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Sample records for adoretus sinicus burmeister

  1. Sex Determination in the Chinese Rose Beetle, Adoretus sinicus, and overview of Adoretus species of biosecurity concern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Adoretini), is a broadly polyphagous scarab beetle that is economically important and causes damage to a wide variety of host plants including agricultural crops and ornamentals in Southeast Asia, China, the ...

  2. Distinguishing Male and Female Chinese Rose Beetles, Adoretus sinicus, with an Overview of Adoretus Species of Biosecurity Concern

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Adoretini), is a broadly polyphagous scarab beetle that is economically important and causes damage to a wide variety of host plants including agricultural crops and ornamentals in Southeast Asia, China, the Hawaiian Islands and several other Pacific Islands. The species has become established in numerous regions and is of biosecurity concern because importation of this species to other regions poses a threat to agriculture due to its generalist herbivore feeding habits. Field and laboratory research directed towards control of the species is hampered by the lack of characteristics that allow accurate determination of the sexes on live beetles in the field. Here, three recognizable and reliable non-destructive morphological differences between the sexes of A. sinicus are documented: (1) the form of the terminal sternite; (2) the length to width ratio of protarsomere 1, and; 3) the ratio of the combined length of protarsomeres 2–4 to the length of protarsomere 1. Because many Adoretus species are of biosecurity concern, and because tools to identify Adoretus species are lacking, we review the natural history and research on control associated with A. sinicus as well as the genus as a whole. PMID:21864158

  3. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai’i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  4. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  5. Timing of onset of evening activity of adult chinese rose beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...

  6. Control of Chinese rose beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) through the use of solar-powered nighttime illumination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister), a scarab beetle found in Asia and the Pacific Islands, was first reported in Hawaii in 1891. Adults feed at night on leaves of a wide range of plant species, including many that are economically important. Aggregate feeding can stunt or even kill ...

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Cynoglossus sinicus (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Jiang, Jin-Xia; Miao, Xian-Guang; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Cynoglossidae (tongue soles) mitogenomes have been found to be translocated in their control region and a tRNA gene inversed, but no gene rearrangement in Soleidae, the closest family to Cynoglossidae, has been detected. In order to explore whether or not mitogenomes of tongue soles bear other gene-rearrangement types, we determined another tongue sole mitogenome of Cynoglossus sinicus. The total length of this mitogenome is 16,478 bp, and the tRNA-Gln gene is translocated from the light strand (L-strand) to the heavy strand (H-strand), accompanied by shuffling of tRNA-Gln, Ile and Met genes with a 143 bp intergenic spacer between tRNA-Gln and Ile. The control region (CR) might translocate to the position between the ND1 and the tRNA-Gln genes. The order of the rest genes is identical to that of the typical fish.

  8. [Selective feeding of Calanus sinicus on harmful algal blooms species in East China Sea in spring].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Wang, Xiao-dong; Song, Shu-qun

    2007-01-01

    From April 27th to June 5th 2005, the selective feeding of Calanus sinicus on harmful algal blooms (HABs) species was studied by in situ feeding experiments at six typical stations in a high frequency red tide occurring region of East China Sea. The results showed that the selective feeding behavior of C. sinicus was dependent on food density. It had an obvious food selectivity when the abundance of phytoplankton cell was low, but the selectivity changed from preference to discrimination at high phytoplankton cell abundance, with a threshold value of 329 cells ml. The selective feeding of C. sinicus was also dependent on food composition. It showed no selective feeding or discrimination on microzooplankton at most stations, but preferred to P. delicatissima and disliked Karenia mikimotoi at HABs occurring station, which induced the succession of phytoplankton community to K. mikimotoi blooming.

  9. Effects of pentachlorophenol on Galba pervia, Tubifex sinicus and Chironomus plumousus larvae.

    PubMed

    Song, Z H

    2007-09-01

    The 24-h median lethal concentrations of pentachlorophenol to Chironomus plumousus, Tubifex sinicus and Galba pervia were 0.302, 0.977 and 0.293 mg/L, respectively. Bioconcentration factors of C. plumousus, T. sinicus and G. pervia to pentachlorophenol were 108, 367 and 85 at 0.02 mg/L pentachlorophenol, respectively. As pentachlorophenol concentration increased, the G. pervia egg hatching rates became lower, and the total hatched time became longer. Pentachlorophenol teratogenesis was demonstrated by observing the deformation of C. plumousus larvae mentum. PMID:17713712

  10. Effect of diurnal temperature difference on lipid accumulation and development in Calanus sinicus (Copepoda: Calanoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Konglin; Sun, Song

    2016-08-01

    Calanus sinicus, the dominant copepod in the Yellow Sea, develops a large oil sac in late spring to prepare for over-summering in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The lipid accumulation mechanism for the initiation of over-summering is unknown. Here, we cultured C3 copepodites at four constant temperatures (10, 13, 16, and 19°C) and at three temperature regimes that mimicked the temperature variations experienced during diurnal vertical migration (10-13°C, 10-16°C, and 10-19°C) for 18 days to explore the effects of temperature differences on copepod development and lipid accumulation. C. sinicus stored more lipid at low than at high temperatures. A diurnal temperature difference (10-16°C and 10-19°C) promoted greater lipid accumulation (1.9-2.1 times) than a constant temperature of either 16°C or 19°C, by reducing the energy cost at colder temperatures and lengthening copepodite development. Thereafter, the lipid reserve supported gonad development after final molting. Only one male developed in these experiments. This highly female-skewed sex ratio may have been the result of the monotonous microalgae diet fed to the copepodites. This study provides the first evidence that diurnal temperature differences may promote lipid accumulation in C. sinicus, and provides a foundation for future investigations into the mechanisms involved in over-summering in the YSCWM.

  11. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  12. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World’s Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world’s largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  13. Seasonal occurrence of Calanus sinicus in the northern South China Sea: A case study in Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kaizhi; Yan, Yan; Yin, Jianqiang; Tan, Yehui; Huang, Liangmin

    2016-07-01

    Calanus sinicus is a calanoid copepod species that is distributed broadly in the continental shelf waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study aims to understand the seasonal variations of the distribution and abundance of C. sinicus in Daya Bay from the northern South China Sea (nSCS) and to explore its possible seasonal occurrence based on current and historical data. Monthly surveys of the species were conducted in Daya Bay, a subtropical bay in the nSCS, during the period between May 2013 and April 2014. C. sinicus was present from January to May, and disappeared after June. The spatial pattern of C. sinicus in the bay was characterized by its distribution into the southwestern part of the bay in January, bay-wide spread in February, patchiness in March and virtual retreat from the bay mouth in April. Reproduction occurred from January to April at a low rate. Adults were mostly abundant in January and declined to a minimum in April. The percentage of early developmental stages increased from 54.1% in January to 90.1% in April, as collected by a fine mesh size. Based on historical data from Daya Bay and from the coastal waters of the nSCS, C. sinicus was carried into the nSCS from the East China Sea by the China Coastal Current during the northeastern monsoon period and survived from December to October of the next year. The summer coastal upwelling may provide suitable refuges for the species in the nSCS by limiting the adverse effects caused by high temperatures. Our results confirm the viewpoint that C. sinicus could exist in the nSCS in summer and fall.

  14. Heteroplasmy and Ancient Translocation of Mitochondrial DNA to the Nucleus in the Chinese Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus sinicus) Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Panyu; He, Guimei; Zhang, Shuyi; Rossiter, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The utility and reliability of mitochondrial DNA sequences in phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies may be compromised by widespread and undetected nuclear mitochondrial copies (numts) as well as heteroplasmy within individuals. Both numts and heteroplasmy are likely to be common across diverse taxa yet few studies have characterised their frequencies and variation at the intra-specific level. Here we report the presence of both numts and heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial control region of the Chinese horseshoe bat Rhinolophus sinicus. In total we generated 123 sequences from 18 bats, which contained two different numt clades (i.e. Numt-1 and Numt-2) and one mtDNA clade. The sequence divergence between Numt-1 and Numt-2 was 16.8% and each numt type was found in all four R. sinicus taxa, suggesting either two ancient translocations of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus from the same source taxon, or a single translocation from different source taxa that occurred before the split of R. sinicus into different lineages. Within the mtDNA clade, phylogenetic relationships among the four taxa of R. sinicus were similar to those seen in previous results. Based on PCR comparisons, heteroplasmy was inferred between almost all individuals of R. sinicus with respect to sequence variation. Consistent with introgression of mtDNA between Central sinicus and septentrionalis, individuals from these two taxa exhibited similar signatures of repeated sequences in the control region. Our study highlights the importance of testing for the presence of numts and heteroplasmy when applying mtDNA markers to phylogenetic studies. PMID:24842827

  15. Aroid scarabs in the genus Peltonotus Burmeister (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae): key to species and new distributional data

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Mary Liz; Drumont, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The southeast Asian scarab beetle genus Peltonotus Burmeister (Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae, Cyclocephalini) is reviewed. New country records for Peltonotus morio Burmeister (Myanmar and Vietnam), Peltonotus nasutus Arrow (southern China and Cambodia), and Peltonotus favonius Jameson and Wada (Myanmar) are reported, including a new record in the Palearctic/Sino-Japanese biogeographic region. The first female specimen of Peltonotus favonius is described. Biological associations with aroid inflorescences are reviewed, and human consumption of Peltonotus beetles is reported. A key to all species, paralectotype designations for Peltonotus nasutus, diagnoses, and distributions using dynamic mapping tools are included. PMID:23950684

  16. A review of the genus Chalcocopris Burmeister, 1846 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Michele; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2015-01-01

    Species included in the genus Chalcocopris Burmeister, 1846 are reviewed, including the description of a new species (Chalcocopris inexpectatus sp. nov.) from Central Brazil, and the designation of a neotype for Copris hesperus Olivier, 1789. Pictures, diagnostic characters and an identification key are provided.

  17. Using plant volatile traps to develop phenology models for natural enemies: an example using Chrysopa nigricornis (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A model predicting phenology of adult Chrysopa nigricornis (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in orchards was developed from field (trapping) data supplemented with developmental data collected under laboratory conditions. Lower and upper thresholds of 10.1°C and 29.9 °C, respectively, were es...

  18. Lipids and fatty acids in Calanus sinicus during over-summering in the southern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Chaolun; Liu, Mengtan; Jin, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Over-summering is a crucial period for Calanus sinicus in the southern Yellow Sea, where it is a key member of the zooplankton community. Lipids play an important role in copepod diapause, which is part of their over-summering strategy. We investigated how different fatty acids and lipid classes, including wax esters, changed during over-summering of C. sinicus during three cruises in June and August 2011 and November 2010, corresponding to the pre-, during and post- diapause periods, respectively. Large amounts of lipids were accumulated, mainly wax esters as previously found in C. finmarchicus during its diapause, and most of the storage lipids were used during over-summering. Wax ester polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed the most variation of the fatty acids (FAs), while the percentage composition of FAs in polar lipids was relatively stable. Selective use of wax ester PUFAs has already been shown to play important roles in the winter diapause of Calanus species in other regions, and our FA results show that this is the case for the YSCBW population that diapauses in summer.

  19. Comprehensive transcriptome study to develop molecular resources of the copepod Calanus sinicus for their potential ecological applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Sun, Fanyue; Yang, Zhi; Li, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    Calanus sinicus Brodsky (Copepoda, Crustacea) is a dominant zooplanktonic species widely distributed in the margin seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this study, we utilized an RNA-Seq-based approach to develop molecular resources for C. sinicus. Adult samples were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The sequencing data generated 69,751 contigs from 58.9 million filtered reads. The assembled contigs had an average length of 928.8 bp. Gene annotation allowed the identification of 43,417 unigene hits against the NCBI database. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway mapping analysis revealed various functional genes related to diverse biological functions and processes. Transcripts potentially involved in stress response and lipid metabolism were identified among these genes. Furthermore, 4,871 microsatellites and 110,137 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the C. sinicus transcriptome sequences. SNP validation by the melting temperature (T m )-shift method suggested that 16 primer pairs amplified target products and showed biallelic polymorphism among 30 individuals. The present work demonstrates the power of Illumina-based RNA-Seq for the rapid development of molecular resources in nonmodel species. The validated SNP set from our study is currently being utilized in an ongoing ecological analysis to support a future study of C. sinicus population genetics.

  20. Comprehensive Transcriptome Study to Develop Molecular Resources of the Copepod Calanus sinicus for Their Potential Ecological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing; Sun, Fanyue; Yang, Zhi; Li, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    Calanus sinicus Brodsky (Copepoda, Crustacea) is a dominant zooplanktonic species widely distributed in the margin seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this study, we utilized an RNA-Seq-based approach to develop molecular resources for C. sinicus. Adult samples were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The sequencing data generated 69,751 contigs from 58.9 million filtered reads. The assembled contigs had an average length of 928.8 bp. Gene annotation allowed the identification of 43,417 unigene hits against the NCBI database. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway mapping analysis revealed various functional genes related to diverse biological functions and processes. Transcripts potentially involved in stress response and lipid metabolism were identified among these genes. Furthermore, 4,871 microsatellites and 110,137 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the C. sinicus transcriptome sequences. SNP validation by the melting temperature (Tm)-shift method suggested that 16 primer pairs amplified target products and showed biallelic polymorphism among 30 individuals. The present work demonstrates the power of Illumina-based RNA-Seq for the rapid development of molecular resources in nonmodel species. The validated SNP set from our study is currently being utilized in an ongoing ecological analysis to support a future study of C. sinicus population genetics. PMID:24982883

  1. Multi-Gene Analysis Reveals a Lack of Genetic Divergence between Calanus agulhensis and C. sinicus (Copepoda; Calanoida)

    PubMed Central

    Kozol, Robert; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Bucklin, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The discrimination and taxonomic identification of marine species continues to pose a challenge despite the growing number of diagnostic metrics and approaches. This study examined the genetic relationship between two sibling species of the genus Calanus (Crustacea; Copepoda; Calanidae), C. agulhensis and C. sinicus, using a multi-gene analysis. DNA sequences were determined for portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI); nuclear citrate synthase (CS), and large subunit (28S) rRNA genes for specimens collected from the Sea of Japan and North East (NE) Pacific Ocean for C. sinicus and from the Benguela Current and Agulhas Bank, off South Africa, for C. agulhensis. For mtCOI, C. sinicus and C. agulhensis showed similar levels of haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.695 and 0.660, respectively) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively). Pairwise FST distances for mtCOI were significant only between C. agulhensis collected from the Agulhas and two C. sinicus populations: the Sea of Japan (FST = 0.152, p<0.01) and NE Pacific (FST = 0.228, p<0.005). Between the species, FST distances were low for both mtCOI (FST = 0.083, p = 0.003) and CS (FST = 0.050, p = 0.021). Large subunit (28S) rRNA showed no variation between the species. Our results provide evidence of the lack of genetic distinction of C. sinicus and C. agulhensis, raise questions of whether C. agulhensis warrants status as a distinct species, and indicate the clear need for more intensive and extensive ecological and genetic analysis. PMID:23118849

  2. New species of Eriopeltastes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae, Trichiini) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ricchiardi, Enrico; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Both male and female of a new species of Eriopeltasttes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840, E. (E.) ornatus Ricchiardi, sp. n., are described from the mistbelt grassland of KwaZulu-Natal. Sexual dimorphism is extreme in this genus, with females being brachypterous, fossorial and entirely black to dark brown in general body colour. This is only the fifth out of 12 known species in this genus for which the female is known. The species appears to be restricted to areas within or in the immediate vicinities of two marginal nature reserves, Karkloof and Blinkwater, in a grassland habitat that is regarded as one of the most threatened in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal. Despite its acknowledged importance as centre of endemism the area is currently in a precarious state of large-scale degradation. PMID:25061391

  3. Isolation of the PCB-degrading bacteria Mesorhizobium sp. ZY1 and its combined remediation with Astragalus sinicus L. for contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ying; Li, Xiufen; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Manyun; Wang, Xiaomi; Li, Zhengao; Luo, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain ZY1 capable of utilizing PCBs as its carbon source was isolated from the root nodules of Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.). The strain was identified as Mesorhizobium sp. according to its physiological-biochemical properties and the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. When the initial OD600 was 0.15, 62.7% of 15 mg L(-1) 3,3',4,4'-TCB in a liquid culture was degraded by Mesorhizobium sp. ZY1 within 10 days. Mesorhizobium sp. ZY1 also greatly increased the biotransformation of soil PCBs. Pot experiments indicated that the soil PCB concentrations of a single incubation of strain ZY1 (R) and a single planting of A. sinicus (P) decreased by 20.5% and 23.0%, respectively, and the concentration of PCBs in soil treated with A. sinicus and strain ZY1 decreased by 53.1%. We also observed that A. sinicus-Mesorhizobium sp. ZY1 treatment (PR) improved plant biomass and the concentration of PCBs in plants compared with a single A. sinicus planting treatment (P). The results suggest that the synergistic association between A. sinicus and PCBs-degrading Mesorhizobium sp. ZY1 can stimulate the phytoextraction of PCBs and the rhizosphere microflora to degrade PCBs, and might be a promising bioremediation strategy for PCB-contaminated soil.

  4. Effects of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi on gene expression levels of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus.

    PubMed

    Lauritano, Chiara; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Vitiello, Valentina; Buttino, Isabella; Romano, Giovanna; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Ianora, Adrianna

    2015-12-01

    Diatoms are eukaryotic unicellular plants that constitute one of the major components of marine phytoplankton, comprising up to 40% of annual productivity at sea and representing 25% of global carbon-fixation. Diatoms have traditionally been considered a preferential food for zooplankton grazers such as copepods, but, in the last two decades, this beneficial role has been challenged after the discovery that many species of diatoms produce toxic metabolites, collectively termed oxylipins, that induce reproductive failure in zooplankton grazers. Diatoms are the dominant natural diet of Calanus sinicus, a cold-temperate calanoid copepod that supports secondary production of important fisheries in the shelf ecosystems of the Northwest Pacific Ocean, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan and South China Sea. In this study, the effect of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi on C. sinicus has been evaluated by analyzing expression level changes of genes involved in defense and detoxification systems. Results show that C. sinicus is more resistant to a diet of this diatom species in terms of gene expression patterns, compared to the congeneric species Calanus helgolandicus which is an important constituent of the temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean and northern Mediterranean Sea. These findings contribute to the better understanding of genetic and/or phenotypic flexibility of copepod species and their capabilities to cope with stress by identifying molecular markers (such as stress and detoxification genes) as biosensors for environmental perturbations (e.g. toxins and contaminants) affecting marine copepods.

  5. Responses to moving small-field stimuli by the praying mantis, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister)

    PubMed

    Prete, F R; McLean, T; McMillin, P J

    1996-01-01

    Adult, female praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister), were presented with mechanically driven or computer generated stimuli in a series of seven experiments in order to test several hypotheses regarding visual prey recognition. When presented with a series of square black and white computer generated stimuli against a white background, mantises performed the highest rates of predatory behavior in response to those stimuli with a greater proportion of black versus white pixels (i.e., those that produced larger luminance decrements). Higher response rates to computer generated stimuli that produced larger luminance decrements were also seen when the stimuli were irregularly shaped or consisted of two small synchronized stimuli. Mantises responded characteristically to mechanically driven stimuli that were camouflaged to match the background against which they moved, preferring small (vs. large) squares and rectangles that were elongated parallel (vs. perpendicular) to their direction of movement. Finally, response rate to a small, preferred mechanically presented or computer generated stimulus was suppressed by a concurrent large-field stimulus in inverse proportion to the distance between the two stimuli. This phenomenon is characteristic of systems that include phasic lateral inhibitory circuits. All of these results are consistent with the existence of a movement detector visual sub-system, as found in other orthopteromorph insects such as acridid grasshoppers and cockroaches. PMID:8834784

  6. Seasonal variation in fatty acid composition of seston and the copepod Calanus sinicus (Brodsky, 1962) in Jiaozhou Bay and its trophic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengtan; Li, Chaolun; Sun, Song

    2011-11-01

    The fatty acid compositions of seston and Calanus sinicus were investigated to study trophic relationships in Jiaozhou Bay. Principal component analysis was carried out to ordinate the fatty acid patterns of seston in stations and months. The results showed that diatoms were most abundant in the phytoplankton at station A5 (located in the northwest of the bay: 36°9'N, 120°20'E) and least abundant at station D7 (located outside of the bay: 35°59'N, 120°26'E). By contrast, dinoflagellates were most abundant at station D7 and least abundant at station A5. According to the annual variations of 16:1ω7 and 18:4ω3/16:1ω7, diatoms flourished mainly in spring and summer, while dinoflagellates bloomed exclusively in summer. A distinctive feature of the fatty acid composition of C. sinicus was the prevalence of 20:5ω3 and 22:6ω3. The higher content of 16:1ω7 over 18:4ω3 in females indicated that diatoms contributed more than dinoflagellates to the diet of C. sinicus. The feeding intensity of C. sinicus on diatoms was higher in spring and autumn than in other seasons. The herbivorous indicators 20:1 and 22:1 were comparatively low, suggesting that besides phytoplankton, C. sinicus might feed on a wider range of particles including organic detritus, bacteria and small copepods.

  7. A purple acid phosphatase plays a role in nodule formation and nitrogen fixation in Astragalus sinicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyun; Si, Zaiyong; Li, Fang; Xiong, Xiaobo; Lei, Lei; Xie, Fuli; Chen, Dasong; Li, Yixing; Li, Youguo

    2015-08-01

    The AsPPD1 gene from Astragalus sinicus encodes a purple acid phosphatase. To address the functions of AsPPD1 in legume-rhizobium symbiosis, its expression patterns, enzyme activity, subcellular localization, and phenotypes associated with its over-expression and RNA interference (RNAi) were investigated. The expression of AsPPD1 was up-regulated in roots and nodules after inoculation with rhizobia. Phosphate starvation reduced the levels of AsPPD1 transcripts in roots while increased those levels in nodules. We confirmed the acid phosphatase and phosphodiesterase activities of recombinant AsPPD1 purified from Pichia pastoris, and demonstrated its ability to hydrolyze ADP and ATP in vitro. Subcellular localization showed that AsPPD1 located on the plasma membranes in hairy roots and on the symbiosomes membranes in root nodules. Over-expression of AsPPD1 in hairy roots inhibited nodulation, while its silencing resulted in nodules early senescence and significantly decreased nitrogenase activity. Furthermore, HPLC measurement showed that AsPPD1 overexpression affects the ADP levels in the infected roots and nodules, AsPPD1 silencing affects the ratio of ATP/ADP and the energy charge in nodules, and quantitative observation demonstrated the changes of AsPPD1 transcripts level affected nodule primordia formation. Taken together, it is speculated that AsPPD1 contributes to symbiotic ADP levels and energy charge control, and this is required for effective nodule organogenesis and nitrogen fixation.

