Science.gov

Sample records for adoretus sinicus burmeister

  1. Sex Determination in the Chinese Rose Beetle, Adoretus sinicus, and overview of Adoretus species of biosecurity concern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Adoretini), is a broadly polyphagous scarab beetle that is economically important and causes damage to a wide variety of host plants including agricultural crops and ornamentals in Southeast Asia, China, the ...

  2. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai’i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  3. Timing of onset of evening activity of adult chinese rose beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...

  4. Control of Chinese rose beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) through the use of solar-powered nighttime illumination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister), a scarab beetle found in Asia and the Pacific Islands, was first reported in Hawaii in 1891. Adults feed at night on leaves of a wide range of plant species, including many that are economically important. Aggregate feeding can stunt or even kill ...

  5. The identity of Hyla leucotaenia Burmeister, 1861 (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Paulo D P; Faivovich, Julián; Langone, José A; Kwet, Axel

    2014-11-13

    The German naturalist Carl Hermann Conrad Burmeister (1807-1892) had a prolific scientific career, spanning multiple taxa from diverse insect groups and trilobites to temnospondyls, birds, and extant and fossil mammals (see Berg, 1895). His contributions to anuran taxonomy are concentrated in two books, "Erläuterungen zur Fauna Brasiliensis…" (Burmeister, 1856) and "Reise durch die La Plata-Staaten…" (Burmeister, 1861). The latter is an account of his travels in Argentina and Uruguay from 1857-1860 and includes descriptions of three new species of frogs: Leiuperus nebulosus, Cystignathus mystacinus, and Hyla leucotaenia. While the first two names currently designate valid species, with the combinations Pleurodema nebulosum and Leptodactylus mystacinus respectively, the last name has had a more complex taxonomic history. It involves confusions involving a homonym, its consideration as a junior synonym of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Duméril & Bibron, 1841)-a widely distributed species in eastern Argentina, southeastern Brazil, and Uruguay (Frost, 2014)-and its actual identity corresponding to another widespread species in the same geographic area, with which it has never before been associated: Scinax squalirostris (A. Lutz, 1925). All these issues are discussed in this paper.

  6. Effect of diurnal temperature difference on lipid accumulation and development in Calanus sinicus (Copepoda: Calanoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Konglin; Sun, Song

    2016-08-01

    Calanus sinicus, the dominant copepod in the Yellow Sea, develops a large oil sac in late spring to prepare for over-summering in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The lipid accumulation mechanism for the initiation of over-summering is unknown. Here, we cultured C3 copepodites at four constant temperatures (10, 13, 16, and 19°C) and at three temperature regimes that mimicked the temperature variations experienced during diurnal vertical migration (10-13°C, 10-16°C, and 10-19°C) for 18 days to explore the effects of temperature differences on copepod development and lipid accumulation. C. sinicus stored more lipid at low than at high temperatures. A diurnal temperature difference (10-16°C and 10-19°C) promoted greater lipid accumulation (1.9-2.1 times) than a constant temperature of either 16°C or 19°C, by reducing the energy cost at colder temperatures and lengthening copepodite development. Thereafter, the lipid reserve supported gonad development after final molting. Only one male developed in these experiments. This highly female-skewed sex ratio may have been the result of the monotonous microalgae diet fed to the copepodites. This study provides the first evidence that diurnal temperature differences may promote lipid accumulation in C. sinicus, and provides a foundation for future investigations into the mechanisms involved in over-summering in the YSCWM.

  7. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World’s Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world’s largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  8. Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis for Culm Elongation of the World's Largest Bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus).

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Wang, Haiying; Liao, Shengxi; Tang, Qi; Li, Li; Cui, Yongzhong; He, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Dendrocalamus sinicus is the world's largest bamboo species with strong woody culms, and known for its fast-growing culms. As an economic bamboo species, it was popularized for multi-functional applications including furniture, construction, and industrial paper pulp. To comprehensively elucidate the molecular processes involved in its culm elongation, Illumina paired-end sequencing was conducted. About 65.08 million high-quality reads were produced, and assembled into 81,744 unigenes with an average length of 723 bp. A total of 64,338 (79%) unigenes were annotated for their functions, of which, 56,587 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 35,262 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Also, 42,508 and 21,009 annotated unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. By searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 33,920 unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Meanwhile, 8,553 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 81,534 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, respectively. Additionally, 388 transcripts encoding lignin biosynthesis were detected, among which, 27 transcripts encoding Shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) specifically expressed in D. sinicus when compared to other bamboo species and rice. The phylogenetic relationship between D. sinicus and other plants was analyzed, suggesting functional diversity of HCT unigenes in D. sinicus. We conjectured that HCT might lead to the high lignin content and giant culm. Given that the leaves are not yet formed and culm is covered with sheaths during culm elongation, the existence of photosynthesis of bamboo culm is usually neglected. Surprisedly, 109 transcripts encoding photosynthesis were identified, including photosystem I and II, cytochrome b6/f complex, photosynthetic electron transport and F-type ATPase, and 24 transcripts were characterized as antenna

  9. Seasonal occurrence of Calanus sinicus in the northern South China Sea: A case study in Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kaizhi; Yan, Yan; Yin, Jianqiang; Tan, Yehui; Huang, Liangmin

    2016-07-01

    Calanus sinicus is a calanoid copepod species that is distributed broadly in the continental shelf waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study aims to understand the seasonal variations of the distribution and abundance of C. sinicus in Daya Bay from the northern South China Sea (nSCS) and to explore its possible seasonal occurrence based on current and historical data. Monthly surveys of the species were conducted in Daya Bay, a subtropical bay in the nSCS, during the period between May 2013 and April 2014. C. sinicus was present from January to May, and disappeared after June. The spatial pattern of C. sinicus in the bay was characterized by its distribution into the southwestern part of the bay in January, bay-wide spread in February, patchiness in March and virtual retreat from the bay mouth in April. Reproduction occurred from January to April at a low rate. Adults were mostly abundant in January and declined to a minimum in April. The percentage of early developmental stages increased from 54.1% in January to 90.1% in April, as collected by a fine mesh size. Based on historical data from Daya Bay and from the coastal waters of the nSCS, C. sinicus was carried into the nSCS from the East China Sea by the China Coastal Current during the northeastern monsoon period and survived from December to October of the next year. The summer coastal upwelling may provide suitable refuges for the species in the nSCS by limiting the adverse effects caused by high temperatures. Our results confirm the viewpoint that C. sinicus could exist in the nSCS in summer and fall.

  10. New cockroach species of the genus Panchlora Burmeister (Blaberidae, Panchlorinae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Vidlička, Ľubomír

    2016-06-08

    The genus Panchlora includes 49 species, but only 45 are widely distributed in Central and South America. Most of them are green. The new species herein described presents an ornamental coloration markedly different of all until now described species. Panchlora kozaneki sp. n. is similar to Panchlora pulchella Burmeister, 1838. The number of species known from Ecuador is increased to eight.

  11. A new species and first record of Cotinis Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) for Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor Jaime; Deloya, Cuauhtémoc

    2015-04-20

    A new Cotinis Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Gymnetini) species from Venezuela is described and illustrated. The new species is compared with Cotinis barthelemyi (Gory & Percheron) from Colombia. The Neotropical distribution of Cotinis is expanded to Venezuela. A revised key to the species of Cotinis is provided in both English and Spanish.

  12. Lipids and fatty acids in Calanus sinicus during over-summering in the southern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Chaolun; Liu, Mengtan; Jin, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Over-summering is a crucial period for Calanus sinicus in the southern Yellow Sea, where it is a key member of the zooplankton community. Lipids play an important role in copepod diapause, which is part of their over-summering strategy. We investigated how different fatty acids and lipid classes, including wax esters, changed during over-summering of C. sinicus during three cruises in June and August 2011 and November 2010, corresponding to the pre-, during and post- diapause periods, respectively. Large amounts of lipids were accumulated, mainly wax esters as previously found in C. finmarchicus during its diapause, and most of the storage lipids were used during over-summering. Wax ester polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed the most variation of the fatty acids (FAs), while the percentage composition of FAs in polar lipids was relatively stable. Selective use of wax ester PUFAs has already been shown to play important roles in the winter diapause of Calanus species in other regions, and our FA results show that this is the case for the YSCBW population that diapauses in summer.

  13. Comprehensive transcriptome study to develop molecular resources of the copepod Calanus sinicus for their potential ecological applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Sun, Fanyue; Yang, Zhi; Li, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    Calanus sinicus Brodsky (Copepoda, Crustacea) is a dominant zooplanktonic species widely distributed in the margin seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this study, we utilized an RNA-Seq-based approach to develop molecular resources for C. sinicus. Adult samples were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The sequencing data generated 69,751 contigs from 58.9 million filtered reads. The assembled contigs had an average length of 928.8 bp. Gene annotation allowed the identification of 43,417 unigene hits against the NCBI database. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway mapping analysis revealed various functional genes related to diverse biological functions and processes. Transcripts potentially involved in stress response and lipid metabolism were identified among these genes. Furthermore, 4,871 microsatellites and 110,137 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the C. sinicus transcriptome sequences. SNP validation by the melting temperature (T m )-shift method suggested that 16 primer pairs amplified target products and showed biallelic polymorphism among 30 individuals. The present work demonstrates the power of Illumina-based RNA-Seq for the rapid development of molecular resources in nonmodel species. The validated SNP set from our study is currently being utilized in an ongoing ecological analysis to support a future study of C. sinicus population genetics.

  14. Effects of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi on gene expression levels of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus.

    PubMed

    Lauritano, Chiara; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Vitiello, Valentina; Buttino, Isabella; Romano, Giovanna; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Ianora, Adrianna

    2015-12-01

    Diatoms are eukaryotic unicellular plants that constitute one of the major components of marine phytoplankton, comprising up to 40% of annual productivity at sea and representing 25% of global carbon-fixation. Diatoms have traditionally been considered a preferential food for zooplankton grazers such as copepods, but, in the last two decades, this beneficial role has been challenged after the discovery that many species of diatoms produce toxic metabolites, collectively termed oxylipins, that induce reproductive failure in zooplankton grazers. Diatoms are the dominant natural diet of Calanus sinicus, a cold-temperate calanoid copepod that supports secondary production of important fisheries in the shelf ecosystems of the Northwest Pacific Ocean, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan and South China Sea. In this study, the effect of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi on C. sinicus has been evaluated by analyzing expression level changes of genes involved in defense and detoxification systems. Results show that C. sinicus is more resistant to a diet of this diatom species in terms of gene expression patterns, compared to the congeneric species Calanus helgolandicus which is an important constituent of the temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean and northern Mediterranean Sea. These findings contribute to the better understanding of genetic and/or phenotypic flexibility of copepod species and their capabilities to cope with stress by identifying molecular markers (such as stress and detoxification genes) as biosensors for environmental perturbations (e.g. toxins and contaminants) affecting marine copepods.

  15. Aroid scarabs in the genus Peltonotus Burmeister (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae): key to species and new distributional data

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Mary Liz; Drumont, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The southeast Asian scarab beetle genus Peltonotus Burmeister (Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae, Cyclocephalini) is reviewed. New country records for Peltonotus morio Burmeister (Myanmar and Vietnam), Peltonotus nasutus Arrow (southern China and Cambodia), and Peltonotus favonius Jameson and Wada (Myanmar) are reported, including a new record in the Palearctic/Sino-Japanese biogeographic region. The first female specimen of Peltonotus favonius is described. Biological associations with aroid inflorescences are reviewed, and human consumption of Peltonotus beetles is reported. A key to all species, paralectotype designations for Peltonotus nasutus, diagnoses, and distributions using dynamic mapping tools are included. PMID:23950684

  16. Description of the final instar larva of Pseudagrion pruinosum (Burmeister, 1839) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saetung, Tosaphol; Boonsoong, Boonsatien

    2016-10-14

    Herein the final instar larva of Pseudagrion pruinosum (Burmeister, 1839) is described and illustrated for the first time, based on reared specimens from Thailand. When compared with the other known Pseudagrion larvae, P. pruinosum is distinguished by three setae on the labial palp, five teeth on the truncate, denticulate lobe on the distal marginal end of the labial palp, one premental seta and a row of three minute setae on each side of the midline, as well as shape and tracheation of caudal gills.

  17. Morphology and Distribution of Sensilla on the Antennae of Hylamorpha elegans Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Mutis, A; Palma, R; Parra, L; Alvear, M; Isaacs, R; Morón, M; Quiroz, A

    2014-06-01

    Considering that sensilla constitute important functional elements of sensory systems in insects, the aim of this study was to determine the type and distribution of sensilla in the antennae of Hylamorpha elegans Burmeister examined by scanning electron microscopy. Hylamorpha elegans antennae are lamellate and consist of the scape, pedicel, and flagellum. The antennal club of this beetle consists of three terminal plates: proximal, middle, and distal lamellae. Four types of sensilla were observed in the lamellae from both sexes: sensilla trichoidea, chaetica, coeloconica, and placodea. Antennal length was larger in males than in females, and significant sexual variation in the number of sensilla placodea and sensilla coeloconica was observed.

  18. New species of Eriopeltastes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae, Trichiini) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ricchiardi, Enrico; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Both male and female of a new species of Eriopeltasttes Burmeister & Schaum, 1840, E. (E.) ornatus Ricchiardi, sp. n., are described from the mistbelt grassland of KwaZulu-Natal. Sexual dimorphism is extreme in this genus, with females being brachypterous, fossorial and entirely black to dark brown in general body colour. This is only the fifth out of 12 known species in this genus for which the female is known. The species appears to be restricted to areas within or in the immediate vicinities of two marginal nature reserves, Karkloof and Blinkwater, in a grassland habitat that is regarded as one of the most threatened in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal. Despite its acknowledged importance as centre of endemism the area is currently in a precarious state of large-scale degradation. PMID:25061391

  19. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  20. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  1. Effects of Elevated Temperature and Food Supply on the Termination of Over-Summering and Subsequent Development of the Calanoid Copepod Calanus sinicus: Morphology, Physiology and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Konglin; Wang, Minxiao; Sun, Song

    2016-01-01

    The copepod Calanus sinicus Brodsky dominates the zooplankton in the Yellow Sea, China, and undergoes over-summering within the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). Termination of over-summering and subsequent development are regarded as key processes in population recruitment, and are probably linked to environmental variations in the YSCWM. In this study, we examined the effects of temperature (9 and 18°C) and food conditions (0.1 μg C mL-1 and unfed) on metabolic rates, morphological characteristics, and relative gene expressions of six genes involved in molting, gonad development, lipid catabolism, and stress tolerance processes of C. sinicus during termination of over-summering and subsequent development. Both elevated temperature and external food supply rapidly ended over-summering of C. sinicus, accompanied by up-regulation of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) gene expression and increased metabolic rates. These environmental conditions resulted in irreversible termination of over-summering and ensure the success of molting. During subsequent development, the lipid reserve in oil sacs could permit only early gonad development. The food supply might be a trigger to activate the final maturity of gonad by up-regulating expression of the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) gene. Thus, food played an indispensable role in population recruitment after termination of over-summering, whereas the elevated temperature accelerated these physiological processes. This study revealed the first dynamic profiles of physiological processes involved in over-summering termination and the subsequent development of C. sinicus using morphological, physiological and molecular methods simultaneously, confirmed the quiescent state of over-summering C5 copepodites, detected the effects of environmental changes on over-summering termination and subsequent development, and provided a foundation for future investigations of the mechanisms involved in over-summering in YSCWM. PMID:27652608

  2. Stage-V copepodites of Calanus sinicus and Calanus jashnovi (Copepoda: Calanoida) in mesopelagic zone of Sagami Bay as identified with genetic markers, with special reference to their vertical distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonomura, Takumi; Machida, Ryuji J.; Nishida, Shuhei

    2008-04-01

    We applied genetic makers to identify Calanus species occurring in Sagami Bay, Japan, in order to investigate their vertical distribution in the upper 1000 m. First, interspecific genetic distances of three gene loci, mitochondrial small ribosomal RNA (srRNA), nuclear internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2), were estimated from morphologically distinguishable adult females of Calanus sinicus, Calanus jashnovi and Calanus pacificus that were collected from Sagami Bay, the Kuroshio Extension and the Oyashio region, respectively. The highest levels of interspecific genetic distance were observed in srRNA, followed by ITS1 and ITS2. The intraspecific genetic distances within C. sinicus were much lower than the interspecific genetic distances, indicating that DNA sequences in these loci are consistent with the morphological differences. This information was used as a criterion for species identification based on DNA sequence variation, and allowed us to identify the fifth copepodites (CVs) or younger stages of these species. Next, the vertical distribution of Calanus species was investigated in Sagami Bay in May 2006, on the basis of a stratified sampling in the upper 1000 m. By applying the genetic markers, 23 individuals comprising all copepodite stages were allocated into either C. sinicus or C. jashnovi, and the small- and large-sized CVs were identified as C. sinicus and C. jashnovi, respectively. The total abundance of C. sinicus was highest at 0-50 m and decreased with depth. On the contrary, CV individuals of C. sinicus were abundant not only in 0-50 m but also below 200 m with minimum occurrences in 150-200 m depth. C. jashnovi was much less abundant than C. sinicus and comprised of only CIV and CV which occurred in the upper 100 m and deeper than 50 m depths, respectively. The abundance of C. sinicus in the 1000-m water column of Sagami Bay was at a level comparable to that in shelf waters, suggesting the importance of off-shelf individuals in the

  3. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew B T

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, Trigonopeltastes formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and Trigonopeltastes warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841, syn. n.. The males of Trigonopeltastes aurovelutinus Curoe, 2011 and Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889 are described for the first time. New country records are given for the following: Giesbertiolus ornatus Howden, 1988: Costa Rica; Paragnorimus sambucus Howden, 1970: Guatemala; Trichiotinus bibens (Fabricius, 1775): Canada; Trigonopeltastes archimedes Schaum, 1841: Guatemala and Costa Rica; Trigonopeltastes frontalis Bates, 1889: Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes glabellus Howden, 1988: Guatemala; Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841: Honduras; Trigonopeltastes sallaei sallaei Bates, 1889: Guatemala and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889: Mexico; Trigonopeltastes variabilis Howden, 1968: Honduras.

  4. Effect of the silica content of diatom prey on the production, decomposition and sinking of fecal pellets of the copepod Calanus sinicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbin; Wu, Chih-Jung

    2016-08-01

    The effects of changing the amount of silica in the cell wall of diatom prey, on the production, decomposition rate and sinking velocity of fecal pellets of the calanoid copepod, Calanus sinicus, were examined. Using different light intensities to control the growth of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii also led to the accumulation of different amounts of biogenic silica. Copepods were then fed either low ( ˜ 1600 cells L-1) or high ( ˜ 8000 cells L-1) concentrations of this diatom. Copepods fed a high concentration of diatoms with high-silica content exhibited a lower grazing rate and lower fecal pellet production rate than those fed a high concentration of diatoms with low-silica content. However, there was no difference in either the grazing or fecal pellet production rates at low prey concentrations with high- or low-silica content. The size of the fecal pellets produced was only affected by the prey concentration, and not by the silica content of prey. In addition, the degradation rate of the fecal pellets was much higher for copepods fed a low-silica diet than for those fed a high-silica diet. Significantly lower densities and sinking rates only occurred in the fecal pellets of copepods fed a low-silica diet and a low prey concentration. Calculating the L ratio (the ratio of degradation rate : sinking rate) for each group indicated that the fecal pellets produced by copepods fed highly silicified diatoms are likely to transport both biogenic silica and organic carbon to the deep layer, whereas those produced following the consumption of low-silica diatoms are likely to decompose in the mixing layer.

