20 percent over the next year, worth over $30,000 per year. The main conclusion of the model-based chiller fault detection work is that steady-state models can be used as reference models to monitor chiller operation and detect faults. The ability of the IMDS to measure cooling load and chiller power to one-percent accuracy with a one-minute sampling interval permits detection of additional faults. Evolutionary programming techniques were also evaluated, showing promise in the detection of patterns in building data. We also evaluated two technology adoption processes, radical and routine. In routine adoption, managers enhance features of existing products that are already well understood. In radical adoption, innovative building managers introduce novel technology into their organizations without using the rigorous payback criteria used in routine innovations.

  5. Block Transfer: A Private Career College Student's Ladder into the BC Transfer System. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIvor, Raili

    2010-01-01

    In June 2008 the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) approved a new policy to publish in the BC Transfer Guide block transfer agreements (BTAs) between BC Transfer System member institutions and private post-secondary institutions accredited by the Private Career Training Institutions Agency (PCTIA). This new policy was…

  6. Comparison of naïve and central memory derived CD8(+) effector cell engraftment fitness and function following adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuli; Wong, ChingLam W; Urak, Ryan; Taus, Ellie; Aguilar, Brenda; Chang, Wen-Chung; Mardiros, Armen; Budde, Lihua E; Brown, Christine E; Berger, Carolina; Forman, Stephen J; Jensen, Michael C

    Human CD8(+) effector T cells derived from CD45RO(+)CD62L(+) precursors enriched for central memory (TCM) precursors retain the capacity to engraft and reconstitute functional memory upon adoptive transfer, whereas effectors derived from CD45RO(+)CD62L(-) precursors enriched for effector memory precursors do not. Here we sought to compare the engraftment fitness and function of CD8(+) effector T cells derived from CD45RA(+)CD62L(+) precursors enriched for naïve and stem cell memory precursors (TN/SCM) with that of TCM. We found that cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) derived from TCM transcribed higher levels of CD28, FOS, INFγ, Eomesodermin (Eomes), and lower levels of BCL2L11, maintained higher levels of phosphorylated AKT, and displayed enhanced sensitivity to the proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of γ-chain cytokines compared to CTLs derived from TN/SCM. Higher frequencies of CTLs derived from TCM retained CD28 expression and upon activation secreted higher levels of IL-2. In NOD/Scid IL-2RγC(null) mice, CD8(+) TCM derived CTLs engrafted to higher frequencies in response to human IL-15 and mounted robust proliferative responses to an immunostimulatory vaccine. Similarly, CD8(+) TCM derived CD19CAR(+) CTLs exhibited superior antitumor potency following adoptive transfer compared to their CD8(+) TN/SCM derived counterparts. These studies support the use of TCM enriched cell products for adoptive therapy of cancer.

  7. An adoption study of a clinical reminder system in ambulatory care using a developmental trajectory approach.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Padman, Rema; Johnson, Michael P; Engberg, John; Diamond, Herbert H

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we assess 41 medical residents' acceptance and adoption of a clinical reminder system for chronic disease and preventive care management in the ambulatory care environment using a novel developmental trajectory approach. This group-based, semi-parametric statistical modeling method identifies distinct groups, following distinct usage trajectories, among those who recorded use of the reminder system within an evaluation period of 10 months. We trace system use within these groups over time using computer-generated logs and user satisfaction surveys. Our preliminary analysis of this small sample of users delineates three categories of users. Feedback from these categories of users is being used to re-engineer the application and adapt it better to their workflow and functionality requirements. Despite the small sample size in this particular study, we conclude that this methodology has considerable promise to provide new insights into system usability and adoption issues that may benefit clinical decision support systems as well as information systems more generally.

  8. Development of an Autologous Macrophage-Based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to Treat Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis (PTOA) and Osteoarithritis (OA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the articular fracture is impossible by the fact that mesenchymal stem cells from various sources can’t be effectively delivered to the injured...over M1 macrophages to deliver therapeutic genes. To isolate M2 macrophages from bone marrow , we used the magnetic-bead selection by a specific antibody...combination adoptive gene therapy for treatment of PTOA. The rationale for the use of macrophages as the cell vehicle for targeted delivery and confined

  9. Seeking perfection in healthcare. A case study in adopting Toyota Production System methods.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gary S; Patterson, Sarah H

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Mason Health System's vision to be the quality leader in healthcare means continually adopting new ways of thinking. One change has been shifting from believing defects are to be expected to believing zero defects in healthcare is not only possible, but also necessary. Generally, healthcare has advanced in technology and understanding of disease, but its business and management systems have changed little since the 1950s. Virginia Mason realized it needed a management method to help make real and measurable improvements in safety, quality, service and staff satisfaction.

  10. Autologous lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination followed by adoptive transfer of vaccine-primed ex vivo co-stimulated T cells in recurrent ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kandalaft, Lana E; Powell, Daniel J; Chiang, Cheryl L; Tanyi, Janos; Kim, Sarah; Bosch, Marnix; Montone, Kathy; Mick, Rosemarie; Levine, Bruce L; Torigian, Drew A; June, Carl H; Coukos, George

    2013-01-01

    Novel strategies for the therapy of recurrent ovarian cancer are warranted. We report a study of a combinatorial approach encompassing dendritic cell (DC)-based autologous whole tumor vaccination and anti-angiogenesis therapy, followed by the adoptive transfer of autologous vaccine-primed CD3/CD28-co-stimulated lymphocytes. Recurrent ovarian cancer patients for whom tumor lysate was available from prior cytoreductive surgery underwent conditioning with intravenous bevacizumab and oral metronomic cyclophosphamide, sequentially followed by (1) bevacizumab plus vaccination with DCs pulsed with autologous tumor cell lysate supernatants, (2) lymphodepletion and (3) transfer of 5 × 10(9) autologous vaccine-primed T-cells in combination with the vaccine. Feasibility, safety as well as immunological and clinical efficacy were evaluated. Six subjects received this vaccination. Therapy was feasible, well tolerated, and elicited antitumor immune responses in four subjects, who also experienced clinical benefits. Of these, three patients with residual measurable disease received outpatient lymphodepletion and adoptive T-cell transfer, which was well tolerated and resulted in a durable reduction of circulating regulatory T cells and increased CD8(+) lymphocyte counts. The vaccine-induced restoration of antitumor immunity was achieved in two subjects, who also demonstrated clinical benefits, including one complete response. Our findings indicate that combinatorial cellular immunotherapy for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer is well tolerated and warrants further investigation. Several modifications of this approach can be envisioned to optimize immunological and clinical outcomes.

  11. Lymph node-derived donor encephalitogenic CD4+ T cells in C57BL/6 mice adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis highly express GM-CSF and T-bet.

    PubMed

    Cravens, Petra D; Hussain, Rehana Z; Zacharias, Tresa E; Ben, Li-Hong; Herndon, Emily; Vinnakota, Ramya; Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Nessler, Stefan; Zamvil, Scott S; Eagar, Todd N; Stüve, Olaf

    2011-06-24

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a relevant animal model for the human demyelinating inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), multiple sclerosis (MS). Induction of EAE by adoptive transfer allows studying the role of the donor T lymphocyte in disease pathogenesis. It has been challenging to reliably induce adoptive transfer EAE in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice. The goal of this study was to develop a reproducible and high yield protocol for adoptive transfer EAE in C57BL/6 mice. A step-wise experimental approach permitted us to develop a protocol that resulted in a consistent relatively high disease incidence of ~70% in recipient mice. Donor mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)p35-55 in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) followed by pertussis toxin (PT). Only lymph node cells (LNC) isolated at day 12 post immunization, and restimulated in vitro for 72 hours with 10 μg/mL of MOGp35-55 and 0.5 ng/mL of interleukin-12 (IL-12) were able to transfer disease. The ability of LNC to transfer disease was associated with the presence of inflammatory infiltrates in the CNS at day 12. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) was produced at comparable levels in cell cultures prepared from mice at both day 6 and day 12 post immunization. By contrast, there was a trend towards a negative association between IL-17 and disease susceptibility in our EAE model. The amount of GM-CSF secreted was significantly increased in the culture supernatants from cells collected at day 12 post immunization versus those collected at day 6 post-immunization. Activated CD4+ T cells present in the day 12 LNC cultures maintained expression of the transcription factor T-bet, which has been shown to regulate the expression of the IL-23 receptor. Also, there was an increased prevalence of MOGp35-55-specific CD4+ T cells in day 12 LNC after in vitro re-stimulation. In summary, encephalitogenic LNC that adoptively transfer EAE in C57BL/6 mice were not characterized

  12. Adopting a Cultural Portfolio Project in Teaching German as a Foreign Language: Language Teacher Cognition as a Dynamic System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne; Oranje, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural language teaching and learning has increasingly been adopted in state school systems, yet studies have shown that language teachers struggle to include it in their practice. The aim of this study is to use dynamic systems theory to examine how a German as a foreign language teacher in a New Zealand secondary school adopted a project…

  13. Advanced orbit transfer vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. A.; Cooper, T. W.; Corringrato, R. M.; Cronau, S. T.; Forgie, S. C.; Harder, M. J.; Mcallister, J. G.; Rudman, T. J.; Stoneback, V. W.

    1985-01-01

    A reuseable orbit transfer vehicle concept was defined and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine were presented. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include a low lift to drag aerocapture capability, main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with an attitude control system for backup or three main engines to meet the failure criteria. A maintenance and servicing approach was also established for the advanced vehicle and engine concepts. Design tradeoff study conclusions were based on the consideration of reliability, performance, life cycle costs, and mission flexibility.

  14. Generation of autologous tumor-specific T cells for adoptive transfer based on vaccination, in vitro restimulation and CD3/CD28 dynabead-induced T cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Brimnes, Marie Klinge; Gang, Anne Ortved; Donia, Marco; Thor Straten, Per; Svane, Inge Marie; Hadrup, Sine Reker

    2012-08-01

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of in vitro expanded autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has been shown to exert therapeutic efficacy in melanoma patients. We aimed to develop an ACT protocol based on tumor-specific T cells isolated from peripheral blood and in vitro expanded by Dynabeads® ClinExVivo™CD3/CD28. We show here that the addition of an in vitro restimulation step with relevant peptides prior to bead expansion dramatically increased the proportion of tumor-specific T cells in PBMC-cultures. Importantly, peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) as well as allogeneic tumor lysate-pulsed DCs from the DC vaccine preparation could be used with comparable efficiency to peptides for in vitro restimulation, to increase the tumor-specific T-cell response. Furthermore, we tested the use of different ratios and different types of Dynabeads® CD3/CD28 and CD3/CD28/CD137 T-cell expander, for optimized expansion of tumor-specific T cells. A ratio of 1:3 of Dynabeads® CD3/CD28 T-cell expander to T cells resulted in the maximum number of tumor-specific T cells. The addition of CD137 did not improve functionality or fold expansion. Both T-cell expansion systems could generate tumor-specific T cells that were both cytotoxic and effective cytokine producers upon antigen recognition. Dynabeads®-expanded T-cell cultures shows phenotypical characteristics of memory T cells with potential to migrate and expand in vivo. In addition, they possess longer telomeres compared to TIL cultures. Taken together, we demonstrate that in vitro restimulation of tumor-specific T cells prior to bead expansion is necessary to achieve high numbers of tumor-specific T cells. This is effective and easily applicable in combination with DC vaccination, by use of vaccine-generated DCs, either pulsed with peptide or tumor-lysate.

  15. Whole-body irradiation increases the magnitude and persistence of adoptively transferred T cells associated with tumor regression in a mouse model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ward-Kavanagh, Lindsay K; Zhu, Junjia; Cooper, Timothy K; Schell, Todd D

    2014-08-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in a subset of clinical and preclinical studies, but the T cells used for therapy often are rendered rapidly nonfunctional in tumor-bearing hosts. Recent evidence indicates that prostate cancer can be susceptible to immunotherapy, but most studies using autochthonous tumor models demonstrate only short-lived T-cell responses in the tolerogenic prostate microenvironment. Here, we assessed the efficacy of sublethal whole-body irradiation (WBI) to enhance the magnitude and duration of adoptively transferred CD8(+) T cells in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. We demonstrate that WBI promoted high-level accumulation of granzyme B (GzB, Gzmb)-expressing donor T cells both in lymphoid organs and in the prostate of TRAMP mice. Donor T cells remained responsive to vaccination in irradiated recipients, but a single round of WBI-enhanced adoptive immunotherapy failed to affect significantly the existing disease. Addition of a second round of immunotherapy promoted regression of established disease in half of the treated mice, with no progression observed. Regression was associated with long-term persistence of effector/memory phenotype CD8(+) donor cells. Administration of the second round of adoptive immunotherapy led to reacquisition of GzB expression by persistent T cells from the first transfer. These results indicate that WBI conditioning amplifies tumor-specific T cells in the TRAMP prostate and lymphoid tissue, and suggest that the initial treatment alters the tolerogenic microenvironment to increase antitumor activity by a second wave of donor cells.

  16. Long range inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C.; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver.

  17. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  18. Submersible pumping system with heat transfer mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Daniel Francis Alan; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D; Jankowski, Todd Andrew

    2014-04-15

    A submersible pumping system for downhole use in extracting fluids containing hydrocarbons from a well. In one embodiment, the pumping system comprises a rotary induction motor, a motor casing, one or more pump stages, and a cooling system. The rotary induction motor rotates a shaft about a longitudinal axis of rotation. The motor casing houses the rotary induction motor such that the rotary induction motor is held in fluid isolation from the fluid being extracted. The pump stages are attached to the shaft outside of the motor casing, and are configured to impart fluid being extracted from the well with an increased pressure. The cooling system is disposed at least partially within the motor casing, and transfers heat generated by operation of the rotary induction motor out of the motor casing.

  19. Adoptive transfer of T regulatory cells inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in fetal brain tissue in a late-pregnancy preterm birth mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Xiao, Mi; Chen, Ru-Juan; Lin, Xiao-Jie; Siddiq, Muhammad; Liu, Li

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of regulatory T cells (Tregs) on the inflammation resulting from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in prenatal brain tissue, Tregs isolated from pregnant mice were transferred into model mice, and the expression levels of fork head family transcription factor (Foxp3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), CD68 (a marker of microglia), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) were assessed in the fetal brain tissue. Foxp3, IL-6, and TLR-4 expression were detected by polymerase chain reaction and Western blot; CD68 expression level was detected using immunochemical analysis. Foxp3, IL-6, TLR-4, and CD68 expressions in fetal brain were significantly induced by maternal LPS administration, and the increased expression levels were markedly reduced by adoptive transfer of Tregs. Maternal LPS exposure significantly induced inflammation in perinatal brain tissue, and Tregs negatively regulated this LPS-induced inflammation.

  20. Expertise transfer for expert system design

    SciTech Connect

    Boose, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about the Expertise Transfer System-a computer program which interviews experts and helps them build expert systems, i.e. computer programs that use knowledge from experts to make decisions and judgements under conditions of uncertainty. The techniques are useful to anyone who uses decision-making information based on the expertise of others. The methods can also be applied to personal decision-making. The interviewing methodology is borrowed from a branch of psychology called Personal Construct Theory. It is not necessary to use a computer to take advantage of the techniques from Personal Construction Theory; the fundamental procedures used by the Expertise Transfer System can be performed using paper and pencil. It is not necessary that the reader understand very much about computers to understand the ideas in this book. The few relevant concepts from computer science and expert systems that are needed are explained in a straightforward manner. Ideas from Personal Construct Psychology are also introduced as needed.

  1. Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280578

  2. Memory T cells specific for murine cytomegalovirus re-emerge after multiple challenges and recapitulate immunity in various adoptive transfer scenarios.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael; Turula, Holly; Tandon, Mayank; Deslouches, Berthony; Moghbeli, Toktam; Snyder, Christopher M

    2015-02-15

    Reconstitution of CMV-specific immunity after transplant remains a primary clinical objective to prevent CMV disease, and adoptive immunotherapy of CMV-specific T cells can be an effective therapeutic approach. Because of viral persistence, most CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells become terminally differentiated effector phenotype CD8(+) T cells (TEFF). A minor subset retains a memory-like phenotype (memory phenotype CD8(+) T cells [TM]), but it is unknown whether these cells retain memory function or persist over time. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells with different phenotypes have different abilities to reconstitute sustained immunity after transfer. The immunology of human CMV infections is reflected in the murine CMV (MCMV) model. We found that human CMV- and MCMV-specific T cells displayed shared genetic programs, validating the MCMV model for studies of CMV-specific T cells in vivo. The MCMV-specific TM population was stable over time and retained a proliferative capacity that was vastly superior to TEFF. Strikingly, after transfer, TM established sustained and diverse T cell populations even after multiple challenges. Although both TEFF and TM could protect Rag(-/-) mice, only TM persisted after transfer into immune replete, latently infected recipients and responded if recipient immunity was lost. Interestingly, transferred TM did not expand until recipient immunity was lost, supporting that competition limits the Ag stimulation of TM. Ultimately, these data show that CMV-specific TM retain memory function during MCMV infection and can re-establish CMV immunity when necessary. Thus, TM may be a critical component for consistent, long-term adoptive immunotherapy success.

  3. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  4. Satellite services system analysis study: Propellant transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    General servicing requirements, a servicing mission concept and scenario, overall servicing needs, basic servicing equipment, and a general servicing mission configuration layout are addressed. Servicing needs, equipment concepts, system requirements equipment specifications, preliminary designs, and resource requirements for flight hardware for the propellant transfer system are also addressed.

  5. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between...

  6. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between...

  7. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between...

  8. Recalibrating the BC Transfer System: Approved Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In November 2005, the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer launched a consultation entitled Recalibrating the BC Transfer System with the institutional members of the BC Transfer System and other interested parties. This consultation was motivated in large part by significant changes in the BC post-secondary system over the last decade, and…

  9. 40 CFR 63.689 - Standards: Transfer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Transfer systems. 63.689....689 Standards: Transfer systems. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air emissions from transfer systems for which § 63.683(b)(1)(i) of this subpart references the use of...

  10. Proton transfer in some periodic molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Chojnacki, Henryk

    2007-07-01

    The electronic structure of representative hydrogen bonded systems: hydrogen cyanide, imidazole and malonic acid have been studied at the non-empirical level. The role of the dimensionality on the potential barrier for the proton transfer has been examined. It was shown that it depends on the crystal structure and only in some cases like hydrogen cyanide or imidazole the relevant crystals may be considered as one-dimensional. However, for more complicated crystallographic structures, e.g. malonic acid, the evaluated barrier is strongly dependent on the dimensionality taken into account in our calculations.

  11. Intimate Relationship Challenges in Early Parenthood among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples Adopting via the Child Welfare System.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Kinkler, Lori A; Moyer, April M; Weber, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Little research has examined the transition to parenthood among couples who adopt through the child welfare system. The current qualitative study of 84 individuals within 42 couples (17 lesbian, 13 gay, and 12 heterosexual), who were placed with a child via foster care three months earlier, examined perceived changes in their intimate relationship. Findings indicated that, like heterosexual biological-parent couples, some adoptive parents perceived the loss of their partner's undivided attention as stressful to the relationship. Adoption-specific stressors were also identified, including the need to find state-approved child care to facilitate "couple time" and the legal insecurity of foster-to-adopt placements. Although our findings were similar for heterosexual, lesbian, and gay adoptive parents, same-sex couples cited some additional stressors related to their sexual minority status. Findings have implications for individual, couple, and family practitioners who work with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents, particularly during their transition to parenthood.

  12. Towards a mLearning training solution to the adoption of a CPOE system.

    PubMed

    Pakonstantinou, Despoina; Poulymenopoulou, Mikaela; Malamateniou, Flora; Vassilacopoulos, George

    2012-01-01

    Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) has been introduced as a solution that can fundamentally change the way healthcare is provided, affecting all types of healthcare stakeholders and improving healthcare decisions, patient outcomes, patient safety and efficiency. However, a relatively small proportion of healthcare organizations have implemented CPOE systems, due to its technological complexity and to its low acceptance rate by healthcare professionals who largely disregard the value of CPOE in efficient healthcare delivery. An online training facility embedded within a CPOE service may increase the likelihood of its adoption by healthcare professionals as it offers them guidelines on how to perform each task of the CPOE service. In contrast to CPOE, on the other hand, handheld devices and other mobile technologies have showed an increased adoption rate. This paper considers a CPOE service that can be accessed by authorized healthcare professionals through their mobile devices anytime anywhere, and allows embedded training content, which has been developed through a learning management system (LMS) to be presented to the user automatically upon request.

  13. Characteristics of German hospitals adopting health IT systems - results from an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Jan-David; Egbert, Nicole; Frey, Andreas; Hübner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Hospital characteristics that facilitate IT adoption have been described by the literature extensively, however with controversial results. The aim of this study therefore is to draw a set of the most important variables from previous studies and include them in a combined analysis for testing their contribution as single factors and their interactions. Total number of IT systems installed and number of clinical IT systems in the hospital were used as criterion variables. Data from a national survey of German hospitals served as basis. Based on a stepwise multiple regression analysis four variables were identified to significantly explain the degree of IT adoption (60% explained variance): 1) hospital size, 2) IT department, 3) reference customer and 4) ownership (private vs. public). Our results replicate previous findings with regard to hospital size and ownership. In addition our study emphasizes the importance of a reliable internal structure for IT projects (existence of an IT department) and the culture of testing and installing most recent IT products (being a reference customer). None of the interactions between factors was significant.

  14. "It's about Us": Marital Adjustment and Marital Adaptation in Couples Who Adopt Children from the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooradian, John K.; Timm, Tina M.; Hock, Robert M.; Jackson, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines, using grounded theory methodology, the marital relationships of couples who adopted children from the child welfare system. Twenty-two spouses in four focus groups reported initial marital adjustment that featured husbands' support of their wives' initiation of adoption and management of child needs. About one half of these…

  15. A single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of viral-specific T-cells from healthy donors: implications for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Spielmann, Guillaume; Bollard, Catherine M.; Kunz, Hawley; Hanley, Patrick J.; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The adoptive transfer of donor-derived viral-specific cytotoxic T-cells (VSTs) is an effective treatment for controlling CMV and EBV infections after HSCT; however, new practical methods are required to augment the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors. This study investigated the effects of a single exercise bout on the ex vivo manufacture of multi-VSTs. PBMCs isolated from healthy CMV/EBV seropositive participants before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) 30-minutes of cycling exercise were stimulated with CMV (pp65 and IE1) and EBV (LMP2A and BMLF1) peptides and expanded over 8 days. The number (fold difference from PRE) of T-cells specific for CMV pp65 (2.6), EBV LMP2A (2.5), and EBV BMLF1 (4.4) was greater among the VSTs expanded POST. VSTs expanded PRE and POST had similar phenotype characteristics and were equally capable of MHC-restricted killing of autologous target cells. We conclude that a single exercise bout enhances the manufacture of multi-VSTs from healthy donors without altering their phenotype or function and may serve as a simple and economical adjuvant to boost the production of multi-VSTs for allogeneic adoptive transfer immunotherapy. PMID:27181409

  16. Adoptive transfer of DNT cells induces long-term cardiac allograft survival and augments recipient CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cell accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhu-Xu; Lian, Dameng; Huang, Xuyan; Wang, Shuang; Sun, Hongtao; Liu, Weihua; Garcia, Bertha; Min, Wei-Ping; Jevnikar, Anthony M

    2011-01-15

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the regulation of immune responses but whether Treg will induce tolerance in transplant recipients in the clinic remains unknown. Our previous studies have shown that TCRαβ(+)CD3(+)CD4⁻CD8⁻NK1.1⁻ (double negative, DN) T cells suppress T cell responses and prolong allograft survival in a single locus MHC-mismatched mouse model. In this study, we investigated the role of DNT cells in a more robust, fully MHC-mismatched BALB/c to C57BL/6 transplantation model, which may be more clinically relevant. Adoptive transfer of DNT cells in combination with short-term rapamycin treatment (days 1-9) induced long-term heart allograft survival (101±31 vs. 39±13 days rapamycin alone, p<0.01). Furthermore adoptive transfer DNT cells augmented CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells accumulation in transplant recipients while depletion of CD4(+) Treg cells by anti-CD25 inhibited the effect of DNT cells on long-term graft survival (48±12 days vs. 101±31 days, p<0.001). In conclusion, DNT cells combined with short-term immunosuppression can prolong allograft survival, which may be through the accumulation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the recipient. Our result suggests that allograft tolerance may require the co-existence of different type Treg cell phenotypes which are affected by current immunosuppression.

  17. Adoptive transfer of pp65-specific T cells for the treatment of chemorefractory cytomegalovirus disease or reactivation after haploidentical and matched unrelated stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Feuchtinger, Tobias; Opherk, Kathrin; Bethge, Wolfgang A; Topp, Max S; Schuster, Friedhelm R; Weissinger, Eva M; Mohty, Mohamad; Or, Reuven; Maschan, Michael; Schumm, Michael; Hamprecht, Klaus; Handgretinger, Rupert; Lang, Peter; Einsele, Hermann

    2010-11-18

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease and infection refractory to antiviral treatment after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is associated with a high mortality. Adoptive transfer of CMV-specific T cells could reconstitute viral immunity after SCT and could protect from CMV-related complications. However, logistics of producing virus-specific T-cell grafts limited the clinical application. We treated 18 patients after allo-SCT from human leukocyte antigen-mismatched/haploidentical or human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated donors with polyclonal CMV-specific T cells generated by ex vivo stimulation with pp65, followed by isolation of interferon-γ-producing cells. Patients with CMV disease or viremia refractory to antiviral chemotherapy or both were eligible for adoptive T-cell transfer and received a mean of 21 × 10³/kg pp65-specific T cells. In 83% of cases CMV infection was cleared or viral burden was significantly reduced, even in cases of CMV encephalitis (n = 2). Viral control was associated with in vivo expansion of CMV-specific T lymphocytes in 12 of 16 evaluable cases, resulting in reconstitution of antiviral T-cell responses, without graft-versus-host disease induction or acute side effects. Our findings indicate that the infusion of low numbers of CMV-specific T cells is safe, feasible, and effective as a treatment on demand for refractory CMV infection and CMV disease after allo-SCT.

