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Sample records for adoretus sinicus burmeister

  1. Sex Determination in the Chinese Rose Beetle, Adoretus sinicus, and overview of Adoretus species of biosecurity concern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Adoretini), is a broadly polyphagous scarab beetle that is economically important and causes damage to a wide variety of host plants including agricultural crops and ornamentals in Southeast Asia, China, the ...

  2. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  3. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai’i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  4. Timing of onset of evening activity of adult chinese rose beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...

  5. Control of Chinese rose beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) through the use of solar-powered nighttime illumination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister), a scarab beetle found in Asia and the Pacific Islands, was first reported in Hawaii in 1891. Adults feed at night on leaves of a wide range of plant species, including many that are economically important. Aggregate feeding can stunt or even kill ...

  6. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) from Central China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lifen; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We present a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus from Central China and provide its annotation, as well as showed the phylogenetic relationship and mitogenomic variation with other published mitochondrial genomes of congeneric bat species. Our results revealed a relatively high mitogenomic variation between two R. s. sinucus from Central and East China, which is similar to interspecific divergence level. PMID:26057010

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of a Chinese rufous horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Haijian; Dong, Ji; Shi, Huizhen; Ren, Min; Hua, Panyu

    2016-09-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in China. In this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies R. s. sinicus was obtained. The total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. The arrangement and contents of R. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family Rhinolophida. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm the subspecies status of our specimen. PMID:25740216

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Cynoglossus sinicus (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Jiang, Jin-Xia; Miao, Xian-Guang; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Cynoglossidae (tongue soles) mitogenomes have been found to be translocated in their control region and a tRNA gene inversed, but no gene rearrangement in Soleidae, the closest family to Cynoglossidae, has been detected. In order to explore whether or not mitogenomes of tongue soles bear other gene-rearrangement types, we determined another tongue sole mitogenome of Cynoglossus sinicus. The total length of this mitogenome is 16,478 bp, and the tRNA-Gln gene is translocated from the light strand (L-strand) to the heavy strand (H-strand), accompanied by shuffling of tRNA-Gln, Ile and Met genes with a 143 bp intergenic spacer between tRNA-Gln and Ile. The control region (CR) might translocate to the position between the ND1 and the tRNA-Gln genes. The order of the rest genes is identical to that of the typical fish. PMID:24409926

  9. New cockroach species of the genus Panchlora Burmeister (Blaberidae, Panchlorinae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Vidlička, Ľubomír

    2016-01-01

    The genus Panchlora includes 49 species, but only 45 are widely distributed in Central and South America. Most of them are green. The new species herein described presents an ornamental coloration markedly different of all until now described species. Panchlora kozaneki sp. n. is similar to Panchlora pulchella Burmeister, 1838. The number of species known from Ecuador is increased to eight. PMID:27395218

  10. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  11. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World’s Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world’s largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  12. Seasonal occurrence of Calanus sinicus in the northern South China Sea: A case study in Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kaizhi; Yan, Yan; Yin, Jianqiang; Tan, Yehui; Huang, Liangmin

    2016-07-01

    Calanus sinicus is a calanoid copepod species that is distributed broadly in the continental shelf waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study aims to understand the seasonal variations of the distribution and abundance of C. sinicus in Daya Bay from the northern South China Sea (nSCS) and to explore its possible seasonal occurrence based on current and historical data. Monthly surveys of the species were conducted in Daya Bay, a subtropical bay in the nSCS, during the period between May 2013 and April 2014. C. sinicus was present from January to May, and disappeared after June. The spatial pattern of C. sinicus in the bay was characterized by its distribution into the southwestern part of the bay in January, bay-wide spread in February, patchiness in March and virtual retreat from the bay mouth in April. Reproduction occurred from January to April at a low rate. Adults were mostly abundant in January and declined to a minimum in April. The percentage of early developmental stages increased from 54.1% in January to 90.1% in April, as collected by a fine mesh size. Based on historical data from Daya Bay and from the coastal waters of the nSCS, C. sinicus was carried into the nSCS from the East China Sea by the China Coastal Current during the northeastern monsoon period and survived from December to October of the next year. The summer coastal upwelling may provide suitable refuges for the species in the nSCS by limiting the adverse effects caused by high temperatures. Our results confirm the viewpoint that C. sinicus could exist in the nSCS in summer and fall.

  13. Perisphaerinae Brunner von Wattenwyl and Hyposphaeria Lucas are valid names concealed by the unavailable names Perisphaeriinae and Perisphaeria Burmeister (Blattodea, Blaberidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Ran; Wang, Zong-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incorrect generic name Perisphaeria Burmeister, 1838 results from a mistake by Princis (1947). Perisphaeria is an incorrect spelling by Burmeister referring to Perisphaerus Serville, 1831. Princis (1947) incorrectly regarded Perisphaeria as proposed by Burmeister and as the senior synonym of Hyposphaeria Lucas, 1863, which is valid. The subfamilial name Perisphaeriinae based on Perisphaeria should be corrected to Perisphaerinae Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865 based on Perisphaerus; but note Princis’ Perisphaeriinae is based on his Perisphaeria Burmeister. The taxa involved are listed. PMID:27110178

  14. Multi-Gene Analysis Reveals a Lack of Genetic Divergence between Calanus agulhensis and C. sinicus (Copepoda; Calanoida)

    PubMed Central

    Kozol, Robert; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Bucklin, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The discrimination and taxonomic identification of marine species continues to pose a challenge despite the growing number of diagnostic metrics and approaches. This study examined the genetic relationship between two sibling species of the genus Calanus (Crustacea; Copepoda; Calanidae), C. agulhensis and C. sinicus, using a multi-gene analysis. DNA sequences were determined for portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI); nuclear citrate synthase (CS), and large subunit (28S) rRNA genes for specimens collected from the Sea of Japan and North East (NE) Pacific Ocean for C. sinicus and from the Benguela Current and Agulhas Bank, off South Africa, for C. agulhensis. For mtCOI, C. sinicus and C. agulhensis showed similar levels of haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.695 and 0.660, respectively) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively). Pairwise FST distances for mtCOI were significant only between C. agulhensis collected from the Agulhas and two C. sinicus populations: the Sea of Japan (FST = 0.152, p<0.01) and NE Pacific (FST = 0.228, p<0.005). Between the species, FST distances were low for both mtCOI (FST = 0.083, p = 0.003) and CS (FST = 0.050, p = 0.021). Large subunit (28S) rRNA showed no variation between the species. Our results provide evidence of the lack of genetic distinction of C. sinicus and C. agulhensis, raise questions of whether C. agulhensis warrants status as a distinct species, and indicate the clear need for more intensive and extensive ecological and genetic analysis. PMID:23118849

  15. Isolation of the PCB-degrading bacteria Mesorhizobium sp. ZY1 and its combined remediation with Astragalus sinicus L. for contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ying; Li, Xiufen; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Manyun; Wang, Xiaomi; Li, Zhengao; Luo, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain ZY1 capable of utilizing PCBs as its carbon source was isolated from the root nodules of Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.). The strain was identified as Mesorhizobium sp. according to its physiological-biochemical properties and the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. When the initial OD600 was 0.15, 62.7% of 15 mg L(-1) 3,3',4,4'-TCB in a liquid culture was degraded by Mesorhizobium sp. ZY1 within 10 days. Mesorhizobium sp. ZY1 also greatly increased the biotransformation of soil PCBs. Pot experiments indicated that the soil PCB concentrations of a single incubation of strain ZY1 (R) and a single planting of A. sinicus (P) decreased by 20.5% and 23.0%, respectively, and the concentration of PCBs in soil treated with A. sinicus and strain ZY1 decreased by 53.1%. We also observed that A. sinicus-Mesorhizobium sp. ZY1 treatment (PR) improved plant biomass and the concentration of PCBs in plants compared with a single A. sinicus planting treatment (P). The results suggest that the synergistic association between A. sinicus and PCBs-degrading Mesorhizobium sp. ZY1 can stimulate the phytoextraction of PCBs and the rhizosphere microflora to degrade PCBs, and might be a promising bioremediation strategy for PCB-contaminated soil. PMID:26292091

  16. Using plant volatile traps to develop phenology models for natural enemies: an example using Chrysopa nigricornis (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A model predicting phenology of adult Chrysopa nigricornis (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in orchards was developed from field (trapping) data supplemented with developmental data collected under laboratory conditions. Lower and upper thresholds of 10.1°C and 29.9 °C, respectively, were es...

  17. Effects of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi on gene expression levels of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus.

    PubMed

    Lauritano, Chiara; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Vitiello, Valentina; Buttino, Isabella; Romano, Giovanna; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Ianora, Adrianna

    2015-12-01

    Diatoms are eukaryotic unicellular plants that constitute one of the major components of marine phytoplankton, comprising up to 40% of annual productivity at sea and representing 25% of global carbon-fixation. Diatoms have traditionally been considered a preferential food for zooplankton grazers such as copepods, but, in the last two decades, this beneficial role has been challenged after the discovery that many species of diatoms produce toxic metabolites, collectively termed oxylipins, that induce reproductive failure in zooplankton grazers. Diatoms are the dominant natural diet of Calanus sinicus, a cold-temperate calanoid copepod that supports secondary production of important fisheries in the shelf ecosystems of the Northwest Pacific Ocean, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan and South China Sea. In this study, the effect of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi on C. sinicus has been evaluated by analyzing expression level changes of genes involved in defense and detoxification systems. Results show that C. sinicus is more resistant to a diet of this diatom species in terms of gene expression patterns, compared to the congeneric species Calanus helgolandicus which is an important constituent of the temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean and northern Mediterranean Sea. These findings contribute to the better understanding of genetic and/or phenotypic flexibility of copepod species and their capabilities to cope with stress by identifying molecular markers (such as stress and detoxification genes) as biosensors for environmental perturbations (e.g. toxins and contaminants) affecting marine copepods. PMID:25666254

  18. New species of Eriopeltastes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae, Trichiini) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ricchiardi, Enrico; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Both male and female of a new species of Eriopeltasttes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840, E. (E.) ornatus Ricchiardi, sp. n., are described from the mistbelt grassland of KwaZulu-Natal. Sexual dimorphism is extreme in this genus, with females being brachypterous, fossorial and entirely black to dark brown in general body colour. This is only the fifth out of 12 known species in this genus for which the female is known. The species appears to be restricted to areas within or in the immediate vicinities of two marginal nature reserves, Karkloof and Blinkwater, in a grassland habitat that is regarded as one of the most threatened in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal. Despite its acknowledged importance as centre of endemism the area is currently in a precarious state of large-scale degradation. PMID:25061391

  19. New species of Eriopeltastes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae, Trichiini) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ricchiardi, Enrico; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Both male and female of a new species of Eriopeltasttes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840, E. (E.) ornatus Ricchiardi, sp. n., are described from the mistbelt grassland of KwaZulu-Natal. Sexual dimorphism is extreme in this genus, with females being brachypterous, fossorial and entirely black to dark brown in general body colour. This is only the fifth out of 12 known species in this genus for which the female is known. The species appears to be restricted to areas within or in the immediate vicinities of two marginal nature reserves, Karkloof and Blinkwater, in a grassland habitat that is regarded as one of the most threatened in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal. Despite its acknowledged importance as centre of endemism the area is currently in a precarious state of large-scale degradation. PMID:25061391

  20. A purple acid phosphatase plays a role in nodule formation and nitrogen fixation in Astragalus sinicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyun; Si, Zaiyong; Li, Fang; Xiong, Xiaobo; Lei, Lei; Xie, Fuli; Chen, Dasong; Li, Yixing; Li, Youguo

    2015-08-01

    The AsPPD1 gene from Astragalus sinicus encodes a purple acid phosphatase. To address the functions of AsPPD1 in legume-rhizobium symbiosis, its expression patterns, enzyme activity, subcellular localization, and phenotypes associated with its over-expression and RNA interference (RNAi) were investigated. The expression of AsPPD1 was up-regulated in roots and nodules after inoculation with rhizobia. Phosphate starvation reduced the levels of AsPPD1 transcripts in roots while increased those levels in nodules. We confirmed the acid phosphatase and phosphodiesterase activities of recombinant AsPPD1 purified from Pichia pastoris, and demonstrated its ability to hydrolyze ADP and ATP in vitro. Subcellular localization showed that AsPPD1 located on the plasma membranes in hairy roots and on the symbiosomes membranes in root nodules. Over-expression of AsPPD1 in hairy roots inhibited nodulation, while its silencing resulted in nodules early senescence and significantly decreased nitrogenase activity. Furthermore, HPLC measurement showed that AsPPD1 overexpression affects the ADP levels in the infected roots and nodules, AsPPD1 silencing affects the ratio of ATP/ADP and the energy charge in nodules, and quantitative observation demonstrated the changes of AsPPD1 transcripts level affected nodule primordia formation. Taken together, it is speculated that AsPPD1 contributes to symbiotic ADP levels and energy charge control, and this is required for effective nodule organogenesis and nitrogen fixation. PMID:26105827

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of compounds isolated from Astragalus sinicus L. in cytokine-induced keratinocytes and skin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Hak; Oh, Ikhoon; Kim, Jung-Ho; Jeon, Ju-eun; Jeon, Byeongwook; Shin, Jongheon; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a part of the complex biological responses of a tissue to injury that protect the organ by removing injurious stimuli and initiating the healing process, and is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity. To identify biologically active compounds against pathogenic inflammatory and immune responses, we fractionated water, aqueous methanol and n-hexane layers from nine kinds of leguminosae and examined anti-inflammatory activity of the fractions in human keratinocytes and mouse skin. Among the fractions, rf3 and rf4, isolated from the aqueous methanol layer of Astragalus sinicus L., exhibited the strongest reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities as measured by inhibition of the intracellular ROS production, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling in cytokine-stimulated human keratinocytes, as well as by effects on T-cell differentiation in mouse CD4+ T cells. In addition, topical application of rf3 and rf4 suppressed the progression of psoriasis-like dermatitis and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in interleukin (IL)-23-injected mouse ears. Our results suggest that Astragalus sinicus L. may ameliorate chronic inflammatory skin diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities via regulation of the intracellular ROS production, NF-κB, JAK/STAT and PI3/Akt signaling cascades as well as immune responses, and these results are the first report that Astragalus sinicus L. exhibits pharmacological activity. PMID:24651533

  2. Responses to moving small-field stimuli by the praying mantis, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister)

    PubMed

    Prete, F R; McLean, T; McMillin, P J

    1996-01-01

    Adult, female praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister), were presented with mechanically driven or computer generated stimuli in a series of seven experiments in order to test several hypotheses regarding visual prey recognition. When presented with a series of square black and white computer generated stimuli against a white background, mantises performed the highest rates of predatory behavior in response to those stimuli with a greater proportion of black versus white pixels (i.e., those that produced larger luminance decrements). Higher response rates to computer generated stimuli that produced larger luminance decrements were also seen when the stimuli were irregularly shaped or consisted of two small synchronized stimuli. Mantises responded characteristically to mechanically driven stimuli that were camouflaged to match the background against which they moved, preferring small (vs. large) squares and rectangles that were elongated parallel (vs. perpendicular) to their direction of movement. Finally, response rate to a small, preferred mechanically presented or computer generated stimulus was suppressed by a concurrent large-field stimulus in inverse proportion to the distance between the two stimuli. This phenomenon is characteristic of systems that include phasic lateral inhibitory circuits. All of these results are consistent with the existence of a movement detector visual sub-system, as found in other orthopteromorph insects such as acridid grasshoppers and cockroaches. PMID:8834784

  3. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  4. Stage-V copepodites of Calanus sinicus and Calanus jashnovi (Copepoda: Calanoida) in mesopelagic zone of Sagami Bay as identified with genetic markers, with special reference to their vertical distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonomura, Takumi; Machida, Ryuji J.; Nishida, Shuhei

    2008-04-01

    We applied genetic makers to identify Calanus species occurring in Sagami Bay, Japan, in order to investigate their vertical distribution in the upper 1000 m. First, interspecific genetic distances of three gene loci, mitochondrial small ribosomal RNA (srRNA), nuclear internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2), were estimated from morphologically distinguishable adult females of Calanus sinicus, Calanus jashnovi and Calanus pacificus that were collected from Sagami Bay, the Kuroshio Extension and the Oyashio region, respectively. The highest levels of interspecific genetic distance were observed in srRNA, followed by ITS1 and ITS2. The intraspecific genetic distances within C. sinicus were much lower than the interspecific genetic distances, indicating that DNA sequences in these loci are consistent with the morphological differences. This information was used as a criterion for species identification based on DNA sequence variation, and allowed us to identify the fifth copepodites (CVs) or younger stages of these species. Next, the vertical distribution of Calanus species was investigated in Sagami Bay in May 2006, on the basis of a stratified sampling in the upper 1000 m. By applying the genetic markers, 23 individuals comprising all copepodite stages were allocated into either C. sinicus or C. jashnovi, and the small- and large-sized CVs were identified as C. sinicus and C. jashnovi, respectively. The total abundance of C. sinicus was highest at 0-50 m and decreased with depth. On the contrary, CV individuals of C. sinicus were abundant not only in 0-50 m but also below 200 m with minimum occurrences in 150-200 m depth. C. jashnovi was much less abundant than C. sinicus and comprised of only CIV and CV which occurred in the upper 100 m and deeper than 50 m depths, respectively. The abundance of C. sinicus in the 1000-m water column of Sagami Bay was at a level comparable to that in shelf waters, suggesting the importance of off-shelf individuals in the

  5. The predatory strike of free ranging praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister). II: Strikes in the horizontal plane.

    PubMed

    Cleal, K S; Prete, F R

    1996-01-01

    The predatory behavior of free ranging praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister), in response to prey at various positions in the horizontal plane was examined using high speed (200 frames per second) videography. We found that the movements of the meso- and metathoracic legs over the course of the strike were analogous in many respects to those made by the cockroach Periplaneta americana during escape turns. When mantises struck at prey directly ahead of them, they were propelled forward by extensions of the metathoracic femur-tibia, and the meso- and metathoracic coxa-femur joints (changes in the latter were determined indirectly via changes in the femur-pterothorax angles). This pattern of movements is similar to that of cockroach Type 1 turns. However, when prey lay to either side of the pterothorax-abdomen axis, mantises turned toward the prey as they stuck. These turning movements were the result, primarily, of changes in the femur-thorax angles. Specifically, as the mantises turned toward the prey, contralateral mesothoracic femora and metathoracic tibiae and femora extended, and the corresponding ipsilateral joints extended to a lesser degree or flexed. This pattern of movements is similar to that of cockroach Type 2 turns. In addition, these leg movements were accompanied by flexion of the prothorax-abdomen angle which turned the prothorax even further in the direction of the prey. We found a stronger relationship between mantis leg movements and the position of the prey in relationship to the pterothorax than between the leg movements and the position of the prey in the visual field. Our data suggest that the praying mantis' central nervous system integrates proprioceptive and visual information in order to determine the location of prey in "pterothorax-centered' rather than "head-centered' space. PMID:8886390

  6. On the type species of the South American dung beetle genus Chalcocopris Burmeister, 1846 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), with some comments on the type locality of C. hesperus (Olivier, 1789).