  8. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  9. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  10. Distinctive mitochondrial genome of Calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus with multiple large non-coding regions and reshuffled gene order: Useful molecular markers for phylogenetic and population studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Copepods are highly diverse and abundant, resulting in extensive ecological radiation in marine ecosystems. Calanus sinicus dominates continental shelf waters in the northwest Pacific Ocean and plays an important role in the local ecosystem by linking primary production to higher trophic levels. A lack of effective molecular markers has hindered phylogenetic and population genetic studies concerning copepods. As they are genome-level informative, mitochondrial DNA sequences can be used as markers for population genetic studies and phylogenetic studies. Results The mitochondrial genome of C. sinicus is distinct from other arthropods owing to the concurrence of multiple non-coding regions and a reshuffled gene arrangement. Further particularities in the mitogenome of C. sinicus include low A + T-content, symmetrical nucleotide composition between strands, abbreviated stop codons for several PCGs and extended lengths of the genes atp6 and atp8 relative to other copepods. The monophyletic Copepoda should be placed within the Vericrustacea. The close affinity between Cyclopoida and Poecilostomatoida suggests reassigning the latter as subordinate to the former. Monophyly of Maxillopoda is rejected. Within the alignment of 11 C. sinicus mitogenomes, there are 397 variable sites harbouring three 'hotspot' variable sites and three microsatellite loci. Conclusion The occurrence of the circular subgenomic fragment during laboratory assays suggests that special caution should be taken when sequencing mitogenomes using long PCR. Such a phenomenon may provide additional evidence of mitochondrial DNA recombination, which appears to have been a prerequisite for shaping the present mitochondrial profile of C. sinicus during its evolution. The lack of synapomorphic gene arrangements among copepods has cast doubt on the utility of gene order as a useful molecular marker for deep phylogenetic analysis. However, mitochondrial genomic sequences have been valuable markers for

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of compounds isolated from Astragalus sinicus L. in cytokine-induced keratinocytes and skin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Hak; Oh, Ikhoon; Kim, Jung-Ho; Jeon, Ju-eun; Jeon, Byeongwook; Shin, Jongheon; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a part of the complex biological responses of a tissue to injury that protect the organ by removing injurious stimuli and initiating the healing process, and is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity. To identify biologically active compounds against pathogenic inflammatory and immune responses, we fractionated water, aqueous methanol and n-hexane layers from nine kinds of leguminosae and examined anti-inflammatory activity of the fractions in human keratinocytes and mouse skin. Among the fractions, rf3 and rf4, isolated from the aqueous methanol layer of Astragalus sinicus L., exhibited the strongest reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities as measured by inhibition of the intracellular ROS production, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling in cytokine-stimulated human keratinocytes, as well as by effects on T-cell differentiation in mouse CD4+ T cells. In addition, topical application of rf3 and rf4 suppressed the progression of psoriasis-like dermatitis and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in interleukin (IL)-23-injected mouse ears. Our results suggest that Astragalus sinicus L. may ameliorate chronic inflammatory skin diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities via regulation of the intracellular ROS production, NF-κB, JAK/STAT and PI3/Akt signaling cascades as well as immune responses, and these results are the first report that Astragalus sinicus L. exhibits pharmacological activity. PMID:24651533

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of compounds isolated from Astragalus sinicus L. in cytokine-induced keratinocytes and skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hak; Oh, Ikhoon; Kim, Jung-Ho; Jeon, Ju-Eun; Jeon, Byeongwook; Shin, Jongheon; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2014-03-21

    Inflammation is a part of the complex biological responses of a tissue to injury that protect the organ by removing injurious stimuli and initiating the healing process, and is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity. To identify biologically active compounds against pathogenic inflammatory and immune responses, we fractionated water, aqueous methanol and n-hexane layers from nine kinds of leguminosae and examined anti-inflammatory activity of the fractions in human keratinocytes and mouse skin. Among the fractions, rf3 and rf4, isolated from the aqueous methanol layer of Astragalus sinicus L., exhibited the strongest reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities as measured by inhibition of the intracellular ROS production, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling in cytokine-stimulated human keratinocytes, as well as by effects on T-cell differentiation in mouse CD4(+) T cells. In addition, topical application of rf3 and rf4 suppressed the progression of psoriasis-like dermatitis and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in interleukin (IL)-23-injected mouse ears. Our results suggest that Astragalus sinicus L. may ameliorate chronic inflammatory skin diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities via regulation of the intracellular ROS production, NF-κB, JAK/STAT and PI3/Akt signaling cascades as well as immune responses, and these results are the first report that Astragalus sinicus L. exhibits pharmacological activity.

  13. Effects of Elevated Temperature and Food Supply on the Termination of Over-Summering and Subsequent Development of the Calanoid Copepod Calanus sinicus: Morphology, Physiology and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Konglin; Wang, Minxiao; Sun, Song

    2016-01-01

    The copepod Calanus sinicus Brodsky dominates the zooplankton in the Yellow Sea, China, and undergoes over-summering within the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). Termination of over-summering and subsequent development are regarded as key processes in population recruitment, and are probably linked to environmental variations in the YSCWM. In this study, we examined the effects of temperature (9 and 18°C) and food conditions (0.1 μg C mL-1 and unfed) on metabolic rates, morphological characteristics, and relative gene expressions of six genes involved in molting, gonad development, lipid catabolism, and stress tolerance processes of C. sinicus during termination of over-summering and subsequent development. Both elevated temperature and external food supply rapidly ended over-summering of C. sinicus, accompanied by up-regulation of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) gene expression and increased metabolic rates. These environmental conditions resulted in irreversible termination of over-summering and ensure the success of molting. During subsequent development, the lipid reserve in oil sacs could permit only early gonad development. The food supply might be a trigger to activate the final maturity of gonad by up-regulating expression of the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) gene. Thus, food played an indispensable role in population recruitment after termination of over-summering, whereas the elevated temperature accelerated these physiological processes. This study revealed the first dynamic profiles of physiological processes involved in over-summering termination and the subsequent development of C. sinicus using morphological, physiological and molecular methods simultaneously, confirmed the quiescent state of over-summering C5 copepodites, detected the effects of environmental changes on over-summering termination and subsequent development, and provided a foundation for future investigations of the mechanisms involved in over-summering in YSCWM. PMID:27652608

  14. The effect of Cd on mycorrhizal development and enzyme activity of Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices in Astragalus sinicus L.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Peng, Jin; Shi, Ping; Zhao, Bin

    2009-05-01

    The influence of cadmium (Cd) on the root colonization of Astragalus by two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated. Astragalus sinicus L. grown in the soil in the presence of four levels of Cd was inoculated individually with Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, or by a mixed inoculum of these two fungi. Histochemical vital stains were used to measure the efficiency and function of the mycorrhizal symbiosis after 7weeks. Nested PCR with ALP-active stained roots was applied to monitor the efficiency AMF in mixed community at the same time. The addition of Cd slightly decreased plant biomass and mycorrhizal colonization, and depressed the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), especially in G. intraradices. Mycorrhizal colonization significantly improved plant growth regardless of the level of addition of Cd. The plants inoculated with G. mosseae or mixed inoculum immobilized more Cd in the roots, and partitioned less Cd to the shoots at the highest Cd addition level. Root colonization efficiency of G. intraradices was improved in the mixed community and G. mosseae was the dominant colonizer in this community. Based on the higher Cd tolerance of this strain of G. mosseae, it would be preferred for bioremediation in Cd contaminated soil.

  15. Stage-V copepodites of Calanus sinicus and Calanus jashnovi (Copepoda: Calanoida) in mesopelagic zone of Sagami Bay as identified with genetic markers, with special reference to their vertical distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonomura, Takumi; Machida, Ryuji J.; Nishida, Shuhei

    2008-04-01

    We applied genetic makers to identify Calanus species occurring in Sagami Bay, Japan, in order to investigate their vertical distribution in the upper 1000 m. First, interspecific genetic distances of three gene loci, mitochondrial small ribosomal RNA (srRNA), nuclear internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2), were estimated from morphologically distinguishable adult females of Calanus sinicus, Calanus jashnovi and Calanus pacificus that were collected from Sagami Bay, the Kuroshio Extension and the Oyashio region, respectively. The highest levels of interspecific genetic distance were observed in srRNA, followed by ITS1 and ITS2. The intraspecific genetic distances within C. sinicus were much lower than the interspecific genetic distances, indicating that DNA sequences in these loci are consistent with the morphological differences. This information was used as a criterion for species identification based on DNA sequence variation, and allowed us to identify the fifth copepodites (CVs) or younger stages of these species. Next, the vertical distribution of Calanus species was investigated in Sagami Bay in May 2006, on the basis of a stratified sampling in the upper 1000 m. By applying the genetic markers, 23 individuals comprising all copepodite stages were allocated into either C. sinicus or C. jashnovi, and the small- and large-sized CVs were identified as C. sinicus and C. jashnovi, respectively. The total abundance of C. sinicus was highest at 0-50 m and decreased with depth. On the contrary, CV individuals of C. sinicus were abundant not only in 0-50 m but also below 200 m with minimum occurrences in 150-200 m depth. C. jashnovi was much less abundant than C. sinicus and comprised of only CIV and CV which occurred in the upper 100 m and deeper than 50 m depths, respectively. The abundance of C. sinicus in the 1000-m water column of Sagami Bay was at a level comparable to that in shelf waters, suggesting the importance of off-shelf individuals in the

  16. The predatory strike of free ranging praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister). II: Strikes in the horizontal plane.

    PubMed

    Cleal, K S; Prete, F R

    1996-01-01

    The predatory behavior of free ranging praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister), in response to prey at various positions in the horizontal plane was examined using high speed (200 frames per second) videography. We found that the movements of the meso- and metathoracic legs over the course of the strike were analogous in many respects to those made by the cockroach Periplaneta americana during escape turns. When mantises struck at prey directly ahead of them, they were propelled forward by extensions of the metathoracic femur-tibia, and the meso- and metathoracic coxa-femur joints (changes in the latter were determined indirectly via changes in the femur-pterothorax angles). This pattern of movements is similar to that of cockroach Type 1 turns. However, when prey lay to either side of the pterothorax-abdomen axis, mantises turned toward the prey as they stuck. These turning movements were the result, primarily, of changes in the femur-thorax angles. Specifically, as the mantises turned toward the prey, contralateral mesothoracic femora and metathoracic tibiae and femora extended, and the corresponding ipsilateral joints extended to a lesser degree or flexed. This pattern of movements is similar to that of cockroach Type 2 turns. In addition, these leg movements were accompanied by flexion of the prothorax-abdomen angle which turned the prothorax even further in the direction of the prey. We found a stronger relationship between mantis leg movements and the position of the prey in relationship to the pterothorax than between the leg movements and the position of the prey in the visual field. Our data suggest that the praying mantis' central nervous system integrates proprioceptive and visual information in order to determine the location of prey in "pterothorax-centered' rather than "head-centered' space. PMID:8886390

  17. On the type species of the South American dung beetle genus Chalcocopris Burmeister, 1846 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), with some comments on the type locality of C. hesperus (Olivier, 1789).

    PubMed

    Cupello, Mario; Rossini, Michele; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a new paper authored by two of us (Rossini & Vaz-de-Mello, 2015) addressed a taxonomic revision of Chalcocopris Burmeister, 1846, describing a second species for the genus and expanding our knowledge of its distribution and morphological diversity. In the present work, we address additional nomenclatural and historical issues not covered in that paper.

  18. On the type species of the South American dung beetle genus Chalcocopris Burmeister, 1846 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), with some comments on the type locality of C. hesperus (Olivier, 1789).

    PubMed

    Cupello, Mario; Rossini, Michele; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a new paper authored by two of us (Rossini & Vaz-de-Mello, 2015) addressed a taxonomic revision of Chalcocopris Burmeister, 1846, describing a second species for the genus and expanding our knowledge of its distribution and morphological diversity. In the present work, we address additional nomenclatural and historical issues not covered in that paper. PMID:27395499

  19. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew B T

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, Trigonopeltastes formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and Trigonopeltastes warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841, syn. n.. The males of Trigonopeltastes aurovelutinus Curoe, 2011 and Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889 are described for the first time. New country records are given for the following: Giesbertiolus ornatus Howden, 1988: Costa Rica; Paragnorimus sambucus Howden, 1970: Guatemala; Trichiotinus bibens (Fabricius, 1775): Canada; Trigonopeltastes archimedes Schaum, 1841: Guatemala and Costa Rica; Trigonopeltastes frontalis Bates, 1889: Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes glabellus Howden, 1988: Guatemala; Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841: Honduras; Trigonopeltastes sallaei sallaei Bates, 1889: Guatemala and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889: Mexico; Trigonopeltastes variabilis Howden, 1968: Honduras. PMID:27667956

  20. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, Trigonopeltastes formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and Trigonopeltastes warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841, syn. n.. The males of Trigonopeltastes aurovelutinus Curoe, 2011 and Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889 are described for the first time. New country records are given for the following: Giesbertiolus ornatus Howden, 1988: Costa Rica; Paragnorimus sambucus Howden, 1970: Guatemala; Trichiotinus bibens (Fabricius, 1775): Canada; Trigonopeltastes archimedes Schaum, 1841: Guatemala and Costa Rica; Trigonopeltastes frontalis Bates, 1889: Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes glabellus Howden, 1988: Guatemala; Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841: Honduras; Trigonopeltastes sallaei sallaei Bates, 1889: Guatemala and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889: Mexico; Trigonopeltastes variabilis Howden, 1968: Honduras.

  1. Use of RNA:DNA ratios to evaluate the condition and growth of the copepod Calanus sinicus in the Southern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Juan; Li, Chaolun; Yang, Guang; Wan, Aiyong; Sun, Song

    2013-12-01

    Calanus sinicus, a dominant calanoid copepod in the Yellow Sea, is an important link in the food web between phytoplankton and higher trophic levels. Its populations typically start to develop in later winter with a maximum of individuals in early summer. To study the correlation between changes in the abundance of this species and changes in food resources and the physical environment, RNA and DNA concentrations and egg production rates (EPR) were measured, and RNA:DNA ratios were calculated as indices of growth and nutritional conditions of copepods collected in the Yellow Sea from February to July. We observed pronounced seasonal and spatial variations of RNA concentrations and resulting RNA:DNA ratios. There was a positive correlation between the EPR and RNA:DNA ratios. The copepods collected in March and April, when phytoplankton were more abundant, had high RNA:DNA ratios, and contained more RNA than copepods collected during the other months. There was no significant correlation between the growth indices (RNA:DNA ratios and EPR) and chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl a) or temperature at large temporal and spatial scales. We tracked the development of two phytoplankton blooms in April, which were dominated in turn by diatoms and dinoflagellates. We observed high concentrations of RNA and a high RNA:DNA ratio at both bloom sites during the respective blooms. During the diatom bloom, the RNA:DNA ratios in copepods increased at the onset of the bloom and decreased thereafter. In addition, we observed a positive correlation (P<0.001) between RNA-based indices and Chl a. Our results suggest that food availability plays a more important role than temperature in controlling the growth of C. sinicus in the field. Thus, the spring phytoplankton blooms in the Yellow Sea are important regulators of copepod abundance.

  2. A new species of Hammerschmidtiella Chitwood, 1932 (Nematoda, Thelastomatidae) parasite of the brown cockroach Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister, 1838 (Blattodea, Blattidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Camino, Nora Beatriz; de Villalobos, Cristina

    2012-03-01

    A new species of the genus Hammerschmidtiella, H. eltalaensis sp. nov. parasitizing a brown cockroach Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister from El Tala river, Catamarca, Argentina, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by having the cuticle striated, without lateral alae, mouth with three toothed lips and eight labial papillae, amphids small and pore shaped, buccal capsule short, wide, with four mobile teeth, oesophagus with metacorpus valvate, isthmus cylindrical and thin surrounded by nerve ring, and a rounded basal bulb heavily muscled and valvate, the vulva is slightly protruding and lies in the anterior third of the body, didelphic, prodelphic, eggs small and elongate, the male with one spicule, without gubernaculum, the genital papillae arranged in one pair of small preanal papillae, and two postanal papillae, one pair is the base of the tail appendage. Tail appendage very long, thin, and reaching almost one third of the length of the body in the female. In the male the posterior end of the body abruptly truncated posterior to anus with spine-like long tail appendage.

  3. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, Trigonopeltastes formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and Trigonopeltastes warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841, syn. n.. The males of Trigonopeltastes aurovelutinus Curoe, 2011 and Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889 are described for the first time. New country records are given for the following: Giesbertiolus ornatus Howden, 1988: Costa Rica; Paragnorimus sambucus Howden, 1970: Guatemala; Trichiotinus bibens (Fabricius, 1775): Canada; Trigonopeltastes archimedes Schaum, 1841: Guatemala and Costa Rica; Trigonopeltastes frontalis Bates, 1889: Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes glabellus Howden, 1988: Guatemala; Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841: Honduras; Trigonopeltastes sallaei sallaei Bates, 1889: Guatemala and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889: Mexico; Trigonopeltastes variabilis Howden, 1968: Honduras. PMID:27667956

  4. Effect of the silica content of diatom prey on the production, decomposition and sinking of fecal pellets of the copepod Calanus sinicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbin; Wu, Chih-Jung

    2016-08-01

    The effects of changing the amount of silica in the cell wall of diatom prey, on the production, decomposition rate and sinking velocity of fecal pellets of the calanoid copepod, Calanus sinicus, were examined. Using different light intensities to control the growth of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii also led to the accumulation of different amounts of biogenic silica. Copepods were then fed either low ( ˜ 1600 cells L-1) or high ( ˜ 8000 cells L-1) concentrations of this diatom. Copepods fed a high concentration of diatoms with high-silica content exhibited a lower grazing rate and lower fecal pellet production rate than those fed a high concentration of diatoms with low-silica content. However, there was no difference in either the grazing or fecal pellet production rates at low prey concentrations with high- or low-silica content. The size of the fecal pellets produced was only affected by the prey concentration, and not by the silica content of prey. In addition, the degradation rate of the fecal pellets was much higher for copepods fed a low-silica diet than for those fed a high-silica diet. Significantly lower densities and sinking rates only occurred in the fecal pellets of copepods fed a low-silica diet and a low prey concentration. Calculating the L ratio (the ratio of degradation rate : sinking rate) for each group indicated that the fecal pellets produced by copepods fed highly silicified diatoms are likely to transport both biogenic silica and organic carbon to the deep layer, whereas those produced following the consumption of low-silica diatoms are likely to decompose in the mixing layer.

  5. A JAZ Protein in Astragalus sinicus Interacts with a Leghemoglobin through the TIFY Domain and Is Involved in Nodule Development and Nitrogen Fixation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixing; Xu, Meng; Wang, Ning; Li, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    Leghemoglobins (Lbs) play an important role in legumes-rhizobia symbiosis. Lbs bind O2 and protect nitrogenase activity from damage by O2 in nodules, therefore, they are regarded as a marker of active nitrogen fixation in nodules. Additionally, Lbs are involved in the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, acting as a NO scavenger during nodule development and nitrogen fixation. However, regulators responsible for Lb expression and modulation of Lb activity have not been characterized. In our previous work, a Jasmonate-Zim-domain (JAZ) protein interacting with a Lb (AsB2510) in Astragalus sinicus was identified and designated AsJAZ1. In this study, the interaction between AsJAZ1 and AsB2510 was verified using a yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays, resulting in identification of the interaction domain as a TIFY (previously known as zinc-finger protein expressed in inflorescence meristem, ZIM) domain. TIFY domain is named after the most conserved amino acids within the domain. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) was used to confirm the interaction between AsJAZ1 and AsB2510 in tobacco cells, demonstrating that AsJAZ1-AsB2510 interaction was localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Furthermore, the expression patterns and the symbiotic phenotypes of AsJAZ1 were investigated. Knockdown of AsJAZ1 expression via RNA interference led to decreased number of nodules, abnormal development of bacteroids, accumulation of poly-x-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and loss of nitrogenase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that AsJAZ1 interacts with AsB2510 and participates in nodule development and nitrogen fixation. Our results provide novel insights into the functions of Lbs or JAZ proteins during legume-rhizobia symbiosis.

  6. Functional analysis of the novel mycorrhiza-specific phosphate transporter AsPT1 and PHT1 family from Astragalus sinicus during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xianan; Huang, Wu; Liu, Fengchuan; Tang, Nianwu; Liu, Yi; Lin, Hui; Zhao, Bin

    2013-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizas contribute significantly to inorganic phosphate (Pi) uptake in plants. Gene networks involved in the regulation and function of the Pht1 family transporters in legume species during AM symbiosis are not fully understood. In order to characterize the six distinct members of Pht1 transporters in mycorrhizal Astragalus sinicus, we combined cellular localization, heterologous functional expression in yeast with expression/subcellular localization studies and reverse genetics approaches in planta. Pht1;1 and Pht1;4 silenced lines were generated to uncover the role of the newly discovered dependence of the AM symbiosis on another phosphate transporter AsPT1 besides AsPT4. These Pht1 transporters are triggered in Pi-starved mycorrhizal roots. AsPT1 and AsPT4 were localized in arbuscule-containing cells of the cortex. The analysis of promoter sequences revealed conserved motifs in both AsPT1 and AsPT4. AsPT1 overexpression showed higher mycorrhization levels than controls for parameters analysed, including abundance of arbuscules. By contrast, knockdown of AsPT1 by RNA interference led to degenerating or dead arbuscule phenotypes identical to that of AsPT4 silencing lines. AsPT4 but not AsPT1 is required for symbiotic Pi uptake. These results suggest that both, AsPT1 and AsPT4, are required for the AM symbiosis, most importantly, AsPT1 may serve as a novel symbiotic transporter for AM development.

  7. Evaluating oxidation-reduction properties of dissolved organic matter from Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.): a comprehensive multi-parametric study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Lou, Jun; Li, Fang-Bai; Xu, Jian-Ming; Yu, Xiong-Sheng; Zhu, Li-An; Wang, Feng

    2014-08-01

    Green manuring is a common practice in replenishment of soil organic matter and nutrients in rice paddy field. Owing to the complex interplay of multiple factors, the oxidation--reduction (redox) properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from green manure crops are presently not fully understood. In this study, a variety of surrogate parameters were used to evaluate the redox capacity and redox state of DOM derived from Chinese milk vetch (CMV, Astragalus sinicus L.) via microbial decomposition under continuously flooded (CF) and non-flooded (NF) conditions. Additionally, the correlation between the surrogate parameters of CMV-DOM and the kinetic parameters of relevant redox reactions was evaluated in a soil-water system containing CMV-DOM. Results showed that the redox properties of CMV-DOM were substantially different between the fresh and decomposed CMV-DOM treatments. Determination of the surrogate parameters via ultraviolet-visible/Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography generally provided high-quality data for predicting the redox capacity of CMV-DOM, while the surrogate parameters determined by elemental analysis were suitable for predicting the redox state of CMV-DOM. Depending on the redox capacity and redox state of various moieties/components, NF-decomposed CMV-DOM could easily accelerate soil reduction by shuttling electrons to iron oxides, because it contained more reversible redox-active functional groups (e.g. quinone and hydroquinone pairs) than CF-decomposed CMV-DOM. This work demonstrates that a single index cannot interpret complex changes in multiple factors that jointly determine the redox reactivity of CMV-DOM. Thus, a multi-parametric study is needed for providing comprehensive information on the redox properties of green manure DOM.

  8. A JAZ Protein in Astragalus sinicus Interacts with a Leghemoglobin through the TIFY Domain and Is Involved in Nodule Development and Nitrogen Fixation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixing; Xu, Meng; Wang, Ning; Li, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    Leghemoglobins (Lbs) play an important role in legumes-rhizobia symbiosis. Lbs bind O2 and protect nitrogenase activity from damage by O2 in nodules, therefore, they are regarded as a marker of active nitrogen fixation in nodules. Additionally, Lbs are involved in the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, acting as a NO scavenger during nodule development and nitrogen fixation. However, regulators responsible for Lb expression and modulation of Lb activity have not been characterized. In our previous work, a Jasmonate-Zim-domain (JAZ) protein interacting with a Lb (AsB2510) in Astragalus sinicus was identified and designated AsJAZ1. In this study, the interaction between AsJAZ1 and AsB2510 was verified using a yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays, resulting in identification of the interaction domain as a TIFY (previously known as zinc-finger protein expressed in inflorescence meristem, ZIM) domain. TIFY domain is named after the most conserved amino acids within the domain. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) was used to confirm the interaction between AsJAZ1 and AsB2510 in tobacco cells, demonstrating that AsJAZ1-AsB2510 interaction was localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Furthermore, the expression patterns and the symbiotic phenotypes of AsJAZ1 were investigated. Knockdown of AsJAZ1 expression via RNA interference led to decreased number of nodules, abnormal development of bacteroids, accumulation of poly-x-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and loss of nitrogenase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that AsJAZ1 interacts with AsB2510 and participates in nodule development and nitrogen fixation. Our results provide novel insights into the functions of Lbs or JAZ proteins during legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:26460857

  9. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina: Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae), their inquiline birds and mammals, new hosts for Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Turienzo, Paola; Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-06-03

    The insect fauna in nests of Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae) were studied in the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Córdoba, and La Pampa in Argentina. A total of 7364 insect specimens comprising 77 taxa in a total of 29 families and 7 orders was found in their nests: 40 identified to species, 23 identified to genus, and 14 identified to family. Coryphistera alaudina and some of their vertebrate inquilines are new host records for the triatomine bugs Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and/or Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The insects in the nests of C. alaudina are separated by functional guilds, and their permanence time inside the nests are presented in a new manner and discussed.

