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Sample records for adp program snap

  1. Approach to the Navy's Shipboard Nontactical ADP Program (SNAP) data communications needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, C.E.; Stewart, C.R.

    1986-05-01

    The ARPANET/MILNET Defense Data Network (DDN) communications link with the Shipboard Nontactical ADP Program (SNAP) computers is a research project being conducted by ORNL in support of the Navy's nontactical computing efforts. The purpose of the project is to investigate the feasibility of application of state-of-the-art (SOA) data communications techniques to the SNAP systems as deployed on board Navy ships. (Two systems have been approved - the Honeywell DPS6 family of processors known as SNAP-I and the Harris 300 series systems known as SNAP-II.) The installation of high-speed electronic computer networking capabilities has traditionally had a synergistic effect on the processing of data because operations that were previously not feasible due to data transfer logistics have become feasible. The most desirable situation would be one in which the computer networking speed and flexibility rivaled that of local computer operations. While networking of this caliber has not yet been achieved in a practical way, the advances that have been made more than offset the effort required to bring this desirable capability to SNAP.

  2. Computer aided instruction for the Shipboard Nontactical ADP Program (SNAP-I)

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.D.; Christian, J.L.; Handler, B.H.; Huntley, A.F.; Bryant, R.A.; Hammons, C.E.; Hume, R.; Sparks, S.G.

    1986-08-01

    The objective of this project was to provide a prototype that would enhance training and could be used as a shipboard refresher and retraining tool. The prototype system will be installed onboard ships where Navy personnel will have ready access to the training. Subsequent testing and evaluation of the prototype could provide the basis for a Navy-wide effort to implement computer aided instruction. The design and development stages of the project followed a rigorous structured analysis methodology based on the Yourdon/DeMarco techniques. Data flow diagrams and a data dictionary were developed, which served as guideposts for the analysts throughout the remainder of the project. Additionally, a method for automatically generating standardized COBOL code using a data management system was developed. When compiled, the generated code accounted for greater than half of the prototype system. The problems encountered during design and development revolved around requirements to use existing hardware, software, and programmer capabilities for development, implementation, and maintenance of the instructional software. Solutions were developed which will allow the software to exist in the given environment and still provide advanced features not available in commercial courseware systems, including: (1) a customized help option with diagrams and descriptions of the SNAP-1 terminal keyboard and a glossary of Navy terms and acronyms; (2) a security system which provides information to assist the course monitor in determining that the person assigned was actually the person who took the course; (3) an intelligent interface that enables the student to ask questions, make comments, and get replies, which simulate live student-teacher interaction; and (4) an online evaluation of the course by the student.

  3. ADP computer security classification program

    SciTech Connect

    Augustson, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    CG-ADP-1, the Automatic Data Processing Security Classification Guide, provides for classification guidance (for security information) concerning the protection of Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor Automatic Data Processing (ADP) systems which handle classified information. Within the DOE, ADP facilities that process classified information provide potentially lucrative targets for compromise. In conjunction with the security measures required by DOE regulations, necessary precautions must be taken to protect details of those ADP security measures which could aid in their own subversion. Accordingly, the basic principle underlying ADP security classification policy is to protect information which could be of significant assistance in gaining unauthorized access to classified information being processed at an ADP facility. Given this policy, classification topics and guidelines are approved for implementation. The basic program guide, CG-ADP-1 is broad in scope and based upon it, more detailed local guides are sometimes developed and approved for specific sites. Classification topics are provided for system features, system and security management, and passwords. Site-specific topics can be addressed in local guides if needed.

  4. The ORNL-SNAP shielding program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mynatt, F. R.; Clifford, C. E.; Muckenthaler, F. J.; Gritzner, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The effort in the ORNL-SNAP shielding program is directed toward the development and verification of computer codes using numerical solutions to the transport equation for the design of optimized radiation shields for SNAP power systems. A brief discussion is given for the major areas of the SNAP shielding program, which are cross-section development, transport code development, and integral experiments. Detailed results are presented for the integral experiments utilizing the TSF-SNAP reactor. Calculated results are compared with experiments for neutron and gamma-ray spectra from the bare reactor and as transmitted through slab shields.

  5. SNAP-8 electrical generating system development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The SNAP-8 program has developed the technology base for one class of multikilowatt dynamic space power systems. Electrical power is generated by a turbine-alternator in a mercury Rankine-cycle loop to which heat is transferred and removed by means of sodium-potassium eutectic alloy subsystems. Final system overall criteria include a five-year operating life, restartability, man rating, and deliverable power in the 90 kWe range. The basic technology was demonstrated by more than 400,000 hours of major component endurance testing and numerous startup and shutdown cycles. A test system, comprised of developed components, delivered up to 35 kWe for a period exceeding 12,000 hours. The SNAP-8 system baseline is considered to have achieved a level of technology suitable for final application development for long-term multikilowatt space missions.

  6. 78 FR 52899 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... regarding Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) retailer eligibility requirements (78 FR 51136... unbaked pizza or raw fish. Should such stores be eligible for participation in SNAP? 11. Should...

  7. SNAP: A computer program for generating symbolic network functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, P. M.; Alderson, G. E.

    1970-01-01

    The computer program SNAP (symbolic network analysis program) generates symbolic network functions for networks containing R, L, and C type elements and all four types of controlled sources. The program is efficient with respect to program storage and execution time. A discussion of the basic algorithms is presented, together with user's and programmer's guides.

  8. Creating a Minnesota Statewide SNAP-Ed Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Abby; Barno, Trina Adler; Sherman, Shelley; Lovett, Kathleen; Hurtado, G. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Systematic evaluation is an essential tool for understanding program effectiveness. This article describes the pilot test of a statewide evaluation tool for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed). A computer algorithm helped Community Nutrition Educators (CNEs) build surveys specific to their varied educational settings…

  9. SNAP-8 refractory boiler development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Performance and endurance tests of the SNAP-8, SN-1 refractory metal boiler are described. The tests were successful and indicated that the boiler heat transfer area could be reduced significantly primarily because of the wetting characteristics of mercury on tantalum in a contaminant-free environment. A continuous endurance test of more than 10,000 hours was conducted without noticeable change in the thermal performance of the boiler. A conclusion of the metallographic examination of the boiler following the endurance test was that expected boiler life would be of the order of 40,000 hours at observed corrosion rates.

  10. Public Support for Policies to Improve the Nutritional Impact of the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP)

    PubMed Central

    Long, Michael W.; Leung, Cindy W.; Cheung, Lilian W.Y.; Blumenthal, Susan J.; Willett, Walter C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine public attitudes towards federal spending on nutrition assistance programs and support for policies to improve nutritional impact of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). DESIGN Participants answered survey questions by telephone assessing support for SNAP spending and proposed program policy changes. SETTING United States. SUBJECTS Survey of 3,024 adults selected by random digit dialing conducted in April 2012, including 418 SNAP participants. RESULTS A majority (77%; 95% CI: 75, 79) of all respondents supported maintaining or increasing SNAP benefits, with higher support among Democrats (88%; 95% CI: 86, 90) than Republicans (61%; 95% CI: 58, 65). The public supported policies to improve the nutritional impact of SNAP. 82% (95% CI: 80, 84) of respondents supported providing additional benefits to program participants that can only be used on healthful foods. 69% (95% CI: 67, 71) of respondents supported removing SNAP benefits for sugary drinks. A majority of SNAP participants (54%; 95% CI: 48, 60) supported removing SNAP benefits for sugary drinks. Of the 46% (95% CI: 40, 52) of SNAP participants who initially opposed removing sugary drinks, 45% (95% CI: 36, 54) supported removing SNAP benefits for sugary drinks if the policy also included additional benefits to purchase healthful foods. CONCLUSIONS The U.S. public broadly supports increasing or maintaining spending on SNAP. The majority of respondents, including SNAP participants, supported policies to improve the nutritional impact of SNAP by restricting the purchase of sugary drinks and incentivizing purchase of healthful foods with SNAP benefits. PMID:23218178

  11. SNAP Employment and Training: Washington's Basic Food Employment & Training Program (BFET)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Lavanya

    2014-01-01

    SNAP Employment & Training (E&T) is an important component of SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, formerly known as the Food Stamp Program) that supports a variety of education, training, employment, and related services for SNAP recipients. It gives recipients opportunities to gain skills, training, or experience that will…

  12. SNAP-27/ALSEP power subsystem used in the Apollo program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remini, W. C.; Grayson, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) measures lunar physical and environmental characteristics and transmits the data to receiving stations on earth. The data are used to derive information on the composition and structure of the moon. The electrical power subsystem generates and conditions all the electrical power for operations of the ALSEP system. The power source for the ALSEP is the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). The generator produces electricity by thermoelectric conversion. The radioactive isotope plutonium 238 is used as the energy source for the SNAP-27. By April 1, 1970, the SNAP-27 RTG had produced more than 230 kWh of continuous and stable power for the ALSEP.-

  13. Impact and Ethics of Excluding Sweetened Beverages From the SNAP Program

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The state of New York recently petitioned the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) for permission to conduct a demonstration project in which sweetened beverages would be excluded from the foods eligible to be purchased with Supplemental Assistance Nutrition Program (SNAP) benefits (i.e., food stamps) in New York City. The USDA and advocacy groups have raised objections to new SNAP restrictions such as the proposed exclusion of sweetened beverages. Some objections rest on empirical issues best resolved by demonstration projects or pilot studies of new exclusions. Other objections question the equity of excluding sweetened beverages from SNAP; these objections are important but not ethically decisive. The USDA should approve the proposed demonstration project and should encourage other pilot studies to assess the effects of excluding sweetened beverages from SNAP. PMID:21566025

  14. 76 FR 35787 - Updated Trafficking Definition and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-FDPIR Dual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Notice (48 FR 29115), this Program is excluded from the scope of Executive Order 12372, which requires...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 271, 273, and 281 RIN 0584-AD97 Updated Trafficking Definition and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-FDPIR Dual Participation...

  15. 78 FR 12245 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Suspension of SNAP Benefit Payments to Retailers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ..., subpart V, and related Notice (48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983), this program is included in the scope of...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 278 RIN 0584-AE22 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Suspension of SNAP Benefit Payments to Retailers AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...

  16. SNAP E&T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This document provides an overview of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Employment and Training (SNAP E&T). SNAP E&T is a funding source that allows states to provide employment and training and related supportive services to individuals receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as food stamps)…

  17. Strategies to Improve the Dietary Quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Beneficiaries: An Assessment of Stakeholder Opinions

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Susan J.; Hoffnagle, Elena E.; Leung, Cindy W.; Lofink, Hayley; Jensen, Helen H.; Foerster, Susan B.; Cheung, Lilian W.Y.; Nestle, Marion; Willet, Walter C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the opinions of stakeholders on strategies to improve dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Design Participants answered a 38-item web-based survey assessing opinions and perceptions of SNAP and program policy changes. Setting U.S.A. Subjects Survey of 522 individuals with stakeholder interest in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) conducted in October through December 2011. Results The top three barriers to improving dietary quality identified were: 1) unhealthy foods marketed in low-income communities; 2) the high cost of healthy foods; and 3) lifestyle challenges faced by low-income individuals. Many respondents (70%) also disagreed that current SNAP benefit levels were adequate to maintain a healthy diet. Stakeholders believed that vouchers, coupons, or monetary incentives for purchasing healthful foods might have the greatest potential for improving the diets of SNAP participants. Many respondents (78%) agreed that sodas should not be eligible for purchases with SNAP benefits. More than half (55%) believed retailers could easily implement such restrictions. A majority of respondents (58%) agreed that stores should stock a minimum quantity of healthful foods in order to be certified as a SNAP retailer, and most respondents (83%) believed that the USDA should collect data on the foods purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions Results suggest that there is broad stakeholder support for policies that align SNAP purchase eligibility with national public health goals of reducing food insecurity, improving nutrition and preventing obesity. PMID:24476898

  18. 76 FR 27603 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Civil Rights Protections for SNAP Households

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... related Notice (48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983), SNAP is excluded from the scope of Executive Order 12372... / Thursday, May 12, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 271 and 272 RIN 0584-AD89 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Civil...

  19. The effectiveness of the Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program for boys at risk for violence and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-02-01

    Among the available treatments for disruptive behavior problems, a need remains for additional service options to reduce antisocial behavior and prevent further development along delinquent and violent pathways. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) Program is an intervention for antisocial behavior among boys between 6 and 11. This paper describes a randomized controlled treatment effectiveness study of SNAP versus standard behavioral health services. The treatment program was delivered to youth with aggressive, rule-breaking, or antisocial behavior in excess of clinical criterion levels. Outcomes were measured at 3, 9, and 15 months from baseline. Youth in the SNAP condition showed significantly greater reduction in aggression, conduct problems, and overall externalizing behavior, as well as counts of oppositional defiant disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Additional benefits for SNAP were observed on measures of depression and anxiety. Further analyses indicated that the SNAP program was more effective among those with a higher severity of initial behavioral problems. At 1 year follow-up, treatment benefits for SNAP were maintained on some outcome measures (aggression, ADHD and ODD, depression and anxiety) but not others. Although overall juvenile justice system contact was not significantly different, youth in SNAP had significantly fewer charges against them relative to those standard services. The SNAP Program, when contrasted with standard services alone, was associated with greater, clinically meaningful, reductions in targeted behaviors. It may be particularly effective for youth with more severe behavioral problems and may result in improvements in internalizing problems as well.

  20. The effectiveness of the Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) Program for boys at risk for violence and delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Loeber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Among the available treatments for disruptive behavior problems, a need remains for additional service options to reduce antisocial behavior and prevent further development along delinquent and violent pathways. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) Program is an intervention for antisocial behavior among boys between 6 and 11. This paper describes a randomized controlled treatment effectiveness study of SNAP versus standard behavioral health services. The treatment program was delivered to youth with aggressive, rule-breaking or antisocial behavior in excess of clinical criterion levels. Outcomes were measured at 3, 9 and 15 months from baseline. Youth in the SNAP condition showed significantly greater reduction in aggression, conduct problems and overall externalizing behavior, as well as counts of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms. Additional benefits for SNAP were observed on measures of depression and anxiety. Further analyses indicated that the SNAP program was more effective among those with a higher severity of initial behavioral problems. At one year follow-up, treatment benefits for SNAP were maintained on some outcome measures (Aggression, ADHD and ODD, depression and anxiety) but not others. Although overall juvenile justice system contact was not significantly different, youth in SNAP had significantly fewer charges against them relative to those standard services. The SNAP Program, when contrasted with standard services alone, was associated with greater, clinically meaningful, reductions in targeted behaviors. It may be particularly effective for youth with more severe behavioral problems, and may result in improvements in internalizing problems as well. PMID:24756418

  1. Severe Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) - a real time model for accidental releases

    SciTech Connect

    Saltbones, J.; Foss, A.; Bartnicki, J.

    1996-12-31

    The model: Several Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) has been developed at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI) in Oslo to provide decision makers and Government officials with real-time tool for simulating large accidental releases of radioactivity from nuclear power plants or other sources. SNAP is developed in the Lagrangian framework in which atmospheric transport of radioactive pollutants is simulated by emitting a large number of particles from the source. The main advantage of the Lagrangian approach is a possibility of precise parameterization of advection processes, especially close to the source. SNAP can be used to predict the transport and deposition of a radioactive cloud in e future (up to 48 hours, in the present version) or to analyze the behavior of the cloud in the past. It is also possible to run the model in the mixed mode (partly analysis and partly forecast). In the routine run we assume unit (1 g s{sup -1}) emission in each of three classes. This assumption is very convenient for the main user of the model output in case of emergency: Norwegian Radiation Protection Agency. Due to linearity of the model equations, user can test different emission scenarios as a post processing task by assigning different weights to concentration and deposition fields corresponding to each of three emission classes. SNAP is fully operational and can be run by the meteorologist on duty at any time. The output from SNAP has two forms: First on the maps of Europe, or selected parts of Europe, individual particles are shown during the simulation period. Second, immediately after the simulation, concentration/deposition fields can be shown every three hours of the simulation period as isoline maps for each emission class. In addition, concentration and deposition maps, as well as some meteorological data, are stored on a public accessible disk for further processing by the model users.

  2. Effect of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) on frequency of beverage consumption among youth in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Meenakshi M

    2012-08-01

    As the largest federal food assistance program, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has potential to improve food choices among low-income populations. The program's impact on youth is important because they are represented in more than half of all SNAP households. This study estimates the impact of participation in SNAP, also known as the Food Stamp Program, on the frequency of soft drink, 100% fruit juice, and milk consumption among youth (ages 11 through 14) in the United States. A cohort of 3,126 youth from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey who were surveyed in 2004 (5th grade) and 2007 (8th grade) were used for the analysis. Multivariate linear regression with individual fixed effects was conducted to estimate the effect of SNAP participation on the frequency of consumption of each beverage type in the preceding week. The fixed effects controlled for factors specific to the youth, such as sex, race/ethnicity, and time-invariant bias in reporting SNAP participation or beverage consumption. Overall participation in SNAP increased from 19.5% to 20.3% between 2004 and 2007, with 14.4% reporting a different participation status in 2007 as compared with 2004. SNAP participation was not found to be predictive of the frequency of soft drink, 100% fruit juice, or milk consumption among youth. In its current state, SNAP may serve to replace lost income for qualifying households, but not alter their food and beverage choices. Interventions that support access to and incentivize the consumption of more healthful foods and beverages may be successful in improving the nutritional quality of intake.

  3. A qualitative study of diverse experts' views about barriers and strategies to improve the diets and health of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Hoffnagle, Elena E; Lindsay, Ana C; Lofink, Hayley E; Hoffman, Vanessa A; Turrell, Sophie; Willett, Walter C; Blumenthal, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the largest federal food assistance program, currently serves 44.7 million Americans with a budget of $75 billion in 2011. This study engaged leading experts for in-depth, semi-structured interviews to explore their opinions concerning the existing challenges and barriers to eating nutritiously in SNAP. Experts also proposed strategies for improving nutritional status among SNAP recipients. Twenty-seven individuals were interviewed from advocacy, government, industry, and research organizations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed for thematic content. The high cost of nutrient-rich foods, inadequate SNAP benefits, limited access to purchasing healthy foods, and environmental factors associated with poverty were identified as barriers that influence nutrition among low-income households in the United States. Six themes emerged among respondents from diverse sectors about how to address these challenges, including providing SNAP participants with incentives to purchase nutrient-rich food consistent with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, restricting the purchase of nutrient-poor foods and beverages with program benefits, modifying the frequency of SNAP benefit distribution, enhancing nutrition education, improving the SNAP retailer environment, and increasing state and federal level coordination and consistency of program implementation. Given the recent dramatic increase in SNAP enrollment, policymakers must address existing barriers as well as consider new strategies to improve nutrition policies in SNAP so that the program can continue to address food insecurity needs as well as provide a healthful diet for SNAP beneficiaries.