  18. Transfer zones in listric normal fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Shamik

    Listric normal faults are common in passive margin settings where sedimentary units are detached above weaker lithological units, such as evaporites or are driven by basal structural and stratigraphic discontinuities. The geometries and styles of faulting vary with the types of detachment and form landward and basinward dipping fault systems. Complex transfer zones therefore develop along the terminations of adjacent faults where deformation is accommodated by secondary faults, often below seismic resolution. The rollover geometry and secondary faults within the hanging wall of the major faults also vary with the styles of faulting and contribute to the complexity of the transfer zones. This study tries to understand the controlling factors for the formation of the different styles of listric normal faults and the different transfer zones formed within them, by using analog clay experimental models. Detailed analyses with respect to fault orientation, density and connectivity have been performed on the experiments in order to gather insights on the structural controls and the resulting geometries. A new high resolution 3D laser scanning technology has been introduced to scan the surfaces of the clay experiments for accurate measurements and 3D visualizations. Numerous examples from the Gulf of Mexico have been included to demonstrate and geometrically compare the observations in experiments and real structures. A salt cored convergent transfer zone from the South Timbalier Block 54, offshore Louisiana has been analyzed in detail to understand the evolutionary history of the region, which helps in deciphering the kinematic growth of similar structures in the Gulf of Mexico. The dissertation is divided into three chapters, written in a journal article format, that deal with three different aspects in understanding the listric normal fault systems and the transfer zones so formed. The first chapter involves clay experimental models to understand the fault patterns in

  19. TCR-ligand koff rate correlates with the protective capacity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells for adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Nauerth, Magdalena; Weißbrich, Bianca; Knall, Robert; Franz, Tobias; Dössinger, Georg; Bet, Jeannette; Paszkiewicz, Paulina J; Pfeifer, Lukas; Bunse, Mario; Uckert, Wolfgang; Holtappels, Rafaela; Gillert-Marien, Dorothea; Neuenhahn, Michael; Krackhardt, Angela; Reddehase, Matthias J; Riddell, Stanley R; Busch, Dirk H

    2013-07-03

    Adoptive immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic infections and cancer. T cells within a certain range of high avidity for their cognate ligand are believed to be most effective. T cell receptor (TCR) transfer experiments indicate that a major part of avidity is hardwired within the structure of the TCR. Unfortunately, rapid measurement of structural avidity of TCRs is difficult on living T cells. We developed a technology where dissociation (koff rate) of truly monomeric peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules bound to surface-expressed TCRs can be monitored by real-time microscopy in a highly reliable manner. A first evaluation of this method on distinct human cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cell populations revealed unexpected differences in the koff rates. CMV-specific T cells are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for efficacy in adoptive immunotherapy; therefore, determination of koff rates could guide selection of the most effective donor cells. Indeed, in two different murine infection models, we demonstrate that T cell populations with lower koff rates confer significantly better protection than populations with fast koff rates. These data indicate that koff rate measurements can improve the predictability of adoptive immunotherapy and provide diagnostic information on the in vivo quality of T cells.

  20. Systemic injection of TLR1/2 agonist improves adoptive antigen-specific T cell therapy in glioma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufei; Luo, Feifei; Li, Anning; Qian, Jiawen; Yao, Zhenwei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Chu, Yiwei

    2014-09-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy is an attractive strategy for glioma treatment. However, some obstacles still need be overcome. In this study, GL261-bearing mice treated with adoptively transferred antigen-specific T cells and systemic injection of bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), a TLR1/2 agonist, got a long-term survival and even immune protection. By analyzing adoptive T cells, it was found that BLP maintained T cell survival, proliferation and anti-tumor efficacy in the brains of tumor-bearing hosts. Moreover, tumor microenvironment was modified by up-regulating IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells and down-regulating MDSC, which might be related with high CXCL10 and low CCL2 expression. In addition, TLR2 deficiency abrogated therapeutic effect with increased MDSC accumulation and decreased IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in the brains. Thus, the systemic injection of BLP could improve the adoptive T cell therapy by maintaining T cell persistence, modifying the tumor microenvironment and even inducing systemic anti-tumor immunity, which might offer a clinically promising immunotherapeutic strategy for glioma.

  1. A proposal for adopting a standard coordinate system for defining atmospheric nomenclature for the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, R.

    1986-01-01

    Although the albedo of specific belts and zones varies as a function of time, there is evidence that wind maxima may be fixed in latitude. Before considering a standard notation for wind jets, it is necessary to establish a coordinate system within which the nomenclature would be defined. Traditionally, the BAA has used planetographic latitudes; however, this system is based not only on an accurate determination of the polar diameter but also on the assumption that the equipotential surfaces can be represented by biaxial ellipsoids. The International Astronomical Union strives to adopt unambiguous nomenclature that will be universally acceptable. It is proposed that planetocentric coordinates be utilized and that a standardized value of the ratio of the polar diameter to the equatorial diameter be established for each planet to facilitate transformation into planetographic coordinates.

  2. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  3. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  4. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  5. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  6. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  7. Industrial Adoption of Model-Based Systems Engineering: Challenges and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Apoorv

    As design teams are becoming more globally integrated, one of the biggest challenges is to efficiently communicate across the team. The increasing complexity and multi-disciplinary nature of the products are also making it difficult to keep track of all the information generated during the design process by these global team members. System engineers have identified Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) as a possible solution where the emphasis is placed on the application of visual modeling methods and best practices to systems engineering (SE) activities right from the beginning of the conceptual design phases through to the end of the product lifecycle. Despite several advantages, there are multiple challenges restricting the adoption of MBSE by industry. We mainly consider the following two challenges: a) Industry perceives MBSE just as a diagramming tool and does not see too much value in MBSE; b) Industrial adopters are skeptical if the products developed using MBSE approach will be accepted by the regulatory bodies. To provide counter evidence to the former challenge, we developed a generic framework for translation from an MBSE tool (Systems Modeling Language, SysML) to an analysis tool (Agent-Based Modeling, ABM). The translation is demonstrated using a simplified air traffic management problem and provides an example of a potential quite significant value: the ability to use MBSE representations directly in an analysis setting. For the latter challenge, we are developing a reference model that uses SysML to represent a generic infusion pump and SE process for planning, developing, and obtaining regulatory approval of a medical device. This reference model demonstrates how regulatory requirements can be captured effectively through model-based representations. We will present another case study at the end where we will apply the knowledge gained from both case studies to a UAV design problem.

  8. Adoption Now: A Joint Initiative of New York's Courts and Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCataldo, Kathleen R.; Carroll, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In November 2002, Chief Judge Judith Kaye attended the National Adoption Day festivities in Albany County and New York County (Manhattan). Although pleased that 600 adoptions were being finalized statewide on this special day, she was concerned to learn more than 6,000 other children were free for adoption but had not yet found permanent families.…

  9. Load-bearing masonry system adoption and performance: A case study of construction company in a developing country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Nor Azlinda; Abdullah, Che Sobry; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Bahaudin, Ahmad Yusni

    2016-08-01

    This study addresses the factors that influence the adoption of load-bearing masonry (LBM) system. A case study of the load-bearing masonry (LBM) system adoption is conducted through an interview to explore the situation of the technology adoption in a construction company. The finding indicates the factors influence the adoption of LBM system for the construction company are: organizational resources, usefulness, less maintenance, reduce construction time and cost. From the findings, these factors consistent with previous literature. Furthermore, the performance of the company was measured by looking into the financial and non-financial aspects. The LBM system brings good performance as it increased the profits of the company, a good quality of product and attracts more demand from customers. Thus, these factors should be considered for the other companies that are interested in implementing the LBM system in their projects.

  10. Antibody responses to allergen Lol pIV are suppressed following adoptive transfer of B lymphocytes from the internal image anti-idiotypic antibody-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-10-01

    An internal image anti-idiotypic antibody, designated B1/1, was generated against an idiotope (Id91) of the monoclonal antibody (mAb91) specific for Lol pIV. The administration of B1/1 in PBS, at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms/mouse, to syngeneic Balb/c mice resulted in the suppression of the formation of anti-Lol pIV antibodies that possessed the Id91. Spleen cells obtained from the mice 2 weeks after the treatment with B1/1 (25 micrograms/mouse) were adoptively transferred intravenously into the syngeneic recipients which were challenged intraperitoneally with Lol pIV in alum 2 hr after the transfer. The recipients were boosted with Lol pIV 14 days later. It was demonstrated that the transfer of splenic B cells (but not of T cells) from B1/1-treated donors induced a significant suppression of not only the level of IgE and IgG antibodies to Lol pIV, but also the level of antibodies possessing the Id91. Treatment of the B cells with mAb91 plus complement abrogated their ability to transfer the suppression. This study indicates that the treatment with the anti-Id B1/1 generated B cells that were characterized, serologically, as possessing the anti-Id-like antibodies on their surface and were responsible for transferring the suppression of the formation of antibodies to allergen Lol pIV and the expression of Id91.

  11. Critical factors for the adoption of mobile nursing information systems in Taiwan: the nursing department administrators' perspective.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Shih-Jung; Li, Yi-Chang; Chen, Ying-Ling; Ko, Hsi-Ching

    2009-10-01

    The trend towards point-of-care and the advance in mobile technologies bring the potential to employ Mobile Nursing Information Systems (MNIS) in nursing care routines. However, adopting the MNIS is not simply a case of purchasing the required hardware and software, but rather a social interaction process between users, organizations, and the environment. Therefore, this study developed a framework of twelve factors affecting the decision to adopt/not to adopt the MNIS in the nursing department, and tested it from the perspective of the nursing administrators. A mail survey was conducted to collect the opinions of 84 nursing administrators, and a discriminant analysis was used to identify the critical factors for the adoption/non-adoption of the MNIS. Business competition, external suppliers' support, and internal needs were identified as being significantly associated with the adoption of MNIS. Potential adopters can apply the results of this study as a reference when making the adoption decision regarding MNIS, while non-adopters and vendors can examine the resistance to MNIS.

  12. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  13. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  14. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  15. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  16. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  17. Nonatopic asthma: in vivo airway hyperreactivity adoptively transferred to naive mice by THY-1(+) and B220(+) antigen-specific cells that lack surface expression of CD3.

    PubMed Central

    Geba, G P; Wegner, C D; Wolyniec, W W; Li, Y; Askenase, P W

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the cellular immune events contributing to airway hyperreactivity (AHR), we studied an in vivo mouse model induced by the hapten picryl (trinitrophenyl) chloride (PCl). Mice were immunized by cutaneous contact sensitization with PCl and airway challenged subsequently with picryl sulfonic acid (PSA) antigen (Ag). Increased airway resistance was produced late (24 h) after Ag challenge, disappeared by 48 h, and was associated with no decrease in diffusion capacity. AHR could be produced in PCl immune/ PSA challenged mice on day 7 or even, with challenge, as early as 1 d after contact sensitization, after adoptive transfer of immune cells lacking CD3(+) contact sensitivity effector T cells, or after transfer of Ag-specific lymphoid cells depleted of conventional T lymphocytes with surface determinants for CD3, CD4, CD8, TCR-beta, or TCR-delta molecules. Further experiments showed that development of AHR depended upon transfer of immune cells expressing surface membrane Thy-1 and B220 (CD45RA) determinants. We concluded that a novel population of Ag-specific lymphoid cells with a defined surface phenotype (Thy-1(+), CD3(-), CD4(-), CD8(-), TCR-alphabeta-, TCR-gammadelta-, and CD45RA+) is required in a mouse model for the development of AHR. PMID:9241124

  18. Commentary: Are there good reasons to adopt dynamic systems approaches for explaining deductive reasoning?

    PubMed

    Leitão, Selma

    2008-06-01

    The focus of this commentary is twofold. First, I examine Faiciuc's attempts to counter symbolic computationalism as a major theoretical framework for the study of deductive reasoning. Second, I wish to see how far the author goes in her defense of Dynamic Systems Approaches (DSAs) as a more promising framework for explaining logical reasoning. When reading her work, I posed two versions of the same for/against question to myself: How strong is the case against symbolic computationalism? And, on the basis of the author's argumentation, would one feel justified in adopting DSAs instead? I examine each question in turn, and come to similar conclusions. The article by Faiciuc tackles issues of relevance to any serious effort toward reflecting on the two perspectives being compared. Unfortunately, however, references to studies supporting her claims are rather thin. A better-informed answer to the question raised in the title of the article is still to be given.

  19. Factors Associated With Adoption of the Electronic Health Record System Among Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Clement SK; Tong, Ellen LH; Cheung, Ngai Tseung; Chan, Wai Man; Wang, Harry HX; Kwan, Mandy WM; Fan, Carmen KM; Liu, Kirin QL

    2013-01-01

    Background A territory-wide Internet-based electronic patient record allows better patient care in different sectors. The engagement of private physicians is one of the major facilitators for implementation, but there is limited information about the current adoption level of electronic medical record (eMR) among private primary care physicians. Objective This survey measured the adoption level, enabling factors, and hindering factors of eMR, among private physicians in Hong Kong. It also evaluated the key functions and the popularity of electronic systems and vendors used by these private practitioners. Methods A central registry consisting of 4324 private practitioners was set up. Invitations for self-administered surveys and the completed questionnaires were sent and returned via fax, email, postal mail, and on-site clinic visits. Current users and non-users of eMR system were compared according to their demographic and practice characteristics. Student’s t tests and chi-square tests were used for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Results A total of 524 completed surveys (response rate 524/4405 11.90%) were collected. The proportion of using eMR in private clinics was 79.6% (417/524). When compared with non-users, the eMR users were younger (users: 48.4 years SD 10.6 years vs non-users: 61.7 years SD 10.2 years, P<.001); more were female physicians (users: 80/417, 19.2% vs non-users: 14/107, 13.1%, P=.013); possessed less clinical experience (with more than20 years of practice: users: 261/417, 62.6% vs non-user: 93/107, 86.9%, P<.001); fewer worked under a Health Maintenance Organization (users: 347/417, 83.2% vs non-users: 97/107, 90.7%, P<.001) and more worked with practice partners (users: 126/417, 30.2% vs non-users: 4/107, 3.7%, P<.001). Efficiency (379/417, 90.9%) and reduction of medical errors (229/417, 54.9%) were the major enabling factors, while patient-unfriendliness (58/107, 54.2%) and limited consultation time (54/107, 50

  20. HEAT TRANSFER AND TRITIUM PRODUCING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.F.

    1962-06-01

    This invention related to a circulating lithium-containing blanket system in a neution source hav'ing a magnetic field associated therewith. The blanket serves simultaneously and efficiently as a heat transfer mediunm and as a source of tritium. The blanket is composed of a lithium-6-enriched fused salt selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrite, lithium nitrate, a mixture of said salts, a mixture of each of said salts with lithium oxide, and a mixture of said salts with each other and with lithium oxide. The moderator, which is contained within the blanket in a separate conduit, can be water. A stellarator is one of the neutron sources which can be used in this invention. (AEC)

  1. Infrared radiative energy transfer in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions in various energy transfer processes in gaseous systems. Both gray and non-gray radiative formulations for absorption and emission by molecular gases are presented. The gray gas formulations are based on the Planck mean absorption coefficient and the non-gray formulations are based on the wide band model correlations for molecular absorption. Various relations for the radiative flux and divergence of radiative flux are developed. These are useful for different flow conditions and physical problems. Specific plans for obtaining extensive results for different cases are presented. The procedure developed was applied to several realistic problems. Results of selected studies are presented.

  2. Bagless Transfer System Welder Data Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Susan L.

    2003-09-30

    The Bagless Transfer System Welder Data Acquisition Software (BTS DAS) was developed by SRTC to replace a strip chart recorder that has been in place since the design of the BTS. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TID welding process, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. The BTS DAS improves this technology by digitizing the weld data which allows for automation of the analysis process. Also, the data files are now stored digitally as well as a hard copy printout, so they can be reanalyzed if needed. The BTS DAS performs the necessary functions to perform the data acquisition functions during the BTS Welding Process. It is important to monitor the critical weld parameters, current and voltage, during a weld as they can be used to set acceptance criteria for weld acceptance. The software monitors and records the weld current, voltage, and RPM data. The welder DAS is a passive device and does not control the welder. The BTS control system interfaces directly with the welder and the BTS DAS. Digital handshaking is used between the BTS DAS and the BTS control system to ensure that the DAS is ready to weld prior to allowing the operator to initiate the welding process.

  3. IL-2 augments the therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred B cells which directly kill tumor cells via the CXCR4/CXCL12 and perforin pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Xia, Leiming; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yi; Bao, Yangyi; Huang, Shiang; Ren, Xiubao; Lundy, Steven K.; Dai, Fu; Li, Qiao; Chang, Alfred E.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that antitumor B cells directly kill tumor cells via the Fas/FasL pathway and are regulated by IL-10. In this study, we defined additional mechanisms involved in B cell antitumor immunity. Administration of IL-2 significantly augmented the therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN) B cells which express IL- 2R. Culture supernatant of purified B splenocytes harvested from the mice that received adoptive transfer of 4T1 TDLN B cells plus IL-2 administration produced larger amounts of IgG which bound to 4T1, resulting in 4T1 lysis. Furthermore, we detected CXCR4 expression on 4T1 TDLN B cells, and 4T1 tumor cells produced its ligand CXCL12. Transwell experiments demonstrated the chemoattraction of CXCR4-expressing 4T1 TDLN B cells towards CXCL12- producing 4T1 cells. Blockade of CXCR4 using a CXCR4-specific inhibitor, AMD3100, significantly reduced the killing of 4T1 tumor cells by 4T1 TDLN B cells. Blockade of FasL and CXCR4 concurrently inhibited B cell-mediated direct killing of tumor cells in an additive manner, indicating that both Fas/FasL and CXCL12/CXCR4 pathways are involved in the direct killing of 4T1 cells by 4T1 TDLN B cells. TDLN B cells produced perforin. Additional transwell experiments showed that effector B cells could directly kill tumor cells in cell-cell contact via the Fas/FasL and CXCR4/CXCL12 pathways as well as perforin, while without cell contact, perforin secreted by B cells led to tumor cell cytotoxicity. These findings underscore the diversity of function by which B cells can play an important role in the host immune response to tumor. PMID:27528023

  4. C-C chemokine receptor type-4 transduction of T cells enhances interaction with dendritic cells, tumor infiltration and therapeutic efficacy of adoptive T cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Moritz; Grassmann, Simon; Chaloupka, Michael; Layritz, Patrick; Kruger, Stephan; Ormanns, Steffen; Rataj, Felicitas; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Endres, Stefan; Anz, David; Kobold, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    T cell infiltration at the tumor site has been identified as a major predictor for the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. The chemokine C-C motif ligand 22 (CCL22) is highly expressed by immune cells in murine and human pancreatic cancer. Expression of its corresponding receptor, C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4), is restricted to regulatory T cells (Treg). We show that transduction of cytotoxic T cells (CTL) with CCR4 enhances their immigration into a pancreatic cancer model. Further, we show that binding of CCR4 with CCL22 strengthens the binding of T cell LFA-1 to dendritic cell (DC) ICAM-1 and increases CTL activation. In vivo, in a model of subcutaneous pancreatic cancer, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with CCR4-transduced CTL led to the eradication of established tumors in 40% of the mice. In conclusion, CCR4 overexpression in CTL is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance the efficacy of adoptive T cell transfer (ACT).

  5. Adoptive transfer of Aspergillus-specific T cells as a novel anti-fungal therapy for hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: Progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Anastasia; Kaloyannidis, Panayotis; Yannaki, Evangelia; Cruz, Conrad Russell

    2016-02-01

    Although newer antifungal drugs have substantially altered the natural history of invasive aspergillosis, the disease still accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Both the evidence supporting a protective role of T cells against this fungal pathogen and the documented efficacy of adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells for prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections post-transplant have stimulated much interest towards development of Aspergillus-specific T cells (Asp-STs) for adoptive immunotherapy in the allogeneic transplant setting. In contrast to the remarkable progress with virus-specific T cells, clinical development of fungus-specific T cells is still in its infancy. Several groups have characterized Asp-STs in healthy individuals and patients with malignant hematological diseases, while others sought to develop GMP-compliant methods of expanding or bioengineering Asp-STs ex vivo as immunotherapy. This review highlights the recent advances in this field, and discusses critical issues involved in development and protocol design of Asp-ST immunotherapy.

  6. Adoptive transfer of osteoclast-expanded natural killer cells for immunotherapy targeting cancer stem-like cells in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, Anna K; Kaur, Kawaljit; Topchyan, Paytsar; Jewett, Anahid

    2016-07-01

    Based on data obtained from oral, pancreatic and lung cancers, glioblastoma, and melanoma, we have established that natural killer (NK) cells target cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). CSCs displaying low MHC class I, CD54, and PD-L1 are killed by cytotoxic NK cells and are differentiated by split anergized NK cells through both membrane bound and secreted forms of TNF-α and IFN-γ. NK cells select and differentiate both healthy and transformed stem-like cells, resulting in target cell maturation and shaping of their microenvironment. In our recent studies, we have observed that oral, pancreatic, and melanoma CSCs were capable of forming large tumors in humanized bone marrow, liver, thymus (hu-BLT) mice with fully reconstituted human immune system. In addition, major human immune subsets including NK cells, T cells, B cells, and monocytes were present in the spleen, bone marrow, peripheral blood, and tumor microenvironment. Similar to our previously published in vitro data, CSCs differentiated with split anergized NK cells prior to implantation in mice formed smaller tumors. Intravenous injection of functionally potent osteoclast-expanded NK cells inhibited tumor growth through differentiation of CSCs in humanized mice. In this review, we present current approaches, advances, and existing limitations in studying interactions of the immune system with the tumor, in particular NK cells with CSCs, using in vivo preclinical hu-BLT mouse model. In addition, we discuss the use of osteoclast-expanded NK cells in targeting cancer stem-like tumors in humanized mice-a strategy that provides a much-needed platform to develop effective cancer immunotherapies.

  7. Canister Transfer System Event Sequence Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Morissette

    2001-08-16

    The ''Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister, Transportation, and Monitored Geologic Repository Systems, Structures, and Components Performance Allocation Study'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) allocated performance to both the canisters received at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) and the MGR Canister Transfer System (CTS). The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate an assumed range of canister and CTS performance allocation failure probabilities and determine the effect of these failure probabilities on the frequency of a radionuclide release. Five canister types are addressed in this calculation; high-level radioactive waste (HLW) canisters containing vitrified borosilicate glass, HLW canisters containing immobilized plutonium surrounded by borosilicate glass (Pu/HLW canisters), Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canisters (4 sizes), DSNF multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) for N-reactor fuel and other selected DSNF, and naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters (2 sizes). The quality assurance program applies to this calculation, and the work is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations''. The work done for this calculation was evaluated according to AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'' that determined this activity to be subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000a). This work was performed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Department of Energy Nuclear Fuel Work Packages'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c) for this activity.

  8. Space Biosensor Systems: Implications for Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, J. W.; Somps, C. J.; Madou, M.; Imprescia, Clifford C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    To meet the need for continuous, automated monitoring of animal subjects, including; humans, during space flight, NASA is developing advanced physiologic sensor and biotelemetry system technologies. The ability to continuously track basic physiological parameters, such as heart rate, blood pH, and body temperature, in untethered subjects in space is a challenging task. At NASA's Ames Research Center, where a key focus is gravitational biology research, engineers have teamed with life scientists to develop wireless sensor systems for automated physiologic monitoring of animal models as small as the rat. This technology is also being adapted, in collaboration with medical professionals, to meet human clinical monitoring needs both in space and on the ground. Thus, these advanced monitoring technologies have important dual-use functions; they meet space flight data collection requirements and constraints, while concurrently addressing a number of monitoring and data acquisition challenges on the ground in areas of clinical monitoring and biomedical research. Additional applications for these and related technologies are being sought and additional partnerships established that enhance development efforts, reduce costs and facilitate technology infusion between the public and private sectors. This paper describes technology transfer and co-development projects that have evolved out of NASA's miniaturized, implantable chemical sensor development efforts.

  9. Using System Change To Increase and Improve Adoptions: The SWAN Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Statewide Adoption Network (SWAN) of Pennsylvania and its impact on increasing and improving quality of special-needs adoptions. Notes that program resulted from increases of children in out-of-home care, program is a public and private initiative, and that since its inception, special-needs agencies have increased, financial and…

  10. Cutaneous sensitivity induced by immunization with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. I. Induction, elicitation, and adoptive transfer analysis of cell-mediated cutaneous sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ch'ang, L.Y.; Colley, D.G.

    1986-06-01

    Exposure of C57BL/6 mice to highly irradiated (50 kR) cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni leads to the development of partial resistance against subsequent challenge with unattenuated cercariae. We have analyzed the cellular immune responses that occur during the afferent and efferent phases of this protective sensitization. Mice were immunized by exposure to irradiated S. mansoni cercariae. After challenge with irradiated cercariae, delayed-type (18-72 hr) cutaneous sensitivity reaction sites were rich in mononuclear cells and eosinophils. This reactivity was established by 4 days after sensitization, reached its maximum between 7 and 14 days after sensitization, and was maintained for over 20 weeks. These challenge reactions could be abrogated by treatment with either 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or 5 mg of hydrocortisone. Syngeneic adoptive transfer of cutaneous sensitivity was accomplished with lymphoid cells from the draining lymph nodes or spleens of mice sensitized 7-14 days previously. Negative selection studies of nylon-wool non-adherent cells from sensitized donors demonstrated that the cells responsible for transferring this eosinophil-rich, delayed-type cutaneous sensitivity to S. mansoni irradiated cercariae were Thy/sup -1 +/, Lyt/sup 1 +/, Lyt/sup 2 -/, surface Ig/sup -/ lymphocytes.

  11. Arthritogenic T cells drive the recovery of autoantibody-producing B cell homeostasis and the adoptive transfer of arthritis in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Kis-Toth, Katalin; Radacs, Marianna; Olasz, Katalin; van Eden, Willem; Mikecz, Katalin; Glant, Tibor T

    2012-08-01

    T cells orchestrate joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but B cells/B cell-derived factors are also involved in disease pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to understand the role of antigen-specific T and B cells in the pathological events of arthritis, which is impossible to study in humans due to the small number of antigen-specific cells. To determine the significance of antigen-specific lymphocytes and antibodies in the development of an autoimmune mouse model of RA, we generated TCR transgenic (TCR-Tg) mice specific for the dominant arthritogenic epitope of cartilage proteoglycan (PG) and performed a series of combined transfers of T cells, B cells and autoantibodies into BALB/c.Scid mice. The adoptive transfer of highly purified T cells from naive TCR-Tg, arthritic TCR-Tg or arthritic wild-type mice induced arthritis in SCID recipients, but the onset and severity of the disease were dependent on the sequential events of the T cell-supported reconstitution of PG-specific B cells and autoantibodies. The presence of activated PG-specific T cells was critical for disease induction, establishing a unique milieu for the selective homeostasis of autoantibody-producing B cells. In this permissive environment, anti-PG autoantibodies bound to cartilage and induced activation of the complement cascade, leading to irreversible cartilage destruction in affected joints. These findings may lead to a better understanding of the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms of RA.