  10. Males of Hylamorpha elegans burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are attracted to odors released from conspecific females.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Andrés; Palma, Ruben; Etcheverría, Paulina; Navarro, Vicente; Rebolledo, Ramón

    2007-04-01

    The behavioral responses of Hylamorpha elegans L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) to the semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults were studied, with particular attention paid to female attraction of males. Odors released from virgin females significantly attracted male conspecifics in both the field and laboratory olfactometer and wind tunnel bioassays. However, females did not attract other females, and males attracted no one. The response of male H. elegans to (1) compounds (1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) released only by unmated females; (2) the essential oil of the secondary host (Nothofagus obliqua); and (3) the blend of 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone with N. obliqua essential oil was studied. The blend of 1,4-benzoquinone mixed with essential oil at the trial concentration was attractive with males. The same response was found with 1,4-hydroquinone alone. The essential oil did not have the expected attractant effect on conspecific males. These results suggest that, when combined with essential oil, 1,4-benzoquinone may function in the sexual behavior of males and females. These findings are discussed in terms of the ecological role of this putative sexual pheromone and its potential use in a strategy of control of this pest.

  11. Nymphal development of the auditory system in the praying mantis Hierodula membranacea Burmeister (Dictyoptera, Mantidae).

    PubMed

    Yager, D D

    1996-01-01

    Like other praying mantises, Hierodula membranacea has a single midline ear on the ventral surface of the metathorax. The ear comprises a deep groove with two tympana forming the walls. A tympanal organ on each side contains 30-40 scolopophorous sensillae with axons that terminate in the metathoracic ganglion in neuropil that does not match the auditory neuropil of other insects. Nymphal development of the mantis ear proceeds in three major stages: 1) The tympanal organ is completely formed with a full complement of sensillae before hatching; 2) the infolding and rotations that form the deep groove are completed primarily over the first half of nymphal development; and 3) over the last five instars (of ten), the tympana thicken and broaden to their adult size and shape, and the impedance-matching tracheal sacs also enlarge and move to become tightly apposed to the inner surfaces of the tympana. Auditory sensitivity gradually increases beginning with the fifth instar and closely parallels tympanum and tracheal sac growth. Late instar nymphs have auditory thresholds of 70-80 dB sound pressure level (SPL). Appropriate connections of afferents to a functional interneuronal system are clearly present by the eighth instar and possibly much earlier. The pattern of auditory system ontogeny in the mantis is similar to that in locusts and in noctuid moths, but it differs from crickets. In evolutionary terms, it is significant that the metathoracic anatomy of newly hatched mantis nymphs matches very closely the anatomy of the homologous regions in adult cockroaches, which are closely related to mantises but are without tympanal hearing, and in mantises that are thought to be primitively deaf. PMID:8788244

  12. A taxonomy review of Oreoderus Burmeister, 1842 from China with a geometric morphometric evaluation (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Valgini)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Ricchiardi, Enrico; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xingke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Oreoderus are morphologically similar, and can be challenging to distinguish without dissecting the male genitalia. In this study, the Oreoderus species from China are reviewed. Three new species of Oreoderus are described: Oreoderus dasystibialis Li & Yang, sp. n., Oreoderus brevitarsus Li & Yang, sp. n. and Oreoderus oblongus Li & Yang, sp. n. A key of the male Oreoderus and a distribution map are provided. Oreoderus coomani Paulian, 1961 was found as a new record in China. The first description of the female of Oreoderus arrowi Ricchiardi, 2001 is provided. Oreoderus humeralis Gestro, 1891, Oreoderus quadricarinatus Arrow, 1944, Oreoderus crassipes Arrow, 1944, and Oreoderus momeitensis Arrow, 1910 are excluded from the Chinese fauna. Furthermore, we utilize geometric morphometric approaches (GM) to analyze the shape variation of four characters (pronotum, elytra, protibia and aedeagus) in Oreoderus. The morphological variations of Oreoderus and the taxonomic value of each character are discussed. The combined analysis of geometric morphometrics and comparative morphology support recognition of the three new species. PMID:26865816

  13. On the fossil remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, José D; Zamorano, Martín; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus. PMID:25806977

  14. Responses of movement-sensitive visual interneurons to prey-like stimuli in the praying mantis Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister).

    PubMed

    Gonka, M D; Laurie, T J; Prete, F R

    1999-11-01

    Previous behavioral work using both mechanical and computer-generated visual stimuli has demonstrated that mantids use a computational algorithm to recognize prey similar to that used by some amphibian predators: A stimulus elicits prey capture behavior if it falls within a perceptual envelope defined by five fundamental stimulus parameters: (1) overall size, (2) length of the leading edge, (3) contrast to the background, (4) location in the visual field, and (5) apparent speed. In this study, we recorded simultaneously from both cervical nerve cords of monocular Sphodromantis lineola while they viewed the same visual stimuli successfully used in the behavioral studies. Extracellular recordings showed three consistently proportioned amplitude classes of movement-elicited spikes in each cord and these were repeatedly and reliably identifiable across mantids. Overall, the movement-elicited activity in both cords was dominated by very large spikes suggesting the existence of several large, descending movement-sensitive interneurons projecting both ipsilaterally and contralaterally from the optic lobes. However, only the largest contralateral spikes occurred preferentially to prey-like stimuli, mirrored the behavioral response curves generated by S. lineola to the same visual stimuli, and displayed activity peaks that were correlated with the times at which the mantid emitted predatory strikes. PMID:10640785

  15. On the fossil remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, José D; Zamorano, Martín; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus.

  16. New brachypterous species of Dichotomius (Selenocopris) Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) with the definition of species groups and taxonomic notes in the subgenus.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rafael V; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-01-01

    Five species groups of Dichotomius (Selenocopris) are defined and separated in an illustrated key in the first effective attempt of systematization of the subgenus. Four new brachypterous species of Selenocopris are described and the also brachypterous Dichotomius ingens (Luederwaldt) is redescribed. These species are diagnosed, illustrated and assigned to the quadraticeps species group. Taxonomic issues on the subgenus are discussed.

  17. Effect of sequential heat and cold shocks on nuclear phenotypes of the blood-sucking insect, Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Garcia, Simone L; Pacheco, Raquel M; Rodrigues, Vera L C C; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2002-12-01

    Thermal shocks induce changes in the nuclear phenotypes that correspond to survival (heterochromatin decondensation, nuclear fusion) or death (apoptosis, necrosis) responses in the Malpighian tubules of Panstrongylus megistus. Since thermal tolerance increased survival and molting rate in this species following sequential shocks, we investigated whether changes in nuclear phenotypes accompanied the insect survival response to sequential thermal shocks. Fifth instar nymphs were subjected to a single heat (35 or 40 degrees C, 1 h) or cold (5 or 0 degrees C, 1 h) shock and then subjected to a second shock for 12 h at 40 or 0 degrees C, respectively, after 8, 18, 24 and 72 h at 28 degrees C (control temperature). As with specimen survival, sequential heat and cold shocks induced changes in frequency of the mentioned nuclear phenotypes although their patterns differed. The heat shock tolerance involved decrease in apoptosis simultaneous to increase in cell survival responses. Sequential cold shocks did not involve cell/nuclear fusion and even elicited increase in necrosis with advancing time after shocks. The temperatures of 40 and 0 degrees C were more effective than the temperatures of 35 and 5 degrees C in eliciting the heat and cold shock tolerances, respectively, as shown by cytological analysis of the nuclear phenotypes. It is concluded that different sequential thermal shocks can trigger different mechanisms of cellular protection against stress in P. megistus, favoring the insect to adapt to various ecotopes.

  18. New brachypterous species of Dichotomius (Selenocopris) Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) with the definition of species groups and taxonomic notes in the subgenus.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rafael V; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-01-01

    Five species groups of Dichotomius (Selenocopris) are defined and separated in an illustrated key in the first effective attempt of systematization of the subgenus. Four new brachypterous species of Selenocopris are described and the also brachypterous Dichotomius ingens (Luederwaldt) is redescribed. These species are diagnosed, illustrated and assigned to the quadraticeps species group. Taxonomic issues on the subgenus are discussed. PMID:27470786

  19. A Revision of the Argentinean Endemic Genus Eucranium Brulléé (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) with Description of one New Species and New Synonymies

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, Federico C.

    2010-01-01

    The South American genus Eucranium Brulléé has been revised and now includes six species: E. arachnoides Brulléé, E. belenae Ocampo new species, E. cyclosoma Burmeister, E. dentifrons Guéérin-Mééneville, E. planicolle Burmeister, and E. simplicifrons Fairmaire. Eucranium pulvinatum Burmeister is a new junior synonym of Eucranium arachnoides Brulléé, and Eucranium lepidum Burmeister is a new junior synonym of E. dentifrons Guéérin-Mééneville. The following lectotypes and neotypes are designated: Eucranium pulvinatum Burmeister, lectotype; Eucranium planicolle Burmeister, lectotype; Psammotrupes dentifrons Guéérin-Mééneville, neotype; and Eucranium lepidum Burmeister, neotype. Description of the genus and new species, diagnosis and illustrations, and distribution maps are provided for all species. A key to the species of this genus is provided, and the biology and conservation status of the species are discussed. PMID:21265622

  20. New genera and species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from China and South Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new genera from China (Taumaceroides Lopatin and Yunnaniata Lopatin) and 11 new species (Smaragdina quadrimaculata Lopatin, Smaragdina oblongum Lopatin, Hyphaenia volkovitshi Lopatin, Arthrotus daliensis Lopatin, Taumaceroides sinicus Lopatin, Yunnaniata konstantinovi Lopatin, Calomicrus yunnanu...

  1. Host-plant dependent population genetics of the invading weevil Hypera postica.

    PubMed

    Iwase, S-I; Nakahira, K; Tuda, M; Kagoshima, K; Takagi, M

    2015-02-01

    Population genetics of invading pests can be informative for understanding their ecology. In this study, we investigated population genetics of the invasive alfalfa weevil Hypera postica in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. We analyzed mitochondrial tRNALeu-COII, nuclear EF-1α gene fragments, and Wolbachia infection in relation to three leguminous host plants: Vicia angustifolia, Vicia villosa, and a new host Astragalus sinicus cultivated as a honey source and green manure crop. A parsimony network generated from mitochondrial gene sequences uncovered two major haplotypic groups, Western and Egyptian. In contrast to reported Wolbachia infection of the Western strain in the United States, none of our analyzed individuals were infected. The absence of Wolbachia may contribute to the stable coexistence of mitochondrial strains through inter-strain reproductive compatibility. Hypera postica genetic variants for the mitochondrial and nuclear genes were associated neither with host plant species nor with two geographic regions (Hisayama and Kama) within Fukuoka. Mitochondrial haplogroups were incongruent with nuclear genetic variants. Genetic diversity at the nuclear locus was the highest for the populations feeding on V. angustifolia. The nuclear data for A. sinicus-feeding populations indicated past sudden population growth and extended Bayesian skyline plot analysis based on the mitochondrial and nuclear data showed that the growth of A. sinicus-feeding population took place within the past 1000 years. These results suggest a shorter history of A. sinicus as a host plant compared with V. angustifolia and a recent rapid growth of H. postica population using the new host A. sinicus.

  2. Chromosome comparison of 17 species / sub-species of African Goliathini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    PubMed

    Dutrillaux, Anne-Marie; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The mitotic karyotypes of 17 species of African Goliathini (Cetoniinae) are described using various chromosome banding techniques. All but one are composed of 20 chromosomes, mostly metacentric, forming a karyotype assumed to be close to that of the Polyphaga ancestor. The most derived karyotypes are those of Goliathus goliatus Drury, 1770, with eight pairs of acrocentrics and Chlorocana africana Drury, 1773, with only14 chromosomes. In species of the genera Cyprolais Burmeister, 1842, Megalorhina Westwood, 1847, Stephanocrates Kolbe, 1894 and Stephanorrhina Burmeister, 1842, large additions of variable heterochromatin are observed on both some particular autosomes and the X chromosome. Species of the genera Eudicella White, 1839 and Dicronorrhina Burmeister, 1842 share the same sub-metacentric X. Although each species possesses its own karyotype, it remains impossible to propose robust phylogenetic relationships on the basis of chromosome data only. PMID:27551348

  3. Chromosome comparison of 17 species / sub-species of African Goliathini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Dutrillaux, Anne-Marie; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mitotic karyotypes of 17 species of African Goliathini (Cetoniinae) are described using various chromosome banding techniques. All but one are composed of 20 chromosomes, mostly metacentric, forming a karyotype assumed to be close to that of the Polyphaga ancestor. The most derived karyotypes are those of Goliathus goliatus Drury, 1770, with eight pairs of acrocentrics and Chlorocana africana Drury, 1773, with only14 chromosomes. In species of the genera Cyprolais Burmeister, 1842, Megalorhina Westwood, 1847, Stephanocrates Kolbe, 1894 and Stephanorrhina Burmeister, 1842, large additions of variable heterochromatin are observed on both some particular autosomes and the X chromosome. Species of the genera Eudicella White, 1839 and Dicronorrhina Burmeister, 1842 share the same sub-metacentric X. Although each species possesses its own karyotype, it remains impossible to propose robust phylogenetic relationships on the basis of chromosome data only. PMID:27551348

  4. Plecoptera from Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of Plecoptera collected in Minas Gerais State, Brazil were studied. Twelve previously described species were identified, Anacroneuria boraceiensis Froehlich, 2004, A. debilis (Pictet, 1841), A. itatiaiensis Baldin et al., 2013, A. polita (Burmeister, 1839), A. singularis Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci, 2010, A. stanjewetti Froehlich, 2002, A. terere Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci, 2010, A. vanini Froehlich, 2004, Kempnyia neotropica (Jacobson and Bianchi, 1905), K. obtusa Klapálek, 1916, Tupiperla gracilis (Burmeister, 1839) and T. robusta Froehlich, 1998. Additionally, two new species of Anacroneuria are described, A. paprockii n. sp. and A. mineira n. sp., and a list of species from Minas Gerais State is presented. PMID:25284668

  5. Distribution of dominant zooplankton species along a latitudinal gradient in China sea during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiayi; Xu, Zhaoli; Gao, Qian

    2016-06-01

    Dominant species of zooplankton community vary with latitude. Though China possesses a vast coastal area in northwestern Pacific, studies on the latitudinal dominant species gradient are rare. We collected zooplankton samples from Haizhou Bay (34.56°-35.19°N, 119.51°-120.30°E), Yueqing Bay (28.14°-28.38°N, 121.10°-121.21°E) and Dongshan Bay (23.65°-23.90°N, 117.45°-117.60°E) in May 2012 and May 2013 to preliminarily characterize the latitudinal dominant species distribution. All the samples were collected vertically using a 0.505 mm mesh plankton net with 0.8 m in mouth diameter from bottom to surface. Calanus sinicus, Aidanosagitta crassa, Labidocera euchaeta, Zonosagitta nagae, Acartia pacifica and Paracalanus parvus were found to be dominant. C. sinicus was the most dominant species and the unique one occurred in all three bays. With latitude decreasing, both the abundance and proportion of C. sinicus declined sharply. Cluster analysis showed that the 6 dominant species could be divided into 3 groups, based on their occurrences in the three bays. Our results suggested that the distribution of dominant species along the coast of China has a significant latitudinal gradient. C. sinicus which widely distributes in the coastal water of the northwestern Pacific can well adapt to the temperature at different latitudes. The high abundance in Haizhou Bay indicated that C. sinicus was an exemplary warm-temperate species, and more commonly occurs in the north of China seas. The ecological characteristics of dominant species change from warm-temperate type in high-latitudinal bays to warm water type in low-latitudinal bays.

  6. 77 FR 38804 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Comment on Model Design and Data Inputs for Phase II of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Bureau at (202) 418-0530 (voice), (202) 418-0432 (tty). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ted Burmeister.../cgi-bin/leaving.cgi?from=leavingFR.html&log=linklog&to=http://www.bcpiweb.comhttp://www.bcpiweb.com... consistent with the requirements set forth in the USF/ICC Transformation Order, 76 FR 73830, November...

  7. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to insecticides in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field-collected populations of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) from Coachella Valley, CA, Imperial Valley, CA, Riverside, CA and Yuma Valley, AZ, were evaluated for susceptibility to several active ingredients representing ten classes of insecticide chemistry. Both leaf-spray and leaf-dip bioassays wer...

  8. 75 FR 17872 - High-Cost Universal Service Support, Jurisdictional Separations, and Coalition for Equity in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission addresses an inequitable asymmetry... April 8, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Theodore Burmeister, Wireline Competition Bureau, Telecommunications Access Policy Division, (202) 418-7400 or TTY: (202) 418-0484. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This...

  9. Nomenclatural corrections, neotype designation and new subspecies description in the genus Suiriri (Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae).

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Guy M; Steinheimer, Frank D; Raposo, Marcos A; Zimmer, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Zimmer et al. (2001) documented two morphological and vocal forms within what was then known as Suiriri suiriri affinis, and described the short-billed form as Suiriri islerorum. However, studies of the Burmeister type material held at the Natural History Collections of the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany, revealed the types of Suiriri s. affinis (Burmeister, 1856) to be the same taxon as Suiriri islerorum, which name therefore becomes a junior synonym. No published name is available for the long-billed form. A new name is therefore introduced by an original description in accordance with the International code on zoological nomenclature. The original type material of S. s. bahiae (Berlepsch, 1893) is confirmed to be lost; a neotype is designated.

  10. Notes about morphological features of the Western Hemisphere subtribe Ardistomina, and revision of genus Semiardistomis Kult (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritinae, Clivinini)

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Comparisons of structural features (principally mouthparts, elytral-abdominal locking mechanism, and female genitalia) of the ardistomine genera (Aspidoglossa Putzeys, Ardistomis Putzeys, and Semiardistomis Kult) with those features of members of the subtribe Clivinina (Clivina Latreille, Oxydrepanus Putzeys, Schizogenius Putzeys,Ancus Putzeys, Nyctosyles Putzeys, and Obadius Burmeister) confirm the taxonomic validity of the subtribe Ardistomina. Based on morphological features, the ardistomine genera are postulated to be related as follows: [Aspidoglossa [Ardistomis + Semiardistomis

  11. Seasonality of the copepod assemblages associated with interplay waters off northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Li-Chun; Hung, Jia-Jang; Chen, Qing-Chao; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated copepod assemblages in the regime around Turtle Island off northern Taiwan to trace South China Sea water (SCSW) flowing northward with the Kuroshio Current. Seasonal variations of copepod assemblages demonstrated a dynamic succession of changes in copepod populations; the average abundance for total copepods ranged from 102.58 ± 53.38 in December to 1669.89 ± 1866.17 in March (individuals m-3). A total of 87 copepod species representing 36 genera and 21 families were identified. Among all samples, Temora turbinata dominated the copepods by a relative abundance (RA) of 26.89 %, followed by Paracalanus parvus (RA: 22.34 %) and Corycaeus ( Ditrichocorycaeus) affinis (RA: 12.77 %). Only the Acrocalanus gracilis species was recorded in all samples. Results of one-way ANOVA revealed that the number of copepod species, indices of richness, evenness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity differed significantly in five different cruises. The density of five copepod species ( Gaetanus minor, Calanus sinicus, Eucalanus elongates, Rhincalanus nasutus, and Rhincalanus rostrifrons) exhibited a significant negative correlation with seawater temperature. In contrast, the density of Canthocalanus pauper and Undinula vulgaris was significantly positively correlated with seawater temperature. The cold-water indicator species, C. sinicus, recorded in samples of March and May indicated the effect of China Coast Water (CCW) on copepod communities in the study area. Furthermore, the presence of Calanoides philippinensis in May samples strongly indicated that the SCSW may reach the Turtle Island area. Consequently, C. philippinensis and C. sinicus can be used to trace SCSW and CCW, respectively, in the study area.

  12. Evidence for ontogenetic feeding strategies in four calanoid copepods in the East Sea (Japan Sea) in summer, revealed by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Dong-Hoon; Wi, Jin Hee; Suh, Hae-Lip

    2015-09-01

    Deciphering the ontogenetic feeding ecology of copepods is essential to understanding their role in the energy transfer of marine ecosystems. We used stable isotope analysis to examine the ontogenetic feeding strategies of the four coexisting calanoid copepods, Mesocalanus tenuicornis, Metridia pacifica, Calanus sinicus, and Neocalanus plumchrus, in the East Sea (Japan Sea) in summer. Moreover, we used the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of small-sized plankton in three cell size fractions, pico- (< 2 μm), nano- (2-20 μm) and microplankton (20-200 μm), to identify the dietary preference at each developmental stage. The relative carbon masses of pico-, nano- and microplankton were 18, 38, and 44%, respectively, and their δ13C and δ15N values gradually increased with increasing size classes. The ontogenetic trophic position of four copepods were relatively low and ranged from 2.1 to 2.6, indicating that herbivores feed on small-sized phytoplankton, pico- and nanoplankton. Among copepodid stages, the δ13C and δ15N values of M. tenuicornis and C. sinicus differed significantly, while those of M. pacifica and N. plumchrus were not significantly different. In M. tenuicornis, the smallest species among the four copepods examined, the diet preference of CIV for picoplankton changed to nanoplankton in the adult stage. When M. pacifica developed from CIV to adult, the diet preference changed from pico- to microplankton. The proportion of microplankton in the diet of C. sinicus and N. plumchrus increased from CIV to female adult and from CIII to CV, respectively. During the developmental progress in copepodid stages, the smaller copepods significantly changed their dietary preference from pico- to microplankton, while the larger copepods consistently fed on microplankton. We suggest that smaller copepods have an advantage in survival at early copepodid stages compared with larger copepods in summer when microplankton biomass is relatively low.

  13. First report of Potorolepis spassky, 1994 (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) from China, with description of a new species in bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    PubMed

    Makarikova, Tatiana A; Makarikov, Arseny A

    2012-12-01

    Potorolepis gulyaevi sp. n. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) is described from the Chinese horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus sinicus Andersen (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), from southern China. The new species differs from known species of the genus by the shape, number and size of rostellar hooks, the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac and the morphology of gravid uterus. This is the first report of a member of the genus from non-marsupial mammals and the first record of a Potorolepis Spassky, 1994 from eastern Asia. The generic diagnosis of Potorolepis is amended.

  14. The first sexual associations in the genus Darditilla Casal, 1965 (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae)

    PubMed Central

    Luz, David R.; Williams, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New sex associations are proposed for four species of Darditilla: Darditilla amabilis (Gerstaecker, 1874); Darditilla bejaranoi Casal, 1968; Darditilla debilis (Gerstaecker, 1874); and Darditilla felina (Burmeister, 1854). Darditilla botija Casal, 1965, syn. n. is the male of Darditilla amabilis; the other three males were previously unknown. Mutilla decorosa Kohl, 1882, syn. n. is conspecific with Darditilla felina. Descriptions and extended diagnoses are provided for previously unknown males and for females that were not adequately described. These represent the first sex associations for the genus Darditilla. PMID:25493066

  15. Berengeria Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, a junior synonym of Ectrichodiella Fracker & Bruner, with new records and taxonomic notes on Ectrichodiinae from Brazil, and with keys to Ectrichodiinae and Reduviinae genera of the New World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Baena, Manuel; Grillo, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Berengeria Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, 2005 is considered a junior synonym of Ectrichodiella Fracker & Bruner, 1924. Ectrichodiella minima (Valdés, 1910) and E. rafaeli (Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, 2005), new. comb. are redescribed. Taxonomic notes on Brontostoma alboannulatum (Stål, 1860), B. discus (Burmeister, 1835), B. nanus Carpintero, 1980, B. rubrovenosum (Stål, 1860), and B. trux (Stål, 1859) are given. Brontostoma diringshofeni Gil-Santana & Baena, 2009, B. nanus, and Racelda robusta Bérenger & Gil-Santana, 2005 are recorded from Brazil for the first time. Keys to Ectrichodiinae and Reduviinae genera of the New World are presented.