    PubMed

    Cupello, Mario; Rossini, Michele; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a new paper authored by two of us (Rossini & Vaz-de-Mello, 2015) addressed a taxonomic revision of Chalcocopris Burmeister, 1846, describing a second species for the genus and expanding our knowledge of its distribution and morphological diversity. In the present work, we address additional nomenclatural and historical issues not covered in that paper. PMID:27395499

  7. A JAZ Protein in Astragalus sinicus Interacts with a Leghemoglobin through the TIFY Domain and Is Involved in Nodule Development and Nitrogen Fixation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixing; Xu, Meng; Wang, Ning; Li, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    Leghemoglobins (Lbs) play an important role in legumes-rhizobia symbiosis. Lbs bind O2 and protect nitrogenase activity from damage by O2 in nodules, therefore, they are regarded as a marker of active nitrogen fixation in nodules. Additionally, Lbs are involved in the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, acting as a NO scavenger during nodule development and nitrogen fixation. However, regulators responsible for Lb expression and modulation of Lb activity have not been characterized. In our previous work, a Jasmonate-Zim-domain (JAZ) protein interacting with a Lb (AsB2510) in Astragalus sinicus was identified and designated AsJAZ1. In this study, the interaction between AsJAZ1 and AsB2510 was verified using a yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays, resulting in identification of the interaction domain as a TIFY (previously known as zinc-finger protein expressed in inflorescence meristem, ZIM) domain. TIFY domain is named after the most conserved amino acids within the domain. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) was used to confirm the interaction between AsJAZ1 and AsB2510 in tobacco cells, demonstrating that AsJAZ1-AsB2510 interaction was localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Furthermore, the expression patterns and the symbiotic phenotypes of AsJAZ1 were investigated. Knockdown of AsJAZ1 expression via RNA interference led to decreased number of nodules, abnormal development of bacteroids, accumulation of poly-x-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and loss of nitrogenase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that AsJAZ1 interacts with AsB2510 and participates in nodule development and nitrogen fixation. Our results provide novel insights into the functions of Lbs or JAZ proteins during legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:26460857

  8. A JAZ Protein in Astragalus sinicus Interacts with a Leghemoglobin through the TIFY Domain and Is Involved in Nodule Development and Nitrogen Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yixing; Xu, Meng; Wang, Ning; Li, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    Leghemoglobins (Lbs) play an important role in legumes-rhizobia symbiosis. Lbs bind O2 and protect nitrogenase activity from damage by O2 in nodules, therefore, they are regarded as a marker of active nitrogen fixation in nodules. Additionally, Lbs are involved in the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, acting as a NO scavenger during nodule development and nitrogen fixation. However, regulators responsible for Lb expression and modulation of Lb activity have not been characterized. In our previous work, a Jasmonate-Zim-domain (JAZ) protein interacting with a Lb (AsB2510) in Astragalus sinicus was identified and designated AsJAZ1. In this study, the interaction between AsJAZ1 and AsB2510 was verified using a yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays, resulting in identification of the interaction domain as a TIFY (previously known as zinc-finger protein expressed in inflorescence meristem, ZIM) domain. TIFY domain is named after the most conserved amino acids within the domain. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) was used to confirm the interaction between AsJAZ1 and AsB2510 in tobacco cells, demonstrating that AsJAZ1-AsB2510 interaction was localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Furthermore, the expression patterns and the symbiotic phenotypes of AsJAZ1 were investigated. Knockdown of AsJAZ1 expression via RNA interference led to decreased number of nodules, abnormal development of bacteroids, accumulation of poly-x-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and loss of nitrogenase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that AsJAZ1 interacts with AsB2510 and participates in nodule development and nitrogen fixation. Our results provide novel insights into the functions of Lbs or JAZ proteins during legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:26460857

  9. Genital warts in Burmeister's porpoises: characterization of Phocoena spinipinnis papillomavirus type 1 (PsPV-1) and evidence for a second, distantly related PsPV.

    PubMed

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Cassonnet, Patricia; Rector, Annabel; Desaintes, Christian; Van Waerebeek, Koen; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Van Ranst, Marc; Orth, Gérard

    2007-07-01

    We identified sequences from two distantly related papillomaviruses in genital warts from two Burmeister's porpoises, including a PV antigen-positive specimen, and characterized Phocoena spinipinnis papillomavirus type 1 (PsPV-1). The PsPV-1 genome comprises 7879 nt and presents unusual features. It lacks an E7, an E8 and a bona fide E5 open reading frame (ORF) and has a large E6 ORF. PsPV-1 L1 ORF showed the highest percentage of nucleotide identity (54-55 %) with human papillomavirus type 5, bovine papillomavirus type 3 (BPV-3) and Tursiops truncatus papillomavirus type 2 (TtPV-2). This warrants the classification of PsPV-1 as the prototype of the genus Omikronpapillomavirus. PsPV-1 clustered with TtPV-2 in the E6 and E1E2 phylogenetic trees and with TtPV-2 and BPV-3 in the L2L1 tree. This supports the hypothesis that PV evolution may not be monophyletic across all genes. PMID:17554024

  10. Nymphal development of the auditory system in the praying mantis Hierodula membranacea Burmeister (Dictyoptera, Mantidae).

    PubMed

    Yager, D D

    1996-01-01

    Like other praying mantises, Hierodula membranacea has a single midline ear on the ventral surface of the metathorax. The ear comprises a deep groove with two tympana forming the walls. A tympanal organ on each side contains 30-40 scolopophorous sensillae with axons that terminate in the metathoracic ganglion in neuropil that does not match the auditory neuropil of other insects. Nymphal development of the mantis ear proceeds in three major stages: 1) The tympanal organ is completely formed with a full complement of sensillae before hatching; 2) the infolding and rotations that form the deep groove are completed primarily over the first half of nymphal development; and 3) over the last five instars (of ten), the tympana thicken and broaden to their adult size and shape, and the impedance-matching tracheal sacs also enlarge and move to become tightly apposed to the inner surfaces of the tympana. Auditory sensitivity gradually increases beginning with the fifth instar and closely parallels tympanum and tracheal sac growth. Late instar nymphs have auditory thresholds of 70-80 dB sound pressure level (SPL). Appropriate connections of afferents to a functional interneuronal system are clearly present by the eighth instar and possibly much earlier. The pattern of auditory system ontogeny in the mantis is similar to that in locusts and in noctuid moths, but it differs from crickets. In evolutionary terms, it is significant that the metathoracic anatomy of newly hatched mantis nymphs matches very closely the anatomy of the homologous regions in adult cockroaches, which are closely related to mantises but are without tympanal hearing, and in mantises that are thought to be primitively deaf. PMID:8788244

  11. A taxonomy review of Oreoderus Burmeister, 1842 from China with a geometric morphometric evaluation (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Valgini)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Ricchiardi, Enrico; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xingke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Oreoderus are morphologically similar, and can be challenging to distinguish without dissecting the male genitalia. In this study, the Oreoderus species from China are reviewed. Three new species of Oreoderus are described: Oreoderus dasystibialis Li & Yang, sp. n., Oreoderus brevitarsus Li & Yang, sp. n. and Oreoderus oblongus Li & Yang, sp. n. A key of the male Oreoderus and a distribution map are provided. Oreoderus coomani Paulian, 1961 was found as a new record in China. The first description of the female of Oreoderus arrowi Ricchiardi, 2001 is provided. Oreoderus humeralis Gestro, 1891, Oreoderus quadricarinatus Arrow, 1944, Oreoderus crassipes Arrow, 1944, and Oreoderus momeitensis Arrow, 1910 are excluded from the Chinese fauna. Furthermore, we utilize geometric morphometric approaches (GM) to analyze the shape variation of four characters (pronotum, elytra, protibia and aedeagus) in Oreoderus. The morphological variations of Oreoderus and the taxonomic value of each character are discussed. The combined analysis of geometric morphometrics and comparative morphology support recognition of the three new species. PMID:26865816

  12. On the fossil remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, José D; Zamorano, Martín; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus. PMID:25806977

  13. Responses of movement-sensitive visual interneurons to prey-like stimuli in the praying mantis Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister).

    PubMed

    Gonka, M D; Laurie, T J; Prete, F R

    1999-11-01

    Previous behavioral work using both mechanical and computer-generated visual stimuli has demonstrated that mantids use a computational algorithm to recognize prey similar to that used by some amphibian predators: A stimulus elicits prey capture behavior if it falls within a perceptual envelope defined by five fundamental stimulus parameters: (1) overall size, (2) length of the leading edge, (3) contrast to the background, (4) location in the visual field, and (5) apparent speed. In this study, we recorded simultaneously from both cervical nerve cords of monocular Sphodromantis lineola while they viewed the same visual stimuli successfully used in the behavioral studies. Extracellular recordings showed three consistently proportioned amplitude classes of movement-elicited spikes in each cord and these were repeatedly and reliably identifiable across mantids. Overall, the movement-elicited activity in both cords was dominated by very large spikes suggesting the existence of several large, descending movement-sensitive interneurons projecting both ipsilaterally and contralaterally from the optic lobes. However, only the largest contralateral spikes occurred preferentially to prey-like stimuli, mirrored the behavioral response curves generated by S. lineola to the same visual stimuli, and displayed activity peaks that were correlated with the times at which the mantid emitted predatory strikes. PMID:10640785

  14. New brachypterous species of Dichotomius (Selenocopris) Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) with the definition of species groups and taxonomic notes in the subgenus.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rafael V; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-01-01

    Five species groups of Dichotomius (Selenocopris) are defined and separated in an illustrated key in the first effective attempt of systematization of the subgenus. Four new brachypterous species of Selenocopris are described and the also brachypterous Dichotomius ingens (Luederwaldt) is redescribed. These species are diagnosed, illustrated and assigned to the quadraticeps species group. Taxonomic issues on the subgenus are discussed. PMID:27470786

  15. A Revision of the Argentinean Endemic Genus Eucranium Brulléé (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) with Description of one New Species and New Synonymies

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, Federico C.

    2010-01-01

    The South American genus Eucranium Brulléé has been revised and now includes six species: E. arachnoides Brulléé, E. belenae Ocampo new species, E. cyclosoma Burmeister, E. dentifrons Guéérin-Mééneville, E. planicolle Burmeister, and E. simplicifrons Fairmaire. Eucranium pulvinatum Burmeister is a new junior synonym of Eucranium arachnoides Brulléé, and Eucranium lepidum Burmeister is a new junior synonym of E. dentifrons Guéérin-Mééneville. The following lectotypes and neotypes are designated: Eucranium pulvinatum Burmeister, lectotype; Eucranium planicolle Burmeister, lectotype; Psammotrupes dentifrons Guéérin-Mééneville, neotype; and Eucranium lepidum Burmeister, neotype. Description of the genus and new species, diagnosis and illustrations, and distribution maps are provided for all species. A key to the species of this genus is provided, and the biology and conservation status of the species are discussed. PMID:21265622

  16. 7 CFR 318.60 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dangerous insects, including Phyllophaga spp. (White grubs), Phytalus sp., and Adoretus sp., and of several... the United States to prevent the spread of such dangerous insects from said Virgin Islands. (b) Under... prevent the spread of the aforementioned dangerous insects. (c) Sand (other than clean ocean sand),...

  17. 7 CFR 318.60 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dangerous insects, including Phyllophaga spp. (White grubs), Phytalus sp., and Adoretus sp., and of several... the United States to prevent the spread of such dangerous insects from said Virgin Islands. (b) Under... prevent the spread of the aforementioned dangerous insects. (c) Sand (other than clean ocean sand),...

  18. New genera and species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from China and South Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new genera from China (Taumaceroides Lopatin and Yunnaniata Lopatin) and 11 new species (Smaragdina quadrimaculata Lopatin, Smaragdina oblongum Lopatin, Hyphaenia volkovitshi Lopatin, Arthrotus daliensis Lopatin, Taumaceroides sinicus Lopatin, Yunnaniata konstantinovi Lopatin, Calomicrus yunnanu...

  19. Chromosome comparison of 17 species / sub-species of African Goliathini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Dutrillaux, Anne-Marie; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mitotic karyotypes of 17 species of African Goliathini (Cetoniinae) are described using various chromosome banding techniques. All but one are composed of 20 chromosomes, mostly metacentric, forming a karyotype assumed to be close to that of the Polyphaga ancestor. The most derived karyotypes are those of Goliathus goliatus Drury, 1770, with eight pairs of acrocentrics and Chlorocana africana Drury, 1773, with only14 chromosomes. In species of the genera Cyprolais Burmeister, 1842, Megalorhina Westwood, 1847, Stephanocrates Kolbe, 1894 and Stephanorrhina Burmeister, 1842, large additions of variable heterochromatin are observed on both some particular autosomes and the X chromosome. Species of the genera Eudicella White, 1839 and Dicronorrhina Burmeister, 1842 share the same sub-metacentric X. Although each species possesses its own karyotype, it remains impossible to propose robust phylogenetic relationships on the basis of chromosome data only. PMID:27551348

  20. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in bats from Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cao, Lili; He, Biao; Li, Jiping; Hu, Tingsong; Zhang, Fuqiang; Fan, Quanshui; Tu, Changchun; Liu, Quan

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in bats. A total of 247 bats, belonging to Rhinolophus sinicus , Rousettus leschenaultia, Aselliscus stoliczkanus , and Hipposideros fulvus , were collected in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and the intestinal tissues were examined for Cryptosporidium infection by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA). The overall infection rate was 7.7% (95% CI, 4.5 to 11.0%), with R. sinicus having the highest level at 9.5% (95% CI, 2.8 to 16.1%) followed by A. stoliczkanus at 7.8% (95% CI, 2.2 to 18.9%), H. fulvus at 7.2% (95% CI, 1.1 to 13.4%), and R. leschenaultia at 5.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 15.7%). DNA sequence and phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA revealed the presence of 2 novel genotypes, designated as Cryptosporidium bat genotype I in A. stoliczkanus and R. sinicus and Cryptosporidium bat genotype II in R. leschenaultia, R. sinicus , and H. fulvus . This is the first report of Cryptosporidium genotypes in bats. Further biological and genetic characterization is needed to determine the relationship of the 2 novel genotypes to established Cryptosporidium species-genotypes. PMID:23886252

  1. Host-plant dependent population genetics of the invading weevil Hypera postica.

    PubMed

    Iwase, S-I; Nakahira, K; Tuda, M; Kagoshima, K; Takagi, M

    2015-02-01

    Population genetics of invading pests can be informative for understanding their ecology. In this study, we investigated population genetics of the invasive alfalfa weevil Hypera postica in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. We analyzed mitochondrial tRNALeu-COII, nuclear EF-1α gene fragments, and Wolbachia infection in relation to three leguminous host plants: Vicia angustifolia, Vicia villosa, and a new host Astragalus sinicus cultivated as a honey source and green manure crop. A parsimony network generated from mitochondrial gene sequences uncovered two major haplotypic groups, Western and Egyptian. In contrast to reported Wolbachia infection of the Western strain in the United States, none of our analyzed individuals were infected. The absence of Wolbachia may contribute to the stable coexistence of mitochondrial strains through inter-strain reproductive compatibility. Hypera postica genetic variants for the mitochondrial and nuclear genes were associated neither with host plant species nor with two geographic regions (Hisayama and Kama) within Fukuoka. Mitochondrial haplogroups were incongruent with nuclear genetic variants. Genetic diversity at the nuclear locus was the highest for the populations feeding on V. angustifolia. The nuclear data for A. sinicus-feeding populations indicated past sudden population growth and extended Bayesian skyline plot analysis based on the mitochondrial and nuclear data showed that the growth of A. sinicus-feeding population took place within the past 1000 years. These results suggest a shorter history of A. sinicus as a host plant compared with V. angustifolia and a recent rapid growth of H. postica population using the new host A. sinicus. PMID:25336385

  2. Distribution of dominant zooplankton species along a latitudinal gradient in China sea during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiayi; Xu, Zhaoli; Gao, Qian

    2016-06-01

    Dominant species of zooplankton community vary with latitude. Though China possesses a vast coastal area in northwestern Pacific, studies on the latitudinal dominant species gradient are rare. We collected zooplankton samples from Haizhou Bay (34.56°-35.19°N, 119.51°-120.30°E), Yueqing Bay (28.14°-28.38°N, 121.10°-121.21°E) and Dongshan Bay (23.65°-23.90°N, 117.45°-117.60°E) in May 2012 and May 2013 to preliminarily characterize the latitudinal dominant species distribution. All the samples were collected vertically using a 0.505 mm mesh plankton net with 0.8 m in mouth diameter from bottom to surface. Calanus sinicus, Aidanosagitta crassa, Labidocera euchaeta, Zonosagitta nagae, Acartia pacifica and Paracalanus parvus were found to be dominant. C. sinicus was the most dominant species and the unique one occurred in all three bays. With latitude decreasing, both the abundance and proportion of C. sinicus declined sharply. Cluster analysis showed that the 6 dominant species could be divided into 3 groups, based on their occurrences in the three bays. Our results suggested that the distribution of dominant species along the coast of China has a significant latitudinal gradient. C. sinicus which widely distributes in the coastal water of the northwestern Pacific can well adapt to the temperature at different latitudes. The high abundance in Haizhou Bay indicated that C. sinicus was an exemplary warm-temperate species, and more commonly occurs in the north of China seas. The ecological characteristics of dominant species change from warm-temperate type in high-latitudinal bays to warm water type in low-latitudinal bays.

  3. Report on the WPI-NEACT Conference: "Perceptions of Chemistry."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, H.; Berka, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    Summarized are the comments of four chemists who spoke at a conference on chemistry in March 1989. Presenters included Frank H. Westheimer of Harvard University, John L. Burmeister of the University of Delaware, Henry A. Bent of the University of Pittsburgh, and Miles Pickering of Princeton University. (CW)

  4. Nomenclatural corrections, neotype designation and new subspecies description in the genus Suiriri (Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae).