  4. Associations between food insecurity, supplemental nutrition assistance program (SNAP) benefits, and body mass index among adult females.

    PubMed

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D; Burke, Sloane C; Moore, Justin B

    2011-11-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects low-income and minority individuals and has been linked with food insecurity, particularly among women. More research is needed to examine potential mechanisms linking obesity and food insecurity. Therefore, this study's purpose was to examine cross-sectional associations between food insecurity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits per household member, perceived stress, and body mass index (BMI) among female SNAP participants in eastern North Carolina (n=202). Women were recruited from the Pitt County Department of Social Services between October 2009 and April 2010. Household food insecurity was measured using the validated US Department of Agriculture 18-item food security survey module. Perceived stress was measured using the 14-item Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. SNAP benefits and number of children in the household were self-reported and used to calculate benefits per household member. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight (as kg/m(2)). Multivariate linear regression was used to examine associations between BMI, SNAP benefits, stress, and food insecurity while adjusting for age and physical activity. In adjusted linear regression analyses, perceived stress was positively related to food insecurity (P<0.0001), even when SNAP benefits were included in the model. BMI was positively associated with food insecurity (P=0.04). Mean BMI was significantly greater among women receiving <$150 in SNAP benefits per household member vs those receiving ≥$150 in benefits per household member (35.8 vs 33.1; P=0.04). Results suggest that provision of adequate SNAP benefits per household member might partially ameliorate the negative effects of food insecurity on BMI.

  5. SNAP operating system reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sabuda, J.D.; Polito, J.; Walker, J.L.; Grant, F.H. III

    1982-03-01

    The SNAP Operating System (SOS) is a FORTRAN 77 program which provides assistance to the safeguards analyst who uses the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) and the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) techniques. Features offered by SOS are a data base system for storing a library of SNAP applications, computer graphics representation of SNAP models, a computer graphics editor to develop and modify SNAP models, a SAFE-to-SNAP interface, automatic generation of SNAP input data, and a computer graphic post-processor for SNAP. The SOS Reference Manual provides detailed application information concerning SOS as well as a detailed discussion of all SOS components and their associated command input formats. SOS was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and the US Naval Surface Weapons Center by Pritsker and Associates, Inc., under contract to Sandia National Laboratories.

  6. The SNAP[TM] Under 12 Outreach Project: Effects of a Community Based Program for Children with Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augimeri, Leena K.; Farrington, David P.; Koegl, Christopher J.; Day, David M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the immediate, short- and long-term effectiveness of the SNAP[TM] Under 12 Outreach Project (ORP)--a community-based program for children under the age of 12 at risk of having police contact. Sixteen pairs of children were matched on age, sex and severity of delinquency at admission, and randomly assigned to the ORP or to a control…

  7. Dynamics and Control of Orbiting Space Structures NASA Advanced Design Program (ADP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    The report summarizes the advanced design program in the mechanical engineering department at Vanderbilt University for the academic years 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Approximately 100 students participated in the two years of the subject grant funding. The NASA-oriented design projects that were selected included lightweight hydrogen propellant tank for the reusable launch vehicle, a thermal barrier coating test facility, a piezoelectric motor for space antenna control, and a lightweight satellite for automated materials processing. The NASA supported advanced design program (ADP) has been a success and a number of graduates are working in aerospace and are doing design.

  8. SNAP telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  9. 78 FR 64468 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... published on August 20, 2013 (78 FR 51136) has been extended from October 21, 2013 to November 6, 2013. To... pizza or raw fish. Should such stores be eligible for participation in SNAP? 11. Should all retailers... ingredients shall only be counted in one staple food category. For example, foods such as cold pizza,...

  10. Development of a mercury electromagnetic centrifugal pump for the SNAP-8 refractory boiler development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, R. A.; Schnacke, A. W.

    1974-01-01

    An electromagnetic pump, in which pressure is developed in mercury because of the interaction of the magnetic field and current which flows as a result of the voltage induced in the mercury contained in the pump duct, was developed for the SNAP-8 refractory boiler test facility. Pump performance results are presented for ten duct configurations and two stator sizes. These test results were used to design and fabricate a pump which met the SNAP-8 criteria of 530 psi developed pressure at 12,500 lb/hr. The pump operated continuously for over 13,000 hours without failure or performance degradation. Included in this report are descriptions of the experimental equipment, measurement techniques, all experimental data, and an analysis of the electrical losses in the pump.

  11. SNAP Cuts Put Youth at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In a typical month in 2011, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as the Food Stamp Program) served 4.3 million low-income young adults ages 18-24, helping them buy needed groceries. This brief report demonstrates the detrimental impact the cuts proposed to SNAP in the House-passed Farm bill (H.R. 3102)--which is now…

  12. STE thrust chamber technology: Main injector technology program and nozzle Advanced Development Program (ADP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the STME Main Injector Program was to enhance the technology base for the large-scale main injector-combustor system of oxygen-hydrogen booster engines in the areas of combustion efficiency, chamber heating rates, and combustion stability. The initial task of the Main Injector Program, focused on analysis and theoretical predictions using existing models, was complemented by the design, fabrication, and test at MSFC of a subscale calorimetric, 40,000-pound thrust class, axisymmetric thrust chamber operating at approximately 2,250 psi and a 7:1 expansion ratio. Test results were used to further define combustion stability bounds, combustion efficiency, and heating rates using a large injector scale similar to the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) STME main injector design configuration including the tangential entry swirl coaxial injection elements. The subscale combustion data was used to verify and refine analytical modeling simulation and extend the database range to guide the design of the large-scale system main injector. The subscale injector design incorporated fuel and oxidizer flow area control features which could be varied; this allowed testing of several design points so that the STME conditions could be bracketed. The subscale injector design also incorporated high-reliability and low-cost fabrication techniques such as a one-piece electrical discharged machined (EDMed) interpropellant plate. Both subscale and large-scale injectors incorporated outer row injector elements with scarfed tip features to allow evaluation of reduced heating rates to the combustion chamber.

  13. Healthy store programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), but not the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), are associated with corner store healthfulness.

    PubMed

    DeWeese, Robin S; Todd, Michael; Karpyn, Allison; Yedidia, Michael J; Kennedy, Michelle; Bruening, Meg; Wharton, Christopher M; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2016-12-01

    In response to lack of access to healthy foods, many low-income communities are instituting local healthy corner store programs. Some stores also participate in the United States Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). This study used two assessment tools to compare the healthfulness of offerings at stores participating in local healthy store programs (upgraded stores), WIC, and/or SNAP to that of similar non-participating stores. Based on store audits conducted in 315 New Jersey corner stores in 2014, we calculated healthy food availability scores using subsections of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Corner Stores (NEMS-CS-Availability) and a short-form corner store audit tool (SCAT). We used multivariable regression to examine associations between program participation and scores on both instruments. Adjusting for store and block group characteristics, stores participating in a local healthy store program had significantly higher SCAT scores than did non-participating stores (upgraded: M = 3.18, 95% CI 2.65-3.71; non-upgraded: M = 2.52, 95% CI 2.32-2.73); scores on the NEMS-CS-Availability did not differ (upgraded: M = 12.8, 95% CI 11.6-14.1; non-upgraded: M = 12.5, 95% CI 12.0-13.0). WIC-participating stores had significantly higher scores compared to non-participating stores on both tools. Stores participating in SNAP only (and not in WIC) scored significantly lower on both instruments compared to non-SNAP stores. WIC-participating and non-SNAP corner stores had higher healthfulness scores on both assessment tools. Upgraded stores had higher healthfulness scores compared to non-upgraded stores on the SCAT.

  14. The Impact of SNAP-ED and EFNEP on Program Graduates 6 Months after Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszewski, Wanda; Sehi, Natalie; Behrends, Donnia; Tuttle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine if graduates from either the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education or Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program maintained behavioral changes 6 months after completing the program. Staff asked graduates to complete a 10- or 15-question behavior checklist that was identical to the entry and exit…

  15. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 74 and the conditions of this subpart and to determine the efficiency, economy and... claim provisions of 45 CFR part 95, subpart A; and (iv) The service agreement was not previously... of Federal ADP systems and information processing. (2) ADP Security Program. State ADP...

  16. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... all ADP systems used by State and local governments to administer programs covered under 45 CFR part... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ADP reviews. 95.621 Section 95.621 Public Welfare....621 ADP reviews. The Department will conduct periodic onsite surveys and reviews of State and...

  17. SNAP benefits: Can an adequate benefit be defined?

    PubMed

    Yaktine, Ann L; Caswell, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) increases the food purchasing power of participating households. A committee convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined the question of whether it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy. Total resources; individual, household, and environmental factors; and SNAP program characteristics that affect allotment adequacy were identified from a framework developed by the IOM committee. The committee concluded that it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy; however, such a definition must take into account the degree to which participants' total resources and individual, household, and environmental factors influence the purchasing power of SNAP benefits and the impact of SNAP program characteristics on the calculation of the dollar value of the SNAP allotment. The committee recommended that the USDA Food and Nutrition Service investigate ways to incorporate these factors and program characteristics into research aimed at defining allotment adequacy.

  18. SNAP benefits: Can an adequate benefit be defined?

    PubMed

    Yaktine, Ann L; Caswell, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) increases the food purchasing power of participating households. A committee convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined the question of whether it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy. Total resources; individual, household, and environmental factors; and SNAP program characteristics that affect allotment adequacy were identified from a framework developed by the IOM committee. The committee concluded that it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy; however, such a definition must take into account the degree to which participants' total resources and individual, household, and environmental factors influence the purchasing power of SNAP benefits and the impact of SNAP program characteristics on the calculation of the dollar value of the SNAP allotment. The committee recommended that the USDA Food and Nutrition Service investigate ways to incorporate these factors and program characteristics into research aimed at defining allotment adequacy. PMID:24425718

  19. 78 FR 11967 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Updated Trafficking Definition and Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... regarding this mandatory prohibition. This rule was proposed on June 20, 2011, at 76 FR 35787, and public... CFR part 3015, Subpart V and related Notice (48 FR 29115), this Program is excluded from the scope of... / Thursday, February 21, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and...

  20. Snap dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefling, L.; Whetstone, W. D.; Jones, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program calculates normal vibration modes of complex structures elimating excessively large amounts of input data, run time, and core storage. Provision for accuracy improvement is also included.

  1. Evaluating security systems using SNAP-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, C.D.; Gregg, M.L.; Erdbruegger, M.R.

    1986-08-01

    SNAP-PC (Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure for the Personal Computer) is a user-friendly version of SNAP designed for IBM XT or AT compatible microcomputers. SNAP is a simulation-based analysis technique supporting the evaluation of fixed-site security systems to prevent theft or sabotage of a specified target. Through SNAP the user is able to define the facility, the sensor system, the guard operating policies and response tactics, and the adversary's attack plan. SNAP uses the system definition to analyze its effectiveness in defending against specific threats. The system performance statistics measured by SNAP include: Adversary mission success probability, guard and adversary casualties, duration of engagements, outcome of engagements, duration of scenario by outcome (adversary success/fail), and adversary duration by facility location. The SNAP-PC package provides a compact analysis tool that can be used to analyze a wide variety of security systems. It places SNAP, a proven evaluation technique, in the hands of on-site personnel, not just computer analysts. The support programs eliminate the labor intensive tedious task of organizing and sorting through reams of output reports and greatly reduce the time previously required to analyze a security system.

  2. Nu-Way Snaps and Snap Leads: an Important Connection in the History of Behavior Analysis.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Rogelio; Lattal, Kennon A

    2014-10-01

    Beginning in the early 1950s, the snap lead became an integral and ubiquitous component of the programming of electromechanical modules used in behavioral experiments. It was composed of a Nu-Way snap connector on either end of a colored electrical wire. Snap leads were used to connect the modules to one another, thereby creating the programs that controlled contingencies, arranged reinforcers, and recorded behavior in laboratory experiments. These snap leads populated operant conditioning laboratories from their inception until the turn of the twenty-first century. They allowed quick and flexible programming because of the ease with which they could be connected, stacked, and removed. Thus, the snap lead was integral to the research activity that constituted the experimental analysis of behavior for more than five decades. This review traces the history of the snap lead from the origins of the snap connector in Birmingham, England, in the late eighteenth century, through the use of snaps connected to wires during the Second World War, to its adoption in operant laboratories, and finally to its demise in the digital age.

  3. 45 CFR 95.619 - Use of ADP systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Automatic... Conditions for Ffp § 95.619 Use of ADP systems. ADP systems designed, developed, or installed with FFP...

  4. Finger snapping during seizures.

    PubMed

    Overdijk, M J; Zijlmans, M; Gosselaar, P H; Olivier, A; Leijten, F S S; Dubeau, F

    2014-01-01

    We describe two patients who showed snapping of the right hand fingers during invasive intracranial EEG evaluation for epilepsy surgery. We correlated the EEG changes with the finger-snapping movements in both patients to determine the underlying pathophysiology of this phenomenon. At the time of finger snapping, EEG spread from the supplementary motor area towards the temporal region was seen, suggesting involvement of these sites. PMID:25667884

  5. Imaging of snapping phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Guillin, R; Marchand, A J; Roux, A; Niederberger, E; Duvauferrier, R

    2012-01-01

    Snapping phenomena result from the sudden impingement between anatomical and/or heterotopical structures with subsequent abrupt movement and noise. Snaps are variously perceived by patients, from mild discomfort to significant pain requiring surgical management. Identifying the precise cause of snaps may be challenging when no abnormality is encountered on routinely performed static examinations. In this regard, dynamic imaging techniques have been developed over time, with various degrees of success. This review encompasses the main features of each imaging technique and proposes an overview of the main snapping phenomena in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:22744321

  6. Strong Gravitational Lensing with SNAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, R. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2001-12-01

    As currently configured, SNAP should cover an area of sky to sufficient depth to observe tens of thousands of strong (ie multiple-imaging) gravitational lenses. This could provide an unprecedented database for performing cosmography, studies of large scale structure and galactic structure.and should complement the weak lensing program which will concentrate on larger scales. The challenge will be to recognize multiple imaging efficiently in an unbiased way and to organize effective follow up so as to obtain spectroscopic redshifts and monitor variable sources, when appropriate. Experience with the CLASS radio survey and the CASTLES program will be invaluable as we transition from the detailed study of a few tens of strong lenses through the ACS ultra-deep, deep and wide surveys (which should yield hundreds of examples of multiple imaging) to the larger samples envisaged from SNAP. New approaches to data analysis will be needed and coordinated planning with other proposed large survey instruments, like SKA, will be essential.

  7. How Snapping Shrimp Snap: Through Cavitating Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versluis, Michel; Schmitz, Barbara; von der Heydt, Anna; Lohse, Detlef

    2000-09-01

    The snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis) produces a loud snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of its snapper claw. One of the effects of the snapping is to stun or kill prey animals. During the rapid snapper claw closure, a high-velocity water jet is emitted from the claw with a speed exceeding cavitation conditions. Hydrophone measurements in conjunction with time-controlled high-speed imaging of the claw closure demonstrate that the sound is emitted at the cavitation bubble collapse and not on claw closure. A model for the bubble dynamics based on a Rayleigh-Plesset-type equation quantitatively accounts for the time dependence of the bubble radius and for the emitted sound.

  8. Launching SNAP in Coventry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncey, James; Ainscow, Mel

    1983-01-01

    The article describes project SNAP (Special Needs Action Programme), an inservice effort to improve identification and intervention with handicapped primary students in Coventry, England. The first course developed by the project, on learning difficulties, is discussed. Followup to the course is stressed, and five additional SNAP courses are…

  9. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the efficiency, economy and effectiveness of the equipment or service. (e) State Agency Maintenance of... appropriate ADP security requirements based on recognized industry standards or standards governing security... all ADP systems used by State and local governments to administer programs covered under 45 CFR...

  10. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the efficiency, economy and effectiveness of the equipment or service. (e) State Agency Maintenance of... appropriate ADP security requirements based on recognized industry standards or standards governing security... all ADP systems used by State and local governments to administer programs covered under 45 CFR...

  11. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC...) Physical security of ADP resources; (B) Equipment security to protect equipment from theft and unauthorized...; (G) Emergency preparedness; and, (H) Designation of an Agency ADP Security Manager. (iii)...

  12. PARPs and ADP-Ribosylation: Fifty Years… and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, W. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over 50 years ago, the discovery of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) set a new field of science in motion - the field of poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases (PARPs) and ADP-ribosylation. The field is still flourishing today. The diversity of biological processes now known to require PARPs and ADP-ribosylation was practically unimaginable even two decades ago. From an initial focus on DNA damage detection and repair in response to genotoxic stresses, the field has expanded to include the regulation of chromatin structure, gene expression, and RNA processing in a wide range of biological systems, including reproduction, development, aging, stem cells, inflammation, metabolism, and cancer. This special focus issue of Molecular Cell includes a collection of three Reviews, three Perspectives, and a SnapShot, which together summarize the current state of the field and suggest where it may be headed. PMID:26091339

  13. Snapping during manual stretching in congenital muscular torticollis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J C; Chen, T M; Tang, S P; Shum, S L; Wong, M W; Metreweli, C

    2001-03-01

    Manual stretching frequently is used in the treatment of congenital muscular torticollis in infants. During manipulation, it is not uncommon for the sternocleidomastoid muscle to snap or suddenly give way. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predisposing causes and clinical significance of such snapping. Four hundred fifty-five patients younger than 1 year of age with congenital muscular torticollis treated with a standardized gentle manual stretching program during a 13-year period were studied. Using prospective standardized assessment parameters, the pretreatment, treatment, and followup results of a group of 41 patients with snapping detected during treatment were compared with the results of a group of 404 patients without snapping during treatment. The group with snapping was associated with a more severe sternomastoid tumor, higher incidence of hip dysplasia, earlier clinical presentation, and shorter duration of treatment. With a mean followup of 3.5 years, the group with snapping was not different from the group that had no snapping in the final assessment score and percentage requiring surgery. From this study, unintentional snapping during the gentle manipulation treatment of congenital muscular torticollis has clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of partial or complete rupture of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. No long-term deleterious effect on the outcome was observed after the snapping.