  12. British Columbia/Alberta Transfer System Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this agreement is to provide assurance to students that they will receive transfer credit for courses or programs they have successfully completed where the content/outcomes are demonstrably equivalent to those offered at the institution to which they transfer. This protocol is undertaken by the British Columbia Council on…

  13. 40 CFR 63.689 - Standards: Transfer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....689 Standards: Transfer systems. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air... section for such air emission control. (b) For each transfer system that is subject to this section and is an individual drain system, the owner or operator shall control air emissions in accordance with...

  14. 40 CFR 63.689 - Standards: Transfer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....689 Standards: Transfer systems. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air... section for such air emission control. (b) For each transfer system that is subject to this section and is an individual drain system, the owner or operator shall control air emissions in accordance with...

  15. A Direct Conversion Receiver Adopting Balanced Three-Phase Analog System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaji, Takafumi; Ueno, Takeshi; Itakura, Tetsuro

    Recent advanced technology makes digital circuits small and the number of digital functional blocks that can be integrated on a single chip is increasing rapidly. On the other hand, reduction in the size of analog circuits has been insufficient. This means that the analog circuit area is relatively large, and reducing analog circuit area can be effective to make a low cost radio receiver. In this paper, a new wireless receiver architecture that occupies small analog area is proposed, and measured results of the core analog blocks are described. To reduce the analog area, a balanced 3-phase analog system is adopted and the functions of analog baseband filters and VGAs are moved to the digital domain. The test chip consists of a 3-phase downconverter and a 3-phase ADC. There is no analog baseband filter on the chip and the analog filter is assumed to be replaced with a digital filter. The downconverter and ADC occupy 0.28mm2. The measured results show the possibility that the requirements for IMT-2000 are fulfilled even with a small chip area.

  16. Exploratory Analysis of Survey Data for Understanding Adoption of Novel Aerospace Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Lauren M.

    In order to meet the increasing demand for manned and unmanned flight, the air transportation system must constantly evolve. As new technologies or operational procedures are conceived, we must determine their effect on humans in the system. In this research, we introduce a strategy to assess how individuals or organizations would respond to a novel aerospace system. We employ the most appropriate and sophisticated exploratory analysis techniques on the survey data to generate insight and identify significant variables. We employ three different methods for eliciting views from individuals or organizations who are affected by a system: an opinion survey, a stated preference survey, and structured interviews. We conduct an opinion survey of both the general public and stakeholders in the unmanned aircraft industry to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding unmanned aircraft. We complete a statistical analysis of the multiple-choice questions using multinomial logit and multivariate probit models and conduct qualitative analysis on free-text questions. We next present a stated preference survey of the general public on the use of an unmanned aircraft package delivery service. We complete a statistical analysis of the questions using multinomial logit, ordered probit, linear regression, and negative binomial models. Finally, we discuss structured interviews conducted on stakeholders from ANSPs and airlines operating in the North Atlantic. We describe how these groups may choose to adopt a new technology (space-based ADS-B) or operational procedure (in-trail procedures). We discuss similarities and differences between the stakeholders groups, the benefits and costs of in-trail procedures and space-based ADS-B as reported by the stakeholders, and interdependencies between the groups interviewed. To demonstrate the value of the data we generated, we explore how the findings from the surveys can be used to better characterize uncertainty in the cost

  17. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  18. Applying observations from technological transformations in complex adaptive systems to inform health policy on technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew B; Merrill, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Many complex markets such as banking and manufacturing have benefited significantly from technology adoption. Each of these complex markets experienced increased efficiency, quality, security, and customer involvement as a result of technology transformation in their industry. Healthcare has not benefited to the same extent. We provide initial findings from a policy analysis of complex markets and the features of these transformations that can influence health technology adoption and acceptance.

  19. W-314, waste transfer alternative piping system description

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-04-30

    It is proposed that the reliability, operability, and flexibility of the Retrieval Transfer System be substantially upgraded by replacing the planned single in-farm pipeline from the AN-AY-AZ-(SY) Tank Farm Complex to the AP Farm with three parallel pipelines outside the tank farms. The proposed system provides simplified and redundant routes for the various transfer missions, and prevents the risk of transfer gridlock when the privatization effort swings into full operation.

  20. An Examination of Learning Transfer System Characteristics across Organizational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Chen, Hsin-Chih; Naquin, Sharon S.

    2003-01-01

    No previous research in the United States has compared and contrasted learning transfer systems across organizations and training types, primarily because no standard instruments were used in previous research. This study, based on a subset of responses in the Learning Transfer System Inventory response database, is the first to conduct such a…

  1. Intimate Relationship Challenges in Early Parenthood among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples Adopting via the Child Welfare System

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Moyer, April M.; Weber, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined the transition to parenthood among couples who adopt through the child welfare system. The current qualitative study of 84 individuals within 42 couples (17 lesbian, 13 gay, and 12 heterosexual), who were placed with a child via foster care three months earlier, examined perceived changes in their intimate relationship. Findings indicated that, like heterosexual biological-parent couples, some adoptive parents perceived the loss of their partner’s undivided attention as stressful to the relationship. Adoption-specific stressors were also identified, including the need to find state-approved child care to facilitate “couple time” and the legal insecurity of foster-to-adopt placements. Although our findings were similar for heterosexual, lesbian, and gay adoptive parents, same-sex couples cited some additional stressors related to their sexual minority status. Findings have implications for individual, couple, and family practitioners who work with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents, particularly during their transition to parenthood. PMID:25177080

  2. The German Dual System of Initial Vocational Education and Training and Its Potential for Transfer to Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummelsheim, Stefan; Baur, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Germany has a "dual system" of initial vocational education and training, one that other countries admire and would like to adopt. Can it hand this model over to them? This article argues that doing so will require far more than a simple process of copying. Instead, any transfer must reflect the existing conditions in the country…

  3. Army Training Technology Transfer: A Systems Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    study of teacher education institutions as innovators, knowledge producers, and change agencies. National Insti- tute of Education ?roject 4-Q752...of personalized teacher education . Research conducted under National Institute of Education contract support OEC 6-10-108, 1974. Weatherley, R...Science, 1974, 183, 620-622. Wallace, R. C. Each his own man: The role of adoption agents in the imple- mentation of personalized teacher education . Research

  4. The Reality of Rhetoric in Information Systems Adoption: A Case Study Investigation of the Uk National Health Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Ferneley, Elaine

    The UK National Health Service is undergoing a tremendous IS -led change, the purpose of which is to create a service capable of meeting the demands of the 21st century. The aim of this paper is to examine the extent to which persuasive discourse, or rhetoric, influences and affects the adoption of information systems within the health sector. It seeks to explore the ways in which various actors use rhetoric to advance their own agendas and the impact this has on the system itself. As such, the paper seeks to contribute to diffusion research through the use of a case study analysis of the implementation of an Electronic Single Patient Care Record system within one UK Health Service Trust. The findings of the paper suggest that rhetoric is an important and effective persuasive tool, employed by system trainers to coax users into not only adopting the system but also using the system in a predefined manner.

  5. Long-term Survival and Clinical Benefit from Adoptive T-cell Transfer in Stage IV Melanoma Patients Is Determined by a Four-Parameter Tumor Immune Signature.

    PubMed

    Melief, Sara M; Visconti, Valeria V; Visser, Marten; van Diepen, Merel; Kapiteijn, Ellen H W; van den Berg, Joost H; Haanen, John B A G; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Oosting, Jan; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Verdegaal, Els M E

    2017-02-01

    The presence of tumor-infiltrating immune cells is associated with longer survival and a better response to immunotherapy in early-stage melanoma, but a comprehensive study of the in situ immune microenvironment in stage IV melanoma has not been performed. We investigated the combined influence of a series of immune factors on survival and response to adoptive cell transfer (ACT) in stage IV melanoma patients. Metastases of 73 stage IV melanoma patients, 17 of which were treated with ACT, were studied with respect to the number and functional phenotype of lymphocytes and myeloid cells as well as for expression of galectins-1, -3, and -9. Single factors associated with better survival were identified using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression analyses, and those factors were used for interaction analyses. The results were validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas database. We identified four parameters that were associated with a better survival: CD8(+) T cells, galectin-9(+) dendritic cells (DC)/DC-like macrophages, a high M1/M2 macrophage ratio, and the expression of galectin-3 by tumor cells. The presence of at least three of these parameters formed an independent positive prognostic factor for long-term survival. Patients displaying this four-parameter signature were found exclusively among patients responding to ACT and were the ones with sustained clinical benefit. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(2); 170-9. ©2017 AACR.

  6. The immunosuppressive effects of phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy in mice are mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and can be adoptively transferred to naive recipients.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Katiyar, Santosh K; Elmets, Craig A

    2008-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for malignant tumors but it is also immunosuppressive which may reduce its therapeutic efficacy. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in PDT immunosuppression. Using silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) as photosensitizer, nontumor-bearing CD4 knockout (CD4-/-) mice and their wild type (WT) counterparts were subjected to Pc4-PDT in a manner identical to that used for tumor regression (1 cm spot size, 0.5 mg kg(-1) Pc4, 110 J cm(-2) light) to assess the effect of Pc4-PDT on cell-mediated immunity. There was a decrease in immunosuppression in CD4-/- mice compared with WT mice. We next examined the role of CD8+ T cells in Pc4-PDT-induced immunosuppression using CD8-/- mice following the same treatment regimen used for CD4-/- mice. Similar to CD4-/- mice, CD8-/- mice exhibited less immunosuppression than WT mice. Pc4-PDT-induced immunosuppression could be adoptively transferred with spleen cells from Pc4-PDT treated donor mice to syngenic naive recipients (P < 0.05) and was mediated primarily by T cells, although macrophages were also found to play a role. Procedures that limit PDT-induced immunosuppression but do not affect PDT-induced regression of tumors may prove superior to PDT alone in promoting long-term antitumor responses.

  7. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  8. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  9. General Relativistic Radiative Transfer: Applications to Black-Hole Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Kinwah; Fuerst, Steven V.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2007-01-01

    We present general relativistic radiation transfer formulations which include opacity effects due to absorption, emission and scattering explicitly. We consider a moment expansions for the transfer in the presence of scattering. The formulation is applied to calculation emissions from accretion and outflows in black-hole systems. Cases with thin accretion disks and accretion tori are considered. Effects, such as emission anisotropy, non-stationary flows and geometrical self-occultation are investigated. Polarisation transfer in curved space-time is discussed qualitatively.

  10. The Future Justification to Adopt Governance System at the Jordan Universities from the Perspective of Educational Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Nair, Natheer Sihan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal the future justification to adopt governance system at the Jordanian Universities from the perspective of educational experts. The study society was the academic staff in the field of education at Al-Balqa Applied University and Jordan University, at the first semester of the academic year 2013-2014. The study…

  11. Mental Health Issues and the Foster Care System: An Examination of the Impact of the Adoption and Safe Families Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWey, Lenore M.; Henderson, Tammy L.; Tice, Susan N.

    2006-01-01

    Although marriage and family therapists are being called on to help at-risk families, some say that clinicians have insufficient knowledge about the impact of policies on families involved in the foster care system. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to identify how the Adoption and Safe Families Act informs decision making, to…

  12. Adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis after in vitro treatment with recombinant murine interleukin-12. Preferential expansion of interferon-gamma-producing cells and increased expression of macrophage-associated inducible nitric oxide synthase as immunomodulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Waldburger, K. E.; Hastings, R. C.; Schaub, R. G.; Goldman, S. J.; Leonard, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    In an adoptive transfer model of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, stimulation of lymph node cells with proteolipid protein and recombinant murine interleukin (rmIL)-12 before cell transfer accelerated the onset and exacerbates clinical disease. In vitro stimulation with proteolipid protein in the presence of rmIL-12 was associated with an increase in interferon-gamma-producing cells and a decrease in IL-4-producing cells, indicating a preferential expansion of Th1 effector cells. This was supported by the finding that severe disease with rapid onset could be transferred with as few as 10 x 10(6) rmIL-12-stimulated lymph node cells. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the accelerated onset of disease after in vitro stimulation with rmIL-12 coincided with an acute inflammatory response in the central nervous system. At peak disease, both control and rmIL-12 treatment groups exhibited extensive cellular infiltration with characteristic perivascular cuffing. No notable differences in either the cellular composition or cytokine expression within the lesions were seen between groups. However, the frequency of macrophages that stained positively for inducible nitric oxide synthase was increased in animals challenged with rmIL-12-treated lymph node cells. The results suggest that, in addition to promoting the preferential expansion of interferon-gamma-producing cells by rmIL-12 in vitro, secondary in vivo effects leading to macrophage activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression may contribute to the severe and protracted course of central nervous system inflammation in this model. Images Figure 2 PMID:8579100

  13. EPR adoption and dual record maintenance in the U.S.: assessing variation in medical systems infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Daniel P; Spink, Amanda; Richards, Michael C

    2002-10-01

    The growing adoption of evidence-based medicine in the United States is acting to cause fundamental changes in the delivery of healthcare management services. With the increasing incorporation of electronic patient records (EPRs) into the day-to-day practice of medicine, it necessitates greater dependence on adequate functioning of such resources, as they become more frequently used as a clinical complement in the practice of medicine. Assessing the patterns of adoption of EPRs is likewise of increasing importance, with the recent imposition of uniform government data collection and management requirements. The medium of data storage and maintenance within many organizations is a critical factor in the ultimate delivery of service, with a like need for an integrated, designated medium for the management of data becoming paramount. This study examines, on a nationwide basis, variation in reported adoption of EPRs within U.S. healthcare organizations, and the related maintenance of dual electronic/paper record systems.

  14. Introduction to the Subjective Transfer Function Approach to Analyzing Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    STANDARtDS- 1963-A R-3021-AF Intoduction to the Subjective Transfer Function Approach to Analyzing Systems 00 • CO Lf. Clairice T. Veit, Monti Callero ...34Prepared for the United States Air Force." Bibliography: p. • "R-3021-AF." 1. Subjective transfer function method. 2. System analysis. I. Callero , Monti...to Analyzing Systems T, Clairice T. Veit, Monti Callero , Barbara J. Rose July 1984 A Project AIR FORCE report prepared for the - United States Air

  15. Provincial Postsecondary Systems and Arrangements for Credit Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This document describes the structure of the postsecondary education system, the mechanisms to facilitate transfer and articulation, and the major instruments used to facilitate transfer and articulation for postsecondary institutions in the Canadian Provinces. According to this document, the British Columbia postsecondary educational school…

  16. Radiation heat transfer shapefactors for combustion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, A. F.; Johansson, O.; Abrous, A.

    1987-01-01

    The computation of radiation heat transfer through absorbing media is commonly done through the zoning method which relies upon values of the geometric mean transmittance and absorptance. The computation of these values is difficult and expensive, particularly if many spectral bands are used. This paper describes the extension of a scan line algorithm, based upon surface-surface radiation, to the computation of surface-gas and gas-gas radiation transmittances.

  17. Transfer Learning in Integrated Cognitive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    with the research on MLNs lead by Pedro Domingos at the University of Washington (UW). All of the software developed was integrated with UW’s Alchemy ...learning methods. We refer to the structure-learning method developed by Kok and Domingos (2005) as Alchemy . We ran Alchemy “from scratch” without...transfer learning ( Alchemy Scratch); as well as using it to revise the MLN learned in the source domain and then automatically mapped to the target

  18. An rf communications system for the West Valley transfer cart

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Moore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype radio frequency communications system for digital data was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in controlling the vitrification facility transfer cart at the West Valley Nuclear Services facility in New York. The communications system provides bidirectional wireless data transfer between the operator control station and the material transfer cart. The system was designed to operate in radiation fields of 10[sup 4] R/h while withstanding a total integrated dose of 10[sup 7] R of gamma radiation. Implementation of antenna spatial diversity, automatic gain control, and spectral processing improves operation in the reflective environment of the metal-lined reprocessing cells.

  19. An rf communications system for the West Valley transfer cart

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Moore, M.R.

    1993-05-01

    A prototype radio frequency communications system for digital data was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in controlling the vitrification facility transfer cart at the West Valley Nuclear Services facility in New York. The communications system provides bidirectional wireless data transfer between the operator control station and the material transfer cart. The system was designed to operate in radiation fields of 10{sup 4} R/h while withstanding a total integrated dose of 10{sup 7} R of gamma radiation. Implementation of antenna spatial diversity, automatic gain control, and spectral processing improves operation in the reflective environment of the metal-lined reprocessing cells.

  20. A pneumatic transfer system for special form {sup 252}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Berry, S.M.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Hoggan, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    A pneumatic transfer system has been developed for use with series 100 Special Form {sup 252}Cf. It was developed to reduce the exposure to personnel handling sources of {sup 252}Cf with masses up to 150 {micro}g by permitting remotely activated two-way transfer between the storage container and the irradiation position. The pneumatic transfer system also permits transfers for reproducible repetitive irradiation periods. In addition to the storage container equipped with quick-release fittings, the transfer system consists of an irradiation station, a control box with momentary contact switches to activate the air-pressure control valves and indicators to identify the location of the source, and connecting air hose and electrical wire. A source of 20 psig air and 110 volt electrical power are required for operation of the transfer system which can be easily moved and set up by one individual in 5 to 10 minutes. Tests have shown that rarely does a source become lodged in the transfer tubing, but two methods have been developed to handle incomplete transfers of the {sup 252}Cf source. The first method consists of closing one air vent to allow a pressure impulse to propel the source to the opposite side. The second method applies to those {sup 252}Cf capsules with a threaded or tapped end to which a small ferromagnetic piece can be attached; an incompletely transferred source in the transfer tube can then be guided to a position of safety by surrounding the transfer tubing containing the capsule with a horseshoe magnet attached to the end of a long pole.

  1. Visual prosthesis wireless energy transfer system optimal modeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wireless energy transfer system is an effective way to solve the visual prosthesis energy supply problems, theoretical modeling of the system is the prerequisite to do optimal energy transfer system design. Methods On the basis of the ideal model of the wireless energy transfer system, according to visual prosthesis application condition, the system modeling is optimized. During the optimal modeling, taking planar spiral coils as the coupling devices between energy transmitter and receiver, the effect of the parasitic capacitance of the transfer coil is considered, and especially the concept of biological capacitance is proposed to consider the influence of biological tissue on the energy transfer efficiency, resulting in the optimal modeling’s more accuracy for the actual application. Results The simulation data of the optimal model in this paper is compared with that of the previous ideal model, the results show that under high frequency condition, the parasitic capacitance of inductance and biological capacitance considered in the optimal model could have great impact on the wireless energy transfer system. The further comparison with the experimental data verifies the validity and accuracy of the optimal model proposed in this paper. Conclusions The optimal model proposed in this paper has a higher theoretical guiding significance for the wireless energy transfer system’s further research, and provide a more precise model reference for solving the power supply problem in visual prosthesis clinical application. PMID:24428906

  2. Achieving timely adoption.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Moore, Megan; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    While family reunification is the primary permanency objective for children who must be placed temporarily outside of their homes, reunification is not possible for all children. For those children who do not return to their parents and cannot find permanent homes with other family members, adoption is the favored outcome. This review examines the composite measure in the federal Child and Family Services Review that measures agency performance related to the timeliness of adoptions of foster children. It summarizes the multiple factors that research has found to be associated with increased risk for adoption delay and disruption. These include child characteristics, family of origin and adoptive family characteristics, and features of child welfare services and systems. Practices that have been broadly linked to adoption timeliness or address risk factors associated with delays in adoption are described, including social worker activities and agency or system-wide practice.

  3. Adoptive Transfer of Engineered Rhesus Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Reduces the Number of Transmitted/Founder Viruses Established in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Victor I; Trivett, Matthew T; Barsov, Eugene V; Jain, Sumiti; Piatak, Michael; Trubey, Charles M; Alvord, W Gregory; Chertova, Elena; Roser, James D; Smedley, Jeremy; Komin, Alexander; Keele, Brandon F; Ohlen, Claes; Ott, David E

    2016-11-01

    AIDS virus infections are rarely controlled by cell-mediated immunity, in part due to viral immune evasion and immunodeficiency resulting from CD4(+) T-cell infection. One likely aspect of this failure is that antiviral cellular immune responses are either absent or present at low levels during the initial establishment of infection. To test whether an extensive, timely, and effective response could reduce the establishment of infection from a high-dose inoculum, we adoptively transferred large numbers of T cells that were molecularly engineered with anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (anti-SIV) activity into rhesus macaques 3 days following an intrarectal SIV inoculation. To measure in vivo antiviral activity, we assessed the number of viruses transmitted using SIVmac239X, a molecularly tagged viral stock containing 10 genotypic variants, at a dose calculated to transmit 12 founder viruses. Single-genome sequencing of plasma virus revealed that the two animals receiving T cells expressing SIV-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) had significantly fewer viral genotypes than the two control animals receiving non-SIV-specific T cells (means of 4.0 versus 7.5 transmitted viral genotypes; P = 0.044). Accounting for the likelihood of transmission of multiple viruses of a particular genotype, the calculated means of the total number of founder viruses transmitted were 4.5 and 14.5 in the experimental and control groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Thus, a large antiviral T-cell response timed with virus exposure can limit viral transmission. The presence of strong, preexisting T-cell responses, including those induced by vaccines, might help prevent the establishment of infection at the lower-exposure doses in humans that typically transmit only a single virus.

  4. Phonon-assisted excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xin; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong

    2016-09-01

    The phonon-assisted process of energy transfer aiming at exploring the newly emerging frontier between biology and physics is an issue of central interest. This article shows the important role of the intramolecular vibrational modes for excitation energy transfer in the photosynthetic systems. Based on a dimer system consisting of a donor and an acceptor modeled by two two-level systems, in which one of them is coupled to a high-energy vibrational mode, we derive an effective Hamiltonian describing the vibration-assisted coherent energy transfer process in the polaron frame. The effective Hamiltonian reveals in the case that the vibrational mode dynamically matches the energy detuning between the donor and the acceptor, the original detuned energy transfer becomes resonant energy transfer. In addition, the population dynamics and coherence dynamics of the dimer system with and without vibration-assistance are investigated numerically. It is found that, the energy transfer efficiency and the transfer time depend heavily on the interaction strength of the donor and the high-energy vibrational mode, as well as the vibrational frequency. The numerical results also indicate that the initial state and dissipation rate of the vibrational mode have little influence on the dynamics of the dimer system. Results obtained in this article are not only helpful to understand the natural photosynthesis, but also offer an optimal design principle for artificial photosynthesis. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174233).

  5. Criticality Evaluation - Cask Unloading Using the Shielded Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Nadeau, M.L.

    1998-06-01

    This evaluation reviewed the criticality aspects of Shielded Transfer System (STS) operation. The existing Nuclear Safety Control (NSC) elements were examined and new NSC elements were developed, as needed.

  6. 40 CFR 63.689 - Standards: Transfer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in the transfer system; the effects of outdoor exposure to wind, moisture, and sunlight; and the... suitable materials that will minimize exposure of the off-site material to the atmosphere, to the...

  7. High Quality Factor Resonators for Inductive Power Transfer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemadrezaei, Mohammad

    In this dissertation, the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) systems for multi-MHz frequency of operation are investigated, and new ideas for magnetic link inductive coils are presented. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  8. Plasmid transfer systems in the rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Hynes, Michael F

    2009-08-01

    Rhizobia are agriculturally important bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. Agricultural application of rhizobial inoculants can play an important role in increasing leguminous crop yields. In temperate rhizobia, genes involved in nodulation and nitrogen fixation are usually located on one or more large plasmids (pSyms) or on symbiotic islands. In addition, other large plasmids of rhizobia carry genes that are beneficial for survival and competition of rhizobia in the rhizosphere. Conjugative transfer of these large plasmids thus plays an important role in the evolution of rhizobia. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of conjugative transfer of large rhizobial plasmids provides foundations for maintaining, monitoring, and predicting the behaviour of these plasmids during field release events. In this minireview, we summarize two types of known rhizobial conjugative plasmids, including quorum sensing regulated plasmids and RctA-repressed plasmids. We provide evidence for the existence of a third type of conjugative plasmid, including pRleVF39c in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain VF39SM, and we provide a comparison of the different types of conjugation genes found in members of the rhizobia that have had their genomes sequenced so far.

  9. Efficient methods for finding transfer function zeros of power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, N.; Pinto, H.J.C.P. ); Lima, L.T.G. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper is probably the first to describe algorithms suited to the efficient calculation of both proper and non-proper transfer function zeros of linearized dynamic models for large interconnected power systems. The paper also describes an improvement to the well known AESOPS algorithm, formulating it as an exact transfer function zero finding problem which is efficiently solved by a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. Large power system results are presented in this paper.

  10. A case study of one school system's adoption and implementation of an elementary science program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Michael Patrick

    2000-10-01

    The researcher's purpose in this study was to examine the process used by the Minot Public Schools to adopt and implement a new elementary science program from Silver Burdett Ginn called Discovery Works. Using case study methods within a naturalistic design, the researcher investigated teachers' concerns as they adopted and implemented Discovery Works in their classrooms. Data were gathered using the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) instrument, interviews with adoption committee members, classroom teachers, grade level meetings, and document analysis of field notes related to each phase of the study. Content analysis methods were used to analyze the data. Emergent themes were presented and substantiated in the data, in terms of six research questions that guided this research. The data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively to provide a rich, thick description that and enabled the researcher to confirm and triangulate the concerns of teachers in this study. The quantitative data revealed a general nonuser profile by teachers as they implemented Discovery Works. Three major themes of concerns emerged from a qualitative analysis of the data. The first theme was implementation, including issues related to teacher attitudes and inservice needs. The second theme, management issues, had five concerns subsumed within it. These included concerns related to time, materials, storage, reorder, and cooperative groups. The third theme, effects on students, included issues concerning hands-on methods of teaching science, vocabulary, especially at the upper elementary, and assessment issues. Possible solutions to resolve each of the concerns were presented. Major conclusions are that teacher concerns about Discovery Works were normal for any group experiencing a new innovation. Teachers and students enjoyed using the hands-on materials, and that Minot Public Schools has taken a small, but important step forward on the road to science education reform. Although

  11. Volcanic hazard warning system: Persistence and transferability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, John H.; Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1980-03-01

    This study examines the normative functioning of the volcano warning system on the Island of Hawaii. The research seeks to identify the combination of factors, both environmental and social, which allows the system to operate with success. On the basis of the findings, several recommendations are offered for improving environmental hazard warning systems.