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Guy M; Steinheimer, Frank D; Raposo, Marcos A; Zimmer, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Zimmer et al. (2001) documented two morphological and vocal forms within what was then known as Suiriri suiriri affinis, and described the short-billed form as Suiriri islerorum. However, studies of the Burmeister type material held at the Natural History Collections of the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany, revealed the types of Suiriri s. affinis (Burmeister, 1856) to be the same taxon as Suiriri islerorum, which name therefore becomes a junior synonym. No published name is available for the long-billed form. A new name is therefore introduced by an original description in accordance with the International code on zoological nomenclature. The original type material of S. s. bahiae (Berlepsch, 1893) is confirmed to be lost; a neotype is designated. PMID:24872051

  5. Evidence for ontogenetic feeding strategies in four calanoid copepods in the East Sea (Japan Sea) in summer, revealed by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Dong-Hoon; Wi, Jin Hee; Suh, Hae-Lip

    2015-09-01

    Deciphering the ontogenetic feeding ecology of copepods is essential to understanding their role in the energy transfer of marine ecosystems. We used stable isotope analysis to examine the ontogenetic feeding strategies of the four coexisting calanoid copepods, Mesocalanus tenuicornis, Metridia pacifica, Calanus sinicus, and Neocalanus plumchrus, in the East Sea (Japan Sea) in summer. Moreover, we used the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of small-sized plankton in three cell size fractions, pico- (< 2 μm), nano- (2-20 μm) and microplankton (20-200 μm), to identify the dietary preference at each developmental stage. The relative carbon masses of pico-, nano- and microplankton were 18, 38, and 44%, respectively, and their δ13C and δ15N values gradually increased with increasing size classes. The ontogenetic trophic position of four copepods were relatively low and ranged from 2.1 to 2.6, indicating that herbivores feed on small-sized phytoplankton, pico- and nanoplankton. Among copepodid stages, the δ13C and δ15N values of M. tenuicornis and C. sinicus differed significantly, while those of M. pacifica and N. plumchrus were not significantly different. In M. tenuicornis, the smallest species among the four copepods examined, the diet preference of CIV for picoplankton changed to nanoplankton in the adult stage. When M. pacifica developed from CIV to adult, the diet preference changed from pico- to microplankton. The proportion of microplankton in the diet of C. sinicus and N. plumchrus increased from CIV to female adult and from CIII to CV, respectively. During the developmental progress in copepodid stages, the smaller copepods significantly changed their dietary preference from pico- to microplankton, while the larger copepods consistently fed on microplankton. We suggest that smaller copepods have an advantage in survival at early copepodid stages compared with larger copepods in summer when microplankton biomass is relatively low.

  6. Seasonality of the copepod assemblages associated with interplay waters off northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Li-Chun; Hung, Jia-Jang; Chen, Qing-Chao; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated copepod assemblages in the regime around Turtle Island off northern Taiwan to trace South China Sea water (SCSW) flowing northward with the Kuroshio Current. Seasonal variations of copepod assemblages demonstrated a dynamic succession of changes in copepod populations; the average abundance for total copepods ranged from 102.58 ± 53.38 in December to 1669.89 ± 1866.17 in March (individuals m-3). A total of 87 copepod species representing 36 genera and 21 families were identified. Among all samples, Temora turbinata dominated the copepods by a relative abundance (RA) of 26.89 %, followed by Paracalanus parvus (RA: 22.34 %) and Corycaeus ( Ditrichocorycaeus) affinis (RA: 12.77 %). Only the Acrocalanus gracilis species was recorded in all samples. Results of one-way ANOVA revealed that the number of copepod species, indices of richness, evenness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity differed significantly in five different cruises. The density of five copepod species ( Gaetanus minor, Calanus sinicus, Eucalanus elongates, Rhincalanus nasutus, and Rhincalanus rostrifrons) exhibited a significant negative correlation with seawater temperature. In contrast, the density of Canthocalanus pauper and Undinula vulgaris was significantly positively correlated with seawater temperature. The cold-water indicator species, C. sinicus, recorded in samples of March and May indicated the effect of China Coast Water (CCW) on copepod communities in the study area. Furthermore, the presence of Calanoides philippinensis in May samples strongly indicated that the SCSW may reach the Turtle Island area. Consequently, C. philippinensis and C. sinicus can be used to trace SCSW and CCW, respectively, in the study area.

  7. Bioremediation of cadmium contaminated soil using symbiosis between leguminous plant and recombinant rhizobia with the MTL4 and the PCS genes.

    PubMed

    Ike, Akiko; Sriprang, Rutchadaporn; Ono, Hisayo; Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Yamashita, Mitsuo

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium contamination in rice grains is one of the important issues in Asian countries. We have developed a novel bio-remediation system based on the symbiosis between leguminous plant and genetically engineered rhizobia. We designed two types of recombinant rhizobia, carrying two genes, synthetic tetrameric metallothionein (MTL4) and cDNA encoding phytochelatin synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPCS). The MTL4 and AtPCS genes were transferred to Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei B3, which can infect and form nodules on Chinese milk vetch, Astragalus sinicus. The two genes were fused to the nolB or nifH promoter, which generated nodule specific expression of these genes in strain B3. The two recombinant strains, B3(pMPnolBMTL4nifHPCS) and B3::nifHMTL4(pMPnifHPCS), showed 25 and 12-fold increase in Cd concentration, in the free-living cells, respectively. When these recombinant strains established the symbiotic relationship with A. sinicus, the symbionts increased Cd accumulation in nodules by two-fold in hydroponic culture. The expression of the both MTL4 and AtPCS genes showed additive effect on cadmium accumulation in nodules. We also applied these recombinant bacteria to rice paddy soil polluted with Cd (1mgkg(-1) dry weight soil). The accumulation of Cd increased not only in nodules but also in the roots of A. sinicus infected by the recombinant rhizobia. The accumulation of Cd in the plant roots infected by B3(pMPnolBMTL4nifHPCS) achieved three-fold than that by the wild-type B3. After two months of cultivation of the symbiont, a maximum of 9% of Cd in paddy soil was removed. Thus, the symbiosis will be useful in phytoremediation for heavy metals. PMID:16950497

  8. A taxonomic revision of Tyrini of the Oriental region. V. Revision of the genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bekchiev, Rostislav; Hlaváč, Peter; Nomura, Shûhei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 of the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini: Tyrina) is revised. The three so far known species, Lasinus mandarinus Raffray, 1890, Lasinus monticola Sawada, 1961 and Lasinus spinosus Sharp, 1874 are redescribed. Eight new species, Lasinus sinicus sp. n. from China, Lasinus mikado sp. n., Lasinus yamamotoi sp. n., Lasinus inexpectatus sp. n., Lasinus yakushimanus sp. n., Lasinus amamianus sp. n., Lasinus saoriae sp. n., and Lasinus okinawanus sp. n. from Japan, are described. And all species are illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Lasinus mandarinus and Lasinus spinosus. An identification key to species of the genus Lasinus is provided. PMID:24146590

  9. Karyotypic evolution and phylogenetic relationships in the order Chiroptera as revealed by G-banding comparison and chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Ao, Lei; Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Gu, Xiaoming; Feng, Qing; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang

    2007-01-01

    Bats are a unique but enigmatic group of mammals and have a world-wide distribution. The phylogenetic relationships of extant bats are far from being resolved. Here, we investigated the karyotypic relationships of representative species from four families of the order Chiroptera by comparative chromosome painting and banding. A complete set of painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of Myotis myotis (family Vespertilionidae) were hybridized onto metaphases of Cynopterus sphinx (2n = 34, family Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus sinicus (2n=36, family Rhinolophidae) and Aselliscus stoliczkanus (2n=30, family Hipposideridae) and delimited 27, 30 and 25 conserved chromosomal segments in the three genomes, respectively. The results substantiate that Robertsonian translocation is the main mode of chromosome evolution in the order Chiroptera, with extensive conservation of whole chromosomal arms. The use of M. myotis (2n=44) probes has enabled the integration of C. sphinx, R. sinicus and A. stoliczkanus chromosomes into the previously established comparative maps between human and Eonycteris spelaea (2n=36), Rhinolophus mehelyi (2n=58), Hipposideros larvatus (2n=32), and M. myotis. Our results provide the first cytogenetic signature rearrangement that supports the grouping of Pteropodidae and Rhinolophoidea in a common clade (i.e. Pteropodiformes or Yinpterochiroptera) and thus improve our understanding on the karyotypic relationships and genome phylogeny of these bat species. PMID:17310301

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of pelagic copepods in the North Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongju; Liu, Guangxing; Zhu, Yanzhong; Jiang, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the abundance and biodiversity of pelagic copepods and their relationships with the environmental factors in the North Yellow Sea (NYS). These variations were analyzed on the basis of the survey data of the NYS in four seasons from 2006 to 2007. A total of 31 copepod species that belong to 17 genera, 13 families and 4 orders were identified in the four seasons. Of these copepods, the species belonging to Calanoida is the most abundant component. The dominant species include Calanus sinicus, Centropages abdominalis, Paracalanus parvus, Acartia bifilosa, Oithona plumifera, and Corycaeus affinis. C. sinicus is the most important and widely distributed dominant species in all of the seasons. The dominant species have not shown any significant variation for the past 50 years. However, the richness of warm-water species increased. The abundance of copepods significantly varied among different seasons: the average abundance was higher in spring (608.2 ind m-3) and summer (385.1 ind m-3) than in winter (186.5 ind m-3) and autumn (128.0 ind m-3). Factor analyses showed a high correlation between the spatial distributions of dominant copepods and environmental parameters, and Chl-a was the most important factor that influenced the distribution of copepods. This research can provide the fundamental information related to zooplankton, especially pelagic copepods. This research is also beneficial for the long-term monitoring of zooplankton ecology in the NYS.

  11. Prevalence of Haemodipsus (Anoplura: Polyplacidae) species found on hares (Lepus europaeus L.) in Konya Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Ugur

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of lice on hares (Lepus europaeus L.) in the Konya province of Turkey from October 2003 to January 2007. During this period, 54 hares were examined for lice, 5 of them (11%) were found to be infested with lice and a total of 41 lice specimens were collected from the infested hares. Two species; Haemodipsus lyriocephalus (Burmeister, 1839) and H. setoni Ewing, 1924 were identified and H. lyriocephalus was more abundant than H. setoni. PMID:18645947

  12. The first sexual associations in the genus Darditilla Casal, 1965 (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae)

    PubMed Central

    Luz, David R.; Williams, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New sex associations are proposed for four species of Darditilla: Darditilla amabilis (Gerstaecker, 1874); Darditilla bejaranoi Casal, 1968; Darditilla debilis (Gerstaecker, 1874); and Darditilla felina (Burmeister, 1854). Darditilla botija Casal, 1965, syn. n. is the male of Darditilla amabilis; the other three males were previously unknown. Mutilla decorosa Kohl, 1882, syn. n. is conspecific with Darditilla felina. Descriptions and extended diagnoses are provided for previously unknown males and for females that were not adequately described. These represent the first sex associations for the genus Darditilla. PMID:25493066

  13. On the relationships of 'Marmosa' formosa Shamel, 1930 (Marsupialia: Didelphidae), a phylogenetic puzzle from the Chaco of northern Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Robert S.; Gardner, Afred L.; Jansa, Sharon A.

    2004-01-01

    The holotype and only known specimen of Marmosa formosa Shamel, a nominal species currently synonymized with Gracilinanus agilis Burmeister, is strikingly unlike any other known didelphid marsupial. Phylogenetic analyses based on nonmolecular characters and IRBP sequences suggest that formosa is either the sister-taxon of Thylamys (including Lestodelphys) or Monodelphis. Because neither alternative is strongly supported by the data at hand, and because including formosa in Thylamys or in Monodelphis would compromise the diagnosability of those taxa, a new genus?Chacodelphys?is proposed to contain it. Currently known only from northern Argentina, Chacodelphys formosa may be widely distributed in the Chaco and other adjacent Neotropical biomes.

  14. New replacement name for the species Scarabaeus (Scarabaeolus) nitidus Davis & Deschodt, 2015 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)--not an American pest.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian L V; Stals, Riaan; Deschodt, Christian M

    2015-01-01

    In their review of the subgenus Scarabaeus (Scarabaeolus) Balthasar, 1965 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), Deschodt et al. (2015) described seven new species from Africa. One of these was Scarabaeus (Scarabaeolus) nitidus Davis & Deschodt, known by only twelve specimens from Botswana. This new name is preoccupied by Scarabaeus nitidus Linnaeus, 1758, a fact that was overlooked. The latter species has been known as Cotinis nitida (Linnaeus) since Burmeister (1842) placed the species in his new genus Cotinis. It belongs to the subfamily Cetoniinae of Scarabaeidae, is called the Green June Beetle, and is a common pest species throughout most of the eastern United States (Goodrich 1966; Woodruff 2008). PMID:26701500

  15. Resistance to Arrenurus spp. Parasitism in Odonates: Patterns Across Species and Comparisons Between a Resistant and Susceptible Host

    PubMed Central

    Worthen, Wade B.

    2016-01-01

    Some adult odonates resist parasitism by larval water mites (Arrenurus spp.) with melanotic encapsulation, in which the mite’s stylestome is clogged and the mite starves. In summer 2014, we counted the engorged and resisted mites on 2,729 adult odonates sampled by aerial net at 11 water bodies in Greenville Co. and Pickens Co., SC, and tested the hypothesis that the frequency and intensity of resistance correlates with parasite prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts). Resistance prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts that resisted at least one mite) varied significantly among host species, exceeding 60% for Argia fumipennis (Burmeister) and Celithemis fasciata Kirby but less than 20% for other species. However, neither resistance prevalence nor mean resistance intensity (mean percentage of resisted mites on resisting hosts) correlated with parasite prevalence. We described potential effects of parasitism on host development of A. fumipennis and Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister) by comparing the percent asymmetry of forewing lengths between parasitized and unparasitized individuals. There was no significant difference in asymmetry for either males or females of A. fumipennis, or males of Pa. longipennis (females were not sampled). We also evaluated differences in melanotic encapsulation between A. fumipennis, which readily encapsulates mites in nature, and Pa. longipennis. We inserted a 2.0-mm piece of sterile monofilament line into the thorax of captured individuals for 24 h and compared mean gray value scores of inserted and emergent ends using Image-J software. There was no difference in melanotic encapsulation between species. PMID:27067302

  16. Some taxonomic and nomenclatural changes in American Mantodea (Insecta, Dictyoptera)--Part I.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Antonio A; Rivera, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Multiple nomenclatural problems persist in mantodean taxonomy. This constitutes an important challenge for praying mantis systematics, its forthcoming development and future consolidation. In this first contribution, we attempt solving a number of issues involving mostly Neotropical praying mantis species described by Brazilian entomologists Paulo S. Terra, Cândido F. de Mello-Leitão, Salvador de Toledo Piza Junior and Lauro J. Jantsch. We provide evidence to justify the following nomenclatural changes. In Acanthopidae, Acontiothespis travassosi Jantsch, 1986 is a new synonym of Raptrix perspicua (F. 1787). Changes in Thespidae are: Emboicy Terra, 1982 is a new synonym of Chloromiopteryx Giglio-Tos, 1915, E. mirim Terra, 1982 is transferred to Chloromiopteryx as C. mirim (Terra, 1982) (new combination); Musoniola plurilobata Mello-Leitão, 1937 is transferred to Chloromiopteryx as C. plurilobata (Mello-Leitão, 1937) (new combination); Metathespis modesta Piza, 1968 is removed from synonymy with Chloromiopteryx thalassina (Burmeister, 1838) and considered valid as C. modesta (Piza, 1968) (new combination and status revalidated); Metathespis precaria Piza, 1968 is removed from synonymy with Chloromiopteryx thalassina (Burmeister, 1838) and considered a new synonym of Miobantia rustica (Fabricius, 1781); Eumiopteryx magna Jantsch, 1991 is transferred to Anamiopteryx as A. magna (Jantsch, 1991) (new combination). For Mantidae/Amelinae, Tithrone corseuli Jantsch, 1986 and T. clauseni Jantsch, 1995 are new synonyms of Litaneutria minor (Scudder, 1872); in Mantidae/Photininae Coptopteryx gigliotosi Piza, 1960 (non Werner, 1925), its replacement name Coptopteryx ermannoi Jantsch & Corseuil, 1988 and Paraphotina precaria Piza, 1966 (the latter currently placed within Coptopteryx) are all new synonyms of Coptopteryx argentina (Burmeister, 1838), whereas Brachypteromantis bonariensis Piza 1960 (currently placed among Coptopteryx) is a new synonym of Coptopteryx gayi

  17. [Comparison of mesozooplankton communities in North Channel and North Branch of Yangtze River Estuary].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Xu, Zhao-Li; Zhung, Ping

    2008-09-01

    According to the four cruises investigations in the Yangtze River Estuary from May, August and November 2004 and February 2005, and by using species diversity indices, K-dominance curves, and similarity analysis (ANOSIM), the features of mesozooplantkon communities and their dominant species in the North Channel (NC) and North Branch (NB) were analyzed, with the effects of ecological factors, especially water salinity and temperature, on the dominant species and communities in these two waters discussed. The results indicated that the NC was composed of tidal water and oligo-haline water, while the NB was featured by meso-haline or poly-haline water. Consequently, the zooplankton communities in these two waters were significantly different. In spring, the abundance and diversity of the communities were larger in NB than in NC. In NC, Sinocalanus sinicus was the only dominant species; while in NB, there were several dominate species, among which, Labidocera euchaeta was most important. In summer, the diversity of the communities in NC and NB was quite similar, but the species richness and total abundance of zooplankton were less in NC than in NB. The zooplankton in NC was made up of olio-haline communities, and that in NB was composed of brackish species, e.g., Schmackeria poplesia and Tortanus vermiculus. In autumn, similar to those in spring, the abundance and diversity of the communities were larger in NB than in NC. As usual, in NC, S. sinicus was the most important species; while in NB, the zooplankton was composed of neritic community (Paracalanus parvus, P. aculeatus, L. euchaeta, and Calanus sinicus, etc. ). In winter, the species richness and diversity were the lowest, and there were no obvious difference between the zooplankton communities in NC and NB. It was concluded that water salinity, water temperature, and their combination were the key factors determining the characters of the mesozooplanktonic communities. Water temperature mainly affected the

  18. Novel bat adenoviruses with an extremely large E3 gene.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bing; Yang, Xing-Lou; Ge, Xing-Yi; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Biao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-07-01

    Bats carry diverse RNA viruses, some of which are responsible for human diseases. Compared to bat-borne RNA viruses, relatively little information is known regarding bat-borne DNA viruses. In this study, we isolated and characterized three novel bat adenoviruses (BtAdV WIV9-11) from Rhinolophus sinicus. Their genomes, which are highly similar to each other but distinct from those of previously sequenced adenoviruses (AdVs), are 37 545, 37 566 and 38 073 bp in size, respectively. An unusually large E3 gene was identified in their genomes. Phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses suggested that these isolates represent a distinct species of the genus Mastadenovirus. Cell susceptibility assays revealed a broad cell tropism for these isolates, indicating that they have a potentially wide host range. Our results expand the understanding of genetic diversity of bat AdVs. PMID:27032099