  5. A JAZ Protein in Astragalus sinicus Interacts with a Leghemoglobin through the TIFY Domain and Is Involved in Nodule Development and Nitrogen Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yixing; Xu, Meng; Wang, Ning; Li, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    Leghemoglobins (Lbs) play an important role in legumes-rhizobia symbiosis. Lbs bind O2 and protect nitrogenase activity from damage by O2 in nodules, therefore, they are regarded as a marker of active nitrogen fixation in nodules. Additionally, Lbs are involved in the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, acting as a NO scavenger during nodule development and nitrogen fixation. However, regulators responsible for Lb expression and modulation of Lb activity have not been characterized. In our previous work, a Jasmonate-Zim-domain (JAZ) protein interacting with a Lb (AsB2510) in Astragalus sinicus was identified and designated AsJAZ1. In this study, the interaction between AsJAZ1 and AsB2510 was verified using a yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays, resulting in identification of the interaction domain as a TIFY (previously known as zinc-finger protein expressed in inflorescence meristem, ZIM) domain. TIFY domain is named after the most conserved amino acids within the domain. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) was used to confirm the interaction between AsJAZ1 and AsB2510 in tobacco cells, demonstrating that AsJAZ1-AsB2510 interaction was localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Furthermore, the expression patterns and the symbiotic phenotypes of AsJAZ1 were investigated. Knockdown of AsJAZ1 expression via RNA interference led to decreased number of nodules, abnormal development of bacteroids, accumulation of poly-x-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and loss of nitrogenase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that AsJAZ1 interacts with AsB2510 and participates in nodule development and nitrogen fixation. Our results provide novel insights into the functions of Lbs or JAZ proteins during legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:26460857

  6. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, Trigonopeltastes formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and Trigonopeltastes warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841, syn. n.. The males of Trigonopeltastes aurovelutinus Curoe, 2011 and Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889 are described for the first time. New country records are given for the following: Giesbertiolus ornatus Howden, 1988: Costa Rica; Paragnorimus sambucus Howden, 1970: Guatemala; Trichiotinus bibens (Fabricius, 1775): Canada; Trigonopeltastes archimedes Schaum, 1841: Guatemala and Costa Rica; Trigonopeltastes frontalis Bates, 1889: Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes glabellus Howden, 1988: Guatemala; Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841: Honduras; Trigonopeltastes sallaei sallaei Bates, 1889: Guatemala and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889: Mexico; Trigonopeltastes variabilis Howden, 1968: Honduras. PMID:27667956

  7. A new species of Hammerschmidtiella Chitwood, 1932 (Nematoda, Thelastomatidae) parasite of the brown cockroach Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister, 1838 (Blattodea, Blattidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Camino, Nora Beatriz; de Villalobos, Cristina

    2012-03-01

    A new species of the genus Hammerschmidtiella, H. eltalaensis sp. nov. parasitizing a brown cockroach Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister from El Tala river, Catamarca, Argentina, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by having the cuticle striated, without lateral alae, mouth with three toothed lips and eight labial papillae, amphids small and pore shaped, buccal capsule short, wide, with four mobile teeth, oesophagus with metacorpus valvate, isthmus cylindrical and thin surrounded by nerve ring, and a rounded basal bulb heavily muscled and valvate, the vulva is slightly protruding and lies in the anterior third of the body, didelphic, prodelphic, eggs small and elongate, the male with one spicule, without gubernaculum, the genital papillae arranged in one pair of small preanal papillae, and two postanal papillae, one pair is the base of the tail appendage. Tail appendage very long, thin, and reaching almost one third of the length of the body in the female. In the male the posterior end of the body abruptly truncated posterior to anus with spine-like long tail appendage.

  8. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina: Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae), their inquiline birds and mammals, new hosts for Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Turienzo, Paola; Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-06-03

    The insect fauna in nests of Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae) were studied in the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Córdoba, and La Pampa in Argentina. A total of 7364 insect specimens comprising 77 taxa in a total of 29 families and 7 orders was found in their nests: 40 identified to species, 23 identified to genus, and 14 identified to family. Coryphistera alaudina and some of their vertebrate inquilines are new host records for the triatomine bugs Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and/or Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The insects in the nests of C. alaudina are separated by functional guilds, and their permanence time inside the nests are presented in a new manner and discussed.

  9. A new Oxyurida (Thelastomatidae) from Cyclocephala signaticollis Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Camino, Nora B; Reboredo, Guillermo R

    2005-08-01

    Cephalobellus cyclocephalae n. sp. (Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae), a parasite of larvae of Cyclocephala signaticollis (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), found in Argentina is described and illustrated. It is characterized by the cuticle striated at the anterior end in both sexes, with 15 annules, buccal cavity short and not armed, and the male with 4 pairs of genital papillae, 1 pair of preanal papillae, 3 pairs of postanal papillae.

  10. Males of Hylamorpha elegans burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are attracted to odors released from conspecific females.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Andrés; Palma, Ruben; Etcheverría, Paulina; Navarro, Vicente; Rebolledo, Ramón

    2007-04-01

    The behavioral responses of Hylamorpha elegans L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) to the semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults were studied, with particular attention paid to female attraction of males. Odors released from virgin females significantly attracted male conspecifics in both the field and laboratory olfactometer and wind tunnel bioassays. However, females did not attract other females, and males attracted no one. The response of male H. elegans to (1) compounds (1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) released only by unmated females; (2) the essential oil of the secondary host (Nothofagus obliqua); and (3) the blend of 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone with N. obliqua essential oil was studied. The blend of 1,4-benzoquinone mixed with essential oil at the trial concentration was attractive with males. The same response was found with 1,4-hydroquinone alone. The essential oil did not have the expected attractant effect on conspecific males. These results suggest that, when combined with essential oil, 1,4-benzoquinone may function in the sexual behavior of males and females. These findings are discussed in terms of the ecological role of this putative sexual pheromone and its potential use in a strategy of control of this pest.

  11. New light on the endemic South American pachyrukhine Paedotherium Burmeister, 1888 (Notoungulata, Hegetotheriidae): Taphonomic and paleohistological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Garrone, Mariana C.; Montalvo, Claudia I.

    2017-01-01

    Paedotherium is a small notoungulate endemic of South America, very abundant in the Neogene assemblages of the Argentine Pampas. Numerous specimens of this taxon were recovered in the Arroyo Chasicó Formation (Late Miocene), following a strict control of their stratigraphic provenance. In this context, a detail taphonomic and paleohistological study were performed, and the results obtained were compared with the information of other Neogene assemblages of Argentina previously studied, in order to interpret the relevance of this taxon in the biocoenosis and taphocoenosis corresponding to this lapse. Before burial, specimens were affected by diverse biostratinomic processes, according to the particular characteristics of each preservational context. After burial, the specimens were modified by the same fossil-diagenetic processes. Similar patterns of preservation were identified in specimens of Paedotherium recovered in other Neogene fluvial deposits of the Argentine Pampas. Based on the bone microstructure, it was possible to differentiate juvenile and adult individuals belonging to different Neogene species of Paedotherium. The mandibles of this taxon maintained the same ontogenetic growth strategy throughout the Late Cenozoic. This work provides novel data on paleoecological and paleobiological features of this taxon.

  12. On the fossil remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, José D; Zamorano, Martín; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus.

  13. Review of the leafhopper genus Oncopsis Burmeister (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) in China with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyuan; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-03-20

    Two new macropsine species, Oncopsis latusoid sp. nov. and O. taibaiensis sp. nov. are described and illustrated from China. A checklist and illustrated key to Chinese species of this genus are given.

  14. A taxonomy review of Oreoderus Burmeister, 1842 from China with a geometric morphometric evaluation (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Valgini)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Ricchiardi, Enrico; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xingke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Oreoderus are morphologically similar, and can be challenging to distinguish without dissecting the male genitalia. In this study, the Oreoderus species from China are reviewed. Three new species of Oreoderus are described: Oreoderus dasystibialis Li & Yang, sp. n., Oreoderus brevitarsus Li & Yang, sp. n. and Oreoderus oblongus Li & Yang, sp. n. A key of the male Oreoderus and a distribution map are provided. Oreoderus coomani Paulian, 1961 was found as a new record in China. The first description of the female of Oreoderus arrowi Ricchiardi, 2001 is provided. Oreoderus humeralis Gestro, 1891, Oreoderus quadricarinatus Arrow, 1944, Oreoderus crassipes Arrow, 1944, and Oreoderus momeitensis Arrow, 1910 are excluded from the Chinese fauna. Furthermore, we utilize geometric morphometric approaches (GM) to analyze the shape variation of four characters (pronotum, elytra, protibia and aedeagus) in Oreoderus. The morphological variations of Oreoderus and the taxonomic value of each character are discussed. The combined analysis of geometric morphometrics and comparative morphology support recognition of the three new species. PMID:26865816

  15. Effect of sequential heat and cold shocks on nuclear phenotypes of the blood-sucking insect, Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Garcia, Simone L; Pacheco, Raquel M; Rodrigues, Vera L C C; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2002-12-01

    Thermal shocks induce changes in the nuclear phenotypes that correspond to survival (heterochromatin decondensation, nuclear fusion) or death (apoptosis, necrosis) responses in the Malpighian tubules of Panstrongylus megistus. Since thermal tolerance increased survival and molting rate in this species following sequential shocks, we investigated whether changes in nuclear phenotypes accompanied the insect survival response to sequential thermal shocks. Fifth instar nymphs were subjected to a single heat (35 or 40 degrees C, 1 h) or cold (5 or 0 degrees C, 1 h) shock and then subjected to a second shock for 12 h at 40 or 0 degrees C, respectively, after 8, 18, 24 and 72 h at 28 degrees C (control temperature). As with specimen survival, sequential heat and cold shocks induced changes in frequency of the mentioned nuclear phenotypes although their patterns differed. The heat shock tolerance involved decrease in apoptosis simultaneous to increase in cell survival responses. Sequential cold shocks did not involve cell/nuclear fusion and even elicited increase in necrosis with advancing time after shocks. The temperatures of 40 and 0 degrees C were more effective than the temperatures of 35 and 5 degrees C in eliciting the heat and cold shock tolerances, respectively, as shown by cytological analysis of the nuclear phenotypes. It is concluded that different sequential thermal shocks can trigger different mechanisms of cellular protection against stress in P. megistus, favoring the insect to adapt to various ecotopes.

  16. Review of the genus Oncopsis Burmeister, 1838 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) of Russia and adjacent countries with description of a new species from Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2017-01-11

    Illustrated descriptions and data on host plants and distribution for 21 species of Oncopsis of Russia and adjacent countries are given, and O. abdykulovi sp. n. from Central Asia is described. Conspecificity of O. planiscuta from East Siberia and Sakhalin,of O. tristis from Moscow Area, Alati Mts., and Sakhalin, and of O. burjatica from East Siberia and Sakhalin is corroborated by male calling signal analysis.

  17. A Revision of the Argentinean Endemic Genus Eucranium Brulléé (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) with Description of one New Species and New Synonymies

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, Federico C.

    2010-01-01

    The South American genus Eucranium Brulléé has been revised and now includes six species: E. arachnoides Brulléé, E. belenae Ocampo new species, E. cyclosoma Burmeister, E. dentifrons Guéérin-Mééneville, E. planicolle Burmeister, and E. simplicifrons Fairmaire. Eucranium pulvinatum Burmeister is a new junior synonym of Eucranium arachnoides Brulléé, and Eucranium lepidum Burmeister is a new junior synonym of E. dentifrons Guéérin-Mééneville. The following lectotypes and neotypes are designated: Eucranium pulvinatum Burmeister, lectotype; Eucranium planicolle Burmeister, lectotype; Psammotrupes dentifrons Guéérin-Mééneville, neotype; and Eucranium lepidum Burmeister, neotype. Description of the genus and new species, diagnosis and illustrations, and distribution maps are provided for all species. A key to the species of this genus is provided, and the biology and conservation status of the species are discussed. PMID:21265622

  18. New genera and species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from China and South Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new genera from China (Taumaceroides Lopatin and Yunnaniata Lopatin) and 11 new species (Smaragdina quadrimaculata Lopatin, Smaragdina oblongum Lopatin, Hyphaenia volkovitshi Lopatin, Arthrotus daliensis Lopatin, Taumaceroides sinicus Lopatin, Yunnaniata konstantinovi Lopatin, Calomicrus yunnanu...

  19. Chromosome comparison of 17 species / sub-species of African Goliathini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Dutrillaux, Anne-Marie; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mitotic karyotypes of 17 species of African Goliathini (Cetoniinae) are described using various chromosome banding techniques. All but one are composed of 20 chromosomes, mostly metacentric, forming a karyotype assumed to be close to that of the Polyphaga ancestor. The most derived karyotypes are those of Goliathus goliatus Drury, 1770, with eight pairs of acrocentrics and Chlorocana africana Drury, 1773, with only14 chromosomes. In species of the genera Cyprolais Burmeister, 1842, Megalorhina Westwood, 1847, Stephanocrates Kolbe, 1894 and Stephanorrhina Burmeister, 1842, large additions of variable heterochromatin are observed on both some particular autosomes and the X chromosome. Species of the genera Eudicella White, 1839 and Dicronorrhina Burmeister, 1842 share the same sub-metacentric X. Although each species possesses its own karyotype, it remains impossible to propose robust phylogenetic relationships on the basis of chromosome data only. PMID:27551348

  20. Distribution of dominant zooplankton species along a latitudinal gradient in China sea during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiayi; Xu, Zhaoli; Gao, Qian

    2016-06-01

    Dominant species of zooplankton community vary with latitude. Though China possesses a vast coastal area in northwestern Pacific, studies on the latitudinal dominant species gradient are rare. We collected zooplankton samples from Haizhou Bay (34.56°-35.19°N, 119.51°-120.30°E), Yueqing Bay (28.14°-28.38°N, 121.10°-121.21°E) and Dongshan Bay (23.65°-23.90°N, 117.45°-117.60°E) in May 2012 and May 2013 to preliminarily characterize the latitudinal dominant species distribution. All the samples were collected vertically using a 0.505 mm mesh plankton net with 0.8 m in mouth diameter from bottom to surface. Calanus sinicus, Aidanosagitta crassa, Labidocera euchaeta, Zonosagitta nagae, Acartia pacifica and Paracalanus parvus were found to be dominant. C. sinicus was the most dominant species and the unique one occurred in all three bays. With latitude decreasing, both the abundance and proportion of C. sinicus declined sharply. Cluster analysis showed that the 6 dominant species could be divided into 3 groups, based on their occurrences in the three bays. Our results suggested that the distribution of dominant species along the coast of China has a significant latitudinal gradient. C. sinicus which widely distributes in the coastal water of the northwestern Pacific can well adapt to the temperature at different latitudes. The high abundance in Haizhou Bay indicated that C. sinicus was an exemplary warm-temperate species, and more commonly occurs in the north of China seas. The ecological characteristics of dominant species change from warm-temperate type in high-latitudinal bays to warm water type in low-latitudinal bays.

  1. Synopsis of the genus Pharaonus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae), with descriptions of new taxa.

    PubMed

    Keith, Denis; Sabatinelli, Guido; Uliana, Marco

    2015-09-02

    An overview of the genus Pharaonus Blanchard, 1851 is presented. Pharaonus farsensis new species and P. adelphus new species are described from Iran, P. lederi turcmenius Ohaus, 1941 is recognized as new synonym of P. lederi (Reitter, 1888), and the subgenus Tamerlanius new subgenus is proposed for the two central-Asian species. New distribution records and systematic notes are presented: P. caucasicus (Reitter, 1888) is removed from the fauna of Iran and P. varicoloreus (Burmeister, 1844) from that of Israel; P. fasciculatus (Burmeister, 1844) is reported for the first time from Israel, P. semenowi (Reitter, 1888) from Tajikistan. All known species are illustrated and a key to species is presented.

  2. A review of the Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries: systematics and geographic distributions.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    A total of 30 species of Gymnetini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) are known from Argentina: Allorhina corni-frons (Gory & Percheron, 1833); Blaesia atra Burmeister, 1842; Blaesia subrugosa Moser, 1905; Desicasta purpurascens Schoch, 1898, dubious record; Gymnetis bajula (Olivier, 1789); Gymnetis bonplandi Schaum, 1844, new country record; Gymnetis bouvieri Bourgoin, 1912; Gymnetis bruchi Moser, 1910, new status (= Aemilius wagneri Le Moult, 1939, new synonymy); Gymnetis carbo (Schürhoff, 1937); Gymnetis chalcipes Gory & Percheron, 1833; Gymnetis cordobana (Schürhoff, 1937), new status; Gymnetis flavomarginata Blanchard, 1847; Gymnetis goryi Janson, 1877, new status; Gym-netis hebraica (Drapiez, 1820), new country record; Gymnetis hepatica Di Iorio, new species; Gymnetis litigiosa Gory & Percheron, 1833, new status; Gymnetis pantherina Blanchard, 1842 (= Gymnetis meleagris Burmeister, 1842, = Paragym-netis rubrocincta Schürhoff, 1937, new synonymy), new country record; Gymnetis pudibunda Burmeister, 1866; Gymne-tis schistacea Burmeister, 1847, new status; Gymnetis undata (Olivier, 1789); Heterocotinis semiopaca (Moser, 1907); Hologymnetis sp. (= Gymnetis rubida, not Gory & Percheron, 1833); Hoplopyga albiventris (Gory & Percheron, 1833); Hoplopyga brasiliensis (Gory & Percheron, 1833); Hoplopyga liturata (Olivier, 1789); Hoplopygothrix atropurpurea (Schaum, 1841), new country record; Marmarina insculpta (Kirby, 1819), new status, new country record; Marmarina tigrina (Gory & Percheron, 1833), (= Maculinetis litorea Schürhoff, 1937, new synonymy); Neocorvicoana reticulata (Kirby, 1819); Neocorvicoana tricolor (Schürhoff, 1933). Marmarina argentina Moser, 1917 is considered a nomen du-bium until a redescription and illustration of the type specimen facilitates the proper identification of this species. The fol-lowing type specimens were examined: Blaesia atra Burmeister, 1842 (holotype); Gymnetis alauda Burmeister, 1842 (holotype, = G. pantherina); G

  3. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to insecticides in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field-collected populations of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) from Coachella Valley, CA, Imperial Valley, CA, Riverside, CA and Yuma Valley, AZ, were evaluated for susceptibility to several active ingredients representing ten classes of insecticide chemistry. Both leaf-spray and leaf-dip bioassays wer...

  4. A new species of mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae: Gryllotalpinae) from Bukit Fraser, Malay Peninsula, with taxa notes on another similar mole cricket.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming Kai; Kamaruddin, Khairul Nizam

    2013-01-01

    One new species of Gryllotalpa from Bukit Fraser, Pahang of Malay Peninsula is described: Gryllotalpafraser sp. n. Pho tographs of Gryllotalpa hirsuta Burmeister, 1838 were examined and some remarks are made here, including a compari son with Gryllotalpafraser sp. n. and Gyllotalpa nymphicus Tan, 2012.

  5. Parasites in stranded cetaceans of Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Berón-Vera, Bárbara; Crespo, Enrique A; Raga, Juan A

    2008-08-01

    There is an increasing interest in parasites of marine mammals of Argentina. Here, we examined several poorly known cetaceans, i.e., 2 spectacled porpoises and 1 Burmeister's porpoise (Phocoenidae), and 1 Gray's beaked whale and 1 Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphidae); we also updated the parasite information for 1 sperm whale (Physeteridae). These hosts strand only occasionally. We found Anisakis simplex s.l. in 2 spectacled porpoises and the Burmeister's porpoise, and recorded its distribution among the stomach chambers. Anisakis physeteris infected the sperm whale; Corynosoma cetaceum occurred in the duodenal ampulla of the Burmeister's porpoise; Corynosoma australe was found in the posterior-most region of the intestine of 1 spectacled porpoise, while another one had Tetrabothrius sp. in the anal crypts; Corynosoma bullosum and Corynosoma sp. were found in the sperm whale. The only digenean found was Pholeter gastrophilus in the Burmeister's porpoise. Merocercoids of Phyllobothrium delphini were present in the blubber of 1 spectacled porpoise, the sperm whale, and the Gray's beaked whale, while Scolex pleuronectis infected the Gray's beaked whale and 1 spectacled porpoise. No parasites were recovered from the Cuvier's beaked whale. Poor parasite-species assemblages are consistent in marine mammals of Patagonia. Given the conservation status of these hosts, the limited parasitological information gathered is valuable for conservation or management of these hosts in Patagonia.