  12. Novel gene transfer systems: intelligent gene transfer vectors for gene medicines.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Drug delivery systems for gene transfer are called 'vectors'. These systems were originally invented as a delivery system for the transfection in vitro or in vivo. Several vectors are then developed for clinical use of gene medicines and currently some of them are approved as animal drugs. Conventional drug delivery system generally consists of approved (existing) materials to avoid additional pre-clinical or clinical studies. However, current vectors contain novel materials to improve an efficacy of gene medicines. Thus, these vectors have functions more than a mere delivery of active ingredients. For example some vectors have immunological functions such as adjuvants in vaccines. These new types of vectors are called 'intelligent' or 'innovative' vector system', since the concept or strategy for the development is completely different from conventional drug delivery systems. In this article, we described a current status of 'intelligent gene transfer vectors and discussed on the potentials of them.

  13. Mining biomedical data using MetaMap Transfer (MMtx) and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS).

    PubMed

    Osborne, John D; Lin, Simon; Zhu, Lihua; Kibbe, Warren A

    2007-01-01

    Detailed instruction is described for mapping unstructured, free text data into common biomedical concepts (drugs, diseases, anatomy, and so on) found in the Unified Medical Language System using MetaMap Transfer (MMTx). MMTx can be used in applications including mining and inferring relationship between concepts in MEDLINE publications by transforming free text into computable concepts. MMTx is in general not designed to be an end-user program; therefore, a simple analysis is described using MMTx for users without any programming knowledge. In addition, two Java template files are provided for automated processing of the output from MMTx and users can adopt this with minimum Java program experience.

  14. Plug-to-plug gas transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Poindexter, Allan M.

    1978-01-01

    A system for conducting a fluid from one component to another component of a nuclear reactor wherein at least one such component is a rotatable closure head plug capable of movement relative to the other component. The conducting system utilizes the annulus located between the components as a connecting passageway for the fluid.

  15. Radiative heat transfer in low-dimensional systems -- microscopic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Lilia; Phan, Anh; Drosdoff, David

    2013-03-01

    Radiative heat transfer between objects can increase dramatically at sub-wavelength scales. Exploring ways to modulate such transport between nano-systems is a key issue from fundamental and applied points of view. We advance the theoretical understanding of radiative heat transfer between nano-objects by introducing a microscopic model, which takes into account the individual atoms and their atomic polarizabilities. This approach is especially useful to investigate nano-objects with various geometries and give a detailed description of the heat transfer distribution. We employ this model to study the heat exchange in graphene nanoribbon/substrate systems. Our results for the distance separations, substrates, and presence of extended or localized defects enable making predictions for tailoring the radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale. Financial support from the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-06ER46297 is acknowledged.

  16. Novel HDD-type SNDM ferroelectric data storage system aimed at high-speed data transfer with single probe operation.

    PubMed

    Hiranaga, Yoshiomi; Uda, Tomoya; Kurihashi, Yuichi; Tanaka, Kenkou; Cho, Yasuo

    2007-12-01

    In this study, several read/write tests were conducted using a novel ferroelectric data storage test system equipped with a spindle motor, targeted at high-speed data transfer using a single probe head. A periodically inverted signal can be read out correctly with a bit rate of 100 kbps using this test system, and 10 Mbps data transfer is also possible during writing operations. The effect of a dc-offset voltage applied to the writing waveform with high-speed probe scanning is discussed. In addition, a novel noncontact probe height control technique was adopted to solve the problem of tip abrasion.

  17. Engineered Resilient Systems: Knowledge Capture and Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-29

    lly those made by semiconductor manufacturers , in order to achieve drastic reductions in schedule and cost of development for complex DoD-class...flexibility” in a system. Robust design has been traditionally applied to the manufacturing of systems, but also increasingly upstream to the concept design... additional interest in involving the AF/A9 organization in incorporating TSE-based approaches as they are responsible for integrating and coordinating

  18. Enhanced heat transfer in partially-saturated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, N.E.; Carrigan, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The role of capillarity is potentially important for determining heat transfer in hydrothermal regions. Capillarity allows mixing of phases in liquid/vapor systems and results in enhanced two-phase convection. Comparisons involving a numerical model with capillarity and analytical models without indicate that heat transfer can be enhanced by about an order of magnitude. Whether capillarity can be important for a particular hydrothermal region will depend on the nature of mineral precipitation as well as pore and fracture size distributions.

  19. Learning Transfer--Validation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Bates, Reid; Holton, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the construct validity of learning transfer system inventory (LTSI) for use in Portugal. Furthermore, it also aims to analyze whether LTSI dimensions differ across individual variables such as gender, age, educational level and job tenure. Design/methodology/approach: After a rigorous translation…

  20. [The model of state health policy and the system of medical assistance adopted in present-day Brazil].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M de S; Vianna, A L

    1992-04-01

    A contribution to the analysis of the health reform presently occurring in Brazil is presented. The need to consolidate the theoretical background which supports the advances already achieved in order to understand recent events in the area is stressed. In this regard, the health reform is understood as a question transcending the mere administrative and managerial aspect of the health system, since it necessarily involves a redefinition of the concepts of health, disease and the medical practice adopted by the dominant mechanistic paradigm of medicine. The recent events which delineate the health system in Brazil are analysed and criticised in the light of this concern.

  1. Control System and Flexible Satellite Interaction During Orbit Transfer Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    daSilva, Adenilson Roberto; GadelhadeSouza, Luiz Carlos

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the interaction between the attitude control system and the flexible structure of an artificial satellite during orbit transfer maneuver has been investigated. The satellite was modeled by a rigid central body with one or more flexible appendages. The dynamics equations were obtained by Lagrangean approach. The flexible appendages were treated as clamped-free beam and its displacement was discretized by assumed- mode method. In order to transfer the satellite, a typical Hohmann transfer and a burn-coast-burn strategy were used and the attitude was controlled by an on-off controller. During transfer procedure a global analysis of satellite has been done, such as: performance of control system, influence of elastic response in control system, thruster firing frequency, fuel consumption and variation of orbital elements. In order to avoid the interaction with structure motion, a control system with bandwidth of one decade bellow the fundamental frequency was used. In the simulations the firing frequency was evaluated in an approximately way but kept below the fundamental frequency of the structure. The control system has kept the attitude below the specifications. As a result, the orbit transfer maneuvering has been done correctly without excessive excitation of flexible appendage.

  2. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  3. Operational test report for 2706-T complex liquid transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    BENZEL, H.R.

    1999-09-01

    This document is the Operational Test Report (OTR). It enters the Record Copy of the W-259 Operational Test Procedure (HNF-3610) into the document retrieval system. Additionally, the OTR summarizes significant issues associated with testing the 2706-T waste liquid transfer and storage system.

  4. A Brief History of the Transfer System in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaber, Devron

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a brief history of important events in the development and maintenance of the post-secondary transfer system in British Columbia (BC) over the last six decades. Information is presented in point form and in chronological order. Several points related to the expansion of the post-secondary system are included, and hence the…

  5. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843.210 Section 843.210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  6. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843.210 Section 843.210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  7. Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F.; Tsay, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.

  8. Systemic protein delivery by muscle-gene transfer is limited by a local immune response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lixin; Dobrzynski, Eric; Schlachterman, Alexander; Cao, Ou; Herzog, Roland W.

    2005-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have been successfully used for therapeutic expression of systemic transgene products (such as factor IX or erythropoietin) following in vivo administration to skeletal muscle of animal models of inherited hematologic disorders. However, an immune response may be initiated if the transgene product represents a neoantigen. Here, we use ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen and demonstrate immune-mediated elimination of expression on muscle-directed AAV-2 gene transfer. Administration to immune competent mice resulted in transient systemic OVA expression. Within 10 days, OVA-specific T-helper cells had been activated in draining lymph nodes, an inflammatory immune response ensued, and OVA-expressing muscle fibers were destroyed by a cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell response. Use of a muscle-specific promoter did not prevent this immune response. Adoptively transferred CD4+ cells transgenic for a T-cell receptor specific to OVA peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II showed antigen-specific, vector dose-dependent proliferation confined to the draining lymph nodes of AAV-OVA–transduced muscle within 5 days after gene transfer and subsequently participated in lymphocytic infiltration of transduced muscle. This study documents that a local immune response limits sustained expression of a secreted protein in muscle gene transfer, a finding that may have consequences for design of clinical protocols. PMID:15713796

  9. Lunar transfer vehicle design issues with electric propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Palaszewski, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes parametric design studies of electric propulsion lunar transfer vehicles. In designing a lunar transfer vehicle, selecting the 'best' operating points for the design parameters allows significant reductions in the mass in low earth orbit (LEO) for the mission. These parameters include the specific impulse, the power level, and the propulsion technology. Many of the decisions regarding the operating points are controlled by the propulsion and power system technologies that are available for the spacecraft. The relationship between these technologies is discussed and analyzed here. It is found that both ion and MPD propulsion offer significant LEO mass reductions over O2/H2 for lunar transfer vehicle missions. The recommended operating points for the lunar transfer vehicle are an I(sp) of 5000 lb(f)-s/lb(m) and a 1 MW power level. For large lunar missions, krypton may be the best choice for ion propulsion. 17 refs.

  10. Methods for Gene Transfer to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Boris; Bailey, Rachel M.; Wimberly, Keon; Kalburgi, Sahana N.; Gray, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene transfer is an increasingly utilized approach for research and clinical applications involving the central nervous system (CNS). Vectors for gene transfer can be as simple as an unmodified plasmid, but more commonly involve complex modifications to viruses to make them suitable gene delivery vehicles. This chapter will explain how tools for CNS gene transfer have been derived from naturally occurring viruses. The current capabilities of plasmid, retroviral, adeno-associated virus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus vectors for CNS gene delivery will be described. These include both focal and global CNS gene transfer strategies, with short- or long-term gene expression. As is described in this chapter, an important aspect of any vector is the cis-acting regulatory elements incorporated into the vector genome that control when, where, and how the transgene is expressed. PMID:25311922

  11. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Zelipsky, Steven A.; Rezmer, Ronald R.; Smelser, Peter

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  12. Chief Information Officer's Role in Adopting an Interoperable Electronic Health Record System for Medical Data Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpabio, Akpabio Enebong Ema

    2013-01-01

    Despite huge growth in hospital technology systems, there remains a dearth of literature examining health care administrator's perceptions of the efficacy of interoperable EHR systems. A qualitative research methodology was used in this multiple-case study to investigate the application of diffusion of innovations theory and the technology…

  13. Information Systems Integration and Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Adoption: A Case from Financial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Wing

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations find that they need to integrate large number of information systems in order to support enterprise-wide business initiatives such as e-business, supply chain management and customer relationship management. To date, organizations have largely tended to address information systems (IS) integration in an ad-hoc manner.…

  14. Public Leadership Competencies in Adoption of Enterprise Systems at Federal Government Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, John Edmund

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Government continues to implement enterprise systems (information and communication technology solutions) as part of reinvention and business transformation. Enterprise system implementations are complex, costly, and often under achieving endeavors requiring that effective public leaders engage and influence the sociotechnical projects…

  15. An Empirical Study of Instructor Adoption of Web-Based Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wei-Tsong; Wang, Chun-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    For years, web-based learning systems have been widely employed in both educational and non-educational institutions. Although web-based learning systems are emerging as a useful tool for facilitating teaching and learning activities, the number of users is not increasing as fast as expected. This study develops an integrated model of instructor…

  16. Implementation of a Technological Innovation: Factors Influencing the Adoption of a New Student Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    School information systems (SIS) have the potential to cause a change in a school's technical, structural, psycho-social, and managerial systems. Implementation of a technological innovation such as an SIS is not a one-step occurrence; it is a process that occurs over time. Implementing any technological innovation involves active learning…

  17. Advanced two-phase heat transfer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    1992-01-01

    Future large spacecraft, such as the Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms, will require a significantly more capable thermal control system than is possible with current 'passive' technology. Temperatures must be controlled much more tightly over a larger surface area. Numerous heat load sources will often be located inside the body of the spacecraft without a good view to space. Power levels and flux densities may be higher than can be accommodated with traditional technology. Integration and ground testing will almost certainly be much more difficult with such larger, more complex spacecraft. For these and similar reasons, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been developing a new, more capable thermal control technology called capillary pumped loops (CPL's). CPL's represent an evolutionary improvement over heat pipes; they can transport much greater quantities of heat over much longer distances and can serve numerous heat load sources. In addition, CPL's can be fabricated into large cold plates that can be held to tight thermal gradients. Development of this technology began in the early 1980's and is now reaching maturity. CPL's have recently been baselined for the EOS-AM platform (1997 launch) and the COMET spacecraft (1992 launch). This presentation describes this new technology and its applications. Most of the viewgraphs are self descriptive. For those that are less clear additional comments are provided.

  18. Design of low-energy transfer from lunar orbit to asteroid in the Sun-Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Min; Qiao, Dong; Cui, Ping-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Asteroid exploration trajectories which start from a lunar orbit are investigated in this work. It is assumed that the probe departs from lunar orbit and returns to the vicinity of Earth, then escapes from the Earth by performing a perigee maneuver. A low-energy transfer in Sun-Earth-Moon system is adopted. First, the feasible region of low-energy transfer from lunar orbit to perigee within 5 000km height above the Earth surface in Sun-Earth-Moon system is calculated and analyzed. Three transfer types are found, i.e., large maneuver and fast transfers, small maneuver and fast transfers, and disordered and slow transfers. Most of feasibility trajectories belong to the first two types. Then, the low-energy trajectory leg from lunar orbit to perigee and a heliocentric trajectory leg from perigee to asteroid are patched by a perigee maneuver. The optimal full-transfer trajectory is obtained by exploiting the differential evolution algorithm. Finally, taking 4179 Toutatis asteroid as the target, some low-energy transfer trajectories are obtained and analyzed.

  19. "When You're Sitting on the Fence, Hope's the Hardest Part": Challenges and Experiences of Heterosexual and Same-Sex Couples Adopting Through the Child Welfare System.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie; Moyer, April M; Kinkler, Lori A; Richardson, Hannah B

    2012-01-01

    Foster-to-adopt families can be viewed as systems that are influenced by many other systems (e.g., the legal system, the social service agency, and the birth family). The current qualitative study of 84 foster-to-adopt parents (members of 42 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples) examined the types of challenges that parents faced as they navigated multiple systems during the initial post-placement period. Some participants described the legal insecurity associated with their role as foster-to-adopt parents as impacting their personal well-being and their attachment to their children. Lack of support services and disorganization within social service agencies, as well as strained relationships with birth parents, were also identified as stressors for foster-to-adopt parents. Importantly, lesbian and gay participants faced additional concerns regarding the security of their placement, due to the possibility for discrimination within the various systems involved with the foster-to-adopt process. Participants as a whole also identified positive aspects of their experiences within various systems; for example, they appreciated child care subsidies, state-provided health insurance, and supportive social workers. Our findings provide insights into foster-to-adopt parents' experiences during the initial post-placement period, and have implications for adoption services aimed to improve placement stability and enhance family functioning in foster-to-adopt families.

  20. Polaron assisted charge transfer in model biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangqi; Movaghar, Bijan

    2016-11-01

    We use a tight binding Hamiltonian to simulate the electron transfer from an initial charge-separating exciton to a final target state through a two-arm transfer model. The structure is copied from the model frequently used to describe electron harvesting in photosynthesis (photosystems I). We use this network to provide proof of principle for dynamics, in quantum system/bath networks, especially those involving interference pathways, and use these results to make predictions on artificially realizable systems. Each site is coupled to the phonon bath via several electron-phonon couplings. The assumed large energy gaps and weak tunneling integrals linking the last 3 sites give rise to"Stark Wannier like" quantum localization; electron transfer to the target cluster becomes impossible without bath coupling. As a result of the electron-phonon coupling, local electronic energies relax when the site is occupied, and transient polaronic states are formed as photo-generated electrons traverse the system. For a symmetric constructively interfering two pathway network, the population is shared equally between two sets of equivalent sites and therefore the polaron energy shift is smaller. The smaller energy shift however makes the tunnel transfer to the last site slower or blocks it altogether. Slight disorder (or thermal noise) can break the symmetry, permitting essentially a "one path", and correspondingly more efficient transfer.

  1. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report.

  2. Transfer number in fine bubble diffused aeration systems.

    PubMed

    Capela, S; Roustan, M; Héduit, A

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of full-scale data from 58 clean water tests performed in 26 activated sludge tanks equipped with fine bubble diffusers and of a theoretical approach, it can be stated that fine bubble aeration systems with total floor coverage arrangement provide higher kLa values and the lowest spiral liquid circulation. An efficiency criterion for oxygen transfer (NT) was defined on the basis of the dimensional analysis. The transfer number NT allows us to take account of the impact of vertical liquid circulation movements on oxygen transfer. The values of NT calculated from the results of full scale nonsteady-state clean water tests vary from 5.3 x 10(-5) to 9.1 x 10(-5) and are directly dependent upon the arrangement of air diffusers. It has been shown that the highest transfer numbers corresponded to the total floor coverage arrangement and the average calculated NT values is 7.7 x 10(-5), independently of the diffuser density and of the gas velocity, over the ranges studied. The lowest transfer numbers are obtained when the diffusers are located in separate grids, and the transfer number is reduced with increasing air flow rate.

  3. Optimal Energy Transfer in Light-Harvesting Systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lipeng; Shenai, Prathamesh; Zheng, Fulu; Somoza, Alejandro; Zhao, Yang

    2015-08-20

    Photosynthesis is one of the most essential biological processes in which specialized pigment-protein complexes absorb solar photons, and with a remarkably high efficiency, guide the photo-induced excitation energy toward the reaction center to subsequently trigger its conversion to chemical energy. In this work, we review the principles of optimal energy transfer in various natural and artificial light harvesting systems. We begin by presenting the guiding principles for optimizing the energy transfer efficiency in systems connected to dissipative environments, with particular attention paid to the potential role of quantum coherence in light harvesting systems. We will comment briefly on photo-protective mechanisms in natural systems that ensure optimal functionality under varying ambient conditions. For completeness, we will also present an overview of the charge separation and electron transfer pathways in reaction centers. Finally, recent theoretical and experimental progress on excitation energy transfer, charge separation, and charge transport in artificial light harvesting systems is delineated, with organic solar cells taken as prime examples.

  4. Heat and mass transfer in volcano-hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems re-distribute heat and mass derived from subsurface magma bodies over large temporal and spatial scales. Numerical models of fluid flow and heat transfer provide a quantitative basis for understanding the thermo-hydrological structure and transient behavior of volcano-hydrothermal systems. At the brittle-ductile transition around a magma body, the rate of conductive heat transfer from the impermeable intrusion is balanced by the rate of advective heat transfer by the fluid. Using the Complex Systems Modeling Platform (CSMP++) to model fluid flow up to near-magmatic conditions, we examine the effect of geologic factors such as host rock permeability, magma emplacement depth, the temperature conditions of the brittle-ductile transition, and rock/magma thermal conductivity on the rates of heat and mass transfer around magma bodies. Additionally, we investigate the role of these factors on the thermo-hydrological structure of the hydrothermal system, including patterns of phase separation, gravity-driven phase segregation, and fluid mixing. Passive tracers are included in the fluid flow models to simulate the input of magmatic volatiles into hydrothermal fluids and their fractionation between the liquid and vapor phases. Ultimately, we compare our model results against measured heat and gas fluxes from volcano-hydrothermal systems to help inform the interpreation of these measurements.

  5. LAS Guide: Principles and Criteria for the Adoption of Local Assessment Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Maine's approach to assessing state standards, the Learning Results, has been to use a combination of state and local measures in building a "comprehensive assessment system." The state test, the Maine Educational Assessment (MEA), was revised in 1999 to align more closely with content standards and performance indicators established in…

  6. Examining Barriers in Faculty Adoption of an E-Portfolio System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted on the implementation of a portfolio system at the University of Kentucky. Interviews were conducted with faculty members and university supervisors about the use of a portfolio management tool that had been implemented in the teacher education program. Factors such as small program size…

  7. Critical Success Factors for Adoption of Web-Based Learning Management Systems in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines factors that predict students' continual usage intention of web-based learning content management systems in Tanzania, with a specific focus at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Science (MUHAS). This study sent a questionnaire surveys to 408 first year undergraduate students, with a rate of return of 66.7. This study…

  8. Investigating Nigerian Primary School Teachers' Preparedness to Adopt Personal Response System in ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which computer literacy dimensions (computer general knowledge, documents and documentations, communication and surfing as well as data inquiry), computer use and academic qualification as independent variables predicted primary school teachers' attitude towards the integration of Personal Response System in…

  9. 77 FR 56755 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... / Friday, September 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121... System for Size Standards; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Interim final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is correcting an interim...

  10. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-02-10

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications.

  11. Production and Transfer of Energy and Information in Hamiltonian Systems

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulos, Chris G.; Bianco-Martinez, Ezequiel; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2014-01-01

    We present novel results that relate energy and information transfer with sensitivity to initial conditions in chaotic multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We show the relation among Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and upper bounds for the Mutual Information Rate calculated in the Hamiltonian phase space and on bi-dimensional subspaces. Our main result is that the net amount of transfer from kinetic to potential energy per unit of time is a power-law of the upper bound for the Mutual Information Rate between kinetic and potential energies, and also a power-law of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Therefore, transfer of energy is related with both transfer and production of information. However, the power-law nature of this relation means that a small increment of energy transferred leads to a relatively much larger increase of the information exchanged. Then, we propose an “experimental” implementation of a 1-dimensional communication channel based on a Hamiltonian system, and calculate the actual rate with which information is exchanged between the first and last particle of the channel. Finally, a relation between our results and important quantities of thermodynamics is presented. PMID:24586891

  12. Production and transfer of energy and information in Hamiltonian systems.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulos, Chris G; Bianco-Martinez, Ezequiel; Baptista, Murilo S

    2014-01-01

    We present novel results that relate energy and information transfer with sensitivity to initial conditions in chaotic multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We show the relation among Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and upper bounds for the Mutual Information Rate calculated in the Hamiltonian phase space and on bi-dimensional subspaces. Our main result is that the net amount of transfer from kinetic to potential energy per unit of time is a power-law of the upper bound for the Mutual Information Rate between kinetic and potential energies, and also a power-law of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Therefore, transfer of energy is related with both transfer and production of information. However, the power-law nature of this relation means that a small increment of energy transferred leads to a relatively much larger increase of the information exchanged. Then, we propose an "experimental" implementation of a 1-dimensional communication channel based on a Hamiltonian system, and calculate the actual rate with which information is exchanged between the first and last particle of the channel. Finally, a relation between our results and important quantities of thermodynamics is presented.

  13. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications. PMID:26860260

  14. An Analysis of Adopting RFID in the Brazilian Air Force Uniform Sales System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    DMI) – responsible for receiving and storing the material supplied by contractors , distributing the uniforms to the points of sale, and controlling...point of sale stock item, and tracks the sales. The SDAB centralizes the management and shares the system maintenance with a contractor . Currently...11 EPCglobal is leading the development of industry-driven standards for the Electronic Product Code™ ( EPC ) to support

  15. Decreasing occupational injury and disability: the convergence of systems theory, knowledge transfer and action research.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Jaime; Yassi, Annalee; Baril, Raymond; Loisel, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Many work injuries and their associated disabilities are preventable, but effective prevention requires coordinated action by multiple stakeholders. In trying to achieve coordinated action occupational health practitioners can learn valuable lessons from systems theory, knowledge transfer and action research. Systems theory provides a broad view of the factors leading to injury and disability and a means to refocus stakeholder energies from mutual blaming to effective strategies for system change. Experiences from knowledge transfer will help adopt a stakeholder-centered approach that will facilitate the concrete application of the best and most current occupational health knowledge. Action research is a methodology endorsed by the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control, which provide methods for successfully engaging stakeholders needed to attain sustainable change. By combining concepts from the three fields we propose MAPAC (Mobilize, Assess, Plan, Act, Check), a five-step framework for developing projects aimed at decreasing occupational injury and disability. Although most practitioners would be familiar with some of the concepts, we believe an explicit framework linked to transferable knowledge from these diverse fields can help design and implement effective programs. We provide examples of model application in workers compensation and in the healthcare workplace.

  16. Low heat-gain cryogenic-liquid transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hows, G. E.; Wright, B. J.

    1970-01-01

    Cryogenic-liquid transfer system, containing a ring structure with tensioned small diameter, high strength wires, provides adequate physical support for the piping, minimizes the conductive heat paths between the piping and jacket, and allows for thermal expansion and contraction of the piping.

  17. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  18. Transfer of Instrument Training and the Synthetic Flight Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    One phase of an innovative flight training program, its development, and initial administration is described in this paper. The operational suitability test activities related to a determination of the transfer of instrument training value of the Army's Synthetic Flight Training System (SFTS) Device 2B24. Sixteen active Army members of an Officer…

  19. Information Systems and Networks for Technology Transfer. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, John; Szentivanyi, Tibor

    Results of a survey of the information resources available in industrialized countries which might be used in a United Nations technology transfer program for developing countries are presented. Information systems and networks, organized information collections of a scientific and technical character, and the machinery used to disseminate this…

  20. Putting Dreyfus into Action: The European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Luomi-Messerer, Karin; Becker, Matthias; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission.…

  1. An Introduction to Register Transfer Level Simulation of Digital Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemming, Cliff; Smith R. J., II

    Register transfer level (RTL) descriptions of digital systems have certain advantages over other descriptive techniques, especially during early phases of the design effort. There are at least three identifiable major uses for RTL-type descriptions. First, RTL can serve as documentation of digital processor behavior, recording in a concise fashion…

  2. The Transfer of Abstract Principles Governing Complex Adaptive Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Sakamoto, Yasuaki

    2003-01-01

    Four experiments explored participants' understanding of the abstract principles governing computer simulations of complex adaptive systems. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 showed better transfer of abstract principles across simulations that were relatively dissimilar, and that this effect was due to participants who performed relatively poorly on the…

  3. Tumor-Specific Effector CD8+ T Cells That Can Establish Immunological Memory in Humans after Adoptive Transfer Are Marked by Expression of IL7 Receptor and c-myc.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Smita S; Paria, Biman C; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Rothermel, Luke D; Stephens, Daniel J; Kammula, Udai S

    2015-08-15

    The optimal T-cell attributes for adoptive cancer immunotherapy are unclear. Recent clinical trials of ex vivo-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes indicated that differentiated T effector cells can elicit durable antitumor responses in some patients with cancer, with their antitumor activity tightly correlated with their persistence in the host. Thus, there is great interest in the definition of intrinsic biomarkers that can predict the conversion of short-lived tumor antigen-specific T effector cells into long-lived T memory cells. Long-term persistence of ex vivo-expanded tumor-specific CD8+ T effector clones has been reported in refractory metastatic melanoma patients after adoptive T-cell transfer. By using highly homogeneous clone populations from these preparations, we performed a comparative transcriptional profiling to define preinfusion molecular attributes that can be ascribed to an effector-to-memory transition. Through this route, we discovered that preinfusion T-cell clones that expressed the IL7 receptor (IL7R) and c-myc were more likely to persist longer after adoptive transfer to patients. The predictive value of these two biomarkers was strengthened by using IL7R protein, IL7-induced pSTAT5, and c-myc mRNA expression to prospectively identify human tumor-specific T effector clones capable of engraftment into immunodeficient mice. Overall, our findings reveal IL7R and c-myc expression as intrinsic biomarkers that can predict the fate of CD8+ T effector cells after adoptive transfer.