  19. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed. PMID:27615886

  20. A revision of the genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Lamiini).

    PubMed

    Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic, 1917 is redefined and revised. Five species of the genus are described as new, Pseudoechthistatus sinicus sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus chiangshunani sp. n. from central Yunnan, China, Pseudoechthistatus pufujiae sp. n. from western Yunnan, China, and Pseudoechthistatus holzschuhi sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus glabripennis sp. n. from southern Yunnan and northern Vietnam. Pseudoechthistatus birmanicus Breuning, 1942 is excluded from the fauna of China. Three poorly known species, Pseudoechthistatus obliquefasciatus Pic, 1917, Pseudoechthistatus granulatus Breuning, 1942, and Pseudoechthistatus acutipennis Chiang, 1981 are redescribed, and the type localities of the former two species are discussed. Endophallic structure of seven species in inflated and everted condition are studied and compared with their relatives. Illustrations of habitus and major diagnostic features of all species are provided. Some biological notes are reported. An identification key as well as a distributional map are presented. PMID:27551207

  1. ORF8-Related Genetic Evidence for Chinese Horseshoe Bats as the Source of Human Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Li; Ren, Xianwen; Zhang, Junpeng; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Jin, Qi

    2016-02-15

    Several lineage B betacoronaviruses termed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like CoVs (SL-CoVs) were identified from Rhinolophus bats in China. These viruses are characterized by a set of unique accessory open reading frames (ORFs) that are located between the M and N genes. Among unique accessory ORFs, ORF8 is most hypervariable. In this study, the ORF8s of all SL-CoVs were classified into 3 types, and, for the first time, it was found that very few SL-CoVs from Rhinolophus sinicus have ORF8s that are identical to that of human SARS-CoV. This finding provides new genetic evidence for Chinese horseshoe bats as the source of human SARS-CoV. PMID:26433221

  2. A revision of the genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Lamiini)

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic, 1917 is redefined and revised. Five species of the genus are described as new, Pseudoechthistatus sinicus sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus chiangshunani sp. n. from central Yunnan, China, Pseudoechthistatus pufujiae sp. n. from western Yunnan, China, and Pseudoechthistatus holzschuhi sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus glabripennis sp. n. from southern Yunnan and northern Vietnam. Pseudoechthistatus birmanicus Breuning, 1942 is excluded from the fauna of China. Three poorly known species, Pseudoechthistatus obliquefasciatus Pic, 1917, Pseudoechthistatus granulatus Breuning, 1942, and Pseudoechthistatus acutipennis Chiang, 1981 are redescribed, and the type localities of the former two species are discussed. Endophallic structure of seven species in inflated and everted condition are studied and compared with their relatives. Illustrations of habitus and major diagnostic features of all species are provided. Some biological notes are reported. An identification key as well as a distributional map are presented. PMID:27551207

  3. Mesozooplankton and copepod community structures in the southern East China Sea: the status during the monsoonal transition period in September

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Li-Chun; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Chen, Qing-Chao; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-12-01

    A field sampling was conducted before the onset of the northeasterly monsoon to investigate the copepod community composition during the monsoon transition period at the northern coast of Taiwan (East China Sea). In total, 22 major mesozooplankton taxa were found, with the Calanoida (relative abundance: 66.36%) and Chaetognatha (9.44%) being the most abundant. Mesozooplankton densities ranged between 226.91 and 2162.84 individuals m-3 (mean ± SD: 744.01 ± 631.5 individuals m-3). A total of 49 copepod species were identified, belonging to 4 orders, 19 families, and 30 genera. The most abundant species were: Temora turbinata (23.50%), Undinula vulgaris (17.92%), and Acrocalanus gibber (14.73%). The chaetognath Flaccisagitta enflata occurred at all 8 sampling stations, providing a 95% portion of the overall chaetognath contribution. Amphipoda were abundant at stations 4 and 5, with Hyperioides sibaginis and Lestigonus bengalensis being dominant, and comprising about 50% of all amphipods. Chaetognath abundance showed a significantly negative correlation with salinity ( r = 0.77, p = 0.027), whereas mesozooplankton group numbers had a significantly positive correlation with salinity ( r = 0.71, p = 0.048). Densities of four copepod species ( Calanus sinicus, Calocalanus pavo, Calanopia elliptica and Labidocera acuta) showed a significantly negative correlation with seawater temperature. Communities of mesozooplankton and copepods of northern Taiwan varied spatially with the distance to land. The results of this study provide evidence for the presence of C. sinicus in the coastal area of northern Taiwan during the early northeast monsoon transition period in September.

  4. [Diet composition and seasonal variation in feeding habits of Collichthy lucidus in Yangtze Estuary, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-feng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Chao; Yang, Gang; Hou, Jun-li; Zhuang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Spiny head croaker (Collichthy lucidus) is an important bottom fish distributing from the East China Sea to the Yellow Sea. In order to investigate the seasonal variation in diet composition and feeding habits, a total of 270 specimens were collected in the Yangtze Estuary from November, 2013 to August, 2014, and analyzed by using the stomach contents analysis method. The importance of different prey items was evaluated by the frequency of occurrence, abundance and mass followed by using these data to calculate the index of relative importance (IRI) and the index of preponderance (Ip) for each taxonomic category. The results showed that the diet of C. lucidus consisted of 30 species belonging to 8 orders, in which shrimps, with 38.5 IRI% and 79.1 Ip values, was the most important prey species. The followings were Mysidacea and Amphipoda. The dominant species in the diet of C. lucidus were Palaemon gravieri, Exopalaemon annandalei, E. carinicauda, Acanthomysis longirostris, A. brevirostris, Synidotea laevidorsalis and Calanus sinicus. The dominant species in the diet varied in different seasons. P. gravieri, E. annandalei and A. brevirostris were dominant species in spring and summer, A. longirostris, A. brevirostris and E. carinicauda in autumn, and P. gravieri, C. sinicus and Pesudeuphausia sinica in winter. There was 10.4% of total samples with empty stomachs, and the highest percent appeared in winter, and the lowest in autumn. The mean stomach fullness index of the whole samples was 0.6%, with the highest found in spring, the lowest in winter, indicating the feeding activity of C. lucidus varied significantly among seasons. PMID:27228621

  5. Damselflies (Zygoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Ahmed; Naeem, Muhammad; Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Naz, Falak; Afsheen, Sumera; Ilyas, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an effort to document bio-geographical distribution for Zygoptera of Pakistan. Damselflies were collected throughout the country and territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 2004–2009. A total of 2692 specimens were collected yielding 9 families, 21 genera, and 48 species and subspecies. Three of these species, Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister), Elattoneura atkinsoni (Selys), and Elattoneura souteri (Fraser), are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Distribution, habitats, previous records, and Zoogeographic affiliation for all collected taxa are discussed. Help was also taken from published literature on Zygoptera of Pakistan, and specimens housed at National Insect Museum were also studied. In total, 53 species are accounted for providing an updated record for all modern taxa of damselfly fauna of Pakistan. PMID:22221175

  6. Domiciliary cockroaches found in restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, J; Sulaiman, S; Oothuman, P; Vellayan, S; Zainol-Ariffin, P; Paramaswaran, S; Razak, A; Muslimin, M; Kamil-Ali, O B; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-03-01

    The following domiciliary cockroaches were collected from restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Malaysia using 1L glass beaker traps baited with ground mouse-pellets: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (n = 820), Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister (n = 46), Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (n = 12504), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (n = 321), Symploce pallens Stephens (n = 29) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) (n = 5). The following bacteria were isolated from 10 cockroach specimens: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. rhinoscleromatis and Serratia liquefaciens from 5 B. germanica; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Citrobacter diversus/amalonaticus, Escherichia vulneris and K.p. pneumoniae from 3 P. brunnea; and Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans 4, Escherichia adecarboxylate, E. vulneris, K. p. pneumonia, K. p. rhinoscleromatis and Proteus vulgeris from 2 P. americana. PMID:22543619

  7. Arthropods and their products as aphrodisiacs--review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pajovic, B; Radosavljevic, M; Radunovic, M; Radojevic, N; Bjelogrlic, B

    2012-04-01

    After a short review of impotence, the definitions of erectants and aphrodisiacs are presented. The Authors propose division of arthropods according to the places of effect. The description of particular arthropods with their pictures and nomenclature, is followed by certain or probable mechanisms of achieving the aphrodisiac and sometimes toxic effect, that were available in the literature since 1929 till nowadays. We mention the most usual locations, mainly in Asia, where they are found and consumed, but also, we describe the manner of preparing and intake. The review includes the following arthropods: lobster, Arizona bark scorpion, deathstalker, banana spider, Mediterranean black widow, Burmeister's triatoma, giant water bug, diving-beetle, Korean bug, diaclina, flannel moth, Spanish fly, migratory locust, red wood ant and honeybee. PMID:22696884

  8. A Deep Insight Into the Sialotranscriptome of the Chagas Disease Vector, Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, José M. C.; Schwarz, Alexandra; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains a complex cocktail of pharmacologically active compounds that assists feeding by counteracting their hosts’ hemostatic and inflammatory reactions. Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister) is an important vector of Chagas disease in South America, but despite its importance there is only one salivary protein sequence publicly deposited in GenBank. In the present work, we used Illumina technology to disclose and publicly deposit 3,703 coding sequences obtained from the assembly of >70 million reads. These sequences should assist proteomic experiments aimed at identifying pharmacologically active proteins and immunological markers of vector exposure. A supplemental file of the transcriptome and deducted protein sequences can be obtained from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/P_megistus/Pmeg-web.xlsx. PMID:26334808

  9. A scintillating fiber detector for π0 identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hassani, A. J. Rusi; Beer, W.; Gilot, J.-F.; Goudsmit, P. F. A.; Leisi, H. J.; Thomann, S.; Volken, W.

    1990-05-01

    It has been known for several years that electromagnetic calorimetry with scintillating plastic fibers gives good results at high energy (ref. [1] H. Blumenfeld et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 225 (1984) 518; ref. [2] H. Burmeister et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 225 (1984) 530). A measurement done with 40 MeV electrons [2] convinced us that this technique can be applied for the identification of π0 particles produced in the capture of negative pions by protons. A prototype detector has been built, calibrated and used in coincidence with a NaI detector to identify the decay of neutral pions produced by stopping a 200 MeV/ cπ- beam in a CH 2 target. Results are discussed and compared with a Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, a full-scale detector has been built and successfully used in a measurement of the X-ray yield in pionic hydrogen.

  10. Description of adult and third instar larva of Trichostetha curlei sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) from the Cape region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Šípek, Petr; Ball, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new high altitude montane species of Trichostetha Burmeister, 1842 is described from the Elandsberg range of the Western Cape interior. This represents the 14th species of the genus and the first to be reported with a description of its larva. It is a significant addition to the growing number of species that exhibit no adult feeding behaviour and a short period of activity restricted to the onset of summer. Larvae dwell in rock crevices, feeding on decomposing plant matter. The genus Trichostetha is heterogeneous and the complex variability observed in some species, especially T. capensis (Linnaeus, 1767), requires the re-instatement of taxa that were recently synonymised. Thus, T. bicolor Péringuey, 1907 is here re-proposed as a separate species and T. capensis hottentotta (Gory & Percheron, 1833) as a separate subspecies. Conversely, T. alutacea Allard, 1994 is recognised as a dark variety of T. signata (Fabricius, 1775) and is, consequently, synonymised with this species. PMID:25161367

  11. Parasitic copepods from Egyptian Red Sea fishes: Bomolochidae Claus, 1875.

    PubMed

    El-Rashidy, Hoda Hassan; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2016-02-01

    Two species of parasitic copepods from the genus Bomolochus von Nordmann, 1832 (Cyclopoida: Bomolochidae) are redescribed in detail, based on material collected from the gills of Red Sea fishes. Host material was caught at El-tor, near Sharm El-Sheikh, and in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Both sexes of Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1835 were collected from the gills of a needlefish Tylosurus choram (Rüppell) caught in the Gulf of Suez. This is a new host record. The female is well characterised so only the male is described. Adult females of Bomolochus minus Lin & Ho, 2005 were obtained from the branchial cavities and gills of mojarra Gerres oyena (Forsskål). This species was known only from its original description in Taiwan, and this report constitutes a new host record and a significant range extension. Both parasite species are new records for Egyptian Red Sea waters. PMID:26790683

  12. [Transportation networks and means in the development of scientific expeditions in Argentina (1850-1910)].

    PubMed

    Farro, Máximo E

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the relation between the advance of transportation technology and the development of scientific expeditions between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Argentina. Expansion of the railway network on a national scale impacted the development of the earth sciences by facilitating access to distant places by scientific institutions located in Córdoba, Buenos Aires, and La Plata and also by simplifying the movement of equipment, scientific collections, and personnel. Hermann Burmeister's expedition (1857-60), expeditions by scientists from the Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Córdoba, and archeological digs in the northwestern provinces, organized by scientific institutions headquartered in Buenos Aires and La Plata, serve as examples. PMID:19241719

  13. A new species group of the genus Epicauta Dejean of southern South America, the bella group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, María P

    2011-10-01

    Epicauta includes two subgenera, and within the nominotypical subgenus several species groups. Analyzing species of southern South America, a set of species of Epicauta has the particularity to present two distinctive characters which separates this group from the other species groups of American Epicauta: color pattern of pubescence in elytra is not coincident with color pattern of tegument and endophalic hook robust. Based on these characters I propose a new group of species herein named bella group. This group includes the Neotropical species Epicauta bella Mäklin, E. brunneipennis (Haag-Rutemberg), E. diagramma (Burmeister), E. griseonigra (Fairmaire), E. luctifera (Fairmaire), E. riojana (Fairmaire) (new status), and E. zebra (Dohrn). This group is endemic of southern South America, inhabiting the Chaco biogeographical subregion, mainly in the arid northern areas of Argentina. Here we redefine the species of the bella group, consider new characters, illustrate the species in the group, provide maps of their distribution, and a key to identify them. PMID:22068944

  14. Towards a revision of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), with estimation of the diversity of each subgenus.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gustavo E; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    A review of the subgenera of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Pimeliinae: Praociini) is presented. Praocis comprises 77 species and 8 subspecies arranged in nine subgenera distributed in arid lands from Central Peru and Bolivia to the Southern part of Patagonia in Chile and Argentina. For each subgenus of Praocis: Praocis Eschscholtz, Mesopraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Anthrasomus Guérin-Méneville, Filotarsus Gay & Solier, Postpraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Hemipraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Orthogonoderes Gay & Solier, Praonoda Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., and Praocida Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., we present a diagnosis using new and constant characters of adult morphology such as clypeal configuration, length and proportion of antennomeres 9, 10 and 11, arrangement of apical tomentose sensory patches on antennomeres 10 and 11, anterior margin of prosternum, lateral margin of elytron, ventral surface of profemora, and shape of protibiae. An identification key for the nine subgenera of Praocis is presented. Type species are designated for the five new subgenera; for Mesopraocis: Praocis calderana Kulzer, for Postpraocis: Praocis pentachorda Burmeister, for Hemipraocis: Praocis sellata Berg, for Praonoda: Praocis bicarinata Burmeister, for Praocida: Praocis zischkai Kulzer, and for the previously described subgenus Orthogonoderes: Praocis subreticulata Gay & Solier. The current number of species and the estimated number of species to be described are presented. The distribution ranges of the subgenera, including new records from collections and recent expeditions, are given. Habitat preferences and a discussion of the biogeography of the genus are also presented. PMID:25009424

  15. Towards a revision of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), with estimation of the diversity of each subgenus

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gustavo E.; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A review of the subgenera of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Pimeliinae: Praociini) is presented. Praocis comprises 77 species and 8 subspecies arranged in nine subgenera distributed in arid lands from Central Peru and Bolivia to the Southern part of Patagonia in Chile and Argentina. For each subgenus of Praocis: Praocis Eschscholtz, Mesopraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Anthrasomus Guérin-Méneville, Filotarsus Gay & Solier, Postpraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Hemipraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Orthogonoderes Gay & Solier, Praonoda Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., and Praocida Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., we present a diagnosis using new and constant characters of adult morphology such as clypeal configuration, length and proportion of antennomeres 9, 10 and 11, arrangement of apical tomentose sensory patches on antennomeres 10 and 11, anterior margin of prosternum, lateral margin of elytron, ventral surface of profemora, and shape of protibiae. An identification key for the nine subgenera of Praocis is presented. Type species are designated for the five new subgenera; for Mesopraocis: Praocis calderana Kulzer, for Postpraocis: Praocis pentachorda Burmeister, for Hemipraocis: Praocis sellata Berg, for Praonoda: Praocis bicarinata Burmeister, for Praocida: Praocis zischkai Kulzer, and for the previously described subgenus Orthogonoderes: Praocis subreticulata Gay & Solier. The current number of species and the estimated number of species to be described are presented. The distribution ranges of the subgenera, including new records from collections and recent expeditions, are given. Habitat preferences and a discussion of the biogeography of the genus are also presented. PMID:25009424

  16. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus ORF8 Protein Is Acquired from SARS-Related Coronavirus from Greater Horseshoe Bats through Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Feng, Yun; Chen, Honglin; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Yang, Wei-Hong; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Yi; Song, Zhi-Zhong; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Yeung, Hazel C.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. Although two SARS-related Rhinolophus sinicus bat CoVs (SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs) previously detected in Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) in Yunnan, RsSHC014 and Rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 protein exhibited only 32.2 to 33% amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. To elucidate the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, we sampled 348 bats of various species in Yunnan, among which diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses, including potentially novel CoVs, were identified, with some showing potential interspecies transmission. The genomes of two betacoronaviruses, SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C, from greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), possessed 93% nucleotide identities to human/civet SARSr-CoV genomes. Although these two betacoronaviruses displayed lower similarities than SARSr-Rs-BatCoV RsSHC014 and Rs3367 in S protein to civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 proteins demonstrated exceptionally high (80.4 to 81.3%) amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs, compared to SARSr-BatCoVs from other horseshoe bats (23.2 to 37.3%). Potential recombination events were identified around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. The expression of ORF8 subgenomic mRNA suggested that the ORF8 protein may be functional in SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs. The high Ka/Ks ratio among human SARS-CoVs compared to that among SARSr-BatCoVs supported that ORF8 is under strong positive selection during animal-to-human transmission. Molecular clock analysis using ORF1ab showed that SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C diverged from civet/human SARSr-CoVs in approximately 1990. SARS