  6. ESTs from developed embryos, Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), a green lacewing, is a generalist predator commercially sold as a biological control product. Very few molecular genetic analyses of this or similar organisms have been performed. To establish a baseline of expressed sequence data for th...

  7. Report on the WPI-NEACT Conference: "Perceptions of Chemistry."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, H.; Berka, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    Summarized are the comments of four chemists who spoke at a conference on chemistry in March 1989. Presenters included Frank H. Westheimer of Harvard University, John L. Burmeister of the University of Delaware, Henry A. Bent of the University of Pittsburgh, and Miles Pickering of Princeton University. (CW)

  8. A new species of Calogalesus Kieffer from China (Hymenoptera, Diapriidae) with a key to World species

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jun; Notton, David; Xu, Zai-fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Calogalesus Kieffer, 1912, Calogalesus sinicus sp. n., is described and illustrated, collected from a Chinese prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.) orchard in Yunnan province of China. This is the third described species of the genus in the World. The new species can be distinguished from the other two described Calogalesus species by the head profile, proportions of the antennal segments, tridentate mandible, and mandible length. A key to World species of the genus is provided. PMID:27833433

  9. Notes about morphological features of the Western Hemisphere subtribe Ardistomina, and revision of genus Semiardistomis Kult (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritinae, Clivinini)

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Comparisons of structural features (principally mouthparts, elytral-abdominal locking mechanism, and female genitalia) of the ardistomine genera (Aspidoglossa Putzeys, Ardistomis Putzeys, and Semiardistomis Kult) with those features of members of the subtribe Clivinina (Clivina Latreille, Oxydrepanus Putzeys, Schizogenius Putzeys,Ancus Putzeys, Nyctosyles Putzeys, and Obadius Burmeister) confirm the taxonomic validity of the subtribe Ardistomina. Based on morphological features, the ardistomine genera are postulated to be related as follows: [Aspidoglossa [Ardistomis + Semiardistomis

  10. A new species and notes on Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Paraná and Santa Catarina States, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição

    2014-02-20

    Specimens of Perlidae (Plecoptera) deposited in the Entomological Collection "Padre Jesus S. Moure" of the Universidade Federal do Paraná and additional material recently collected in Paraná and Santa Catarina states, Brazil were studied. Six previously described species were identified, Anacroneuria debilis (Pictet, 1841), A. cathia Froehlich, 2002, A. polita (Burmeister, 1839), A. trimacula Jewett, 1959, Kempnyia neotropica (Jacoson and Bianchi, 1905) and K. colossica (Navás, 1934). Additionally, a new species, Anacroneuria iguazu n. sp is described.

  11. Evidence for ontogenetic feeding strategies in four calanoid copepods in the East Sea (Japan Sea) in summer, revealed by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Dong-Hoon; Wi, Jin Hee; Suh, Hae-Lip

    2015-09-01

    Deciphering the ontogenetic feeding ecology of copepods is essential to understanding their role in the energy transfer of marine ecosystems. We used stable isotope analysis to examine the ontogenetic feeding strategies of the four coexisting calanoid copepods, Mesocalanus tenuicornis, Metridia pacifica, Calanus sinicus, and Neocalanus plumchrus, in the East Sea (Japan Sea) in summer. Moreover, we used the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of small-sized plankton in three cell size fractions, pico- (< 2 μm), nano- (2-20 μm) and microplankton (20-200 μm), to identify the dietary preference at each developmental stage. The relative carbon masses of pico-, nano- and microplankton were 18, 38, and 44%, respectively, and their δ13C and δ15N values gradually increased with increasing size classes. The ontogenetic trophic position of four copepods were relatively low and ranged from 2.1 to 2.6, indicating that herbivores feed on small-sized phytoplankton, pico- and nanoplankton. Among copepodid stages, the δ13C and δ15N values of M. tenuicornis and C. sinicus differed significantly, while those of M. pacifica and N. plumchrus were not significantly different. In M. tenuicornis, the smallest species among the four copepods examined, the diet preference of CIV for picoplankton changed to nanoplankton in the adult stage. When M. pacifica developed from CIV to adult, the diet preference changed from pico- to microplankton. The proportion of microplankton in the diet of C. sinicus and N. plumchrus increased from CIV to female adult and from CIII to CV, respectively. During the developmental progress in copepodid stages, the smaller copepods significantly changed their dietary preference from pico- to microplankton, while the larger copepods consistently fed on microplankton. We suggest that smaller copepods have an advantage in survival at early copepodid stages compared with larger copepods in summer when microplankton biomass is relatively low.

  12. Seasonality of the copepod assemblages associated with interplay waters off northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Li-Chun; Hung, Jia-Jang; Chen, Qing-Chao; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated copepod assemblages in the regime around Turtle Island off northern Taiwan to trace South China Sea water (SCSW) flowing northward with the Kuroshio Current. Seasonal variations of copepod assemblages demonstrated a dynamic succession of changes in copepod populations; the average abundance for total copepods ranged from 102.58 ± 53.38 in December to 1669.89 ± 1866.17 in March (individuals m-3). A total of 87 copepod species representing 36 genera and 21 families were identified. Among all samples, Temora turbinata dominated the copepods by a relative abundance (RA) of 26.89 %, followed by Paracalanus parvus (RA: 22.34 %) and Corycaeus ( Ditrichocorycaeus) affinis (RA: 12.77 %). Only the Acrocalanus gracilis species was recorded in all samples. Results of one-way ANOVA revealed that the number of copepod species, indices of richness, evenness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity differed significantly in five different cruises. The density of five copepod species ( Gaetanus minor, Calanus sinicus, Eucalanus elongates, Rhincalanus nasutus, and Rhincalanus rostrifrons) exhibited a significant negative correlation with seawater temperature. In contrast, the density of Canthocalanus pauper and Undinula vulgaris was significantly positively correlated with seawater temperature. The cold-water indicator species, C. sinicus, recorded in samples of March and May indicated the effect of China Coast Water (CCW) on copepod communities in the study area. Furthermore, the presence of Calanoides philippinensis in May samples strongly indicated that the SCSW may reach the Turtle Island area. Consequently, C. philippinensis and C. sinicus can be used to trace SCSW and CCW, respectively, in the study area.

  13. Identification and interspecies transmission of a novel bocaparvovirus among different bat species in China.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Yeung, Hazel C; Li, Kenneth S M; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Cheng, Toni Y C; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wang, Ming; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Wong, Samson S Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-12-01

    We report the discovery of a novel bocaparvovirus, bat bocaparvovirus (BtBoV), in one spleen, four respiratory and 61 alimentary samples from bats of six different species belonging to three families, Hipposideridae, Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae. BtBoV showed a higher detection rate in alimentary samples of Rhinolophus sinicus (5.7 %) than those of other bat species (0.43-1.59 %), supporting R. sinicus as the primary reservoir and virus spillover to accidental bat species. BtBoV peaked during the lactating season of R. sinicus, and it was more frequently detected among female than male adult bats (P<0.05), and among lactating than non-lactating female bats (P<0.0001). Positive BtBoV detection was associated with lower body weight in lactating bats (P<0.05). Ten nearly complete BtBoV genomes from three bat species revealed a unique large ORF1 spanning NS1 and NP1 in eight genomes and conserved splicing signals leading to multiple proteins, as well as a unique substitution in the conserved replication initiator motif within NS1. BtBoV was phylogenetically distantly related to known bocaparvoviruses with ≤57.3 % genome identities, supporting BtBoV as a novel species. Ms-BtBoV from Miniopterus schreibersii and Hp-BtBoV from Hipposideros pomona demonstrated 97.2-99.9 % genome identities with Rs-BtBoVs from R. sinicus, supporting infection of different bat species by a single BtBoV species. Rs-BtBoV_str15 represents the first bat parvovirus genome with non-coding regions sequenced, which suggested the presence of head-to-tail genomic concatamers or episomal forms of the genome. This study represents the first to describe interspecies transmission in BoVs. The high detection rates in lactating female and juvenile bats suggest possible vertical transmission of BtBoV.

  14. A taxonomic revision of Tyrini of the Oriental region. V. Revision of the genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bekchiev, Rostislav; Hlaváč, Peter; Nomura, Shûhei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 of the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini: Tyrina) is revised. The three so far known species, Lasinus mandarinus Raffray, 1890, Lasinus monticola Sawada, 1961 and Lasinus spinosus Sharp, 1874 are redescribed. Eight new species, Lasinus sinicus sp. n. from China, Lasinus mikado sp. n., Lasinus yamamotoi sp. n., Lasinus inexpectatus sp. n., Lasinus yakushimanus sp. n., Lasinus amamianus sp. n., Lasinus saoriae sp. n., and Lasinus okinawanus sp. n. from Japan, are described. And all species are illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Lasinus mandarinus and Lasinus spinosus. An identification key to species of the genus Lasinus is provided. PMID:24146590

  15. First report of Potorolepis spassky, 1994 (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) from China, with description of a new species in bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    PubMed

    Makarikova, Tatiana A; Makarikov, Arseny A

    2012-12-01

    Potorolepis gulyaevi sp. n. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) is described from the Chinese horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus sinicus Andersen (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), from southern China. The new species differs from known species of the genus by the shape, number and size of rostellar hooks, the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac and the morphology of gravid uterus. This is the first report of a member of the genus from non-marsupial mammals and the first record of a Potorolepis Spassky, 1994 from eastern Asia. The generic diagnosis of Potorolepis is amended.

  16. In situ detrimental impacts of Prorocentrum donghaiense blooms on zooplankton in the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Ning; Yan, Tian; Zhang, Qing-Chun; Wang, Yun-Feng; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Ming-Jiang

    2014-11-15

    Large-scale algal blooms of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense have occurred frequently in the East China Sea (ECS) in recent decades. However, its impacts on the zooplankton in situ are still under not well understood. During a spring P. donghaiense bloom (April-May 2013) along the northern coast of Fujian Province (120°-121°30″E, 26°30″-28°N), we found that the bloom decreased the abundance of copepods and had no significant effect on chaetognaths and small jellyfish. However, the abundance of small jellyfish increased over the course of the study. The zooplankton community changed from being copepod and small jellyfish- to small jellyfish-dominated during the bloom. In the bloom areas, the copepod Calanus sinicus showed higher mortality and lower egg production rates (EPR) than those in the non-bloom areas. The results suggested that P. donghaiense blooms had detrimental effects on the structure of zooplankton community and the recruitments of C. sinicus.

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of pelagic copepods in the North Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongju; Liu, Guangxing; Zhu, Yanzhong; Jiang, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the abundance and biodiversity of pelagic copepods and their relationships with the environmental factors in the North Yellow Sea (NYS). These variations were analyzed on the basis of the survey data of the NYS in four seasons from 2006 to 2007. A total of 31 copepod species that belong to 17 genera, 13 families and 4 orders were identified in the four seasons. Of these copepods, the species belonging to Calanoida is the most abundant component. The dominant species include Calanus sinicus, Centropages abdominalis, Paracalanus parvus, Acartia bifilosa, Oithona plumifera, and Corycaeus affinis. C. sinicus is the most important and widely distributed dominant species in all of the seasons. The dominant species have not shown any significant variation for the past 50 years. However, the richness of warm-water species increased. The abundance of copepods significantly varied among different seasons: the average abundance was higher in spring (608.2 ind m-3) and summer (385.1 ind m-3) than in winter (186.5 ind m-3) and autumn (128.0 ind m-3). Factor analyses showed a high correlation between the spatial distributions of dominant copepods and environmental parameters, and Chl-a was the most important factor that influenced the distribution of copepods. This research can provide the fundamental information related to zooplankton, especially pelagic copepods. This research is also beneficial for the long-term monitoring of zooplankton ecology in the NYS.

  18. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. 1995 Ship Production Symposium. Paper No. 5: Producibility of Double Hull Tankers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Similar technique could be used in wing tanks and on double plate bulkheads etc. - see Figure 3. Materials Limit steel grades used to those which do not...steel ( grade AH32) in the deck and bottom except 4020 and 9520. All unidirectional vessels are mild steel except 40112, which has high strength steel in...Ship Production, November 1993. Burmeister & Wain (B&W - N.H. Brix ), telefax to MR&S 11/15/93. Maritech Engineering Japan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (H. 7. 8. 9. 10

  19. Computational Prediction of Kinetic Rate Constants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Scotland , 2000 (unpublished). 7. R. S. Zhu and M. C. Lin, J. Chem. Phys. 119 (20), 10667 (2003). 8. J. F. Stanton, J. Gauss, W. J. Lauderdale, and R...Miller and C. T. Bowman, Prog. Energy. Combust. Sci. 15, 287 (1989); D. Lindackers, M. Burmeister and P. Roth , in: 23rd Symp. (Int.) Combust. Proc...Proc. 25, 801 - 808 (1994) F. Kaufman,and F.P. Del Greco, Symp. Int. Combust. Proc. 9 (1963); K. Natarajan, and P. Roth , Combust. Flame 70, 267 - 279

  20. Discontinuous color variation in the assassin bug species Tiarodes miyamotoi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Reduviinae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The reduviine assassin bug, Tiarodes miyamotoi Ishikawa, Cai and Tomokuni, 2005 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Reduviinae), has so far been known only from the Yaeyama Islands of Japan and no major intraspecific variation has been reported in this species. New information This is the first record of this species from Okinawa-honto Island as the northernmost locality. Furthermore, an apparently discontinuous intraspecific variation in coloration has been confirmed between populations from the Yaeyama and Okinawa-honto Islands; this variation has been reported for the first time in the genus Tiarodes Burmeister, 1835, which comprises approximately 90 species. PMID:27932922

  1. Larval and pupal descriptions of Anomalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae) species from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Valentina; Onore, Giovanni; Guidolin, Laura

    2017-02-02

    The third instars are described and illustrated for five Anomalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae) species from Ecuador: Anomala balzapambae Ohaus, 1897, A. popayana Ohaus, 1897, A. valida Burmeister, 1844, Callistethus buchwaldianus (Ohaus, 1908), and C. levii (Blanchard, 1851). The pupae of three Ecuadorian species are also described and illustrated: A. discoidalis Bates, 1888, A. popayana, and C. levii. Diagnostic characters of the species are provided. A key to the known larvae of Anomalini from the New World is provided, which now includes five genera and 31 species.

  2. On the relationships of 'Marmosa' formosa Shamel, 1930 (Marsupialia: Didelphidae), a phylogenetic puzzle from the Chaco of northern Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Robert S.; Gardner, Afred L.; Jansa, Sharon A.

    2004-01-01

    The holotype and only known specimen of Marmosa formosa Shamel, a nominal species currently synonymized with Gracilinanus agilis Burmeister, is strikingly unlike any other known didelphid marsupial. Phylogenetic analyses based on nonmolecular characters and IRBP sequences suggest that formosa is either the sister-taxon of Thylamys (including Lestodelphys) or Monodelphis. Because neither alternative is strongly supported by the data at hand, and because including formosa in Thylamys or in Monodelphis would compromise the diagnosability of those taxa, a new genus?Chacodelphys?is proposed to contain it. Currently known only from northern Argentina, Chacodelphys formosa may be widely distributed in the Chaco and other adjacent Neotropical biomes.

  3. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Cost Estimating Process: The Need for a Common Understanding Held in Arlington, Virginia on 7-8 February 1984,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    1 D BUKOWSKI MARK H. BURMEISTER KAMAN AEROSPACE CORP RCA PRICE SYSTEMS MGR COST CONTROL DIRECTOR OLD WINDSOR RD PO BOX 2 BLDG. 204-1, ROUTE 32...JOSEPH A. KEY AVC 0 US ARMY ERADCOM V.P. TACT SYS PROJECT OFFICER, MANTECH 201 LOWELL ST ATTNi DELET-RM WILMINGTON MA 01887 FT MONMOUTH NJ 0.� CHARLES W...ELECT[,+ i3CA; NAVAL TRAINING EQUIPMENT CNTR MANAGER OF ILS ENGINEERijiG ORLANDO FL 32813 EASTERN POINT ROAD GROTON CT ,,340 BRYAN H RAVERT CHARLES

  4. The first sexual associations in the genus Darditilla Casal, 1965 (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae)

    PubMed Central

    Luz, David R.; Williams, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New sex associations are proposed for four species of Darditilla: Darditilla amabilis (Gerstaecker, 1874); Darditilla bejaranoi Casal, 1968; Darditilla debilis (Gerstaecker, 1874); and Darditilla felina (Burmeister, 1854). Darditilla botija Casal, 1965, syn. n. is the male of Darditilla amabilis; the other three males were previously unknown. Mutilla decorosa Kohl, 1882, syn. n. is conspecific with Darditilla felina. Descriptions and extended diagnoses are provided for previously unknown males and for females that were not adequately described. These represent the first sex associations for the genus Darditilla. PMID:25493066

  5. Resistance to Arrenurus spp. Parasitism in Odonates: Patterns Across Species and Comparisons Between a Resistant and Susceptible Host

    PubMed Central

    Worthen, Wade B.

    2016-01-01

    Some adult odonates resist parasitism by larval water mites (Arrenurus spp.) with melanotic encapsulation, in which the mite’s stylestome is clogged and the mite starves. In summer 2014, we counted the engorged and resisted mites on 2,729 adult odonates sampled by aerial net at 11 water bodies in Greenville Co. and Pickens Co., SC, and tested the hypothesis that the frequency and intensity of resistance correlates with parasite prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts). Resistance prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts that resisted at least one mite) varied significantly among host species, exceeding 60% for Argia fumipennis (Burmeister) and Celithemis fasciata Kirby but less than 20% for other species. However, neither resistance prevalence nor mean resistance intensity (mean percentage of resisted mites on resisting hosts) correlated with parasite prevalence. We described potential effects of parasitism on host development of A. fumipennis and Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister) by comparing the percent asymmetry of forewing lengths between parasitized and unparasitized individuals. There was no significant difference in asymmetry for either males or females of A. fumipennis, or males of Pa. longipennis (females were not sampled). We also evaluated differences in melanotic encapsulation between A. fumipennis, which readily encapsulates mites in nature, and Pa. longipennis. We inserted a 2.0-mm piece of sterile monofilament line into the thorax of captured individuals for 24 h and compared mean gray value scores of inserted and emergent ends using Image-J software. There was no difference in melanotic encapsulation between species. PMID:27067302

  6. Resistance to Arrenurus spp. Parasitism in Odonates: Patterns Across Species and Comparisons Between a Resistant and Susceptible Host.

    PubMed

    Worthen, Wade B; Hart, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Some adult odonates resist parasitism by larval water mites (Arrenurus spp.) with melanotic encapsulation, in which the mite's stylestome is clogged and the mite starves. In summer 2014, we counted the engorged and resisted mites on 2,729 adult odonates sampled by aerial net at 11 water bodies in Greenville Co. and Pickens Co., SC, and tested the hypothesis that the frequency and intensity of resistance correlates with parasite prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts). Resistance prevalence (the percentage of parasitized hosts that resisted at least one mite) varied significantly among host species, exceeding 60% for Argia fumipennis(Burmeister) and Celithemis fasciata Kirby but less than 20% for other species. However, neither resistance prevalence nor mean resistance intensity (mean percentage of resisted mites on resisting hosts) correlated with parasite prevalence. We described potential effects of parasitism on host development ofA. fumipennis and Pachydiplax longipennis(Burmeister) by comparing the percent asymmetry of forewing lengths between parasitized and unparasitized individuals. There was no significant difference in asymmetry for either males or females of A. fumipennis, or males of Pa. longipennis(females were not sampled). We also evaluated differences in melanotic encapsulation between A. fumipennis, which readily encapsulates mites in nature, and Pa. longipennis We inserted a 2.0-mm piece of sterile monofilament line into the thorax of captured individuals for 24 h and compared mean gray value scores of inserted and emergent ends using Image-J software. There was no difference in melanotic encapsulation between species.