  4. Performance analysis of cross-seeding WDM-PON system using transfer matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simatupang, Joni Welman; Pukhrambam, Puspa Devi; Huang, Yen-Ru

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a model based on the transfer matrix method is adopted to analyze the effects of Rayleigh backscattering and Fresnel multiple reflections on a cross-seeding WDM-PON system. As part of analytical approximation methods, this time-independent model is quite simple but very efficient when it is applied to various WDM-PON transmission systems, including the cross-seeding scheme. The cross seeding scheme is most beneficial for systems with low loop-back ONU gain or low reflection loss at the drop fiber for upstream data in bidirectional transmission. However for downstream data transmission, multiple reflections power could destroy the usefulness of the cross-seeding scheme when the reflectivity is high enough and the RN is positioned near OLT or close to ONU.

  5. Human effector T cells derived from central memory cells rather than CD8(+)T cells modified by tumor-specific TCR gene transfer possess superior traits for adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenglin; Zhang, Wenfeng; Shao, Hongwei; Bo, Huaben; Shen, Han; Li, Jiandong; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Teng; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Shulin

    2013-10-10

    Adoptive cell therapy provides an attractive treatment of cancer, and our expanding capacity to target tumor antigens is driven by genetically engineered human T lymphocytes that express genes encoding tumor-specific T cell receptors (TCRs). The intrinsic properties of cultured T cells used for therapy were reported to have tremendous influences on their persistence and antitumor efficacy in vivo. In this study, we isolated CD8(+) central memory T cells from peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors, and then transferred with the gene encoding TCR specific for tumor antigen using recombinant adenovirus vector Ad5F35-TRAV-TRBV. We found effector T cells derived from central memory T cells improved cell viability, maintained certain level of CD62L expression, and reacquired the CD62L(+)CD44(high) phenotype of central memory T cells after effector T cells differentiation. We then compared the antitumor reactivity of central memory T cells and CD8(+)T cells after TCR gene transferred. The results indicated that tumor-specific TCR gene being transferred to central memory T cells effectively increased the specific killing of antigen positive tumor cells and the expression of cytolytic granule protein. Furthermore, TCR gene transferred central memory T cells were more effective than TCR gene transferred CD8(+)T cells in CTL activity and effector cytokine secretion. These results implicated that isolating central memory T cells rather than CD8(+)T cells for insertion of gene encoding tumor-specific TCR may provide a superior tumor-reactive T cell population for adoptive transfer.

  6. Evaluating the compliance of Keck's LGSAO automated aircraft protection system with FAA adopted criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stomski, Paul J.; Campbell, Randy; Murphy, Thomas W.

    2014-07-01

    The W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) applied for and received a determination of no-objection from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) operations using an automated aircraft protection system (APS) in late 2013. WMKO's APS, named AIRSAFE, uses transponder based aircraft detection (TBAD) to replace human aircraft spotters. The FAA required WMKO to self-certify AIRSAFE compliance with SAE Aerospace Standard 6029A: "Performance Criteria for Laser Control Measures Used for Aviation Safety"[1] (AS- 6029A). AS-6029A prescribes performance and administrative criteria for an APS; essentially, requiring AIRSAFE to adequately protect all types of aircraft, traveling at any speed, altitude, distance and direction reasonably expected in the operating environment. A description of the analysis that comprises this compliance evaluation is the main focus of this paper. Also discussed is the AIRSAFE compliance with AS-6029A administrative criteria that includes characterization of site specific air traffic, failure modes, limitations, operating procedures, preventative maintenance procedures, and periodic system test procedures.

  7. Passive aquatic listener (PAL): An adoptive underwater acoustic recording system for the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Marios N.; Nystuen, Jeffrey A.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Lykousis, Vassilios

    2011-01-01

    The ambient sound field in the ocean is a combination of natural and manmade sounds. Consequently, the interpretation of the ambient sound field can be used to quantify these processes. In the frequency range from 1 to 50 kHz, the general character of ocean ambient sound is a slowly changing background that is closely associated with local wind speed, interspersed with shorter time scale events such as rain storms, ships and animal calls. At lower frequencies the underwater ambient sound budget includes geologically generated sound activities including underwater volcanic eruptions, seismic and seepage faults that generate bubbles, etc. that can also potentially be classified and quantified. Acoustic data are collected on hydrophones. Hydrophones are simple, robust sensors that can be deployed on most ocean instrumentation systems including surface or sub-surface moorings, bottom mounted systems, drifters, ARGO floats or autonomous underwater platforms. A dedicated oceanic underwater recorder called a passive acoustic listener (PAL) has been developed. A principal issue is to accurately distinguish different sound sources so that they can be quantified as part of a sound budget, and then quantified if appropriate. Based on ongoing data collected from the Poseidon II network the retrieval potential of multi-parameters from underwater sound, including meteorological (i.e., precipitation and winds) and in general geophysical, anthropogenetic (i.e., ships, submarines, etc.) and biological (whales, etc.) sources is presented.

  8. [Advances in eHealth in Colombia: adoption of the National Cancer Information System].

    PubMed

    Rivillas, Juan Carlos; Huertas Quintero, Jancy Andrea; Montaño Caicedo, José Ivo; Ospina Martínez, Martha Lucía

    2014-01-01

    The use of the eHealth has become feasible and acceptable in a variety of fields and contexts in Colombia. This article reports on the Colombian experience using eHealth tools applied to cancer, as well as the challenges, emerging trends, and positive outcomes related to the use of information technology and communication in the national health system. One of these outcomes has been Colombia's National Cancer Information System, in place since 2012, which is the result of political action and strategies focused on applying these innovative technologies in the field of health. The final judgment will depend of the extent to which it is possible to guide timely, effective, and coordinated interventions to optimize care for people with cancer, improve their quality of life, and significantly reduce inequalities. Once this is achieved, the next step should be to replicate the experience and apply eHealth-based tools more broadly in the contexts and fields that the country and the Region require.

  9. Quartz microbalance device for transfer into ultrahigh vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stavale, F.; Achete, C. A.; Niehus, H.

    2008-10-15

    An uncomplicated quartz microbalance device has been developed which is transferable into ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) systems. The device is extremely useful for flux calibration of different kinds of material evaporators. Mounted on a commercial specimen holder, the device allows fast quartz microbalance transfer into the UHV and subsequent positioning exactly to the sample location where subsequent thin film deposition experiments shall be carried out. After backtransfer into an UHV sample stage, the manipulator may be loaded in situ with the specimen suited for the experiment. The microbalance device capability is demonstrated for monolayer and submonolayer vanadium depositions with an achieved calibration sensitivity of less the 0.001 ML coverage.

  10. Technology transfer of NASA microwave remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akey, N. D.

    1981-01-01

    Viable techniques for effecting the transfer from NASA to a user agency of state-of-the-art airborne microwave remote sensing technology for oceanographic applications were studied. A detailed analysis of potential users, their needs and priorities; platform options; airborne microwave instrument candidates; ancillary instrumentation; and other, less obvious factors that must be considered were studied. Conclusions and recommendations for the development of an orderly and effective technology transfer of an airborne microwave system that could meet the specific needs of the selected user agencies are reported.

  11. Early results of pediatric appendicitis after adoption of diagnosis-related group-based payment system in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Suk-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose As an alternative to the existing fee-for-service (FFS) system, a diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based payment system has been suggested. The aim of this study was to investigate the early results of pediatric appendicitis treatment under the DRG system, focusing on health care expenditure and quality of health care services. Patients and methods The medical records of 60 patients, 30 patients before (FFS group), and 30 patients after adoption of the DRG system (DRG), were reviewed retrospectively. Results Mean hospital stay was shortened, but the complication and readmission rates did not worsen in the DRG. Overall health care expenditure and self-payment decreased from Korean Won (KRW) 2,499,935 and KRW 985,540, respectively, in the FFS group to KRW 2,386,552 and KRW 492,920, respectively, in the DRG. The insurer’s payment increased from KRW 1,514,395 in the FFS group to KRW 1,893,632 in the DRG. For patients in the DRG, calculation by the DRG system yielded greater overall expenditure (KRW 2,020,209 vs KRW 2,386,552) but lower self-payment (KRW 577,803 vs KRW 492,920) than calculation by the FFS system. Conclusion The DRG system worked well in pediatric patients with acute appendicitis in terms of cost-effectiveness over the short term. The gradual burden on the national health insurance fund should be taken into consideration. PMID:26648734

  12. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Gent, David H; De Wolf, Erick; Pethybridge, Sarah J

    2011-06-01

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect tactical management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease risk and thus assist in accurately targeting events critical for management. However, in many instances adoption of these systems for use in routine disease management has been perceived as slow. The under-utilization of some decision support systems is likely due to both technical and perception constraints that have not been addressed adequately during development and implementation phases. Growers' perceptions of risk and their aversion to these perceived risks can be reasons for the "slow" uptake of decision support systems and, more broadly, integrated pest management (IPM). Decision theory provides some tools that may assist in quantifying and incorporating subjective and/or measured probabilities of disease occurrence or crop loss into decision support systems. Incorporation of subjective probabilities into IPM recommendations may be one means to reduce grower uncertainty and improve trust of these systems because management recommendations could be explicitly informed by growers' perceptions of risk and economic utility. Ultimately though, we suggest that an appropriate measure of the value and impact of decision support systems is grower education that enables more skillful and informed management decisions independent of consultation of the support tool outputs.

  13. Transfer Functions for Nonlinear Systems via Fourier-Borel Transforms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Fourier series or integral expansions of response functions of linear systems. The shuffle product which is the characteristic of the noncommutative ... noncommutative algebra on a computer in any of the currently available symbolic programming languages such as Macsyma, Reduce, PL1, and Lisp...gives the transform of the response of the nonlinear system as a Cauchy product of its transfer function which is introduced for the first time here

  14. DEVELOPING THE NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM ADOPTION OF CKAN FOR DOMESTIC & INTERNATIONAL DATA DEPLOYMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Ryan J.; Kuhmuench, Christoph; Richard, Stephen M.

    2013-03-01

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) De- sign and Testing Team is developing NGDS software currently referred to as the “NGDS Node-In-A-Box”. The software targets organizations or individuals who wish to host at least one of the following: • an online repository containing resources for the NGDS; • an online site for creating metadata to register re- sources with the NGDS • NDGS-conformant Web APIs that enable access to NGDS data (e.g., WMS, WFS, WCS); • NDGS-conformant Web APIs that support dis- covery of NGDS resources via catalog service (e.g. CSW) • a web site that supports discovery and under- standing of NGDS resources A number of different frameworks for development of this online application were reviewed. The NGDS Design and Testing Team determined to use CKAN (http://ckan.org/), because it provides the closest match between out of the box functionality and NGDS node-in-a-box requirements. To achieve the NGDS vision and goals, this software development project has been inititated to provide NGDS data consumers with a highly functional inter- face to access the system, and to ease the burden on data providers who wish to publish data in the sys- tem. It is important to note that this software package constitutes a reference implementation. The NGDS software is based on open standards, which means other server software can make resources available, and other client applications can utilize NGDS data. A number of international organizations have ex- pressed interest in the NGDS approach to data access. The CKAN node implementation can provide a sim- ple path for deploying this technology in other set- tings.

  15. Modelling heat transfer in a bone-cement-prosthesis system.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eskil

    2003-06-01

    The heat transfer in a general bone-cement-prosthesis system was modelled. A quantitative understanding of the heat transfer and the polymerization kinetics in the system is necessary because injury of the bone tissue and the mechanical properties of the cement have been suggested to be effected by the thermal and chemical history of the system. The mathematical model of the heat transfer was based on first principles from polymerization kinetics and heat transfer, rather than certain in vitro observed properties, which has been the common approach. Our model was valid for general three-dimensional geometries and an arbitrary bone cement consisting of an initiator and monomer. The model was simulated for a cross-section of a hip with a potential femoral stem prosthesis and for a cement similar to Palacos R. The simulations were conducted by using the finite element method. These simulations showed that this general model described an auto accelerating heat production and a residual monomer concentration, which are two phenomena suggested to cause bone tissue damage and effect the mechanical properties of the cement.

  16. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III; Mantovani, James G.

    2010-01-01

    One aspect of In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) in a lunar environment is to extract oxygen and other elements from the minerals that make up the lunar regolith. Typical ISRU oxygen production processes include but are not limited to hydrogen reduction, carbothermal and molten oxide electrolysis. All of these processes require the transfer of regolith from a supply hopper into a reactor for chemical reaction processing, and the subsequent extraction of the reacted regolith from the reactor. This paper will discuss recent activities in the NASA ISRU project involved with developing pneumatic conveying methods to achieve lunar regolith simulant transfer under I-g and 1/6-g gravitational environments. Examples will be given of hardware that has been developed and tested by NASA on reduced gravity flights. Lessons learned and details of pneumatic regolith transfer systems will be examined as well as the relative performance in a 1/6th G environment

  17. Documentation requirements for Applications Systems Verification and Transfer projects (ASVTs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchy, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Application Systems Verification and Transfer Projects (ASVTs) are deliberate efforts to facilitate the transfer of applications of NASA-developed space technology to users such as federal agencies, state and local governments, regional planning groups, public service institutions, and private industry. This study focused on the role of documentation in facilitating technology transfer both to primary users identified during project planning and to others with similar information needs. It was understood that documentation can be used effectively when it is combined with informal (primarily verbal) communication within each user community and with other formal techniques such as organized demonstrations and training programs. Documentation examples from eight ASVT projects and one potential project were examined to give scope to the investigation.

  18. Parasite management extension - challenging traditional practice through adoption of a systems approach.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L; Rhodes, A P; Dodunski, G

    2015-11-01

    The drivers for anthelmintic use today are substantial and anthelmintic use has become an embedded normalised behaviour. The cheapness and easy availability of anthelmintic products has meant that New Zealand farmers have had access to easy "solutions" for dealing with parasites and minimal forward planning or system redesign has been required. Despite 30 years of messaging about the emerging issue of anthelmintic resistance, management to reduce parasitism and the need to change behaviour, farmer practice has largely remained unchanged. Traditional approaches to extension, particularly around parasite management, appear to have been quite ineffective, apart from encouraging change in anthelmintic products and a switch to use of anthelmintics in combination. More effective approaches are required. The evolving nature of anthelmintic resistance and sustainable management of parasitism require attitudes, knowledge and behaviour to change. This is a challenge for all players in the industry; researchers, manufacturers and sellers, advisors and farmers. Looking beyond agriculture to the health sector provides some insight into models of decision making and behaviour change that can inform future strategies. Features in the health belief model including concepts of self-efficacy and cues to action appear to align with the issues, challenges and culture prevailing in farming, and parasite management in particular. Programmes through which farmers have made substantial beneficial behaviour change and the lessons learnt are discussed. Effecting consistent behaviour change around parasite management will involve new approaches by all participants in the process. And the process itself also needs to change. It requires an understanding of whole-farm systems, and the consideration of all the sources of influence on the farmer and the other participants in the process. The process of knowledge sharing involving the farmer should be based on equality; each person in the process

  19. Calibration of a resonance energy transfer imaging system.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, M; Hensel, N F; Hartzman, R J

    1992-01-01

    A quantitative technique for the nondestructive visualization of nanometer scale intermolecular separations in a living system is described. A calibration procedure for the acquisition and analysis of resonance energy transfer (RET) image data is outlined. The factors limiting RET imaging of biological samples are discussed. Measurements required for the calibration include: (a) the spectral sensitivity of the image intensifier (or camera); (b) the transmission spectra of the emission filters; and (c) the quantum distribution functions of the energy transfer pair measured in situ. Resonance energy transfer imaging is demonstrated for two DNA specific dyes. The Förster critical distance for energy transfer between Hoechst 33342 (HO) and acridine orange (AO) is 4.5 +/- 0.7 nm. This distance is slightly greater than the distance of a single turn of the DNA helix (3.5 nm or approximately 10 base pairs), and is well below the optical diffraction limit. Timed sequences of intracellular energy transfer reveal nuclear structure, strikingly similar to that observed with confocal and electron microscopy, and may show the spatial distribution of eu- and hetero- chromatin in the interphase nuclei. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:1581499

  20. Test report for the Sample Transfer Canister system

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, B.D.

    1998-03-04

    The Sample Transfer Canister will be used by the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) for the transport of small quantity liquid samples that meet the definition of a limited quantity radioactive material, and may also be corrosive and/or flammable. Transport of the system will typically be north of the Wye Barricade between WRAP and the 222-S Laboratory. The samples are intended to conform to the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulation 49 CFR 1 73.4, ``Exceptions for small quantities.`` The regulations require prototype testing of the package to demonstrate the effectiveness of the packaging system. The test procedure consisted of one 24-hour compression test and five drop tests of various orientations onto an unyielding drop pad. The testing of the Sample Transfer Canister System was performed between February 16, 1998 and February 25, 1998. The results of the testing concluded that the Sample Transfer Canister System successfully met the testing requirements with certain modifications to the original system. The modifications included replacing the original eight flange screws which were cold rolled 316 stainless steel with greater strength grade 8 high carbon-carbon steel screws, replacing the initial two glass receptacles with a better performing single glass receptacle which proved not to leak during testing, and adding more bubble wrap as extra padding.

  1. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of an ultrasonic molten metal treatment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Youli; Bian, Feilong; Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Qian

    2014-09-01

    In piezoceramic ultrasonic devices, the piezoceramic stacks may fail permanently or function improperly if their working temperatures overstep the Curie temperature of the piezoceramic material. While the end of the horn usually serves near the melting point of the molten metal and is enclosed in an airtight chamber, so that it is difficult to experimentally measure the temperature of the transducer and its variation with time, which bring heavy difficulty to the design of the ultrasonic molten metal treatment system. To find a way out, conjugate heat transfer analysis of an ultrasonic molten metal treatment system is performed with coupled fluid and heat transfer finite element method. In modeling of the system, the RNG model and the SIMPLE algorithm are adopted for turbulence and nonlinear coupling between the momentum equation and the energy equation. Forced air cooling as well as natural air cooling is analyzed to compare the difference of temperature evolution. Numerical results show that, after about 350 s of working time, temperatures in the surface of the ceramic stacks in forced air cooling drop about 7 K compared with that in natural cooling. At 240 s, The molten metal surface emits heat radiation with a maximum rate of about 19 036 W/m2, while the heat insulation disc absorbs heat radiation at a maximum rate of about 7922 W/m2, which indicates the effectiveness of heat insulation of the asbestos pad. Transient heat transfer film coefficient and its distribution, which are difficult to be measured experimentally are also obtained through numerical simulation. At 240 s, the heat transfer film coefficient in the surface of the transducer ranges from -17.86 to 20.17 W/(m2 · K). Compared with the trial and error method based on the test, the proposed research provides a more effective way in the design and analysis of the temperature control of the molten metal treatment system.

  2. Saponification reaction system: a detailed mass transfer coefficient determination.

    PubMed

    Pečar, Darja; Goršek, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The saponification of an aromatic ester with an aqueous sodium hydroxide was studied within a heterogeneous reaction medium in order to determine the overall kinetics of the selected system. The extended thermo-kinetic model was developed compared to the previously used simple one. The reaction rate within a heterogeneous liquid-liquid system incorporates a chemical kinetics term as well as mass transfer between both phases. Chemical rate constant was obtained from experiments within a homogeneous medium, whilst the mass-transfer coefficient was determined separately. The measured thermal profiles were then the bases for determining the overall reaction-rate. This study presents the development of an extended kinetic model for considering mass transfer regarding the saponification of ethyl benzoate with sodium hydroxide within a heterogeneous reaction medium. The time-dependences are presented for the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial areas at different heterogeneous stages and temperatures. The results indicated an important role of reliable kinetic model, as significant difference in k(L)a product was obtained with extended and simple approach.

  3. Building a house on shifting sand: methodological considerations when evaluating the implementation and adoption of national electronic health record systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A commitment to Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems now constitutes a core part of many governments’ healthcare reform strategies. The resulting politically-initiated large-scale or national EHR endeavors are challenging because of their ambitious agendas of change, the scale of resources needed to make them work, the (relatively) short timescales set, and the large number of stakeholders involved, all of whom pursue somewhat different interests. These initiatives need to be evaluated to establish if they improve care and represent value for money. Methods Critical reflections on these complexities in the light of experience of undertaking the first national, longitudinal, and sociotechnical evaluation of the implementation and adoption of England’s National Health Service’s Care Records Service (NHS CRS). Results/discussion We advance two key arguments. First, national programs for EHR implementations are likely to take place in the shifting sands of evolving sociopolitical and sociotechnical and contexts, which are likely to shape them in significant ways. This poses challenges to conventional evaluation approaches which draw on a model of baseline operations → intervention → changed operations (outcome). Second, evaluation of such programs must account for this changing context by adapting to it. This requires careful and creative choice of ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions. Summary New and significant challenges are faced in evaluating national EHR implementation endeavors. Based on experiences from this national evaluation of the implementation and adoption of the NHS CRS in England, we argue for an approach to these evaluations which moves away from seeing EHR systems as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) projects requiring an essentially outcome-centred assessment towards a more interpretive approach that reflects the situated and evolving nature of EHR seen within multiple specific settings and

  4. Multinucleon transfer reactions in the 40Ar+208Pb system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijatović, T.; Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; Montanari, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Goasduff, A.; Malenica, D. Jelavić; Mǎrginean, N.; Milin, M.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Soić, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    We measured multinucleon transfer reactions in the 40Ar+208Pb system at an energy close to the Coulomb barrier, by employing the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer. We extracted differential and total cross sections of the different transfer channels, with a careful investigation of the total kinetic energy loss distributions. Comparisons between different systems having the same 208Pb target and with projectiles going from neutron-poor to neutron-rich nuclei, i.e., 40Ca, 58Ni, and 40Ar, as well as between the data and GRAZING calculations have been carried out. The neutron-rich (stable) 40Ar beam allowed us to get access to the channels involving proton pickup, whose behavior in connection with the production of neutron-rich heavy partner has been outlined.

  5. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Mantovani, J. G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing of a pneumatic system for transfering regolith, to be used for In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Using both the simulated microgravity of parabolic flight and ground testing, the tests demonstrated that lunar regolith can be conveyed pneumatically into a simulated ISRU oxygen production plant reactor. The ground testing also demonstrated that the regolith can be expelled from the ISRU reactor for disposal or for other resource processing.

  6. Direct experimental evidence for the high chemical reactivity of α- and β-xylopyranosides adopting a (2,5)B conformation in glycosyl transfer.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Luis; Marcelo, Filipa; Rousseau, Cyril; Nieto, Lidia; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Marrot, Jérôme; Rauter, Amélia P; Sollogoub, Matthieu; Bols, Mikael; Blériot, Yves

    2011-06-20

    The effect of a (2,5)B boat conformation on xyloside reactivity has been investigated by studying the hydrolysis and glycosylation of a series of synthetic xyloside analogues based on a 2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane framework, which forces the xylose analogue to adopt a (2,5)B conformation. The locked β-xylosides were found to hydrolyze 100-1200 times faster than methyl β-D-xylopyranoside, whereas the locked α-xylosides hydrolyzed up to 2×10(4) times faster than methyl α-D-xylopyranoside. A significant rate enhancement was also observed for the glycosylation reaction. The high reactivity of these conformers can be related to the imposition of a (2,5)B conformation, which approximates a transition state (TS) boat conformation. In this way, the energy penalty required to go from the chair to the TS conformation is already paid. These results parallel and support the observation that the GH-11 xylanase family force their substrate to adopt a (2,5)B conformation to achieve highly efficient enzymatic glycosidic bond hydrolysis.

  7. Emergency flight control system using one engine and fuel transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Jr., Frank W. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor); Le, Jeanette (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system for emergency aircraft control uses at least one engine and lateral fuel transfer that allows a pilot to regain control over an aircraft under emergency conditions. Where aircraft propulsion is available only through engines on one side of the aircraft, lateral fuel transfer provides means by which the center of gravity of the aircraft can be moved over to the wing associated with the operating engine, thus inducing a moment that balances the moment from the remaining engine, allowing the pilot to regain control over the aircraft. By implementing the present invention in flight control programming associated with a flight control computer (FCC), control of the aircraft under emergency conditions can be linked to the yoke or autopilot knob of the aircraft. Additionally, the center of gravity of the aircraft can be shifted in order to effect maneuvers and turns by spacing such center of gravity either closer to or farther away from the propelling engine or engines. In an alternative embodiment, aircraft having a third engine associated with the tail section or otherwise are accommodated and implemented by the present invention by appropriately shifting the center of gravity of the aircraft. Alternatively, where a four-engine aircraft has suffered loss of engine control on one side of the plane, the lateral fuel transfer may deliver the center of gravity closer to the two remaining engines. Differential thrust between the two can then control the pitch and roll of the aircraft in conjunction with lateral fuel transfer.