  17. Molecular characterization of RIG-I, STAT-1 and IFN-beta in the horseshoe bat.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinju; Zhang, Guangxu; Cheng, Dalong; Ren, Hua; Qian, Min; Du, Bing

    2015-04-25

    Wild Chinese horseshoe bats have been proven to be natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. However, the molecular characterization of key proteins in bats still needs to be explored further. In this study, we used cloning and bioinformatics to analyze the sequence of RIG-I, STAT-1 and IFN-β in the immortalized cell lines from Rhinolophus affinis and Rhinolophus sinicus. Then, we treated different bat cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and splenocytes with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to assess and compare antiviral immune responses between bats and mice. Our results demonstrated that bat RIG-I, STAT-1 and IFN-β showed close homology with human, mouse, pig and rhesus monkey. RIG-I and STAT-1 were both highly expressed in bat spleen. Furthermore, IFN-β was induced by polyI:C and VSV in both bat and mouse cells. These findings have provided new insight into the potential characteristics of the bat innate immune system against viral infection. PMID:25680291

  18. RNA-Seq and Microarrays Analyses Reveal Global Differential Transcriptomes of Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R between Bacteroids and Free-Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jieli; Hao, Baohai; Liu, Liu; Wang, Shanming; Ma, Binguang; Yang, Yi; Xie, Fuli; Li, Youguo

    2014-01-01

    Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R occurs either in nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with its host plant, Astragalus sinicus, or free-living in the soil. The M. huakuii 7653R genome has recently been sequenced. To better understand the complex biochemical and developmental changes that occur in 7653R during bacteroid development, RNA-Seq and Microarrays were used to investigate the differential transcriptomes of 7653R bacteroids and free-living cells. The two approaches identified several thousand differentially expressed genes. The most prominent up-regulation occurred in the symbiosis plasmids, meanwhile gene expression is concentrated to a set of genes (clusters) in bacteroids to fulfill corresponding functional requirements. The results suggested that the main energy metabolism is active while fatty acid metabolism is inactive in bacteroid and that most of genes relevant to cell cycle are down-regulated accordingly. For a global analysis, we reconstructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network for 7653R and integrated gene expression data into the network using Cytoscape. A highly inter-connected subnetwork, with function enrichment for nitrogen fixation, was found, and a set of hubs and previously uncharacterized genes participating in nitrogen fixation were identified. The results described here provide a broader biological landscape and novel insights that elucidate rhizobial bacteroid differentiation, nitrogen fixation and related novel gene functions. PMID:24695521

  19. Prevalent Ciliate Symbiosis on Copepods: High Genetic Diversity and Wide Distribution Detected Using Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally. PMID:23024768

  20. The single evolutionary origin of chlorinated auxin provides a phylogenetically informative trait in the Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hong Kiat; Ross, John J; McAdam, Erin L; McAdam, Scott A M

    2016-07-01

    Chlorinated auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, 4-Cl-IAA), a highly potent plant hormone, was once thought to be restricted to species of the tribe Fabeae within the Fabaceae, until we recently detected this hormone in the seeds of Medicago, Melilotus and Trifolium species. The absence of 4-Cl-IAA in the seeds of the cultivated species Cicer aeritinum from the Cicerae tribe, immediately basal to the Fabeae and Trifolieae tribes, suggested a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA. Here, we provide a more robust phylogenetic placement of the ability to produce chlorinated auxin by screening key species spanning this evolutionary transition. We report no detectable level of 4-Cl-IAA in Cicer echinospermum (a wild relative of C. aeritinum) and 4 species (Galega officinalis, Parochetus communis, Astragalus propinquus and A. sinicus) from tribes or clades more basal or sister to the Cicerae tribe. We did detect 4-Cl-IAA in the dry seeds of 4 species from the genus Ononis that are either basal to the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella or basal to, but still within, the Fabeae and Trifolieae (ex. Parochetus) clades. We conclude that the single evolutionary origin of this hormone in seeds can be used as a phylogenetically informative trait within the Fabaceae. PMID:27302610

  1. Phylogeny and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats, Insectivores, and Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C.; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. PMID:23408889

  2. Rhizobium oryzicola sp. nov., potential plant-growth-promoting endophytic bacteria isolated from rice roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Cao, Yan-Hua; Sheirdil, Rizwan Ali; Wang, Xiu-Cheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial strains ZYY136(T) and ZYY9 were isolated from surface-sterilized rice roots from a long-term experiment of rice-rice--Astragalus sinicus rotation. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains ZYY136(T) and ZYY9 showed the highest similarity, of 97.0%, to Rhizobium tarimense PL-41(T). Sequence analysis of the housekeeping genes recA, thrC and atpD clearly differentiated the isolates from currently described species of the genus Rhizobium. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between ZYY136(T) and ZYY9 was 82.3%, and ZYY136(T) showed 34.0% DNA-DNA relatedness with the most closely related type strain, R. tarimense PL-41(T). The DNA G+C content of strain ZYY136(T) was 58.1 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and C16 : 0 3-OH. Strains ZYY136(T) and ZYY9 could be differentiated from the previously defined species of the genus Rhizobium by several phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, we conclude that strains ZYY136(T) and ZYY9 represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium oryzicola sp. nov. is proposed (type strain ZYY136(T) = ACCC 05753(T) = KCTC 32088(T)). PMID:26016492

  3. Improved description of the bipolar ciliate, Euplotes petzi, and definition of its basal position in the Euplotes phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Erra, Fabrizio; Paolo Frontini, Francesco; Dini, Fernando; Vallesi, Adriana; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2014-08-01

    Data improving the characterization of the marine Euplotes species, E. petzi Wilbert and Song, 2008, were obtained from morphological, ecological and genetic analyses of Antarctic and Arctic wild-type strains. This species is identified by a minute (mean size, 46 μm × 32 μm) and ellipsoidal cell body which is dorsally decorated with an argyrome of the double-patella type, five dorsal kineties (of which the median one contains 8-10 dikinetids), five sharp-edged longitudinal ridges, and a right anterior spur. Ventrally, it bears 10 fronto-ventral, five transverse, two caudal and two marginal cirri, 30-35 adoral membranelles, and three inconspicuous ridges. Euplotes petzi grows well at 4 °C on green algae, does not produce cysts, undergoes mating under the genetic control of a multiple mating-type system, constitutively secretes water-borne pheromones, and behaves as a psychrophilic microorganism unable to survive at >15 °C. While the α-tubulin gene sequence determination did not provide useful information on the E. petzi molecular phylogeny, the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence determination provided solid evidence that E. petzi clusters with E. sinicus Jiang et al., 2010a, into a clade which represents the deepest branch at the base of the Euplotes phylogentic tree. PMID:25051516

  4. Headspace solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization for the determination of aldehydes in algae by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiping; Xiao, Ronghui; Li, Jinhua; Li, Jie; Shi, Benzhang; Liang, Yanjuan; Lu, Wenhui; Chen, Lingxin

    2011-06-01

    A simple, fast, sensitive and cost-effective method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with on-fiber derivatization coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of six typical aldehydes, 2E-hexenal, heptanal, 2E-heptenal, 2E,4E-heptadienal, 2E-decenal and 2E,4E-decadienal in laboratory algae cultures. As derivatization reagent, O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine hydrochloride, was loaded onto the poly(dimethylsiloxane)/divinylbenzene fiber for aldehydes on-fiber derivatization prior to HS-SPME. Various influence factors of extraction efficiency were systematically investigated. Under optimized extraction conditions, excellent method performances for all the six aldehydes were attained, such as satisfactory extraction recoveries ranging from 67.1 to 117%, with the precision (relative standard deviation) within 5.3-11.1%, and low detection limits in the range of 0.026-0.044 μg/L. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of the aldehydes in two diatoms (Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros muelleri), two pyrrophytas (Prorocentrum micans and Scrippsiella trochoidea) and Calanus sinicus eggs (feeding on the two diatoms above). PMID:21567947

  5. Laboratory study on the ecological impact of sophorolipid used for harmful algae elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Kim, Eunki; Sun, Song

    2010-11-01

    We studied the role of sophorolipid in inhibiting harmful algae bloom (HAB). Different sophorolipid concentrations were tested on marine microalgae, zooplankton, fish, and bivalve ( Mytilus edulis) in laboratory. The result shows that sophorolipid could inhibit the growth of algal species selectively. Among three algae species selected, Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis was promoted with increasing sophorolipid concentration; Isochrysis galbana was inhibited seven days later in sophorolipid concentration below 40 mg/L; and Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima was inhibited obviously in only a high sophorolipid concentration over 20 mg/L. Therefore, sophorolipid in a low concentration at <20 mg/L could remove certain harmful algae species effectively without harming other non-harmful microalgae. For other animals, sophorolipid could inhibit the growth of ciliate Strombidium sp. by 50% at 20 mg/L sophorolipid concentration after 96 h. The concentration in 96-h LC50 for Calanus sinicus, Neomysis awatschensis, Lateolabrax japonicus, and Paralichthys olivaceus was 15, 150, 60, and 110 mg/L, respectively. The 24 h LC50 value for Artemia salina was 600 mg/L. The relative clearance rate of mussel Mytilus edulis decreased to 80%, 40%, and 20% of the control group after being exposed to 20, 50, and 100 mg/L sophorolipid for 24 h. Therefore, the toxicity for mitigation of harmful algae bloom at previously recommended concentration of 5-20 mg/L sophorolipid is low for most tested organisms in this reaserch.

  6. SFTS Virus in Ticks in an Endemic Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwen; Li, Jiandong; Niu, Guoyu; Wang, Xianjun; Ding, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaolin; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quanfu; Liang, Mifang; Bi, Zhenqiang; Li, Dexin

    2015-01-01

    In total, 3,145 ticks of the species Haemaphysalis longicornis (3,048; 96.9%), R. microplus (82; 2.6%), H. campanulata (9; 0.3%), and Dermacentor sinicus (5; 0.2%) were collected from animals and vegetation at Yantai in Shandong Province. Both adult and immature ticks were obtained, and all ticks collected from vegetation were unfed. Eggs were obtained from 22 blood-fed female ticks through maintenance at room temperature after collection. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) viral RNA was identified in H. longicornis and R. microplus, with a prevalence of 4.75 per 100 ticks (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 3.87–5.63) for ticks collected from animals and 2.24 per 100 ticks (95% CI = 1.27–3.21) for ticks collected from vegetation. The possibility that SFTSV transmission may occur by both the transstadial and transovarial routes was suggested by the fact that viral RNA was detected in H. longicornis at all developmental stages. Tick-derived sequences shared over 95.6% identity with human- and animal-derived isolates. This study provides evidence that implicates ticks as not only vectors but also, reservoirs of SFTSV. PMID:25711611

  7. A new species of the spider genus Plator (Trochanteriidae) from south China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ye-Jie; Zhu, Guang-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The spider genus Plator Simon (1880) is a small and little-known group in the spider family Trochanteriidae. Species of Plator are called flat-spiders in Chinese for the extremely flat habitus (Zhu & Wang 1963). Up to now, 11 Plator species have been recorded from India, China, Korea and Japan. Six of them, P. insolens Simon (1880), P. pandeae Tikader (1969), P. pennatus Platnick (1976), P. sinicus Zhu & Wang (1963), P. yunlong Zhu et al. (2006) and P. bowo Zhu et al. (2006) are reported from China (World Spider Catalog 2016). Zhu et al. (2006) suggested two species groups for at least all Chinese Plator species, the P. insolens group and the P. pennatus group. The former can be recognized by the absence of RTA of male pedipalp, and the narrow first windings of the copulatory duct system of female epigyne and the latter, distinguished by the presence of RTA and the broad first windings of the copulatory duct system. PMID:27615967

  8. SFTS virus in ticks in an endemic area of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiwen; Li, Jiandong; Niu, Guoyu; Wang, Xianjun; Ding, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaolin; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quanfu; Liang, Mifang; Bi, Zhenqiang; Li, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    In total, 3,145 ticks of the species Haemaphysalis longicornis (3,048; 96.9%), R. microplus (82; 2.6%), H. campanulata (9; 0.3%), and Dermacentor sinicus (5; 0.2%) were collected from animals and vegetation at Yantai in Shandong Province. Both adult and immature ticks were obtained, and all ticks collected from vegetation were unfed. Eggs were obtained from 22 blood-fed female ticks through maintenance at room temperature after collection. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) viral RNA was identified in H. longicornis and R. microplus, with a prevalence of 4.75 per 100 ticks (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 3.87-5.63) for ticks collected from animals and 2.24 per 100 ticks (95% CI = 1.27-3.21) for ticks collected from vegetation. The possibility that SFTSV transmission may occur by both the transstadial and transovarial routes was suggested by the fact that viral RNA was detected in H. longicornis at all developmental stages. Tick-derived sequences shared over 95.6% identity with human- and animal-derived isolates. This study provides evidence that implicates ticks as not only vectors but also, reservoirs of SFTSV. PMID:25711611

  9. Zooplankton spatial and diurnal variations in the Changjiang River estuary before operation of the Three Gorges Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuelu; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang

    2011-05-01

    Estuarine plankton communities can serve as indicators of ecosystem modification in response to anthropogenic influences. The main objectives of this study were to describe the spatial distribution and diurnal variability in zooplankton abundance and biomass over almost entire salinity gradient of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary and to provide a background reference for future studies. To accomplish this, data were collected from 29 stations in the estuary from May 19 to 26, 2003, including two anchor stations. The spatial and diurnal variations in zooplankton characteristics, i.e. abundance, biomass, and gross taxonomic composition, were examined. Generally, both the abundance and biomass gradually increased seaward and presented distinct spatial variations. In addition, the spatial data revealed a significant correlation between abundance and biomass; however, there was no significant correlation between abundance and biomass for the diurnal data. Although the zooplankton composition indicated distinct spatial differences in terms of dominant groups, copepods accounted for >50% of the total zooplankton abundance in most regions and times. Three zooplankton assemblages were recognized through hierarchical cluster analysis. These assemblages existed along the salinity gradient from fresh water to seawater, and their positions coincided with those of the three principal water masses in the estuary. The assemblages were classified as: (1) true estuarine, (2) estuarine and marine, and (3) euryhaline marine, which were characterized by the copepods Sinocalanus dorrii, Labidocera euchaeta, and Calanus sinicus, respectively. Both spatial and diurnal data indicated that there was no significant correlation between zooplankton abundance/biomass and depth-integrated phytoplankton abundance.

  10. Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylura strongylura

    PubMed Central

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

  11. First records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) in Pacific migratory shorebirds wintering in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haase, Ben; Alava, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Chewing lice were collected from small shorebirds (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae) overwintering in foraging grounds of coastal Ecuador. On 27 occasions at least one louse (3.7%) was collected from six host species. Based on external morphological characters, at least two species of chewing lice could be preliminary identified (family: Menoponidae), including Actornithophilus umbrinus (Burmeister, 1842) and Austromenopon sp. A. umbrinus was found in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri), Least Sandpiper (C. minutilla), Stilt Sandpiper (C. himantopus), Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) and Wilson's phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), while Austromenopon sp. is presumably the first record collected from the Surfbird (Aphriza virgata). These findings indicate that the distribution of these chewing lice species covers at least the regions around the equator (latitude 0°) until the Arctic in the north, but probably also includes the entire winter distribution area of the host species. This is the first study of chewing lice from Ecuador's mainland coast and more research is required to understand the host-parasite ecology and ectoparasitic infection in shorebirds stopping over the region. PMID:25054510

  12. Phylogenetic relationships among the true porpoises (Cetacea:Phocoenidae).

    PubMed

    Rosel, P E; Haygood, M G; Perrin, W F

    1995-12-01

    Portions of the cytochrome b gene and control region of the mitochondrial DNA molecule were sequenced to investigate systematic relationships among the six extant species of true porpoises, (Cetacea: Phocoenidae). Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences support a close relationship between Burmeister's porpoise, Phocoena spinipinnis, and the vaquita, Phocoena sinus, and the association of these two species with the spectacled porpoise, Australophocaena dioptrica. The latter result is not in concordance with a recent morphological reclassification which groups A. dioptrica with Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, in the subfamily Phocoenoidinae. The molecular analysis found no support for this grouping. A. dioptrica was originally described as a member of the genus Phocoena, and our results support returning it to that genus at this time. Finally, the data suggest that the tropical species Neophocaena phocaenoides, the finless porpoise, may represent the most basal member of the family. The control region sequences corroborated the relationships among the closely related taxa P. sinus, P. spinipinnis, and A. dioptrica, but were unable to resolve the deeper branches of the tree, probably as a result of a high level of saturation of these sequences. PMID:8747302

  13. The efficacy and safety of alphacypermethrin as a pour-on treatment for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) infested with Haematopinus tuberculatus (Phthiraptera: Haematopinidae).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Cimmino, Roberta; Balestrieri, Anna; Rufrano, Domenico; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Santoro, Mario; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    The sucking louse Haematopinus tuberculatus (Burmeister 1839) is an ectoparasite of buffaloes, cattle, camels, and American bison. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to control arthropods of veterinary and public health interest. Therapeutics, such as antiparasitic compounds, is often administered to buffaloes based on dosage and intervals recommended for cattle because very few drugs have buffalo-specific label indications. A trial was conducted on 20 louse-infested buffaloes at a farm to assess the efficacy and safety of ACYP pour-on, at the manufacturer's recommended dose for cattle, on buffaloes naturally infested by H. tuberculatus. Ten animals were assigned to ACYP-treated group (ACYP-group) and ten to untreated control group (C-group). On day 0, all ACYP-group buffaloes received alphacypermethrin pour-on. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at eight predilection sites on the skin of each buffalo. ACYP was completely effective (100%) at day 7, highly effective (99.8%) at day 14, and completely effective (100%) from day 21 until the end of the study (day 56 post-treatment). During the trial, ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinically adverse reactions. The results of this trial suggest that ACYP is an effective, safe, and user-friendly compound suitable for treatment of buffaloes with natural louse infestations. PMID:23733232

  14. Virtual Screening of Plant Volatile Compounds Reveals a High Affinity of Hylamorpha elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Odorant-Binding Proteins for Sesquiterpenes From Its Native Host.