  16. Two new species of Blaberidae (Blattaria) collected in the Santa Lúcia Station, Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Sonia Maria; De Oliveira, Edivar Heeren; Assumpção, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This contribution presents two new species belonging to the genera Audreia (Shelford, 1910) and Epilampra Burmeister, 1838, subfamily Epilamprinae (Blattaria, Blaberidae). The Blaberidae include large and medium-bodied species with a high adaptive capacity. The new taxa were collected in Espírito Santo State and evaluated based on the analysis of subgenital and supranal plates and genital parts, by means of standard dissection techniques, by comparison with specimens of the corresponding genera deposited in the collection of the Museu Nacional and with published descriptions.

  17. The rare Chrysopidae (Neuroptera) of southwestern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canard, Michel; Letardi, Agostino; Thierry, Dominique

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative surveys of the chrysopid fauna from southwestern Europe, namely the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, France south of 46° N, and the west-Mediterranean Islands, were analysed. A total of 56 species of Chrysopidae were reported, of which three species were abundant. These, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens, 1836) sensu lato, Dichochrysa prasina (Burmeister, 1839) and D. flavifrons (Brauer, 1850), comprised a large percentage of the specimens. For the rarer species, comments are made on their distributions, the enhanced geographic range of exotic ones, and on levels of endemism and stenotopy.

  18. On the relationships of 'Marmosa' formosa Shamel, 1930 (Marsupialia: Didelphidae), a phylogenetic puzzle from the Chaco of northern Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Robert S.; Gardner, Afred L.; Jansa, Sharon A.

    2004-01-01

    The holotype and only known specimen of Marmosa formosa Shamel, a nominal species currently synonymized with Gracilinanus agilis Burmeister, is strikingly unlike any other known didelphid marsupial. Phylogenetic analyses based on nonmolecular characters and IRBP sequences suggest that formosa is either the sister-taxon of Thylamys (including Lestodelphys) or Monodelphis. Because neither alternative is strongly supported by the data at hand, and because including formosa in Thylamys or in Monodelphis would compromise the diagnosability of those taxa, a new genus?Chacodelphys?is proposed to contain it. Currently known only from northern Argentina, Chacodelphys formosa may be widely distributed in the Chaco and other adjacent Neotropical biomes.

  19. A new species and notes on Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Paraná and Santa Catarina States, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of Perlidae (Plecoptera) deposited in the Entomological Collection "Padre Jesus S. Moure" of the Universidade Federal do Paraná and additional material recently collected in Paraná and Santa Catarina states, Brazil were studied. Six previously described species were identified, Anacroneuria debilis (Pictet, 1841), A. cathia Froehlich, 2002, A. polita (Burmeister, 1839), A. trimacula Jewett, 1959, Kempnyia neotropica (Jacoson and Bianchi, 1905) and K. colossica (Navás, 1934). Additionally, a new species, Anacroneuria iguazu n. sp is described. PMID:24870914

  20. Mining of SSR markers from Expressed Sequence Tags of bamboo species

    PubMed Central

    Ramalakshmi, Oviya Iyappan; Piramanayagam, Shanmughavel

    2010-01-01

    With the ever increasing number of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from various sequencing projects, ESTs have become valuable and first-hand source of in-silico mining of simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. We examined a total of 3419 EST sequences from three bamboo species, namely, Phyllostachys edulis, Bambusa oldhamii and Dendrocalamus sinicus for the presence of di- to hexa- microsatellites. The frequency of SSR containing ESTs varied from 5.36% in B. oldhamii to 13.05% in P. edulis. No SSRs were found in D. sinicus. Tri-nucleotide repeats (49.34%) were most frequent in P. edulis, while not much comparable difference in repeats was found in B. oldhamii. Flanking primer pairs were also designed in-silico for the sequences containing SSRs and their position on the genome hypothesized using similarity searching. SSRs located in open reading frame (ORF) were given functional annotation using Gene Ontology. Polymorphic SSRs were also detected using new pipeline- polySSR. Polymorphism level was very low (2.43%) and the position of the polymorphic SSRs was determined. The development of SSRs and the study of polymorphism will help in the further study of intra- and inter- gene flow, genetic structure, variability, linkage mapping and evolutionary relationships in bamboo PMID:21364824

  1. Planktonic community structure during a harmful bloom of Phaeocystis globosa in a subtropical bay, with special reference to the ciliate assemblages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Xue; Huang, Hong-Hui; Xu, Shan-Nan; Dai, Ming; Shen, Ping-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Planktonic community structure was investigated during outbreak of harmful Phaeocystis globosa bloom in a subtropical bay, the Maowei Sea, South China Sea. The phytoplankton assemblage was numerically dominated by colonial P. globosa, with its abundance ranging from 1.23 × 10(8) to 11.12 × 10(8) cells m(-3) and contributing nearly 90 % to the total abundance. Totally 66 mesozooplankton (>169 µm) and 19 ciliates species were recorded, with the densities ranged from 169 to 1633 ind m(-3) and 74 to 1118 cells L(-1), respectively. The dominant species for mesozooplankton were Copepoda (larvae), Bestiola sinicus, B. amoyensis, Macrura (larvae) and Acartia spinicauda, respectively. The ciliate assemblage was numerically dominated by Codonella rapa, Strombidium globosaneum and Mesodinium rubrum. During the bloom, P. globosa seemed to be negatively affected by the nutrient phosphate significantly (p < 0.05). However, no correlation between P. globosa and ciliate assemblage was detected, but P. globosa was negatively correlated with total biomass of mesozooplankton and abundance of B. sinicus (p < 0.05), suggesting that P. globosa was uncoupled from the grazing by both ciliates and mesozooplankton when appearing as colonies form. On the other hand, both positive and negative correlations among the dominant groups of mesozooplankton and ciliates were observed (p < 0.05) which possibly indicated that the predation of mesozooplankton upon ciliates might be strengthened during the Phaeocystis bloom and the complex effect also varied from species to species.

  2. Taxonomic revision of the South American dung beetle genus Gromphas Brullé, 1837 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Phanaeini: Gromphadina).

    PubMed

    Cupello, Mario; Vaz-De-Mello, Fernando Z

    2013-01-01

    As defined here, Phanaeini comprises two subtribes, Gromphadina, with Gromphas and Oruscatus, and Phanaeina, with 10 genera including Bolbites. Gromphas occurs east of the Andes and includes five species: G aeruginosa (Perty, 1830) (= G lacordairei Blanchard, 1846); G amazonica Bates, 1870; G. dichroa Blanchard, 1846; G inermis Harold, 1869 (= G. lacordairii Burmeister, 1874; G. lacordairei bipunctata d'Olsoufieff, 1924, new synonymy); and G. lemoinei Waterhouse, 1891. Brullé (1837) never mentioned or described "G. larcordairei" and all citations to "G lacordairei Brullé" refer in fact to G. larcordairii Burmeister, ajunior objective synonym of G. inermis Harold. The first author to include species in Gromphas was Blanchard (1846), and one of these species, G. dichroa Blanchard, is here designated as the type species of Gromphas. Gromphas lemoinei Waterhouse is here revalidated and is distinguished from G. aeruginosa (Perty) mainly by the shape of the pronotal prominence. Lectotypes are designated for G. amazonica, G. inermis, and G. lacordairei bipunctata. Redescriptions of the genus and its species, an identification key and a distribution map are presented, as well illustrations of all species, including the type specimens of G. aeruginosa, G. lemoinei, and G. amazonica.

  3. Resistance to Arrenurus spp. Parasitism in Odonates: Patterns Across Species and Comparisons Between a Resistant and Susceptible Host.

    PubMed

    Worthen, Wade B; Hart, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Some adult odonates resist parasitism by larval water mites (Arrenurus spp.) with melanotic encapsulation, in which the mite's stylestome is clogged and the mite starves. In summer 2014, we counted the engorged and resisted mites on 2,729 adult odonates sampled by aerial net at 11 water bodies in Greenville Co. and Pickens Co., SC, and tested the hypothesis that the frequency and intensity of resistance correlates with parasite prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts). Resistance prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts that resisted at least one mite) varied significantly among host species, exceeding 60% for Argia fumipennis(Burmeister) and Celithemis fasciata Kirby but less than 20% for other species. However, neither resistance prevalence nor mean resistance intensity (mean percentage of resisted mites on resisting hosts) correlated with parasite prevalence. We described potential effects of parasitism on host development ofA. fumipennis and Pachydiplax longipennis(Burmeister) by comparing the percent asymmetry of forewing lengths between parasitized and unparasitized individuals. There was no significant difference in asymmetry for either males or females of A. fumipennis, or males of Pa. longipennis(females were not sampled). We also evaluated differences in melanotic encapsulation between A. fumipennis, which readily encapsulates mites in nature, and Pa. longipennis We inserted a 2.0-mm piece of sterile monofilament line into the thorax of captured individuals for 24 h and compared mean gray value scores of inserted and emergent ends using Image-J software. There was no difference in melanotic encapsulation between species.

  4. Resistance to Arrenurus spp. Parasitism in Odonates: Patterns Across Species and Comparisons Between a Resistant and Susceptible Host

    PubMed Central

    Worthen, Wade B.

    2016-01-01

    Some adult odonates resist parasitism by larval water mites (Arrenurus spp.) with melanotic encapsulation, in which the mite’s stylestome is clogged and the mite starves. In summer 2014, we counted the engorged and resisted mites on 2,729 adult odonates sampled by aerial net at 11 water bodies in Greenville Co. and Pickens Co., SC, and tested the hypothesis that the frequency and intensity of resistance correlates with parasite prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts). Resistance prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts that resisted at least one mite) varied significantly among host species, exceeding 60% for Argia fumipennis (Burmeister) and Celithemis fasciata Kirby but less than 20% for other species. However, neither resistance prevalence nor mean resistance intensity (mean percentage of resisted mites on resisting hosts) correlated with parasite prevalence. We described potential effects of parasitism on host development of A. fumipennis and Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister) by comparing the percent asymmetry of forewing lengths between parasitized and unparasitized individuals. There was no significant difference in asymmetry for either males or females of A. fumipennis, or males of Pa. longipennis (females were not sampled). We also evaluated differences in melanotic encapsulation between A. fumipennis, which readily encapsulates mites in nature, and Pa. longipennis. We inserted a 2.0-mm piece of sterile monofilament line into the thorax of captured individuals for 24 h and compared mean gray value scores of inserted and emergent ends using Image-J software. There was no difference in melanotic encapsulation between species. PMID:27067302

  5. Towards a revision of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), with estimation of the diversity of each subgenus.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gustavo E; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    A review of the subgenera of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Pimeliinae: Praociini) is presented. Praocis comprises 77 species and 8 subspecies arranged in nine subgenera distributed in arid lands from Central Peru and Bolivia to the Southern part of Patagonia in Chile and Argentina. For each subgenus of Praocis: Praocis Eschscholtz, Mesopraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Anthrasomus Guérin-Méneville, Filotarsus Gay & Solier, Postpraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Hemipraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Orthogonoderes Gay & Solier, Praonoda Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., and Praocida Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., we present a diagnosis using new and constant characters of adult morphology such as clypeal configuration, length and proportion of antennomeres 9, 10 and 11, arrangement of apical tomentose sensory patches on antennomeres 10 and 11, anterior margin of prosternum, lateral margin of elytron, ventral surface of profemora, and shape of protibiae. An identification key for the nine subgenera of Praocis is presented. Type species are designated for the five new subgenera; for Mesopraocis: Praocis calderana Kulzer, for Postpraocis: Praocis pentachorda Burmeister, for Hemipraocis: Praocis sellata Berg, for Praonoda: Praocis bicarinata Burmeister, for Praocida: Praocis zischkai Kulzer, and for the previously described subgenus Orthogonoderes: Praocis subreticulata Gay & Solier. The current number of species and the estimated number of species to be described are presented. The distribution ranges of the subgenera, including new records from collections and recent expeditions, are given. Habitat preferences and a discussion of the biogeography of the genus are also presented.

  6. Some taxonomic and nomenclatural changes in American Mantodea (Insecta, Dictyoptera)--Part I.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Antonio A; Rivera, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Multiple nomenclatural problems persist in mantodean taxonomy. This constitutes an important challenge for praying mantis systematics, its forthcoming development and future consolidation. In this first contribution, we attempt solving a number of issues involving mostly Neotropical praying mantis species described by Brazilian entomologists Paulo S. Terra, Cândido F. de Mello-Leitão, Salvador de Toledo Piza Junior and Lauro J. Jantsch. We provide evidence to justify the following nomenclatural changes. In Acanthopidae, Acontiothespis travassosi Jantsch, 1986 is a new synonym of Raptrix perspicua (F. 1787). Changes in Thespidae are: Emboicy Terra, 1982 is a new synonym of Chloromiopteryx Giglio-Tos, 1915, E. mirim Terra, 1982 is transferred to Chloromiopteryx as C. mirim (Terra, 1982) (new combination); Musoniola plurilobata Mello-Leitão, 1937 is transferred to Chloromiopteryx as C. plurilobata (Mello-Leitão, 1937) (new combination); Metathespis modesta Piza, 1968 is removed from synonymy with Chloromiopteryx thalassina (Burmeister, 1838) and considered valid as C. modesta (Piza, 1968) (new combination and status revalidated); Metathespis precaria Piza, 1968 is removed from synonymy with Chloromiopteryx thalassina (Burmeister, 1838) and considered a new synonym of Miobantia rustica (Fabricius, 1781); Eumiopteryx magna Jantsch, 1991 is transferred to Anamiopteryx as A. magna (Jantsch, 1991) (new combination). For Mantidae/Amelinae, Tithrone corseuli Jantsch, 1986 and T. clauseni Jantsch, 1995 are new synonyms of Litaneutria minor (Scudder, 1872); in Mantidae/Photininae Coptopteryx gigliotosi Piza, 1960 (non Werner, 1925), its replacement name Coptopteryx ermannoi Jantsch & Corseuil, 1988 and Paraphotina precaria Piza, 1966 (the latter currently placed within Coptopteryx) are all new synonyms of Coptopteryx argentina (Burmeister, 1838), whereas Brachypteromantis bonariensis Piza 1960 (currently placed among Coptopteryx) is a new synonym of Coptopteryx gayi

  7. A revision of the genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Lamiini).

    PubMed

    Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic, 1917 is redefined and revised. Five species of the genus are described as new, Pseudoechthistatus sinicus sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus chiangshunani sp. n. from central Yunnan, China, Pseudoechthistatus pufujiae sp. n. from western Yunnan, China, and Pseudoechthistatus holzschuhi sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus glabripennis sp. n. from southern Yunnan and northern Vietnam. Pseudoechthistatus birmanicus Breuning, 1942 is excluded from the fauna of China. Three poorly known species, Pseudoechthistatus obliquefasciatus Pic, 1917, Pseudoechthistatus granulatus Breuning, 1942, and Pseudoechthistatus acutipennis Chiang, 1981 are redescribed, and the type localities of the former two species are discussed. Endophallic structure of seven species in inflated and everted condition are studied and compared with their relatives. Illustrations of habitus and major diagnostic features of all species are provided. Some biological notes are reported. An identification key as well as a distributional map are presented.

  8. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed. PMID:27615886

  9. Novel bat adenoviruses with an extremely large E3 gene.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bing; Yang, Xing-Lou; Ge, Xing-Yi; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Biao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-07-01

    Bats carry diverse RNA viruses, some of which are responsible for human diseases. Compared to bat-borne RNA viruses, relatively little information is known regarding bat-borne DNA viruses. In this study, we isolated and characterized three novel bat adenoviruses (BtAdV WIV9-11) from Rhinolophus sinicus. Their genomes, which are highly similar to each other but distinct from those of previously sequenced adenoviruses (AdVs), are 37 545, 37 566 and 38 073 bp in size, respectively. An unusually large E3 gene was identified in their genomes. Phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses suggested that these isolates represent a distinct species of the genus Mastadenovirus. Cell susceptibility assays revealed a broad cell tropism for these isolates, indicating that they have a potentially wide host range. Our results expand the understanding of genetic diversity of bat AdVs. PMID:27032099

  10. Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms in east and west Guangdong coastal regions, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-30

    Heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As) concentrations, distribution and bioaccumulation were studied in marine organisms in Guangdong coastal regions. Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in organisms showed characteristics according to areas and species. Heavy metal concentrations in most organisms were higher in west than in east, tightly related to the local industry structure and the disequilibrium of metal discharge. Generally, high heavy metal concentrations were detected in molluscs and low concentrations were detected in fish. Bioaccumulation factor was used to assess the accumulation level of marine organisms to heavy metals, of which Cd, Cu and As were the most accumulated elements. Accumulation abilities to heavy metals varied among organism species, such as Distorsio reticulate accumulating Cu, Zn, Cd, As, Loligo beka Sasaki accumulating Pb, Cu, Cr, and Turritella bacillum Kiener accumulating Zn, Cd, As. By comparison, Johnius belengeri, Argyrosomus argentatus, Cynoglossus sinicus Wu had relatively low accumulation abilities.

  11. A revision of the genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Lamiini)

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic, 1917 is redefined and revised. Five species of the genus are described as new, Pseudoechthistatus sinicus sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus chiangshunani sp. n. from central Yunnan, China, Pseudoechthistatus pufujiae sp. n. from western Yunnan, China, and Pseudoechthistatus holzschuhi sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus glabripennis sp. n. from southern Yunnan and northern Vietnam. Pseudoechthistatus birmanicus Breuning, 1942 is excluded from the fauna of China. Three poorly known species, Pseudoechthistatus obliquefasciatus Pic, 1917, Pseudoechthistatus granulatus Breuning, 1942, and Pseudoechthistatus acutipennis Chiang, 1981 are redescribed, and the type localities of the former two species are discussed. Endophallic structure of seven species in inflated and everted condition are studied and compared with their relatives. Illustrations of habitus and major diagnostic features of all species are provided. Some biological notes are reported. An identification key as well as a distributional map are presented. PMID:27551207

  12. [Diet composition and seasonal variation in feeding habits of Collichthy lucidus in Yangtze Estuary, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-feng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Chao; Yang, Gang; Hou, Jun-li; Zhuang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Spiny head croaker (Collichthy lucidus) is an important bottom fish distributing from the East China Sea to the Yellow Sea. In order to investigate the seasonal variation in diet composition and feeding habits, a total of 270 specimens were collected in the Yangtze Estuary from November, 2013 to August, 2014, and analyzed by using the stomach contents analysis method. The importance of different prey items was evaluated by the frequency of occurrence, abundance and mass followed by using these data to calculate the index of relative importance (IRI) and the index of preponderance (Ip) for each taxonomic category. The results showed that the diet of C. lucidus consisted of 30 species belonging to 8 orders, in which shrimps, with 38.5 IRI% and 79.1 Ip values, was the most important prey species. The followings were Mysidacea and Amphipoda. The dominant species in the diet of C. lucidus were Palaemon gravieri, Exopalaemon annandalei, E. carinicauda, Acanthomysis longirostris, A. brevirostris, Synidotea laevidorsalis and Calanus sinicus. The dominant species in the diet varied in different seasons. P. gravieri, E. annandalei and A. brevirostris were dominant species in spring and summer, A. longirostris, A. brevirostris and E. carinicauda in autumn, and P. gravieri, C. sinicus and Pesudeuphausia sinica in winter. There was 10.4% of total samples with empty stomachs, and the highest percent appeared in winter, and the lowest in autumn. The mean stomach fullness index of the whole samples was 0.6%, with the highest found in spring, the lowest in winter, indicating the feeding activity of C. lucidus varied significantly among seasons.

  13. [Diet composition and seasonal variation in feeding habits of Collichthy lucidus in Yangtze Estuary, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-feng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Chao; Yang, Gang; Hou, Jun-li; Zhuang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Spiny head croaker (Collichthy lucidus) is an important bottom fish distributing from the East China Sea to the Yellow Sea. In order to investigate the seasonal variation in diet composition and feeding habits, a total of 270 specimens were collected in the Yangtze Estuary from November, 2013 to August, 2014, and analyzed by using the stomach contents analysis method. The importance of different prey items was evaluated by the frequency of occurrence, abundance and mass followed by using these data to calculate the index of relative importance (IRI) and the index of preponderance (Ip) for each taxonomic category. The results showed that the diet of C. lucidus consisted of 30 species belonging to 8 orders, in which shrimps, with 38.5 IRI% and 79.1 Ip values, was the most important prey species. The followings were Mysidacea and Amphipoda. The dominant species in the diet of C. lucidus were Palaemon gravieri, Exopalaemon annandalei, E. carinicauda, Acanthomysis longirostris, A. brevirostris, Synidotea laevidorsalis and Calanus sinicus. The dominant species in the diet varied in different seasons. P. gravieri, E. annandalei and A. brevirostris were dominant species in spring and summer, A. longirostris, A. brevirostris and E. carinicauda in autumn, and P. gravieri, C. sinicus and Pesudeuphausia sinica in winter. There was 10.4% of total samples with empty stomachs, and the highest percent appeared in winter, and the lowest in autumn. The mean stomach fullness index of the whole samples was 0.6%, with the highest found in spring, the lowest in winter, indicating the feeding activity of C. lucidus varied significantly among seasons. PMID:27228621

  14. Mesozooplankton and copepod community structures in the southern East China Sea: the status during the monsoonal transition period in September

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Li-Chun; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Chen, Qing-Chao; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-12-01

    A field sampling was conducted before the onset of the northeasterly monsoon to investigate the copepod community composition during the monsoon transition period at the northern coast of Taiwan (East China Sea). In total, 22 major mesozooplankton taxa were found, with the Calanoida (relative abundance: 66.36%) and Chaetognatha (9.44%) being the most abundant. Mesozooplankton densities ranged between 226.91 and 2162.84 individuals m-3 (mean ± SD: 744.01 ± 631.5 individuals m-3). A total of 49 copepod species were identified, belonging to 4 orders, 19 families, and 30 genera. The most abundant species were: Temora turbinata (23.50%), Undinula vulgaris (17.92%), and Acrocalanus gibber (14.73%). The chaetognath Flaccisagitta enflata occurred at all 8 sampling stations, providing a 95% portion of the overall chaetognath contribution. Amphipoda were abundant at stations 4 and 5, with Hyperioides sibaginis and Lestigonus bengalensis being dominant, and comprising about 50% of all amphipods. Chaetognath abundance showed a significantly negative correlation with salinity ( r = 0.77, p = 0.027), whereas mesozooplankton group numbers had a significantly positive correlation with salinity ( r = 0.71, p = 0.048). Densities of four copepod species ( Calanus sinicus, Calocalanus pavo, Calanopia elliptica and Labidocera acuta) showed a significantly negative correlation with seawater temperature. Communities of mesozooplankton and copepods of northern Taiwan varied spatially with the distance to land. The results of this study provide evidence for the presence of C. sinicus in the coastal area of northern Taiwan during the early northeast monsoon transition period in September.