  7. Towards a revision of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), with estimation of the diversity of each subgenus.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gustavo E; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    A review of the subgenera of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Pimeliinae: Praociini) is presented. Praocis comprises 77 species and 8 subspecies arranged in nine subgenera distributed in arid lands from Central Peru and Bolivia to the Southern part of Patagonia in Chile and Argentina. For each subgenus of Praocis: Praocis Eschscholtz, Mesopraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Anthrasomus Guérin-Méneville, Filotarsus Gay & Solier, Postpraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Hemipraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Orthogonoderes Gay & Solier, Praonoda Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., and Praocida Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., we present a diagnosis using new and constant characters of adult morphology such as clypeal configuration, length and proportion of antennomeres 9, 10 and 11, arrangement of apical tomentose sensory patches on antennomeres 10 and 11, anterior margin of prosternum, lateral margin of elytron, ventral surface of profemora, and shape of protibiae. An identification key for the nine subgenera of Praocis is presented. Type species are designated for the five new subgenera; for Mesopraocis: Praocis calderana Kulzer, for Postpraocis: Praocis pentachorda Burmeister, for Hemipraocis: Praocis sellata Berg, for Praonoda: Praocis bicarinata Burmeister, for Praocida: Praocis zischkai Kulzer, and for the previously described subgenus Orthogonoderes: Praocis subreticulata Gay & Solier. The current number of species and the estimated number of species to be described are presented. The distribution ranges of the subgenera, including new records from collections and recent expeditions, are given. Habitat preferences and a discussion of the biogeography of the genus are also presented.

  8. A revision of the genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Lamiini)

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic, 1917 is redefined and revised. Five species of the genus are described as new, Pseudoechthistatus sinicus sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus chiangshunani sp. n. from central Yunnan, China, Pseudoechthistatus pufujiae sp. n. from western Yunnan, China, and Pseudoechthistatus holzschuhi sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus glabripennis sp. n. from southern Yunnan and northern Vietnam. Pseudoechthistatus birmanicus Breuning, 1942 is excluded from the fauna of China. Three poorly known species, Pseudoechthistatus obliquefasciatus Pic, 1917, Pseudoechthistatus granulatus Breuning, 1942, and Pseudoechthistatus acutipennis Chiang, 1981 are redescribed, and the type localities of the former two species are discussed. Endophallic structure of seven species in inflated and everted condition are studied and compared with their relatives. Illustrations of habitus and major diagnostic features of all species are provided. Some biological notes are reported. An identification key as well as a distributional map are presented. PMID:27551207

  9. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-08-29

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.

  10. A revision of the genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Lamiini).

    PubMed

    Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pseudoechthistatus Pic, 1917 is redefined and revised. Five species of the genus are described as new, Pseudoechthistatus sinicus sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus chiangshunani sp. n. from central Yunnan, China, Pseudoechthistatus pufujiae sp. n. from western Yunnan, China, and Pseudoechthistatus holzschuhi sp. n. and Pseudoechthistatus glabripennis sp. n. from southern Yunnan and northern Vietnam. Pseudoechthistatus birmanicus Breuning, 1942 is excluded from the fauna of China. Three poorly known species, Pseudoechthistatus obliquefasciatus Pic, 1917, Pseudoechthistatus granulatus Breuning, 1942, and Pseudoechthistatus acutipennis Chiang, 1981 are redescribed, and the type localities of the former two species are discussed. Endophallic structure of seven species in inflated and everted condition are studied and compared with their relatives. Illustrations of habitus and major diagnostic features of all species are provided. Some biological notes are reported. An identification key as well as a distributional map are presented.

  11. Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms in east and west Guangdong coastal regions, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-30

    Heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As) concentrations, distribution and bioaccumulation were studied in marine organisms in Guangdong coastal regions. Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in organisms showed characteristics according to areas and species. Heavy metal concentrations in most organisms were higher in west than in east, tightly related to the local industry structure and the disequilibrium of metal discharge. Generally, high heavy metal concentrations were detected in molluscs and low concentrations were detected in fish. Bioaccumulation factor was used to assess the accumulation level of marine organisms to heavy metals, of which Cd, Cu and As were the most accumulated elements. Accumulation abilities to heavy metals varied among organism species, such as Distorsio reticulate accumulating Cu, Zn, Cd, As, Loligo beka Sasaki accumulating Pb, Cu, Cr, and Turritella bacillum Kiener accumulating Zn, Cd, As. By comparison, Johnius belengeri, Argyrosomus argentatus, Cynoglossus sinicus Wu had relatively low accumulation abilities.

  12. Structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthic community in Tai Lake, a large shallow lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Li,; Erickson, Richard A.; Song Tang,; Xuwen Li,; Niu, Zhichun; Xia Wang,; Hongling Liu,; Hongxia Yu,

    2016-01-01

    Tai Lake (Chinese: Taihu), the third-largest freshwater lake in China, suffers from harmful cyanobacteria blooms that are caused by economic development and population growth near the lake. Several studies have focused on phytoplankton in Tai Lake after a drinking water crisis in 2007; however, these studies primarily focused on microcystin bioaccumulation and toxicity to individual species without examining the effects of microcystin on macrobenthic community diversity. In this study, we conducted a survey of the lake to examine the effects of microcystine and other pollutants on marcobenthic community diversity. A totally of forty-nine species of macroinvertebrates were found in Tai Lake. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Corbicula fluminea were the most abundant species. Cluster-analysis and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) identified three significantly different macrobenthic communities among the sample sites. More specifically, sites in the eastern bays, where aquatic macrophytes were abundant, had the highest diversity of macrobenthic communities, which were dominated by Bellamya aeruginosa, Bellamya purificata, L. hoffmeisteri, and Alocinma longicornis. Sites in Zhushan Bay contained relatively diverse communities, mainly composed of L. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, L. claparederanus, R. sinicus, and Cythura sp. Sites in the western region, Meiliang Bay and Wuli Bay had the lowest diversity, mainly composed ofL. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, Branchiura sowerbyi, and Rhyacodrilus sinicus. In addition, the relationships between macrobenthic metrics (Shannon–Wiener, Margalef, and Pielou) and environmental variables showed that community structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthos in Tai Lake were significantly influenced by chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), lead (Pb), and microcystin-LR (L for leucine and R for arginine). Our findings provide critical information that could help managers and policymakers

  13. Investigation of cuticular hydrocarbons from Bagrada hilaris genders by SPME/GC-MS.

    PubMed

    De Pasquale, C; Guarino, S; Peri, E; Alonzo, G; Colazza, S

    2007-10-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbons of male and female Bagrada hilaris Burmeister (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) were investigated, by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Measurements were done with fiber coatings of different polarity after optimization of headspace volumes and extraction temperatures. This resulted in the use of polyacrylate fiber, 22-ml vial as the sample holder, and an extraction temperature of 150 degrees C. The analytical procedures allowed identification of 13 peaks, corresponding to a homologous series of n-alkanes (nC(17)-nC(29)). The hydrocarbon profiles of male and female B. hilaris were qualitatively equal, but marked sex-specific quantitative differences were observed for some of the linear alkanes.

  14. Two new species of Rhagovelia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Costa Rica, with a key and new records from the country.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Pacheco-Chaves, Bernald; Springer, Monika; Cordeiro, Isabelle Da Rocha Silva

    2015-07-01

    Rhagovelia danpolhemi sp. nov., from the Caribbean Slope of Costa Rica and R. springerae sp. nov., from the northern portion of the country, are described, illustrated, compared with similar species, and included in a key to species recorded from the country. Rhagovelia calopa Drake & Harris, R. spinosa Gould, and R. tantilla Drake & Harris are recorded for the first time from Costa Rica. New provincial records are provided for R. acuminata Bacon, R. angustipes Uhler, R. armata (Burmeister), R. bisignata Bacon, R. crassipes Champion, R. elegans Uhler, R. femoralis Champion, R. solida Bacon, R. spinigera Champion, R. tenuipes Champion, and R. uncinata Champion. Additional distributional information is given for these species and for R. formosa Bacon and R. scabra Bacon.

  15. Further evidence for the absence of bacteria in horsehair worms (Nematomorpha: Gordiidae).

    PubMed

    Hudson, Andrew J; Floate, Kevin D

    2009-12-01

    We used molecular techniques to characterize bacteria associated with the nematomorph Gordius robustus (Leidy). This worm is a parasite of the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus (Burmeister), which is infected with the symbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia. Because of this close association, our a priori expectation was that G. robustus may be similarly infected. However, results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA failed to detect any bacteria (symbiotic or non-symbiotic) in G. robustus. These unexpected findings suggest that G. robustus has no internal bacterial community and indicate that close association with a Wolbachia-infected host is insufficient for the transmission of bacteria from insect to nematomorph.

  16. A new species group of the genus Epicauta Dejean of southern South America, the bella group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, María P

    2011-10-01

    Epicauta includes two subgenera, and within the nominotypical subgenus several species groups. Analyzing species of southern South America, a set of species of Epicauta has the particularity to present two distinctive characters which separates this group from the other species groups of American Epicauta: color pattern of pubescence in elytra is not coincident with color pattern of tegument and endophalic hook robust. Based on these characters I propose a new group of species herein named bella group. This group includes the Neotropical species Epicauta bella Mäklin, E. brunneipennis (Haag-Rutemberg), E. diagramma (Burmeister), E. griseonigra (Fairmaire), E. luctifera (Fairmaire), E. riojana (Fairmaire) (new status), and E. zebra (Dohrn). This group is endemic of southern South America, inhabiting the Chaco biogeographical subregion, mainly in the arid northern areas of Argentina. Here we redefine the species of the bella group, consider new characters, illustrate the species in the group, provide maps of their distribution, and a key to identify them.

  17. Description of adult and third instar larva of Trichostetha curlei sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) from the Cape region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Šípek, Petr; Ball, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new high altitude montane species of Trichostetha Burmeister, 1842 is described from the Elandsberg range of the Western Cape interior. This represents the 14th species of the genus and the first to be reported with a description of its larva. It is a significant addition to the growing number of species that exhibit no adult feeding behaviour and a short period of activity restricted to the onset of summer. Larvae dwell in rock crevices, feeding on decomposing plant matter. The genus Trichostetha is heterogeneous and the complex variability observed in some species, especially T. capensis (Linnaeus, 1767), requires the re-instatement of taxa that were recently synonymised. Thus, T. bicolor Péringuey, 1907 is here re-proposed as a separate species and T. capensis hottentotta (Gory & Percheron, 1833) as a separate subspecies. Conversely, T. alutacea Allard, 1994 is recognised as a dark variety of T. signata (Fabricius, 1775) and is, consequently, synonymised with this species. PMID:25161367

  18. [Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera, Amblycera) of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, L.) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur; Derinbay Ekici, Ozlem; Işik, Nermin

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to detect chewing lice species occurring on starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, L). For this purpose, 27 starlings which were shot and sent in nylon bags to our laboratory by hunters were inspected for lice. Nine lice specimens were collected from the starlings and they were preserved in vials separately in 70% alcohol. They were cleared in 10% KOH for one or two days and mounted on slides in Canada balsam. They were examined by light microscope and identified to species. Four (14.81%) of 27 starlings were found to be infested with lice. Four species were identified as Myrsidea cucullaris (Nitzsch, 1818), Brueelia nebulosa (Burmeister, 1838), Sturnidoecus sturni (Schrank, 1766) and Brueelia sp. All of them have been reported for the first time from starlings in Turkey.

  19. Community structure of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from two sympatric gull species: kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) and Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan) in Talcahuano, Chile.

    PubMed

    González-Acuña, D; Corvalan, F; Barrientos, C; Doussang, D; Mathieu, C; Nilsson, L; Casanueva, M E; Palma, R L

    2011-01-01

    A total of 1,177 lice of four species were collected from 124 kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) and 137 lice of the same four species from 60 Franklin's gulls (Larus pipixcan). The louse Saemundssonia lari (O Fabricius) (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) was the most numerous on both gull species, with infestation rates of 4.9 on kelp gulls and 1.8 on Franklin's gulls. The second most abundant louse was Quadraceps punctatus (Burmeister), with a high infestation rate but low prevalence on kelp gulls; those parameters were much lower among lice from Franklin's gulls. The composition and community structure of the lice were similar on both host species, but not their infestation rates. In addition, the feather mite Zachvatkinia larica Mironov (Acari: Avenzoariidae) is recorded from kelp gulls and Franklin's gulls for the first time, while the gamasid mite Larinyssus sp. is recorded from kelp gulls, also for the first time. The population parameters of all species of ectoparasites are discussed.

  20. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) from Red Sea gulls with new host-parasite records.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmed, Azzam; Shobrak, Mohammed; Nasser, Mohamed G E-D

    2014-04-23

    Knowledge about chewing lice from marine birds of the Red Sea is minimal. Five species of gulls were examined for chewing lice in three different localities of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast. Two gull species were examined for lice for the first time (Larus armenicus Buturlin, 1934 and Larus michahellis Naumann, 1840) and their lice represent new host-louse associations. Four species and two subspecies of lice were identified from 159 specimens collected. Actornithophilus piceus lari (Packard, 1870) and Austromenopon transversum (Denny, 1842) (suborder: Amblycera), and Quadraceps punctatus (Burmeister, 1838) and Saemundssonia lari (O. Fabricius, 1780) (suborder: Ischnocera) were recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia and Red Sea birds. Taxonomic and ecological notes, type hosts, data on specimens examined, collecting localities, an identification key, and photographs of each species and subspecies are given. 

  1. A Deep Insight Into the Sialotranscriptome of the Chagas Disease Vector, Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José M C; Schwarz, Alexandra; Francischetti, Ivo M B

    2015-05-01

    Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains a complex cocktail of pharmacologically active compounds that assists feeding by counteracting their hosts' hemostatic and inflammatory reactions. Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister) is an important vector of Chagas disease in South America, but despite its importance there is only one salivary protein sequence publicly deposited in GenBank. In the present work, we used Illumina technology to disclose and publicly deposit 3,703 coding sequences obtained from the assembly of >70 million reads. These sequences should assist proteomic experiments aimed at identifying pharmacologically active proteins and immunological markers of vector exposure. A supplemental file of the transcriptome and deducted protein sequences can be obtained from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/P_megistus/Pmeg-web.xlsx.

  2. Anatomy of the frontal gland and ultramorphology of the frontal tube in the soldier caste of species of Nasutitermitinae (Isoptera, Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Conceicao A; Costa-Leonardo, Ana M

    2006-11-01

    All termite species (Isoptera) are eusocial. These insects live in societies where the division of labor is a predominant characteristic, conditioned by the presence of castes with different morphology, ontogeny, and development. The soldier caste is unique among social insects and it is responsible for colony defense. Soldiers belonging to the Nasutitermitinae subfamily are very peculiar, since they may be polymorphic and present a nasus in addition to either developed or vestigial mandibles. The defensive secretions of soldiers of the neotropical Nasutitermitinae have been the aim of several chemical studies, but few data exist concerning the anatomy and histology of the exocrine glands. This article presents a comparative study on the anatomy of the frontal gland of soldiers of several Nasutitermitinae species: Syntermes dirus (Burmeister), Syntermes nanus (Constantino), Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Silvestri), Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) and Velocitermes heteropterus (Silvestri), with emphasis on the ultramorphology and ultrastructure of the frontal tube.

  3. Domiciliary cockroaches found in restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, J; Sulaiman, S; Oothuman, P; Vellayan, S; Zainol-Ariffin, P; Paramaswaran, S; Razak, A; Muslimin, M; Kamil-Ali, O B; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-03-01

    The following domiciliary cockroaches were collected from restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Malaysia using 1L glass beaker traps baited with ground mouse-pellets: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (n = 820), Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister (n = 46), Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (n = 12504), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (n = 321), Symploce pallens Stephens (n = 29) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) (n = 5). The following bacteria were isolated from 10 cockroach specimens: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. rhinoscleromatis and Serratia liquefaciens from 5 B. germanica; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Citrobacter diversus/amalonaticus, Escherichia vulneris and K.p. pneumoniae from 3 P. brunnea; and Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans 4, Escherichia adecarboxylate, E. vulneris, K. p. pneumonia, K. p. rhinoscleromatis and Proteus vulgeris from 2 P. americana.

  4. Arthropods and their products as aphrodisiacs--review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pajovic, B; Radosavljevic, M; Radunovic, M; Radojevic, N; Bjelogrlic, B

    2012-04-01

    After a short review of impotence, the definitions of erectants and aphrodisiacs are presented. The Authors propose division of arthropods according to the places of effect. The description of particular arthropods with their pictures and nomenclature, is followed by certain or probable mechanisms of achieving the aphrodisiac and sometimes toxic effect, that were available in the literature since 1929 till nowadays. We mention the most usual locations, mainly in Asia, where they are found and consumed, but also, we describe the manner of preparing and intake. The review includes the following arthropods: lobster, Arizona bark scorpion, deathstalker, banana spider, Mediterranean black widow, Burmeister's triatoma, giant water bug, diving-beetle, Korean bug, diaclina, flannel moth, Spanish fly, migratory locust, red wood ant and honeybee.

  5. Damselflies (Zygoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Ahmed; Naeem, Muhammad; Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Naz, Falak; Afsheen, Sumera; Ilyas, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an effort to document bio-geographical distribution for Zygoptera of Pakistan. Damselflies were collected throughout the country and territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 2004–2009. A total of 2692 specimens were collected yielding 9 families, 21 genera, and 48 species and subspecies. Three of these species, Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister), Elattoneura atkinsoni (Selys), and Elattoneura souteri (Fraser), are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Distribution, habitats, previous records, and Zoogeographic affiliation for all collected taxa are discussed. Help was also taken from published literature on Zygoptera of Pakistan, and specimens housed at National Insect Museum were also studied. In total, 53 species are accounted for providing an updated record for all modern taxa of damselfly fauna of Pakistan. PMID:22221175

  6. New genera, species and records of Phaneropterinae (Orthoptera, Phaneropteridae) from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The results of the study of many specimens preserved in different European museums are reported. The tribe Terpnistrini Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878 is resurrected. The distribution of the following species is enhanced: Pardalota asymmetrica Karsch, 1896, Diogena denticulata Chopard, 1954, Diogena fausta (Burmeister, 1838), Plangiopsis adeps Karsch, 1896, Poreuomena sanghensis Massa, 2013 and Tylopsis continua (Walker, 1869). Further, for their peculiar characteristics, two African representatives of the American genus Symmetropleura Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878 are included in two new genera: Symmetrokarschia africana (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878), comb. n. and Symmetroraggea dirempta (Karsch, 1889), comb. n. A new genus and species from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angustithorax spiniger gen. n., sp. n., and a new genus and species from Tanzania, Arostratum oblitum gen. n., sp. n. are described. Finally Melidia claudiae sp. n. and Atlasacris brevipennis sp. n. are described and compared with related species. PMID:25632250

  7. Towards a revision of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), with estimation of the diversity of each subgenus

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gustavo E.; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A review of the subgenera of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Pimeliinae: Praociini) is presented. Praocis comprises 77 species and 8 subspecies arranged in nine subgenera distributed in arid lands from Central Peru and Bolivia to the Southern part of Patagonia in Chile and Argentina. For each subgenus of Praocis: Praocis Eschscholtz, Mesopraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Anthrasomus Guérin-Méneville, Filotarsus Gay & Solier, Postpraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Hemipraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Orthogonoderes Gay & Solier, Praonoda Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., and Praocida Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., we present a diagnosis using new and constant characters of adult morphology such as clypeal configuration, length and proportion of antennomeres 9, 10 and 11, arrangement of apical tomentose sensory patches on antennomeres 10 and 11, anterior margin of prosternum, lateral margin of elytron, ventral surface of profemora, and shape of protibiae. An identification key for the nine subgenera of Praocis is presented. Type species are designated for the five new subgenera; for Mesopraocis: Praocis calderana Kulzer, for Postpraocis: Praocis pentachorda Burmeister, for Hemipraocis: Praocis sellata Berg, for Praonoda: Praocis bicarinata Burmeister, for Praocida: Praocis zischkai Kulzer, and for the previously described subgenus Orthogonoderes: Praocis subreticulata Gay & Solier. The current number of species and the estimated number of species to be described are presented. The distribution ranges of the subgenera, including new records from collections and recent expeditions, are given. Habitat preferences and a discussion of the biogeography of the genus are also presented. PMID:25009424

  8. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus ORF8 Protein Is Acquired from SARS-Related Coronavirus from Greater Horseshoe Bats through Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Feng, Yun; Chen, Honglin; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Yang, Wei-Hong; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Yi; Song, Zhi-Zhong; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Yeung, Hazel C.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. Although two SARS-related Rhinolophus sinicus bat CoVs (SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs) previously detected in Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) in Yunnan, RsSHC014 and Rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 protein exhibited only 32.2 to 33% amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. To elucidate the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, we sampled 348 bats of various species in Yunnan, among which diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses, including potentially novel CoVs, were identified, with some showing potential interspecies transmission. The genomes of two betacoronaviruses, SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C, from greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), possessed 93% nucleotide identities to human/civet SARSr-CoV genomes. Although these two betacoronaviruses displayed lower similarities than SARSr-Rs-BatCoV RsSHC014 and Rs3367 in S protein to civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 proteins demonstrated exceptionally high (80.4 to 81.3%) amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs, compared to SARSr-BatCoVs from other horseshoe bats (23.2 to 37.3%). Potential recombination events were identified around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. The expression of ORF8 subgenomic mRNA suggested that the ORF8 protein may be functional in SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs. The high Ka/Ks ratio among human SARS-CoVs compared to that among SARSr-BatCoVs supported that ORF8 is under strong positive selection during animal-to-human transmission. Molecular clock analysis using ORF1ab showed that SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C diverged from civet/human SARSr-CoVs in approximately 1990. SARS

  9. Rhizobium oryzicola sp. nov., potential plant-growth-promoting endophytic bacteria isolated from rice roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Cao, Yan-Hua; Sheirdil, Rizwan Ali; Wang, Xiu-Cheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial strains ZYY136(T) and ZYY9 were isolated from surface-sterilized rice roots from a long-term experiment of rice-rice--Astragalus sinicus rotation. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains ZYY136(T) and ZYY9 showed the highest similarity, of 97.0%, to Rhizobium tarimense PL-41(T). Sequence analysis of the housekeeping genes recA, thrC and atpD clearly differentiated the isolates from currently described species of the genus Rhizobium. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between ZYY136(T) and ZYY9 was 82.3%, and ZYY136(T) showed 34.0% DNA-DNA relatedness with the most closely related type strain, R. tarimense PL-41(T). The DNA G+C content of strain ZYY136(T) was 58.1 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and C16 : 0 3-OH. Strains ZYY136(T) and ZYY9 could be differentiated from the previously defined species of the genus Rhizobium by several phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, we conclude that strains ZYY136(T) and ZYY9 represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium oryzicola sp. nov. is proposed (type strain ZYY136(T) = ACCC 05753(T) = KCTC 32088(T)).