  14. Rewarding Healthy Food Choices in SNAP: Behavioral Economic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Michael R; Sindelar, Jody L

    2013-01-01

    Context American obesity rates continue to escalate, but an effective policy response remains elusive. Specific changes to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) have been proposed as one way to improve nutrition and combat obesity among lower-income populations. While current SNAP proposals hold promise, some important challenges still remain. Methods We discuss the four most common recommendations for changes to SNAP and their benefits and limitations. We then propose three new delivery options for SNAP that take advantage of behavioral economic insights and encourage the selection of healthy foods. Findings Although the existing proposals could help SNAP recipients, they often do not address some important behavioral impediments to buying healthy foods. We believe that behavioral economics can be used to design alternative policies with several advantages, although we recognize and discuss some of their limitations. The first proposal rewards healthy purchases with more SNAP funds and provides an additional incentive to maintain healthier shopping patterns. The second proposal uses the opportunity to win prizes to reward healthy food choices, and the prizes further support healthier habits. The final proposal simplifies healthy food purchases by allowing individuals to commit their SNAP benefits to more nutritious selections in advance. Conclusions Reforming the delivery structure of SNAP's benefits could help improve nutrition, weight, and overall health of lower-income individuals. We advocate for more and diverse SNAP proposals, which should be tested and, possibly, combined. Their implementation, however, would require political will, administrative capacity, and funding. PMID:23758515

  15. Extra-articular Snapping Hip

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Context: Snapping hip, or coxa saltans, is a vague term used to describe palpable or auditory snapping with hip movements. As increasing attention is paid to intra-articular hip pathologies such as acetabular labral tears, it is important to be able to identify and understand the extra-articular causes of snapping hip. Evidence Acquisition: The search terms snapping hip and coxa sultans were used in PubMed to locate suitable studies of any publication date (ending date, November 2008). Results: Extra-articular snapping may be caused laterally by the iliotibial band or anteriorly by the iliopsoas tendon. Snapping of the iliopsoas tendon usually requires contraction of the hip flexors and may be difficult to differentiate from intra-articular causes of snapping. Dynamic ultrasound can help detect abrupt tendon translation during movement, noninvasively supporting the diagnosis of extra-articular snapping hip. The majority of cases of snapping hip resolve with conservative treatment, which includes avoidance of aggravating activities, stretching, and anti-inflammatory medication. In recalcitrant cases, surgery to lengthen the iliotibial band or the iliopsoas tendon has produced symptom relief but may result in prolonged weakness. Conclusions: In treating active patients with snapping soft tissues around the hip, clinicians should recognize that the majority of cases resolve without surgical intervention, while being mindful of the potential for concomitant intra-articular and internal snapping hips. PMID:23015936

  16. Application of IMPLAN to Extension Programs: Economic Impacts of the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension SNAP-Ed Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerna, Ashley; Frisvold, George; Jacobs, Laurel; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Houtkooper, Linda; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Many Extension programs are turning to the input-output software IMPLAN to demonstrate economic impacts. IMPLAN is a powerful tool that can be used to estimate the total economic activity associated with an industry, event, or policy. One possible application, therefore, is to use program spending data to estimate the economic effects of…

  17. Reconceiving SNAP: Is Nutritional Assistance Really Income Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Since its creation, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has changed from an antihunger program to an income-supplementation program. Because the program (and its predecessor Food Stamp Program) was not designed for this purpose, the result is a program that has many unintended and, many believe, negative effects. The key challenge…

  18. SNAP Assay Technology.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas P

    2015-12-01

    The most widely used immunoassay configuration is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) because the procedure produces highly sensitive and specific results and generally is easy to use. By definition, ELISAs are immunoassays used to detect a substance (typically an antigen or antibody) in which an enzyme is attached (conjugated) to one of the reactants and an enzymatic reaction is used to amplify the signal if the substance is present. Optimized ELISAs include several steps that are performed in sequence using a defined protocol that typically includes application of sample and an enzyme-conjugated antibody or antigen to an immobilized reagent, followed by wash and enzyme reaction steps. The SNAP assay is an in-clinic device that performs each of the ELISA steps in a timed sequential fashion with little consumer interface. The components and mechanical mechanism of the assay device are described. Detailed descriptions of features of the assay, which minimize nonspecific binding and enhance the ability to read results from weak-positive samples, are given. Basic principles used in assays with fundamentally different reaction mechanisms, namely, antigen-detection, antibody-detection, and competitive assays are given. Applications of ELISA technology, which led to the development of several multianalyte SNAP tests capable of testing for up to 6 analytes using a single-sample and a single-SNAP device are described.

  19. SNAP Telescope Latest Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The coming era of precision cosmology imposes new demands on space telescopes with regard to spectrophotometric accuracy and image stability. To meet these requirements for SNAP we have developed an all reflecting two-meter-class space telescope of the three-mirror anastigmat type. Our design features a large flat annular field (1.5 degrees = 580mm diameter) and a telephoto advantage of 6, delivering a 22m focal length within an optical package length of only 3.5 meters. The use of highly stable materials (Corning ULE glass and carbon-fiber reinforced cyanate ester resin for the metering structure) combined with agressive distributed thermal control and an L2 orbit location will lead to unmatched figure stability. Owing to our choice of rigid structure with nondeployable solar panels, finite-element models show no structural resonances below 10Hz. An exhaustive stray light study has been completed. Beginning in 2005, two industry studies will develop plans for fabrication, integration and test, bringing SNAP to a highly realistic level of definition. SNAP is supported by the Office of Science, US DoE, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  20. Snapping Iliopsoas Tendon in a Recreational Athlete: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Keskula, Douglas R.; Lott, Jason; Duncan, Jewell B.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To describe the evaluation, diagnosis, and conservative treatment of a 31-year-old female recreational athlete with a snapping iliopsoas tendon. Background: The iliopsoas tendon has been implicated as an inflamed structure in this unique form of snapping hip. Hip pain, limitation of motion, or both may severely restrict vocational and recreational function and activities of daily living. Differential Diagnosis: Left snapping hip syndrome secondary to the iliopsoas tendon or the iliotibial band. Treatment: The treatment goal was to restore the athlete's pain-free, functional abilities. The primary focus of the treatment program was stretching of the left hip flexors. The patient demonstrated reduced pain and improved function following a 4-week stretching program and was fully functional and symptom free at 6 months. Uniqueness: Snapping hip syndrome is a clinical entity that may be described as hip pain associated with an audible snap of the hip during motion. The most common and well-known cause of this syndrome involves the snapping of the iliotibial band over the greater trochanter. A less common cause is the snapping of the iliopsoas tendon over the iliopectineal eminence. Conclusions: Understanding the anatomy and function of the iliopsoas tendon and related structures provides a basis for evaluation and treatment of this unique problem. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:16558594

  1. Exploring dark energy with SNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Aldering, G.

    2004-05-01

    The accelerating expansion of the Universe is one of the most surprising and potentially profound discoveries of modern cosmology. Measuring the acceleration well enough to meaningfully constrain interesting physical models requires improvements an order of magnitude beyond on-going and near-term experiments. The Supernova/Acceleration Probe has been conceived as a powerful yet simple experiment to use Type Ia supernovae and weak gravitational lensing to reach this level of accuracy. As fundamentally different causes for the acceleration map into very small differences in observational parameters for all relevant cosmological methods, control of systematics is especially important and so has been built into the SNAP mission design from the very beginning. Though focused on the study of the accelerating Universe, the overall SNAP instrument suite is quite general and able to make unique contributions to a wide variety of astronomical studies. The baseline satellite consists of a 2-m anastigmat telescope, with a 0.7 square degree focal plane paved with optical and NIR imaging arrays. Spectroscopy can be obtained using a high-throughput low-resolution optical + NIR integral field spectrograph. The baseline science programs will result in a 15 square degree ''deep field'' having temporal coverage every 4 days and summing to m{sub AB} {approx} 30.3 in all colors - to be used for discovery and follow-up of some 2000 Type Ia supernova in the range 0.1 < z < 1.7 - and a wide area survey spanning 1000 square degrees and reaching m{sub AB} {approx} 27.7 in all colors - to be used to measure the weak lensing power spectrum well into the non-linear regime. A panoramic survey covering 10,000 square degrees to m{sub AB} {approx} 26.7 in all colors is also possible. This baseline dataset represents a gold mine for archival astronomical research and follow-up with JWST, while guest observer survey programs will substantially broaden the impact that SNAP will have.

  2. SNAP: Simulating New Acquisition Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfeld, Louis E.

    1997-01-01

    Simulation models of acquisition processes range in scope from isolated applications to the 'Big Picture' captured by SNAP technology. SNAP integrates a family of models to portray the full scope of acquisition planning and management activities, including budgeting, scheduling, testing and risk analysis. SNAP replicates the dynamic management processes that underlie design, production and life-cycle support. SNAP provides the unique 'Big Picture' capability needed to simulate the entire acquisition process and explore the 'what-if' tradeoffs and consequences of alternative policies and decisions. Comparison of cost, schedule and performance tradeoffs help managers choose the lowest-risk, highest payoff at each step in the acquisition process.

  3. SNAP focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  4. Child hunger and the protective effects of supplemental nutrition assistance program (SNAP) and alternative food sources among Mexican-origin families in Texas border colonias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ), increased household composition, full-time unemployment, and participation in the National School Lunch Program were significantly associated with increased odds for child hunger, while participation in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and purchasing food from a neighbor were significantly associated with decreased odds for child hunger. Conclusions This study not only emphasizes the alarming rates of child hunger among this sample of Mexican-origin families, but also identifies economic and family factors that increased the odds for child hunger as well as community strategies that reduced the odds. It is unsettling that so many children did not participate in school-based nutrition programs, and that many who participated in federal nutrition assistance programs remained hungry. This study underscores the importance of identifying the presence of child hunger among low-income Mexican-origin children in Texas border colonias and increasing access to nutrition-related resources. Hunger-associated health inequities at younger ages among colonia residents are likely to persist across the life span and into old age. PMID:24034599

  5. 42 CFR 457.230 - FFP for State ADP expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES General... ADP expenditures for the design, development, or installation of mechanized claims processing and... procedures regarding the availability of FFP for ADP expenditures are in 45 CFR part 74, 45 CFR part...

  6. SNAP-25 IN NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Corradini, Irene; Verderio, Claudia; Sala, Mariaelvina; Wilson, Michael C.; Matteoli, Michela

    2009-01-01

    SNAP-25 is plasma membrane protein which, together with syntaxin and the synaptic vesicle protein VAMP/synaptobrevin, forms the SNARE docking complex for regulated exocytosis. SNAP-25 also modulates different voltage-gated calcium channels, representing therefore a multifunctional protein that plays essential roles in neurotransmitter release at different steps. Recent genetic studies of human populations and of some mouse models implicate that alterations in SNAP-25 gene structure, expression and/or function may contribute directly to these distinct neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. PMID:19161380

  7. ADP's ABCs of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company's core competence is processing data, it is sometimes easy to lose sight of the obvious--the information right under its nose. In the case of Automatic Data Processing, Inc. (ADP), a business outsourcing company specializing in human resources, payroll, tax, and benefits administrations solutions, that is not a problem. Through…

  8. Raman gains of ADP and KDP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Wang, Bo; Xu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Li-Song; Liu, Bao-An; Chai, Xiang-Xu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the Raman gain coefficients of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are measured. By using a pump source of a 30-ps, 532-nm laser, the gain coefficients of ADP and KDP are 1.22 cm/GW, and 0.91 cm/GW, respectively. While for a 20-ps, 355-nm pump laser, the gain coefficients of these two crystals are similar, which are 1.95 cm/GW for ADP and 1.86 for KDP. The present results indicate that for ultra-violet frequency conversion, the problem of stimulated Raman scattering for ADP crystal will not be more serious than that for KDP crystal. Considering other advantages such the larger nonlinear optical coefficient, higher laser damage threshold, and lower noncritical phase-matching temperature, it can be anticipated that ADP will be a powerful competitor to KDP in large aperture, high energy third-harmonic generation or fourth-harmonic generation applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51323002 and 51402173), the Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University, China (Grant Nos. IIFSDU and 2012JC016), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-10-0552), the Fund from the Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2014BB07), and the Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholar of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. JQ201218).

  9. The Classroom Animal: Snapping Turtles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the distinctive features of the common snapping turtle. Discusses facts and misconceptions held about the turtle. Provides guidelines for proper care and treatment of a young snapper in a classroom environment. (ML)

  10. The SNAP near infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tarle, G.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, Anne; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.; Harvey, P.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Lampton, M.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; Miguel, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tomasch, A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will measure precisely the cosmological expansion history over both the acceleration and deceleration epochs and thereby constrain the nature of the dark energy that dominates our universe today. The SNAP focal plane contains equal areas of optical CCDs and NIR sensors and an integral field spectrograph. Having over 150 million pixels and a field-of-view of 0.34 square degrees, the SNAP NIR system will be the largest yet constructed. With sensitivity in the range 0.9-1.7 {micro}m, it will detect Type Ia supernovae between z = 1 and 1.7 and will provide follow-up precision photometry for all supernovae. HgCdTe technology, with a cut-off tuned to 1.7 {micro}m, will permit passive cooling at 140 K while maintaining noise below zodiacal levels. By dithering to remove the effects of intrapixel variations and by careful attention to other instrumental effects, we expect to control relative photometric accuracy below a few hundredths of a magnitude. Because SNAP continuously revisits the same fields we will be able to achieve outstanding statistical precision on the photometry of reference stars in these fields, allowing precise monitoring of our detectors. The capabilities of the NIR system for broadening the science reach of SNAP are discussed.

  11. Implementation of a SNAP intervention in two divisions of general practice: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mark F; Hobbs, Coletta; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Simpson, Sarah; Bernard, Diana; Stubbs, Anthony

    2005-11-21

    "SNAP" is a model for the general practice management of four common behavioural risk factors: smoking, nutrition, alcohol and physical activity. The SNAP program was developed for the Australian Government in 2002. In 2003 and 2004, a feasibility study was conducted in one urban and one rural division of general practice (DGP) in NSW, in partnership with their local area health services. Information technology support and referral directories were developed, based on an initial needs assessment, SNAP guidelines, a clinical summary chart, patient education materials, and general practitioner and staff training. GPs reported that the SNAP approach fitted general practice consultations well. After its implementation, they were more confident in using motivational interviewing and SNAP interventions and referred more frequently. The impact and sustainability of the SNAP program were limited by a lack of effective practice teamwork, poor linkages with referral services, and the lack of a business model to support SNAP in the practices. DGPs could play an important role in providing practice visits and resources to improve communication, education and collaboration to support SNAP programs.

  12. Associations between body mass index, shopping behaviors, amenity density, and characteristics of the neighborhood food environment among female adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; McGuirt, Jared T; Carr, Lucas J; Wu, Qiang; Keyserling, Thomas C

    2012-01-01

    We examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and the food environment among adult female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants (N = 197) in eastern North Carolina. Food venue proximity to residential addresses was calculated using a geographic information system. Walk Score was used as a measure of amenity density. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between BMI and distance to and use of food venues, and residential amenity density. Frequency of supercenter use was significantly inversely associated with distance to supercenters. Walk Score was significantly inversely associated with BMI. BMI was not associated with distance to or use of any particular food venue. Future studies should examine specific health-promoting elements of amenity-dense neighborhoods accessible to limited-income populations.

  13. Superlattice nanowire pattern transfer (SNAP).

    PubMed

    Heath, James R

    2008-12-01

    During the past 15 years or so, nanowires (NWs) have emerged as a new and distinct class of materials. Their novel structural and physical properties separate them from wires that can be prepared using the standard methods for manufacturing electronics. NW-based applications that range from traditional electronic devices (logic and memory) to novel biomolecular and chemical sensors, thermoelectric materials, and optoelectronic devices, all have appeared during the past few years. From a fundamental perspective, NWs provide a route toward the investigation of new physics in confined dimensions. Perhaps the most familiar fabrication method is the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth technique, which produces semiconductor nanowires as bulk materials. However, other fabrication methods exist and have their own advantages. In this Account, I review a particular class of NWs produced by an alternative method called superlattice nanowire pattern transfer (SNAP). The SNAP method is distinct from other nanowire preparation methods in several ways. It can produce large NW arrays from virtually any thin-film material, including metals, insulators, and semiconductors. The dimensions of the NWs can be controlled with near-atomic precision, and NW widths and spacings can be as small as a few nanometers. In addition, SNAP is almost fully compatible with more traditional methods for manufacturing electronics. The motivation behind the development of SNAP was to have a general nanofabrication method for preparing electronics-grade circuitry, but one that would operate at macromolecular dimensions and with access to a broad materials set. Thus, electronics applications, including novel demultiplexing architectures; large-scale, ultrahigh-density memory circuits; and complementary symmetry nanowire logic circuits, have served as drivers for developing various aspects of the SNAP method. Some of that work is reviewed here. As the SNAP method has evolved into a robust nanofabrication

  14. Superlattice nanowire pattern transfer (SNAP).

    PubMed

    Heath, James R

    2008-12-01

    During the past 15 years or so, nanowires (NWs) have emerged as a new and distinct class of materials. Their novel structural and physical properties separate them from wires that can be prepared using the standard methods for manufacturing electronics. NW-based applications that range from traditional electronic devices (logic and memory) to novel biomolecular and chemical sensors, thermoelectric materials, and optoelectronic devices, all have appeared during the past few years. From a fundamental perspective, NWs provide a route toward the investigation of new physics in confined dimensions. Perhaps the most familiar fabrication method is the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth technique, which produces semiconductor nanowires as bulk materials. However, other fabrication methods exist and have their own advantages. In this Account, I review a particular class of NWs produced by an alternative method called superlattice nanowire pattern transfer (SNAP). The SNAP method is distinct from other nanowire preparation methods in several ways. It can produce large NW arrays from virtually any thin-film material, including metals, insulators, and semiconductors. The dimensions of the NWs can be controlled with near-atomic precision, and NW widths and spacings can be as small as a few nanometers. In addition, SNAP is almost fully compatible with more traditional methods for manufacturing electronics. The motivation behind the development of SNAP was to have a general nanofabrication method for preparing electronics-grade circuitry, but one that would operate at macromolecular dimensions and with access to a broad materials set. Thus, electronics applications, including novel demultiplexing architectures; large-scale, ultrahigh-density memory circuits; and complementary symmetry nanowire logic circuits, have served as drivers for developing various aspects of the SNAP method. Some of that work is reviewed here. As the SNAP method has evolved into a robust nanofabrication

  15. Experimental Criticality Benchmarks for SNAP 10A/2 Reactor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Krass, A.W.