  15. Structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthic community in Tai Lake, a large shallow lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Li,; Erickson, Richard A.; Song Tang,; Xuwen Li,; Zhichun Niu,; Xia Wang,; Hongling Liu,; Hongxia Yu,

    2016-01-01

    Tai Lake (Chinese: Taihu), the third-largest freshwater lake in China, suffers from harmful cyanobacteria blooms that are caused by economic development and population growth near the lake. Several studies have focused on phytoplankton in Tai Lake after a drinking water crisis in 2007; however, these studies primarily focused on microcystin bioaccumulation and toxicity to individual species without examining the effects of microcystin on macrobenthic community diversity. In this study, we conducted a survey of the lake to examine the effects of microcystine and other pollutants on marcobenthic community diversity. A totally of forty-nine species of macroinvertebrates were found in Tai Lake. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Corbicula fluminea were the most abundant species. Cluster-analysis and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) identified three significantly different macrobenthic communities among the sample sites. More specifically, sites in the eastern bays, where aquatic macrophytes were abundant, had the highest diversity of macrobenthic communities, which were dominated by Bellamya aeruginosa, Bellamya purificata, L. hoffmeisteri, and Alocinma longicornis. Sites in Zhushan Bay contained relatively diverse communities, mainly composed of L. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, L. claparederanus, R. sinicus, and Cythura sp. Sites in the western region, Meiliang Bay and Wuli Bay had the lowest diversity, mainly composed ofL. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, Branchiura sowerbyi, and Rhyacodrilus sinicus. In addition, the relationships between macrobenthic metrics (Shannon–Wiener, Margalef, and Pielou) and environmental variables showed that community structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthos in Tai Lake were significantly influenced by chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), lead (Pb), and microcystin-LR (L for leucine and R for arginine). Our findings provide critical information that could help managers and policymakers

  16. A Deep Insight Into the Sialotranscriptome of the Chagas Disease Vector, Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, José M. C.; Schwarz, Alexandra; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains a complex cocktail of pharmacologically active compounds that assists feeding by counteracting their hosts’ hemostatic and inflammatory reactions. Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister) is an important vector of Chagas disease in South America, but despite its importance there is only one salivary protein sequence publicly deposited in GenBank. In the present work, we used Illumina technology to disclose and publicly deposit 3,703 coding sequences obtained from the assembly of >70 million reads. These sequences should assist proteomic experiments aimed at identifying pharmacologically active proteins and immunological markers of vector exposure. A supplemental file of the transcriptome and deducted protein sequences can be obtained from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/P_megistus/Pmeg-web.xlsx. PMID:26334808

  17. A new species group of the genus Epicauta Dejean of southern South America, the bella group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, María P

    2011-10-01

    Epicauta includes two subgenera, and within the nominotypical subgenus several species groups. Analyzing species of southern South America, a set of species of Epicauta has the particularity to present two distinctive characters which separates this group from the other species groups of American Epicauta: color pattern of pubescence in elytra is not coincident with color pattern of tegument and endophalic hook robust. Based on these characters I propose a new group of species herein named bella group. This group includes the Neotropical species Epicauta bella Mäklin, E. brunneipennis (Haag-Rutemberg), E. diagramma (Burmeister), E. griseonigra (Fairmaire), E. luctifera (Fairmaire), E. riojana (Fairmaire) (new status), and E. zebra (Dohrn). This group is endemic of southern South America, inhabiting the Chaco biogeographical subregion, mainly in the arid northern areas of Argentina. Here we redefine the species of the bella group, consider new characters, illustrate the species in the group, provide maps of their distribution, and a key to identify them.

  18. Correction of the type species of the South American genus Gromphas Brullé, 1837 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Phanaeini).

    PubMed

    Cupello, Mario; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we (Cupello & Vaz-de-Mello, 2013) presented a taxonomic revision of the dung beetle genus Gromphas Brullé, 1837 in which we recognized the validity of five species: Gromphas aeruginosa (Perty, 1830), G. amazonica Bates, 1870, G. dichroa Blanchard, 1846, G. inermis Harold, 1869, and G. lemoinei Waterhouse, 1891. In that work, we also confirmed that Gromphas was described by Brullé (1837) without any included species and that the widely cited name "Gromphas lacordairei Brullé" was never formally described or cited by Brullé and, in fact, all citations to this name refer to G. lacordairii Burmeister, 1874, a junior synonym of G. inermis Harold, 1869. Thus, the question of the identity of the type species of Gromphas remained open. 

  19. Description of adult and third instar larva of Trichostetha curlei sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) from the Cape region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Šípek, Petr; Ball, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new high altitude montane species of Trichostetha Burmeister, 1842 is described from the Elandsberg range of the Western Cape interior. This represents the 14th species of the genus and the first to be reported with a description of its larva. It is a significant addition to the growing number of species that exhibit no adult feeding behaviour and a short period of activity restricted to the onset of summer. Larvae dwell in rock crevices, feeding on decomposing plant matter. The genus Trichostetha is heterogeneous and the complex variability observed in some species, especially T. capensis (Linnaeus, 1767), requires the re-instatement of taxa that were recently synonymised. Thus, T. bicolor Péringuey, 1907 is here re-proposed as a separate species and T. capensis hottentotta (Gory & Percheron, 1833) as a separate subspecies. Conversely, T. alutacea Allard, 1994 is recognised as a dark variety of T. signata (Fabricius, 1775) and is, consequently, synonymised with this species. PMID:25161367

  20. A Deep Insight Into the Sialotranscriptome of the Chagas Disease Vector, Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José M C; Schwarz, Alexandra; Francischetti, Ivo M B

    2015-05-01

    Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains a complex cocktail of pharmacologically active compounds that assists feeding by counteracting their hosts' hemostatic and inflammatory reactions. Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister) is an important vector of Chagas disease in South America, but despite its importance there is only one salivary protein sequence publicly deposited in GenBank. In the present work, we used Illumina technology to disclose and publicly deposit 3,703 coding sequences obtained from the assembly of >70 million reads. These sequences should assist proteomic experiments aimed at identifying pharmacologically active proteins and immunological markers of vector exposure. A supplemental file of the transcriptome and deducted protein sequences can be obtained from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/P_megistus/Pmeg-web.xlsx.

  1. Further evidence for the absence of bacteria in horsehair worms (Nematomorpha: Gordiidae).

    PubMed

    Hudson, Andrew J; Floate, Kevin D

    2009-12-01

    We used molecular techniques to characterize bacteria associated with the nematomorph Gordius robustus (Leidy). This worm is a parasite of the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus (Burmeister), which is infected with the symbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia. Because of this close association, our a priori expectation was that G. robustus may be similarly infected. However, results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA failed to detect any bacteria (symbiotic or non-symbiotic) in G. robustus. These unexpected findings suggest that G. robustus has no internal bacterial community and indicate that close association with a Wolbachia-infected host is insufficient for the transmission of bacteria from insect to nematomorph.

  2. Domiciliary cockroaches found in restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, J; Sulaiman, S; Oothuman, P; Vellayan, S; Zainol-Ariffin, P; Paramaswaran, S; Razak, A; Muslimin, M; Kamil-Ali, O B; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-03-01

    The following domiciliary cockroaches were collected from restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Malaysia using 1L glass beaker traps baited with ground mouse-pellets: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (n = 820), Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister (n = 46), Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (n = 12504), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (n = 321), Symploce pallens Stephens (n = 29) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) (n = 5). The following bacteria were isolated from 10 cockroach specimens: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. rhinoscleromatis and Serratia liquefaciens from 5 B. germanica; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Citrobacter diversus/amalonaticus, Escherichia vulneris and K.p. pneumoniae from 3 P. brunnea; and Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans 4, Escherichia adecarboxylate, E. vulneris, K. p. pneumonia, K. p. rhinoscleromatis and Proteus vulgeris from 2 P. americana.

  3. Damselflies (Zygoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Ahmed; Naeem, Muhammad; Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Naz, Falak; Afsheen, Sumera; Ilyas, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an effort to document bio-geographical distribution for Zygoptera of Pakistan. Damselflies were collected throughout the country and territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 2004–2009. A total of 2692 specimens were collected yielding 9 families, 21 genera, and 48 species and subspecies. Three of these species, Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister), Elattoneura atkinsoni (Selys), and Elattoneura souteri (Fraser), are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Distribution, habitats, previous records, and Zoogeographic affiliation for all collected taxa are discussed. Help was also taken from published literature on Zygoptera of Pakistan, and specimens housed at National Insect Museum were also studied. In total, 53 species are accounted for providing an updated record for all modern taxa of damselfly fauna of Pakistan. PMID:22221175

  4. Arthropods and their products as aphrodisiacs--review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pajovic, B; Radosavljevic, M; Radunovic, M; Radojevic, N; Bjelogrlic, B

    2012-04-01

    After a short review of impotence, the definitions of erectants and aphrodisiacs are presented. The Authors propose division of arthropods according to the places of effect. The description of particular arthropods with their pictures and nomenclature, is followed by certain or probable mechanisms of achieving the aphrodisiac and sometimes toxic effect, that were available in the literature since 1929 till nowadays. We mention the most usual locations, mainly in Asia, where they are found and consumed, but also, we describe the manner of preparing and intake. The review includes the following arthropods: lobster, Arizona bark scorpion, deathstalker, banana spider, Mediterranean black widow, Burmeister's triatoma, giant water bug, diving-beetle, Korean bug, diaclina, flannel moth, Spanish fly, migratory locust, red wood ant and honeybee.

  5. Natural enemies of woolly apple aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Lessando M; Cockfield, Stephen D; Beers, Elizabeth H

    2012-12-01

    Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), has become a pest of increasing importance in Washington apple orchards in the past decade. The increase in aphid outbreaks appears to be associated with changes in pesticide programs and disruption of biological control. We sampled woolly apple aphid colonies in central Washington apple orchards for natural enemies of this pest from 2006 to 2008. The most common predators encountered were Syrphidae (Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken, Eupeodes fumipennis Thomson, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann); Chrysopidae (Chrysopa nigricornis Burmeister); and Coccinellidae (Coccinella transversoguttata Brown and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville). The specialist syrphid Heringia calcarata Loew was recorded for the first time occurring in Washington apple orchards. The only parasitoid found in aerial colonies of woolly apple aphid was Aphelinus mali Haldeman; root colonies, however, were not parasitized. Identification of important natural enemies provides a better basis for conservation biological control of this pest.

  6. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) from Red Sea gulls with new host-parasite records.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmed, Azzam; Shobrak, Mohammed; Nasser, Mohamed G E-D

    2014-04-23

    Knowledge about chewing lice from marine birds of the Red Sea is minimal. Five species of gulls were examined for chewing lice in three different localities of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast. Two gull species were examined for lice for the first time (Larus armenicus Buturlin, 1934 and Larus michahellis Naumann, 1840) and their lice represent new host-louse associations. Four species and two subspecies of lice were identified from 159 specimens collected. Actornithophilus piceus lari (Packard, 1870) and Austromenopon transversum (Denny, 1842) (suborder: Amblycera), and Quadraceps punctatus (Burmeister, 1838) and Saemundssonia lari (O. Fabricius, 1780) (suborder: Ischnocera) were recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia and Red Sea birds. Taxonomic and ecological notes, type hosts, data on specimens examined, collecting localities, an identification key, and photographs of each species and subspecies are given. 

  7. Community structure of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from two sympatric gull species: kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) and Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan) in Talcahuano, Chile.

    PubMed

    González-Acuña, D; Corvalan, F; Barrientos, C; Doussang, D; Mathieu, C; Nilsson, L; Casanueva, M E; Palma, R L

    2011-01-01

    A total of 1,177 lice of four species were collected from 124 kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) and 137 lice of the same four species from 60 Franklin's gulls (Larus pipixcan). The louse Saemundssonia lari (O Fabricius) (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) was the most numerous on both gull species, with infestation rates of 4.9 on kelp gulls and 1.8 on Franklin's gulls. The second most abundant louse was Quadraceps punctatus (Burmeister), with a high infestation rate but low prevalence on kelp gulls; those parameters were much lower among lice from Franklin's gulls. The composition and community structure of the lice were similar on both host species, but not their infestation rates. In addition, the feather mite Zachvatkinia larica Mironov (Acari: Avenzoariidae) is recorded from kelp gulls and Franklin's gulls for the first time, while the gamasid mite Larinyssus sp. is recorded from kelp gulls, also for the first time. The population parameters of all species of ectoparasites are discussed.

  8. [Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera, Amblycera) of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, L.) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur; Derinbay Ekici, Ozlem; Işik, Nermin

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to detect chewing lice species occurring on starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, L). For this purpose, 27 starlings which were shot and sent in nylon bags to our laboratory by hunters were inspected for lice. Nine lice specimens were collected from the starlings and they were preserved in vials separately in 70% alcohol. They were cleared in 10% KOH for one or two days and mounted on slides in Canada balsam. They were examined by light microscope and identified to species. Four (14.81%) of 27 starlings were found to be infested with lice. Four species were identified as Myrsidea cucullaris (Nitzsch, 1818), Brueelia nebulosa (Burmeister, 1838), Sturnidoecus sturni (Schrank, 1766) and Brueelia sp. All of them have been reported for the first time from starlings in Turkey.

  9. [Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera, Amblycera) of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, L.) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur; Derinbay Ekici, Ozlem; Işik, Nermin

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to detect chewing lice species occurring on starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, L). For this purpose, 27 starlings which were shot and sent in nylon bags to our laboratory by hunters were inspected for lice. Nine lice specimens were collected from the starlings and they were preserved in vials separately in 70% alcohol. They were cleared in 10% KOH for one or two days and mounted on slides in Canada balsam. They were examined by light microscope and identified to species. Four (14.81%) of 27 starlings were found to be infested with lice. Four species were identified as Myrsidea cucullaris (Nitzsch, 1818), Brueelia nebulosa (Burmeister, 1838), Sturnidoecus sturni (Schrank, 1766) and Brueelia sp. All of them have been reported for the first time from starlings in Turkey. PMID:20101585

  10. A new species group of the genus Epicauta Dejean of southern South America, the bella group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, María P

    2011-10-01

    Epicauta includes two subgenera, and within the nominotypical subgenus several species groups. Analyzing species of southern South America, a set of species of Epicauta has the particularity to present two distinctive characters which separates this group from the other species groups of American Epicauta: color pattern of pubescence in elytra is not coincident with color pattern of tegument and endophalic hook robust. Based on these characters I propose a new group of species herein named bella group. This group includes the Neotropical species Epicauta bella Mäklin, E. brunneipennis (Haag-Rutemberg), E. diagramma (Burmeister), E. griseonigra (Fairmaire), E. luctifera (Fairmaire), E. riojana (Fairmaire) (new status), and E. zebra (Dohrn). This group is endemic of southern South America, inhabiting the Chaco biogeographical subregion, mainly in the arid northern areas of Argentina. Here we redefine the species of the bella group, consider new characters, illustrate the species in the group, provide maps of their distribution, and a key to identify them. PMID:22068944

  11. Towards a revision of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), with estimation of the diversity of each subgenus

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gustavo E.; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A review of the subgenera of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Pimeliinae: Praociini) is presented. Praocis comprises 77 species and 8 subspecies arranged in nine subgenera distributed in arid lands from Central Peru and Bolivia to the Southern part of Patagonia in Chile and Argentina. For each subgenus of Praocis: Praocis Eschscholtz, Mesopraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Anthrasomus Guérin-Méneville, Filotarsus Gay & Solier, Postpraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Hemipraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Orthogonoderes Gay & Solier, Praonoda Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., and Praocida Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., we present a diagnosis using new and constant characters of adult morphology such as clypeal configuration, length and proportion of antennomeres 9, 10 and 11, arrangement of apical tomentose sensory patches on antennomeres 10 and 11, anterior margin of prosternum, lateral margin of elytron, ventral surface of profemora, and shape of protibiae. An identification key for the nine subgenera of Praocis is presented. Type species are designated for the five new subgenera; for Mesopraocis: Praocis calderana Kulzer, for Postpraocis: Praocis pentachorda Burmeister, for Hemipraocis: Praocis sellata Berg, for Praonoda: Praocis bicarinata Burmeister, for Praocida: Praocis zischkai Kulzer, and for the previously described subgenus Orthogonoderes: Praocis subreticulata Gay & Solier. The current number of species and the estimated number of species to be described are presented. The distribution ranges of the subgenera, including new records from collections and recent expeditions, are given. Habitat preferences and a discussion of the biogeography of the genus are also presented. PMID:25009424

  12. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus ORF8 Protein Is Acquired from SARS-Related Coronavirus from Greater Horseshoe Bats through Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Feng, Yun; Chen, Honglin; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Yang, Wei-Hong; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Yi; Song, Zhi-Zhong; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Yeung, Hazel C.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. Although two SARS-related Rhinolophus sinicus bat CoVs (SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs) previously detected in Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) in Yunnan, RsSHC014 and Rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 protein exhibited only 32.2 to 33% amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. To elucidate the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, we sampled 348 bats of various species in Yunnan, among which diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses, including potentially novel CoVs, were identified, with some showing potential interspecies transmission. The genomes of two betacoronaviruses, SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C, from greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), possessed 93% nucleotide identities to human/civet SARSr-CoV genomes. Although these two betacoronaviruses displayed lower similarities than SARSr-Rs-BatCoV RsSHC014 and Rs3367 in S protein to civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 proteins demonstrated exceptionally high (80.4 to 81.3%) amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs, compared to SARSr-BatCoVs from other horseshoe bats (23.2 to 37.3%). Potential recombination events were identified around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. The expression of ORF8 subgenomic mRNA suggested that the ORF8 protein may be functional in SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs. The high Ka/Ks ratio among human SARS-CoVs compared to that among SARSr-BatCoVs supported that ORF8 is under strong positive selection during animal-to-human transmission. Molecular clock analysis using ORF1ab showed that SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C diverged from civet/human SARSr-CoVs in approximately 1990. SARS

  13. Response of copepod grazing and reproduction to different taxa of spring bloom phytoplankton in the Southern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaolun; Yang, Guang; Ning, Juan; Sun, Jun; Yang, Bo; Sun, Song

    2013-12-01

    The responses of copepod grazing and reproduction to the spring phytoplankton bloom were studied in the temperate shelf water of the Southern Yellow Sea in March-April, 2009. Two different algal blooms were found during the cruises. A diatom-dominated bloom at Station Z11, and a dinoflagellate-dominated bloom at Station Z4. The gut pigment contents indicated that different sized copepods exhibited different responses to different-species phytoplankton blooms. Large copepods (LC: body size larger than 1000 μm) and medium copepods (MC: body size ranging from 500 to 1000 μm), grazed actively on diatom blooms, but inactively on dinoflagellate blooms, although the chlorophyll-a concentrations of dinoflagellate blooms were twice as high as than those of the diatom blooms. For small copepods (SC: body size smaller than 500 μm), however, there was no significant difference in gut pigment contents between the two different algal blooms. Among the three size groups, LCs were the major grazers on the diatom bloom, while SCs were major grazers on the dinoflagellate bloom. Grazing impacts of copepod assemblages on phytoplankton blooms were low, only being equivalent to 1% day-1, or less, of the chlorophyll-a standing stock. The egg production rates of a large copepod, Calanus sinicus, were on average, 11.3 egg ind.-1 day-1, which was among the higher levels recorded in the study area, especially at the two stations where phytoplankton was blooming (21.8 and 14.9 egg ind.-1 day-1 at Stations Z11 and Z4, respectively). However, C. sinicus could only obtain sufficient food to support this high reproduction from the diatom bloom, but could not if relying only on the apparently unpalatable dinoflagellate bloom. Our analysis of copepod grazing and reproduction suggests that, although the spring blooms do enhance the reproduction of copepods, the taxa changed during spring blooms from large diatoms to small dinoflagellates would change the pathway of primary production. This would

  14. Molecular characterization of RIG-I, STAT-1 and IFN-beta in the horseshoe bat.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinju; Zhang, Guangxu; Cheng, Dalong; Ren, Hua; Qian, Min; Du, Bing

    2015-04-25

    Wild Chinese horseshoe bats have been proven to be natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. However, the molecular characterization of key proteins in bats still needs to be explored further. In this study, we used cloning and bioinformatics to analyze the sequence of RIG-I, STAT-1 and IFN-β in the immortalized cell lines from Rhinolophus affinis and Rhinolophus sinicus. Then, we treated different bat cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and splenocytes with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to assess and compare antiviral immune responses between bats and mice. Our results demonstrated that bat RIG-I, STAT-1 and IFN-β showed close homology with human, mouse, pig and rhesus monkey. RIG-I and STAT-1 were both highly expressed in bat spleen. Furthermore, IFN-β was induced by polyI:C and VSV in both bat and mouse cells. These findings have provided new insight into the potential characteristics of the bat innate immune system against viral infection. PMID:25680291

  15. A new species of the spider genus Plator (Trochanteriidae) from south China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ye-Jie; Zhu, Guang-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The spider genus Plator Simon (1880) is a small and little-known group in the spider family Trochanteriidae. Species of Plator are called flat-spiders in Chinese for the extremely flat habitus (Zhu & Wang 1963). Up to now, 11 Plator species have been recorded from India, China, Korea and Japan. Six of them, P. insolens Simon (1880), P. pandeae Tikader (1969), P. pennatus Platnick (1976), P. sinicus Zhu & Wang (1963), P. yunlong Zhu et al. (2006) and P. bowo Zhu et al. (2006) are reported from China (World Spider Catalog 2016). Zhu et al. (2006) suggested two species groups for at least all Chinese Plator species, the P. insolens group and the P. pennatus group. The former can be recognized by the absence of RTA of male pedipalp, and the narrow first windings of the copulatory duct system of female epigyne and the latter, distinguished by the presence of RTA and the broad first windings of the copulatory duct system. PMID:27615967

  16. Phylogeny and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats, Insectivores, and Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C.; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. PMID:23408889

  17. Improved description of the bipolar ciliate, Euplotes petzi, and definition of its basal position in the Euplotes phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Erra, Fabrizio; Paolo Frontini, Francesco; Dini, Fernando; Vallesi, Adriana; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2014-08-01

    Data improving the characterization of the marine Euplotes species, E. petzi Wilbert and Song, 2008, were obtained from morphological, ecological and genetic analyses of Antarctic and Arctic wild-type strains. This species is identified by a minute (mean size, 46 μm × 32 μm) and ellipsoidal cell body which is dorsally decorated with an argyrome of the double-patella type, five dorsal kineties (of which the median one contains 8-10 dikinetids), five sharp-edged longitudinal ridges, and a right anterior spur. Ventrally, it bears 10 fronto-ventral, five transverse, two caudal and two marginal cirri, 30-35 adoral membranelles, and three inconspicuous ridges. Euplotes petzi grows well at 4 °C on green algae, does not produce cysts, undergoes mating under the genetic control of a multiple mating-type system, constitutively secretes water-borne pheromones, and behaves as a psychrophilic microorganism unable to survive at >15 °C. While the α-tubulin gene sequence determination did not provide useful information on the E. petzi molecular phylogeny, the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence determination provided solid evidence that E. petzi clusters with E. sinicus Jiang et al., 2010a, into a clade which represents the deepest branch at the base of the Euplotes phylogentic tree. PMID:25051516

  18. Prevalent Ciliate Symbiosis on Copepods: High Genetic Diversity and Wide Distribution Detected Using Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally. PMID:23024768

  19. Improved description of the bipolar ciliate, Euplotes petzi, and definition of its basal position in the Euplotes phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Erra, Fabrizio; Paolo Frontini, Francesco; Dini, Fernando; Vallesi, Adriana; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2014-08-01

    Data improving the characterization of the marine Euplotes species, E. petzi Wilbert and Song, 2008, were obtained from morphological, ecological and genetic analyses of Antarctic and Arctic wild-type strains. This species is identified by a minute (mean size, 46 μm × 32 μm) and ellipsoidal cell body which is dorsally decorated with an argyrome of the double-patella type, five dorsal kineties (of which the median one contains 8-10 dikinetids), five sharp-edged longitudinal ridges, and a right anterior spur. Ventrally, it bears 10 fronto-ventral, five transverse, two caudal and two marginal cirri, 30-35 adoral membranelles, and three inconspicuous ridges. Euplotes petzi grows well at 4 °C on green algae, does not produce cysts, undergoes mating under the genetic control of a multiple mating-type system, constitutively secretes water-borne pheromones, and behaves as a psychrophilic microorganism unable to survive at >15 °C. While the α-tubulin gene sequence determination did not provide useful information on the E. petzi molecular phylogeny, the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence determination provided solid evidence that E. petzi clusters with E. sinicus Jiang et al., 2010a, into a clade which represents the deepest branch at the base of the Euplotes phylogentic tree.