    PubMed

    González-González, Angélica; Palma-Millanao, Rubén; Yáñez, Osvaldo; Rojas, Maximiliano; Mutis, Ana; Venthur, Herbert; Quiroz, Andrés; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2016-01-01

    Hylamorpha elegans(Burmeister) is a native Chilean scarab beetle considered to be a relevant agricultural pest to pasture and cereal and small fruit crops. Because of their cryptic habits, control with conventional methods is difficult; therefore, alternative and environmentally friendly control strategies are highly desirable. The study of proteins that participate in the recognition of odorants, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), offers interesting opportunities to identify new compounds with the potential to modify pest behavior and computational screening of compounds, which is commonly used in drug discovery, may help to accelerate the discovery of new semiochemicals. Here, we report the discovery of four OBPs inH. elegans as well as six new volatiles released by its native host Nothofagus obliqua(Mirbel). Molecular docking performed between OBPs and new and previously reported volatiles from N. oblique revealed the best binding energy values for sesquiterpenic compounds. Despite remarkable divergence at the amino acid level, three of the four OBPs evaluated exhibited the best interaction energy for the same ligands. Molecular dynamics investigation reinforced the importance of sesquiterpenes, showing that hydrophobic residues of the OBPs interacted most frequently with the tested ligands, and binding free energy calculations demonstrated van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions to be the most important. Altogether, the results suggest that sesquiterpenes are interesting candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their potential application in pest management strategies. PMID:27012867

  15. Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the north Saharan oases ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10 d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1 h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females. PMID:25527574

  16. Niche Partitioning in Three Sympatric Congeneric Species of Dragonfly, Orthetrum chrysostigma, O. coerulescens anceps, and O. nitidinerve: The Importance of Microhabitat

    PubMed Central

    Khelifa, Rassim; Zebsa, Rabah; Moussaoui, Abdelkrim; Kahalerras, Amin; Bensouilah, Soufyane; Mahdjoub, Hayat

    2013-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity has been shown to promote co-existence of closely related species. Based on this concept, a field study was conducted on the niche partitioning of three territorial congeneric species of skimmers (Anisoptera: Libellulidae) in Northeast Algeria during the breeding season of 2011. According to their size, there is a descending hierarchy between Orthetrum nitidinerve Sélys, O. chrysostigma (Burmeister), and O. coerulescens anceps (Schneider). After being marked and surveyed, the two latter species had the same breeding behavior sequence. Knowing that they had almost the same size, such species could not co-occur in the same habitat according to the competitive exclusion principle. The spatial distribution of the three species was investigated at two different microhabitats, and it was found that these two species were actually isolated at this scale. O. chrysostigma and O. nitidinerve preferred open areas, while O. c. anceps occurred in highly vegetated waters. This study highlights the role of microhabitat in community structure as an important niche axis that maintains closely related species in the same habitat. PMID:24219357

  17. [Chewing-lice (Phtihiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) occurring on birds in the Konya zoo].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 25 birds belonging to 15 different species at the zoo in Konya were inspected for the presence of chewing-lice. Three Long-legged Buzzards (Buteo rufinus), one Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) and one Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) were found to be infested by chewing-lice. Two hundred and eleven chewing-lice specimens were collected from the birds and seven species were identified. They were mounted on slides separately in Faure forte medium or Canada balsam after clearing in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the chewing-lice were examined and measured under the light microscope. Laemobothrion maximum (Scopoli, 1763), Craspedorrhynchus platystomus (Burmeister, 1838) and Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874) were detected on Long-legged buzzards; Craspedorrhynchus fraterculus (Eichler & Zlotorzycka, 1975), Degeeriella aquilarum (Eichler, 1943) and Colpocephalum impressum (Rudow, 1866) on the Imperial Eagle; and Degeeriella fusca (Denny, 1842), on the Mars Harrier. C. fraterculus, D. aquilarum, C. impressum and D. fusca were found for the first time on these raptors in Turkey and information about these species were given in this paper. PMID:19367546

  18. Taxonomic, bioacoustic and faunistic data on a collection of Tettigonioidea from Eastern Congo (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Hemp, Claudia; Liu, Chunxiang; Volleth, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    During a 14-day excursion in March 1990, 28 species of tettigonioids were found at Irangi (1º54'S, 28º27'E), ca.100 km north west of Bukavu at Lake Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire), and at other localities near Bukavu. One species -Arantia (Arantia) gracilicercata Heller sp. n. - is new to science, another one-Pantecphyllus helleri Schmidt et al. 2004-was already described as new in a generic revision. All our specimens of the morphologically quite diverse and sexually dimorphic phaneropterine genus Arantia were studied using molecular methods. We propose a new subgenus Arantia (Euarantia) Heller subgen. n. based on relative tegmen width. Songs and stridulatory organs were studied in 9 species. Two phaneropterines, Horatosphaga leggei and Pardalota asymmetrica, showed remarkable calling songs lasting more than 10 s and produced by quite complicated stridulatory movements. The song of the large phaneropterine Zeuneria biramosa is noteworthy because of its unusually low carrier frequency of 3.7 kHz. Based on the examination of other specimens and species, some taxonomic changes are proposed (Phaneropteridae Burmeister, 1838 stat. rev.; Afromecopoda monroviana (Karsch, 1886) stat. rev.; Leproscirtus ebneri Karny, 1919, syn. n., Leproscirtus karschi Karny, 1919, syn. n., Leproscirtus granulosus aptera Karny, 1919, syn. n., all synonyms of Leproscirtus granulosus (Karsch, 1886); Lanistoides Sjöstedt, 1913 stat. rev.; Plastocorypha cabrai Griffini, 1909 stat. n.). PMID:24872232

  19. Revision of Campsurus violaceus species group (Ephemeroptera: Polymitarcyidae) with new synonymies and nomina dubia in Campsurus Eaton, 1868.

    PubMed

    Molineri, C; Salles, F F; Emmerich, D

    2015-01-01

    The violaceus species group (formerly notatus species group) of Campsurus Eaton is revised. All the species in the violaceus group are diagnosed. A new species, C. molinai sp. nov. is described based on male imagos from Bolivia, characterized by their large and sclerotized penes. The violaceus group is proposed to include the following species: C. assimilis Traver, C. truncatus Ulmer (=C. mahunkai Puthz = C. melanocephalus Pereira & da Silva, new synonyms), C. violaceus Needham & Murphy (= C. meyeri Navás = C. notatus Needham & Murphy = C. paranensis Navás, new synonyms), C. emersoni Traver, C. decoloratus (Hagen), and C. molinai sp.nov. Additionally we consider the following species as nomina dubia: C. longicauda Navás, C. pfeifferi Navás, C. zikani Navás, C. albicans (orig. Ephemera albicans Percheron in Guerin & Percheron), C. burmeisteri Ulmer, C. dallasi Navás, C. quadridentatus Eaton, C. claudus Needham & Murphy, C. corumbanus Needham & Murphy, C. dorsalis (Burmeister), C. mutilus Needham & Murphy, and C. striatus Needham & Murphy. Given the results presented herein (five species synonymized and 12 proposed as nomina dubia), only 28 valid species remain in the genus Campsurus. Additionally, the nymphal stages of C. violaceus and C. truncatus are described and illustrated. Female adult genitalia (sockets) and eggs of C. decoloratus are described for the first time. Diagnoses, new country records, and redescriptions of selected characters of the imagos for the species of the violaceus group are given. PMID:25781239

  20. Man B W brings two-stroke slow-speed engines back to Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kunberger, K.

    1994-09-01

    In a move started almost ten years ago, MAN B W Diesel A/S has now centralized the company's Copenhagen activities into one place. With these moves, it seems that the restructuring of the Danish engine builder, Burmeister Wain, into a member of the worldwide diesel engine group, MAN B W, has been completed. Just as interesting, however, are recent moves to expand the company's capabilities for producing two-stroke engines in Europe. MAN in Augsburg, Germany, acquired B W in 1980. This was the time when MAN decided to terminate its own two-stroke engine developments in favor of the B W design. The two-stroke engines designed in Copenhagen are more than 90% directed to the marine market and less than 10% for land-based power plants. Whereas, in Augsburg, the four-stroke engine market activities are some 65% directed to the power generation market, leaving 35% to marine. The big medium-speed marine engines built in Augsburg are mostly used for passenger ships, cruise ships and ferries, just to name the major applications. The two-stroke engines from Copenhagen are used for container ships, tankers or bulk carriers. 2 figs.

  1. Virtual Screening of Plant Volatile Compounds Reveals a High Affinity of Hylamorpha elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Odorant-Binding Proteins for Sesquiterpenes From Its Native Host

    PubMed Central

    Palma-Millanao, Rubén; Yáñez, Osvaldo; Rojas, Maximiliano; Mutis, Ana; Venthur, Herbert; Quiroz, Andrés; Ramírez, Claudio C.

    2016-01-01

    Hylamorpha elegans (Burmeister) is a native Chilean scarab beetle considered to be a relevant agricultural pest to pasture and cereal and small fruit crops. Because of their cryptic habits, control with conventional methods is difficult; therefore, alternative and environmentally friendly control strategies are highly desirable. The study of proteins that participate in the recognition of odorants, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), offers interesting opportunities to identify new compounds with the potential to modify pest behavior and computational screening of compounds, which is commonly used in drug discovery, may help to accelerate the discovery of new semiochemicals. Here, we report the discovery of four OBPs in H. elegans as well as six new volatiles released by its native host Nothofagus obliqua (Mirbel). Molecular docking performed between OBPs and new and previously reported volatiles from N. obliqua revealed the best binding energy values for sesquiterpenic compounds. Despite remarkable divergence at the amino acid level, three of the four OBPs evaluated exhibited the best interaction energy for the same ligands. Molecular dynamics investigation reinforced the importance of sesquiterpenes, showing that hydrophobic residues of the OBPs interacted most frequently with the tested ligands, and binding free energy calculations demonstrated van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions to be the most important. Altogether, the results suggest that sesquiterpenes are interesting candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their potential application in pest management strategies. PMID:27012867

  2. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, M. J.; Firth, C.; Bhat, M.; Firth, M. A.; Che, X.; Lee, D.; Williams, S. H.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26336309

  3. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Insecticides in Laboratory and Greenhouse Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, John C; Prabhaker, Nilima; Reed, Darcy A; Perring, Thomas M; Castle, Steven J; Huang, Ta-I

    2015-04-01

    Field-collected nymphs and adults of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Penatatomidae) from three locations were evaluated for susceptibility to insecticides representing 10 classes of insecticide chemistry. Although relative susceptibilities differed between leaf-spray and leaf-dip Petri dish bioassays, consistently low LC50 values were determined for chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin. Fenpropathrin and methomyl had intermediate values. Susceptibility to dinotefuran varied depending on the bioassay, possibly owing to leaf substrates used in the two bioassays. In soil systemic bioassays, the LC50 value of dinotefuran was significantly greater than that of two other neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and the anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole. Mortality and feeding damage of B. hilaris and plant growth on insecticide-treated plants in greenhouse trials were consistent with the laboratory bioassays; the best results were seen with bifenthrin, methomyl, and chlorpyrifos. Mortality to the neonicotinoids was not evident; however, feeding damage and plant growth responses on dinotefuran-treated plants damage were similar to the noninfested control. This highlights the apparent antifeedant properties of dinotefuran that may have prevented adults from injuring broccoli plants after exposure to foliar spray residues. Data presented serve as baseline susceptibilities that can be used to monitor for resistance development in field populations of B. hilaris. PMID:26470178

  4. Microdosimetry for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, R.L.; Kota, C.

    2000-09-05

    The specific aims of the research proposal were as follows: (1) To design and construct small volume tissue equivalent proportional counters for the dosimetry and microdosimetry of high intensity thermal and epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT, and of modified fast neutron beams designed for boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). (2) To develop analytical methods for estimating the biological effectiveness of the absorbed dose in BNCT and BNCEFNT based on the measured microdosimetric spectra. (3) To develop an analytical framework for comparing the biological effectiveness of different epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT and BNCEFNT, based on correlated sets of measured microdosimetric spectra and radiobiological data. Specific aims (1) and (2) were achieved in their entirety and are comprehensively documented in Jay Burmeister's Ph.D. dissertation entitled ''Specification of physical and biologically effective absorbed dose in radiation therapies utilizing the boron neutron capture reaction'' (Wayne State University, 1999). Specific aim (3) proved difficult to accomplish because of a lack of sufficient radiobiological data.

  5. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry. PMID:24665711

  6. Oviposition response of green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and potential attractants on pecan.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Brian A; Cottrell, Ted E

    2007-06-01

    Pecan foliage is attacked by three species of aphids [Monellia caryella (Fitch), Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), and Monelliopsis pecanis Bissell], resulting in damage that can reduce tree nut yield. In this study, we assayed the ovipositional response of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) to M. caryella and M. caryaefoliae at high and low aphid densities and the development of C. rufilabris larvae when fed solely on each of the three pecan aphid species. During 2004 and 2005, combinations of attractants and food sprays were applied to pecan trees in an orchard to monitor green lacewing ovipositional response. We found that C. rufilabris laid more eggs on seedling trees infested with the M. caryella (at both high and low densities) than on seedlings infested with M. caryaefoliae. Development of C. rufilabris was unaffected by aphid species. At least one attractant/food spray treatment applied to trees in an orchard significantly increased green lacewing oviposition for three of the five treatment dates over both years. These results show that larvae of C. rufilabris will consume all aphid species attacking pecan, even though female ovipositional response can differ for aphid species. It is likely that combinations of attractants and food sprays can be used to enhance green lacewing populations in orchards. PMID:17540067

  7. Descriptive Study of Damage Caused by the Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon, and Its Influence on Date Palm Oases of Rjim Maatoug, Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Rasmi; lkbel, Chaieb; Habib Ben Hamouda, Med

    2008-01-01

    Oryctes agamemnon (Burmeister 1847) (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) was accidentally introduced in the southwestern oases of Tunisia (Tozeur) around 1980 and spread to the Rjim Maatoug region. In these areas O. agamemnon was specific to date palm trees causing severe damage that can result in potential danger due to collapse of the tree. This study was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in 4 sites in the region of Rjim Maatoug. Different levels of palm tree attack were determined, ovioposition sites were identified, and pest damage was described in detail to specify their relative importance and to indicate factors governing palm tree attack. Eggs were individually oviposited in the attacked parts. Dead parts of palm trees were the main target of O. agamemnon including the respiratory roots, tough, trunk bark, dry petiole and the periphery of the crown. The crown itself was not attacked. Feeding by larvae caused significant damage. The biggest danger occurred when heavy attacks of larvae invaded the respiratory roots at the level of the soil, and secondarily on the periphery of the crown, which can result in fungal diseases. Several cases of Deglet Nour date palm tree collapse were caused by this pest in Rjim Maatoug. Attacks on other parts of the tree were without danger for the palm tree. In the absence of pest management, application of a quarantine program combined with field cultivation techniques could help farmers significantly decrease attack of O. agamemnon on palm trees. PMID:20302545

  8. Mitogenomic Phylogenetics of Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.): Genetic Evidence for Revision of Subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Frederick I.; Morin, Phillip A.; Hancock-Hanser, Brittany L.; Robertson, Kelly M.; Leslie, Matthew S.; Bérubé, Martine; Panigada, Simone; Taylor, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    There are three described subspecies of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus): B. p. physalus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Northern Hemisphere, B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829 in the Southern Hemisphere, and a recently described pygmy form, B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. The discrete distribution in the North Pacific and North Atlantic raises the question of whether a single Northern Hemisphere subspecies is valid. We assess phylogenetic patterns using ∼16 K base pairs of the complete mitogenome for 154 fin whales from the North Pacific, North Atlantic - including the Mediterranean Sea - and Southern Hemisphere. A Bayesian tree of the resulting 136 haplotypes revealed several well-supported clades representing each ocean basin, with no haplotypes shared among ocean basins. The North Atlantic haplotypes (n = 12) form a sister clade to those from the Southern Hemisphere (n = 42). The estimated time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for this Atlantic/Southern Hemisphere clade and 81 of the 97 samples from the North Pacific was approximately 2 Ma. 14 of the remaining North Pacific samples formed a well-supported clade within the Southern Hemisphere. The TMRCA for this node suggests that at least one female from the Southern Hemisphere immigrated to the North Pacific approximately 0.37 Ma. These results provide strong evidence that North Pacific and North Atlantic fin whales should not be considered the same subspecies, and suggest the need for revision of the global taxonomy of the species. PMID:23691042

  9. Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ben; Li, Bei; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhou, Ji-Hua; Luo, Chu-Ming; Yang, Xing-Lou; Wu, Li-Jun; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yun; Li, Zong-Xiao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-02-01

    Since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak prompted a search for the natural reservoir of the SARS coronavirus, numerous alpha- and betacoronaviruses have been discovered in bats around the world. Bats are likely the natural reservoir of alpha- and betacoronaviruses, and due to the rich diversity and global distribution of bats, the number of bat coronaviruses will likely increase. We conducted a surveillance of coronaviruses in bats in an abandoned mineshaft in Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, China, from 2012-2013. Six bat species were frequently detected in the cave: Rhinolophus sinicus, Rhinolophus affinis, Hipposideros pomona, Miniopterus schreibersii, Miniopterus fuliginosus, and Miniopterus fuscus. By sequencing PCR products of the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (RdRp), we found a high frequency of infection by a diverse group of coronaviruses in different bat species in the mineshaft. Sequenced partial RdRp fragments had 80%-99% nucleic acid sequence identity with well-characterized Alphacoronavirus species, including BtCoV HKU2, BtCoV HKU8, and BtCoV1, and unassigned species BtCoV HKU7 and BtCoV HKU10. Additionally, the surveillance identified two unclassified betacoronaviruses, one new strain of SARS-like coronavirus, and one potentially new betacoronavirus species. Furthermore, coronavirus co-infection was detected in all six bat species, a phenomenon that fosters recombination and promotes the emergence of novel virus strains. Our findings highlight the importance of bats as natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and the potentially zoonotic source of viral pathogens. PMID:26920708

  10. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Huang, Yi; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Wong, Beatrice H. L.; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Leung, Suet-Yi; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2005-01-01

    Although the finding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in caged palm civets from live animal markets in China has provided evidence for interspecies transmission in the genesis of the SARS epidemic, subsequent studies suggested that the civet may have served only as an amplification host for SARS-CoV. In a surveillance study for CoV in noncaged animals from the wild areas of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region, we identified a CoV closely related to SARS-CoV (bat-SARS-CoV) from 23 (39%) of 59 anal swabs of wild Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) by using RT-PCR. Sequencing and analysis of three bat-SARS-CoV genomes from samples collected at different dates showed that bat-SARS-CoV is closely related to SARS-CoV from humans and civets. Phylogenetic analysis showed that bat-SARS-CoV formed a distinct cluster with SARS-CoV as group 2b CoV, distantly related to known group 2 CoV. Most differences between the bat-SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV genomes were observed in the spike genes, ORF 3 and ORF 8, which are the regions where most variations also were observed between human and civet SARS-CoV genomes. In addition, the presence of a 29-bp insertion in ORF 8 of bat-SARS-CoV genome, not in most human SARS-CoV genomes, suggests that it has a common ancestor with civet SARS-CoV. Antibody against recombinant bat-SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein was detected in 84% of Chinese horseshoe bats by using an enzyme immunoassay. Neutralizing antibody to human SARS-CoV also was detected in bats with lower viral loads. Precautions should be exercised in the handling of these animals. PMID:16169905

  11. Predicting temporal shifts in the spring occurrence of overwintered Scotinophara lurida (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and rice phenology in Korea with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoseok; Kang, Wee Soo; Ahn, Mun Il; Cho, Kijong; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Climate change could shift the phenology of insects and plants and alter their linkage in space and time. We examined the synchrony of rice and its insect pest, Scotinophara lurida (Burmeister), under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 8.5 climate change scenario by comparing the mean spring immigration time of overwintered S. lurida with the mean rice transplanting times in Korea. The immigration time of S. lurida was estimated using an overwintered adult flight model. The rice transplanting time of three cultivars (early, medium, and medium-late maturing) was estimated by forecasting the optimal cultivation period using leaf appearance and final leaf number models. A temperature increase significantly advanced the 99 % immigration time of S. lurida from Julian day 192.1 in the 2000s to 178.4 in the 2050s and 163.1 in the 2090s. In contrast, rice transplanting time was significantly delayed in the early-maturing cultivar from day 141.2 in the 2000s to 166.7 in the 2050s and 190.6 in the 2090s, in the medium-maturing cultivar from day 130.6 in the 2000s to 156.6 in the 2050s and 184.7 in the 2090s, and in the medium-late maturing cultivar from day 128.5 in 2000s to 152.9 in the 2050s and 182.3 in the 2090s. These simulation results predict a significant future phenological asynchrony between S. lurida and rice in Korea.