  10. A Nodule-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein AsE246 Participates in Transport of Plant-Synthesized Lipids to Symbiosome Membrane and Is Essential for Nodule Organogenesis in Chinese Milk Vetch1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Ling; Shi, Xiaofeng; Li, Yixing; Wang, Jianyun; Chen, Dasong; Xie, Fuli; Li, Youguo

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobia in legume root nodules fix nitrogen in symbiosomes, organelle-like structures in which a membrane from the host plant surrounds the symbiotic bacteria. However, the components that transport plant-synthesized lipids to the symbiosome membrane remain unknown. This study identified and functionally characterized the Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus) lipid transfer protein AsE246, which is specifically expressed in nodules. It was found that AsE246 can bind lipids in vitro. More importantly, AsE246 can bind the plant-synthesized membrane lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol in vivo. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that AsE246 and digalactosyldiacylglycerol localize in the symbiosome membrane and are present in infection threads. Overexpression of AsE246 resulted in increased nodule numbers; knockdown of AsE246 resulted in reduced nodule numbers, decreased lipids contents in nodules, diminished nitrogen fixation activity, and abnormal development of symbiosomes. AsE246 knockdown also resulted in fewer infection threads, nodule primordia, and nodules, while AsE246 overexpression resulted in more infection threads and nodule primordia, suggesting that AsE246 affects nodule organogenesis associated with infection thread formation. Taken together, these results indicate that AsE246 contributes to lipids transport to the symbiosome membrane, and this transport is required for effective legume-rhizobium symbiosis. PMID:24367021

  11. Prevalent ciliate symbiosis on copepods: high genetic diversity and wide distribution detected using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally.

  12. Molecular survey of hard ticks in endemic areas of tick-borne diseases in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Jian-Bo; Qin, Xin-Cheng; Tian, Jun-Hua; Guo, Wen-Ping; Fan, Fei-Neng; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Jianguo; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-06-01

    Over the past several years, there was a substantial increase in the number of cases of known and novel tick-borne infections in humans in China. To better understand the ticks associated with these infections, we collected hard ticks from animals or around livestock shelters in 29 localities in 5 provinces (Beijing, Henan, Hubei, Inner Mongolia, and Zhejiang) where cases of tick-borne illness were reported. We collected 2950 hard ticks representing 7 species of 4 genera (Dermacentor sinicus, Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Ixodes granulatus, Ixodes persulcatus, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). These ticks were identified to species using morphological characters initially. We then sequenced the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA (12S rRNA) gene, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene, and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) gene of these ticks, and conducted phylogenetic analyses. Our analyses showed that the molecular and morphological data are consistent in the identification of the 7 tick species. Furthermore, all these 7 tick species from China were genetically closely related to the same species or related species found outside China. Rapid and accurate identification and long-term monitoring of these ticks will be of significance to the prevention and control of tick-borne diseases in China.

  13. [Species composition and distribution characteristics of pelagic copepods in the Northern Sea of Fujian during withdraw of Zhe-Min coastal current].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Guo; Lin, Jing-Hong; Wang, Chun-Guang; Lin, Mao

    2012-06-01

    Based on oceanographic survey data in April 2009 in the north central Taiwan Strait, ecological characteristics such as species composition, individual density, dominant species and distribution were analyzed. The results were compared with the same area survey in spring 2007 for discuss the annual variety. The result shows that 48 pelagic copepods species have been recognized, and most of them belongs to Calanodia. The higher species number occurs in southern and eastern area. The average density of pelagic copepoda was 231.96 ind x m(-3). As to the horizontal distribution, the coast and northern areas are higher than those of eastern and southern areas of the density of pelagic copepods which are dependent on the dominant species Calanus sinicus and Euchaeta plana. The community structure of pelagic copepoda was same to the other survey result, which shows low biodiversity index with remarkable dominant species. Owing to the Zhe-Min coastal current effect, the higher density distribution is different in 2007 and 2009. As to the ecological character, all the copepoda in this paper belong to warm-water, warm-temperature and tropic oceanic groups. Warm-water and tropic oceanic groups are the dominant groups of the pelagic copepods composition. When it comes to density, warm-temperature group is the dominant. The relationship of species number, diversity index and abundance with the environment were also discussed in this paper. The result showed that the pelagic copepoda species number and diversity would increase with the temperature and salty increase.

  14. Laboratory study on the ecological impact of sophorolipid used for harmful algae elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Kim, Eunki; Sun, Song

    2010-11-01

    We studied the role of sophorolipid in inhibiting harmful algae bloom (HAB). Different sophorolipid concentrations were tested on marine microalgae, zooplankton, fish, and bivalve ( Mytilus edulis) in laboratory. The result shows that sophorolipid could inhibit the growth of algal species selectively. Among three algae species selected, Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis was promoted with increasing sophorolipid concentration; Isochrysis galbana was inhibited seven days later in sophorolipid concentration below 40 mg/L; and Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima was inhibited obviously in only a high sophorolipid concentration over 20 mg/L. Therefore, sophorolipid in a low concentration at <20 mg/L could remove certain harmful algae species effectively without harming other non-harmful microalgae. For other animals, sophorolipid could inhibit the growth of ciliate Strombidium sp. by 50% at 20 mg/L sophorolipid concentration after 96 h. The concentration in 96-h LC50 for Calanus sinicus, Neomysis awatschensis, Lateolabrax japonicus, and Paralichthys olivaceus was 15, 150, 60, and 110 mg/L, respectively. The 24 h LC50 value for Artemia salina was 600 mg/L. The relative clearance rate of mussel Mytilus edulis decreased to 80%, 40%, and 20% of the control group after being exposed to 20, 50, and 100 mg/L sophorolipid for 24 h. Therefore, the toxicity for mitigation of harmful algae bloom at previously recommended concentration of 5-20 mg/L sophorolipid is low for most tested organisms in this reaserch.

  15. Prevalent Ciliate Symbiosis on Copepods: High Genetic Diversity and Wide Distribution Detected Using Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally. PMID:23024768

  16. Identification of a Novel Gene for Biosynthesis of a Bacteroid-Specific Electron Carrier Menaquinone

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fuli; Cheng, Guojun; Xu, Hui; Wang, Zhi; Lei, Lei; Li, Youguo

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ) has been considered as an electron mediator in electron transfer that generates ATP in Rhizobium under both free-living and symbiosis conditions. When mutated, the dmtH gene has a symbiotic phenotype of forming ineffective nodules on Astragalus sinicus. The gene was isolated from a Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R transposon-inserted mutant library. The DNA sequence and conserved protein domain analyses revealed that dmtH encodes demethylmenaquinone (DMK) methyltransferase, which catalyzes the terminal step of menaquinone (MK) biosynthesis. Comparative analysis indicated that dmtH homologs were present in only a few Rhizobia. Real-time quantitative PCR showed dmtH is a bacteroid-specific gene. The highest expression was seen at 25 days after inoculation of strain 7653R. Gene disruption and complementation tests demonstrated that the dmtH gene was essential for bacteroid development and symbiotic nitrogen fixation ability. MK and UQ were extracted from the wild type strain 7653R and mutant strain HK116. MK-7 was accumulated under microaerobic condition and UQ-10 was accumulated under aerobic condition in M. huakuii 7653R. The predicted function of DmtH protein was confirmed by the measurement of methyltransferase activity in vitro. These results revealed that MK-7 was used as an electron carrier instead of UQ in M. huakuii 7653R bacteroids. PMID:22194970

  17. Identification of a novel gene for biosynthesis of a bacteroid-specific electron carrier menaquinone.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fuli; Cheng, Guojun; Xu, Hui; Wang, Zhi; Lei, Lei; Li, Youguo

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ) has been considered as an electron mediator in electron transfer that generates ATP in Rhizobium under both free-living and symbiosis conditions. When mutated, the dmtH gene has a symbiotic phenotype of forming ineffective nodules on Astragalus sinicus. The gene was isolated from a Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R transposon-inserted mutant library. The DNA sequence and conserved protein domain analyses revealed that dmtH encodes demethylmenaquinone (DMK) methyltransferase, which catalyzes the terminal step of menaquinone (MK) biosynthesis. Comparative analysis indicated that dmtH homologs were present in only a few Rhizobia. Real-time quantitative PCR showed dmtH is a bacteroid-specific gene. The highest expression was seen at 25 days after inoculation of strain 7653R. Gene disruption and complementation tests demonstrated that the dmtH gene was essential for bacteroid development and symbiotic nitrogen fixation ability. MK and UQ were extracted from the wild type strain 7653R and mutant strain HK116. MK-7 was accumulated under microaerobic condition and UQ-10 was accumulated under aerobic condition in M. huakuii 7653R. The predicted function of DmtH protein was confirmed by the measurement of methyltransferase activity in vitro. These results revealed that MK-7 was used as an electron carrier instead of UQ in M. huakuii 7653R bacteroids.

  18. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Tian, Jun-Hua; Cong, Mei-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  19. Cargo vessel ballast water as a vector for the transport of non-indigenous marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. J.; Griffiths, F. B.; Van der Wal, E. J.; Kelly, J.

    1988-04-01

    The fauna in ballast water tanks of bulk cargo vessels sailing between Japan and Australia was investigated over two years. Two fish species ( Therapon jarbua and Ptereleotris sp.) were found. Twenty-two zooplankton species and 45 other planktonic taxa were collected. Of these, six copepod species ( Calanus sinicus, Centropages abdominalis, C. yamadi, Labidocera bipinnata, Pontellopsis tenuicauda and Corycaeus affinis), and one mysid ( Neomysis japonica) are endemic to Japan. In sediments from ballast tanks, 16 species and at least 21 taxa were found. Species endemic to Japan included two amphipods ( Melita rylovae, Orchomene pacifica), one mysid ( Acanthomysis shrencki), two brachyuran crabs ( Pinnixa rathbuni and Pinnaxodes mutsuensis) and one caridian shrimp ( Alpheus hoplocheles). The number of planktonic species and taxa arriving in Australia in ballast water tanks tended to decrease with increased voyage time. Mid-ocean exchange of ballast water en route greatly reduced the number of planktonic species. We estimated that two-thirds of the taxa that could be expected to be found have so far been recorded. These results suggest that water and sediment carried in ballast tanks of bulk cargo ships can act as an important inter-continental vector for the spread of planktonic and benthic species.

  20. Community composition, abundance and biomass of zooplankton in Zhangzi Island waters, Northern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiehui; Zhang, Guangtao; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Shiwei; Zhao, Zengxia; Wan, Aiyong

    2016-12-01

    Samples were collected monthly from the sea area around Zhangzi Island, northern Yellow Sea, from July 2009 to June 2010. Vertical net towing was used to examine spatial and temporal variability in zooplankton abundance and biomass. Overall, Calanus sinicus and Saggita crassa were the dominant species found during the study period, while the amphipod Themisto gracilipes was dominant in winter and spring. Vast numbers of the ctenophore species of the genus Beroe were found in October and November. It was not possible to count them, but they constituted a large portion of the total zooplankton biomass. Zooplankton species diversity was highest in October, and species evenness was highest in April. Zooplankton abundance (non-jellyfish) and biomass were highest in June and lowest in August, with annual averages of 131.3 ind./m³ and 217.5 mg/m³, respectively. Water temperature may be responsible for the variations in zooplankton abundance and biomass. Beroe biomass was negatively correlated with other zooplankton abundance. Longterm investigations will be carried out to learn more about the influence of the environment on zooplankton assemblages.

  1. Checklist and identification key of Anomalini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Filippini, Valentina; Micó, Estefanía; Galante, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A checklist and identification key for the species of the tribe Anomalini in Costa Rica are presented. The Anomalini species are important economically, as they have larvae that are or can become agricultural pests, as well as ecologically, having potential as bioindicators. In spite of their importance and richness, identification tools for the group in the Neotropics remain scarce. The Costa Rican fauna comprises six genera (Anomala, Anomalorhina, Callistethus, Epectinaspis, Moroniella, and Strigoderma) and a total of 120 species. Anomala contusa Filippini, Micó, Galante, 2015 is proposed as a synonym of Anomala inbio (Ramírez-Ponce, Bitar, Curoe 2014); Anomala limon nom. n. is proposed as a new name for Anomala inbio Filippini, Galante, Micó, 2015, a homonym of Anomala inbio (Ramírez-Ponce, Bitar, Curoe, 2014); Anomala cinaedias nom. n. is proposed as a new name for Anomala chloropyga Ohaus, 1897, a homonym of Anomala chloropyga Burmeister, 1844; and Anomala chrysomelina is moved to the genus Callistethus. PMID:27833420

  2. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Insecticides in Laboratory and Greenhouse Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, John C; Prabhaker, Nilima; Reed, Darcy A; Perring, Thomas M; Castle, Steven J; Huang, Ta-I

    2015-04-01

    Field-collected nymphs and adults of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Penatatomidae) from three locations were evaluated for susceptibility to insecticides representing 10 classes of insecticide chemistry. Although relative susceptibilities differed between leaf-spray and leaf-dip Petri dish bioassays, consistently low LC50 values were determined for chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin. Fenpropathrin and methomyl had intermediate values. Susceptibility to dinotefuran varied depending on the bioassay, possibly owing to leaf substrates used in the two bioassays. In soil systemic bioassays, the LC50 value of dinotefuran was significantly greater than that of two other neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and the anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole. Mortality and feeding damage of B. hilaris and plant growth on insecticide-treated plants in greenhouse trials were consistent with the laboratory bioassays; the best results were seen with bifenthrin, methomyl, and chlorpyrifos. Mortality to the neonicotinoids was not evident; however, feeding damage and plant growth responses on dinotefuran-treated plants damage were similar to the noninfested control. This highlights the apparent antifeedant properties of dinotefuran that may have prevented adults from injuring broccoli plants after exposure to foliar spray residues. Data presented serve as baseline susceptibilities that can be used to monitor for resistance development in field populations of B. hilaris.

  3. Diel activity and behavior of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on desert cole crops.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ta-I; Reed, Darcy A; Perring, Thomas M; Palumbo, John C

    2013-08-01

    Patterns of diel activity and behavior of the Bagrada bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), were investigated in a series of field and greenhouse experiments in Yuma, AZ. Adults of B. hilaris were monitored by on-site direct observation on broccoli and cauliflower plants in large-block experimental plots at various intervals throughout consecutive 24-h periods. In the field trials, mean number of B. hilaris adults differed among sampling times, with peak abundance observed consistently between 1300 and 1800 hours. There was a positive correlation between temperature and numbers ofB. hilaris adults in all fields, and a negative relationship between humidity and adult numbers in 7 of 12 fields. Significant relationships between temperature and B. hilaris numbers were revealed in regression models for all trials. Slopes were not significantly different among all broccoli blocks or in three of the four cauliflower fields. In greenhouse studies, mating occurred throughout the day but peaked between 1000 and 1600 hours. Females of B. hilaris caused more feeding damage than males on the first true leaf of broccoli, and additional differences in behavior between sexes were observed. Our results suggest that higher temperatures increase field activity and influence the behavior of adult B. hilaris, and temperature is a more reliable indicator to predict the activity of B. hilaris than other environmental parameters measured. The implications of these findings for developing monitoring and management programs for B. hilaris in cruciferous crops are discussed.

  4. COI-based DNA barcoding of some species of Pentatomidae from North India (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harbhajan; Sharma, Kanu

    2016-05-14

    The family Pentatomidae is one of the largest families of the sub-order Heteroptera, comprising 4722 species belonging to 896 genera. In the present paper, we analysed a partial ∼600 bp COI sequence of 14 species of family Pentatomidae, collected from northern part of India. For seven species viz., Tolumnia antennata Distant, 1902, Cahara jugatoria (Lethierry, 1891), Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister, 1835), Plautia viridicollis (Westwood, 1837), Priassus exemptus (Walker, 1868), Dalpada neoclavata (Rider, 1998) and Dalpada affinis (Dallas, 1851), this is the first ever molecular study which has generated distinct barcodes for each. The COI sequences of these seven species have been added to the existing database at GenBank NCBI which can be used for their identification. The database analysis shows mean K2P divergence of 2.5% at intraspecific level, 11.9% at interspecific level and 16.37% at intergeneric level, thereby indicating a hierarchical increase in K2P mean divergence across different taxonomic levels.

  5. Ant-exclusion to promote biological control of soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on woody landscape plants.

    PubMed

    Vanek, Sarah J; Potter, Daniel A

    2010-12-01

    Ant-exclusion to facilitate biocontrol by endemic natural enemies was investigated for suppressing infestations of two coccids, calico scale, Eulecanium cerasorum (Cockerell), and magnolia scale, Neolecanium cornuparvum (Thro), in landscape settings. Application of sticky bands combined with basal trunk sprays resulted in 92-100% reduction in counts of honeydew-seeking ants, mainly Formica subsericea Say, ascending large, scale-infested sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) trees. Ant-exclusion was associated with increased numbers of green lacewing, mainly Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister), larvae and spiders on multiple sample dates, and 54 and 69% fewer surviving scale nymphs after the first and second growing seasons. Foliar sooty mold accumulation was also significantly reduced where ants were excluded. In feeding trials, C. rufilabris larvae collected from the tree canopies consumed large numbers of settled scale nymphs. On another site, ant-exclusion led to 82% reduction in magnolia scale densities on Magnolia stellata (Siebold & Zuccarini) Maximowicz, compared with controls, after 1 yr. Nine and 10 ant species were found tending calico and magnolia scales, respectively, at landscape sites in central Kentucky, and in situ observation trials showed that many of them aggressively attack approaching lacewing larvae. Our results suggest that where ants are closely associated with soft scales on woody landscape plants, ant-exclusion has potential as a sustainable pest management strategy.