  8. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  9. Phase I/II study of adoptive transfer of γδ T cells in combination with zoledronic acid and IL-2 to patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hirohito; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Yagi, Junji; Minato, Nagahiro; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2011-08-01

    Human Vγ2 Vδ2-bearing T cells have recently received much attention in cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we conducted a phase I/II clinical trial of the adoptive transfer of γδ T cells to patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Eleven patients who had undergone nephrectomy and had lung metastasis were enrolled. Peripheral blood γδ T cells obtained from the patients were stimulated ex vivo with 2-methyl-3-butenyl-1-pyrophosphate (2M3B1PP), a synthetic pyrophosphomonoester antigen, and transferred in combination with zoledronic acid (Zol) and teceleukin (recombinant human interleukin-2). Expanded γδ T cells exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against tumor cells in vitro, and the proportion of peripheral blood γδ T cells among CD3(+) cells typically peaked three to 5 days after transfer. Tumor doubling time was prolonged in all 11 patients, and the best overall responses were 1 CR, 5 SD, and 5 PD, as defined based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Although ten patients developed adverse reactions of grade ≥3, they were likely to have been the result of the concomitant infusion of Zol and IL-2, and most symptoms swiftly reverted to normal during the course of treatment. In conclusion, this clinical trial demonstrated that our regimen for the adoptive transfer of γδ T cells in combination with Zol and IL-2 was well tolerated and that objective clinical responses could be achieved in some patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

  10. E-Beam—a new transfer system for isolator technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat, Theo; Huber, Thomas

    2002-03-01

    In every aseptic filling application, the sterile transfer of goods into the aseptic area is a challenge, and there are many different ways to do it. With isolator technology a higher sterility assurance level (SAL) is achieved. This SAL is only as good as the weakest segment in the chain of manufacturing. The transfer of goods into and out of the isolator is one of these critical segments. Today different techniques, some already well established, others still very new, are available on the market like: dry heat tunnel, autoclave, pulsed light, rapid transfer systems (RTP), H 2O 2 tunnel, UV light, etc. all these systems are either not applicable for continuous transfer, only good for heat-compatible materials like glass, or do not guarantee a 6 log spore reduction. E-Beam opens new perspectives in this field. With E-beam technology it is possible to transfer heat-sensitive (plastic), pre-sterilised materials at high speed, continuously into an aseptic area. E-Beam unifies three different technologies, that result in a very efficient and high-speed decontamination machine designed for the pharmaceutical industry. First, there is the electron beam that decontaminates the goods and an accurate shielding that protects the surrounding from this beam. Second, there is the conveyor system that guarantees the output and the correct exposure time underneath the beam. And third, there is the isolator interface to provide correct differential pressure and clean air inside the tunnel as well as the decontamination of the tunnel with H 2O 2 prior to production. The E-beam is a low-energy electron beam, capable of decontaminating any kind of surface. It penetrates only a few micrometers into the material and therefore does not deform the packaging media. Currently, machines are being built to transfer pre-sterilised syringes, packed in plastic tubs with a Tyvek cover into an aseptic filling isolator with the following data: decontamination efficiency of 10 6 (6 log spore

  11. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  12. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  13. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  14. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  15. 14 CFR 221.160 - Adoption notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adoption notice. 221.160 Section 221.160... REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating Control § 221.160 Adoption notice. (a) When the name of a carrier is changed or when its operating...

  16. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  17. Arms Transfers: A System Dynamics Analysis Focusing on Regional Stability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    73 IS OSOLET E . .. JILASSIIE]L.. SECURITY C14 A :PIrATInN (.S TWIM 04rc.- .- l° AFIT/GOR/OS/83D-8 ARMS TRANSFERS: A SYSTEM DYNA’ICS ALYSIS FOCUSING...regional stability. 5. Provide guidance and instructions on how to use and alter the model for specific policy analysis. Scot e This research is...a system, and that not all societal groups are the same. Durkheim insisted that his theory of anowia must be interpreted frorr a contingency point of

  18. Mass transfer in binary X-ray systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, R.; Hatchett, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of X-ray heating on gas flows in binary X-ray systems is examined. A simple estimate is obtained for the evaporative wind flux from a stellar atmosphere due to X-ray heating which agrees with numerical calculations by Alme and Wilson (1974) but disagrees with calculations by Arons (1973) and by Basko and Sunyaev (1974) for the Her X-1/HZ Her system. The wind flux is sensitive to the soft X-ray spectrum. The self-excited wind mechanism does not work. Mass transfer in the Hercules system probably occurs by flow of the atmosphere of HZ Her through the gravitational saddle point of the system. The accretion gas stream is probably opaque with atomic density of not less than 10 to the 15th power per cu cm and is confined to a small fraction of 4(pi) steradians. Other binary X-ray systems are briefly discussed.

  19. RELAP5 MODEL OF THE DIVERTOR PRIMARY HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Emilian L; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the RELAP5 model that has been developed for the divertor primary heat transfer system (PHTS). The model is intended to be used to examine the transient performance of the divertor PHTS and evaluate control schemes necessary to maintain parameters within acceptable limits during transients. Some preliminary results are presented to show the maturity of the model and examine general divertor PHTS transient behavior. The model can be used as a starting point for developing transient modeling capability, including control system modeling, safety evaluations, etc., and is not intended to represent the final divertor PHTS design. Preliminary calculations using the models indicate that during normal pulsed operation, present pressurizer controls may not be sufficient to keep system pressures within their desired range. Additional divertor PHTS and control system design efforts may be required to ensure system pressure fluctuation during normal operation remains within specified limits.

  20. Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line

    DOEpatents

    Robbat, Jr., Albert

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

  1. Improved power transfer to wearable systems through stretchable magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, N.; Bedair, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    The use of wireless power transfer is common in stretchable electronics since physical wiring can be easily destroyed as the system is stretched. This work presents the first demonstration of improved inductive power coupling to a stretchable system through the addition of a thin layer of ferroelastomeric material. A ferroelastomer, an elastomeric polymer loaded with magnetic particulates, has a permeability greater than one while retaining the ability to survive significant mechanical strains. A recently developed ferroelastomer composite based on sendust platelets within a soft silicone elastomer was incorporated into liquid metal stretchable inductors based on the liquid metal galinstan in fluidic channels. For a single-turn inductor, the maximum power transfer efficiency rises from 71 % with no backplane, to 81 % for a rigid ferrite backplane on the transmitter side alone, to 86 % with a ferroelastomer backplane on the receiver side as well. The coupling between a commercial wireless power transmitter coil with ferrite backplane to a five-turn liquid metal inductor was also investigated, finding an improvement in power transfer efficiency from 81 % with only a rigid backplane to 90 % with the addition of the ferroelastomer backplane. Both the single and multi-turn inductors were demonstrated surviving up to 50 % uniaxial applied strain.

  2. Heat transfer enhancement in a paraffin wax thermal storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Eftekhar, J.; Haji-Sheikh, A.; Lou, Y.S.

    1984-08-01

    Heat transfer enhancement in a thermal storage system consisting of vertically arranged fins between a heated and cooled horizontal finned-tube arrangement is reported. The high thermal expansion coefficient and low viscosity of paraffin wax, at temperatures above 50/sup 0/C, are utilized to induce natural convection in the liquid phase even at small thicknesses. The experimental data on the rate of production of liquid as a function of time and temperature of the hot surface is presented. The photographs of the melted zone indicate a naturally buoyant flow induced in the neighborhood of the vertical fins causes a rapid melting of the solid wax and a downdraft along the cooler solid phase surface. The heat transfer coefficient at the interface is calculated from experimentally determined instantaneous locations of the moving boundary.

  3. System and method for transferring data on a data link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Robert M. (Inventor); Bishop, James E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method are provided for transferring a packet across a data link. The packet may include a stream of data symbols which is delimited by one or more framing symbols. Corruptions of the framing symbol which result in valid data symbols may be mapped to invalid symbols. If it is desired to transfer one of the valid data symbols that has been mapped to an invalid symbol, the data symbol may be replaced with an unused symbol. At the receiving end, these unused symbols are replaced with the corresponding valid data symbols. The data stream of the packet may be encoded with forward error correction information to detect and correct errors in the data stream.

  4. Modeling coherent excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic light harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Pengfei

    2011-12-01

    Recent non-linear spectroscopy experiments suggest the excitation energy transfer in some biological light harvesting systems initially occurs coherently. Treating such processes brings significant challenge for conventional theoretical tools that usually involve different approximations. In this dissertation, the recently developed Iterative Linearized Density Matrix (ILDM) propagation scheme, which is non-perturbative and non-Markovian is extended to study coherent excitation energy transfer in various light harvesting complexes. It is demonstrated that the ILDM approach can successfully describe the coherent beating of the site populations on model systems and gives quantitative agreement with both experimental results and the results of other theoretical methods have been developed recently to going beyond the usual approximations, thus providing a new reliable theoretical tool to study this phenomenon. This approach is used to investigate the excited energy transfer dynamics in various experimentally studied bacteria light harvesting complexes, such as Fenna-Matthews-Olsen (FMO) complex, Phycocyanin 645 (PC645). In these model calculations, quantitative agreement is found between computed de-coherence times and quantum beating pattens observed in the non-linear spectroscopy. As a result of these studies, it is concluded that the stochastic resonance behavior is important in determining the optimal throughput. To begin addressing possible mechanics for observed long de-coherence time, various models which include correlation between site energy fluctuations as well as correlation between site energy and inter-site coupling are developed. The influence of both types of correlation on the coherence and transfer rate is explored using with a two state system-bath hamiltonian parametrized to model the reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides bacteria. To overcome the disadvantages of a fully reduced approach or a full propagation method, a brownian dynamics

  5. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: building on success.

    PubMed

    Gattinoni, Luca; Powell, Daniel J; Rosenberg, Steven A; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2006-05-01

    Adoptive cell transfer after host preconditioning by lymphodepletion represents an important advance in cancer immunotherapy. Here, we describe how a lymphopaenic environment enables tumour-reactive T cells to destroy large burdens of metastatic tumour and how the state of differentiation of the adoptively transferred T cells can affect the outcome of treatment. We also discuss how the translation of these new findings might further improve the efficacy of adoptive cell transfer through the use of vaccines, haematopoietic-stem-cell transplantation, modified preconditioning regimens, and alternative methods for the generation and selection of the T cells to be transferred.

  6. Adoptive transfer of genetically modified macrophages elucidated TGF-beta-mediated 'self-defence' of the glomerulus against local action of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, M

    1999-01-01

    TGF-beta has several anti-inflammatory properties which may be relevant to prevention of or recovery from acute glomerular inflammation. Using genetically modified mesangial cells and a technique for in vivo macrophage transfer, this article provides evidence for TGF-beta-mediated 'self-defence' of the glomerulus against macrophages. Rat mesangial cells stably transfected with TGF-beta1 showed a blunted response to the macrophage-derived, proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta. In contrast, mesangial cells expressing the dominant-interfering TGF-beta receptor showed an enhanced response to IL-1. Similarly, externally added TGF-beta1 inhibited the cytokine response of normal glomeruli, and isolated nephritic glomeruli producing active TGF-beta1 showed a depressed response to IL-1beta, compared to normal glomeruli. Consistent with these in vitro results, in vivo transfer of activated macrophages revealed that the TGF-beta-producing glomeruli are insensitive to the effector action of macrophages. These results indicate that TGF-beta1 functions as an endogenous 'defender' that counteracts local action of activated macrophages in the glomerulus.

  7. System and User Characteristics in the Adoption and Use of e-Learning Management Systems: A Cross-Age Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas-Rugnon, Oscar Lorenzo; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Hernández-García, Ángel

    This study analyses the most relevant factors which affect users' intention to use e-learning management systems, with special focus in the difference of age. The fundamental hypothesis is that there can be established a influence of behavioural intention, attitude toward behaviour, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norms and social influence in the intention to use of e-learning management systems, with user and system factors as antecedents.

  8. Adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in combination with zoledronic acid inhibits cancer growth and limits osteolysis in a murine model of osteolytic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zysk, Aneta; DeNichilo, Mark O; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Zinonos, Irene; Liapis, Vasilios; Hay, Shelley; Ingman, Wendy; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Atkins, Gerald; Findlay, David; Zannettino, Andrew; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Bone metastases occur in over 75% of patients with advanced breast cancer and are responsible for high levels of morbidity and mortality. In this study, ex vivo expanded cytotoxic Vγ9Vδ2 T cells isolated from human peripheral blood were tested for their anti-cancer efficacy in combination with zoledronic acid (ZOL), using a mouse model of osteolytic breast cancer. In vitro, expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were cytotoxic against a panel of human breast cancer cell lines, and ZOL pre-treatment further sensitised breast cancer cells to killing by Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells adoptively transferred into NOD/SCID mice localised to osteolytic breast cancer lesions in the bone, and multiple infusions of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells reduced tumour growth in the bone. ZOL pre-treatment potentiated the anti-cancer efficacy of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, with mice showing further reductions in tumour burden. Mice treated with the combination also had reduced tumour burden of secondary pulmonary metastases, and decreased bone degradation. Our data suggests that adoptive transfer of Vγ9Vδ2 T cell in combination with ZOL may prove an effective immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases.

  9. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  10. Principles and Guidelines for Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Transfer relationships in British Columbia (BC) are governed by statements which were adopted by the Council in 1993 after consultation with the institutions of the BC Transfer System. Principles and guidelines in this document are based on those formulated by the British Columbia Post-Secondary Coordinating Committee and approved by university…

  11. Energy transfer in mesoscopic vibrational systems enabled by eigenfrequency fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atalaya, Juan

    Energy transfer between low-frequency vibrational modes can be achieved by means of nonlinear coupling if their eigenfrequencies fulfill certain nonlinear resonance conditions. Because of the discreteness of the vibrational spectrum at low frequencies, such conditions may be difficult to satisfy for most low-frequency modes in typical mesoscopic vibrational systems. Fluctuations of the vibrational eigenfrequencies can also be relatively strong in such systems. We show that energy transfer between modes can occur in the absence of nonlinear resonance if frequency fluctuations are allowed. The case of three modes with cubic nonlinear coupling and no damping is particularly interesting. It is found that the system has a non-thermal equilibrium state which depends only on the initial conditions. The rate at which the system approaches to such state is determined by the parameters such as the noise strength and correlation time, the nonlinearity strength and the detuning from exact nonlinear resonance. We also discuss the case of many weakly coupled modes. Our results shed light on the problem of energy relaxation of low-frequency vibrational modes into the continuum of high-frequency vibrational modes. The results have been obtained with Mark Dykman. Alternative email: jatalaya2012@gmail.com.

  12. Enhacements to the TTS-502 time transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandierendonck, A. J.; Hua, Q. D.

    1985-04-01

    Two years ago STI introduced an affordable, relatively compact time transfer system on the market -- the TTS-502, and described that system at the 1981 PTTI conference. Over the past few months, that system has been improved, and new features have been added. In addition, new options have been made available to further enhance the capabilities of the system. These enhancements include the addition of a positioning algorithm and new options providing a corrected 5 MHz output that is phase coherent with the 1 pps output, and providing an internal Rubidium Oscillator. The Positioning Algorithm was developed because not all time transfer users had the luxury of the Defense Mapping Agency's (DMA) services for determining their position in WGS-72 coordinates. The enhanced TTS-502 determines the GPS position anywhere in the world, independent of how many GPS satellites are concurrently visible. However, convergence time to a solution is inversely proportional to the number of satellites concurrently visible and the quality of frequency standard used in conjunction with the TTS-502. Real World solution results will be presented for a variety of cases and satellite scheduling scenarios. Typically, positioning accuracies were achieved better than 5 to 10 meters r.s.s. using the C/A code only at Sunnyvale, California.

  13. Charge-Transfer Emitting Triarylborane π-Electron Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Zuo-Bang; Zhao, Cui-Hua

    2017-02-06

    Triarylboranes have attracted significantly increasing research interest as a remarkable class of photoelectronic π-electron materials. Because of the presence of vacant p orbital on the B center, the boryl group is a very unique electron acceptor that exhibits not only electron-accepting ability through p-π* conjugation but also high Lewis acidity to coordinate with Lewis bases and steric bulk arising from the aryl substituent on the B center to get enough kinetic stability. Thus, the incorporation of a trivalent B element into π-conjugated systems is an efficient strategy to tune the electronic and stereo structures and thus the photoelectronic properties of π-electron systems. When an electron-donating group, such as amino, is present, triarylboranes would likely display intramolecular charge-transfer transitions. These kinds of molecules are often highly emissive. In addition, the geometry of the molecules has a great impact on the emission properties. In this Forum Article, we herein describe our recent progress on the charge-transfer emitting triarylborane π-electron systems with novel geometries, which include the lateral boryl-substituted π-system with amino groups at the terminal positions, the o,o'-substituted biaryl π-system with boryl and amino groups at the o,o'-positions, a triarylborane-based BODIPY system, and a B,N/S-bridged ladder-type π-system. We mainly put the emphasis on the molecular design concept, structure-property relationships, intriguing emission properties and great applications of the corresponding triarylborane π-systems.

  14. The protease inhibitor chagasin of Trypanosoma cruzi adopts an immunoglobulin-type fold and may have arisen by horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Rigden, D J; Monteiro, A C; Grossi de Sá, M F

    2001-08-24

    Chagasin, a protein from Trypanosoma cruzi, is the first member of a new family of tight binding cysteine protease inhibitors [Monteiro, A.C.S., Abrahamson, M., Lima, A.P.C., Vannier-Santos, M.A. and Scharfstein, J. (2001) J. Cell Sci., in press] [corrected]. Despite its lack of significant sequence identity with known proteins, convincing structural models, using variable light chain templates, could be constructed on the basis of threading results. Experimental support for the final structure came from inhibition data for overlapping oligopeptides spanning the chagasin sequence. Chagasin therefore exemplifies a new protease inhibitor structural class and a new natural use for an immunoglobulin-like domain. Limited sequence resemblance suggests that chagasin may represent the result of a rare horizontal gene transfer from host to parasite.

  15. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Stillwagon, Roy E.

    1981-01-01

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  16. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Stillwagon, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  17. The electron transfer system of syntrophically grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher B; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K; Ringbauer, Joseph A; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D; Arkin, Adam P; Hazen, Terry C; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A

    2009-09-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic coupling between hydrogen producers and consumers is a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent on growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation were upregulated in D. vulgaris compared with their expression in sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn), and the well-characterized high-molecular-weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and upregulated genes. Additionally, a predicted operon containing genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited upregulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd, and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little effect on growth via sulfate respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that to understand microbial processes that sustain nutrient cycling, lifestyles not captured in pure culture must be considered.

  18. The Electron Transfer System of Syntrophically Grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    PBD; ENIGMA; GTL; VIMSS; Walker, Christopher B.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K.; Ringbauer Jr., Joseph A.; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A.

    2009-06-22

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  19. The electron transfer system of synthrophically grown desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Christopher; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin Koo; Ringbauer, Joseph; HE, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic coupling between hydrogen producers and consumers is a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent on growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation were upregulated in D. vulgaris compared with their expression in sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn), and the well-characterized high-molecular-weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and upregulated genes. Additionally, a predicted operon containing genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited upregulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd, and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little effect on growth via sulfate respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that to understand microbial processes that sustain nutrient cycling, lifestyles not captured in pure culture must be considered.

  20. The electron transfer system of syntrophically grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.B.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.K.; Ringbauer, Jr., J.A.; He, Q.; Zhou, J.; Voordouw, G.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Hazen, T.C.; Stolyar, S.; Stahl, D.A.

    2009-05-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  1. Generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression, knowledge-leveraged inductive transfer learning for neural networks, fuzzy systems and kernel methods.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhaohong; Choi, Kup-Sze; Jiang, Yizhang; Wang, Shitong

    2014-12-01

    Inductive transfer learning has attracted increasing attention for the training of effective model in the target domain by leveraging the information in the source domain. However, most transfer learning methods are developed for a specific model, such as the commonly used support vector machine, which makes the methods applicable only to the adopted models. In this regard, the generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression (GHRR) method is introduced in order to train various types of classical intelligence models, including neural networks, fuzzy logical systems and kernel methods. Furthermore, the knowledge-leverage based transfer learning mechanism is integrated with GHRR to realize the inductive transfer learning method called transfer GHRR (TGHRR). Since the information from the induced knowledge is much clearer and more concise than that from the data in the source domain, it is more convenient to control and balance the similarity and difference of data distributions between the source and target domains. The proposed GHRR and TGHRR algorithms have been evaluated experimentally by performing regression and classification on synthetic and real world datasets. The results demonstrate that the performance of TGHRR is competitive with or even superior to existing state-of-the-art inductive transfer learning algorithms.

  2. The Use of Video in Knowledge Transfer of Teacher-Led Psychosocial Interventions: Feeling Competent to Adopt a Different Role in the Classroom (L'utilisation de la vidéo dans le transfert de connaissances dans les interventions psychosociales menées par les enseignants : sentir que l'on a la compétence d'adopter un rôle différent dans la salle de classe)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauregard, Caroline; Rousseau, Cécile; Mustafa, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Because they propose a form of modeling, videos have been recognised to be useful to transfer knowledge about practices requiring teachers to adopt a different role. This paper describes the results of a satisfaction survey with 98 teachers, school administrators and professionals regarding their appreciation of training videos showing teacher-led…

  3. User Interface Technology Transfer to NASA's Virtual Wind Tunnel System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, Andries

    1998-01-01

    Funded by NASA grants for four years, the Brown Computer Graphics Group has developed novel 3D user interfaces for desktop and immersive scientific visualization applications. This past grant period supported the design and development of a software library, the 3D Widget Library, which supports the construction and run-time management of 3D widgets. The 3D Widget Library is a mechanism for transferring user interface technology from the Brown Graphics Group to the Virtual Wind Tunnel system at NASA Ames as well as the public domain.

  4. Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Jr., Burgess M

    2013-02-19

    An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

  5. Radiative interactions in transient energy transfer in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions in transient energy transfer processes in gaseous systems. The nongray radiative formulations are based on the wide-band model correlations for molecular absorption. Various relations for the radiative flux are developed; these are useful for different flow conditions and physical problems. Specific plans for obtaining extensive results for different cases are presented. The methods presented in this study can be extended easily to investigate the radiative interactions in realistic flows of hydrogen-air species in the scramjet engine.

  6. Energy Transfer in the Earth-Sun System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Kamide, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Conference on Earth-Sun System Exploration: Energy Transfer; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 16-20 January 2006; The goal of this conference, which was supported by several agencies and organizations, was to provide a forum for physicists engaged in the Earth-Sun system as well as in laboratory experiments to discuss and exchange knowledge and ideas on physical processes involving energy transfer. The motivation of the conference stemmed from the following realization: Space assets form an important fabric of our society, performing functions such as television broadcasting, cell- phone communication, navigation, and remote monitoring of tropospheric weather. There is increasing awareness of how much our daily activities can be adversely affected by space disturbances stretching all the way back to the Sun. In some of these energetic phenomena, energy in various forms can propagate long distances from the solar surface to the interplanetary medium and eventually to the Earth's immediate space environment, namely, its magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. In addition, transformation of energy can take place in these space disturbances, allowing charged-particle energy to be transformed to electromagnetic energy or vice versa. In- depth understanding of energy transformation and transmission in the Earth-Sun system will foster the identification of physical processes responsible for space disturbances and the prediction of their occurrences and effects. Participants came from 15 countries.

  7. Generation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients for adoptive T-cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, Silvia; Delbue, Serena; Signorini, Lucia; Setola, Elisabetta; Bagliani, Anna; Della Valle, Alberto; Galli, Andrea; Ferrante, Pasquale; Bregni, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This study designs a strategy for an adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) protocol based on the ex-vivo selection of autologous peripheral blood-derived CD8-enriched T-cells, stimulated with dendritic cells (DCs) that had been pulsed with apoptotic tumor cells to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with anti-tumor activity. Seventy-eight colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were enrolled in this study. Tumor tissues and peripheral blood (PB) were obtained at surgery. Tissues were mechanically dissociated and cultured to obtain a primary tumor cell line from each patient. DCs were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using magnetic positive selection of CD14+ monocytes. Anti-tumor CTLs were elicited in co-/micro-cultures using DCs as antigen-presenting cells, autologous apoptotic tumor cells as a source of antigens, and CD8+ T lymphocytes as effectors. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion was assessed by ELISpot assays to evaluate the activation of the CTLs against the autologous tumor cells. Primary tumor cell lines were obtained from 20 of 78 patients (25.6%). DCs were generated from 26 patients, and of them, corresponding tumor cell lines were derived from six patients. ELISpot results showed that significant IFN-γ secretion was detected after different numbers of stimulations for two patients, whereas weak secretion was observed for three patients. Despite difficulties due to contamination of several primary tumor cell lines with gut intestinal flora, the results suggest that the generation of tumor-specific CTLs is feasible from patients with CRC, and could be useful for supporting an ACT approach in CRC.

  8. Adoptive transfer of IL-4Rα+ macrophages is sufficient to enhance eosinophilic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) chain has a broad expression pattern and participates in IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, allowing it to influence several pathological components of allergic lung inflammation. We previously reported that IL-4Rα expression on both bone marrow-derived and non-bone marrow-derived cells contributed to the severity of allergic lung inflammation. There was a correlation between the number of macrophages expressing the IL-4Rα, CD11b, and IAd, and the degree of eosinophilia in ovalbumin challenged mice. The engagement of the IL-4Rα by IL-4 or IL-13 is able to stimulate the alternative activation of macrophages (AAM). The presence of AAM has been correlated with inflammatory responses to parasites and allergens. Therefore, we hypothesized that IL-4Rα+ AAM play an active role in allergic lung inflammation. To directly determine the role of AAM in allergic lung inflammation, M-CSF-dependent macrophages (BMM) were prepared from the bone-marrow of IL-4Rα positive and negative mice and transferred to IL-4RαxRAG2-/- mice. Wild type TH2 cells were provided exogenously. Results Mice receiving IL-4Rα+/+ BMM showed a marked increase in the recruitment of eosinophils to the lung after challenge with ovalbumin as compared to mice receiving IL-4Rα-/- BMM. As expected, the eosinophilic inflammation was dependent on the presence of TH2 cells. Furthermore, we observed an increase in cells expressing F4/80 and Mac3, and the AAM marker YM1/2 in the lungs of mice receiving IL-4Rα+/+ BMM. The BAL fluid from these mice contained elevated levels of eotaxin-1, RANTES, and CCL2. Conclusions These results demonstrate that transfer of IL-4Rα + macrophages is sufficient to enhance TH2-driven, allergic inflammation. They further show that stimulation of macrophages through IL-4Rα leads to their alternative activation and positive contribution to the TH2-driven allergic inflammatory response in the lung. Since an increase in AAM and their products has

  9. The Adoption of Electronic Benefit Transfer Card for Delivering Food Stamp Benefits in Alabama: Perceptions of College Students Participating in the Food Stamp Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekeri, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    The reasons for moving from paper coupons to delivering food stamps electronically include potential reduction in the cost of administering the system and in fraud, theft and abuse of the system. Furthermore, the use of EBT is believed o reduce social stigma and embarrassment felt by recipients when using paper coupon. Therefore, using survey data…

  10. Adoptive transfer of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells to C57BL/6J mice during acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii down modulates the exacerbated Th1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Jonadab E; Fernández, Jacquelina; Salinas, Nohemí; Juárez, Imelda; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Campuzano, Jaime; Castellanos, Carlos; Saavedra, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Infection of C57BL/6J mice with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii triggers a powerful Th1 immune response that is detrimental to the host. During acute infection, a reduction in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) has been reported. We studied the role of Treg during T. gondii infection by adoptive transfer of cells purified from transgenic Foxp3(EGFP) mice to infected wild type animals. We found a less severe weight loss, a significant delayed mortality in infected Treg-transferred mice, and reduced pathology of the small intestine that were associated with lower IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. Nevertheless, higher cyst number and parasite load in brain were observed in these mice. Treg-transferred infected mice showed reduced levels of both IFN-γ and TNF-α in sera. A reduced number of CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ was detected in these mice, while IL-2 producing CD4(+) T cells were restored to levels nearly similar to uninfected mice. CD25 and CD69 expression of CD4(+) T cells were also down modulated. Our data show that the low Treg cell number are insufficient to modulate the activation of CD4(+) T cells and the production of high levels of IFN-γ. Thus, a delicate balance between an optimal immune response and its modulation by Treg cells must exist.