  20. Headspace solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization for the determination of aldehydes in algae by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiping; Xiao, Ronghui; Li, Jinhua; Li, Jie; Shi, Benzhang; Liang, Yanjuan; Lu, Wenhui; Chen, Lingxin

    2011-06-01

    A simple, fast, sensitive and cost-effective method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with on-fiber derivatization coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of six typical aldehydes, 2E-hexenal, heptanal, 2E-heptenal, 2E,4E-heptadienal, 2E-decenal and 2E,4E-decadienal in laboratory algae cultures. As derivatization reagent, O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine hydrochloride, was loaded onto the poly(dimethylsiloxane)/divinylbenzene fiber for aldehydes on-fiber derivatization prior to HS-SPME. Various influence factors of extraction efficiency were systematically investigated. Under optimized extraction conditions, excellent method performances for all the six aldehydes were attained, such as satisfactory extraction recoveries ranging from 67.1 to 117%, with the precision (relative standard deviation) within 5.3-11.1%, and low detection limits in the range of 0.026-0.044 μg/L. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of the aldehydes in two diatoms (Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros muelleri), two pyrrophytas (Prorocentrum micans and Scrippsiella trochoidea) and Calanus sinicus eggs (feeding on the two diatoms above). PMID:21567947

  1. Identification of a Novel Gene for Biosynthesis of a Bacteroid-Specific Electron Carrier Menaquinone

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fuli; Cheng, Guojun; Xu, Hui; Wang, Zhi; Lei, Lei; Li, Youguo

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ) has been considered as an electron mediator in electron transfer that generates ATP in Rhizobium under both free-living and symbiosis conditions. When mutated, the dmtH gene has a symbiotic phenotype of forming ineffective nodules on Astragalus sinicus. The gene was isolated from a Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R transposon-inserted mutant library. The DNA sequence and conserved protein domain analyses revealed that dmtH encodes demethylmenaquinone (DMK) methyltransferase, which catalyzes the terminal step of menaquinone (MK) biosynthesis. Comparative analysis indicated that dmtH homologs were present in only a few Rhizobia. Real-time quantitative PCR showed dmtH is a bacteroid-specific gene. The highest expression was seen at 25 days after inoculation of strain 7653R. Gene disruption and complementation tests demonstrated that the dmtH gene was essential for bacteroid development and symbiotic nitrogen fixation ability. MK and UQ were extracted from the wild type strain 7653R and mutant strain HK116. MK-7 was accumulated under microaerobic condition and UQ-10 was accumulated under aerobic condition in M. huakuii 7653R. The predicted function of DmtH protein was confirmed by the measurement of methyltransferase activity in vitro. These results revealed that MK-7 was used as an electron carrier instead of UQ in M. huakuii 7653R bacteroids. PMID:22194970

  2. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Tian, Jun-Hua; Cong, Mei-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  3. RNA-Seq and Microarrays Analyses Reveal Global Differential Transcriptomes of Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R between Bacteroids and Free-Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jieli; Hao, Baohai; Liu, Liu; Wang, Shanming; Ma, Binguang; Yang, Yi; Xie, Fuli; Li, Youguo

    2014-01-01

    Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R occurs either in nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with its host plant, Astragalus sinicus, or free-living in the soil. The M. huakuii 7653R genome has recently been sequenced. To better understand the complex biochemical and developmental changes that occur in 7653R during bacteroid development, RNA-Seq and Microarrays were used to investigate the differential transcriptomes of 7653R bacteroids and free-living cells. The two approaches identified several thousand differentially expressed genes. The most prominent up-regulation occurred in the symbiosis plasmids, meanwhile gene expression is concentrated to a set of genes (clusters) in bacteroids to fulfill corresponding functional requirements. The results suggested that the main energy metabolism is active while fatty acid metabolism is inactive in bacteroid and that most of genes relevant to cell cycle are down-regulated accordingly. For a global analysis, we reconstructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network for 7653R and integrated gene expression data into the network using Cytoscape. A highly inter-connected subnetwork, with function enrichment for nitrogen fixation, was found, and a set of hubs and previously uncharacterized genes participating in nitrogen fixation were identified. The results described here provide a broader biological landscape and novel insights that elucidate rhizobial bacteroid differentiation, nitrogen fixation and related novel gene functions. PMID:24695521

  4. Laboratory study on the ecological impact of sophorolipid used for harmful algae elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Kim, Eunki; Sun, Song

    2010-11-01

    We studied the role of sophorolipid in inhibiting harmful algae bloom (HAB). Different sophorolipid concentrations were tested on marine microalgae, zooplankton, fish, and bivalve ( Mytilus edulis) in laboratory. The result shows that sophorolipid could inhibit the growth of algal species selectively. Among three algae species selected, Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis was promoted with increasing sophorolipid concentration; Isochrysis galbana was inhibited seven days later in sophorolipid concentration below 40 mg/L; and Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima was inhibited obviously in only a high sophorolipid concentration over 20 mg/L. Therefore, sophorolipid in a low concentration at <20 mg/L could remove certain harmful algae species effectively without harming other non-harmful microalgae. For other animals, sophorolipid could inhibit the growth of ciliate Strombidium sp. by 50% at 20 mg/L sophorolipid concentration after 96 h. The concentration in 96-h LC50 for Calanus sinicus, Neomysis awatschensis, Lateolabrax japonicus, and Paralichthys olivaceus was 15, 150, 60, and 110 mg/L, respectively. The 24 h LC50 value for Artemia salina was 600 mg/L. The relative clearance rate of mussel Mytilus edulis decreased to 80%, 40%, and 20% of the control group after being exposed to 20, 50, and 100 mg/L sophorolipid for 24 h. Therefore, the toxicity for mitigation of harmful algae bloom at previously recommended concentration of 5-20 mg/L sophorolipid is low for most tested organisms in this reaserch.

  5. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Tian, Jun-Hua; Cong, Mei-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. PMID:23408889

  6. The single evolutionary origin of chlorinated auxin provides a phylogenetically informative trait in the Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hong Kiat; Ross, John J; McAdam, Erin L; McAdam, Scott A M

    2016-07-01

    Chlorinated auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, 4-Cl-IAA), a highly potent plant hormone, was once thought to be restricted to species of the tribe Fabeae within the Fabaceae, until we recently detected this hormone in the seeds of Medicago, Melilotus and Trifolium species. The absence of 4-Cl-IAA in the seeds of the cultivated species Cicer aeritinum from the Cicerae tribe, immediately basal to the Fabeae and Trifolieae tribes, suggested a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA. Here, we provide a more robust phylogenetic placement of the ability to produce chlorinated auxin by screening key species spanning this evolutionary transition. We report no detectable level of 4-Cl-IAA in Cicer echinospermum (a wild relative of C. aeritinum) and 4 species (Galega officinalis, Parochetus communis, Astragalus propinquus and A. sinicus) from tribes or clades more basal or sister to the Cicerae tribe. We did detect 4-Cl-IAA in the dry seeds of 4 species from the genus Ononis that are either basal to the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella or basal to, but still within, the Fabeae and Trifolieae (ex. Parochetus) clades. We conclude that the single evolutionary origin of this hormone in seeds can be used as a phylogenetically informative trait within the Fabaceae. PMID:27302610

  7. The single evolutionary origin of chlorinated auxin provides a phylogenetically informative trait in the Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hong Kiat; Ross, John J; McAdam, Erin L; McAdam, Scott A M

    2016-07-01

    Chlorinated auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, 4-Cl-IAA), a highly potent plant hormone, was once thought to be restricted to species of the tribe Fabeae within the Fabaceae, until we recently detected this hormone in the seeds of Medicago, Melilotus and Trifolium species. The absence of 4-Cl-IAA in the seeds of the cultivated species Cicer aeritinum from the Cicerae tribe, immediately basal to the Fabeae and Trifolieae tribes, suggested a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA. Here, we provide a more robust phylogenetic placement of the ability to produce chlorinated auxin by screening key species spanning this evolutionary transition. We report no detectable level of 4-Cl-IAA in Cicer echinospermum (a wild relative of C. aeritinum) and 4 species (Galega officinalis, Parochetus communis, Astragalus propinquus and A. sinicus) from tribes or clades more basal or sister to the Cicerae tribe. We did detect 4-Cl-IAA in the dry seeds of 4 species from the genus Ononis that are either basal to the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella or basal to, but still within, the Fabeae and Trifolieae (ex. Parochetus) clades. We conclude that the single evolutionary origin of this hormone in seeds can be used as a phylogenetically informative trait within the Fabaceae.

  8. A Nodule-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein AsE246 Participates in Transport of Plant-Synthesized Lipids to Symbiosome Membrane and Is Essential for Nodule Organogenesis in Chinese Milk Vetch1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Ling; Shi, Xiaofeng; Li, Yixing; Wang, Jianyun; Chen, Dasong; Xie, Fuli; Li, Youguo

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobia in legume root nodules fix nitrogen in symbiosomes, organelle-like structures in which a membrane from the host plant surrounds the symbiotic bacteria. However, the components that transport plant-synthesized lipids to the symbiosome membrane remain unknown. This study identified and functionally characterized the Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus) lipid transfer protein AsE246, which is specifically expressed in nodules. It was found that AsE246 can bind lipids in vitro. More importantly, AsE246 can bind the plant-synthesized membrane lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol in vivo. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that AsE246 and digalactosyldiacylglycerol localize in the symbiosome membrane and are present in infection threads. Overexpression of AsE246 resulted in increased nodule numbers; knockdown of AsE246 resulted in reduced nodule numbers, decreased lipids contents in nodules, diminished nitrogen fixation activity, and abnormal development of symbiosomes. AsE246 knockdown also resulted in fewer infection threads, nodule primordia, and nodules, while AsE246 overexpression resulted in more infection threads and nodule primordia, suggesting that AsE246 affects nodule organogenesis associated with infection thread formation. Taken together, these results indicate that AsE246 contributes to lipids transport to the symbiosome membrane, and this transport is required for effective legume-rhizobium symbiosis. PMID:24367021

  9. SFTS virus in ticks in an endemic area of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiwen; Li, Jiandong; Niu, Guoyu; Wang, Xianjun; Ding, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaolin; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quanfu; Liang, Mifang; Bi, Zhenqiang; Li, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    In total, 3,145 ticks of the species Haemaphysalis longicornis (3,048; 96.9%), R. microplus (82; 2.6%), H. campanulata (9; 0.3%), and Dermacentor sinicus (5; 0.2%) were collected from animals and vegetation at Yantai in Shandong Province. Both adult and immature ticks were obtained, and all ticks collected from vegetation were unfed. Eggs were obtained from 22 blood-fed female ticks through maintenance at room temperature after collection. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) viral RNA was identified in H. longicornis and R. microplus, with a prevalence of 4.75 per 100 ticks (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 3.87-5.63) for ticks collected from animals and 2.24 per 100 ticks (95% CI = 1.27-3.21) for ticks collected from vegetation. The possibility that SFTSV transmission may occur by both the transstadial and transovarial routes was suggested by the fact that viral RNA was detected in H. longicornis at all developmental stages. Tick-derived sequences shared over 95.6% identity with human- and animal-derived isolates. This study provides evidence that implicates ticks as not only vectors but also, reservoirs of SFTSV. PMID:25711611

  10. Prevalent ciliate symbiosis on copepods: high genetic diversity and wide distribution detected using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally.

  11. Descriptive Study of Damage Caused by the Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon, and Its Influence on Date Palm Oases of Rjim Maatoug, Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Rasmi; lkbel, Chaieb; Habib Ben Hamouda, Med

    2008-01-01

    Oryctes agamemnon (Burmeister 1847) (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) was accidentally introduced in the southwestern oases of Tunisia (Tozeur) around 1980 and spread to the Rjim Maatoug region. In these areas O. agamemnon was specific to date palm trees causing severe damage that can result in potential danger due to collapse of the tree. This study was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in 4 sites in the region of Rjim Maatoug. Different levels of palm tree attack were determined, ovioposition sites were identified, and pest damage was described in detail to specify their relative importance and to indicate factors governing palm tree attack. Eggs were individually oviposited in the attacked parts. Dead parts of palm trees were the main target of O. agamemnon including the respiratory roots, tough, trunk bark, dry petiole and the periphery of the crown. The crown itself was not attacked. Feeding by larvae caused significant damage. The biggest danger occurred when heavy attacks of larvae invaded the respiratory roots at the level of the soil, and secondarily on the periphery of the crown, which can result in fungal diseases. Several cases of Deglet Nour date palm tree collapse were caused by this pest in Rjim Maatoug. Attacks on other parts of the tree were without danger for the palm tree. In the absence of pest management, application of a quarantine program combined with field cultivation techniques could help farmers significantly decrease attack of O. agamemnon on palm trees. PMID:20302545

  12. Virtual Screening of Plant Volatile Compounds Reveals a High Affinity of Hylamorpha elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Odorant-Binding Proteins for Sesquiterpenes From Its Native Host.

    PubMed

    González-González, Angélica; Palma-Millanao, Rubén; Yáñez, Osvaldo; Rojas, Maximiliano; Mutis, Ana; Venthur, Herbert; Quiroz, Andrés; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2016-01-01

    Hylamorpha elegans(Burmeister) is a native Chilean scarab beetle considered to be a relevant agricultural pest to pasture and cereal and small fruit crops. Because of their cryptic habits, control with conventional methods is difficult; therefore, alternative and environmentally friendly control strategies are highly desirable. The study of proteins that participate in the recognition of odorants, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), offers interesting opportunities to identify new compounds with the potential to modify pest behavior and computational screening of compounds, which is commonly used in drug discovery, may help to accelerate the discovery of new semiochemicals. Here, we report the discovery of four OBPs inH. elegans as well as six new volatiles released by its native host Nothofagus obliqua(Mirbel). Molecular docking performed between OBPs and new and previously reported volatiles from N. oblique revealed the best binding energy values for sesquiterpenic compounds. Despite remarkable divergence at the amino acid level, three of the four OBPs evaluated exhibited the best interaction energy for the same ligands. Molecular dynamics investigation reinforced the importance of sesquiterpenes, showing that hydrophobic residues of the OBPs interacted most frequently with the tested ligands, and binding free energy calculations demonstrated van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions to be the most important. Altogether, the results suggest that sesquiterpenes are interesting candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their potential application in pest management strategies.

  13. [Mallophaga species observed in white pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus, Linnaeus) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out on six white pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus) between the years 2002-2006. Oral cavities of the pelicans were examined macroscopically. The lice found in the oral cavities were collected by forceps and were preserved in tubes containing 70% alcohol. Also, each pelican was put in a big carton-box, the bottom of which was covered with a white paper and the pelicans were treated with propoxur for a few minutes. The lice that fell on to the paper were collected in a Petri dish and later on they were put in vials containing 70% alcohol. Five (83.3%) out of the six pelicans under examination were found to be infested with at least one lice species. From the oral cavities and bodies of the pelicans 346 lice were collected and three species namely: Piagetiella titan (Piaget, 1880), Pectinopygus forficulatus (Nitzsch, 1866) and Colpocephalum eucarenum (Burmeister, 1838) were identified as three Mallophaga species. Pectinopygus forficulatus and Colpocephalum eucarenum were recorded for the first time from the white pelicans in Turkey.

  14. Revision of Campsurus violaceus species group (Ephemeroptera: Polymitarcyidae) with new synonymies and nomina dubia in Campsurus Eaton, 1868.

    PubMed

    Molineri, C; Salles, F F; Emmerich, D

    2015-01-01

    The violaceus species group (formerly notatus species group) of Campsurus Eaton is revised. All the species in the violaceus group are diagnosed. A new species, C. molinai sp. nov. is described based on male imagos from Bolivia, characterized by their large and sclerotized penes. The violaceus group is proposed to include the following species: C. assimilis Traver, C. truncatus Ulmer (=C. mahunkai Puthz = C. melanocephalus Pereira & da Silva, new synonyms), C. violaceus Needham & Murphy (= C. meyeri Navás = C. notatus Needham & Murphy = C. paranensis Navás, new synonyms), C. emersoni Traver, C. decoloratus (Hagen), and C. molinai sp.nov. Additionally we consider the following species as nomina dubia: C. longicauda Navás, C. pfeifferi Navás, C. zikani Navás, C. albicans (orig. Ephemera albicans Percheron in Guerin & Percheron), C. burmeisteri Ulmer, C. dallasi Navás, C. quadridentatus Eaton, C. claudus Needham & Murphy, C. corumbanus Needham & Murphy, C. dorsalis (Burmeister), C. mutilus Needham & Murphy, and C. striatus Needham & Murphy. Given the results presented herein (five species synonymized and 12 proposed as nomina dubia), only 28 valid species remain in the genus Campsurus. Additionally, the nymphal stages of C. violaceus and C. truncatus are described and illustrated. Female adult genitalia (sockets) and eggs of C. decoloratus are described for the first time. Diagnoses, new country records, and redescriptions of selected characters of the imagos for the species of the violaceus group are given. PMID:25781239

  15. Functional features, biological pathways, and protein interaction networks of addiction-related genes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Zhongming

    2010-05-01

    Addictions are chronic and common brain disorders affected by many genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Recent genome-wide linkage and association studies have revealed several promising genomic regions and multiple genes relating to addictions. To explore the underlying biological processes in the development of addictions, we used 62 genes recently reviewed by Li and Burmeister (2009) as representative addiction-related genes, and then we investigated their features in gene function, pathways, and protein interaction networks. We performed enrichment tests of their Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and of their pathways in the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) system. The tests revealed that these addiction-related genes were highly enriched in neurodevelopment-related processes. Interestingly, we found circadian rhythm signaling in one of the enriched pathways. Moreover, these addiction-related genes tended to have higher connectivity and shorter characteristic shortest-path distances compared to control genes in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. This investigation is the first of such kind in addiction studies, and it is useful for further addiction candidate-gene prioritization and verification, thus helping us to better understand molecular mechanisms of addictions.

  16. First records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) in Pacific migratory shorebirds wintering in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haase, Ben; Alava, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Chewing lice were collected from small shorebirds (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae) overwintering in foraging grounds of coastal Ecuador. On 27 occasions at least one louse (3.7%) was collected from six host species. Based on external morphological characters, at least two species of chewing lice could be preliminary identified (family: Menoponidae), including Actornithophilus umbrinus (Burmeister, 1842) and Austromenopon sp. A. umbrinus was found in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri), Least Sandpiper (C. minutilla), Stilt Sandpiper (C. himantopus), Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) and Wilson's phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), while Austromenopon sp. is presumably the first record collected from the Surfbird (Aphriza virgata). These findings indicate that the distribution of these chewing lice species covers at least the regions around the equator (latitude 0°) until the Arctic in the north, but probably also includes the entire winter distribution area of the host species. This is the first study of chewing lice from Ecuador's mainland coast and more research is required to understand the host-parasite ecology and ectoparasitic infection in shorebirds stopping over the region.

  17. Cockroach fauna in the Ogasawara Chain Islands of Japan and analysis of their habitats.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Noriyuki; Kishimoto, Toshio; Uchida, Akihiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-03-01

    A survey of cockroach fauna was carried out on the 3 inhabited islands of the Ogasawara chain island of Japan, namely, Chichijima island, Hahajima island and Iwo island. Seven species, namely, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758), Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius, 1775), Blattella lituricollis (Walker, 1868), Onychostylus vilis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Opisthoplatia orientalis (Burmeister, 1838), were collected on Chichijima island. Four species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, O. vilis and P. surinamensis were collected on Hahajima island and 6 species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, B. lituricollis, O. vilis, P. surinamensis and Neostylopyga rhombifolia were collected on Iwo island. This is the first record of N. rhombifolia and Onychostylus orientalis on the Ogasawara chain islands. Our study increases the recorded taxon of cockroaches on the Ogasawara from 3 families, 5 genera 10 species to 4 families, 7 genera, 12 species. A list of the cockroach species on Ogasawara islands reported to date as well as a key for their identification is also presented. Periplaneta americana and P. australasiae, being the dominant species, together with S. longipalpa, were collected mostly in the indoor environment, indicating their preference for this habitat. Pycnoscelus surinamensis, which is considered as an outdoor insect has been found in semi-household environments such as greenhouse and shed, indicating their new adaptation to the changing environment.

  18. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  19. Descriptive study of damage caused by the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon, and its influence on date palm oases of Rjim Maatoug, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Rasmi; Lkbel, Chaieb; Habib Ben Hamouda, Med

    2008-01-01

    Oryctes agamemnon (Burmeister 1847) (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) was accidentally introduced in the southwestern oases of Tunisia (Tozeur) around 1980 and spread to the Rjim Maatoug region. In these areas O. agamemnon was specific to date palm trees causing severe damage that can result in potential danger due to collapse of the tree. This study was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in 4 sites in the region of Rjim Maatoug. Different levels of palm tree attack were determined, ovioposition sites were identified, and pest damage was described in detail to specify their relative importance and to indicate factors governing palm tree attack. Eggs were individually oviposited in the attacked parts. Dead parts of palm trees were the main target of O. agamemnon including the respiratory roots, tough, trunk bark, dry petiole and the periphery of the crown. The crown itself was not attacked. Feeding by larvae caused significant damage. The biggest danger occurred when heavy attacks of larvae invaded the respiratory roots at the level of the soil, and secondarily on the periphery of the crown, which can result in fungal diseases. Several cases of Deglet Nour date palm tree collapse were caused by this pest in Rjim Maatoug. Attacks on other parts of the tree were without danger for the palm tree. In the absence of pest management, application of a quarantine program combined with field cultivation techniques could help farmers significantly decrease attack of O. agamemnon on palm trees.

  20. Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the north Saharan oases ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10 d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1 h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females.

  1. Virtual Screening of Plant Volatile Compounds Reveals a High Affinity of Hylamorpha elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Odorant-Binding Proteins for Sesquiterpenes From Its Native Host

    PubMed Central

    Palma-Millanao, Rubén; Yáñez, Osvaldo; Rojas, Maximiliano; Mutis, Ana; Venthur, Herbert; Quiroz, Andrés; Ramírez, Claudio C.

    2016-01-01

    Hylamorpha elegans (Burmeister) is a native Chilean scarab beetle considered to be a relevant agricultural pest to pasture and cereal and small fruit crops. Because of their cryptic habits, control with conventional methods is difficult; therefore, alternative and environmentally friendly control strategies are highly desirable. The study of proteins that participate in the recognition of odorants, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), offers interesting opportunities to identify new compounds with the potential to modify pest behavior and computational screening of compounds, which is commonly used in drug discovery, may help to accelerate the discovery of new semiochemicals. Here, we report the discovery of four OBPs in H. elegans as well as six new volatiles released by its native host Nothofagus obliqua (Mirbel). Molecular docking performed between OBPs and new and previously reported volatiles from N. obliqua revealed the best binding energy values for sesquiterpenic compounds. Despite remarkable divergence at the amino acid level, three of the four OBPs evaluated exhibited the best interaction energy for the same ligands. Molecular dynamics investigation reinforced the importance of sesquiterpenes, showing that hydrophobic residues of the OBPs interacted most frequently with the tested ligands, and binding free energy calculations demonstrated van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions to be the most important. Altogether, the results suggest that sesquiterpenes are interesting candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their potential application in pest management strategies. PMID:27012867

  2. The efficacy and safety of alphacypermethrin as a pour-on treatment for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) infested with Haematopinus tuberculatus (Phthiraptera: Haematopinidae).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Cimmino, Roberta; Balestrieri, Anna; Rufrano, Domenico; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Santoro, Mario; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    The sucking louse Haematopinus tuberculatus (Burmeister 1839) is an ectoparasite of buffaloes, cattle, camels, and American bison. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to control arthropods of veterinary and public health interest. Therapeutics, such as antiparasitic compounds, is often administered to buffaloes based on dosage and intervals recommended for cattle because very few drugs have buffalo-specific label indications. A trial was conducted on 20 louse-infested buffaloes at a farm to assess the efficacy and safety of ACYP pour-on, at the manufacturer's recommended dose for cattle, on buffaloes naturally infested by H. tuberculatus. Ten animals were assigned to ACYP-treated group (ACYP-group) and ten to untreated control group (C-group). On day 0, all ACYP-group buffaloes received alphacypermethrin pour-on. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at eight predilection sites on the skin of each buffalo. ACYP was completely effective (100%) at day 7, highly effective (99.8%) at day 14, and completely effective (100%) from day 21 until the end of the study (day 56 post-treatment). During the trial, ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinically adverse reactions. The results of this trial suggest that ACYP is an effective, safe, and user-friendly compound suitable for treatment of buffaloes with natural louse infestations.