  6. Descriptive study of damage caused by the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon, and its influence on date palm oases of Rjim Maatoug, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Rasmi; Lkbel, Chaieb; Habib Ben Hamouda, Med

    2008-01-01

    Oryctes agamemnon (Burmeister 1847) (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) was accidentally introduced in the southwestern oases of Tunisia (Tozeur) around 1980 and spread to the Rjim Maatoug region. In these areas O. agamemnon was specific to date palm trees causing severe damage that can result in potential danger due to collapse of the tree. This study was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in 4 sites in the region of Rjim Maatoug. Different levels of palm tree attack were determined, ovioposition sites were identified, and pest damage was described in detail to specify their relative importance and to indicate factors governing palm tree attack. Eggs were individually oviposited in the attacked parts. Dead parts of palm trees were the main target of O. agamemnon including the respiratory roots, tough, trunk bark, dry petiole and the periphery of the crown. The crown itself was not attacked. Feeding by larvae caused significant damage. The biggest danger occurred when heavy attacks of larvae invaded the respiratory roots at the level of the soil, and secondarily on the periphery of the crown, which can result in fungal diseases. Several cases of Deglet Nour date palm tree collapse were caused by this pest in Rjim Maatoug. Attacks on other parts of the tree were without danger for the palm tree. In the absence of pest management, application of a quarantine program combined with field cultivation techniques could help farmers significantly decrease attack of O. agamemnon on palm trees.

  7. Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the north Saharan oases ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10 d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1 h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females.

  8. Sex-specific interactions of microbial symbioses on cricket dietary selection.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Ryan B; Lehman, R Michael; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2014-08-01

    The nutrients found in prey and nonprey foods, and relative digestibility of these foods, has a major influence on diet selection by omnivorous insects. Many insects have developed symbiotic relationships with gut bacteria to help with extracting nutrition from nonprey diets. Gryllus pennsylvanicus (Burmeister) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) was assigned to one of two treatment groups, antibiotic-treated and nonantibiotic-treated, and consumption of seeds (nonprey) and eggs (prey) were measured. Male crickets administered antibiotics consumed more seeds and greater seed weight, while antibiotic-fed female crickets consumed fewer seeds and less seed weight, relative to the untreated male and female crickets, respectively. Both male and female antibiotic-treated crickets consumed similar weight of eggs as nonantibiotic-treated male and female crickets, respectively. These results provide evidence that gut symbionts influence diet selection of male and female G. pennsylvanicus differently. This sex-specific dietary selection may be because of the fact that male and female crickets have different nutritional requirements.

  9. Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylura strongylura

    PubMed Central

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

  10. Genes encoding defensins of important Chagas disease vectors used for phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Catarina Andréa Chaves; Lima, Ana Carolina Bastos; Jansen, Ana Maria; Galvão, Cleber; Jurberg, José; Costa, Jane; Azambuja, Patricia; Waniek, Peter Josef

    2015-12-01

    Insects possess both cellular and humoral immune responses. The latter makes them capable to recognize and control invading pathogens after synthesis of a variety of small proteins, also known as antimicrobial peptides. Defensins, cysteine-rich cationic peptides with major activity against Gram-positive bacteria, are one ubiquitous class of antimicrobial peptides, widely distributed in different animal and plant taxa. Regarding triatomines in each of the so far analyzed species, various defensin gene isoforms have been identified. In the present study, these genes were sequenced and used as a molecular marker for phylogenetic analysis. Considering the vectors of Chagas disease the authors are reporting for the first time the presence of these genes in Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859), Rhodnius nasutus (Stål, 1859), and Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835). Members of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex were included into the study to verify the genetic variability within these taxa. Mainly in their mature peptide, the deduced defensin amino acid sequences were highly conserved. In the dendrogram based on defensin encoding nucleotide, sequences the Triatoma Def3/4 genes were separated from the rest. In the dendrogram based on deduced amino acid sequences the Triatoma Def2/3/4 together with Rhodnius DefA/B pre-propeptides were separated from the rest. In the sub-branches of both the DNA and amino acid dendrograms, the genus Triatoma was separated from the genus Rhodnius as well as from P. megistus.

  11. Man B W brings two-stroke slow-speed engines back to Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kunberger, K.

    1994-09-01

    In a move started almost ten years ago, MAN B W Diesel A/S has now centralized the company's Copenhagen activities into one place. With these moves, it seems that the restructuring of the Danish engine builder, Burmeister Wain, into a member of the worldwide diesel engine group, MAN B W, has been completed. Just as interesting, however, are recent moves to expand the company's capabilities for producing two-stroke engines in Europe. MAN in Augsburg, Germany, acquired B W in 1980. This was the time when MAN decided to terminate its own two-stroke engine developments in favor of the B W design. The two-stroke engines designed in Copenhagen are more than 90% directed to the marine market and less than 10% for land-based power plants. Whereas, in Augsburg, the four-stroke engine market activities are some 65% directed to the power generation market, leaving 35% to marine. The big medium-speed marine engines built in Augsburg are mostly used for passenger ships, cruise ships and ferries, just to name the major applications. The two-stroke engines from Copenhagen are used for container ships, tankers or bulk carriers. 2 figs.

  12. Revision of Campsurus violaceus species group (Ephemeroptera: Polymitarcyidae) with new synonymies and nomina dubia in Campsurus Eaton, 1868.

    PubMed

    Molineri, C; Salles, F F; Emmerich, D

    2015-02-19

    The violaceus species group (formerly notatus species group) of Campsurus Eaton is revised. All the species in the violaceus group are diagnosed. A new species, C. molinai sp. nov. is described based on male imagos from Bolivia, characterized by their large and sclerotized penes. The violaceus group is proposed to include the following species: C. assimilis Traver, C. truncatus Ulmer (=C. mahunkai Puthz = C. melanocephalus Pereira & da Silva, new synonyms), C. violaceus Needham & Murphy (= C. meyeri Navás = C. notatus Needham & Murphy = C. paranensis Navás, new synonyms), C. emersoni Traver, C. decoloratus (Hagen), and C. molinai sp.nov. Additionally we consider the following species as nomina dubia: C. longicauda Navás, C. pfeifferi Navás, C. zikani Navás, C. albicans (orig. Ephemera albicans Percheron in Guerin & Percheron), C. burmeisteri Ulmer, C. dallasi Navás, C. quadridentatus Eaton, C. claudus Needham & Murphy, C. corumbanus Needham & Murphy, C. dorsalis (Burmeister), C. mutilus Needham & Murphy, and C. striatus Needham & Murphy. Given the results presented herein (five species synonymized and 12 proposed as nomina dubia), only 28 valid species remain in the genus Campsurus. Additionally, the nymphal stages of C. violaceus and C. truncatus are described and illustrated. Female adult genitalia (sockets) and eggs of C. decoloratus are described for the first time. Diagnoses, new country records, and redescriptions of selected characters of the imagos for the species of the violaceus group are given.

  13. Niche Partitioning in Three Sympatric Congeneric Species of Dragonfly, Orthetrum chrysostigma, O. coerulescens anceps, and O. nitidinerve: The Importance of Microhabitat

    PubMed Central

    Khelifa, Rassim; Zebsa, Rabah; Moussaoui, Abdelkrim; Kahalerras, Amin; Bensouilah, Soufyane; Mahdjoub, Hayat

    2013-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity has been shown to promote co-existence of closely related species. Based on this concept, a field study was conducted on the niche partitioning of three territorial congeneric species of skimmers (Anisoptera: Libellulidae) in Northeast Algeria during the breeding season of 2011. According to their size, there is a descending hierarchy between Orthetrum nitidinerve Sélys, O. chrysostigma (Burmeister), and O. coerulescens anceps (Schneider). After being marked and surveyed, the two latter species had the same breeding behavior sequence. Knowing that they had almost the same size, such species could not co-occur in the same habitat according to the competitive exclusion principle. The spatial distribution of the three species was investigated at two different microhabitats, and it was found that these two species were actually isolated at this scale. O. chrysostigma and O. nitidinerve preferred open areas, while O. c. anceps occurred in highly vegetated waters. This study highlights the role of microhabitat in community structure as an important niche axis that maintains closely related species in the same habitat. PMID:24219357

  14. Niche partitioning in three sympatric congeneric species of dragonfly, Orthetrum chrysostigma, O. coerulescens anceps, and O. nitidinerve: the importance of microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Khelifa, Rassim; Zebsa, Rabah; Moussaoui, Abdelkrim; Kahalerras, Amin; Bensouilah, Soufyane; Mahdjoub, Hayat

    2013-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity has been shown to promote co-existence of closely related species. Based on this concept, a field study was conducted on the niche partitioning of three territorial congeneric species of skimmers (Anisoptera: Libellulidae) in Northeast Algeria during the breeding season of 2011. According to their size, there is a descending hierarchy between Orthetrum nitidinerve Sélys, O. chrysostigma (Burmeister), and O. coerulescens anceps (Schneider). After being marked and surveyed, the two latter species had the same breeding behavior sequence. Knowing that they had almost the same size, such species could not co-occur in the same habitat according to the competitive exclusion principle. The spatial distribution of the three species was investigated at two different microhabitats, and it was found that these two species were actually isolated at this scale. O. chrysostigma and O. nitidinerve preferred open areas, while O. c. anceps occurred in highly vegetated waters. This study highlights the role of microhabitat in community structure as an important niche axis that maintains closely related species in the same habitat.

  15. Bucrates lanista Rehn 1918 (Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae): The First Record from the Brazilian Pantanal, the First Description of the Male, the First Karyotypic Report for the Genus, and the First Telomeric Hybridization of the Subfamily.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana; Olivier, Renan da Silva; Araujo, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    Bucrates lanista, the most southerly distributed species in the genus Bucrates Burmeister, was originally described from Brazil based on a female collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, but the species has not been recorded since 1918. In this work, we report that B. lanista inhabits the Pantanal Wetland in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and, for the first time, describe the male. Individuals of B. lanista are gregarious and present a brown/green color dimorphism; this behavior and color variation are also observed in species of closely related genera. Individuals from the Pantanal vary slightly from those of Rio Grande do Sul. The karyotype was determined to be 2n♂ = 21 = 20 + X0 and 2n♀ = 22 = 20 + XX. The X chromosome is metacentric and the largest of the complement, and all of the autosomes are submetacentrics. All chromosomes solely present telomeric (TTAGG)n repeats at their ends, and some chromosomes present positive and negative DAPI bands.

  16. Comparison of biological fitness in crosses between subspecies of Meccus phyllosomus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Salazar-Montaño, Luis Fernando; García-Lino, Juan Carlos; Arroyo-Reyes, Demver; Hernández-Navarro, Juan Ángel

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the biological parameters of some triatomine subspecies of Meccus phyllosomus (Burmeister) is a crucial first step in estimating the epidemiologic importance of this group. Biological parameters related to hatching, lifetime, number of blood meals to molt, percentage of females at the end of the cycle, number of laid eggs, and mortality for each instar of 3 M. phyllosomus subspecies [M. p. mazzottii (Usinger), M. p. pallidipennis (Stål), and M. p. phyllosomus] and their laboratory hybrids were evaluated and compared. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found among the experimental hybrids (MaPa, MaPhy, PaPhy) and reciprocal cohorts. In 5 (hatching, number of blood meals to molt, accumulative mortality, percentage of females, and mean number of laid eggs) of the 6 studied parameters (with the exception of development time), the hybrid cohorts had better fitness results than the parental cohorts involved in each set of crosses. The increase in hybrid fitness found in our study could lead to an increase in the epidemiologic risks caused by transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to humans.

  17. Microdosimetry for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, R.L.; Kota, C.

    2000-09-05

    The specific aims of the research proposal were as follows: (1) To design and construct small volume tissue equivalent proportional counters for the dosimetry and microdosimetry of high intensity thermal and epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT, and of modified fast neutron beams designed for boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). (2) To develop analytical methods for estimating the biological effectiveness of the absorbed dose in BNCT and BNCEFNT based on the measured microdosimetric spectra. (3) To develop an analytical framework for comparing the biological effectiveness of different epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT and BNCEFNT, based on correlated sets of measured microdosimetric spectra and radiobiological data. Specific aims (1) and (2) were achieved in their entirety and are comprehensively documented in Jay Burmeister's Ph.D. dissertation entitled ''Specification of physical and biologically effective absorbed dose in radiation therapies utilizing the boron neutron capture reaction'' (Wayne State University, 1999). Specific aim (3) proved difficult to accomplish because of a lack of sufficient radiobiological data.

  18. Mitogenomic Phylogenetics of Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.): Genetic Evidence for Revision of Subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Frederick I.; Morin, Phillip A.; Hancock-Hanser, Brittany L.; Robertson, Kelly M.; Leslie, Matthew S.; Bérubé, Martine; Panigada, Simone; Taylor, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    There are three described subspecies of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus): B. p. physalus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Northern Hemisphere, B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829 in the Southern Hemisphere, and a recently described pygmy form, B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. The discrete distribution in the North Pacific and North Atlantic raises the question of whether a single Northern Hemisphere subspecies is valid. We assess phylogenetic patterns using ∼16 K base pairs of the complete mitogenome for 154 fin whales from the North Pacific, North Atlantic - including the Mediterranean Sea - and Southern Hemisphere. A Bayesian tree of the resulting 136 haplotypes revealed several well-supported clades representing each ocean basin, with no haplotypes shared among ocean basins. The North Atlantic haplotypes (n = 12) form a sister clade to those from the Southern Hemisphere (n = 42). The estimated time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for this Atlantic/Southern Hemisphere clade and 81 of the 97 samples from the North Pacific was approximately 2 Ma. 14 of the remaining North Pacific samples formed a well-supported clade within the Southern Hemisphere. The TMRCA for this node suggests that at least one female from the Southern Hemisphere immigrated to the North Pacific approximately 0.37 Ma. These results provide strong evidence that North Pacific and North Atlantic fin whales should not be considered the same subspecies, and suggest the need for revision of the global taxonomy of the species. PMID:23691042

  19. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  20. Virtual Screening of Plant Volatile Compounds Reveals a High Affinity of Hylamorpha elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Odorant-Binding Proteins for Sesquiterpenes From Its Native Host

    PubMed Central

    Palma-Millanao, Rubén; Yáñez, Osvaldo; Rojas, Maximiliano; Mutis, Ana; Venthur, Herbert; Quiroz, Andrés; Ramírez, Claudio C.

    2016-01-01

    Hylamorpha elegans (Burmeister) is a native Chilean scarab beetle considered to be a relevant agricultural pest to pasture and cereal and small fruit crops. Because of their cryptic habits, control with conventional methods is difficult; therefore, alternative and environmentally friendly control strategies are highly desirable. The study of proteins that participate in the recognition of odorants, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), offers interesting opportunities to identify new compounds with the potential to modify pest behavior and computational screening of compounds, which is commonly used in drug discovery, may help to accelerate the discovery of new semiochemicals. Here, we report the discovery of four OBPs in H. elegans as well as six new volatiles released by its native host Nothofagus obliqua (Mirbel). Molecular docking performed between OBPs and new and previously reported volatiles from N. obliqua revealed the best binding energy values for sesquiterpenic compounds. Despite remarkable divergence at the amino acid level, three of the four OBPs evaluated exhibited the best interaction energy for the same ligands. Molecular dynamics investigation reinforced the importance of sesquiterpenes, showing that hydrophobic residues of the OBPs interacted most frequently with the tested ligands, and binding free energy calculations demonstrated van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions to be the most important. Altogether, the results suggest that sesquiterpenes are interesting candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their potential application in pest management strategies. PMID:27012867

  1. The efficacy and safety of alphacypermethrin as a pour-on treatment for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) infested with Haematopinus tuberculatus (Phthiraptera: Haematopinidae).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Cimmino, Roberta; Balestrieri, Anna; Rufrano, Domenico; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Santoro, Mario; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    The sucking louse Haematopinus tuberculatus (Burmeister 1839) is an ectoparasite of buffaloes, cattle, camels, and American bison. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to control arthropods of veterinary and public health interest. Therapeutics, such as antiparasitic compounds, is often administered to buffaloes based on dosage and intervals recommended for cattle because very few drugs have buffalo-specific label indications. A trial was conducted on 20 louse-infested buffaloes at a farm to assess the efficacy and safety of ACYP pour-on, at the manufacturer's recommended dose for cattle, on buffaloes naturally infested by H. tuberculatus. Ten animals were assigned to ACYP-treated group (ACYP-group) and ten to untreated control group (C-group). On day 0, all ACYP-group buffaloes received alphacypermethrin pour-on. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at eight predilection sites on the skin of each buffalo. ACYP was completely effective (100%) at day 7, highly effective (99.8%) at day 14, and completely effective (100%) from day 21 until the end of the study (day 56 post-treatment). During the trial, ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinically adverse reactions. The results of this trial suggest that ACYP is an effective, safe, and user-friendly compound suitable for treatment of buffaloes with natural louse infestations.

  2. Optimization of a valine:isoleucine methyl ester pheromone blend and comparison of Robbins and Trécé traps for capture of Phyllophaga anxia (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Alm, Steven R; Dawson, Charles G; Robbins, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Eight ratios of L-valine:L-isoleucine methyl esters were tested in Robbins traps for capture of Phyllophaga anxia (LeConte) adult males. The 90:10, 80:20, and 60:40 ratios of valine:isoleucine were the most effective blends for capture of beetles in Rhode Island. Females were captured in small numbers in some traps but not consistently to any particular blend. Other male Phyllophaga species captured included Phyllophaga fusca (Frölich), Phyllophaga forsteri (Burmeister), P. hirsuta (Knoch), and P. marginalis (LeConte). The number of these species collected was low, and it was not possible to determine whether they were attracted to any particular pheromone blend. Peak captures of P. anxia males occurred 31 May in 1999 and 2002 in Kingston, RI. The standard Japanese beetle trap manufactured by Trécé (Adair, OK) captured significantly more beetles than the Robbins trap. Because the Trécé trap is already marketed for Japanese beetles, a lure and trapping system can be adopted for P. anxia.

  3. Descriptions of two new species of Rhizorhina Hansen, 1892 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae) parasitic on tanaidacean crustaceans, with a note on their phylogenetic position.

    PubMed

    Kakui, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of nicothoid copepod are described. Rhizorhina ohtsukai n. sp. found on a leptocheliid (Leptochelia sp.) collected at depths of 151-136 m in the North Pacific Ocean is most similar to Rhizorhina aesthetes Boxshall & Harrison, 1988 but can be distinguished by the possession of a narrower body with a rounded anterior end, and in the position of the gonopores. Rhizorhina soyoae n. sp. found on an apseudid (Fageapseudes sp.) collected at depths of 1,595-1,557 m in East China Sea most closely resembles Rhizorhina tanaidaceae Gotto, 1984 but differs in having a narrower body with a rounded anterior end. Partial nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were obtained from the two copepods in order to enable future barcoding. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the 18S rRNA gene placed the copepods within the Siphonostomatoida Burmeister, 1835, with the nicothoid Choniosphaera maenadis (Bloch & Gallien, 1933), and separate from the Rhizorhina spp. clade, suggesting that the family Nicothoidae Dana, 1849 is not monophyletic. This is the third report of copepods parasitic on tanaidacean crustaceans.