    2005-12-19

    This report describes computational benchmark models for nuclear criticality derived from descriptions of the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Critical Assembly (SCA)-4B experimental criticality program conducted by Atomics International during the early 1960's. The selected experimental configurations consist of fueled SNAP 10A/2-type reactor cores subject to varied conditions of water immersion and reflection under experimental control to measure neutron multiplication. SNAP 10A/2-type reactor cores are compact volumes fueled and moderated with the hydride of highly enriched uranium-zirconium alloy. Specifications for the materials and geometry needed to describe a given experimental configuration for a model using MCNP5 are provided. The material and geometry specifications are adequate to permit user development of input for alternative nuclear safety codes, such as KENO. A total of 73 distinct experimental configurations are described.

  16. SNAP/SHOT Your Ability to Support That Next Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ernest L.

    SNAP/SHOT (System Network Analysis Program-Simulated Host Overview Technique) is a discrete simulation of a network and/or host model available through IBM at the Raleigh System Center. The simulator provides an analysis of a total IBM Communications System. Input data must be obtained from RMF, SMF, and the CICS Analyzer to determine the existing…

  17. Mapping snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) pod and color traits, in a dry bean x snap bean recombinant inbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) breeding programs are tasked with developing varieties that meet the standards of the vegetable processing industry and ultimately that of the consumer; all the while matching or exceeding the field performance of existing varieties. While traditional breeding methods ...

  18. Belt-snap and towel-snap shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary; Hargather, Michael; Lawson, Michael; Bigger, Rory

    2007-11-01

    Traditional simple means of generating shock waves are examined by high-speed imaging. A leather belt is folded upon itself at mid-length and the ends are grasped firmly in each hand. When pushed together a loop forms, and when quickly pulled apart the loop closes rapidly, producing a sharp ``crack'' similar to the cracking of a whip (Shock Waves 8(1), 1998). The towel-snap mimics whip cracking by causing the towel end to rotate supersonically. We investigated these phenomena using a high-speed digital camera (10k and 30k frames/sec, 4 microsec exposure) and a sensitive schlieren optical system of 1m aperture. Results show that compression of the air between the two rapidly-approaching leather belt bands first causes a spherical shock wave to form near one hand. The compression then runs along the belt length toward the other hand at supersonic speed, producing an oblique shock wave that is responsible for the audible crack. In the towel-snap, shock waves are visible from tip motion in open air as well as from the compression due to snapping the towel against a surface. There are no known useful applications of these simple phenomena, but they do address how weak shock waves can be generated by muscle power alone. Several other related examples are also mentioned.

  19. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  20. Management of Snapping Scapula Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mark L; Miller, Andrew J; Ballard, Brooke L; Botte, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Snapping scapula syndrome is a rare condition caused by the disruption of the gliding articulation between the anterior scapula and the posterior chest wall. The etiology of snapping scapula syndrome is multifactorial, and contributing factors include scapular dyskinesis, bursitis from repetitive use or trauma, and periscapular lesions. Although the majority of cases are initially treated with nonoperative modalities, recalcitrant snapping scapula syndrome can warrant surgical management. This report describes a 34-year-old amateur weight lifter with a 1-year history of increasing pain and fullness over his posterior shoulder region. He reported full shoulder motion associated with an audible, palpable, and painful crepitus, exacerbated with overhead movement and wall pushups. Previous periscapular stabilization exercises and corticosteroid injection yielded minimal resolution of his symptoms. Prior to being referred to the authors' clinic, the patient was evaluated at an outside facility and deemed a suboptimal candidate for arthroscopic bursectomy because of the large size and location of this lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large polylobulated fluid collection causing scapulothoracic distention. There was no evidence of osseous abnormalities originating from the scapular body. Computed tomography-guided placement of methylene blue and contrast dye was used to facilitate localization and, in an effort to minimize recurrence, ensure the complete removal of bursal tissue. During 8 weeks, this patient recovered unremarkably and returned to full-duty activities with resolution of symptoms. The authors present the management of chronic and recalcitrant snapping scapula syndrome, and report the open excision of the largest scapulothoracic bursal lesion described, to their knowledge, in the English literature. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e783-e786.]. PMID:27280624

  1. SnapShot: Interferon Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kwan T; Gale, Michael

    2015-12-17

    Interferons (IFNs) are crucial cytokines of antimicrobial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activity. The three types of IFN (I, II, and III) are classified by their receptor specificity and sequence homology. IFNs are produced and secreted by cells in response to specific stimuli. Here, we review the subsequent IFN signaling events occurring through unique receptors leading to regulation of gene expression for modulation of innate and adaptive immunity. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.

  2. Near infrared detectors for SNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Schubnell, M.; Barron, N.; Bebek, C.; Brown, M.G.; Borysow, M.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Lorenzon, W.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, R.; Tarle, G.

    2006-05-23

    Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 um. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in redshift while it allows at the same time low dark current operation of the passively cooled detectors at 140 K. Here the baseline SNAP near infrared system is briefly described and the science driven requirements for the near infrared detectors are summarized. A few results obtained during the testing of engineering grade near infrared devices procured for the SNAP project are highlighted. In particular some recent measurements that target correlated noise between adjacent detector pixels due to capacitive coupling and the response uniformity within individual detector pixels are discussed.

  3. The Curious Acoustic Behavior of Estuarine Snapping Shrimp: Temporal Patterns of Snapping Shrimp Sound in Sub-Tidal Oyster Reef Habitat.

    PubMed

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R; Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B

    2016-01-01

    Ocean soundscapes convey important sensory information to marine life. Like many mid-to-low latitude coastal areas worldwide, the high-frequency (>1.5 kHz) soundscape of oyster reef habitat within the West Bay Marine Reserve (36°N, 76°W) is dominated by the impulsive, short-duration signals generated by snapping shrimp. Between June 2011 and July 2012, a single hydrophone deployed within West Bay was programmed to record 60 or 30 seconds of acoustic data every 15 or 30 minutes. Envelope correlation and amplitude information were then used to count shrimp snaps within these recordings. The observed snap rates vary from 1500-2000 snaps per minute during summer to <100 snaps per minute during winter. Sound pressure levels are positively correlated with snap rate (r = 0.71-0.92) and vary seasonally by ~15 decibels in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Snap rates are positively correlated with water temperatures (r = 0.81-0.93), as well as potentially influenced by climate-driven changes in water quality. Light availability modulates snap rate on diurnal time scales, with most days exhibiting a significant preference for either nighttime or daytime snapping, and many showing additional crepuscular increases. During mid-summer, the number of snaps occurring at night is 5-10% more than predicted by a random model; however, this pattern is reversed between August and April, with an excess of up to 25% more snaps recorded during the day in the mid-winter. Diurnal variability in sound pressure levels is largest in the mid-winter, when the overall rate of snapping is at its lowest, and the percentage difference between daytime and nighttime activity is at its highest. This work highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the ecology and acoustic behavior of one of the most dominant soniforous invertebrate species in coastal systems. It also underscores the necessity of long-duration, high-temporal-resolution sampling in efforts to understand the bioacoustics of animal behaviors and

  4. The Curious Acoustic Behavior of Estuarine Snapping Shrimp: Temporal Patterns of Snapping Shrimp Sound in Sub-Tidal Oyster Reef Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean soundscapes convey important sensory information to marine life. Like many mid-to-low latitude coastal areas worldwide, the high-frequency (>1.5 kHz) soundscape of oyster reef habitat within the West Bay Marine Reserve (36°N, 76°W) is dominated by the impulsive, short-duration signals generated by snapping shrimp. Between June 2011 and July 2012, a single hydrophone deployed within West Bay was programmed to record 60 or 30 seconds of acoustic data every 15 or 30 minutes. Envelope correlation and amplitude information were then used to count shrimp snaps within these recordings. The observed snap rates vary from 1500–2000 snaps per minute during summer to <100 snaps per minute during winter. Sound pressure levels are positively correlated with snap rate (r = 0.71–0.92) and vary seasonally by ~15 decibels in the 1.5–20 kHz range. Snap rates are positively correlated with water temperatures (r = 0.81–0.93), as well as potentially influenced by climate-driven changes in water quality. Light availability modulates snap rate on diurnal time scales, with most days exhibiting a significant preference for either nighttime or daytime snapping, and many showing additional crepuscular increases. During mid-summer, the number of snaps occurring at night is 5–10% more than predicted by a random model; however, this pattern is reversed between August and April, with an excess of up to 25% more snaps recorded during the day in the mid-winter. Diurnal variability in sound pressure levels is largest in the mid-winter, when the overall rate of snapping is at its lowest, and the percentage difference between daytime and nighttime activity is at its highest. This work highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the ecology and acoustic behavior of one of the most dominant soniforous invertebrate species in coastal systems. It also underscores the necessity of long-duration, high-temporal-resolution sampling in efforts to understand the bioacoustics of animal behaviors

  5. The Curious Acoustic Behavior of Estuarine Snapping Shrimp: Temporal Patterns of Snapping Shrimp Sound in Sub-Tidal Oyster Reef Habitat.

    PubMed

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R; Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B

    2016-01-01

    Ocean soundscapes convey important sensory information to marine life. Like many mid-to-low latitude coastal areas worldwide, the high-frequency (>1.5 kHz) soundscape of oyster reef habitat within the West Bay Marine Reserve (36°N, 76°W) is dominated by the impulsive, short-duration signals generated by snapping shrimp. Between June 2011 and July 2012, a single hydrophone deployed within West Bay was programmed to record 60 or 30 seconds of acoustic data every 15 or 30 minutes. Envelope correlation and amplitude information were then used to count shrimp snaps within these recordings. The observed snap rates vary from 1500-2000 snaps per minute during summer to <100 snaps per minute during winter. Sound pressure levels are positively correlated with snap rate (r = 0.71-0.92) and vary seasonally by ~15 decibels in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Snap rates are positively correlated with water temperatures (r = 0.81-0.93), as well as potentially influenced by climate-driven changes in water quality. Light availability modulates snap rate on diurnal time scales, with most days exhibiting a significant preference for either nighttime or daytime snapping, and many showing additional crepuscular increases. During mid-summer, the number of snaps occurring at night is 5-10% more than predicted by a random model; however, this pattern is reversed between August and April, with an excess of up to 25% more snaps recorded during the day in the mid-winter. Diurnal variability in sound pressure levels is largest in the mid-winter, when the overall rate of snapping is at its lowest, and the percentage difference between daytime and nighttime activity is at its highest. This work highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the ecology and acoustic behavior of one of the most dominant soniforous invertebrate species in coastal systems. It also underscores the necessity of long-duration, high-temporal-resolution sampling in efforts to understand the bioacoustics of animal behaviors and

  6. Snapping Pes Syndrome after Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Taketomi, Shuji; Yamagami, Ryota; Tahara, Keitaro; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Snapping pes syndrome is defined as a snapping sensation in the medial knee caused by pes anserinus and rarely occurs. Snapping pes syndrome after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has not been reported yet. We experienced two cases with this syndrome after UKA. Conservative treatment was effective in one case, while surgical excision of the gracilis tendon was necessary to relieve painful snapping in the other case. The main cause of the first case might be posteromedial overhang of the tibial tray that reached up to 5 mm. The probable cause of the second case was posteromedial overhang of the mobile bearing. PMID:27274476

  7. Ending SNAP subsidies for sugar-sweetened beverages could reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Seligman, Hilary Kessler; Gardner, Christopher; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-06-01

    To reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes rates, lawmakers have proposed modifying Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits to encourage healthier food choices. We examined the impact of two proposed policies: a ban on using SNAP dollars to buy sugar-sweetened beverages; and a subsidy in which for every SNAP dollar spent on fruit and vegetables, thirty cents is credited back to participants' SNAP benefit cards. We used nationally representative data and models describing obesity, type 2 diabetes, and determinants of food consumption among a sample of over 19,000 SNAP participants. We found that a ban on SNAP purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages would be expected to significantly reduce obesity prevalence and type 2 diabetes incidence, particularly among adults ages 18-65 and some racial and ethnic minorities. The subsidy policy would not be expected to have a significant effect on obesity and type 2 diabetes, given available data. Such a subsidy could, however, more than double the proportion of SNAP participants who meet federal vegetable and fruit consumption guidelines.

  8. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  9. Internal snapping hip syndrome in dynamic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Maczuch, Jarosław; Skupiński, Jarosław; Kukawska-Sysio, Karolina; Wawrzynek, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Snapping hip syndrome is an audible or palpable snap in a hip joint during movement which may be accompanied by pain or locking. It is typically seen in young athletes performing activities requiring repeated extreme movements of the hip. It may also follow a physical trauma, intramuscular injections or surgeries. There are two main forms of snapping hip: extra- or intra-articular. Extra-articular snapping hip is elicited by an abnormal movement of specific tendons and is divided into two forms: internal and external. The internal form of snapping hip syndrome is attributed to an abrupt movement of an iliopsoas tendon against an iliopectineal eminence. Radiograph results in patients with this form of snapping tend to be normal. Dynamic ultrasound is the gold standard diagnostic technique in both forms of extra-articular snapping hip syndrome. The objective of the following text is to describe a step-by-step dynamic ultrasonography examination in internal extra-articular snapping hip syndrome in accordance to the proposed checklist protocol. To evaluate abrupt movement of an involved tendon, the patient needs to perform specific provocation tests during the examination. With its real-time imaging capabilities, dynamic ultrasonography detects the exact mechanism of the abnormal tendon friction during hip movement in a noninvasive way. It also allows for a diagnosis of additional hip tissue changes which may be causing the pain. PMID:27679733

  10. Internal snapping hip syndrome in dynamic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Piechota, Małgorzata; Maczuch, Jarosław; Skupiński, Jarosław; Kukawska-Sysio, Karolina; Wawrzynek, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    Snapping hip syndrome is an audible or palpable snap in a hip joint during movement which may be accompanied by pain or locking. It is typically seen in young athletes performing activities requiring repeated extreme movements of the hip. It may also follow a physical trauma, intramuscular injections or surgeries. There are two main forms of snapping hip: extra- or intra-articular. Extra-articular snapping hip is elicited by an abnormal movement of specific tendons and is divided into two forms: internal and external. The internal form of snapping hip syndrome is attributed to an abrupt movement of an iliopsoas tendon against an iliopectineal eminence. Radiograph results in patients with this form of snapping tend to be normal. Dynamic ultrasound is the gold standard diagnostic technique in both forms of extra-articular snapping hip syndrome. The objective of the following text is to describe a step-by-step dynamic ultrasonography examination in internal extra-articular snapping hip syndrome in accordance to the proposed checklist protocol. To evaluate abrupt movement of an involved tendon, the patient needs to perform specific provocation tests during the examination. With its real-time imaging capabilities, dynamic ultrasonography detects the exact mechanism of the abnormal tendon friction during hip movement in a noninvasive way. It also allows for a diagnosis of additional hip tissue changes which may be causing the pain. PMID:27679733

  11. Internal snapping hip syndrome in dynamic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Maczuch, Jarosław; Skupiński, Jarosław; Kukawska-Sysio, Karolina; Wawrzynek, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Snapping hip syndrome is an audible or palpable snap in a hip joint during movement which may be accompanied by pain or locking. It is typically seen in young athletes performing activities requiring repeated extreme movements of the hip. It may also follow a physical trauma, intramuscular injections or surgeries. There are two main forms of snapping hip: extra- or intra-articular. Extra-articular snapping hip is elicited by an abnormal movement of specific tendons and is divided into two forms: internal and external. The internal form of snapping hip syndrome is attributed to an abrupt movement of an iliopsoas tendon against an iliopectineal eminence. Radiograph results in patients with this form of snapping tend to be normal. Dynamic ultrasound is the gold standard diagnostic technique in both forms of extra-articular snapping hip syndrome. The objective of the following text is to describe a step-by-step dynamic ultrasonography examination in internal extra-articular snapping hip syndrome in accordance to the proposed checklist protocol. To evaluate abrupt movement of an involved tendon, the patient needs to perform specific provocation tests during the examination. With its real-time imaging capabilities, dynamic ultrasonography detects the exact mechanism of the abnormal tendon friction during hip movement in a noninvasive way. It also allows for a diagnosis of additional hip tissue changes which may be causing the pain.

  12. Snap-in compressible biomedical electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Hillman, C. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A replaceable, prefilled electrode enclosed in a plastic seal and suitably adapted for attachment to a reusable, washable cap having snaps thereon is disclosed. The apparatus is particularly adapted for quick positioning of electrodes to obtain an EEG. The individual electrodes are formed of a sponge body which is filled with a conductive electrolyte gel during manufacture. The sponge body is adjacent to a base formed of a conductive plastic material. The base has at its center a male gripper snap. The cap locates the female snap to enable the electrode to be positioned. The electrode can be stored and used quickly by attaching to the female gripper snap. The snap is correctly positioned and located by mounting it in a stretchable cap. The cap is reusable with new electrodes for each use. The electrolyte gel serves as the contact electrode to achieve a good ohmic contact with the scalp.

  13. Understanding and Treating the Snapping Hip.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Meng; Lewis, Cara L; Kim, Young-Jo

    2015-12-01

    Snapping hip, or coxa saltans is a palpable or auditory snapping with movement of the hip joint. Extra-articular snapping is divided into external and internal types, and is caused laterally by the iliotibial band and anteriorly by the iliopsoas tendon. Snapping of the iliopsoas usually requires contraction of the hip flexors and may be difficult to distinguish from intra-articular coxa saltans. Ultrasound can be a useful modality to dynamically detect tendon translation during hip movement to support the diagnosis of extra-articular snapping. Coxa saltans is typically treated with conservative measures including anti-inflammatories, stretching, and avoidance of inciting activities. Recalcitrant cases are treated with surgery to lengthen the iliopsoas or the iliotibial band. PMID:26524554

  14. Wide-field surveys from the SNAP mission

    SciTech Connect

    agkim@lbl.gov

    2002-07-23

    The Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a proposed space-borne observatory that will survey the sky with a wide-field optical/NIR imager. The images produced by SNAP will have an unprecedented combination of depth, solid-angle, angular resolution, and temporal sampling. Two 7.5 square-degree fields will be observed every four days over 16 months to a magnitude depth of AB = 27.7 in each of nine filters. Co-adding images over all epochs will give an AB = 30.3 per filter. A 300 square-degree field will be surveyed with no repeat visits to AB = 28 per filter. The nine filters span 3500-17000 {angstrom}. Although the survey strategy is tailored for supernova and weak gravitational lensing observations, the resulting data supports a broad range of auxiliary science programs.