  3. Biological parameters of interbreeding subspecies of Meccus phyllosomus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Nogueda-Torres, B; Cárdenas-De la Cruz, M Á; Villagrán, M E; de Diego-Cabrera, J A; Bustos-Saldaña, R

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the biological parameters of some triatomine subspecies of Meccus phyllosomus (Burmeister) is a crucial first step in estimating the epidemiological importance of this group. Biological parameters related to egg eclosion, egg-to-adult development time, number of blood meals to moult, percentage of females at the end of the cycle, number of laid eggs, and the accumulative mortality for each instar of three M. phyllosomus subspecies [Meccus phyllosomus pallidipennis (Stål), Meccus phyllosomus longipennis (Usinger), and Meccus phyllosomus picturatus (Usinger)] as well as their laboratory hybrids were evaluated and compared. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were recorded among the experimental hybrids (M. p. longipennis × M. p. pallidipennis, M. p. longipennis × M. p. picturatus, M. p. pallidipennis × M. p. picturatus) and reciprocal cohorts. In five of the six studied parameters (egg eclosion, egg-to-adult development time, number of blood meals to moult, number of laid eggs and accumulative mortality), with the exception of the non-significant percentage of females obtained among all the studied cohorts, at least one of the parental cohorts in each set of crosses exhibited better fitness results than by those of their hybrid descendants. The lack of hybrid fitness in our study indicates the maintenance of reproductive isolation of parental genotypes. Moreover, the results lead us to propose that an incipient speciation process by distance is currently developing among the three studied subspecies, increasing the differences between them that modify the transmission efficiency of Trypanosoma cruzi to human beings in Mexico.

  4. Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylurastrongylura.

    PubMed

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoafrontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropustylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodeslacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochusbellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasiluscoleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylurastrongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylurastrongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoafrontalis, 252 Lernanthropustylosuri, 31 Caligodeslacinatus, 24 Bomolochusbellones and 32 Dermoergasiluscoleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropustylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed.

  5. Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylura strongylura

    PubMed Central

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

  6. Potential for Sulfoxaflor to Improve Conservation Biological Control of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh K; Alves, Tavvs M; Koch, Robert L

    2016-10-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is one of the most important insect pests of soybean in the north central United States. Management of A. glycines currently relies on applications of broad-spectrum insecticides. However, broad-spectrum insecticides can negatively impact the natural enemies associated with aphids. Selective insecticides, on the other hand, are promising control tactics for reducing the negative impact of insecticide applications. Here, we compared the effects of sulfoxaflor (a new selective insecticide) and broad-spectrum insecticides on A. glycines and predators in a two-year field experiment. We sampled A. glycines and aphid predator populations using visual whole-plant inspection. In addition, sweep-net sampling was performed to monitor predator populations. To evaluate the toxicity of the insecticides on predator populations, laboratory bioassays were performed on Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Orius insidiosus (Say), and Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister). Field results showed that sulfoxaflor was as effective as the broad-spectrum insecticide in suppressing soybean aphid populations and was less impactful on predator populations. The laboratory bioassays showed that sulfoxaflor was moderately harmful to O. insidiosus, harmless to slightly harmful to H. convergens, and harmless to C. rufilabris These studies suggest that sulfoxaflor holds promise for improving integration of chemical and biological controls for A. glycines management. PMID:27535848

  7. Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the north Saharan oases ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10 d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1 h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females. PMID:25527574

  8. Characterisation of microsatellite loci in two species of lice, Polyplax serrata (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Polyplacidae) and Myrsidea nesomimi (Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Menoponidae).

    PubMed

    Martinu, Jana; Roubova, Veronika; Novakova, Milena; Smith, Vincent S; Hypsa, Vaclav; Stefka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphic microsatellite loci were characterised for two louse species, the anopluran Polyplax serrata Burmeister, 1839, parasitising Eurasian field mice of the genus Apodemus Kaup, and the amblyceran Myrsidea nesomimi Palma et Price, 2010, found on mocking birds endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Evolutionary histories of the two parasites show complex patterns influenced both by their geographic distribution and through coevolution with their respective hosts, which renders them prospective evolutionary models. In P. serrata, 16 polymorphic loci were characterised and screened across 72 individuals from four European populations that belong to two sympatric mitochondrial lineages differing in their breadth of host-specificity. In M. nesomimi, 66 individuals from three island populations and two host species were genotyped for 15 polymorphic loci. The observed heterozygosity varied from 0.05 to 0.9 in P. serrata and from 0.0 to 0.96 in M. nesomimi. Deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were frequently observed in the populations of both parasites. Fst distances between tested populations correspond with previous phylogenetic data, suggesting the microsatellite loci are an informative resource for ecological and evolutionary studies of the two parasites.

  9. Oviposition response of green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and potential attractants on pecan.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Brian A; Cottrell, Ted E

    2007-06-01

    Pecan foliage is attacked by three species of aphids [Monellia caryella (Fitch), Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), and Monelliopsis pecanis Bissell], resulting in damage that can reduce tree nut yield. In this study, we assayed the ovipositional response of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) to M. caryella and M. caryaefoliae at high and low aphid densities and the development of C. rufilabris larvae when fed solely on each of the three pecan aphid species. During 2004 and 2005, combinations of attractants and food sprays were applied to pecan trees in an orchard to monitor green lacewing ovipositional response. We found that C. rufilabris laid more eggs on seedling trees infested with the M. caryella (at both high and low densities) than on seedlings infested with M. caryaefoliae. Development of C. rufilabris was unaffected by aphid species. At least one attractant/food spray treatment applied to trees in an orchard significantly increased green lacewing oviposition for three of the five treatment dates over both years. These results show that larvae of C. rufilabris will consume all aphid species attacking pecan, even though female ovipositional response can differ for aphid species. It is likely that combinations of attractants and food sprays can be used to enhance green lacewing populations in orchards. PMID:17540067

  10. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, M. J.; Firth, C.; Bhat, M.; Firth, M. A.; Che, X.; Lee, D.; Williams, S. H.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26336309

  11. Man B W brings two-stroke slow-speed engines back to Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kunberger, K.

    1994-09-01

    In a move started almost ten years ago, MAN B W Diesel A/S has now centralized the company's Copenhagen activities into one place. With these moves, it seems that the restructuring of the Danish engine builder, Burmeister Wain, into a member of the worldwide diesel engine group, MAN B W, has been completed. Just as interesting, however, are recent moves to expand the company's capabilities for producing two-stroke engines in Europe. MAN in Augsburg, Germany, acquired B W in 1980. This was the time when MAN decided to terminate its own two-stroke engine developments in favor of the B W design. The two-stroke engines designed in Copenhagen are more than 90% directed to the marine market and less than 10% for land-based power plants. Whereas, in Augsburg, the four-stroke engine market activities are some 65% directed to the power generation market, leaving 35% to marine. The big medium-speed marine engines built in Augsburg are mostly used for passenger ships, cruise ships and ferries, just to name the major applications. The two-stroke engines from Copenhagen are used for container ships, tankers or bulk carriers. 2 figs.

  12. The Hohmann-Parker Effect and its Consequences Measured by the Mars Science Laboratory on the Transfer from Earth to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, A.; Odstrcil, D.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Elliott, H. A.; Frahm, R. A.; Hayes, J. J.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Christian, E. R.; Andrews, J.; Brinza, D.; Epperly, M. E.; Neal, K.; Seimetz, L.; Smith, K. D.; Tyler, Y.; Weigle, E.

    2013-12-01

    We show that a spacecraft launched from Earth towards Mars following a Hohmann minimum energy transfer trajectory has a strong tendency to remain well-connected magnetically to Earth, in the early phase of the transfer, or to Mars in the late phase, via the Parker spiral magnetic field. On the return trip, the spacecraft would remain reasonably well-connected first to Mars and later to Earth. Moreover, good magnetic connectivity occurs on all Hohmann transfers between neighboring planets in the inner solar system out to Mars. We call this hitherto unnamed circumstance the Hohmann-Parker effect. We show consequences of the effect by means of simultaneous cosmic radiation proxy observations made near Earth, near Mars, and at the Mars Science Laboratory on the transfer from Earth to Mars in 2011/2012. We support the observations with simulations of the large-scale magnetic field of the inner heliosphere during this period and compare the results with our predictions. The implications of the Hohmann-Parker effect are discussed. MSL RAD Science Team: R. Beaujean, S. Boettcher, M. Bullock, S. Burmeister, F. A. Cucinotta, B. Ehresmann, D. Grinspoon, J. Guo, D. M. Hassler, M.-H. Kim, J. Koehler, O. Kortmann, C. Martin-Garcia, S. C. R. Rafkin, G. Reitz, and R. F. Wimmer-Schweingruber SOHO EPHIN Science Team: B. Heber, R. Mueller-Mellin

  13. Niche Partitioning in Three Sympatric Congeneric Species of Dragonfly, Orthetrum chrysostigma, O. coerulescens anceps, and O. nitidinerve: The Importance of Microhabitat

    PubMed Central

    Khelifa, Rassim; Zebsa, Rabah; Moussaoui, Abdelkrim; Kahalerras, Amin; Bensouilah, Soufyane; Mahdjoub, Hayat

    2013-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity has been shown to promote co-existence of closely related species. Based on this concept, a field study was conducted on the niche partitioning of three territorial congeneric species of skimmers (Anisoptera: Libellulidae) in Northeast Algeria during the breeding season of 2011. According to their size, there is a descending hierarchy between Orthetrum nitidinerve Sélys, O. chrysostigma (Burmeister), and O. coerulescens anceps (Schneider). After being marked and surveyed, the two latter species had the same breeding behavior sequence. Knowing that they had almost the same size, such species could not co-occur in the same habitat according to the competitive exclusion principle. The spatial distribution of the three species was investigated at two different microhabitats, and it was found that these two species were actually isolated at this scale. O. chrysostigma and O. nitidinerve preferred open areas, while O. c. anceps occurred in highly vegetated waters. This study highlights the role of microhabitat in community structure as an important niche axis that maintains closely related species in the same habitat. PMID:24219357

  14. Mitogenomic Phylogenetics of Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.): Genetic Evidence for Revision of Subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Frederick I.; Morin, Phillip A.; Hancock-Hanser, Brittany L.; Robertson, Kelly M.; Leslie, Matthew S.; Bérubé, Martine; Panigada, Simone; Taylor, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    There are three described subspecies of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus): B. p. physalus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Northern Hemisphere, B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829 in the Southern Hemisphere, and a recently described pygmy form, B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. The discrete distribution in the North Pacific and North Atlantic raises the question of whether a single Northern Hemisphere subspecies is valid. We assess phylogenetic patterns using ∼16 K base pairs of the complete mitogenome for 154 fin whales from the North Pacific, North Atlantic - including the Mediterranean Sea - and Southern Hemisphere. A Bayesian tree of the resulting 136 haplotypes revealed several well-supported clades representing each ocean basin, with no haplotypes shared among ocean basins. The North Atlantic haplotypes (n = 12) form a sister clade to those from the Southern Hemisphere (n = 42). The estimated time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for this Atlantic/Southern Hemisphere clade and 81 of the 97 samples from the North Pacific was approximately 2 Ma. 14 of the remaining North Pacific samples formed a well-supported clade within the Southern Hemisphere. The TMRCA for this node suggests that at least one female from the Southern Hemisphere immigrated to the North Pacific approximately 0.37 Ma. These results provide strong evidence that North Pacific and North Atlantic fin whales should not be considered the same subspecies, and suggest the need for revision of the global taxonomy of the species. PMID:23691042

  15. Comparison of copepod collection efficiencies by three commonly used plankton nets: A case study in Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongju; Yu, Hao; Liu, Guangxing

    2016-09-01

    Selection of net with a suitable mesh size is a key concern in the quantitative assessment of zooplankton, which is crucial to understand pelagic ecosystem processes. This study compared the copepod collecting efficiency of three commonly used plankton nets, namely, the China standard coarse net (505 μm mesh), the China standard fine net (77 μm), and the WP-2 net (200 μm). The experiment was performed at six stations in the Bohai Sea during the autumn of 2012. The coarse net substantially under-sampled small individuals (body widths < 672 μm) and led to the lowest species number in each tow, whereas the fine net collected all small copepod species but failed to collect rare species. The WP-2 net appeared to be a compromise of the two other nets, collecting both small copepods and rare species. The abundance of copepods collected by the coarse net (126.4 ± 86.5 ind m-3) was one to two orders of magnitude lower than that by the WP-2 net (5802.4 ± 2595.4 ind m-3), and the value of the fine net (11117.0 ± 4563.41 ind m-3) was nearly twice that of the WP-2 net. The abundance of large copepods (i.e., adult Calanus sinicus) in the three nets showed no significant differences, but the abundance of small copepods declined with decreasing mesh size. The difference in abundance resulted from the under-sampling of small copepods with body widths < 672 μm and < 266 μm by the coarse and WP-2 nets, respectively.

  16. Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ben; Li, Bei; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhou, Ji-Hua; Luo, Chu-Ming; Yang, Xing-Lou; Wu, Li-Jun; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yun; Li, Zong-Xiao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-02-01

    Since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak prompted a search for the natural reservoir of the SARS coronavirus, numerous alpha- and betacoronaviruses have been discovered in bats around the world. Bats are likely the natural reservoir of alpha- and betacoronaviruses, and due to the rich diversity and global distribution of bats, the number of bat coronaviruses will likely increase. We conducted a surveillance of coronaviruses in bats in an abandoned mineshaft in Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, China, from 2012-2013. Six bat species were frequently detected in the cave: Rhinolophus sinicus, Rhinolophus affinis, Hipposideros pomona, Miniopterus schreibersii, Miniopterus fuliginosus, and Miniopterus fuscus. By sequencing PCR products of the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (RdRp), we found a high frequency of infection by a diverse group of coronaviruses in different bat species in the mineshaft. Sequenced partial RdRp fragments had 80%-99% nucleic acid sequence identity with well-characterized Alphacoronavirus species, including BtCoV HKU2, BtCoV HKU8, and BtCoV1, and unassigned species BtCoV HKU7 and BtCoV HKU10. Additionally, the surveillance identified two unclassified betacoronaviruses, one new strain of SARS-like coronavirus, and one potentially new betacoronavirus species. Furthermore, coronavirus co-infection was detected in all six bat species, a phenomenon that fosters recombination and promotes the emergence of novel virus strains. Our findings highlight the importance of bats as natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and the potentially zoonotic source of viral pathogens. PMID:26920708

  17. Track Analysis of the North, Central, and South American Species of the Epicauta maculata Group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, M P; García, M S; Safenraiter, M E

    2015-08-01

    We undertook a panbiogeographic analysis of 23 species of the Epicauta maculata group of America-Epicauta abeona Pinto, Epicauta adspersa (Klug), Epicauta andersoni Werner, Epicauta atomaria (Germar), Epicauta apache Pinto, Epicauta cavernosa (Courbon), Epicauta dilatipennis Pic, Epicauta fulvicornis (Burmeister), Epicauta horni Champion, Epicauta jeffersi Pinto, Epicauta koheleri Denier, Epicauta lizeri Denier, E. maculata (Say), Epicauta magnomaculata Martin, Epicauta minutepunctata Borchmann, Epicauta nigropunctata (Blanchard), Epicauta normalis Werner, Epicauta ocellata (Dugès), Epicauta pardalis LeConte, picauta phoenix Werner, Epicauta pluvialis Borchmann, Epicauta proscripta Werner, Epicauta rubella Denier, and Epicauta ventralis Werner-with the purpose of analyzing the distributional data for taxa, to establish patterns of distribution of an ancestral biota and areas where these groups have interacted. Based on the overlap of 20 individual tracks, four generalized tracks constituted by different numbers of species were identified; two of them are located in the Nearctic region and the Mexican transition zone (tracks "A" and "B"), and the other two are distributed in the Neotropical region and the South America transition zone ("C", "D"). Six nodes were recognized: Two of them are included in the Nearctic Region, node 'I' located in northern USA and node 'II' located in southwestern USA, both at the intersection of the tracks "A" and "B". The other four are included in the Neotropical Region at the intersection of the tracks "C" and "D": Node 'III' is located in Chaco province; node 'IV' is located in Parana Forest province; node 'V' is located in the northwest of Argentina in Puna province, and node 'VI' is located in Monte province. PMID:26174956

  18. Track Analysis of the North, Central, and South American Species of the Epicauta maculata Group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, M P; García, M S; Safenraiter, M E

    2015-08-01

    We undertook a panbiogeographic analysis of 23 species of the Epicauta maculata group of America-Epicauta abeona Pinto, Epicauta adspersa (Klug), Epicauta andersoni Werner, Epicauta atomaria (Germar), Epicauta apache Pinto, Epicauta cavernosa (Courbon), Epicauta dilatipennis Pic, Epicauta fulvicornis (Burmeister), Epicauta horni Champion, Epicauta jeffersi Pinto, Epicauta koheleri Denier, Epicauta lizeri Denier, E. maculata (Say), Epicauta magnomaculata Martin, Epicauta minutepunctata Borchmann, Epicauta nigropunctata (Blanchard), Epicauta normalis Werner, Epicauta ocellata (Dugès), Epicauta pardalis LeConte, picauta phoenix Werner, Epicauta pluvialis Borchmann, Epicauta proscripta Werner, Epicauta rubella Denier, and Epicauta ventralis Werner-with the purpose of analyzing the distributional data for taxa, to establish patterns of distribution of an ancestral biota and areas where these groups have interacted. Based on the overlap of 20 individual tracks, four generalized tracks constituted by different numbers of species were identified; two of them are located in the Nearctic region and the Mexican transition zone (tracks "A" and "B"), and the other two are distributed in the Neotropical region and the South America transition zone ("C", "D"). Six nodes were recognized: Two of them are included in the Nearctic Region, node 'I' located in northern USA and node 'II' located in southwestern USA, both at the intersection of the tracks "A" and "B". The other four are included in the Neotropical Region at the intersection of the tracks "C" and "D": Node 'III' is located in Chaco province; node 'IV' is located in Parana Forest province; node 'V' is located in the northwest of Argentina in Puna province, and node 'VI' is located in Monte province.

  19. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binds independently to both sites of the IgG homodimer with identical affinity

    PubMed Central

    Abdiche, Yasmina Noubia; Yeung, Yik Andy; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Barman, Ishita; Strop, Pavel; Chin, Sherman Michael; Pham, Amber; Bolton, Gary; McDonough, Dan; Lindquist, Kevin; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is expressed by cells of epithelial, endothelial and myeloid lineages and performs multiple roles in adaptive immunity. Characterizing the FcRn/IgG interaction is fundamental to designing therapeutic antibodies because IgGs with moderately increased binding affinities for FcRn exhibit superior serum half-lives and efficacy. It has been hypothesized that 2 FcRn molecules bind an IgG homodimer with disparate affinities, yet their affinity constants are inconsistent across the literature. Using surface plasmon resonance biosensor assays that eliminated confounding experimental artifacts, we present data supporting an alternate hypothesis: 2 FcRn molecules saturate an IgG homodimer with identical affinities at independent sites, consistent with the symmetrical arrangement of the FcRn/Fc complex observed in the crystal structure published by Burmeister et al. in 1994. We find that human FcRn binds human IgG1 with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 760 ± 60 nM (N = 14) at 25°C and pH 5.8, and shows less than 25% variation across the other human subtypes. Human IgG1 binds cynomolgus monkey FcRn with a 2-fold higher affinity than human FcRn, and binds both mouse and rat FcRn with a 10-fold higher affinity than human FcRn. FcRn/IgG interactions from multiple species show less than a 2-fold weaker affinity at 37°C than at 25°C and appear independent of an IgG's variable region. Our in vivo data in mouse and rat models demonstrate that both affinity and avidity influence an IgG's serum half-life, which should be considered when choosing animals, especially transgenic systems, as surrogates. PMID:25658443

  20. Courtship behavior of the castniid palm borer, Paysandisia archon: potential roles of male scents and visual cues in a day-flying moth.

    PubMed

    Delle-Vedove, Roxane; Frérot, Brigitte; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The castniid palm borer, Paysandisia archon (Burmeister) (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), is a South American moth that in the last ten years has become a major pest of palm trees in the Mediterranean region. Current knowledge on the reproductive behavior of this diurnal moth suggests the importance of both visual and chemical cues, in particular the production of a male pheromone emitted during a specific scratching behavior. Male-produced scents have diverse functions in lepidopteran sexual communication but generally act during courtship behavior, leading to complex, stereotyped courtship sequences. As a first step to understand the cues involved in mating behavior and the role of male scents in male mating success, we quantified sequences of P. archon courtship behavior using video filming. To distinguish behaviors leading to an approach of both partners from those involved in short-range courtship, sequences were divided into "approach" and "interaction" phases. Quantifications and analyses were first made by NPMANOVA analysis of behavioral event frequencies, followed by flowchart construction using transition matrix probabilities. In 90% of the observations, courting activities led to copulation, but successful sequences were highly variable and could be divided into two categories, "rapid" and "prolonged" courtship sequences. In both categories, approaches were performed by males but depended strongly on female movements, especially on female flights. The significant behavioral differences were observed after the first contact (i.e., interaction phase) where, in rapid sequences, males generally acceded to copulation without displaying scratching behavior. Conversely, in prolonged sequences, the female expressed evading behavior and male scratching frequency increased. The possible roles of male scent emission in female mate choice and the importance of visual cues in the mating behavior of P. archon are discussed. PMID:25373199

  1. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida “fly free zone” protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224

  2. The assassin bug subfamily Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Vietnam: an annotated checklist of species.

    PubMed

    Lam, Truong Xuan; Cai, Wanzhi; Tomokuni, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of all known Vietnamese species of the assassin bug subfamily Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) is presented with distributional and taxonomic notes. Sixty-five species in 35 genera of the subfamily are recognized in Vietnam. Eleven genera and 32 species are reported herein for the first time from this country. Newly recorded genera are Henricohahnia Breddin, 1900, Kalonotocoris Miller, 1941, Lingnania China, 1940, Lopodytes Stål, 1853, Macracanthopsis Reuter, 1881, Sclomina Stål, 1861, Serendiba Distant, 1906, Serendus Hsiao, 1979, Vesbius Stål, 1866, Villanovanus Distant, 1904, and Yolinus Amyot & Serville, 1843. New record species are Biasticus confusus Hsiao, 1979, B. flavinotus (Matsumura, 1913), Cosmolestes annulipes Distant, 1879, C. pulcher Hsiao, 1979, Cydnocoris fasciatus Reuter, 1881, C. gilvus (Burmeister, 1838), Endochus nigricornis Stål, 1859, Henricohahnia vittata Miller, 1954, Isyndus heros (Fabricius, 1803), I. pilosipes Reuter, 1881, Kalonotocoris curvipes Miller, 1941, Lingnania braconiformis China, 1940, Lopodytes spectabilis Miller, 1941, Macracanthopsis nodipes Reuter, 1881, Sclomina erinacea Stål, 1861, Serendiba nigrospina Hsiao, 1979, S. staliana (Horváth, 1879), Serendus geniculatus Hsiao, 1979, Sphedanolestes annulipes Distant, 1903, S. gularis Hsiao, 1979, S. impressicollis (Stål, 1861), S. pubinotus Reuter, 1881, S. trichrous Stål, 1874, S. xiongi Cai & Cai, 2004, Sycanus croceus Hsiao, 1979, Velinus annulatus Distant, 1879, V. malayus (Stål, 1863), V. rufiventris Hsiao, 1979, Vesbius purpureus (Thunberg, 1784), V. sanguinosus Stål, 1874, Villanovanus nigrorufus Hsiao, 1979, and Yolinus albopustulatus China, 1940. All the species are examined with Vietnamese materials except for Agriosphodrus dohrni (Signoret, 1862), Cydnocoris russatus Stål, 1867, and Sycanus atrocoeruleus Signoret, 1862. PMID:25781817

  3. Adhesion of living cells revealed by variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso Dos Santos, Marcelina; Vézy, Cyrille; Jaffiol, Rodolphe

    2016-02-01

    Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) is a widespread technique to study cellular process occurring near the contact region with the glass substrate. In this field, determination of the accurate distance from the surface to the plasma membrane constitutes a crucial issue to investigate the physical basis of cellular adhesion process. However, quantitative interpretation of TIRF pictures regarding the distance z between a labeled membrane and the substrate is not trivial. Indeed, the contrast of TIRF images depends on several parameters more and less well known (local concentration of dyes, absorption cross section, angular emission pattern…). The strategy to get around this problem is to exploit a series of TIRF pictures recorded at different incident angles in evanescent regime. This technique called variable-angle TIRF microscopy (vaTIRFM), allowing to map the membrane-substrate separation distance with a nanometric resolution (10-20 nm). vaTIRFM was developed by Burmeister, Truskey and Reichert in the early 1990s with a prism-based TIRF setup [Journal of Microscopy 173, 39-51 (1994)]. We propose a more convenient prismless setup, which uses only a rotatable mirror to adjust precisely the laser beam on the back focal plane of the oil immersion objective (no azimuthal scanning is needed). The series of TIRF images permit us to calculate accurately membrane-surface distances in each pixel. We demonstrate that vaTIRFM are useful to quantify the adhesion of living cells for specific and unspecific membrane-surface interactions, achieved on various functionalized substrates with polymers (BSA, poly-L-lysin) or extracellular matrix proteins (collagen and fibronectin).