  4. Biological parameters of interbreeding subspecies of Meccus phyllosomus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Nogueda-Torres, B; Cárdenas-De la Cruz, M Á; Villagrán, M E; de Diego-Cabrera, J A; Bustos-Saldaña, R

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the biological parameters of some triatomine subspecies of Meccus phyllosomus (Burmeister) is a crucial first step in estimating the epidemiological importance of this group. Biological parameters related to egg eclosion, egg-to-adult development time, number of blood meals to moult, percentage of females at the end of the cycle, number of laid eggs, and the accumulative mortality for each instar of three M. phyllosomus subspecies [Meccus phyllosomus pallidipennis (Stål), Meccus phyllosomus longipennis (Usinger), and Meccus phyllosomus picturatus (Usinger)] as well as their laboratory hybrids were evaluated and compared. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were recorded among the experimental hybrids (M. p. longipennis × M. p. pallidipennis, M. p. longipennis × M. p. picturatus, M. p. pallidipennis × M. p. picturatus) and reciprocal cohorts. In five of the six studied parameters (egg eclosion, egg-to-adult development time, number of blood meals to moult, number of laid eggs and accumulative mortality), with the exception of the non-significant percentage of females obtained among all the studied cohorts, at least one of the parental cohorts in each set of crosses exhibited better fitness results than by those of their hybrid descendants. The lack of hybrid fitness in our study indicates the maintenance of reproductive isolation of parental genotypes. Moreover, the results lead us to propose that an incipient speciation process by distance is currently developing among the three studied subspecies, increasing the differences between them that modify the transmission efficiency of Trypanosoma cruzi to human beings in Mexico.

  5. First records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) in Pacific migratory shorebirds wintering in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haase, Ben; Alava, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Chewing lice were collected from small shorebirds (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae) overwintering in foraging grounds of coastal Ecuador. On 27 occasions at least one louse (3.7%) was collected from six host species. Based on external morphological characters, at least two species of chewing lice could be preliminary identified (family: Menoponidae), including Actornithophilus umbrinus (Burmeister, 1842) and Austromenopon sp. A. umbrinus was found in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri), Least Sandpiper (C. minutilla), Stilt Sandpiper (C. himantopus), Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) and Wilson's phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), while Austromenopon sp. is presumably the first record collected from the Surfbird (Aphriza virgata). These findings indicate that the distribution of these chewing lice species covers at least the regions around the equator (latitude 0°) until the Arctic in the north, but probably also includes the entire winter distribution area of the host species. This is the first study of chewing lice from Ecuador's mainland coast and more research is required to understand the host-parasite ecology and ectoparasitic infection in shorebirds stopping over the region.

  6. Characterisation of microsatellite loci in two species of lice, Polyplax serrata (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Polyplacidae) and Myrsidea nesomimi (Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Menoponidae).

    PubMed

    Martinu, Jana; Roubova, Veronika; Novakova, Milena; Smith, Vincent S; Hypsa, Vaclav; Stefka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphic microsatellite loci were characterised for two louse species, the anopluran Polyplax serrata Burmeister, 1839, parasitising Eurasian field mice of the genus Apodemus Kaup, and the amblyceran Myrsidea nesomimi Palma et Price, 2010, found on mocking birds endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Evolutionary histories of the two parasites show complex patterns influenced both by their geographic distribution and through coevolution with their respective hosts, which renders them prospective evolutionary models. In P. serrata, 16 polymorphic loci were characterised and screened across 72 individuals from four European populations that belong to two sympatric mitochondrial lineages differing in their breadth of host-specificity. In M. nesomimi, 66 individuals from three island populations and two host species were genotyped for 15 polymorphic loci. The observed heterozygosity varied from 0.05 to 0.9 in P. serrata and from 0.0 to 0.96 in M. nesomimi. Deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were frequently observed in the populations of both parasites. Fst distances between tested populations correspond with previous phylogenetic data, suggesting the microsatellite loci are an informative resource for ecological and evolutionary studies of the two parasites.

  7. [Chewing-lice (Phtihiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) occurring on birds in the Konya zoo].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 25 birds belonging to 15 different species at the zoo in Konya were inspected for the presence of chewing-lice. Three Long-legged Buzzards (Buteo rufinus), one Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) and one Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) were found to be infested by chewing-lice. Two hundred and eleven chewing-lice specimens were collected from the birds and seven species were identified. They were mounted on slides separately in Faure forte medium or Canada balsam after clearing in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the chewing-lice were examined and measured under the light microscope. Laemobothrion maximum (Scopoli, 1763), Craspedorrhynchus platystomus (Burmeister, 1838) and Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874) were detected on Long-legged buzzards; Craspedorrhynchus fraterculus (Eichler & Zlotorzycka, 1975), Degeeriella aquilarum (Eichler, 1943) and Colpocephalum impressum (Rudow, 1866) on the Imperial Eagle; and Degeeriella fusca (Denny, 1842), on the Mars Harrier. C. fraterculus, D. aquilarum, C. impressum and D. fusca were found for the first time on these raptors in Turkey and information about these species were given in this paper.

  8. Oviposition response of green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and potential attractants on pecan.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Brian A; Cottrell, Ted E

    2007-06-01

    Pecan foliage is attacked by three species of aphids [Monellia caryella (Fitch), Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), and Monelliopsis pecanis Bissell], resulting in damage that can reduce tree nut yield. In this study, we assayed the ovipositional response of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) to M. caryella and M. caryaefoliae at high and low aphid densities and the development of C. rufilabris larvae when fed solely on each of the three pecan aphid species. During 2004 and 2005, combinations of attractants and food sprays were applied to pecan trees in an orchard to monitor green lacewing ovipositional response. We found that C. rufilabris laid more eggs on seedling trees infested with the M. caryella (at both high and low densities) than on seedlings infested with M. caryaefoliae. Development of C. rufilabris was unaffected by aphid species. At least one attractant/food spray treatment applied to trees in an orchard significantly increased green lacewing oviposition for three of the five treatment dates over both years. These results show that larvae of C. rufilabris will consume all aphid species attacking pecan, even though female ovipositional response can differ for aphid species. It is likely that combinations of attractants and food sprays can be used to enhance green lacewing populations in orchards.

  9. Effects of the chitin synthesis inhibitor buprofezin on survival and development of immatures of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, T X; Chen, T Y

    2000-04-01

    Effects of buprofezin (Applaud), a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on survival and development of eggs, three instars, and pupae of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) were determined in the laboratory. Buprofezin at three tested concentrations (100, 500, and 1,000 mg [AI]/liter) did not affect the viability and development of eggs when the eggs were treated, or third instars and pupae when those stages were treated. Although the degree of effects by buprofezin on larvae varied with instar, buprofezin at the higher concentrations (500 and 1,000 mg [AI]/liter) reduced survival rates 17-47% and prolonged the overall development from first instars to adult emergence by 2 or 3 d when first instars were treated, indicating that the first instar is the most vulnerable stage. When second instars were treated, the survival of C. rufilabris from second instars to pupae was not significantly affected. However, the developmental time from second instar to adult emergence was longer in the treatments with the highest concentration (1,000 mg [AI]/liter) than that with the lowest concentration (100 mg [AI]/liter). The compatibility of buprofezin with natural enemies in integrated pest management programs is discussed.

  10. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, M. J.; Firth, C.; Bhat, M.; Firth, M. A.; Che, X.; Lee, D.; Williams, S. H.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26336309

  11. Cockroach fauna in the Ogasawara Chain Islands of Japan and analysis of their habitats.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Noriyuki; Kishimoto, Toshio; Uchida, Akihiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-03-01

    A survey of cockroach fauna was carried out on the 3 inhabited islands of the Ogasawara chain island of Japan, namely, Chichijima island, Hahajima island and Iwo island. Seven species, namely, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758), Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius, 1775), Blattella lituricollis (Walker, 1868), Onychostylus vilis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Opisthoplatia orientalis (Burmeister, 1838), were collected on Chichijima island. Four species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, O. vilis and P. surinamensis were collected on Hahajima island and 6 species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, B. lituricollis, O. vilis, P. surinamensis and Neostylopyga rhombifolia were collected on Iwo island. This is the first record of N. rhombifolia and Onychostylus orientalis on the Ogasawara chain islands. Our study increases the recorded taxon of cockroaches on the Ogasawara from 3 families, 5 genera 10 species to 4 families, 7 genera, 12 species. A list of the cockroach species on Ogasawara islands reported to date as well as a key for their identification is also presented. Periplaneta americana and P. australasiae, being the dominant species, together with S. longipalpa, were collected mostly in the indoor environment, indicating their preference for this habitat. Pycnoscelus surinamensis, which is considered as an outdoor insect has been found in semi-household environments such as greenhouse and shed, indicating their new adaptation to the changing environment.

  12. [Model program for the early detection and optimal treatment of disorders of growth and physical development using a medical competence netwok].

    PubMed

    Keller, E; Burmeister, J; Gausche, R; Keller, A; Hermanussen, M; Kiess, W

    2000-09-01

    The growth and development of a child is a mirror of his living conditions and health. For decades pediatricians have been trying to achieve an earlier identification of children with growth disorders. The measures of prevention in Germany have not been successful so far. Diagnosis for example of GH-deficiency to ensure optimal substitution with growth hormone is usually not early enough. A screening system using an auxological data bank for growth disorders has been set up by us recently. Since 1998 we have collected height and weight measurements in relation to age and sex from patients cared for by a large number of pediatricians in the region of Leipzig, Germany. By september 1999, 30,182 children of different ages have been screened. The system identifies children with short stature below the 3. centile and tall stature above the 97. centile of the German Synthetic Normcurve (Hermanussen/Burmeister 1999). In 6.81% of the children a growth disorder was identified (3.03% above 97. and 3.78% below 3. centile). In 54 cases (0.18%) we found a pathological reason for short or tall stature. A sensitive screening system has been set up for the early detection of growth disorders and obesity in childhood. We generate a data pool for multiple questions in research of human growth. We will generate yearly reports for the development of new strategies in preventive medicine.

  13. The Hohmann-Parker Effect and its Consequences Measured by the Mars Science Laboratory on the Transfer from Earth to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, A.; Odstrcil, D.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Elliott, H. A.; Frahm, R. A.; Hayes, J. J.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Christian, E. R.; Andrews, J.; Brinza, D.; Epperly, M. E.; Neal, K.; Seimetz, L.; Smith, K. D.; Tyler, Y.; Weigle, E.

    2013-12-01

    We show that a spacecraft launched from Earth towards Mars following a Hohmann minimum energy transfer trajectory has a strong tendency to remain well-connected magnetically to Earth, in the early phase of the transfer, or to Mars in the late phase, via the Parker spiral magnetic field. On the return trip, the spacecraft would remain reasonably well-connected first to Mars and later to Earth. Moreover, good magnetic connectivity occurs on all Hohmann transfers between neighboring planets in the inner solar system out to Mars. We call this hitherto unnamed circumstance the Hohmann-Parker effect. We show consequences of the effect by means of simultaneous cosmic radiation proxy observations made near Earth, near Mars, and at the Mars Science Laboratory on the transfer from Earth to Mars in 2011/2012. We support the observations with simulations of the large-scale magnetic field of the inner heliosphere during this period and compare the results with our predictions. The implications of the Hohmann-Parker effect are discussed. MSL RAD Science Team: R. Beaujean, S. Boettcher, M. Bullock, S. Burmeister, F. A. Cucinotta, B. Ehresmann, D. Grinspoon, J. Guo, D. M. Hassler, M.-H. Kim, J. Koehler, O. Kortmann, C. Martin-Garcia, S. C. R. Rafkin, G. Reitz, and R. F. Wimmer-Schweingruber SOHO EPHIN Science Team: B. Heber, R. Mueller-Mellin

  14. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City.

    PubMed

    Frye, M J; Firth, C; Bhat, M; Firth, M A; Che, X; Lee, D; Williams, S H; Lipkin, W I

    2015-03-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission.

  15. Descriptive Study of Damage Caused by the Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon, and Its Influence on Date Palm Oases of Rjim Maatoug, Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Rasmi; lkbel, Chaieb; Habib Ben Hamouda, Med

    2008-01-01

    Oryctes agamemnon (Burmeister 1847) (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) was accidentally introduced in the southwestern oases of Tunisia (Tozeur) around 1980 and spread to the Rjim Maatoug region. In these areas O. agamemnon was specific to date palm trees causing severe damage that can result in potential danger due to collapse of the tree. This study was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in 4 sites in the region of Rjim Maatoug. Different levels of palm tree attack were determined, ovioposition sites were identified, and pest damage was described in detail to specify their relative importance and to indicate factors governing palm tree attack. Eggs were individually oviposited in the attacked parts. Dead parts of palm trees were the main target of O. agamemnon including the respiratory roots, tough, trunk bark, dry petiole and the periphery of the crown. The crown itself was not attacked. Feeding by larvae caused significant damage. The biggest danger occurred when heavy attacks of larvae invaded the respiratory roots at the level of the soil, and secondarily on the periphery of the crown, which can result in fungal diseases. Several cases of Deglet Nour date palm tree collapse were caused by this pest in Rjim Maatoug. Attacks on other parts of the tree were without danger for the palm tree. In the absence of pest management, application of a quarantine program combined with field cultivation techniques could help farmers significantly decrease attack of O. agamemnon on palm trees. PMID:20302545

  16. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Liu, Qiuming; Bao, Changjun; Fan, Jian

    2017-02-24

    Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA) contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA) to TAA was 0.13-0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%-54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  17. Comparison of copepod collection efficiencies by three commonly used plankton nets: A case study in Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongju; Yu, Hao; Liu, Guangxing

    2016-12-01

    Selection of net with a suitable mesh size is a key concern in the quantitative assessment of zooplankton, which is crucial to understand pelagic ecosystem processes. This study compared the copepod collecting efficiency of three commonly used plankton nets, namely, the China standard coarse net (505 μm mesh), the China standard fine net (77 μm), and the WP-2 net (200 μm). The experiment was performed at six stations in the Bohai Sea during the autumn of 2012. The coarse net substantially under-sampled small individuals (body widths < 672 μm) and led to the lowest species number in each tow, whereas the fine net collected all small copepod species but failed to collect rare species. The WP-2 net appeared to be a compromise of the two other nets, collecting both small copepods and rare species. The abundance of copepods collected by the coarse net (126.4 ± 86.5 ind m-3) was one to two orders of magnitude lower than that by the WP-2 net (5802.4 ± 2595.4 ind m-3), and the value of the fine net (11117.0 ± 4563.41 ind m-3) was nearly twice that of the WP-2 net. The abundance of large copepods ( i.e., adult Calanus sinicus) in the three nets showed no significant differences, but the abundance of small copepods declined with decreasing mesh size. The difference in abundance resulted from the under-sampling of small copepods with body widths < 672 μm and < 266 μm by the coarse and WP-2 nets, respectively.

  18. [Influence of double rice cropping system innovation on paddy soil profile form and soil characteristics].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xi-Bai; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Li, Lian-Fang; Wang, Bo-Ren; Bai, Ling-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Field experiments were conducted on the double rice cropping paddy field in red soil area to evaluate the influence of cropping system innovation on soil profile form and related soil characteristics. Four cropping systems of rice-rice-Chinese Milkvetch (Astragalus sinicus Linn.), forage, paddy-upland rotation, and upland were substituted for the double rice cropping system. The results indicated that compared with those under double rice cropping system, the thickness of cultivated horizon under upland cropping system increased by 4 cm, that of plow pan declined by 2 cm, > 2 mm aggregates in wet-sieved particle-size fractions increased by 6.94%, wet-sieved mean-mass diameter increased by 0.37 mm, contents of humic acid carbon and fulvic acid carbon increased by 0.15 and 0.49 g kg(-1), respectively, and quotient of aggregates water stability was 0.78 times higher. Under paddy-upland rotation, the quotient of aggregates water stability was higher (95.86), while soil nutrient contents changed a little. Under rice-rice-Chinese Milkvetch system, soil organic matter content increased by 1.3 g kg(-1), quotient of aggregates water stability declined by 8.82, but other parameters had less changes. Under forage system, the thickness of cultivated and transitional horizons increased by 2 cm and 9 cm, respectively, quotient of aggregates water stability increased by 1.39, while the contents of soil organic matter and total potassium decreased by 5.6 and 2.8 g kg(-1), respectively. Among all test cropping systems, forage system had the greatest changes in soil characteristics. It was completely feasible to substitute the local double rice cropping system for paddy-upland rotation or upland cropping, particularly in the areas where full irrigation was not available. However, attention should be paid to the decrease of soil potassium content when the cropping system innovation was practiced.

  19. Seasonal and interannual variation in mesozooplankton community structure off Tongyeong, southeastern coast of Korea, from 2011 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Garam; Kang, Hyung-Ku; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2017-02-01

    Mesozooplankton community structure and environmental factors were monitored monthly at a fixed station off Tongyeong, southeastern coast of Korea, from 2011 to 2014 to better understand the variability of the mesozooplankton community in relation to changes in the marine environment. Total mesozooplankton density varied from 747 to 8,945 inds. m-3 with peaks in summer. The surface water temperature (r = 0.338, p < 0.05) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration (r = 0.505, p < 0.001) were parts of the factors that may have induced the mesozooplankton peaks in summer. Copepods accounted for 71% of total mesozooplankton. Total copepod density, particularly cyclopoid copepods, increased during the study period. Cumulative sum plots and anomalies of the cyclopoid copepod density revealed a change of the cyclopoid density from negative to positive in June 2013. A positive relationship between cyclopoid copepods and the Chl-a concentration (r = 0.327, p < 0.05) appeared to be one of the reasons for the increase in cyclopoids. Dominant mesozooplankton species such as Paracalanus parvus s.l., Oikopleura spp., Evadne tergestina, Cirripedia larvae, Corycaeus affinis, Calanus sinicus, and Oithona similis accounted for 60% of total mesozooplankton density. Based on cluster analysis of the mesozooplankton community by year, the seasonal distinction among groups was different in 2014 compared to other years. P. parvus s.l. and its copepodites contributed most in all groups in all four years. Our results suggest that the high Chl-a concentration since 2013 may have caused the changes in mesozooplankton community structure in the study area.

  20. Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ben; Li, Bei; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhou, Ji-Hua; Luo, Chu-Ming; Yang, Xing-Lou; Wu, Li-Jun; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yun; Li, Zong-Xiao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-02-01

    Since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak prompted a search for the natural reservoir of the SARS coronavirus, numerous alpha- and betacoronaviruses have been discovered in bats around the world. Bats are likely the natural reservoir of alpha- and betacoronaviruses, and due to the rich diversity and global distribution of bats, the number of bat coronaviruses will likely increase. We conducted a surveillance of coronaviruses in bats in an abandoned mineshaft in Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, China, from 2012-2013. Six bat species were frequently detected in the cave: Rhinolophus sinicus, Rhinolophus affinis, Hipposideros pomona, Miniopterus schreibersii, Miniopterus fuliginosus, and Miniopterus fuscus. By sequencing PCR products of the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (RdRp), we found a high frequency of infection by a diverse group of coronaviruses in different bat species in the mineshaft. Sequenced partial RdRp fragments had 80%-99% nucleic acid sequence identity with well-characterized Alphacoronavirus species, including BtCoV HKU2, BtCoV HKU8, and BtCoV1, and unassigned species BtCoV HKU7 and BtCoV HKU10. Additionally, the surveillance identified two unclassified betacoronaviruses, one new strain of SARS-like coronavirus, and one potentially new betacoronavirus species. Furthermore, coronavirus co-infection was detected in all six bat species, a phenomenon that fosters recombination and promotes the emergence of novel virus strains. Our findings highlight the importance of bats as natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and the potentially zoonotic source of viral pathogens.