  12. Perching mate-locating strategy in Paysandisia archon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae): behavioral and morpho-physiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Riolo, P; Verdolini, E; Anfora, G; Minuz, R L; Ruschioni, S; Carlin, S; Isidoro, N

    2014-06-01

    We studied Paysandisia archon (Burmeister) (Lepidoptera: Castniidae: Castniinae) courtship behavior to provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative description of male and female behaviors. Moreover, to investigate the role of antennal olfaction and visual stimuli in mate-recognition, bioassays with antennectomized adults and dummies were performed. To assess the presence of a pheromone gland in the ovipositor, morphological (using light and scanning electron microscopic techniques), electrophysiological, and chemical investigations were carried out. We observed perching mate-locating behavior of P. archon males, with the female triggering the courtship sequence by approaching the perching male first. The stereotyped courtship sequence is made up of five main steps: female flight, pair flight, alighting close, copulation attempt, and clasping. Our findings suggest that visual cues are important in P. archon courtship behavior, and the role of chemical cues is also discussed. Moreover, we observed a higher antenna cleaning frequency in females than in males. Ovipositor extrusions during courtship appeared not to be related to calling behavior, and histological investigations showed no evidence of glandular tissues involved in sex pheromone production. The P. archon ovipositor consists of the eighth uromere, which forms the ovipositor base, and the 9th and 10th uromeres are fused together and connected to the base by an intersegmental membrane. Overall, 24 compounds were identified from extracts obtained from ovipositors: 9 compounds were detected only in extracts from the ovipositors of 24-h-old virgin females, and not from those of 1-h-old females. None of these compounds elicited any significant electrophysiological responses from male antennae. PMID:25026660

  13. Genetic drift vs. natural selection in a long-term small isolated population: major histocompatibility complex class II variation in the Gulf of California endemic porpoise (Phocoena sinus).

    PubMed

    Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Esquer-Garrigos, Yareli; Rojas-Bracho, Lorenzo; Vazquez-Juarez, Ricardo; Castro-Prieto, Aines; Flores-Ramirez, Sergio

    2007-10-01

    Although many studies confirm long-term small isolated populations (e.g. island endemics) commonly sustain low neutral genetic variation as a result of genetic drift, it is less clear how selection on adaptive or detrimental genes interplay with random forces. We investigated sequence variation at two major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II loci on a porpoise endemic to the upper Gulf of California, México (Phocoena sinus, or vaquita). Its unique declining population is estimated around 500 individuals. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis revealed one putative functional allele fixed at the locus DQB (n = 25). At the DRB locus, we found two presumed functional alleles (n = 29), differing by a single nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution that could increase the stability at the dimer interface of alphabeta-heterodimers on heterozygous individuals. Identical trans-specific DQB1 and DRB1 alleles were identified between P. sinus and its closest relative, the Burmeister's porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis). Comparison with studies on four island endemic mammals suggests fixation of one allele, due to genetic drift, commonly occurs at the DQA or DQB loci (effectively neutral). Similarly, deleterious alleles of small effect are also effectively neutral and can become fixed; a high frequency of anatomical malformations on vaquita gave empirical support to this prediction. In contrast, retention of low but functional polymorphism at the DRB locus was consistent with higher selection intensity. These observations indicated natural selection could maintain (and likely also purge) some crucial alleles even in the face of strong and prolonged genetic drift and inbreeding, suggesting long-term small populations should display low inbreeding depression. Low levels of Mhc variation warn about a high susceptibility to novel pathogens and diseases in vaquita. PMID:17727623

  14. The life cycle of the root borer, Oryctes agamemnon, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Rasmi; Chaieb, Ikbel; Ben Hamouda, Med Habib

    2008-01-01

    The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant and were never seen outside. Pupation takes place in the plant and emergence of the adults begins in June. Larval feeding causes extensive damage to the respiratory roots. To examine the life cycle more closely, the O. agamemnon life cycle was studied under laboratory conditions. Different larval stages were collected from infested oases in Tozeur and placed in plastic boxes with natural food that was collected from the oases. After emergence, adults were paired in opaque plastic boxes for mating with the same food substrate which also served as an oviposition site. Eggs were collected daily and isolated in new boxes. Hatched eggs were recorded. The number of larval instars was determined by measuring the width of cephalic capsules. Under laboratory conditions (23 +/- 2'C and 55 +/- 6% RH)embryogenesis took 14.3 +/- 1.42 days and the first, second and third larval instars were 33.1 +/- 2.69, 63.88 +/- 6.6 and 118.3 +/- 13.38 days respectively. The pupal period lasted 24.1 +/- 3.02 days and the adult 65.27 +/- 9.48 days. These facts indicated that O. agamemnon is univoltine. PMID:20302536

  15. The assassin bug subfamily Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Vietnam: an annotated checklist of species.

    PubMed

    Lam, Truong Xuan; Cai, Wanzhi; Tomokuni, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of all known Vietnamese species of the assassin bug subfamily Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) is presented with distributional and taxonomic notes. Sixty-five species in 35 genera of the subfamily are recognized in Vietnam. Eleven genera and 32 species are reported herein for the first time from this country. Newly recorded genera are Henricohahnia Breddin, 1900, Kalonotocoris Miller, 1941, Lingnania China, 1940, Lopodytes Stål, 1853, Macracanthopsis Reuter, 1881, Sclomina Stål, 1861, Serendiba Distant, 1906, Serendus Hsiao, 1979, Vesbius Stål, 1866, Villanovanus Distant, 1904, and Yolinus Amyot & Serville, 1843. New record species are Biasticus confusus Hsiao, 1979, B. flavinotus (Matsumura, 1913), Cosmolestes annulipes Distant, 1879, C. pulcher Hsiao, 1979, Cydnocoris fasciatus Reuter, 1881, C. gilvus (Burmeister, 1838), Endochus nigricornis Stål, 1859, Henricohahnia vittata Miller, 1954, Isyndus heros (Fabricius, 1803), I. pilosipes Reuter, 1881, Kalonotocoris curvipes Miller, 1941, Lingnania braconiformis China, 1940, Lopodytes spectabilis Miller, 1941, Macracanthopsis nodipes Reuter, 1881, Sclomina erinacea Stål, 1861, Serendiba nigrospina Hsiao, 1979, S. staliana (Horváth, 1879), Serendus geniculatus Hsiao, 1979, Sphedanolestes annulipes Distant, 1903, S. gularis Hsiao, 1979, S. impressicollis (Stål, 1861), S. pubinotus Reuter, 1881, S. trichrous Stål, 1874, S. xiongi Cai & Cai, 2004, Sycanus croceus Hsiao, 1979, Velinus annulatus Distant, 1879, V. malayus (Stål, 1863), V. rufiventris Hsiao, 1979, Vesbius purpureus (Thunberg, 1784), V. sanguinosus Stål, 1874, Villanovanus nigrorufus Hsiao, 1979, and Yolinus albopustulatus China, 1940. All the species are examined with Vietnamese materials except for Agriosphodrus dohrni (Signoret, 1862), Cydnocoris russatus Stål, 1867, and Sycanus atrocoeruleus Signoret, 1862. PMID:25781817

  16. Divergent Egg Physiologies in Two Closely Related Grasshopper Species: Taeniopoda eques versus Romalea microptera (Orthoptera: Romaleidae)

    PubMed Central

    STAUFFER, TIMOTHY W.; HATLE, JOHN D.; WHITMAN, DOUGLAS W.

    2013-01-01

    We compared egg survivorship and egg development time at different soil moistures for two closely related grasshopper species from divergent habitats: marsh-inhabiting Romalea microptera (Beauvois) versus desert-inhabiting Taeniopoda eques (Burmeister). These two species can interbreed and produce viable offspring. In nature, both species have a similar 8–9 mo subterranean egg stage, but their soil environments differ dramatically in water content. We predicted that the eggs of the two species would exhibit differential survivorship and development times under different moisture levels. Our laboratory results show that the eggs of both species survived a wide range of soil moistures (≈ 0.5 to 90%), maintained for 3 mo. However, the eggs of the marsh grasshopper, R. microptera, better tolerated the highest soil moistures (95 and 100%), whereas the eggs of the desert species, T. eques, better tolerated the lowest soil moistures (0.0 and 0.1%). Sixty-five percent of marsh-inhabiting R. microptera eggs, but no desert T. eques eggs, survived 3 mo submersion under water. In contrast, 49% of desert T. eques eggs, but only 3.5% of R. microptera eggs, survived after being laid into oven-dried sand and then maintained with no additional water until hatch. In the laboratory at 26°C, the two species differed significantly in the mean length of the oviposition-to-hatch interval: 176 d for R. microptera versus 237 d for T. eques. These divergent traits presumably benefit these insects in their divergent habitats. Our results suggest the evolution of physiological divergence that is consistent with adaptations to local environments. PMID:22182625

  17. Chemical control of Loxosceles intermedia (Araneae: Sicariidae) with pyrethroids: field and laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Silva, M A; Duque, J E L; Ramires, E N; Andrade, C F S; Marques-da-Silva, E; Marques, F A; Delay, C E; Fontana, J D; Silva, A C S; Fraguas, G M

    2010-02-01

    Bites from the recluse or brown spiders (genus Loxosceles) can cause necrotic lesions and systemic effects in humans throughout the world. In the state of Paraná, Brazil, loxoscelism is considered a serious public health problem, and Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão (Araneae: Sicariidae) is associated with the majority of reported accidents. In the present research we evaluated the susceptibility of L. intermedia to pyrethroid insecticides currently used for the control of spiders in both field and laboratory conditions. In laboratory tests, the most active pesticides in descending order were microencapsulated lambda-cyhalothrin (LC50 = 0.023 mg/kg), nonmicroencapsulated lambda-cyhalothrin (LC50 = 0.047 mg/kg), deltamethrin (LC50 = 0.26 mg/kg), and cypermethrin (LC50 = 1.38 mg/kg). Cockroaches, Phoetalia circumvagans (Burmeister) (n = 30), killed with microencapsulated lambdacyalothrin, were offered to the spiders. L. intermedia fed on 63.3% of the dead cockroaches during the first 6 h of experiment; none of the spiders died during the subsequent 15 d. Microencapsulated lambdacyalothrin was chosen for application in two contiguous houses. The mean volume applied was 22.8 mg (AI)/m2. Dead spiders were found during all the inspections up to 60 d after the initial application. In total, 297 dead spiders were collected; 65.7% in the attic shared by the two homes, 10.8% inside the house that had most cracks and crevices sealed and 23.6% in the control house. The use of lambda-cyhalothrin-based products for L. intermedia control is discussed. PMID:20214382

  18. Divergent egg physiologies in two closely related grasshopper species: Taeniopoda eques versus Romalea microptera (Orthoptera: Romaleidae).

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Timothy W; Hatle, John D; Whitman, Douglas W

    2011-02-01

    We compared egg survivorship and egg development time at different soil moistures for two closely related grasshopper species from divergent habitats: marsh-inhabiting Romalea microptera (Beauvois) versus desert-inhabiting Taeniopoda eques (Burmeister). These two species can interbreed and produce viable offspring. In nature, both species have a similar 8-9 mo subterranean egg stage, but their soil environments differ dramatically in water content. We predicted that the eggs of the two species would exhibit differential survivorship and development times under different moisture levels. Our laboratory results show that the eggs of both species survived a wide range of soil moistures (≈ 0.5 to 90%), maintained for 3 mo. However, the eggs of the marsh grasshopper, R. microptera, better tolerated the highest soil moistures (95 and 100%), whereas the eggs of the desert species, T. eques, better tolerated the lowest soil moistures (0.0 and 0.1%). Sixty-five percent of marsh-inhabiting R. microptera eggs, but no desert T. eques eggs, survived 3 mo submersion under water. In contrast, 49% of desert T. eques eggs, but only 3.5% of R. microptera eggs, survived after being laid into oven-dried sand and then maintained with no additional water until hatch. In the laboratory at 26 °C, the two species differed significantly in the mean length of the oviposition-to-hatch interval: 176 d for R. microptera versus 237 d for T. eques. These divergent traits presumably benefit these insects in their divergent habitats. Our results suggest the evolution of physiological divergence that is consistent with adaptations to local environments. PMID:22182625

  19. Predicting temporal shifts in the spring occurrence of overwintered Scotinophara lurida (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and rice phenology in Korea with climate change.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoseok; Kang, Wee Soo; Ahn, Mun Il; Cho, Kijong; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Climate change could shift the phenology of insects and plants and alter their linkage in space and time. We examined the synchrony of rice and its insect pest, Scotinophara lurida (Burmeister), under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 8.5 climate change scenario by comparing the mean spring immigration time of overwintered S. lurida with the mean rice transplanting times in Korea. The immigration time of S. lurida was estimated using an overwintered adult flight model. The rice transplanting time of three cultivars (early, medium, and medium-late maturing) was estimated by forecasting the optimal cultivation period using leaf appearance and final leaf number models. A temperature increase significantly advanced the 99% immigration time of S. lurida from Julian day 192.1 in the 2000s to 178.4 in the 2050s and 163.1 in the 2090s. In contrast, rice transplanting time was significantly delayed in the early-maturing cultivar from day 141.2 in the 2000s to 166.7 in the 2050s and 190.6 in the 2090s, in the medium-maturing cultivar from day 130.6 in the 2000s to 156.6 in the 2050s and 184.7 in the 2090s, and in the medium-late maturing cultivar from day 128.5 in 2000s to 152.9 in the 2050s and 182.3 in the 2090s. These simulation results predict a significant future phenological asynchrony between S. lurida and rice in Korea. PMID:25957865

  20. Suitability of Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) for the Development of the Predator Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Niño, Angie A; Cave, Ronald D

    2015-08-01

    Microtheca ochroloma Stål, the yellowmargined leaf beetle, is one of the most destructive pests of crucifer vegetables on organic farms. Larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister have been observed preying on M. ochroloma, but no studies have evaluated the suitability of M. ochroloma as prey for C. rufilabris or the efficacy of this predator as a biological control agent of the pest. This study quantified the killing rate, developmental time, and survivorship of C. rufilabris when offered eggs and larvae of M. ochroloma at 10, 15, 20, or 25°C. Mean number of prey killed daily increased from 8.4 eggs and 4.0 larvae at 15°C to 18.6 eggs and 10.2 larvae at 25°C. However, predator larvae killed 78% fewer total eggs at 25°C than at 15°C; total number of first-instar prey killed did not vary significantly with temperature. Mean developmental time of predator larvae decreased from 75.5 d at 15°C to 26.6 d at 25°C when they were fed eggs, whereas it decreased from 54.0 d at 15°C to 21.4 d at 25°C when they were fed larvae. Predator survivorship was reduced by 80% at 15°C and no larvae survived at 10°C. We conclude that C. rufilabris can complete development on a diet of eggs of M. ochroloma, but its effectiveness to control M. ochroloma populations will be lessened during cool months, from November to April, when crucifers are produced in Florida and the beetle is actively developing, reproducing, and causing crop damage. PMID:26314068

  1. Adhesion of living cells revealed by variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso Dos Santos, Marcelina; Vézy, Cyrille; Jaffiol, Rodolphe

    2016-02-01

    Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) is a widespread technique to study cellular process occurring near the contact region with the glass substrate. In this field, determination of the accurate distance from the surface to the plasma membrane constitutes a crucial issue to investigate the physical basis of cellular adhesion process. However, quantitative interpretation of TIRF pictures regarding the distance z between a labeled membrane and the substrate is not trivial. Indeed, the contrast of TIRF images depends on several parameters more and less well known (local concentration of dyes, absorption cross section, angular emission pattern…). The strategy to get around this problem is to exploit a series of TIRF pictures recorded at different incident angles in evanescent regime. This technique called variable-angle TIRF microscopy (vaTIRFM), allowing to map the membrane-substrate separation distance with a nanometric resolution (10-20 nm). vaTIRFM was developed by Burmeister, Truskey and Reichert in the early 1990s with a prism-based TIRF setup [Journal of Microscopy 173, 39-51 (1994)]. We propose a more convenient prismless setup, which uses only a rotatable mirror to adjust precisely the laser beam on the back focal plane of the oil immersion objective (no azimuthal scanning is needed). The series of TIRF images permit us to calculate accurately membrane-surface distances in each pixel. We demonstrate that vaTIRFM are useful to quantify the adhesion of living cells for specific and unspecific membrane-surface interactions, achieved on various functionalized substrates with polymers (BSA, poly-L-lysin) or extracellular matrix proteins (collagen and fibronectin).