  15. How the Venus flytrap snaps.

    PubMed

    Forterre, Yoël; Skotheim, Jan M; Dumais, Jacques; Mahadevan, L

    2005-01-27

    The rapid closure of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) leaf in about 100 ms is one of the fastest movements in the plant kingdom. This led Darwin to describe the plant as "one of the most wonderful in the world". The trap closure is initiated by the mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. Previous studies have focused on the biochemical response of the trigger hairs to stimuli and quantified the propagation of action potentials in the leaves. Here we complement these studies by considering the post-stimulation mechanical aspects of Venus flytrap closure. Using high-speed video imaging, non-invasive microscopy techniques and a simple theoretical model, we show that the fast closure of the trap results from a snap-buckling instability, the onset of which is controlled actively by the plant. Our study identifies an ingenious solution to scaling up movements in non-muscular engines and provides a general framework for understanding nastic motion in plants.

  16. Optimizing SNAP for Weak Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High, F. W.; Ellis, R. S.; Massey, R. J.; Rhodes, J. D.; Lamoureux, J. I.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) satellite proposes to measure weak gravitational lensing in addition to type Ia supernovae. Its pixel scale has been set to 0.10 arcsec per pixel as established by the needs of supernova observations. To find the optimal pixel scale for accurate weak lensing measurements we conduct a tradeoff study in which, via simulations, we fix the suvey size in total pixels and vary the pixel scale. Our preliminary results show that with a smaller scale of about 0.08 arcsec per pixel we can minimize the contribution of intrinsic shear variance to the error on the power spectrum of mass density distortion. Currently we are testing the robustness of this figure as well as determining whether dithering yields analogous results.

  17. ADP correspondence system: Unsolicited proposal evaluation tracking application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. A.; Goodwin, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A complete description of a correspondence control system, designed to be used by non-ADP clerical personnel is provided. In addition to operating instructions, sufficient design and conceptual information is provided to allow use or adaption of the system in related applications. The complete COBOL program and documentation are available.

  18. ADP Signaling in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Connie Ng; Kou, Ruqin; Johnson, Rosalyn P.; Li, Gordon K.; Michel, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    ADP responses underlie therapeutic approaches to many cardiovascular diseases, and ADP receptor antagonists are in widespread clinical use. The role of ADP in platelet biology has been extensively studied, yet ADP signaling pathways in endothelial cells remain incompletely understood. We found that ADP promoted phosphorylation of the endothelial isoform of nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) at Ser1179 and Ser635 and dephosphorylation at Ser116 in cultured endothelial cells. Although eNOS activity was stimulated by both ADP and ATP, only ADP signaling was significantly inhibited by the P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 or by knockdown of P2Y1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA). ADP activated the small GTPase Rac1 and promoted endothelial cell migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rac1 blocked ADP-dependent eNOS Ser1179 and Ser635 phosphorylation, as well as eNOS activation. We analyzed pathways known to regulate eNOS, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt, ERK1/2, Src, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase-β (CaMKKβ) using the inhibitors wortmannin, PD98059, PP2, and STO-609, respectively. None of these inhibitors altered ADP-modulated eNOS phosphorylation. In contrast, siRNA-mediated knockdown of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibited ADP-dependent eNOS Ser635 phosphorylation and eNOS activity but did not affect eNOS Ser1179 phosphorylation. Importantly, the AMPK enzyme inhibitor compound C had no effect on ADP-stimulated eNOS activity, despite completely blocking AMPK activity. CaMKKβ knockdown suppressed ADP-stimulated eNOS activity, yet inhibition of CaMKKβ kinase activity using STO-609 failed to affect eNOS activation by ADP. These data suggest that the expression, but not the kinase activity, of AMPK and CaMKKβ is necessary for ADP signaling to eNOS. PMID:19783664

  19. Radiation load to the SNAP CCD

    SciTech Connect

    N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov

    2003-08-14

    Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.

  20. A group-randomized controlled trial for health promotion in Girl Scouts: Healthier Troops in a SNAP (Scouting Nutrition & Activity Program)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Girl Scouting may offer a viable channel for health promotion and obesity prevention programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention program delivered through Girl Scout Junior troops that was designed to foster healthful troop meeting environments and increase obesity prevention behaviors at home. Methods Seven Girl Scout troops were randomized to intervention (n = 3, with 34 girls) or standard-care control (n = 4, with 42 girls) conditions. Girls ranged in age from 9 to 13 years (mean 10.5 years). Intervention troop leaders were trained to implement policies promoting physical activity (PA) and healthful eating opportunities at troop meetings, and to implement a curriculum promoting obesity-prevention behaviors at home. The primary outcome variable was child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Secondary outcomes included accelerometer-assessed PA levels in troop meetings, direct observations of snack offerings, time spent in physically active meeting content, and leader encouragement of PA and healthful eating. Results The intervention was delivered with good fidelity, and intervention troops provided greater opportunities for healthful eating and PA (x2 = 210.8, p < .001), relative to control troops. In troop meetings, intervention troop leaders promoted PA (x2 = 23.46, p < .001) and healthful eating (x2 = 18.14, p < .001) more frequently, and discouraged healthful eating and PA less frequently (x2 = 9.63, p = .002) compared to control troop leaders. Most effects of the intervention on individual-level variables of girls and parents were not significantly different from the control condition, including the primary outcome of child BMI z-score (F1, 5 = 0.42, p = .544), parent BMI (F1, 5 = 1.58, p = .264), and related behavioral variables. The notable exception was for objectively assessed troop PA, wherein girls in intervention troops accumulated significantly less sedentary (x2 = 6.3, p = .011), significantly more moderate (x2 = 8.2, p

  1. Preparing diagnostic data for the snap transport code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. A.; Scott, S. D.; Towner, H. H.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes the program snapin which is used to prepare data for transport analysis with the snap code. The data input to snap includes diagnostic profiles [ne(R), Te(R), Ti(R), vφ(R), Zeff(R), Prad(R)] and measurements such as total plasma current, Rmajor, beam power, gas puff rate, etc. snapin reads in the necessary TFTR data, allows editing of that data, including graphical editing of profile data and the selection of physics models. snapin allows comparison of profile data from all diagnostics that measure a quantity, for example, electron temperature profiles from Thomson scattering and electron cyclotron emission (ECE). A powerful user interface is important to help the user prepare input data sets quickly and consistently, because hundreds of variables must be specified for each analysis. snapin facilitates this by a careful organization of menus, display of all scalar data and switch settings within the menus, the graphical editing and comparison of profiles, and step-by-step checking for consistent physics controls [J. Murphy, S. Scott, and H. Towner, The snap User's Guide, Technical Report PPPL-TM-393, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (1992)].

  2. Comparison of STIS and SNAP spectrograph throughputs

    SciTech Connect

    Aldering, Greg

    2002-06-30

    This is a comparison of the measured throughput of STIS on HST versus what we might expect from the spectrograph on SNAP. The principle reference is Woodgate et al. (1998) PASP, 110, 1183. Additional material was taken from the STIS Handbook, available on-line at www.stsci.edu. The goal is to demonstrate that there are sound reasons to expect better performance for a SNAP spectrograph (even one with a grating) than would be expected by scaling from HST+STIS.

  3. Snapping hip: etiopathogenesis and surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Noia, F; Miceli, D; Rotini, R; Fontanesi, G

    1999-01-01

    Snapping hip is a polymorphous pathology the genesis of which is multifactorial, characterized by a snapping sensation which may be painful, and occurring during movement of the hip or during walking. Clinical and instrumental diagnosis for an accurate etiopathogenetic classification is essential to correct surgical treatment, that must be reserved only for cases with painful symptoms and with disorders in walking. The authors provide a classification system of the syndrome, describing four different varieties of the pathology and relative surgical treatment.

  4. Recent Developments in the Recovery of SNAP-DYN Technical Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, William R.; Grimmett, David

    2007-01-30

    SNAP-DYN was a concept for a multi-kilowatt class (i.e., 10 to 50 kWe) of space nuclear electric power systems based on the SNAP reactor, shield, and liquid metal heat transfer technologies developed in the 1960s and coupled with dynamic power conversion hardware and state of the art space radiator technologies. The basic concept minimized the system's development costs by utilizing established technologies for each of the major components within the power system to reduce its overall development schedule. Three power conversion technologies were evaluated for the SNAP-DYN concept including Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with a peak cycle temperature of 672 K, a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) with a peak cycle temperature of 906 K, and a free piston Stirling cycle (FPSC) with a peak cycle temperature of 870 K. Net system conversion efficiencies were estimated to range from 16 to 19 % over the 10 to 50 kWe power range. Specific power levels for these systems were estimated to range from 6.4 to 13 W/kg over the same power range. SNAP-DYN reactor thermal power levels varied from 55 to 260 kWt, but a much longer lifetime (5 to 10 years vs. 1.3 years) was being evaluated for this power system application than had been demonstrated in the 1960s SNAP reactor development program. The last SNAP reactor under development at the end of the program in 1973 was designed for a 5-year mission life at a nominal thermal power level of 110 kWt with a coolant outlet temperature capability of 922 K. This reactor technology formed the basis for the SNAP-DYN reactor concept.

  5. Recent Developments in the Recovery of SNAP-DYN Technical Data Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Determan, William R.; Grimmett, David

    2007-01-01

    SNAP-DYN was a concept for a multi-kilowatt class (i.e., 10 to 50 kWe) of space nuclear electric power systems based on the SNAP reactor, shield, and liquid metal heat transfer technologies developed in the 1960s and coupled with dynamic power conversion hardware and state of the art space radiator technologies. The basic concept minimized the system's development costs by utilizing established technologies for each of the major components within the power system to reduce its overall development schedule. Three power conversion technologies were evaluated for the SNAP-DYN concept including Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with a peak cycle temperature of 672 K, a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) with a peak cycle temperature of 906 K, and a free piston Stirling cycle (FPSC) with a peak cycle temperature of 870 K. Net system conversion efficiencies were estimated to range from 16 to 19 % over the 10 to 50 kWe power range. Specific power levels for these systems were estimated to range from 6.4 to 13 W/kg over the same power range. SNAP-DYN reactor thermal power levels varied from 55 to 260 kWt, but a much longer lifetime (5 to 10 years vs. 1.3 years) was being evaluated for this power system application than had been demonstrated in the 1960s SNAP reactor development program. The last SNAP reactor under development at the end of the program in 1973 was designed for a 5-year mission life at a nominal thermal power level of 110 kWt with a coolant outlet temperature capability of 922 K. This reactor technology formed the basis for the SNAP-DYN reactor concept.

  6. Structure and dynamics of [gamma]-SNAP: Insight into flexibility of proteins from the SNAP family

    SciTech Connect

    Bitto, Eduard; Bingman, Craig A.; Kondrashov, Dmitry A.; McCoy, Jason G.; Bannen, Ryan M.; Wesenberg, Gary E.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2010-02-19

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein gamma ({gamma}-SNAP) is a member of an eukaryotic protein family involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. The X-ray structure of Brachydanio rerio {gamma}-SNAP was determined to 2.6 {angstrom} and revealed an all-helical protein comprised of an extended twisted-sheet of helical hairpins with a helical-bundle domain on its carboxy-terminal end. Structural and conformational differences between multiple observed {gamma}-SNAP molecules and Sec17, a SNAP family protein from yeast, are analyzed. Conformational variation in {gamma}-SNAP molecules is matched with great precision by the two lowest frequency normal modes of the structure. Comparison of the lowest-frequency modes from {gamma}-SNAP and Sec17 indicated that the structures share preferred directions of flexibility, corresponding to bending and twisting of the twisted sheet motif. We discuss possible consequences related to the flexibility of the SNAP proteins for the mechanism of the 20S complex disassembly during the SNAP receptors recycling.

  7. Replacing SNAP-25b with SNAP-25a expression results in metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Valladolid-Acebes, Ismael; Daraio, Teresa; Brismar, Kerstin; Harkany, Tibor; Ögren, Sven Ove; Hökfelt, Tomas G M; Bark, Christina

    2015-08-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is a key molecule in the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE) complex mediating fast Ca(2+)-triggered release of hormones and neurotransmitters, and both splice variants, SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b, can participate in this process. Here we explore the hypothesis that minor alterations in the machinery mediating regulated membrane fusion can increase the susceptibility for metabolic disease and precede obesity and type 2 diabetes. Thus, we used a mouse mutant engineered to express normal levels of SNAP-25 but only SNAP-25a. These SNAP-25b-deficient mice were exposed to either a control or a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. Monitoring of food intake, body weight, hypothalamic function, and lipid and glucose homeostases showed that SNAP-25b-deficient mice fed with control diet developed hyperglycemia, liver steatosis, and adipocyte hypertrophy, conditions dramatically exacerbated when combined with the high-fat/high-sucrose diet. Thus, modified SNARE function regulating stimulus-dependent exocytosis can increase the vulnerability to and even provoke metabolic disease. When combined with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet, this vulnerability resulted in diabesity. Our SNAP-25b-deficient mouse may represent a diabesity model.

  8. Replacing SNAP-25b with SNAP-25a expression results in metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Valladolid-Acebes, Ismael; Daraio, Teresa; Brismar, Kerstin; Harkany, Tibor; Ögren, Sven Ove; Hökfelt, Tomas G M; Bark, Christina

    2015-08-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is a key molecule in the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE) complex mediating fast Ca(2+)-triggered release of hormones and neurotransmitters, and both splice variants, SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b, can participate in this process. Here we explore the hypothesis that minor alterations in the machinery mediating regulated membrane fusion can increase the susceptibility for metabolic disease and precede obesity and type 2 diabetes. Thus, we used a mouse mutant engineered to express normal levels of SNAP-25 but only SNAP-25a. These SNAP-25b-deficient mice were exposed to either a control or a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. Monitoring of food intake, body weight, hypothalamic function, and lipid and glucose homeostases showed that SNAP-25b-deficient mice fed with control diet developed hyperglycemia, liver steatosis, and adipocyte hypertrophy, conditions dramatically exacerbated when combined with the high-fat/high-sucrose diet. Thus, modified SNARE function regulating stimulus-dependent exocytosis can increase the vulnerability to and even provoke metabolic disease. When combined with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet, this vulnerability resulted in diabesity. Our SNAP-25b-deficient mouse may represent a diabesity model. PMID:26195742

  9. Elastocapillary-driven snap-through instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargette, Aurelie; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Neukirch, Sebastien

    2012-02-01

    The snap-through instability, which is present in a wide range of systems ranging from carnivorous plants to MEMS, is a well-known phenomenon in solid mechanics : when a buckled elastic beam is subjected to a transverse force, above a critical load value the buckling mode is switched. Here, we revisit this phenomenon by studying snap-through under capillary forces. In our experiment, a droplet (which replaces the usual dry load) is deposited on a buckled thin strip, clamped horizontally at both ends. In this setup both the weight of the drop and capillary forces jointly act toward the instability. The possibility of reverse elastocapillary snap-through, where the droplet is put under the beam, is then tested and successfully observed, showing the predominance of capillary forces at small enough scales.

  10. Comparative kinematical analyses of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) snap traps

    PubMed Central

    Kampowski, Tim; Metzger, Amélie; Speck, Olga; Speck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Summary Although the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) can be considered as one of the most extensively investigated carnivorous plants, knowledge is still scarce about diversity of the snap-trap motion, the functionality of snap traps under varying environmental conditions, and their opening motion. By conducting simple snap-trap closure experiments in air and under water, we present striking evidence that adult Dionaea snaps similarly fast in aerial and submersed states and, hence, is potentially able to gain nutrients from fast aquatic prey during seasonal inundation. We reveal three snapping modes of adult traps, all incorporating snap buckling, and show that millimeter-sized, much slower seedling traps do not yet incorporate such elastic instabilities. Moreover, opening kinematics of young and adult Dionaea snap traps reveal that reverse snap buckling is not performed, corroborating the assumption that growth takes place on certain trap lobe regions. Our findings are discussed in an evolutionary, biomechanical, functional–morphological and biomimetic context. PMID:27335756

  11. Comparative kinematical analyses of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) snap traps.

    PubMed

    Poppinga, Simon; Kampowski, Tim; Metzger, Amélie; Speck, Olga; Speck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) can be considered as one of the most extensively investigated carnivorous plants, knowledge is still scarce about diversity of the snap-trap motion, the functionality of snap traps under varying environmental conditions, and their opening motion. By conducting simple snap-trap closure experiments in air and under water, we present striking evidence that adult Dionaea snaps similarly fast in aerial and submersed states and, hence, is potentially able to gain nutrients from fast aquatic prey during seasonal inundation. We reveal three snapping modes of adult traps, all incorporating snap buckling, and show that millimeter-sized, much slower seedling traps do not yet incorporate such elastic instabilities. Moreover, opening kinematics of young and adult Dionaea snap traps reveal that reverse snap buckling is not performed, corroborating the assumption that growth takes place on certain trap lobe regions. Our findings are discussed in an evolutionary, biomechanical, functional-morphological and biomimetic context. PMID:27335756

  12. Comparative kinematical analyses of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) snap traps.

    PubMed

    Poppinga, Simon; Kampowski, Tim; Metzger, Amélie; Speck, Olga; Speck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) can be considered as one of the most extensively investigated carnivorous plants, knowledge is still scarce about diversity of the snap-trap motion, the functionality of snap traps under varying environmental conditions, and their opening motion. By conducting simple snap-trap closure experiments in air and under water, we present striking evidence that adult Dionaea snaps similarly fast in aerial and submersed states and, hence, is potentially able to gain nutrients from fast aquatic prey during seasonal inundation. We reveal three snapping modes of adult traps, all incorporating snap buckling, and show that millimeter-sized, much slower seedling traps do not yet incorporate such elastic instabilities. Moreover, opening kinematics of young and adult Dionaea snap traps reveal that reverse snap buckling is not performed, corroborating the assumption that growth takes place on certain trap lobe regions. Our findings are discussed in an evolutionary, biomechanical, functional-morphological and biomimetic context.