  11. Analysis of transgene-specific immune responses that limit the in vivo persistence of adoptively transferred HSV-TK–modified donor T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Carolina; Flowers, Mary E.; Warren, Edus H.; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of an inducible suicide gene such as the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) might allow exploitation of the antitumor activity of donor T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) without graft versus host disease. However, HSV-TK is foreign, and immune responses to gene-modified T cells could lead to their premature elimination. We show that after the infusion of HSV-TK–modified donor T cells to HCT recipients, CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses to HSV-TK are rapidly induced and coincide with the disappearance of transferred cells. Cytokine flow cytometry using an overlapping panel of HSV-TK peptides allowed rapid detection and quantitation of HSV-TK–specific T cells in the blood and identified multiple immunogenic epitopes. Repeated infusion of modified T cells boosted the induced HSV-TK–specific T cells, which persisted as memory cells. These studies demonstrate the need for nonimmunogenic suicide genes and identify a strategy for detection of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to transgene products that should be generally applicable to monitoring patients on gene therapy trials. The potency of gene-modified T cells to elicit robust and durable immune responses imply this approach might be used for vaccination to elicit T-cell responses to viral or tumor antigens. PMID:16282341

  12. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Explain the Degree of English Teachers' Adoption of Interactive Whiteboards in the Modern Systems School in Jordan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jwaifell, Mustafa; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explain the use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) by English female teachers in Modern Systems School in Jordan. Viewed from the lens of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the study examined and reported teachers' use of IWB and its features that have impact on their decisions to adopt it in Modern Systems School . The…

  13. Development of an automated closed system for generation of human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells for use in adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Muul, L M; Nason-Burchenal, K; Carter, C S; Cullis, H; Slavin, D; Hyatt, C; Director, E P; Leitman, S F; Klein, H G; Rosenberg, S A

    1987-08-03

    Immunotherapy utilizing the adoptive transfer of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells in conjunction with recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) can mediate tumor regression in some patients with advanced cancer. The activation of large numbers of LAK cells was performed in roller bottles in a research laboratory setting and required meticulous aseptic technique, at least one skilled technician per patient and one laminar flow hood per patient. To reduce the complexity and expense of LAK cell generation for human immunotherapy trials we have developed a closed-system automated procedure using a continuous flow blood cell separator. PBL were obtained by standard apheresis techniques. Platelets and plasma were elutriated using countercentrifugal flow of saline in the cell separator machine. The washed PBL were underlaid with Ficoll-Hypaque (FH) in the original separation bag. Lymphocytes were then flushed into a collection bag where they were concentrated and washed with 2 liters of saline. Mean recovery from the automated FH technique was 54.6 +/- 4.3% compared to 62.3 +/- 4.0% using manual methods in 50 ml tubes (P greater than 0.05). Cells were diluted in the collection bag with RPMI 1640 +/- 2% human AB serum and could be dispensed in an automated fashion to polyolefin bags via a sample port with 1000-1500 U/ml IL-2. After 3-4 days of culture in 5% CO2 at 37 degrees C, activated cells from the bags were harvested and washed in a closed system using the continuous flow cell separator. Cell yield from the harvest was 79.2 +/- 5.4% in the automated system compared to 64.9 +/- 5.0% in the standard procedure using manual harvest of roller bottles (P less than 0.01). Lytic capacity of the cells against fresh human tumor in a 4 h 51Cr release assay was equivalent in cells processed either by the automated or the conventional manual method. The advantages of a closed system include decreased potential for microbial contamination and reduced labor and capital equipment costs

  14. Design of Frame-transferred Surface Array CCD Imaging System for Dark Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-heng; Yan, Yi-hua

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize the requirement of low-noise observations of dark objects in deep-space explorations, the design method for a simple and stable space camera imaging system is proposed in this paper. Based on the back-illuminated frame-transferred surface array CCD (CCD47-20AIMO) produced by the British E2V company, the circuitry design is given for the every part of the system. In which the applications of the correlated double-sampling analog-digital converter (AD) and the synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) can effectively suppress the correlated noise in the image signal. In addition, a drive control method favorable to the adjustment of exposure time is proposed, in the light-sensing stage it provides the exposure time with an independent and adjustable time delay to make the imaging system satisfy the requirement of long exposure time setting. The imaging system adopts the Cyclone III-series EP3C25Q240C8 field programable gate array produced by the Altera company as the kernel control device, and the drives are programmed in modules according to the function of the every device, in favor of transplantation. The simulative and experimental results indicate that the drive circuitry works normally, and that the system design can satisfy the preset requirement.

  15. Dynamic entanglement transfer in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Tiantian; Zhou, Rigui; Ian, Hou

    2015-08-01

    We give a theoretical study of a double-cavity system in which a mechanical resonator beam is coupled to two cavity modes on both sides through radiation pressures. The indirect coupling between the cavities via the resonator sets up a correlation in the optomechanical entanglements between the two cavities with the common resonator. This correlation initiates an entanglement transfer from the intracavity photon-phonon entanglements to an intercavity photon-photon entanglement. Using numerical solutions, we show two distinct regimes of the optomechanical system, in which the indirect entanglement either builds up and eventually saturates or undergoes a death-and-revival cycle, after a time lapse for initiating the cooperative motion of the left and right cavity modes.

  16. A comparison of potential electric propulsion systems for orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Electric propulsion concepts are compared on the basis of trip time for the low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) mission. Resistojet, arcjet, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD), pulsed inductive, and ion engine thruster concepts are included. The optimum (minimum trip time) value of specific impulse is found to be dependent upon the specific mission and system being considered. As expected, the devices which can deliver good efficiency at low specific impulses promise the fastest trip times. The solution for trip time and propellant mass for the constant power, continuous low acceleration orbit transfer problem (one way and round trip) is presented in nomograph form. The influences of mission Delta V, thruster efficiency, specific impulse, power, power and propulsion system mass, and payload mass are clearly illustrated.

  17. A technology transfer tracking system for NREL: Overview and results

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.L.; Chapman, M.J.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study has been to assess the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL) technology, transfer--both the activities and the system, with the objective of developing a system to track the benefits of NREL-sponsored or conducted research. There were two factors which facilitated this study and which were important in the ability to make a detailed analysis and series of recommendations. First, was the nature of the lab, being one which, from its beginning, has worked closely with industry and, therefore has been directed toward research which would be of value to industry and hopefully commercialized. Second, the size of the laboratory made it relatively more easy to address issues and to become familiar with the organization and with the scientists themselves.

  18. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells decreases inhibitory and regulatory T-cell differentiation and improves survival in murine polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Yang, Wen; Gao, Lei; Kang, Jia-Rui; Qin, Jia-Jian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Lu, Jiang-Yang

    2015-05-01

    A decrease in the number of dendritic cells (DCs) is a major cause of post-sepsis immunosuppression and opportunistic infection and is closely associated with poor prognosis. Increasing the number of DCs to replenish their numbers post sepsis can improve the condition. This therapeutic approach could improve recovery after sepsis. Eighty C57BL/6 mice were subjected to sham or caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery. Mice were divided into four groups: (i) Sham + vehicle, (ii) Sham + DC, (iii) CLP + vehicle, and (iv) CLP + DC. Bone-marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were administered at 6, 12 and 24 hr after surgery. After 3 days, we assessed serum indices of organ function (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, amylase and lipase), organ tissue histopathology (haematoxylin and eosin staining), cytokine [interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-12p70 (IL-12p70), IL-6 and IL-10] levels in the serum, programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression on T cells, regulatory T-cell differentiation in the spleen, and the survival rate (monitored for 7 days). BMDC transfer resulted in the following changes: a significant reduction in damage to the liver, kidney and pancreas in the CLP-septic mice as well as in the pathological changes seen in the liver, lung, small intestine and pancreas; significantly elevated levels of the T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12p70 in the serum; decreased levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 in the serum; reduced expression of PD-1 molecules on CD4(+) T cells; reduced the proliferation and differentiation of splenic suppressor T cells and CD4(+)  CD25(+)  Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, and a significant increase in the survival rate of the septic animals. These results show that administration of BMDCs may have modulated the differentiation and immune function of T cells and contributed to alleviate immunosuppression, hence reducing organ damage and mortality post sepsis. Hence

  19. A novel high-heat transfer low-NO{sub x} natural gas combustion system. Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rue, D.M.; Fridman, A.; Viskanta, R.; Neff, D.

    1997-11-01

    Phase I of the project focused on acquiring the market needs, modeling, design, and test plan information for a novel high-heat transfer low-NO{sub x} natural gas combustion system. All goals and objectives were achieved. The key component of the system is an innovative burner technology which combines high temperature natural gas preheating with soot formation and subsequent soot burnout in the flame, increases the system`s energy efficiency and furnace throughput, while minimizing the furnace air emissions, all without external parasitic systems. Work has included identifying industry`s needs and constraints, modeling the high luminosity burner system, designing the prototype burner for initial laboratory-scale testing, defining the test plan, adapting the burner technology to meet the industry`s needs and constraints, and outlining the Industrial Adoption Plan.

  20. Transfer printing and micro-scale hybrid materials systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitl, Matthew Alexander

    Micro- and nano-scale engineering, especially as it applies to integrated circuits, has impacted society in revolutionary ways. These integrated circuits are characterized by huge numbers of small electronic devices manufactured on semiconductor wafers. Some emerging technologies will require assemblies of these micro/nano-devices on substrates that are very different from semiconductor wafers in terms of processing schemes and properties. Integration of high quality semiconductors and devices onto large, low-cost, mechanically- deformable, polymeric (plastic or elastomer), and/or functional substrates for unconventional electronics applications (displays, systems-on-a-chip) are a few examples. This dissertation presents methods for assembling small-scale (˜nm to ˜mm) materials elements and devices on many classes of substrate (planar or simply-curved with nearly arbitrary composition) via transfer printing, a form of soft lithography. The approach uses rubber stamps to manipulate arrays of small-scale objects including but not limited to carbon nanotubes, metal thin films, single-crystal silicon and III-V semiconductor microstructures and devices, few-layer graphene, and silica microspheres. Presented here are the techniques for preparing printable materials elements and devices from solution (e.g. surfactant stabilized aqueous carbon nanotube solutions) and from donor/source substrates (e.g. semiconductor wafers) as well as the mechanical phenomena that govern the transfer of materials to and from the stamp. Among these are kinetically-switchable adhesion to a viscoelastic stamp and stress focusing via sharp geometries for controlling fracture. Also presented here are thin-film transistors, photodiodes, and inorganic light-emitting diodes on plastic substrates as well as semiconductor woodpile structures and silicon-III-V heterogeneous integration, examples of the capabilities of the transfer printing approach.

  1. Apparatus and Method for Effecting Data Transfer Between Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Joey V. (Inventor); Grosz, Francis B., Jr. (Inventor); Lannes, Kenny (Inventor); Maniscalco, David G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting data transfer between data systems comprising a first transceiver and a second transceiver. The first transceiver has an input for receiving digital data from one of the data systems, an output for serially outputting digital data to one of the data systems, at least one transmitter for converting digital data received at the input into optical signals, and at least one receiver for receiving optical signals and serially converting the received optical signals to digital data for output to the data output. The second transceiver has an input for receiving digital data from another one of the data systems, an output for serially outputting digital data to the another one of the data systems, at least one transmitter for serially converting digital data received at the input of the second transceiver into optical signals, and at least one receiver for receiving optical signals and serially converting the received optical signals to digital data for output to the output of the second transceiver. The apparatus further comprises an optical link connecting the first and second transceivers. The optical link comprising a pair of optical fibers. One of the optical fibers optically links the transmitter of the first transceiver to the receiver of the second transceiver. The other optical fiber optically links the receiver of the first transceiver to the transmitter of the second transceiver.

  2. Communications Alternatives for Transparent Data Transfer in Civil Works Computer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    file transfer, distributive systems must be able to be updated . One solution to this problem is a transparent communications system. Such a system...properly, and (3) providing a communications system that the user can operate. One way to avoid these problems is to use transparent communications...ECONPACK Communications System allows data transfer of single files to or from the mainframe. File updating and transfer via transparent communications

  3. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play ... Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen Español Text ...

  4. Orbital Transfer Vehicle: Concept definition and system analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Findings and recommendations from the second extension of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept definition and system analysis study are outlined. The extension study opens the scope of potential recommendations by introducing a variety of ambitious programs, and by making the large cargo vehicle recommended by the Space Transportation Architecture Studies available at no acquisition cost to the OTV program. It is a further objective of the extension study to evaluate the sensitivity of OTV program recommendations to scenario variations such as different mission models, different launch vehicle availability, and different space station availability. Program/mission issues are addressed including safety considerations for the Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) OTV. Design issues related to the development of a near-term expendable OTV, engine configuration tradeoffs, lunar missions, and program evolution are discussed. Finally, aeroassist considerations for a manned Mars mission and high speed entries are presented.

  5. How Organizational Culture as Perceived by Senior Administrators Influences the Adoption of Information Technology Systems in Two 4-Year Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, David Edward

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between university culture, organizational characteristics, and central IT systems adoption within two four-year public universities. A qualitative multi-case methodology was used to examine the influence of organizational cultures and characteristics on personal perceptions, actions,…

  6. A Behavioural Approach to Understanding Semi-Subsistence Farmers' Technology Adoption Decisions: The Case of Improved Paddy-Prawn System in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambodo, Leonardo A. A. T.; Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study traced the origins of subsistence Farmers' technology adoption attitudes and extracted the critical elements in their decision making systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The analysis was structured using a model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The role of a "bargaining process" was particularly…

  7. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model: A Developmental Conceptualization of the Adoption Process Within Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), a representation of the process by which an educational institution adopts an innovation, views adoption as a developmental process involving complex interaction between an adopting institution, a user system, and a resource system. The resource system is usually a formal organization whose expert…

  8. Secure Data Transfer Guidance for Industrial Control and SCADA Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, Robert E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Tews, Cody W.; Burnette, John R.; Goranson, Craig A.; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-09-01

    This document was developed to provide guidance for the implementation of secure data transfer in a complex computational infrastructure representative of the electric power and oil and natural gas enterprises and the control systems they implement. For the past 20 years the cyber security community has focused on preventative measures intended to keep systems secure by providing a hard outer shell that is difficult to penetrate. Over time, the hard exterior, soft interior focus changed to focus on defense-in-depth adding multiple layers of protection, introducing intrusion detection systems, more effective incident response and cleanup, and many other security measures. Despite much larger expenditures and more layers of defense, successful attacks have only increased in number and severity. Consequently, it is time to re-focus the conventional approach to cyber security. While it is still important to implement measures to keep intruders out, a new protection paradigm is warranted that is aimed at discovering attempted or real compromises as early as possible. Put simply, organizations should take as fact that they have been, are now, or will be compromised. These compromises may be intended to steal information for financial gain as in the theft of intellectual property or credentials that lead to the theft of financial resources, or to lie silent until instructed to cause physical or electronic damage and/or denial of services. This change in outlook has been recently confirmed by the National Security Agency [19]. The discovery of attempted and actual compromises requires an increased focus on monitoring events by manual and/or automated log monitoring, detecting unauthorized changes to a system's hardware and/or software, detecting intrusions, and/or discovering the exfiltration of sensitive information and/or attempts to send inappropriate commands to ICS/SCADA (Industrial Control System/Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems.

  9. Verification measurements of the Karoo Array timing system: a laser radar based time transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebrits, R.; Bauermeister, E.; Gamatham, R.; Adams, G.; Malan, J. A.; Burger, J. P.; Kapp, F.; Gibbon, T.; Kriel, H.; Abbott, T.

    2016-02-01

    An optical fiber based laser radar time transfer system has been developed for the 64-dish MeerKAT radiointerferometer telescope project to provide accurate atomic time to the receivers of the telescope system. This time transfer system is called the Karoo Array Timing System (KATS). Calibration of the time transfer system is essential to ensure that time is accurately transferred to the digitisers that form part of the receivers. Frequency domain reflectometry via vector network analysers is also used to verify measurements taken using time interval counters. This paper details the progress that is made in the verification measurements of the system in order to ensure that time, accurate to within a few nanoseconds of the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC, is available at the point where radio signals from astronomical sources are received. This capability enables world class transient and timing studies with a compact radio interferometer, which has inherent advantages over large single dish radio-telescopes, in observing the transient sky.

  10. Optical Power Transfer System for Powering a Remote Mobility System for Multiple Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical power transfer system for powering a remote mobility system for multiple missions comprising a high power source and a chilling station connected to a laser source. The laser source transmits a high optical energy to a beam switch assembly via an optical fiber. The beam switch assembly is optically connected to actively cooled fiber spoolers. Docking stations are adapted for securing the fiber spoolers until alternatively ready for use by a remote mobility system. The remote mobility system is optically connected to the fiber spoolers and has a receiving port adapted for securing the fiber spoolers thereon. The fiber spooler transmits the optical energy to a power conversion system which converts the optical energy received to another usable form of energy. More than one power source may be used where the remote mobility system transfers from one source to another while maintaining an operational radius to each source.

  11. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  12. Two-manoeuvres transfers between LEOs and Lissajous orbits in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Elisa Maria; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to compute transfer trajectories from a given Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to a nominal Lissajous quasi-periodic orbit either around the point L1 or the point L2 in the Earth-Moon system. This is achieved by adopting the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (CR3BP) as force model and applying the tools of Dynamical Systems Theory. It is known that the CR3BP admits five equilibrium points, also called Lagrangian points, and a first integral of motion, the Jacobi integral. In the neighbourhood of the equilibrium points L1 and L2, there exist periodic and quasi-periodic orbits and hyperbolic invariant manifolds which emanate from them. In this work, we focus on quasi-periodic Lissajous orbits and on the corresponding stable invariant manifolds. The transfers under study are established on two manoeuvres: the first one is required to leave the LEO, the second one to get either into the Lissajous orbit or into its associated stable manifold. We exploit order 25 Lindstedt-Poincaré series expansions to compute invariant objects, classical manoeuvres and differential correction procedures to build the whole transfer. If part of the trajectory lays on the stable manifold, it turns out that the transfer’s total cost, Δv, and time, t, depend mainly on: the altitude of the LEO;the geometry of the arrival orbit;the point of insertion into the stable manifold;the angle between the velocity of insertion on the manifold and the velocity on it. As example, for LEOs 360 km high and Lissajous orbits of about 6000 km wide, we obtain Δv∈[3.68,4.42]km/sandt∈[5,40]days. As further finding, when the amplitude of the target orbit is large enough, there exist points for which it is more convenient to transfer from the LEO directly to the Lissajous orbit, that is, without inserting into its stable invariant manifold.

  13. Demonstration of the smart crane ammunition transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Killough, S.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) project is to demonstrate robotic/telerobotic controls technology for a mobile articulated crane for missile/munitions handling, delivery, and reload. Missile resupply and reload have been manually intensive operations up to this time. Currently, reload missiles are delivered by truck to the site of the launcher. A crew of four to five personnel reloads the missiles from the truck to the launcher using a hydraulic-powered crane. The missiles are handled carefully for the safety of the missiles and personnel. Numerous steps are required in the reload process and the entire reload operation can take over an hour for some missile systems. Recent US Army directives require the entire operation to be accomplished in a fraction of that time. Current development of SCATS is being based primarily on reloading Patriot missiles. This paper summarizes the current status of the SCATS project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Additional information on project background and requirements has been described previously (Bradley, et al., 1995).

  14. Transfer entropy in physical systems and the arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinney, Richard E.; Lizier, Joseph T.; Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments have cemented the realization that many concepts and quantities in thermodynamics and information theory are shared. In this paper, we consider a highly relevant quantity in information theory and complex systems, the transfer entropy, and explore its thermodynamic role by considering the implications of time reversal upon it. By doing so we highlight the role of information dynamics on the nuanced question of observer perspective within thermodynamics by relating the temporal irreversibility in the information dynamics to the configurational (or spatial) resolution of the thermodynamics. We then highlight its role in perhaps the most enduring paradox in modern physics, the manifestation of a (thermodynamic) arrow of time. We find that for systems that process information such as those undergoing feedback, a robust arrow of time can be formulated by considering both the apparent physical behavior which leads to conventional entropy production and the information dynamics which leads to a quantity we call the information theoretic arrow of time. We also offer an interpretation in terms of optimal encoding of observed physical behavior.

  15. Time-Transfer System for Two Orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, William; Wu, Seen-Chong; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Dunn, Charles; Romans, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the time-transfer system of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), in which information on the distribution of Earth mass is extracted from position and time measurements for two spacecraft about 200 km apart in a circular, nearly polar orbit. Each spacecraft carriers a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, a K/Ka-band ranging (KBR) instrument, and an ultra-stable oscillator (USO) that serves as a clock for the GPS and KBR units. The long-term errors of the USOs are cancelled by use of a technique, called dual-one-way phase measurements, in which the phases of the KBR signals from spacecraft A as measured at spacecraft B are added to the phases of the KBR signals from spacecraft B as measured at spacecraft A. GPS data are used to synchronize time between the USOs to within approximately 150 ps as needed to enable the dual-one-way phase measurements: For each spacecraft, the GPS data are used to solve for orbital positions, and the difference between the onboard clocks and a ground clock every 5 minutes. The relative clock rate between the spacecraft is then determined from the difference between the two solutions.

  16. Advanced Life Support Systems: Opportunities for Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, B.; Henninger, D.; Ming, D.; Verostko, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's future missions to explore the solar system will be of long-duration possibly lasting years at a time. Human life support systems will have to operate with very high reliability for these long periods with essentially no resupply from Earth. Such life support systems will make extensive use of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes for recycling air and water, processing wastes, and producing food. Development of regenerative life support systems will be a pivotal capability for NASA's future human missions. A fully functional closed loop human life support system currently does not exist and thus represents a major technical challenge for space exploration. Technologies where all life support consumables are recycled have many potential terrestrial applications as well. Potential applications include providing human habitation in hostile environments such as the polar regions or the desert in such a way as to minimize energy expenditures and to minimize negative impacts on those often ecologically-sensitive areas. Other potential applications include production of food and ornamental crops without damaging the environment from fertilizers that contaminate water supplies; removal of trace gas contaminants from tightly sealed, energy-efficient buildings (the so-called sick building syndrome); and even the potential of gaining insight into the dynamics of the Earth's biosphere such that we can better manage our global environment. Two specific advanced life support technologies being developed by NASA, with potential terrestrial application, are the zeoponic plant growth system and the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System (HRWRS). The potential applications for these candidate dual use technologies are quite different as are the mechanisms for transfer. In the case of zeoponics, a variety of commercial applications has been suggested which represent potentially lucrative markets. Also, the patented nature of this product offers

  17. Application of Lattice Boltzmann Methods in Complex Mass Transfer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ning

    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a novel computational fluid dynamics method that can easily handle complex and dynamic boundaries, couple local or interfacial interactions/reactions, and be easily parallelized allowing for simulation of large systems. While most of the current studies in LBM mainly focus on fluid dynamics, however, the inherent power of this method makes it an ideal candidate for the study of mass transfer systems involving complex/dynamic microstructures and local reactions. In this thesis, LBM is introduced to be an alternative computational method for the study of electrochemical energy storage systems (Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs)) and transdermal drug design on mesoscopic scale. Based on traditional LBM, the following in-depth studies have been carried out: (1) For EDLCs, the simulation of diffuse charge dynamics is carried out for both the charge and the discharge processes on 2D systems of complex random electrode geometries (pure random, random spheres and random fibers). Steric effect of concentrated solutions is considered by using modified Poisson-Nernst-Plank (MPNP) equations and compared with regular Poisson-Nernst-Plank (PNP) systems. The effects of electrode microstructures (electrode density, electrode filler morphology, filler size, etc.) on the net charge distribution and charge/discharge time are studied in detail. The influence of applied potential during discharging process is also discussed. (2) For the study of dendrite formation on the anode of LIBs, it is shown that the Lattice Boltzmann model can capture all the experimentally observed features of microstructure evolution at the anode, from smooth to mossy to dendritic. The mechanism of dendrite formation process in mesoscopic scale is discussed in detail and compared with the traditional Sand's time theories. It shows that dendrite formation is closely related to the inhomogeneous reactively at the electrode-electrolyte interface

  18. Exploring the limits of polarization transfer efficiency in homonuclear three spin systems.

    PubMed

    Neves, Jorge L; Heitmann, Björn; Reiss, Timo O; Schor, Heloiza H R; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

    2006-07-01

    The limits of polarization transfer efficiency are explored for systems consisting of three isotropically coupled spins 1/2 in the absence of relaxation. An idealized free evolution and control Hamiltonian is studied, which provides an upper limit of transfer efficiency (in terms of transfer amplitude and transfer time) for realistic homonuclear spin systems with arbitrary Heisenberg-type coupling constants J12, J13, and J23. It is shown that optimal control based pulse sequences have significantly improved transfer efficiencies compared to conventional transfer schemes. An experimental demonstration of optimal polarization transfer is given for the case of the carbon spin system of fully 13C labelled alanine at 62.5 MHz Larmor frequency.