  4. Courtship behavior of the castniid palm borer, Paysandisia archon: potential roles of male scents and visual cues in a day-flying moth.

    PubMed

    Delle-Vedove, Roxane; Frérot, Brigitte; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence

    2014-04-19

    The castniid palm borer, Paysandisia archon (Burmeister) (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), is a South American moth that in the last ten years has become a major pest of palm trees in the Mediterranean region. Current knowledge on the reproductive behavior of this diurnal moth suggests the importance of both visual and chemical cues, in particular the production of a male pheromone emitted during a specific scratching behavior. Male-produced scents have diverse functions in lepidopteran sexual communication but generally act during courtship behavior, leading to complex, stereotyped courtship sequences. As a first step to understand the cues involved in mating behavior and the role of male scents in male mating success, we quantified sequences of P. archon courtship behavior using video filming. To distinguish behaviors leading to an approach of both partners from those involved in short-range courtship, sequences were divided into "approach" and "interaction" phases. Quantifications and analyses were first made by NPMANOVA analysis of behavioral event frequencies, followed by flowchart construction using transition matrix probabilities. In 90% of the observations, courting activities led to copulation, but successful sequences were highly variable and could be divided into two categories, "rapid" and "prolonged" courtship sequences. In both categories, approaches were performed by males but depended strongly on female movements, especially on female flights. The significant behavioral differences were observed after the first contact (i.e., interaction phase) where, in rapid sequences, males generally acceded to copulation without displaying scratching behavior. Conversely, in prolonged sequences, the female expressed evading behavior and male scratching frequency increased. The possible roles of male scent emission in female mate choice and the importance of visual cues in the mating behavior of P. archon are discussed.

  5. The life cycle of the root borer, Oryctes agamemnon, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Rasmi; Chaieb, Ikbel; Ben Hamouda, Med Habib

    2008-01-01

    The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant and were never seen outside. Pupation takes place in the plant and emergence of the adults begins in June. Larval feeding causes extensive damage to the respiratory roots. To examine the life cycle more closely, the O. agamemnon life cycle was studied under laboratory conditions. Different larval stages were collected from infested oases in Tozeur and placed in plastic boxes with natural food that was collected from the oases. After emergence, adults were paired in opaque plastic boxes for mating with the same food substrate which also served as an oviposition site. Eggs were collected daily and isolated in new boxes. Hatched eggs were recorded. The number of larval instars was determined by measuring the width of cephalic capsules. Under laboratory conditions (23 +/- 2'C and 55 +/- 6% RH)embryogenesis took 14.3 +/- 1.42 days and the first, second and third larval instars were 33.1 +/- 2.69, 63.88 +/- 6.6 and 118.3 +/- 13.38 days respectively. The pupal period lasted 24.1 +/- 3.02 days and the adult 65.27 +/- 9.48 days. These facts indicated that O. agamemnon is univoltine. PMID:20302536

  6. Predicting temporal shifts in the spring occurrence of overwintered Scotinophara lurida (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and rice phenology in Korea with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoseok; Kang, Wee Soo; Ahn, Mun Il; Cho, Kijong; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Climate change could shift the phenology of insects and plants and alter their linkage in space and time. We examined the synchrony of rice and its insect pest, Scotinophara lurida (Burmeister), under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 8.5 climate change scenario by comparing the mean spring immigration time of overwintered S. lurida with the mean rice transplanting times in Korea. The immigration time of S. lurida was estimated using an overwintered adult flight model. The rice transplanting time of three cultivars (early, medium, and medium-late maturing) was estimated by forecasting the optimal cultivation period using leaf appearance and final leaf number models. A temperature increase significantly advanced the 99 % immigration time of S. lurida from Julian day 192.1 in the 2000s to 178.4 in the 2050s and 163.1 in the 2090s. In contrast, rice transplanting time was significantly delayed in the early-maturing cultivar from day 141.2 in the 2000s to 166.7 in the 2050s and 190.6 in the 2090s, in the medium-maturing cultivar from day 130.6 in the 2000s to 156.6 in the 2050s and 184.7 in the 2090s, and in the medium-late maturing cultivar from day 128.5 in 2000s to 152.9 in the 2050s and 182.3 in the 2090s. These simulation results predict a significant future phenological asynchrony between S. lurida and rice in Korea.

  7. PER3 Polymorphism and Insomnia Severity in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Armitage, Roseanne; Burmeister, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is common, persistent, and associated with relapse in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. Although the underlying mechanisms are mostly unstudied, AD patients have impaired circadian rhythms and sleep drive, which may be genetically influenced. A polymorphism in the PER3 gene (PER34/4, PER34/5, PER35/5) has previously been associated with circadian preference and sleep homeostasis, and the PER34/4genotype has been characterized by evening preference and decreased sleep drive. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of this polymorphism on insomnia severity in AD patients. We hypothesized that the PER3 polymorphism would be an independent predictor of insomnia severity with greatest severity observed in those with the PER34/4genotype. Design: Cross-sectional association of patient characteristics, genotype, and insomnia severity. Significant (P < 0.05) bivariate correlates were further analyzed by hierarchical, forced entry multiple linear regression. Setting: Alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland. Patients: Diagnosed with alcohol dependence (n = 285), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Measurements and Results: Drinking frequency, mental and physical health status, childhood abuse, and PER3 genotype were independent predictors of insomnia severity, as measured by a 7-item subscale of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire, explaining 28.9% of the variance. Addition of the genotype in the final step significantly increased the amount of variance explained by 1.1% (P = 0.027). Those with the PER34/4genotype had the greatest severity of insomnia symptoms. Conclusions: PER3 genotype contributed unique variance in predicting insomnia severity in AD patients. These results are consistent with genetically influenced impairment in sleep regulation mechanisms in AD patients with insomnia. Citation: Brower KJ; Wojnar M; Sliwerska E; Armitage R; Burmeister M. PER3 polymorphism and

  8. The species of Botanochara Dejean, 1836 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Argentina: an identification key, new host plant records and list of Cassidinae found in birds' nests and other protected places.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Osvaldo Di

    2014-12-04

    The genus Botanochara Dejean, 1836 comprises 43 species distributed in the Neotropical Region, among which 26 (57%) are known from Argentina. Botanochara praefica (Spaeth, 1940) is synonymized with B. macularia (Boheman, 1850). Botanochara missionea (Spaeth, 1915) and B. tessellata (Burmeister, 1870) are illustrated for the first time. Botanochara duodecimnotata (Boheman, 1850) and Botanochara segnis (Boheman, 1862) are new country records. Six species are shared with Bolivia, 21 with Brazil, 15 with Paraguay, one with Peru, and 7 with Uruguay. The known geographic distributions, synonymies, hybrids, chromosome numbers, and host plants in Argentina and adjacent countries are summarized. New localities and host plants, and some corrections of misidentified species from Argentina are given. Distribution maps of all species in Argentina with known localities superimposed with biogeographic provinces are provided. The southern limits of Botanochara in western, central and eastern Argentina are established and correlates with the known distributions of Ipomoea L. species (Convolvulaceae). A total of 12,815 specimens of Cassidinae were found inside birds' nests from Argentina, from which 11,538 (90.03%) belong to 8 species of Botanochara; 9,331 (80.87%) were found during Autumn (21th March to 20th June) and Winter (21th June to 20th September) (diapause), and 2,207 (19.13%) during Spring (21 th September to 20 th December) and Summer (21 th December to 20 th March) (aseasonal quiescence). Additional records of two other Cassidinae found in birds' nests and other protected places, Carlobruchia tricostata (Spaeth, 1907) and Stolas lacordairei (Boheman, 1850), are also provided. 

  9. Importance of species of Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Grant-Guillén, Y; Morales-Corona, Z Y; Haro-Rodríguez, S; Ventura-Rodríguez, L V; Nogueda-Torres, B; Bustos-Saldaña, R

    2008-05-01

    The epidemiological risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas in human populations of western Mexico is still under study. Although most vectors in this region and their vector capability are already known, new studies estimating the risk and the importance of individual Triatominae species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) for T. cruzi transmission are necessary. For 1 yr, every month, > 400 human dwellings and their surroundings in eight communities of two western Mexico states were searched for triatomines. More than 1,000 specimens representing four species were collected and checked for T. cruzi infection. Based on the usual entomological indices, only the inhabitants of Gavilán El Progreso-La Villita are at serious risk of vectorial infection by T. cruzi. A population of Meccus longipennis (Usinger) was found living in peridomestic rock pile boundary walls after an insecticide spraying. It was confirmed the major role of peridomestic habitats as shelter areas for triatomines, particularly in rock pile boundary walls and chicken roosts. Triatominae presence also was verified in certain sylvatic habitats, including primarily heaps of stones. The important role of M. longipennis in the potential transmission of T. cruzi in the region and the secondary role of M. picturatus (Usinger) and Triatoma barberi Usinger also were confirmed. Null colonization of houses by T. barberi, which was collected primarily in peridomestic habitats, differs from its common intradomiciliary collection in other studies. Meccus pallidipennis (Stål) most probably does not exist in Nayarit. Meccus mazzottii (Usinger) and Meccus phyllosomus (Burmeister) are no longer found in Nayarit and Jalisco. Additional studies are necessary to determine the current epidemiological situation in other areas of western Mexico.

  10. Male-produced pheromone of the green lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-He; Schneidmiller, Rodney G; Hoover, Doreen R; Young, Kevin; Welshons, Dewayne O; Margaryan, Armenak; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Chauhan, Kamlesh R

    2006-10-01

    Gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis showed that male antennae of the green lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis Burmeister, the most common lacewing species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, consistently responded to two compounds in thoracic extracts of conspecific males: 1-tridecene and (1R,2S,5R,8R)-iridodial. These compounds were not detected in extracts of the abdominal cuticle, and no other antennally active compounds were found in the abdominal samples. In field-trapping experiments, traps baited with iridodial significantly attracted large numbers of C. nigricornis males (both western and eastern forms) during summer and early fall, plus a few individuals of conspecific females only in early fall. Iridodial also attracted males of the goldeneyed lacewing, C. oculata Say, and, to a lesser extent, C. coloradensis Banks males. Methyl salicylate (MS), reported as an attractant for both sexes of C. nigricornis and C. oculata, was inactive by itself at the concentration tested in our study, but in a few instances slightly enhanced the responses of Chrysopa spp. to iridodial. However, MS alone and its binary blend with iridodial seemed to attract the hoverfly, Metasyrphus americanus (Weidemann). 2-Phenylethanol, a reported attractant for another lacewing, Chrysoperla plorabunda (Fitch) [=carnea (Say)], did not capture any lacewings. Our assays indicated that the lacewing pheromone, iridodial, loaded onto either rubber septa or as a binary blend with MS in polyethylene bags could last at least 5 wk in the field during the summer season. Based on this study, a new attractant system for green lacewings is being developed for both domestic and international markets.

  11. Effects of winter cover crops residue returning on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community in double-cropping rice fields.

    PubMed

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice-rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The β-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality.

  12. Effects of winter cover crops straws incorporation on CH4 and N2O emission from double-cropping paddy fields in southern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hai-Ming; Xiao, Xiao-Ping; Tang, Wen-Guang; Wang, Ke; Sun, Ji-Min; Li, Wei-Yan; Yang, Guang-Li

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is believed to improve soil quality. However, the effects of residue management on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from paddy field in Southern China have not been well researched. The emissions of CH4 and N2O were investigated in double cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems with straw returning of different winter cover crops by using the static chamber-gas chromatography technique. A randomized block experiment with three replications was established in 2004 in Hunan Province, China, including rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (Ry-R-R), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (Mv-R-R) and rice-rice with winter fallow (Fa-R-R). The results showed that straw returning of winter crops significantly increased the CH4 emission during both rice growing seasons when compared with Fa-R-R. Ry-R-R plots had the largest CH4 emissions during the early rice growing season with 14.235 and 15.906 g m(-2) in 2012 and 2013, respectively, when Ry-R-R plots had the largest CH4 emission during the later rice growing season with 35.673 and 38.606 g m(-2) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The Ry-R-R and Mv-R-R also had larger N2O emissions than Fa-R-R in both rice seasons. When compared to Fa-R-R, total N2O emissions in the early rice growing season were increased by 0.05 g m(-2) in Ry-R-R and 0.063 g m(-2) in Mv-R-R in 2012, and by 0.058 g m(-2) in Ry-R-R and 0.068 g m(-2) in Mv-R-R in 2013, respectively. Similar result were obtained in the late rice growing season, and the total N2O emissions were increased by 0.104 g m(-2) in Ry-R-R and 0.073 g m(-2) in Mv-R-R in 2012, and by 0.108 g m(-2) in Ry-R-R and 0.076 g m(-2) in Mv-R-R in 2013, respectively. The global warming potentials (GWPs) from paddy fields were ranked as Ry-R-R>Mv-R-R>Fa-R-R. As a result, straw returning of winter cover crops has significant effects on increase of CH4 and N2O emission from paddy field in double cropping rice system.

  13. Effects of Winter Cover Crops Residue Returning on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microbial Community in Double-Cropping Rice Fields

    PubMed Central

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice–rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice–rice–Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice–rice–rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice–rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The β-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

  14. Effects of winter cover crops residue returning on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community in double-cropping rice fields.

    PubMed

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice-rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The β-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

  15. Evaluation of Mercury Contamination in Fungi Boletus Species from Latosols, Lateritic Red Earths, and Red and Yellow Earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Saba, Martyna; Krasińska, Grażyna; Wiejak, Anna; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg) have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter). Soil samples of the 0–10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from Yunnan

  16. Effects of Winter Cover Crops Straws Incorporation on CH4 and N2O Emission from Double-Cropping Paddy Fields in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hai-Ming; Xiao, Xiao-Ping; Tang, Wen-Guang; Wang, Ke; Sun, Ji-Min; Li, Wei-Yan; Yang, Guang-Li

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is believed to improve soil quality. However, the effects of residue management on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from paddy field in Southern China have not been well researched. The emissions of CH4 and N2O were investigated in double cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems with straw returning of different winter cover crops by using the static chamber-gas chromatography technique. A randomized block experiment with three replications was established in 2004 in Hunan Province, China, including rice–rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (Ry-R-R), rice–rice–Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (Mv-R-R) and rice–rice with winter fallow (Fa-R-R). The results showed that straw returning of winter crops significantly increased the CH4 emission during both rice growing seasons when compared with Fa-R-R. Ry-R-R plots had the largest CH4 emissions during the early rice growing season with 14.235 and 15.906 g m−2 in 2012 and 2013, respectively, when Ry-R-R plots had the largest CH4 emission during the later rice growing season with 35.673 and 38.606 g m−2 in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The Ry-R-R and Mv-R-R also had larger N2O emissions than Fa-R-R in both rice seasons. When compared to Fa-R-R, total N2O emissions in the early rice growing season were increased by 0.05 g m−2 in Ry-R-R and 0.063 g m−2 in Mv-R-R in 2012, and by 0.058 g m−2 in Ry-R-R and 0.068 g m−2 in Mv-R-R in 2013, respectively. Similar result were obtained in the late rice growing season, and the total N2O emissions were increased by 0.104 g m−2 in Ry-R-R and 0.073 g m−2 in Mv-R-R in 2012, and by 0.108 g m−2 in Ry-R-R and 0.076 g m−2 in Mv-R-R in 2013, respectively. The global warming potentials (GWPs) from paddy fields were ranked as Ry-R-R>Mv-R-R>Fa-R-R. As a result, straw returning of winter cover crops has significant effects on increase of CH4 and N2O emission from paddy field in double cropping rice system

  17. Multicenter evaluation of a broth macrodilution antifungal susceptibility test for yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Fromtling, R A; Galgiani, J N; Pfaller, M A; Espinel-Ingroff, A; Bartizal, K F; Bartlett, M S; Body, B A; Frey, C; Hall, G; Roberts, G D

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen laboratories collaborated to optimize interlaboratory agreement of results of a broth macrodilution procedure for testing three classes of antifungal drugs against pathogenic yeasts. The activities of amphotericin B, flucytosine, and ketoconazole were tested against 100 coded isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae, Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Two starting yeast inoculum sizes (5 x 10(4) and 2.5 x 10(3) cells per ml) were compared, and readings were taken after 24 and 48 h of incubation. All other test conditions were standardized. The resultant turbidities in all tubes were estimated visually on a scale from 0 to 4+ turbidity, and MIC-0, MIC-1, and MIC-2 were defined as the lowest drug concentrations that reduced growth to 0, 1+, or 2+ turbidity, respectively. For flucytosine, agreement among laboratories varied between 57 and 87% for different inocula, times of incubation, and end point criteria. Agreement was maximized (85%) when the lower inoculum was incubated for 2 days and the MICs were defined as 1+ turbidity or less. For amphotericin B, variations in test conditions produced much smaller differences in interlaboratory agreement. For ketoconazole, interlaboratory agreement was poorer by all end point criteria. However, MIC-2 endpoints distinguished T. glabrata as resistant compared with the other species. Overall, the studies indicated that readings from the lower inoculum obtained on the second day of reading result in the greatest interlaboratory agreement. In combination with data from previous multicenter studies (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Antifungal Susceptibility Testing: Committee Report, Vol. 5, No. 17, 1988; M. A. Pfaller, L. Burmeister, M. S. Bartlett, and M. G. Rinaldi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:1437-1441, 1988; M. A. Pfaller, M. G. Rinaldi, J. N. Galgiani, M. S. Bartlett, B.A. Body, A. Espinel-Ingroff, R.A. Fromtling, G.S. Hall, C

  18. A review of the research on Canary Islands praying mantises (Mantodea).

    PubMed

    Wieland, Frank; Schütte, Kai; Goldberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    For many years researchers studying the fauna of the Canary Islands have only sparsely treated the charismatic insect order of praying mantises (Mantodea). By studying the known literature it becomes obvious that there are several inconsistencies regarding mantodean taxonomy as well as the number of actual species and their distribution within the archipelago. In the present contribution, the literature treating the Canary Island Mantodea fauna is thoroughly reviewed, and the distribution of the ten known Mantodea species is presented with additional comments on the taxonomic problems. The taxonomy and distribution of the Canary Island Amelinae has been causing some confusion in the literature and is therefore discussed for a better understanding of the composition of this group. So far, seven species of Amelinae (two species of Ameles Burmeister and five species of Pseudoyersinia Kirby) are recognized for the Canary Islands. A careful survey of the taxonomic literature indicates that there is a substantial degree of variability in this group, which may have led to frequent misidentifications. This is reflected by the inconsistent literature data on the distribution of several Pseudoyersinia species within the archipelago. A crucial amendment and clarification is provided regarding the date of description (1838) of Ameles gracilis (Brullé) and Ameles limbata (Brullé) as it varies in the literature. Nomenclatural changes regarding the homonymy of Mantis limbata Brullé and Mantis limbata Hahn, previously proposed by Koçak & Kemal (2008), are rejected and discussed in detail. One of the Mantodea species, Empusa pennata (Thunberg), is frequently mentioned in the literature to be present on the Canary Islands, but after carefully reviewing the literature data it is evident that this species has never actually been found on any of the islands. The aim of this publication is to lay a basis for future research on the Mantodea fauna of the Canary Islands, their

  19. A review of the research on Canary Islands praying mantises (Mantodea).

    PubMed

    Wieland, Frank; Schütte, Kai; Goldberg, Julia

    2014-05-21

    For many years researchers studying the fauna of the Canary Islands have only sparsely treated the charismatic insect order of praying mantises (Mantodea). By studying the known literature it becomes obvious that there are several inconsistencies regarding mantodean taxonomy as well as the number of actual species and their distribution within the archipelago. In the present contribution, the literature treating the Canary Island Mantodea fauna is thoroughly reviewed, and the distribution of the ten known Mantodea species is presented with additional comments on the taxonomic problems. The taxonomy and distribution of the Canary Island Amelinae has been causing some confusion in the literature and is therefore discussed for a better understanding of the composition of this group. So far, seven species of Amelinae (two species of Ameles Burmeister and five species of Pseudoyersinia Kirby) are recognized for the Canary Islands. A careful survey of the taxonomic literature indicates that there is a substantial degree of variability in this group, which may have led to frequent misidentifications. This is reflected by the inconsistent literature data on the distribution of several Pseudoyersinia species within the archipelago. A crucial amendment and clarification is provided regarding the date of description (1838) of Ameles gracilis (Brullé) and Ameles limbata (Brullé) as it varies in the literature. Nomenclatural changes regarding the homonymy of Mantis limbata Brullé and Mantis limbata Hahn, previously proposed by Koçak & Kemal (2008), are rejected and discussed in detail. One of the Mantodea species, Empusa pennata (Thunberg), is frequently mentioned in the literature to be present on the Canary Islands, but after carefully reviewing the literature data it is evident that this species has never actually been found on any of the islands. The aim of this publication is to lay a basis for future research on the Mantodea fauna of the Canary Islands, their

  20. Studies on Neotropical Phasmatodea XVI: Revision of Haplopodini Günther, 1953 (rev. stat.), with notes on the subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 and the descriptions of a new tribe, four new genera and nine new species (Phasmatodea: "Anareolatae": Phasmatidae: Cladomorphinae).

    PubMed

    Hennemann, Frank H; Conle, Oskar V; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    eggs. Haplopodini Günther, 1953 is re-established (rev. stat.) and comprises almost exclusively Caribbean genera previously placed in Hesperophasmatini by Bradley & Galil (1977) or Cranidiini by Zompro, (2004). Aploploides Rehn & Hebard, 1938, Diapherodes Gray, 1835, Haplopus Burmeister, 1838 and Paracranidium Brock, 1998 were misplaced in Cranidiini and are transferred to Haplopodini. On the basis of numerous morphological characters of the insects and eggs Hesperophasmatini is removed from Pseudophasmatidae: Xerosomatinae and re-transferred to its previous position in the subfamily Cladomorphinae sensu lato. A detailed newdiagnosis of Hesperophasmatini is presented, but is only provisional since the true diversity is as yet only fractionally known. The lack of a gula distinguishes Hesperophasmatini from all other tribes. The genus Laciphorus Redtenbacher, 1908 is removed from Hesperophasmatini and transferred to Diapheromeridae: Diapheromerinae: Diapheromerini. The new tribe Pterinoxylini n. trib. is established to contain only the type-genus Pterinoxylus Audinet-Serville, 1838. It is closely related and perhaps the sister taxon of Hesperophasmatini, with which it shares the presence of rough sensory areas on the probasisternum and profurcasternum. It differs from Hesperophasmatini and Haplopodini by the presence of a tympanal region (= stridulatory organ) in the alae of females and the alveolar eggs, which possess peripheral opercular and polar structures. Haplopodini is likely to be the sister group of Pterinoxylini n. trib. + Hesperophasmatini.        The tribe Haplopodini rev. stat. is revised at the species level and comprises eight almost exclusively Caribbean genera, four of which are newly described. All eight genera now contained in Haplopodini are described in detail, differentiated from their closest relatives and their relationships and systematic position within Haplopodini are discussed. Keys and maps showing their distributions are presented