  13. Elastocapillary snapping: capillarity induces snap-through instabilities in small elastic beams.

    PubMed

    Fargette, Aurélie; Neukirch, Sébastien; Antkowiak, Arnaud

    2014-04-01

    We report on the capillarity-induced snapping of elastic beams. We show that a millimeter-sized water drop gently deposited on a thin buckled polymer strip may trigger an elastocapillary snap-through instability. We investigate experimentally and theoretically the statics and dynamics of this phenomenon and we further demonstrate that snapping can act against gravity, or be induced by soap bubbles on centimeter-sized thin metal strips. We argue that this phenomenon is suitable to miniaturization and design a condensation-induced spin-off version of the experiment involving a hydrophilic strip placed in a steam flow.

  14. Elastocapillary snapping: capillarity induces snap-through instabilities in small elastic beams.

    PubMed

    Fargette, Aurélie; Neukirch, Sébastien; Antkowiak, Arnaud

    2014-04-01

    We report on the capillarity-induced snapping of elastic beams. We show that a millimeter-sized water drop gently deposited on a thin buckled polymer strip may trigger an elastocapillary snap-through instability. We investigate experimentally and theoretically the statics and dynamics of this phenomenon and we further demonstrate that snapping can act against gravity, or be induced by soap bubbles on centimeter-sized thin metal strips. We argue that this phenomenon is suitable to miniaturization and design a condensation-induced spin-off version of the experiment involving a hydrophilic strip placed in a steam flow. PMID:24745456

  15. SNAP-8 post shutdown gamma radiation approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrn, N. R.; Smith, H. T.; Manning, H. S.

    1972-01-01

    Detector responses were calculated for normalized sources in the Perkins and King energy group structure for a SNAP 8 power system on a NASA space station. Gamma decay rates were then calculated by using an expanded, updated list of isotopic decay data, and from these, actual detector responses were found for the SNAP 8 system. The results indicate that energy-dependent calculations must be made to determine decay gamma dose rates for actual reactor configurations. A simplified method for making these calculations has been devised.

  16. Implementation of Wireless Terminals at Farmers’ Markets: Impact on SNAP Redemption and Overall Sales

    PubMed Central

    Bertmann, Farryl M. W.; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Buman, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Although farmers’ markets offer healthy foods for purchase, many lack the equipment necessary to process convenient, card-based transactions. We assessed the impact of providing wireless terminals to 5 markets on overall sales and redemption of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. Sales increased significantly at 4 of the 5 markets after implementation of the terminals, and overall sales increased above and beyond SNAP redemption alone. Implementation of wireless terminals may be important for improving the financial stability and accessibility of farmers’ markets. PMID:22594725

  17. SNAP Participants' Eating Patterns over the Benefit Month: A Time Use Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hamrick, Karen S; Andrews, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Individuals receiving monthly benefits through the U.S. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) often fall short of food at the end of the month and some report feelings of hunger. To investigate this situation, we used time diaries from the 2006-08 American Time Use Survey and Eating & Health Module to identify the timing of days where respondents reported no eating occurrences. Analysis includes descriptive statistics, a logit model, and a simulated benefit month. We found that SNAP participants were increasingly more likely than nonparticipants to report a day with no eating occurrences over the benefit issuance cycle. This supports the view that there is a monthly cycle in food consumption associated with the SNAP monthly benefit issuance policy. PMID:27410962

  18. SNAP Participants’ Eating Patterns over the Benefit Month: A Time Use Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Individuals receiving monthly benefits through the U.S. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) often fall short of food at the end of the month and some report feelings of hunger. To investigate this situation, we used time diaries from the 2006–08 American Time Use Survey and Eating & Health Module to identify the timing of days where respondents reported no eating occurrences. Analysis includes descriptive statistics, a logit model, and a simulated benefit month. We found that SNAP participants were increasingly more likely than nonparticipants to report a day with no eating occurrences over the benefit issuance cycle. This supports the view that there is a monthly cycle in food consumption associated with the SNAP monthly benefit issuance policy. PMID:27410962

  19. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  20. Snapping Knee Syndrome of the Medial Hamstrings.

    PubMed

    Protzman, Nicole M; Conkle, Sean B; Busch, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Snapping of the medial hamstrings is a rare condition, with few cases reported throughout the literature. The snapping sensation reportedly occurs when a hamstring tendon passes over the medial tibial condyle, a muscle belly, or another tendon. The semitendinosus tendon is frequently involved, but concomitant involvement of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons has also been described. Although the exact etiology remains unclear, authors have theorized that the condition results from a congenital malformation or degradation of the accessory tendinous expansions of the semitendinosus. Whereas most cases resolve with conservative treatments, select cases require surgical intervention. Both the distal surgical release and tendon harvest have proved viable surgical procedures, achieving symptom alleviation with minimal patient morbidity. In this article, a case of medial snapping hamstring tendons involving both the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons is reviewed. A 17-year-old African American girl presented with extreme pain and snapping on the posteromedial aspect of her knee was appreciated. Radiographs were ordered and showed no acute fracture, no acute dislocation, normal medial joint space, normal lateral joint space, and normal patellofemoral space. Conservative and surgical options were reviewed, and the patient elected to undergo harvest of the tendons. Four weeks postoperatively, the patient reported complete resolution of symptoms. To date, there has been no recurrence of symptoms. The authors hope to increase awareness of this condition and add to the existing body of literature. PMID:26488792

  1. Method for reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, R. L. E.; Word, J. L.

    1968-01-01

    Method of reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers uses a degenerative feedback circuit consisting of a resistor and a separate winding on a magnetic core. The feedback circuit extends amplifier range by allowing it to be used at lower values of output current.

  2. SnapShot: Neuronal Regulation of Aging.

    PubMed

    Weir, Heather J; Mair, William B

    2016-07-28

    Aging is characterized by loss of homeostasis across multiple tissues. The nervous system governs whole-body homeostasis by communicating external and internal signals to peripheral tissues. Here, we highlight neuronal mechanisms and downstream outputs that regulate aging and longevity. Targeting these neuronal pathways may be a novel strategy to promote healthy aging. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.

  3. SnapShot: The Bacterial Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Fink, Gero; Szewczak-Harris, Andrzej; Löwe, Jan

    2016-07-14

    Most bacteria and archaea contain filamentous proteins and filament systems that are collectively known as the bacterial cytoskeleton, though not all of them are cytoskeletal, affect cell shape, or maintain intracellular organization. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:27419875

  4. Dismantlement of the TSF-SNAP Reactor Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, Fred J

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the dismantlement of the Tower Shielding Facility (TSF)?Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) reactor, a SNAP-10A reactor used to validate radiation source terms and shield performance models at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1967 through 1973. After shutdown, it was placed in storage at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12), eventually falling under the auspices of the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Disposition Program. To facilitate downblending of the HEU present in the fuel elements, the TSF-SNAP was moved to ORNL on June 24, 2006. The reactor assembly was removed from its packaging, inspected, and the sodium-potassium (NaK) coolant was drained. A superheated steam process was used to chemically react the residual NaK inside the reactor assembly. The heat exchanger assembly was removed from the top of the reactor vessel, and the criticality safety sleeve was exchanged for a new safety sleeve that allowed for the removal of the vessel lid. A chain-mounted tubing cutter was used to separate the lid from the vessel, and the 36 fuel elements were removed and packaged in four U.S. Department of Transportation 2R/6M containers. The fuel elements were returned to Y-12 on July 13, 2006. The return of the fuel elements and disposal of all other reactor materials accomplished the formal objectives of the dismantlement project. In addition, a project model was established for the handling of a fully fueled liquid-metal?cooled reactor assembly. Current criticality safety codes have been benchmarked against experiments performed by Atomics International in the 1950s and 1960s. Execution of this project provides valuable experience applicable to future projects addressing space and liquid-metal-cooled reactors.

  5. SNAP23 Regulates Endothelial Exocytosis of von Willebrand Factor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiuyu; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Lowenstein, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial exocytosis regulates vascular thrombosis and inflammation. The trafficking and release of endothelial vesicles is mediated by SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment protein REceptors) molecules, but the exact identity of endothelial SNAREs has been unclear. Three SNARE molecules form a ternary complex, including isoforms of the syntaxin (STX), vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP), and synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP) families. We now identify SNAP23 as the predominant endothelial SNAP isoform that mediates endothelial exocytosis of von Willebrand Factor (VWF). SNAP23 was localized to the plasma membrane. Knockdown of SNAP23 decreased endothelial exocytosis, suggesting it is important for endothelial exocytosis. SNAP23 interacted with the endothelial exocytic machinery, and formed complexes with other known endothelial SNARE molecules. Taken together, these data suggest that SNAP23 is a key component of the endothelial SNARE machinery that mediates endothelial exocytosis. PMID:26266817

  6. 45 CFR 95.625 - Increased FFP for certain ADP systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-D program are contained in 45 CFR Part 307. The applicable regulations for the Title IV-E program are contained in 45 CFR 1355.55. The applicable regulations for the Title XIX program are contained in 42 CFR Part 433, Subpart C. Federal Financial Participation in Costs of ADP Acquisitions...

  7. SnapShot: Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Christopher J; Crooks, Daniel R; Sourbier, Carole; Schmidt, Laura S; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Linehan, W Marston

    2016-04-11

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous disease made up of a number of different cancer types, with distinct histologies, clinical courses, therapeutic responses, and genetic drivers. Germline mutations in 14 genes have been associated with increased risk of RCC and can result in HIF pathway activation, chromatin dysregulation, and altered metabolism. Knowledge of these pathway alterations can inform the development of targeted therapeutic approaches. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:27070709

  8. Endoscopic iliotibial band release in snapping hip.

    PubMed

    Zini, Raul; Munegato, Daniele; De Benedetto, Massimo; Carraro, Andrea; Bigoni, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Several open surgical techniques have been used to treat recalcitrant cases of snapping iliotibial band with varying results. Recently, endoscopic techniques have become available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of a modified endoscopic iliotibial band release using a longitudinal retrospective case series.
 Fifteen patients (three men and 12 women) with symptomatic external snapping hip were treated with an endoscopic release of the iliotibial band. The average age was 25 years (range 16-37 years). The procedure was performed in the lateral decubitus position using two portals; the iliotibial band was transversally released using a radiofrequency hook probe. The mean follow-up period was 33.8 months (range 12-84 months).
 The snapping phenomenon was overcome in all the patients. The mean pre-op pain VAS score was 5.5 mm (range 5-7 mm) and the mean post-op pain VAS score was 0.53 mm (range 0-2 mm) with a statistically significant reduction with respect to the preoperative value (p<0.0001); sixty percent of the patients were pain-free. The mean postoperative Harris Hip Score was 97.5 (range 94-100). No revision procedures were indicated and all the patients returned to their previous level of activity. The mean patient satisfaction score was, on average, 9.3 mm (range 8-10 mm) on the VAS scale. No complications occurred.
 Endoscopic iliotibial band release is a safe and reproducible technique with excellent results in terms of snapping phenomenon resolution, patient satisfaction, and return to previous level of activity. After strenuous sporting activities 40% of patients complained of very slight pain.

  9. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Snapping turtle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, Brent M.; Anderson, Stanley H.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  10. SnapShot: Neuronal Regulation of Aging.

    PubMed

    Weir, Heather J; Mair, William B

    2016-07-28

    Aging is characterized by loss of homeostasis across multiple tissues. The nervous system governs whole-body homeostasis by communicating external and internal signals to peripheral tissues. Here, we highlight neuronal mechanisms and downstream outputs that regulate aging and longevity. Targeting these neuronal pathways may be a novel strategy to promote healthy aging. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:27471972

  11. Concentration of Tobacco Advertisements at SNAP and WIC Stores, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Mariana; Zhao, Qian-Wei; Szymkowiak, Dorota; Coffman, Ryan; Mallya, Giridhar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco advertising is widespread in urban areas with racial/ethnic minority and low-income households that participate in nutrition assistance programs. Tobacco sales and advertising are linked to smoking behavior, which may complicate matters for low-income families struggling with disparate health risks relating to nutrition and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between the amount and type of tobacco advertisements on tobacco outlets and the outlet type and location. Methods By using field visits and online images, we inspected all licensed tobacco retail outlets in Philadelphia (N = 4,639). Point pattern analyses were used to identify significant clustering of tobacco outlets and outlets with exterior tobacco advertisements. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the outlet’s acceptance of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and the presence of tobacco advertisements. Results Tobacco outlets with exterior tobacco advertisements were significantly clustered in several high-poverty areas. Controlling for racial/ethnic and income composition and land use, SNAP and WIC vendors were significantly more likely to have exterior (SNAP odds ratio [OR], 2.11; WIC OR, 1.59) and interior (SNAP OR, 3.43; WIC OR, 1.69) tobacco advertisements than other types of tobacco outlets. Conclusion Tobacco advertising is widespread at retail outlets, particularly in low-income and racial/ethnic minority neighborhoods. Policy makers may be able to mitigate the effects of this disparate exposure through tobacco retail licensing, local sign control rules, and SNAP and WIC authorization. PMID:25654220

  12. SNAP-tagging the retrograde route.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Ludger; Shafaq-Zadah, Massiullah

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a chemical biology strategy to identify proteins that follow the retrograde transport route from the plasma membrane to the Golgi apparatus, via endosomes. The general principle is the following: plasma membrane proteins are covalently tagged with a first probe. Only the ones that are then transported to trans-Golgi/TGN membranes are covalently bound to a capture reagent that has been engineered into this compartment. Specifically, the first probe is benzylguanine (BG) that is conjugated onto primary amino groups of plasma-membrane proteins. The capture reagent includes an O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase-derived fragment, the SNAP-tag, which forms a covalent linkage with BG. The SNAP-tag is fused to the GFP-tagged Golgi membrane anchor from galactosyl transferase for proper targeting to trans-Golgi/TGN membranes. Cell-surface BG-tagged proteins that are transported to trans-Golgi/TGN membranes (i.e., that are retrograde cargoes) are thereby covalently captured by the SNAP-tag fusion protein. For identification, the latter is immunopurified using GFP-Trap, and associated retrograde cargo proteins are identified by mass spectrometry. We here provide a step-by-step protocol of this method.

  13. Arthroscopic Treatment for External Snapping Hip

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jae Youn; Kwak, Hong Suk; Yoon, Kang Sup; Chang, Jae Suk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of arthroscopic treatment for recalcitrant external snapping hip. Materials and Methods Between September 2011 and June 2013, we evaluated 7 patients (10 cases) with snapping hip who were refractory to conservative treatments for at least 3 months. Two patients (4 cases) were impossible to adduct both knees in 90°of hip flexion. Surgery was done in lateral decubitus position, under spinal anesthesia. We made 2 arthroscopic portals to operate the patients, and used cross-cutting with flap resection technique to treat the lesion. We performed additional gluteal sling release in those 2 patients (4 cases) with adduction difficulty. Average follow-up length was 19 months (range, 12-33 months). Clinical improvement was evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS), modified Harris hip score (mHHS), and also investigated for presence of limping or other complications as well. Results The VAS decreased from 6.8 (range, 6-9) preoperatively to 0.2 (range, 0-2) postoperatively, and the mHHS improved from 68.2 to 94.8 after surgery. None of the patients complained of post-operative wound problem or surgical complications. Conclusion The clinical outcome of arthroscopic treatment for recalcitrant external snapping hip was encouraging and all patients were also satisfied with the cosmetic results. PMID:27536576

  14. Gasket and snap ring installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Southerland, Jr., James M.; Barringer, Jr., Curtis N.

    1994-01-01

    A tool for installing a gasket and a snap ring including a shaft, a first plate attached to the forward end of the shaft, a second plate slidably carried by the shaft, a spring disposed about the shaft between the first and second plates, and a sleeve that is free to slide over the shaft and engage the second plate. The first plate has a loading surface with a loading groove for receiving a snap ring and a shoulder for holding a gasket. A plurality of openings are formed through the first plate, communicating with the loading groove and approximately equally spaced about the groove. A plurality of rods are attached to the second plate, each rod slidable in one of the openings. In use, the loaded tool is inserted into a hollow pipe or pipe fitting having an internal flange and an internal seating groove, such that the gasket is positioned against the flange and the ring is in the approximate plane of the seating groove. The sleeve is pushed against the second plate, sliding the second plate towards the first plate, compressing the spring and sliding the rods forwards in the openings. The rods engage the snap ring and urge the ring from the loading groove into the seating groove.

  15. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    PubMed

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

  16. Gasket and snap ring installation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Southerland, J.M. Jr.; Barringer, C.N. Jr.

    1994-09-06

    A tool is disclosed for installing a gasket and a snap ring including a shaft, a first plate attached to the forward end of the shaft, a second plate slidably carried by the shaft, a spring disposed about the shaft between the first and second plates, and a sleeve that is free to slide over the shaft and engage the second plate. The first plate has a loading surface with a loading groove for receiving a snap ring and a shoulder for holding a gasket. A plurality of openings are formed through the first plate, communicating with the loading groove and approximately equally spaced about the groove. A plurality of rods are attached to the second plate, each rod slidable in one of the openings. In use, the loaded tool is inserted into a hollow pipe or pipe fitting having an internal flange and an internal seating groove, such that the gasket is positioned against the flange and the ring is in the approximate plane of the seating groove. The sleeve is pushed against the second plate, sliding the second plate towards the first plate, compressing the spring and sliding the rods forwards in the openings. The rods engage the snap ring and urge the ring from the loading groove into the seating groove. 6 figs.

  17. Gasket and snap ring installation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Southerland, J.M., Sr.; Barringer, C.N., Sr.

    1993-08-23

    This invention is comprised of a tool for installing a gasket and a snap ring including a shaft, a first plate attached to the forward end of the shaft, a second plate slidably carried by the shaft, a spring disposed about the shaft between the first and second plates, and a sleeve that is free to slide over the shaft and engage the second plate. The first plate has a loading surface with a loading groove for receiving a snap ring and a shoulder for holding a gasket. A plurality of openings are formed through the first plate, communicating with the loading groove and approximately equally spaced about the groove. A plurality of rods are attached to the second plate, each rod slidable in one of the openings. In use, the loaded tool is inserted into a hollow pipe or pipe fitting having an internal flange and an internal seating groove, such that the gasket is positioned against the flange and the ring is in the approximate plane of the seating groove. The sleeve is pushed against the second plate, sliding the second plate towards the first plate, compressing the spring and sliding the rods forwards in the openings. The rods engage the snap ring and urge the ring from the loading groove into the seating groove.