  1. Seasonal and interannual variation in mesozooplankton community structure off Tongyeong, southeastern coast of Korea, from 2011 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Garam; Kang, Hyung-Ku; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2017-03-01

    Mesozooplankton community structure and environmental factors were monitored monthly at a fixed station off Tongyeong, southeastern coast of Korea, from 2011 to 2014 to better understand the variability of the mesozooplankton community in relation to changes in the marine environment. Total mesozooplankton density varied from 747 to 8,945 inds. m-3 with peaks in summer. The surface water temperature ( r = 0.338, p < 0.05) and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) concentration ( r = 0.505, p < 0.001) were parts of the factors that may have induced the mesozooplankton peaks in summer. Copepods accounted for 71% of total mesozooplankton. Total copepod density, particularly cyclopoid copepods, increased during the study period. Cumulative sum plots and anomalies of the cyclopoid copepod density revealed a change of the cyclopoid density from negative to positive in June 2013. A positive relationship between cyclopoid copepods and the Chl- a concentration ( r = 0.327, p < 0.05) appeared to be one of the reasons for the increase in cyclopoids. Dominant mesozooplankton species such as Paracalanus parvus s.l., Oikopleura spp., Evadne tergestina, Cirripedia larvae, Corycaeus affinis, Calanus sinicus, and Oithona similis accounted for 60% of total mesozooplankton density. Based on cluster analysis of the mesozooplankton community by year, the seasonal distinction among groups was different in 2014 compared to other years. P. parvus s.l. and its copepodites contributed most in all groups in all four years. Our results suggest that the high Chl- a concentration since 2013 may have caused the changes in mesozooplankton community structure in the study area.

  2. Predicting temporal shifts in the spring occurrence of overwintered Scotinophara lurida (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and rice phenology in Korea with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoseok; Kang, Wee Soo; Ahn, Mun Il; Cho, Kijong; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Climate change could shift the phenology of insects and plants and alter their linkage in space and time. We examined the synchrony of rice and its insect pest, Scotinophara lurida (Burmeister), under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 8.5 climate change scenario by comparing the mean spring immigration time of overwintered S. lurida with the mean rice transplanting times in Korea. The immigration time of S. lurida was estimated using an overwintered adult flight model. The rice transplanting time of three cultivars (early, medium, and medium-late maturing) was estimated by forecasting the optimal cultivation period using leaf appearance and final leaf number models. A temperature increase significantly advanced the 99 % immigration time of S. lurida from Julian day 192.1 in the 2000s to 178.4 in the 2050s and 163.1 in the 2090s. In contrast, rice transplanting time was significantly delayed in the early-maturing cultivar from day 141.2 in the 2000s to 166.7 in the 2050s and 190.6 in the 2090s, in the medium-maturing cultivar from day 130.6 in the 2000s to 156.6 in the 2050s and 184.7 in the 2090s, and in the medium-late maturing cultivar from day 128.5 in 2000s to 152.9 in the 2050s and 182.3 in the 2090s. These simulation results predict a significant future phenological asynchrony between S. lurida and rice in Korea.

  3. A Comparison of Trap Types for Assessing Diversity of Scarabaeoidea on South Carolina Golf Courses.

    PubMed

    Chong, Juang-Horng; Hinson, Kevin R

    2015-10-01

    A 2-yr survey was conducted on golf courses in South Carolina to 1) document the species richness and seasonal activity of Scarabaeoidea; 2) assess any species compositional differences among three trap types (ultraviolet light, unbaited flight-intercept, and unbaited pitfall); and 3) identify any dominant taxa in each trap type. A total of 74,326 scarabaeoid beetles were captured, of which 77.4% were Aphodiinae (not identified to species). The remaining specimens belong to 104 species in 47 genera and 6 families. The most abundant species were Cyclocephala lurida Bland, Dyscinetus morator (F.), Euetheola humilis (Burmeister), Hybosorus illigeri Reiche, and Maladera castanea (Arrow). In all trap types, >90% of all specimens and taxa were collected between April and August. Ultraviolet light traps collected ∼94% of total specimens consisting of 83 taxa (of which 51 were unique to this trap type), whereas flight-intercept traps captured ∼2% of all specimens representing 53 taxa (18 of which were unique), and pitfall traps captured ∼4% of all specimens representing 15 taxa (no unique species; all species also captured by ultraviolet light traps). Indicator species analysis identified 2-3 and 10-13 taxa that were most frequently collected by flight-intercept and ultraviolet light traps, respectively. Flight-intercept traps complemented ultraviolet light traps by capturing more species of dung and carrion beetles and diurnal phytophagous scarab beetles. Results suggested that a similar survey for domestic or exotic scarabaeoid beetles in turfgrass systems should be conducted between April and August using ultraviolet light and flight-intercept traps at 13-58 sites.

  4. Suitability of Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) for the Development of the Predator Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Niño, Angie A; Cave, Ronald D

    2015-08-01

    Microtheca ochroloma Stål, the yellowmargined leaf beetle, is one of the most destructive pests of crucifer vegetables on organic farms. Larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister have been observed preying on M. ochroloma, but no studies have evaluated the suitability of M. ochroloma as prey for C. rufilabris or the efficacy of this predator as a biological control agent of the pest. This study quantified the killing rate, developmental time, and survivorship of C. rufilabris when offered eggs and larvae of M. ochroloma at 10, 15, 20, or 25°C. Mean number of prey killed daily increased from 8.4 eggs and 4.0 larvae at 15°C to 18.6 eggs and 10.2 larvae at 25°C. However, predator larvae killed 78% fewer total eggs at 25°C than at 15°C; total number of first-instar prey killed did not vary significantly with temperature. Mean developmental time of predator larvae decreased from 75.5 d at 15°C to 26.6 d at 25°C when they were fed eggs, whereas it decreased from 54.0 d at 15°C to 21.4 d at 25°C when they were fed larvae. Predator survivorship was reduced by 80% at 15°C and no larvae survived at 10°C. We conclude that C. rufilabris can complete development on a diet of eggs of M. ochroloma, but its effectiveness to control M. ochroloma populations will be lessened during cool months, from November to April, when crucifers are produced in Florida and the beetle is actively developing, reproducing, and causing crop damage.

  5. Male-produced pheromone of the green lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-He; Schneidmiller, Rodney G; Hoover, Doreen R; Young, Kevin; Welshons, Dewayne O; Margaryan, Armenak; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Chauhan, Kamlesh R

    2006-10-01

    Gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis showed that male antennae of the green lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis Burmeister, the most common lacewing species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, consistently responded to two compounds in thoracic extracts of conspecific males: 1-tridecene and (1R,2S,5R,8R)-iridodial. These compounds were not detected in extracts of the abdominal cuticle, and no other antennally active compounds were found in the abdominal samples. In field-trapping experiments, traps baited with iridodial significantly attracted large numbers of C. nigricornis males (both western and eastern forms) during summer and early fall, plus a few individuals of conspecific females only in early fall. Iridodial also attracted males of the goldeneyed lacewing, C. oculata Say, and, to a lesser extent, C. coloradensis Banks males. Methyl salicylate (MS), reported as an attractant for both sexes of C. nigricornis and C. oculata, was inactive by itself at the concentration tested in our study, but in a few instances slightly enhanced the responses of Chrysopa spp. to iridodial. However, MS alone and its binary blend with iridodial seemed to attract the hoverfly, Metasyrphus americanus (Weidemann). 2-Phenylethanol, a reported attractant for another lacewing, Chrysoperla plorabunda (Fitch) [=carnea (Say)], did not capture any lacewings. Our assays indicated that the lacewing pheromone, iridodial, loaded onto either rubber septa or as a binary blend with MS in polyethylene bags could last at least 5 wk in the field during the summer season. Based on this study, a new attractant system for green lacewings is being developed for both domestic and international markets.

  6. Track Analysis of the North, Central, and South American Species of the Epicauta maculata Group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, M P; García, M S; Safenraiter, M E

    2015-08-01

    We undertook a panbiogeographic analysis of 23 species of the Epicauta maculata group of America-Epicauta abeona Pinto, Epicauta adspersa (Klug), Epicauta andersoni Werner, Epicauta atomaria (Germar), Epicauta apache Pinto, Epicauta cavernosa (Courbon), Epicauta dilatipennis Pic, Epicauta fulvicornis (Burmeister), Epicauta horni Champion, Epicauta jeffersi Pinto, Epicauta koheleri Denier, Epicauta lizeri Denier, E. maculata (Say), Epicauta magnomaculata Martin, Epicauta minutepunctata Borchmann, Epicauta nigropunctata (Blanchard), Epicauta normalis Werner, Epicauta ocellata (Dugès), Epicauta pardalis LeConte, picauta phoenix Werner, Epicauta pluvialis Borchmann, Epicauta proscripta Werner, Epicauta rubella Denier, and Epicauta ventralis Werner-with the purpose of analyzing the distributional data for taxa, to establish patterns of distribution of an ancestral biota and areas where these groups have interacted. Based on the overlap of 20 individual tracks, four generalized tracks constituted by different numbers of species were identified; two of them are located in the Nearctic region and the Mexican transition zone (tracks "A" and "B"), and the other two are distributed in the Neotropical region and the South America transition zone ("C", "D"). Six nodes were recognized: Two of them are included in the Nearctic Region, node 'I' located in northern USA and node 'II' located in southwestern USA, both at the intersection of the tracks "A" and "B". The other four are included in the Neotropical Region at the intersection of the tracks "C" and "D": Node 'III' is located in Chaco province; node 'IV' is located in Parana Forest province; node 'V' is located in the northwest of Argentina in Puna province, and node 'VI' is located in Monte province.

  7. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida “fly free zone” protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224

  8. Ectoparasites of commensal rodents in Sulawesi Utara, Indonesia, with notes on species of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Durden, L A; Page, B F

    1991-01-01

    Ectoparasite records are presented for four species of commensal murid rodents (Rattus rattus palelae Miller & Hollister, R. argentiventer (Robinson & Kloss), R. exulans (Peale) and Mus musculus castaneus Waterhouse) in Sulawesi Utara, with particular reference to the potential for these arthropods to bite and transmit pathogens to humans. The flea, Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild), was most common on R.r. palelae and is capable of transmitting plague and other pathogens to humans although no current foci for these diseases are known in Sulawesi. Hoplopleura pacifica Ewing and Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister) sucking lice parasitized all three Rattus species although H. pacifica was mainly associated with R. exulans and P. spinulosa with R.r. palelae. These lice do not bite humans but may be intramurid vectors of murine typhus and other zoonoses. The mites Laelaps echidnina Berlese and L. nuttalli Hirst were both collected; the latter was recorded from all four murid species, mainly R. exulans. The mite Ornithonyssus bacoti Hirst was rare. Only one chigger mite, Walchiella oudemansi (Walch), was retrieved from murids (from R. exulans) and a single Leptotrombidium deliense (Walch) chigger was taken from a human subject. Although L. deliense is a significant vector of scrub typhus, a disease known from Sulawesi, the L. deliense-R. argentiventer relationship frequently noted in the ecology of this rickettsial disease, was not evident in this survey. Other ectoparasites collected from murids were the ticks, Ixodes granulatus Supino (first record for Sulawesi), Haemaphysalis sp. and Dermacentor sp., the mites Myocoptes musculinus (Koch) and Listrophoroides cucullatus (Trouessart), acarids and a uropodid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Survival and feeding responses of Anacanthotermes ochraceus (Hodotermitidae: Isoptera) to local and imported wood.

    PubMed

    Kaakeh, Walid

    2005-12-01

    Forty-six local and imported wood were tested for resistance to feeding damage by the termite Anacanthotermes ochraceus (Burmeister), the most dominant species in the United Arab Emirates and the Arab Gulf region. Wood was used for construction, wall paneling, and furniture. Wood was evaluated in a 4-wk forced feeding bioassay. Each wood block was graded by the amount of termite damage by using a damage rating index (DRI) of 0 to 5 and wood rating index from very resistant to very susceptible wood. Local wood was mostly susceptible to feeding of termites; imported wood varied in resistance to feeding damage. Wood was placed in groups according to the percentages of weight loss (WL), termite survival (TS), and DRI. Wood was classified as very resistant (%WL from 0.0 to 0.3, %TS from 0.01 to 0.5, and DRI of 0.01), resistant (%WL from 1.1 to 4.9, %TS from 0.8 to 4.8, and DRI of 1.0), moderately resistant (%WL from 6.6 to 9.3, %TS from 6.3 to 8.3, and DRI of 2.0-2.3), slightly resistant (%WL from 10.1 to 19.9, %TS from 9.5 to 28.0, and DRI of 2.5-3.5), susceptible (%WL from 21.5 to 48.6, %TS from 37.3 to 64.8, and DRI of 4.0-4.3) and very susceptible (%WL from 50.0 to 59.8, %TS from 72.8 to 79.0, and DRI of 4.5-5.0). The characterization of the extracts of resistant wood may prove of economic value and lead to the development of new chemicals (repellents or antifeedants) for termite control.

  10. Toxicity of abamectin to cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae, Blattidae).

    PubMed

    Koehler, P G; Atkinson, T H; Patterson, R S

    1991-12-01

    Abamectin was fed to German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), in non-choice tests. LT50s and LC50s were estimated by probit analysis. The LT50s for the German cockroach ranged from 4.4 to 1.7 d for males, from 9.0 to 2.4 d for females, and from 4.4 to 1.6 d for nymphs for bait concentrations of abamectin between 0.0025 and 0.0500%. The LC50s of abamectin were 0.0110 and 0.0040% from males, 0.0240 and 0.0090% for females, and 0.0200 and 0.0080% for nymphs at 3 and 6 d, respectively. The LT50 values of 0.0550% abamectin bait were 3.4, 3.4, 2.4, 7.5, 2.9, and 4.5 d for Periplaneta americana (L.), P. fuliginosa (Serville), P. brunnea Burmeister, P. australasiae (F.), Blatta orientalis L., and Supella longipalpa (Serville). Although the bait was effective against various cockroach species, time to death for the larger species was longer than for the German cockroach. In preference tests in which male German cockroaches were allowed to feed on rat chow or abamectin bait, all died within 5 d of exposure to abamectin bait. Abamectin bait consumption was not significantly lower than that of untreated rat chow. Arena tests with 0.0550% abamectin bait resulted in 31-75% mortality of German cockroaches after 9 d, with most control being achieved by treating harborages with the bait. The hydramethylnon standard resulted in 65% mortality after 9 d.

  11. The species of Botanochara Dejean, 1836 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Argentina: an identification key, new host plant records and list of Cassidinae found in birds' nests and other protected places.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Osvaldo Di

    2014-12-04

    The genus Botanochara Dejean, 1836 comprises 43 species distributed in the Neotropical Region, among which 26 (57%) are known from Argentina. Botanochara praefica (Spaeth, 1940) is synonymized with B. macularia (Boheman, 1850). Botanochara missionea (Spaeth, 1915) and B. tessellata (Burmeister, 1870) are illustrated for the first time. Botanochara duodecimnotata (Boheman, 1850) and Botanochara segnis (Boheman, 1862) are new country records. Six species are shared with Bolivia, 21 with Brazil, 15 with Paraguay, one with Peru, and 7 with Uruguay. The known geographic distributions, synonymies, hybrids, chromosome numbers, and host plants in Argentina and adjacent countries are summarized. New localities and host plants, and some corrections of misidentified species from Argentina are given. Distribution maps of all species in Argentina with known localities superimposed with biogeographic provinces are provided. The southern limits of Botanochara in western, central and eastern Argentina are established and correlates with the known distributions of Ipomoea L. species (Convolvulaceae). A total of 12,815 specimens of Cassidinae were found inside birds' nests from Argentina, from which 11,538 (90.03%) belong to 8 species of Botanochara; 9,331 (80.87%) were found during Autumn (21th March to 20th June) and Winter (21th June to 20th September) (diapause), and 2,207 (19.13%) during Spring (21 th September to 20 th December) and Summer (21 th December to 20 th March) (aseasonal quiescence). Additional records of two other Cassidinae found in birds' nests and other protected places, Carlobruchia tricostata (Spaeth, 1907) and Stolas lacordairei (Boheman, 1850), are also provided. 

  12. The life cycle of the root borer, Oryctes agamemnon, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Rasmi; Chaieb, Ikbel; Ben Hamouda, Med Habib

    2008-01-01

    The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant and were never seen outside. Pupation takes place in the plant and emergence of the adults begins in June. Larval feeding causes extensive damage to the respiratory roots. To examine the life cycle more closely, the O. agamemnon life cycle was studied under laboratory conditions. Different larval stages were collected from infested oases in Tozeur and placed in plastic boxes with natural food that was collected from the oases. After emergence, adults were paired in opaque plastic boxes for mating with the same food substrate which also served as an oviposition site. Eggs were collected daily and isolated in new boxes. Hatched eggs were recorded. The number of larval instars was determined by measuring the width of cephalic capsules. Under laboratory conditions (23 +/- 2'C and 55 +/- 6% RH)embryogenesis took 14.3 +/- 1.42 days and the first, second and third larval instars were 33.1 +/- 2.69, 63.88 +/- 6.6 and 118.3 +/- 13.38 days respectively. The pupal period lasted 24.1 +/- 3.02 days and the adult 65.27 +/- 9.48 days. These facts indicated that O. agamemnon is univoltine.

  13. Evaluation of Mercury Contamination in Fungi Boletus Species from Latosols, Lateritic Red Earths, and Red and Yellow Earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Saba, Martyna; Krasińska, Grażyna; Wiejak, Anna; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg) have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter). Soil samples of the 0–10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from Yunnan

  14. SU-A-BRA-03: Creative Stimulation: A Flexible Hands-On Approach to Building a Deeper Understanding of Critical Concepts in Radiation Physics.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, S

    2016-06-01

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students' understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active learning

  15. SU-A-BRA-00: Education Council Symposium: Revitalizing Your Medical Physics Classroom: Some Examples and Thoughts from the Trenches.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students' understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active learning

  16. SU-A-BRA-04: Incorporating Active Learning Into Medical Physics Education.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, J

    2016-06-01

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students' understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active learning

  17. A revision of Metaleptobasis Calvert (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) with seven synonymies and the description of eighteen new species from South America.

    PubMed

    Von Ellenrieder, Natalia

    2013-11-25

    . Beatty, A. Cordero & J. Hoffmann leg., in FSCA); M. longicauda (Holotype ♂, Brazil, Mato Grosso State, C. Teles Pires, Alto Tapajos, 1-31 viii 1956,  Sick leg., in MNRJ); M. orthogonia (Holotype ♂, Peru, Loreto Dep., San Juan, Río Amazonas, near Iquitos, viii 1939, J. Schunke leg., in FSCA); M. paludicola (Holotype ♂, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, swamp, 4°23'49''S, 73°14'57''W, 27 ii 2009, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. panguanae (Holotype ♂, Peru, Huánuco Dep., Biological Station Panguana, E side Río Yuyapichis, 9°37'S, 74°57'W, 6-17 iv 2003, H.J. & E.-G. Burmeister leg., in ZSM); M. peltata (Holotype ♂, Peru Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, 4°21'22''S, 73°11'0''W, 19 ii 2010, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. prostrata (Holotype ♂, Peru, Junín Dep., Satipo, v 1945, P. Paprzycki leg., in UMMZ); M. silvicola (Holotype ♂, Peru, Madre de Dios Dep., Explorer's Inn on Río Tambopata, 30 km SW Puerto Maldonado, main trail, 1 viii 1979, M. Perkins & P. Donahue leg., in FSCA); M. spatulata (Holotype ♂, Peru, Huánuco Dep., 10 km N of Cucharas, confluence of Huallaga and Pacay rivers, viii 1954, F. Woytkowski leg., in UMMZ); M. tridentigera (Holotype ♂, Brazil, Rondônia State, Porto Velho, Area Abunan, T11 Aleatorio, 8°46'S, 63°54'W, 86 m, 16 v 2010, Nogueira & Mendes leg., in MZUSP); M. truncata (Holotype ♂, Brazil, Pará State, Jacareacanga, xi 1969, F.R. Barbosa leg., in UMMZ); and M. turbinata (Holotype ♂, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, forest swamp (4°24'18''S, 73°14'38''W), 25 ii 2010, T. Fassen leg., in RMNH). Illustrations, keys, diagnoses, and distribution maps for all 31 currently known species are provided. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Metaleptobasis are analyzed based on 33 adult morphological characters, including the 31 currently described species of Metaleptobasis and eleven outgroup taxa of other Coenagrionidae of the subfamily Teinobasinae. The cladistic analysis recovered