  19. INTRAMOLECULAR CHARGE AND ENERGY TRANSFER IN MULTICHROMOPHORIC AROMATIC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward C. Lim

    2008-09-09

    A concerted experimental and computational study of energy transfer in nucleic acid bases and charge transfer in dialkylaminobenzonitriles, and related electron donor-acceptor molecules, indicate that the ultrafast photoprocesses occur through three-state conical interactions involving an intermediate state of biradical character.

  20. A SCHOOL TRANSFER RECORD SYSTEM FOR FARM MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HANEY, GEORGE E.

    THE LACK OF SCHOOL TRANSFER RECORDS FOR THE CHILDREN OF MIGRANT FARMWORKERS IS A MAJOR PROBLEM IN PROVIDING CONTINUITY IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM OF THESE YOUNGSTERS. IN AN ATTEMPT TO COORDINATE THE TRANSFER OF MIGRANT FARM CHILDREN, THIS BULLETIN OF PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS AND SAMPLE FORMS HAS BEEN PREPARED. THE SUGGESTED FORMS FOR USE WITH MIGRANT…

  1. Reconceptualizing the Learning Transfer Conceptual Framework: Empirical Validation of a New Systemic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontoghiorghes, Constantine

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the validity of a new systemic model of learning transfer and thus determine if a more holistic approach to training transfer could better explain the phenomenon. In all, this study confirmed the validity of the new systemic model and suggested that a high performance work system could indeed serve as…

  2. The Influence of Transfer System Factors and Training Elapsed Time on Transfer in a Healthcare Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalko, Beverly J.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations and other sponsors of training face increasing pressure to demonstrate the value or impact of their training programs on individual and organizational performance. A critical element in the validation of training effectiveness is the permanent transfer of learned knowledge, skills, and behaviors to the workplace. The generalization…

  3. Satellite lines at the ionization threshold in charge transfer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardermann, W.; von Niessen, W.

    1992-01-01

    This article deals with the possibility of low-energy ionizations of reduced intensity for larger organic molecules. Possible mechanisms which may lead to this phenomenon are outlined and the necessary structural features are discussed. The lowest ionization energies of some organic unsaturated nitro and nitroso compounds are calculated by the ADC(3) ab initio many-body Green's function method. The π-electron system consists either of fused five- and six-membered rings or of two fused five-membered rings with a variable number of heteroatoms. Some of the molecules contain exocylic double bonds and some are substituted with the donor groups -NH 2, -OH and -NHOH. The strongest many-body effects are found for the nitroso compounds, where in one case the spectral line at the ionization threshold has lost more than 40% of its intensity to satellites. We study the many-body effects at or close to the ionization threshold for these compounds. A particular mechanism which involves the screening of localized valence holes by charge transfer excitations appears to be capable of influencing the profile and intensities of the ionization spectrum already at the ionization threshold. The effect leads to strongly reduced relative intensities of the bands and may cause the appearance of satellite bands nearly at the ionization threshold. The spectral changes in the outermost valence region are discussed by using a simple model calculation in terms of ground-state electronic properties of the molecules.

  4. Technologies for Lunar Surface Power Systems Power Beaming and Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzwell, Neville; Pogorzelski, Ronald J.; Chang, Kai; Little, Frank

    2008-01-01

    steering for microwave power transmission (the ability to accurately track a moving receiver) has been demonstrated at Texas A&M. It is proposed that the next step in development of this concept is a modest scale up from 25 elements to 435 followed by a further scale up using such 435 element arrays as subarrays for a still larger retrodirective system. Ultimately, transmit antenna sizes on the order of 100 meters are envisioned permitting transfer levels on the order of 30 kW to aerial vehicles up to 20 km.

  5. Molten Chloride Salts for Heat Transfer in Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosek, James Wallace

    2011-12-01

    A forced convection loop was designed and constructed to examine the thermal-hydraulic performance of molten KCl-MgCl2 (68-32 at %) salt for use in nuclear co-generation facilities. As part of this research, methods for prediction of the thermo-physical properties of salt mixtures for selection of the coolant salt were studied. In addition, corrosion studies of 10 different alloys were exposed to the KCl-MgCl2 to determine a suitable construction material for the loop. Using experimental data found in literature for unary and binary salt systems, models were found, or developed to extrapolate the available experimental data to unstudied salt systems. These property models were then used to investigate the thermo-physical properties of the LINO3-NaNO3-KNO 3-Ca(NO3), system used in solar energy applications. Using these models, the density, viscosity, adiabatic compressibility, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and melting temperatures of higher order systems can be approximated. These models may be applied to other molten salt systems. Coupons of 10 different alloys were exposed to the chloride salt for 100 hours at 850°C was undertaken to help determine with which alloy to construct the loop. Of the alloys exposed, Haynes 230 had the least amount of weight loss per area. Nickel and Hastelloy N performed best based on maximum depth of attack. Inconel 625 and 718 had a nearly uniform depletion of Cr from the surface of the sample. All other alloys tested had depletion of Cr along the grain boundaries. The Nb in Inconel 625 and 718 changed the way the Cr is depleted in these alloys. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. A high temperature pump, thermal flow meter, and pressure differential device was designed, constructed and tested for use in the loop, The heat transfer of the molten chloride salt was found to

  6. Analysis of the compensatory postures adopted by day caregivers through OWAS-Ovako Working Posture Analysing System.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Helenara Salvati Bertolossi; Moreira, Mauricio Bertolossi; Vilagra, José Mohamud; Galvão, Isabele Maia; de Oliveira Júnior, Abel Santos; de Lima, Andrea Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The Ergonomic Work Analysis reports that there are many activities performed by the professional caregivers and that they are exposed to physical and psychological overload. This situation favors the emergence of pain which influences the quality of life in the work place. In this way, the objective of this study was to verify the main postural constraints adopted by caregivers in public day cares. Visits were conducted in 28 day cares aiming at performing an interview to 126 caregivers who have been working for more than 4 years. From the questionnaire it was found that 80% of the participants refer some sort of pain, being 42% in the trunk, 33% in the shoulder and 25% in the lower limbs. The data from OWAS method showed that from the total of 30 postures performed during the work One could see that the main postures adopted by the caregivers were: flexion, lateral inclination and rotation of the trunk and most of the time they are standing. These movements, when bad performed, can lead to injuries in the lower limbs, upper limbs and trunk. It's necessary more attention to these workers.Thought preventive ergonomic actions to reduce pain symptoms and promote a work in health and safety.

  7. A Design Study Of A Wireless Power Transfer System For Use To Transfer Energy From A Vibration Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabham, N. J.; Harden, C.; Vincent, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    A wirelessly powered remote sensor node is presented along with its design process. The purpose of the node is the further expansion of the sensing capabilities of the commercial Perpetuum system used for condition monitoring on trains and rolling stock which operates using vibration energy harvesting. Surplus harvested vibration energy is transferred wirelessly to a remote satellite sensor to allow measurements over a wider area to be made. This additional data is to be used for long term condition monitoring. Performance measurements made on the prototype remote sensor node are reported and advantages and disadvantages of using the same RF frequency for power and data transfer are identified.

  8. Photon transfer in a system of coupled superconducting microwave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, C. M.; Gunupudi, B.; Colclough, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    A novel scheme is proposed for the study of energy transfer in a pair of coupled thin film superconducting microwave resonators. We show that the transfer could be achieved by modulating the kinetic inductance and that this has a number of advantages over earlier theoretical and experimental schemes, which use modulation of capacitance by vibrating nanobars or membranes. We show that the proposed scheme lends itself to the study of the classical analogues of Rabi and Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg oscillations and Landau-Zener transitions using experimentally achievable parameters. We consider a number of ways in which energy transfer (photon shuttle) between the two resonators could be achieved experimentally.

  9. Transfer of training on manual control systems differing in short period frequency and damping characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Each of four groups of 16 subjects was trained on one of four compensatory tracking tasks that differed with regard to short period natural frequency and damping characteristics. After completion of the training sessions, the members of each group either transferred to a task on which they had not been trained or continued with their original task. Analysis of the training data indicated that relative task difficulty was largely determined by system damping which, however, had little effect on the amount of transfer during the transfer trials. The effect of system frequency was essentially reversed, and a marked interaction between training and transfer frequencies was observed in the transfer data. Similar results were obtained both with relative error scores and transinformation scores. Positive transfer was exhibited by most of the groups when they transferred to tasks on which they had not been trained.

  10. Whole-body imaging of adoptively transferred T cells using magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography techniques, with a focus on regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Leech, J M; Sharif-Paghaleh, E; Maher, J; Livieratos, L; Lechler, R I; Mullen, G E; Lombardi, G; Smyth, L A

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based therapies using natural or genetically modified regulatory T cells (Tregs) have shown significant promise as immune-based therapies. One of the main difficulties facing the further advancement of these therapies is that the fate and localization of adoptively transferred Tregs is largely unknown. The ability to dissect the migratory pathway of these cells in a non-invasive manner is of vital importance for the further development of in-vivo cell-based immunotherapies, as this technology allows the fate of the therapeutically administered cell to be imaged in real time. In this review we will provide an overview of the current clinical imaging techniques used to track T cells and Tregs in vivo, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition, we will discuss how the finding of these studies can be used, in the context of transplantation, to define the most appropriate Treg subset required for cellular therapy. PMID:23574314

  11. Abnormal T-cell reactivity against paternal antigens in spontaneous abortion: adoptive transfer of pregnancy-induced CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells prevents fetal rejection in a murine abortion model.

    PubMed

    Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Gerlof, Katrin; Zenclussen, Maria Laura; Sollwedel, André; Bertoja, Annarosa Zambon; Ritter, Thomas; Kotsch, Katja; Leber, Joachim; Volk, Hans-Dieter

    2005-03-01

    Mammalian pregnancy is thought to be a state of immunological tolerance. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still poorly understood. Here, we determined whether an inappropriate function of T regulatory (Treg) cells is involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous abortion. We evaluated spleen and decidual lymphocytes from CBA/J mice undergoing immunological abortion (DBA/2J-mated) or having normal pregnancy (BALB/c-mated) on day 14 of gestation for ex vivo cytokine production after PMA or paternal antigen (alloantigen) stimulation. Treg activity was characterized by quantifying CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, foxp3 expression, and interleukin-10 secretion. Decidual lymphocytes from abortion CBA/J mice contained a significantly higher frequency of interferon-gamma-producing T cells specific for paternal antigens compared to those from normal pregnancy (7.8% versus 2.7%, P < 0.05). Compared to virgin CBA/J females, normal pregnant mice showed strongly elevated numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+) and interleukin-10(+) Treg cells in the thymus whereas significantly lower frequencies of Treg cells were observed in abortion mice. Very interestingly, CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from normal pregnant and nonpregnant CBA/J mice could inhibit both proliferation and interferon-gamma secretion of lymphocytes from abortion mice in vitro whereas in vivo prevention of fetal rejection could only be achieved after adoptive transfer of Treg cells from normal pregnant mice. Our data suggest that pregnancy-induced Treg cells play a vital role in maternal tolerance to the allogeneic fetus.

  12. The Design and Transfer of Advanced Command and Control (C2) Computer-Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    TECHNICAL REPORT 80-02 QUARTERLY TECHNICAL REPORT: THE DESIGN AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED COMMAND AND CONTROL (C 2 ) COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEMS ARPA...The Tasks/Objectives and/or Purposes of the overall project are connected with the design , development, demonstration and transfer of advanced...command and control (C2 ) computer-based systems; this report covers work in the computer-based design and transfer areas only. The Technical Problems thus

  13. Method of Relaxation Moments for Studying Nonlinear Locally Nonequilibrium Processes of Transfer of Polymeric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    A method for simulating the processes of transfer of thermodynamic systems with polymeric microstructure is considered. The method is based on the classical locally equilibrium medium-state entropy concept expanded by the introduction of a structural tensor parameter whose evolution characterizes the nonlinear anisotropic relaxation properties of a thermodynamic system and the associated transfer phenomena. The dynamic, thermal, and mass transfer characteristics of macrotransfer are determined by corresponding integrals of relaxation moments.

  14. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer's console, and facility antennas.

  15. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas.

  16. Textbook Evaluation and Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Marcy; Stuen, Carol; Carnine, Douglas; Long, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    Encourages educators to carefully examine the textbook adoption process, especially the way in which adoption committees evaluate and select instructional materials. Reviews the available research literature on the textbook adoption process and includes recommendations for improving the process. Discusses guidelines for designing evaluation…

  17. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  18. INCENTIVE EFFECTS OF SOME PURE AND MIXED TRANSFER SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Direct income transfers to the poor are considered by many a necessary, if insufficient, weapon in the war on poverty . The most widely discussed...instrument for implementing such a transfer is the negative income tax. A promising competitor, which is just beginning to receive the attention it...deserves, is the wage subsidy. Since most of the discussion on income maintenance has turned on the labor supply effects of various alternatives, the document considers it as an important feature. (Author)

  19. Optimal Trajectories For Orbital Transfers Using Low And Medium Thrust Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, Shannon S.

    1992-01-01

    For many problems it is reasonable to expect that the minimum time solution is also the minimum fuel solution. However, if one allows the propulsion system to be turned off and back on, it is clear that these two solutions may differ. In general, high thrust transfers resemble the well-known impulsive transfers where the burn arcs are of very short duration. The low and medium thrust transfers differ in that their thrust acceleration levels yield longer burn arcs which will require more revolutions, thus making the low thrust transfer computational intensive. Here, we consider optimal low and medium thrust orbital transfers.

  20. Instability of mass transfer in a planet-star system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Shi; Spruit, H. C.

    2017-02-01

    We show that the angular momentum exchange mechanism governing the evolution of mass-transferring binary stars does not apply to Roche lobe filling planets, because most of the angular momentum of the mass-transferring stream is absorbed by the host star. Apart from a correction for the difference in specific angular momentum of the stream and the centre of mass of the planet, the orbit does not expand much on Roche lobe overflow. We explore the conditions for dynamically unstable Roche lobe overflow as a function of planetary mass and mass and radius (age) of host star and equation of state of planet. For a Sun-like host, gas giant planets in a range of mass and entropy can undergo dynamical mass transfer. Examples of the evolution of the mass transfer process are given. Dynamic mass transfer of rocky planets depends somewhat sensitively on equation of state used. Silicate planets in the range 1 < Mp < 10 M⊕ typically go through a phase of dynamical mass transfer before settling to slow overflow when their mass drops to less than 1 M⊕.

  1. Simulation of Gravity Feed Oil for Areoplane Fuel Transfer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Y. G.; Liu, Z. X.; Huang, S. Q.; Xu, T.

    Generally, it has two different ways for fuel transfer for areoplane, the simplest one is by gravity, and another is by pumps. But the simplest one mighte change to the vital method in some situation, such as electrical and mechanical accident. So the study of gravity feed oil is aslo important. Past calculations assumed that, under gravity feed, only one fuel tank in aircraft supplies the fuel needed for preventing extremely serious accident to happen. Actually, gravity feed oil is a transient process, all fuel tanks compete for supplying oil and there must have several fuel tanks offering oil simultaneously. The key problems to calculate gravity feed oil are the sumulation of the multiple-branch and transient process. Firstly, we presented mathematical models for oil flow through pipes, non-working pupms and check valves, ect. Secondly, On the basis of flow network theory and time difference method, we established a new calculation method for gravity feed oil of aeroplane fuel system. This model can solve the multiple-branch and transient process simulation of gravity feed oil. Our method takes into consideration all fuel tanks and therefore, we believe, our method is intrinsically superior to traditional methods and is closer to understanding the real seriousness of the oil supply situation. Finally, we give a numerical example using the new method for a certain type of aircraft under gravity feed. achieved the variations of oil level and flow mass per second of each oil tanks which showed in Figures below. These variations show preliminarily that our proposed method of calculations is satisfactory.

  2. Construct Validation of an Arabic Version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory for Use in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Bates, Reid; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for use in Jordan. The study also investigated the perceptions of transfer system characteristics across selected individual and situational variables. The LTSI was administered to 450 employees of 28 different public and…

  3. Changes to the Transfer Line Collimation System for the High-Luminosity LHC Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kain, V.; Aberle, O.; Bracco, C.; Fraser, M.; Galleazzi, F.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Maciariello, F.; Meddahi, M.; Nuiry, F. X.; Steele, G.; Velotti, F.

    2015-06-01

    The current LHC transfer line collimation system will not be able to provide enough protection for the high brightness beams in the high-luminosity LHC era. The new collimation system will have to attenuate more and be more robust than its predecessor. The active jaw length of the new transfer line collimators will therefore be 2.1 m instead of currently 1.2 m. The transfer line optics will have to be adjusted for the new collimator locations and larger beta functions at the collimators for absorber robustness reasons. In this paper the new design of the transfer line collimation system will be presented with its implications on transfer line optics and powering, maintainability, protection of transfer line magnets in case of beam loss on a collimator and protection of the LHC aperture.

  4. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  5. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1985. Volume 3: System and program trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, James H.; Mohrman, Gordon W.; Callan, Daniel R.

    1986-01-01

    The key system and program trade studies performed to arrive at a preferred Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) system concept and evolutionary approach to the acquisition of the requisite capabilites is documented. These efforts were expanded to encompass a Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) mission model and recommended unmanned cargo vehicle. The most important factors affecting the results presented are the mission model requirements and selection criteria. The reason for conducting the OTV concept definition and system analyses study is to select a concept and acquisition approach that meets a delivery requirement reflected by the mission model.

  6. Adopting Internet Standards for Orbital Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Lloyd; Ivancic, William; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Jackson, Chris; Stewart, Dave; Shell, Dave; Hodgson, Dave

    2005-01-01

    After a year of testing and demonstrating a Cisco mobile access router intended for terrestrial use onboard the low-Earth-orbiting UK-DMC satellite as part of a larger merged ground/space IP-based internetwork, we reflect on and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of integration and standards reuse for small satellite missions. Benefits include ease of operation and the ability to leverage existing systems and infrastructure designed for general use, as well as reuse of existing, known, and well-understood security and operational models. Drawbacks include cases where integration work was needed to bridge the gaps in assumptions between different systems, and where performance considerations outweighed the benefits of reuse of pre-existing file transfer protocols. We find similarities with the terrestrial IP networks whose technologies we have adopted and also some significant differences in operational models and assumptions that must be considered.

  7. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  8. Linearized transfer between coplanar circular orbits using blow down propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kechichian, J. A.; White, L. K.

    1982-01-01

    A closed form solution is presented for the coplanar transfer between nearby circular orbits for spacecraft using their own blow down propulsion system. The decaying thrust is applied along the local horizontal and the linearized equation of motion in the orbital elements formulation are used to describe the transfer which consists of a thrust-coast-relight program. Sensitivity partials are also presented analytically in order to study the effect of maneuver execution errors and various other parameters affecting the blow down propulsion system characteristics on the transfer. This strategy is applied to study the transfer of the TOPEX spacecraft from the Shuttle parking orbit to its final operational orbit.

  9. Primary propulsion of electrothermal, ion and chemical systems for space-based radar orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Staiger, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical systems are considered for the primary propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using electrical propulsion systems offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.

  10. Primary propulsion of electrothermal, ion, and chemical systems for space-based radar orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S.-Y.; Staiger, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical systems are considered for the primary propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using eiectrical propulsion systems offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.

  11. Adoption Factors of the Electronic Health Record: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) was a significant piece of legislation in America that served as a catalyst for the adoption of health information technology. Following implementation of the HITECH Act, Health Information Technology (HIT) experienced broad adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR), despite skepticism exhibited by many providers for the transition to an electronic system. A thorough review of EHR adoption facilitator and barriers provides ongoing support for the continuation of EHR implementation across various health care structures, possibly leading to a reduction in associated economic expenditures. Objective The purpose of this review is to compile a current and comprehensive list of facilitators and barriers to the adoption of the EHR in the United States. Methods Authors searched Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and MEDLINE, 01/01/2012–09/01/2015, core clinical/academic journals, MEDLINE full text, and evaluated only articles germane to our research objective. Team members selected a final list of articles through consensus meetings (n=31). Multiple research team members thoroughly read each article to confirm applicability and study conclusions, thereby increasing validity. Results Group members identified common facilitators and barriers associated with the EHR adoption process. In total, 25 adoption facilitators were identified in the literature occurring 109 times; the majority of which were efficiency, hospital size, quality, access to data, perceived value, and ability to transfer information. A total of 23 barriers to adoption were identified in the literature, appearing 95 times; the majority of which were cost, time consuming, perception of uselessness, transition of data, facility location, and implementation issues. Conclusions The 25 facilitators and 23 barriers to the adoption of the EHR continue to reveal a preoccupation on cost, despite

  12. Drivers Impacting the Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Management Practices and Production Systems of the Northeast and Southeast U.S

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production responds to economic, social, environmental, and technological drivers operating both internal and external to the production system. These drivers influence producers’ decision making processes, and act to shape the individual production systems through modification of produ...

  13. Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D

    2013-12-03

    A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.

  14. Transient fluid flow and heat transfer in petroleum production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dongqing

    Heat transfer is an important phenomenon in both wellbore and reservoir. The pertinent temperature distribution can provide a valuable perspective in analyzing and optimizing the oil production. In this work, two kinds of co-production, production fluid through the annulus and tubing, and through two independent tubings, have been modeled using steady state analysis. The fluid temperatures in the production string and annulus have been solved analytically in both cases. Furthermore, we extended the theory of steady state energy transport to remedy asphaltene deposition problem by circulating the cooling fluid in the annulus. Due to the complex nature of two-phase flow in the oil/gas production, more reliable mechanistic modeling approaches have been developed since early 1980's. Rooted in Hasan-Kabir model, we have developed a wellbore/reservoir coupling simulator for the transient non-Darcy two-phase flow in the flow-after-flow well test. The entire historical flow behavior has been modeled using superposition method and validated with field data. Our second simulation is for the investigation of a blowout well, which is a great concern in the oil field. When the pressure in the wellbore is sufficiently high, the fluids will attain sonic velocity at the wellhead. We presented a computational algorithm to estimate the blowout rate in a given wellbore/reservoir system and examined four major parameters, such as formation permeability, Gas-Oil-Ratio (GOR), reservoir pressure and tubing diameter. The transient nature of this approach also illustrates the evolution process of a blowout. We have also developed a transient simulator to determine the location and severity of a blockage in a gas pipeline based on the theory of two-phase flow and pressure transient analysis. The presence of a sizeable blockage will affect the outlet gas pressure response by decreasing the available pipe volume and increasing the friction loss of the fluid flow. The simulator solves for the

  15. Development of the prototype pneumatic transfer system for ITER neutron activation systema)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, M. S.; Seon, C. R.; Pak, S.; Lee, H. G.; Bertalot, L.

    2012-10-01

    The neutron activation system (NAS) measures neutron fluence at the first wall and the total neutron flux from the ITER plasma, providing evaluation of the fusion power for all operational phases. The pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the key components of the NAS for the proper operation of the system, playing a role of transferring encapsulated samples between the capsule loading machine, irradiation stations, counting stations, and disposal bin. For the validation and the optimization of the design, a prototype of the PTS was developed and capsule transfer tests were performed with the developed system.

  16. Determination of continuous system transfer functions from sampled pulse response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Jay B.

    1993-09-01

    A method for determining the transfer function of a continuous system from sampled responses to single and multiple pulse excitation is presented. The method is an extension of the sampled edge response method pioneered by the theoretical work of A. Papoulis in 1962 and the application of the theory to optical systems by B. Tatian in 1965. Occasions arise when pulse rather than step function stimuli are available for system excitations. In such cases, the method presented is practical for determining the system transfer function. The use of anti- aliasing filters and estimation of non-bandwidth limited transfer functions are also discussed.

  17. Correlating electronic and vibrational motions in charge transfer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Munira

    2014-06-27

    The goal of this research program was to measure coupled electronic and nuclear motions during photoinduced charge transfer processes in transition metal complexes by developing and using novel femtosecond spectroscopies. The scientific highlights and the resulting scientific publications from the DOE supported work are outlined in the technical report.

  18. The immunosuppressive effects of phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy in mice are mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and can be adoptively transferred to naïve recipients

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Katiyar, Santosh K; Elmets, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for malignant tumors but it is also immunosuppressive which may reduce its therapeutic efficacy. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in PDT immunosuppression. Using silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) as photosensitizer, non-tumor bearing CD4 knockout (CD4−/−) mice and their wild type (WT) counterparts were subjected to Pc4-PDT in a manner identical to that used for tumor regression (1 cm spot size, 0.5 mg/kg Pc4, 110 J/cm2 light) to assess the effect of Pc4-PDT on cell-mediated immunity. There was a decrease in immunosuppression in CD4−/− mice as compared to WT mice. We next examined the role of CD8+ T-cells in Pc4-PDT induced immunosuppression using CD8−/− mice following the same treatment regimen used for CD4−/− mice. Similar to CD4−/− mice, CD8−/− mice exhibited less immunosuppression than WT mice. Pc4-PDT induced immunosuppression could be adoptively transferred with spleen cells from Pc4-PDT treated donor mice to syngenic naive recipients (p<0.05) and was mediated primarily by T cells, although macrophages were also found to play a role. Procedures that limit PDT induced immunosuppression but do not affect PDT induced regression of tumors may prove superior to PDT alone in promoting long term anti-tumor responses. PMID:18208456

  19. Post adoption depression.

    PubMed

    Fields, Eve S; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Chiara J; Jha, Manish; Payne, Jennifer L

    2010-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the prevalence rate and factors associated with post adoption depression. One hundred and twelve adoptive mothers of infants under 12 months of age were recruited from local and national adoption organizations. A modified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting medical and psychiatric history, perceived stress, and demographics were administered retrospectively. The rates of significant depressive symptoms (defined as EPDS >or=12) were calculated at three time points post adoption, and associations with specific clinical variables (personal or family psychiatric history, stress, and adjustment difficulty) were assessed. Eighty-six mothers were included. Rates of significant depressive symptoms (EPDS >or=12) were found in 27.9% of subjects at 0-4 weeks, 25.6% at 5-12 weeks, and 12.8% at 13-52 weeks post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were not associated with personal or family psychiatric history but were associated with stress (p = 0.0011) and adjustment difficulties (p = 0.042) post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were relatively common in adoptive mothers within the first year after adoption and were associated with environmental stress. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the existence of post adoption depression and the factors associated with it.

  20. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... a malaria-endemic area (See Chapter 3, Malaria ). Tuberculosis All internationally adopted children should be screened for tuberculosis (TB) after arriving in the United States. Internationally ...