  18. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-limiting ADP release

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, D.D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S.A. Kuznetsov and V.I. Gelfand is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin. The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that P/sub i/ release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (K/sub i/ < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by (/sup 14/C)ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  19. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-Limiting ADP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, David D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S. A. Kuznetsov and V. I. Gelfand [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8530-8534)] is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin (turnover rate per 120-kDa peptide increases from ≈ 0.009 sec-1 to 9 sec-1). The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that Pi release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (Ki < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by [14C]ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  20. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  1. What does SNAP benefit usage tell us about food access in low-income neighborhoods?

    PubMed

    Shannon, Jerry

    2014-04-01

    Current GIS based research on food access has focused primarily on the proximity of food sources to places of residence in low-income communities, with relatively little attention given to actual practices of food procurement. This project addresses this issue by using dasymetric mapping techniques to develop fine scale estimates of benefit usage for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, drawing from existing zip code level data on benefit distribution and redemptions. Based on this data, this research shows that while supermarkets receive almost all SNAP benefits in suburban areas, these stores have a smaller share of all SNAP redemptions in low-income core neighborhoods. In these latter areas, both convenience stores and mid-sized grocers (e.g., discount grocers, food cooperatives, ethnic markets) play a much larger role in residents' food shopping, even when supermarkets are also present. In addition, these core neighborhoods have a net "outflow" of SNAP dollars, meaning that residents of these areas receive more in benefits than is spent at neighborhood food retailers. This finding confirms existing research showing that low-income residents often travel outside their neighborhoods to get food, regardless of the presence or absence of supermarkets. Rather than simply increasing the number of large food outlets in low-access areas, this research suggests that efforts to improve food access and community health must take into account the geographically complex ways residents interact with the food system.

  2. What does SNAP benefit usage tell us about food access in low-income neighborhoods?

    PubMed

    Shannon, Jerry

    2014-04-01

    Current GIS based research on food access has focused primarily on the proximity of food sources to places of residence in low-income communities, with relatively little attention given to actual practices of food procurement. This project addresses this issue by using dasymetric mapping techniques to develop fine scale estimates of benefit usage for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, drawing from existing zip code level data on benefit distribution and redemptions. Based on this data, this research shows that while supermarkets receive almost all SNAP benefits in suburban areas, these stores have a smaller share of all SNAP redemptions in low-income core neighborhoods. In these latter areas, both convenience stores and mid-sized grocers (e.g., discount grocers, food cooperatives, ethnic markets) play a much larger role in residents' food shopping, even when supermarkets are also present. In addition, these core neighborhoods have a net "outflow" of SNAP dollars, meaning that residents of these areas receive more in benefits than is spent at neighborhood food retailers. This finding confirms existing research showing that low-income residents often travel outside their neighborhoods to get food, regardless of the presence or absence of supermarkets. Rather than simply increasing the number of large food outlets in low-access areas, this research suggests that efforts to improve food access and community health must take into account the geographically complex ways residents interact with the food system. PMID:24607670

  3. Snap-Through Instability Patterns in Truss Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Geometrically nonlinear truss structures with snap-through behavior are demonstrated by using an arc length approach within a finite element analysis. The instability patterns are equilibrium paths that are plotted throughout the snap-through event. Careful observation of these patterns helps to identify weak designs in large space structures, as well as identify desirable snap-through behavior in the miniaturization of electronic devices known as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Examples of highly nonlinear trusses that show snap-through behavior are examined by tracing their equilibrium paths.

  4. Proteomics Approaches to Identify Mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated and Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vivelo, Christina A.; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the addition of one or more ADP-ribose units onto protein substrates and this protein modification has been implicated in various cellular processes including DNA damage repair, RNA metabolism, transcription and cell cycle regulation. This review focuses on a compilation of large-scale proteomics studies that identify ADP-ribosylated proteins and their associated proteins by mass spectrometry using a variety of enrichment strategies. Some methods, such as the use of a poly(ADP-ribose)-specific antibody and boronate affinity chromatography and NAD+ analogues, have been employed for decades while others, such as the use of protein microarrays and recombinant proteins that bind ADP-ribose moieties (such as macrodomains), have only recently been developed. The advantages and disadvantages of each method and whether these methods are specific for identifying mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins will be discussed. Lastly, since poly(ADP-ribose) is heterogeneous in length, it has been difficult to attain a mass signature associated with the modification sites. Several strategies on how to reduce polymer chain length heterogeneity for site identification will be reviewed. PMID:25263235

  5. Proteomics approaches to identify mono-(ADP-ribosyl)ated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins.

    PubMed

    Vivelo, Christina A; Leung, Anthony K L

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the addition of one or more ADP-ribose units onto protein substrates and this protein modification has been implicated in various cellular processes including DNA damage repair, RNA metabolism, transcription, and cell cycle regulation. This review focuses on a compilation of large-scale proteomics studies that identify ADP-ribosylated proteins and their associated proteins by MS using a variety of enrichment strategies. Some methods, such as the use of a poly(ADP-ribose)-specific antibody and boronate affinity chromatography and NAD(+) analogues, have been employed for decades while others, such as the use of protein microarrays and recombinant proteins that bind ADP-ribose moieties (such as macrodomains), have only recently been developed. The advantages and disadvantages of each method and whether these methods are specific for identifying mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins will be discussed. Lastly, since poly(ADP-ribose) is heterogeneous in length, it has been difficult to attain a mass signature associated with the modification sites. Several strategies on how to reduce polymer chain length heterogeneity for site identification will be reviewed. PMID:25263235

  6. SNAP: Spreadsheet Nebular Analysis Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komljenovic, M.; Krawchuk, C.; McCall, M.; Kingsburgh, R.; Richer, Michael; Stevenson, C.

    1996-12-01

    A flexible and extensible software package for two dimensional nebular analyses has been implemented using Visual Basic within Microsoft Excel (version 5). From a calibrated list of fluxes and errors for each spectral row (or object), the program first identifies the lines by their source ions by referring to wavelengths generated from atomic data. The atomic data used in all the calculations is easily updated or augmented by the user. Colour excesses can be computed from a reddening law and ratio of total to selective extinction of a user's choice. For each spectral row, line fluxes can be corrected for stellar absorption and reddening and reported in a format suitable for publication. Temperatures, densities, emission coefficients, and ionic abundances are computed using an adaptation of the FIVEL five-level atom routine. The user has complete control over which spectral lines are used in an analysis -- there are no pre-ordained methods. Abundance analyses can be performed using physical conditions either measured or specified for each spectrum. Since the software is embedded in Microsoft Excel, graphical representations of the data are easily created, and extended analyses using the full functionality of the spreadsheet are easily implemented.

  7. SNAP25 Expression in Mammalian Retinal Horizontal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Arlene A.; Brandstätter, Johann Helmut; Morgans, Catherine W.; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal cells mediate inhibitory feedforward and feedback lateral interactions in the outer retina at photoreceptor terminals and bipolar cell dendrites; however, the mechanisms that underlie synaptic transmission from mammalian horizontal cells are poorly understood. The localization of a vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT) to horizontal cell processes in primate and rodent retinae suggested that mammalian horizontal cells release transmitter in a vesicular manner. Toward determining whether the molecular machinery for vesicular transmitter release is present in horizontal cells, we investigated the expression of SNAP25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa), a key SNARE protein, by immunocytochemistry with cell type-specific markers in the retinae of mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey. Different commercial antibodies to SNAP25 were tested on vertical sections of retina. We report the robust expression of SNAP25 in both plexiform layers. Double labeling with SNAP25 and calbindin antibodies demonstrated that horizontal cell processes and their endings in photoreceptor triad synapses were strongly labeled for both proteins in mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey retinae. Double labeling with parvalbumin antibodies in monkey retina verified SNAP25 immunoreactivity in all horizontal cells. Pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy in rabbit retina confirmed expression of SNAP25 in lateral elements within photoreceptor triad synapses. The SNAP25 immunoreactivity in the plexiform layers and outer nuclear layer fell into at least three patterns depending on the antibody, suggesting a differential distribution of SNAP25 isoforms. The presence of SNAP25a and SNAP25b isoforms in mouse retina was established by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. SNAP25 expression in mammalian horizontal cells along with other SNARE proteins is consistent with vesicular exocytosis. PMID:21280047

  8. Snapping scapula syndrome in the military.

    PubMed

    Patzkowski, Jeanne C; Owens, Brett D; Burns, Travis C

    2014-10-01

    Snapping scapula syndrome is a rare condition resulting in painful crepitus of the scapulothoracic articulation that may be more common in a military population because of significant upper extremity load-bearing activities. Conservative management is the first-line therapy and is successful in up to 80% of patients. For those patients who fail conservative management, arthroscopic bursectomy and partial scapulectomy is a reasonable option, but is technically demanding and requires an in-depth understanding of the complex anatomy of the scapulothoracic region. PMID:25280621

  9. Arthroscopic Scapulothoracic Decompression for Snapping Scapula Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Michael; Kasik, Connor; Dietzel, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Snapping scapula syndrome at the superomedial corner of the scapula can lead to significant shoulder dysfunction. Bursectomy with or without partial scapulectomy is currently the most beneficial primary method of treatment in patients in whom nonoperative therapy fails. Arthroscopic access to the scapulothoracic space is simple and reproducible with the technique described in this report. The bursal tissue can be cleared, optimizing visualization of the scapulothoracic space and the anatomic structures. Arthroscopic decompression of the scapulothoracic bursa and resection of the superomedial corner of the scapula are highlighted in a video example. PMID:26870637

  10. Arthroscopic Scapulothoracic Decompression for Snapping Scapula Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saper, Michael; Kasik, Connor; Dietzel, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Snapping scapula syndrome at the superomedial corner of the scapula can lead to significant shoulder dysfunction. Bursectomy with or without partial scapulectomy is currently the most beneficial primary method of treatment in patients in whom nonoperative therapy fails. Arthroscopic access to the scapulothoracic space is simple and reproducible with the technique described in this report. The bursal tissue can be cleared, optimizing visualization of the scapulothoracic space and the anatomic structures. Arthroscopic decompression of the scapulothoracic bursa and resection of the superomedial corner of the scapula are highlighted in a video example. PMID:26870637

  11. Snapping scapula syndrome in the military.

    PubMed

    Patzkowski, Jeanne C; Owens, Brett D; Burns, Travis C

    2014-10-01

    Snapping scapula syndrome is a rare condition resulting in painful crepitus of the scapulothoracic articulation that may be more common in a military population because of significant upper extremity load-bearing activities. Conservative management is the first-line therapy and is successful in up to 80% of patients. For those patients who fail conservative management, arthroscopic bursectomy and partial scapulectomy is a reasonable option, but is technically demanding and requires an in-depth understanding of the complex anatomy of the scapulothoracic region.

  12. A document review to characterize Atomic International SNAP fuels shipped to INEL 1966--1973

    SciTech Connect

    Wahnschaffe, S.D.; Lords, R.E.; Kneff, D.W.; Nagel, W.E.; Pearlman, H.; Schaubert, V.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides the results of a document search and review study to obtain information on the spent fuels for the following six Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) reactor cores now stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL): SNAP-2 Experimental Reactor, SNAP-2 Development Reactor, SNAP-10A Ground Test Reactor, SNAP-8 Experimental Reactor, SNAP-8 Development Reactor, and Shield Test Reactor. The report also covers documentation on SNAP fuel materials from four in-pile materials tests: NAA-82-1, NAA-115-2, NAA-117-1, and NAA-121. Pieces of these fuel materials are also stored at INEL as part of the SNAP fuel shipments.

  13. Endoscopic treatment of snapping hips, iliotibial band, and iliopsoas tendon.

    PubMed

    Ilizaliturri, Victor M; Camacho-Galindo, Javier

    2010-06-01

    Indications for endoscopic surgery of the hip have expanded recently. The technique has found a clear indication in the management of snapping hip syndromes, both external snapping hip and internal snapping hip. Even though the snapping hips (external and internal) share a common name, they are very different in origin. The external snapping hip is produced by the iliotibial band snapping over the prominence of the greater trochanter during flexion and extension. Indication for surgical treatment is painful snapping with failure of conservative treatment. The endoscopic technique is designed to release the iliotibial band producing a diamond shape defect on the iliotibial band lateral to the greater trochanter. The defect allows the greater trochanter to move freely without snapping. The greater trochanteric bursa is resected through the defect and the abductor tendons inspected. This procedure is performed without traction and usually only the peritrochanteric space is accessed. If necessary, hip arthroscopy can also be performed. There is limited literature regarding the results of endoscopic treatment for the external snapping hip syndrome, but early reports are encouraging. The internal snapping hip syndrome is produced by the iliopsoas tendon snapping over the iliopectineal eminence or the femoral head. The snapping phenomenon usually occurs with extension of the hip from a flexed position of more than 90 degree. Two different endoscopic techniques have been described to treat this condition. Iliopsoas tendon release at the level of the hip joint, with this technique the iliopsoas bursa is accessed through an anterior hip capsulotomy and is frequently referred to as a transcapsular release. The second technique is a release at the insertion of the iliopsoas tendon on the lesser trochanter, with this technique the iliospaos bursa is accessed directly. In every report the iliopsoas tendon release has been combined with arthroscopy of the hip joint. It has been

  14. Snapping Supernovae at z>1.7

    SciTech Connect

    Aldering, Greg; Kim, Alex G.; Kowalski, Marek; Linder, Eric V.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2006-07-03

    We examine the utility of very high redshift Type Ia supernovae for cosmology and systematic uncertainty control. Next generation space surveys such as the Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will obtain thousands of supernovae at z>1.7, beyond the design redshift for which the supernovae will be exquisitely characterized. We find that any z gtrsim 2 standard candles' use for cosmological parameter estimation is quite modest and subject to pitfalls; we examine gravitational lensing, redshift calibration, and contamination effects in some detail. The very high redshift supernovae - both thermonuclear and core collapse - will provide copious interesting information on star formation, environment, and evolution. However, the new observational systematics that must be faced, as well as the limited expansion of SN-parameter space afforded, does not point to high value for 1.7SNAP can already achieve at z<1.7. Synergy with observations from JWST and thirty meter class telescopes afford rich opportunities for advances throughout astrophysics.

  15. Dielectric, thermal and mechanical properties of ADP doped PVA composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Jagadish; Bhajantri, R. F.; Ravindrachary, V.; Rathod, Sunil G.; Sheela, T.; Naik, Ishwar

    2015-06-01

    Polymer composites of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), doped with different concentrations of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) has been prepared by solution casting. The formation of complexation between ADP and PVA was confirmed with the help of Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows thermal stability of the prepared composites. Impedance analyzer study revealed the increase in dielectric constant and loss with increase the ADP concentration and the strain rate of the prepared composites decreases with ADP concentration.

  16. Wnt pathway activation by ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eungi; Tacchelly-Benites, Ofelia; Wang, Zhenghan; Randall, Michael P; Tian, Ai; Benchabane, Hassina; Freemantle, Sarah; Pikielny, Claudio; Tolwinski, Nicholas S; Lee, Ethan; Ahmed, Yashi

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling directs fundamental processes during metazoan development and can be aberrantly activated in cancer. Wnt stimulation induces the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin from an inhibitory destruction complex to a stimulatory signalosome. Here we analyse the early effects of Wnt on Axin and find that the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks)--known to target Axin for proteolysis-regulates Axin's rapid transition following Wnt stimulation. We demonstrate that the pool of ADP-ribosylated Axin, which is degraded under basal conditions, increases immediately following Wnt stimulation in both Drosophila and human cells. ADP-ribosylation of Axin enhances its interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, an essential step in signalosome assembly. We suggest that in addition to controlling Axin levels, Tnks-dependent ADP-ribosylation promotes the reprogramming of Axin following Wnt stimulation; and propose that Tnks inhibition blocks Wnt signalling not only by increasing destruction complex activity, but also by impeding signalosome assembly. PMID:27138857

  17. Wnt pathway activation by ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eungi; Tacchelly-Benites, Ofelia; Wang, Zhenghan; Randall, Michael P.; Tian, Ai; Benchabane, Hassina; Freemantle, Sarah; Pikielny, Claudio; Tolwinski, Nicholas S.; Lee, Ethan; Ahmed, Yashi

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling directs fundamental processes during metazoan development and can be aberrantly activated in cancer. Wnt stimulation induces the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin from an inhibitory destruction complex to a stimulatory signalosome. Here we analyse the early effects of Wnt on Axin and find that the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks)—known to target Axin for proteolysis—regulates Axin's rapid transition following Wnt stimulation. We demonstrate that the pool of ADP-ribosylated Axin, which is degraded under basal conditions, increases immediately following Wnt stimulation in both Drosophila and human cells. ADP-ribosylation of Axin enhances its interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, an essential step in signalosome assembly. We suggest that in addition to controlling Axin levels, Tnks-dependent ADP-ribosylation promotes the reprogramming of Axin following Wnt stimulation; and propose that Tnks inhibition blocks Wnt signalling not only by increasing destruction complex activity, but also by impeding signalosome assembly. PMID:27138857

  18. ADP--A Must in the Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majernik, John A.

    1974-01-01

    The rationale for including automated data processing (ADP) in secondary schools is given. ADP instruction: prepares students for data processing employment and for advanced ADP study, aids all students preparing for business careers, aids students in choosing a career, provides consumer information, and adds realism to other classroom…

  19. Office of Inspector General report on audit of controls over the ADP support services contract

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-15

    In March 1995, the Department awarded a cost-plus-award-fee contract to DynCorp valued at approximately $246 million over 5 years for ADP support services at Headquarters. The performance period for the contract was a 3-year base period with two 1-year options. The contract statement of work identified 24 information management functional areas that required technical support services, including Automated Office Systems Support and Local Area Network support. The purpose of the audit was to evaluate the cost-plus-award-fee contract for ADP support services at Headquarters. The objective was to determine whether the Department`s program offices at Headquarters were managing their ADP support services contract costs.