  2. Epidemiological pattern of tattoo skin disease: a potential general health indicator for cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Van Waerebeek, Koen; Aznar, Francisco Javier; Raga, Juan Antonio; Jepson, Paul D; Duignan, Pádraig; Deaville, Rob; Flach, Leonardo; Viddi, Francisco; Baker, John R; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula; Echegaray, Mónica; Genovo, Tilen; Reyes, Julio; Felix, Fernando; Gaspar, Raquel; Ramos, Renata; Peddemors, Vic; Sanino, Gian Paolo; Siebert, Ursula

    2009-07-23

    The presence of tattoo skin disease (TSD) was examined in 1392 free-ranging and dead odontocetes comprising 17 species from the Americas, Europe, South Africa, New Zealand and Greenland. We investigated whether TSD prevalence varied with sex, age and health status. TSD was encountered in cetaceans from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans as well as in those from the North, Mediterranean and Tasman Seas. No clear patterns related to geography and host phylogeny were detected, except that prevalence of TSD in juveniles and, in 2 species (dusky dolphin Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Burmeister's porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis), in adults was remarkably high in samples from Peru. Environmental factors and virus properties may be responsible for this finding. Sex did not significantly influence TSD prevalence except in the case of Peruvian P. spinipinnis. Generally, there was a pattern of TSD increase in juveniles compared to calves, attributed to the loss of maternal immunity. Also, in most samples, juveniles seemed to have a higher probability of suffering TSD than adults, presumably because more adults had acquired active immunity following infection. This holo-endemic pattern was inverted in poor health short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis and harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from the British Isles, and in Chilean dolphins Cephalorhynchus eutropia from Patagonia, where adults showed a higher TSD prevalence than juveniles. Very large tattoos were seen in some adult odontocetes from the SE Pacific, NE Atlantic and Portugal's Sado Estuary, which suggest impaired immune response. The epidemiological pattern of TSD may be an indicator of cetacean population health. PMID:19750811

  3. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binds independently to both sites of the IgG homodimer with identical affinity

    PubMed Central

    Abdiche, Yasmina Noubia; Yeung, Yik Andy; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Barman, Ishita; Strop, Pavel; Chin, Sherman Michael; Pham, Amber; Bolton, Gary; McDonough, Dan; Lindquist, Kevin; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is expressed by cells of epithelial, endothelial and myeloid lineages and performs multiple roles in adaptive immunity. Characterizing the FcRn/IgG interaction is fundamental to designing therapeutic antibodies because IgGs with moderately increased binding affinities for FcRn exhibit superior serum half-lives and efficacy. It has been hypothesized that 2 FcRn molecules bind an IgG homodimer with disparate affinities, yet their affinity constants are inconsistent across the literature. Using surface plasmon resonance biosensor assays that eliminated confounding experimental artifacts, we present data supporting an alternate hypothesis: 2 FcRn molecules saturate an IgG homodimer with identical affinities at independent sites, consistent with the symmetrical arrangement of the FcRn/Fc complex observed in the crystal structure published by Burmeister et al. in 1994. We find that human FcRn binds human IgG1 with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 760 ± 60 nM (N = 14) at 25°C and pH 5.8, and shows less than 25% variation across the other human subtypes. Human IgG1 binds cynomolgus monkey FcRn with a 2-fold higher affinity than human FcRn, and binds both mouse and rat FcRn with a 10-fold higher affinity than human FcRn. FcRn/IgG interactions from multiple species show less than a 2-fold weaker affinity at 37°C than at 25°C and appear independent of an IgG's variable region. Our in vivo data in mouse and rat models demonstrate that both affinity and avidity influence an IgG's serum half-life, which should be considered when choosing animals, especially transgenic systems, as surrogates. PMID:25658443

  4. Courtship behavior of the castniid palm borer, Paysandisia archon: potential roles of male scents and visual cues in a day-flying moth.

    PubMed

    Delle-Vedove, Roxane; Frérot, Brigitte; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The castniid palm borer, Paysandisia archon (Burmeister) (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), is a South American moth that in the last ten years has become a major pest of palm trees in the Mediterranean region. Current knowledge on the reproductive behavior of this diurnal moth suggests the importance of both visual and chemical cues, in particular the production of a male pheromone emitted during a specific scratching behavior. Male-produced scents have diverse functions in lepidopteran sexual communication but generally act during courtship behavior, leading to complex, stereotyped courtship sequences. As a first step to understand the cues involved in mating behavior and the role of male scents in male mating success, we quantified sequences of P. archon courtship behavior using video filming. To distinguish behaviors leading to an approach of both partners from those involved in short-range courtship, sequences were divided into "approach" and "interaction" phases. Quantifications and analyses were first made by NPMANOVA analysis of behavioral event frequencies, followed by flowchart construction using transition matrix probabilities. In 90% of the observations, courting activities led to copulation, but successful sequences were highly variable and could be divided into two categories, "rapid" and "prolonged" courtship sequences. In both categories, approaches were performed by males but depended strongly on female movements, especially on female flights. The significant behavioral differences were observed after the first contact (i.e., interaction phase) where, in rapid sequences, males generally acceded to copulation without displaying scratching behavior. Conversely, in prolonged sequences, the female expressed evading behavior and male scratching frequency increased. The possible roles of male scent emission in female mate choice and the importance of visual cues in the mating behavior of P. archon are discussed. PMID:25373199

  5. A Comparison of Trap Types for Assessing Diversity of Scarabaeoidea on South Carolina Golf Courses.

    PubMed

    Chong, Juang-Horng; Hinson, Kevin R

    2015-10-01

    A 2-yr survey was conducted on golf courses in South Carolina to 1) document the species richness and seasonal activity of Scarabaeoidea; 2) assess any species compositional differences among three trap types (ultraviolet light, unbaited flight-intercept, and unbaited pitfall); and 3) identify any dominant taxa in each trap type. A total of 74,326 scarabaeoid beetles were captured, of which 77.4% were Aphodiinae (not identified to species). The remaining specimens belong to 104 species in 47 genera and 6 families. The most abundant species were Cyclocephala lurida Bland, Dyscinetus morator (F.), Euetheola humilis (Burmeister), Hybosorus illigeri Reiche, and Maladera castanea (Arrow). In all trap types, >90% of all specimens and taxa were collected between April and August. Ultraviolet light traps collected ∼94% of total specimens consisting of 83 taxa (of which 51 were unique to this trap type), whereas flight-intercept traps captured ∼2% of all specimens representing 53 taxa (18 of which were unique), and pitfall traps captured ∼4% of all specimens representing 15 taxa (no unique species; all species also captured by ultraviolet light traps). Indicator species analysis identified 2-3 and 10-13 taxa that were most frequently collected by flight-intercept and ultraviolet light traps, respectively. Flight-intercept traps complemented ultraviolet light traps by capturing more species of dung and carrion beetles and diurnal phytophagous scarab beetles. Results suggested that a similar survey for domestic or exotic scarabaeoid beetles in turfgrass systems should be conducted between April and August using ultraviolet light and flight-intercept traps at 13-58 sites. PMID:26453727

  6. Track Analysis of the North, Central, and South American Species of the Epicauta maculata Group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, M P; García, M S; Safenraiter, M E

    2015-08-01

    We undertook a panbiogeographic analysis of 23 species of the Epicauta maculata group of America-Epicauta abeona Pinto, Epicauta adspersa (Klug), Epicauta andersoni Werner, Epicauta atomaria (Germar), Epicauta apache Pinto, Epicauta cavernosa (Courbon), Epicauta dilatipennis Pic, Epicauta fulvicornis (Burmeister), Epicauta horni Champion, Epicauta jeffersi Pinto, Epicauta koheleri Denier, Epicauta lizeri Denier, E. maculata (Say), Epicauta magnomaculata Martin, Epicauta minutepunctata Borchmann, Epicauta nigropunctata (Blanchard), Epicauta normalis Werner, Epicauta ocellata (Dugès), Epicauta pardalis LeConte, picauta phoenix Werner, Epicauta pluvialis Borchmann, Epicauta proscripta Werner, Epicauta rubella Denier, and Epicauta ventralis Werner-with the purpose of analyzing the distributional data for taxa, to establish patterns of distribution of an ancestral biota and areas where these groups have interacted. Based on the overlap of 20 individual tracks, four generalized tracks constituted by different numbers of species were identified; two of them are located in the Nearctic region and the Mexican transition zone (tracks "A" and "B"), and the other two are distributed in the Neotropical region and the South America transition zone ("C", "D"). Six nodes were recognized: Two of them are included in the Nearctic Region, node 'I' located in northern USA and node 'II' located in southwestern USA, both at the intersection of the tracks "A" and "B". The other four are included in the Neotropical Region at the intersection of the tracks "C" and "D": Node 'III' is located in Chaco province; node 'IV' is located in Parana Forest province; node 'V' is located in the northwest of Argentina in Puna province, and node 'VI' is located in Monte province. PMID:26174956

  7. Effects of Winter Cover Crops Straws Incorporation on CH4 and N2O Emission from Double-Cropping Paddy Fields in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hai-Ming; Xiao, Xiao-Ping; Tang, Wen-Guang; Wang, Ke; Sun, Ji-Min; Li, Wei-Yan; Yang, Guang-Li

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is believed to improve soil quality. However, the effects of residue management on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from paddy field in Southern China have not been well researched. The emissions of CH4 and N2O were investigated in double cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems with straw returning of different winter cover crops by using the static chamber-gas chromatography technique. A randomized block experiment with three replications was established in 2004 in Hunan Province, China, including rice–rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (Ry-R-R), rice–rice–Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (Mv-R-R) and rice–rice with winter fallow (Fa-R-R). The results showed that straw returning of winter crops significantly increased the CH4 emission during both rice growing seasons when compared with Fa-R-R. Ry-R-R plots had the largest CH4 emissions during the early rice growing season with 14.235 and 15.906 g m−2 in 2012 and 2013, respectively, when Ry-R-R plots had the largest CH4 emission during the later rice growing season with 35.673 and 38.606 g m−2 in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The Ry-R-R and Mv-R-R also had larger N2O emissions than Fa-R-R in both rice seasons. When compared to Fa-R-R, total N2O emissions in the early rice growing season were increased by 0.05 g m−2 in Ry-R-R and 0.063 g m−2 in Mv-R-R in 2012, and by 0.058 g m−2 in Ry-R-R and 0.068 g m−2 in Mv-R-R in 2013, respectively. Similar result were obtained in the late rice growing season, and the total N2O emissions were increased by 0.104 g m−2 in Ry-R-R and 0.073 g m−2 in Mv-R-R in 2012, and by 0.108 g m−2 in Ry-R-R and 0.076 g m−2 in Mv-R-R in 2013, respectively. The global warming potentials (GWPs) from paddy fields were ranked as Ry-R-R>Mv-R-R>Fa-R-R. As a result, straw returning of winter cover crops has significant effects on increase of CH4 and N2O emission from paddy field in double cropping rice system

  8. Evaluation of Mercury Contamination in Fungi Boletus Species from Latosols, Lateritic Red Earths, and Red and Yellow Earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Saba, Martyna; Krasińska, Grażyna; Wiejak, Anna; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg) have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter). Soil samples of the 0–10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from Yunnan

  9. Effects of Winter Cover Crops Residue Returning on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microbial Community in Double-Cropping Rice Fields

    PubMed Central

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice–rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice–rice–Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice–rice–rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice–rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The β-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

  10. [Ecological characteristics of zooplankton in frequent HAB areas of the East China Sea in spring].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaoli; Hong, Bo; Zhu, Mingyuan; Chen, Yaqu

    2003-07-01

    A comprehensive oceanographic survey was made in the East China Sea (122 degrees-123 degrees 30'E, 29 degrees-32 degrees N) during April to May, 2002, and the zooplankton samples were collected by zooplankton net (mesh size 0.567 mm). Analyses on the ecological characteristics of zooplankton such as its quantity, community characteristics, species composition and dominant species showed that 128 species of diet zooplankton were identified (16 pelagic larvae and fish juveniles were not involved). Among them, copepods occupied dominant position, including 40 species, composing 31.25% of diet zooplankton. The community was divided into 3 ecological types, in which, eurythermy and euryhalinity occupied dominant position. Key species, Calanus sinicus, was the first dominant species (142.10 ind.m-3, composing 68.09% of diet zooplankton abundance). The average biomass of zooplankton was 243.80 mg.m-3 (55.53-773.92 mg.m-3), and the highest density (> 500 mg.m-3) was found in the estuary area of the Yangtze River (30 degrees 45'-31 degrees 15'N, 122 degrees 45'-123 degrees 15'E). The average biomass of diet zooplankton was 195.96 mg.m-3 (55.53-496.09 mg.m-3). It was also showed that the biomass value of the estuary area of the Yangtze River (the north of 30 degrees 30'N) was higher than that of the southwest of Zhoushan waters, and that of the offshore of the estuary area of the Yangtze River (122 degrees 45'E) was higher than that of coastal waters. The mean value of diversity index (H') was 2.12 (1.09-3.73), and the stations having low H' (< 2) occupied 37.03%. The index of diversity, evenness and richness in the estuary area of the Yangtze River were low, but dominance was high. These results showed that the community structure of zooplankton in studied areas was not stable. Regression analysis results showed that main factors in relation to the characteristic distribution of zooplankton were temperature, diatom abundance, and dinoflagellate abundance. PMID:14587326

  11. Multicenter evaluation of a broth macrodilution antifungal susceptibility test for yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Fromtling, R A; Galgiani, J N; Pfaller, M A; Espinel-Ingroff, A; Bartizal, K F; Bartlett, M S; Body, B A; Frey, C; Hall, G; Roberts, G D

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen laboratories collaborated to optimize interlaboratory agreement of results of a broth macrodilution procedure for testing three classes of antifungal drugs against pathogenic yeasts. The activities of amphotericin B, flucytosine, and ketoconazole were tested against 100 coded isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae, Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Two starting yeast inoculum sizes (5 x 10(4) and 2.5 x 10(3) cells per ml) were compared, and readings were taken after 24 and 48 h of incubation. All other test conditions were standardized. The resultant turbidities in all tubes were estimated visually on a scale from 0 to 4+ turbidity, and MIC-0, MIC-1, and MIC-2 were defined as the lowest drug concentrations that reduced growth to 0, 1+, or 2+ turbidity, respectively. For flucytosine, agreement among laboratories varied between 57 and 87% for different inocula, times of incubation, and end point criteria. Agreement was maximized (85%) when the lower inoculum was incubated for 2 days and the MICs were defined as 1+ turbidity or less. For amphotericin B, variations in test conditions produced much smaller differences in interlaboratory agreement. For ketoconazole, interlaboratory agreement was poorer by all end point criteria. However, MIC-2 endpoints distinguished T. glabrata as resistant compared with the other species. Overall, the studies indicated that readings from the lower inoculum obtained on the second day of reading result in the greatest interlaboratory agreement. In combination with data from previous multicenter studies (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Antifungal Susceptibility Testing: Committee Report, Vol. 5, No. 17, 1988; M. A. Pfaller, L. Burmeister, M. S. Bartlett, and M. G. Rinaldi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:1437-1441, 1988; M. A. Pfaller, M. G. Rinaldi, J. N. Galgiani, M. S. Bartlett, B.A. Body, A. Espinel-Ingroff, R.A. Fromtling, G.S. Hall, C

  12. A review of the research on Canary Islands praying mantises (Mantodea).

    PubMed

    Wieland, Frank; Schütte, Kai; Goldberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    For many years researchers studying the fauna of the Canary Islands have only sparsely treated the charismatic insect order of praying mantises (Mantodea). By studying the known literature it becomes obvious that there are several inconsistencies regarding mantodean taxonomy as well as the number of actual species and their distribution within the archipelago. In the present contribution, the literature treating the Canary Island Mantodea fauna is thoroughly reviewed, and the distribution of the ten known Mantodea species is presented with additional comments on the taxonomic problems. The taxonomy and distribution of the Canary Island Amelinae has been causing some confusion in the literature and is therefore discussed for a better understanding of the composition of this group. So far, seven species of Amelinae (two species of Ameles Burmeister and five species of Pseudoyersinia Kirby) are recognized for the Canary Islands. A careful survey of the taxonomic literature indicates that there is a substantial degree of variability in this group, which may have led to frequent misidentifications. This is reflected by the inconsistent literature data on the distribution of several Pseudoyersinia species within the archipelago. A crucial amendment and clarification is provided regarding the date of description (1838) of Ameles gracilis (Brullé) and Ameles limbata (Brullé) as it varies in the literature. Nomenclatural changes regarding the homonymy of Mantis limbata Brullé and Mantis limbata Hahn, previously proposed by Koçak & Kemal (2008), are rejected and discussed in detail. One of the Mantodea species, Empusa pennata (Thunberg), is frequently mentioned in the literature to be present on the Canary Islands, but after carefully reviewing the literature data it is evident that this species has never actually been found on any of the islands. The aim of this publication is to lay a basis for future research on the Mantodea fauna of the Canary Islands, their

  13. A revision of Metaleptobasis Calvert (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) with seven synonymies and the description of eighteen new species from South America.

    PubMed

    Von Ellenrieder, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    . Beatty, A. Cordero & J. Hoffmann leg., in FSCA); M. longicauda (Holotype ♂, Brazil, Mato Grosso State, C. Teles Pires, Alto Tapajos, 1-31 viii 1956,  Sick leg., in MNRJ); M. orthogonia (Holotype ♂, Peru, Loreto Dep., San Juan, Río Amazonas, near Iquitos, viii 1939, J. Schunke leg., in FSCA); M. paludicola (Holotype ♂, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, swamp, 4°23'49''S, 73°14'57''W, 27 ii 2009, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. panguanae (Holotype ♂, Peru, Huánuco Dep., Biological Station Panguana, E side Río Yuyapichis, 9°37'S, 74°57'W, 6-17 iv 2003, H.J. & E.-G. Burmeister leg., in ZSM); M. peltata (Holotype ♂, Peru Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, 4°21'22''S, 73°11'0''W, 19 ii 2010, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. prostrata (Holotype ♂, Peru, Junín Dep., Satipo, v 1945, P. Paprzycki leg., in UMMZ); M. silvicola (Holotype ♂, Peru, Madre de Dios Dep., Explorer's Inn on Río Tambopata, 30 km SW Puerto Maldonado, main trail, 1 viii 1979, M. Perkins & P. Donahue leg., in FSCA); M. spatulata (Holotype ♂, Peru, Huánuco Dep., 10 km N of Cucharas, confluence of Huallaga and Pacay rivers, viii 1954, F. Woytkowski leg., in UMMZ); M. tridentigera (Holotype ♂, Brazil, Rondônia State, Porto Velho, Area Abunan, T11 Aleatorio, 8°46'S, 63°54'W, 86 m, 16 v 2010, Nogueira & Mendes leg., in MZUSP); M. truncata (Holotype ♂, Brazil, Pará State, Jacareacanga, xi 1969, F.R. Barbosa leg., in UMMZ); and M. turbinata (Holotype ♂, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, forest swamp (4°24'18''S, 73°14'38''W), 25 ii 2010, T. Fassen leg., in RMNH). Illustrations, keys, diagnoses, and distribution maps for all 31 currently known species are provided. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Metaleptobasis are analyzed based on 33 adult morphological characters, including the 31 currently described species of Metaleptobasis and eleven outgroup taxa of other Coenagrionidae of the subfamily Teinobasinae. The cladistic analysis recovered