  20. FlexSnap: Flexible Non-sequential Protein Structure Alignment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteins have evolved subject to energetic selection pressure for stability and flexibility. Structural similarity between proteins that have gone through conformational changes can be captured effectively if flexibility is considered. Topologically unrelated proteins that preserve secondary structure packing interactions can be detected if both flexibility and Sequential permutations are considered. We propose the FlexSnap algorithm for flexible non-topological protein structural alignment. Results The effectiveness of FlexSnap is demonstrated by measuring the agreement of its alignments with manually curated non-sequential structural alignments. FlexSnap showed competitive results against state-of-the-art algorithms, like DALI, SARF2, MultiProt, FlexProt, and FATCAT. Moreover on the DynDom dataset, FlexSnap reported longer alignments with smaller rmsd. Conclusions We have introduced FlexSnap, a greedy chaining algorithm that reports both sequential and non-sequential alignments and allows twists (hinges). We assessed the quality of the FlexSnap alignments by measuring its agreements with manually curated non-sequential alignments. On the FlexProt dataset, FlexSnap was competitive to state-of-the-art flexible alignment methods. Moreover, we demonstrated the benefits of introducing hinges by showing significant improvements in the alignments reported by FlexSnap for the structure pairs for which rigid alignment methods reported alignments with either low coverage or large rmsd. Availability An implementation of the FlexSnap algorithm will be made available online at http://www.cs.rpi.edu/~zaki/software/flexsnap. PMID:20047669

  1. Mild cognitive impairment with suspected nonamyloid pathology (SNAP)

    PubMed Central

    Caroli, Anna; Prestia, Annapaola; Galluzzi, Samantha; Ferrari, Clarissa; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Van Berckel, Bart; Barkhof, Frederik; Teunissen, Charlotte; Wall, Anders E.; Carter, Stephen F.; Schöll, Michael; Choo, Il Han; Grimmer, Timo; Redolfi, Alberto; Nordberg, Agneta; Scheltens, Philip; Drzezga, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of progressive cognitive deterioration in patients with suspected non–Alzheimer disease pathology (SNAP) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We measured markers of amyloid pathology (CSF β-amyloid 42) and neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume on MRI and cortical metabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose–PET) in 201 patients with MCI clinically followed for up to 6 years to detect progressive cognitive deterioration. We categorized patients with MCI as A+/A− and N+/N− based on presence/absence of amyloid pathology and neurodegeneration. SNAPs were A−N+ cases. Results: The proportion of progressors was 11% (8/41), 34% (14/41), 56% (19/34), and 71% (60/85) in A−N−, A+N−, SNAP, and A+N+, respectively; the proportion of APOE ε4 carriers was 29%, 70%, 31%, and 71%, respectively, with the SNAP group featuring a significantly different proportion than both A+N− and A+N+ groups (p ≤ 0.005). Hypometabolism in SNAP patients was comparable to A+N+ patients (p = 0.154), while hippocampal atrophy was more severe in SNAP patients (p = 0.002). Compared with A−N−, SNAP and A+N+ patients had significant risk of progressive cognitive deterioration (hazard ratio = 2.7 and 3.8, p = 0.016 and p < 0.001), while A+N− patients did not (hazard ratio = 1.13, p = 0.771). In A+N− and A+N+ groups, none of the biomarkers predicted time to progression. In the SNAP group, lower time to progression was correlated with greater hypometabolism (r = 0.42, p = 0.073). Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that patients with SNAP MCI feature a specific risk progression profile. PMID:25568301

  2. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designating Positions J Appendix J to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 154, App. J Appendix J to Part 154—ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions OMB Circular...

  3. The NASA/USRA ADP at the University of Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. A.; Armitage, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    An approach to learning engineering design is discussed with particular attention given to the impact of the NASA/Universities Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) on that process. Attention is also given to a teaching method stressing science discipline and creativity and various selected space related designs.

  4. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Designating Positions J Appendix J to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 154, App. J Appendix J to Part 154—ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions OMB Circular...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Designating Positions J Appendix J to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 154, App. J Appendix J to Part 154—ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions OMB Circular...

  6. Food Assistance Programs and Child Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Food assistance programs--including the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, or food stamps), the National School Lunch Program, and the School Breakfast Program--have been remarkably successful at their core mission: reducing food insecurity among low-income children. Moreover, writes Craig Gundersen, SNAP in particular has also been…

  7. SNAP sky background at the north ecliptic pole

    SciTech Connect

    Aldering, Greg

    2002-07-01

    I summarize the extant direct and indirect data on the sky background SNAP will see at the North Ecliptic Pole over the wavelength range 0.4 < {lambda} < 1.7 {micro}m. At the spatial resolution of SNAP the sky background due to stars and galaxies is resolved, so the only source considered is zodiacal light. Several models are explored to provide interpolation in wavelength between the broadband data from HST and COBE observations. I believe the input data are now established well enough that the accuracy of the sky background presented here is sufficient for SNAP simulations, and that it will stand up to scrutiny by reviewers.

  8. Snapping knee caused by symptomatic fabella in a native knee.

    PubMed

    Hire, Justin M; Oliver, David L; Hubbard, Ryan C; Fontaine, Michelle L; Bojescul, John A

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of a 31-year-old man with a 5-year history of snapping knee syndrome secondary to a single, large symptomatic fabella of the knee. On physical examination, the patient was able to reproduce an audible and palpable snapping with active range of motion. His condition was refractory to physical therapy. He had undergone a prior iliotibial band release at an outside facility. After excision of the fabella, measuring 15 × 8 × 9 mm, the patient's snapping and pain with activity were resolved.

  9. Cutaneous fibroma in a captive common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Bauer, G; Bauer, A; Aguiar, L S; Brito, L T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2012-11-01

    An adult female common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) had a mass on the plantar surface of the right forelimb that was removed surgically. Microscopical examination revealed many spindle cells with mild anisocytosis and anisokaryosis and a surrounding collagenous stroma. There were no mitoses. Immunohistochemistry showed that the spindle cells expressed vimentin, but not desmin. A diagnosis of cutaneous fibroma was made. Tumours are reported uncommonly in chelonian species. Cutaneous fibroma has been diagnosed in an alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii), but not previously in a common snapping turtle. PMID:22578330

  10. S.N.A.P. and T.W.I.L.: No Matter What You Call It, New Professors Get Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanovich, Frances; Searby, Linda; Rosnick, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This paper details a non-tenured faculty peer mentoring program piloted at Uuuuu University. The Thinking, Writing, Inquiring and Learning (T.W.I.L.) pilot was modeled after a similar peer mentoring program, Support Network for Assistant/Associate Professors (S.N.A.P.), at the University of Xyyyy. The faculty development program offered structured…

  11. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L.; Chriqui, Jamie F.

    2015-01-01

    Under the current version of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), participants can purchase virtually any food or beverage (collectively, food). Research indicates that SNAP recipients may have worse dietary quality than income-eligible nonparticipants. Policymakers have urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to pilot SNAP purchasing restrictions intended to support a healthier diet, and state legislators have proposed similar bills. The USDA rejected these invitations, stating that it would be administratively and logistically difficult to differentiate among products, amid other concerns. However, the USDA’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) do just that. Further, state governments define and differentiate among foods and beverages for tax purposes. This paper reviews several factors intended to inform future policy decisions: the science indicating that SNAP recipients have poorer diet quality than income-eligible nonparticipants; the public’s support for revising the SNAP program; federal, state, and city legislators’ formal proposals to amend SNAP based on nutrition criteria and the USDA’s public position in opposition to these proposals; state bills to amend eligible foods purchasable with SNAP benefits; state retail food tax laws; and the retail administration and program requirements for both WIC and SNAP. The paper finds that the government has a clear ability to align SNAP benefits with nutrition science and operationalize this into law. PMID:26091926

  12. Heterogeneous expression of SNARE proteins SNAP-23, SNAP-25, Syntaxin1 and VAMP in human parathyroid tissue.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Forsberg, Lars; Höög, Anders; Juhlin, Christofer C; Vukojević, Vladana; Larsson, Catharina; Conigrave, Arthur D; Delbridge, Leigh W; Gill, Anthony; Bark, Christina; Farnebo, Lars-Ove; Bränström, Robert

    2008-06-11

    In regulated exocytosis synaptosomal-associated protein of 25kDa (SNAP-25) is one of the key-players in the formation of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor) complex and membrane fusion. SNARE proteins are essentially expressed in neurons, neuroendocrine and endocrine cells. Whether parathyroid cells express these proteins is not known. In this study, we have examined the expression of the SNARE protein SNAP-25 and its cellular homologue SNAP-23, as well as syntaxin1 and VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein) in samples of normal parathyroid tissue, chief cell adenoma, and parathyroid carcinoma, using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. SNAP-23 and VAMP were evenly expressed in all studied parathyroid tissues using immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot analysis. SNAP-25 (and Syntaxin1) was not expressed in normal parathyroid tissue, but in approximately 20% of chief cell adenomas, and in approximately 45% of parathyroid carcinoma samples. It is likely that the SNARE proteins SNAP-23 and VAMP play a role in the stimulus-secretion coupling and exocytosis of parathyroid hormone as these proteins were expressed in all of the parathyroid samples we studied. In particular, preferential expression of SNAP-23 rather than SNAP-25 provides an explanation of the high level of PTH secretion that occurs under conditions of low cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration (around 0.1micromol/l). SNAP-25 (and Syntaxin1) appears to be a tumour-specific protein(s) in parathyroid tissues since its expression was restricted to pathological tissues.

  13. VIEW OF STORAGE ROOM FOR SNAPS, FORMERS, AND FITTERS, WHICH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STORAGE ROOM FOR SNAPS, FORMERS, AND FITTERS, WHICH ARE TOOLS FOR SHAPING AND HANDLING GLASS FOR TABLEWARE PRODUCTION. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  14. Presence of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii.

    PubMed

    Werner, E; Sohst, S; Gropp, F; Simon, D; Wagner, H; Kröger, H

    1984-02-15

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase have been detected in chromatin extracts from the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase was detected by the liberation of ADP-ribose from poly(ADP-ribose). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase was proved by (a) demonstration of phosphoribosyl-AMP in the phosphodiesterase digest of the reaction product, (b) demonstration of ADP-ribose oligomers by fractionation of the reaction product on DEAE-Sephadex. The (ADP-ribose)-protein transfer is dependent on DNA; it is inhibited by nicotinamide, thymidine, theophylline and benzamide. The protein-(ADP-ribose bond is susceptible to 0.1 M NaOH (70%) and 0.4 M NH2OH (33%). Dinoflagellates, nucleated protists, are unique in that their chromatin lacks histones and shows a conformation like bacterial chromatin [Loeblich, A. R., III (1976) J. Protozool. 23, 13--28]; poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, however, has been found only in eucaryotes. Thus our results suggest that histones were not relevant to the establishment of poly(ADP-ribose) during evolution.

  15. Seeing the Nature of the Accelerating Physics: It's a SNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3 /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. /Yale U. /Pennsylvania U. /UC, Berkeley /Michigan U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Indiana U. /Caltech, JPL /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /American Astron. Society /Chicago U. /Cambridge U. /Saclay /Lyon, IPN

    2005-08-05

    For true insight into the nature of dark energy, measurements of the precision and accuracy of the Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) are required. Precursor or scaled-down experiments are unavoidably limited, even for distinguishing the cosmological constant. They can pave the way for, but should not delay, SNAP by developing calibration, refinement, and systematics control (and they will also provide important, exciting astrophysics).

  16. Common snapping turtle preys on an adult western grebe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.; Peterson, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    The identification of predators of aquatic birds can be difficult. The Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentine) is considered a major predator of waterfowl and other aquatic birds, but the evidence for this reputation is based largely on circumstantial or indirect evidence rather than direct observations. Herein, the first documented observations of a snapping turtle attacking and killing an adult Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis) are described.

  17. The natural history of ADP-ribosyltransferases and the ADP-ribosylation system.

    PubMed

    Aravind, L; Zhang, Dapeng; de Souza, Robson F; Anand, Swadha; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M

    2015-01-01

    Catalysis of NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosylation of proteins, nucleic acids, or small molecules has evolved in at least three structurally unrelated superfamilies of enzymes, namely ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART), the Sirtuins, and probably TM1506. Of these, the ART superfamily is the most diverse in terms of structure, active site residues, and targets that they modify. The primary diversification of the ART superfamily occurred in the context of diverse bacterial conflict systems, wherein ARTs play both offensive and defensive roles. These include toxin-antitoxin systems, virus-host interactions, intraspecific antagonism (polymorphic toxins), symbiont/parasite effectors/toxins, resistance to antibiotics, and repair of RNAs cleaved in conflicts. ARTs evolving in these systems have been repeatedly acquired by lateral transfer throughout eukaryotic evolution, starting from the PARP family, which was acquired prior to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. They were incorporated into eukaryotic regulatory/epigenetic control systems (e.g., PARP family and NEURL4), and also used as defensive (e.g., pierisin and CARP-1 families) or immunity-related proteins (e.g., Gig2-like ARTs). The ADP-ribosylation system also includes other domains, such as the Macro, ADP-ribosyl glycohydrolase, NADAR, and ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which appear to have initially diversified in bacterial conflict-related systems. Unlike ARTs, sirtuins appear to have a much smaller presence in conflict-related systems.

  18. The natural history of ADP-ribosyltransferases and the ADP-ribosylation system.

    PubMed

    Aravind, L; Zhang, Dapeng; de Souza, Robson F; Anand, Swadha; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M

    2015-01-01

    Catalysis of NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosylation of proteins, nucleic acids, or small molecules has evolved in at least three structurally unrelated superfamilies of enzymes, namely ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART), the Sirtuins, and probably TM1506. Of these, the ART superfamily is the most diverse in terms of structure, active site residues, and targets that they modify. The primary diversification of the ART superfamily occurred in the context of diverse bacterial conflict systems, wherein ARTs play both offensive and defensive roles. These include toxin-antitoxin systems, virus-host interactions, intraspecific antagonism (polymorphic toxins), symbiont/parasite effectors/toxins, resistance to antibiotics, and repair of RNAs cleaved in conflicts. ARTs evolving in these systems have been repeatedly acquired by lateral transfer throughout eukaryotic evolution, starting from the PARP family, which was acquired prior to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. They were incorporated into eukaryotic regulatory/epigenetic control systems (e.g., PARP family and NEURL4), and also used as defensive (e.g., pierisin and CARP-1 families) or immunity-related proteins (e.g., Gig2-like ARTs). The ADP-ribosylation system also includes other domains, such as the Macro, ADP-ribosyl glycohydrolase, NADAR, and ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which appear to have initially diversified in bacterial conflict-related systems. Unlike ARTs, sirtuins appear to have a much smaller presence in conflict-related systems. PMID:25027823

  19. Site-specific protein labeling with SNAP-tags.

    PubMed

    Cole, Nelson B

    2013-09-24

    Site-specific labeling of cellular proteins with chemical probes is a powerful tool for studying protein function in living cells. A number of small peptide and protein tags have been developed that can be labeled with synthetic probes with high efficiencies and specificities and provide flexibility not available with fluorescent proteins. The SNAP-tag is a modified form of the DNA repair enzyme human O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase, and undergoes a self-labeling reaction to form a covalent bond with O(6)-benzylguanine (BG) derivatives. BG can be modified with a wide variety of fluorophores and other reporter compounds, generally without affecting the reaction with the SNAP-tag. In this unit, basic strategies for labeling SNAP-tag fusion proteins, both for live cell imaging and for in vitro analysis, are described. This includes a description of a releasable SNAP-tag probe that allows the user to chemically cleave the fluorophore from the labeled SNAP-tag fusion. In vitro labeling of purified SNAP-tag fusions is briefly described.

  20. Characterization of SNAP-25 gene from marine teleostean, Lateolabrax japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kui; Huang, Xiaohang; Chai, Yingmei; Gaisano, Herbert Y.

    2007-10-01

    The t-SNARE protein SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa) plays an essential role in regulating fusion between the vesicle and plasma membranes during exocytosis. To clone and characterize SNAP-25 gene, the first step in the functional study of SNARE proteins in marine teleostean, was to obtain the cDNA of sea perch SNAP-25 (SPsn25) by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR amplification of a Japanese sea perch. The full-length cDNA of 831bp contains a CDS of 615 bp, coding 204 amino acid residues, and a 5 UTR of 219bp. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that SPsn25 corresponds with SNAP-25a isoform and shares 91.1% identity with SNAP-25a of a goldfish and a zebrafish. The SPsn25 expression in both mRNA and protein levels in the Japanese sea perch had been identified through semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blot assay. Together, these data again confirmed the nerve tissue specificity of the fish SNAP-25 gene expression.

  1. Nested neutron microfocusing optics on SNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, Gene E; Choi, Jae-Young; Takacs, P. Z.; Khounsary, Ali; Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S; Molaison, Jamie J; Tulk, Christopher A; Andersen, K H; Bigault, T

    2010-01-01

    The high source intensity of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), together with efficient detectors and large detector solid angles, now makes possible neutron experiments with much smaller sample volumes than previously were practical. Nested Kirkpatrick-Baez supermirror optics provide a promising and efficient way to further decrease the useable neutron sample size by focusing polychromatic neutrons into microbeams. Because the optics are nondispersive, they are ideal for spallation sources and for polychromatic and wide bandpass experiments on reactor sources. Theoretical calculations indicate that nested mirrors can preserve source brilliance at the sample for small beams and for modest divergences that are appropriate for diffraction experiments. Although the flux intercepted by a sample can be similar with standard beam-guided approaches, the signal-to-background is much improved with small beams on small samples. Here we describe the design, calibration and performance of a nested neutron mirror pair for the Spallation Neutrons At Pressure (SNAP) beamline at the SNS. High-pressure neutron diffraction is but one example of a large class of neutron experiments that will benefit from spatially-resolved microdiffraction.

  2. ADP-ribosylation of histones by ARTD1: an additional module of the histone code?

    PubMed

    Hottiger, Michael O

    2011-06-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a covalent post-translational protein modification catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases and is involved in important processes such as cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, replication or transcription. Histones are ADP-ribosylated by ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1 at specific amino acid residues, in particular lysines, of the histones tails. Specific ADP-ribosyl hydrolases and poly-ADP-ribose glucohydrolases degrade the ADP-ribose polymers. The ADP-ribose modification is read by zinc finger motifs or macrodomains, which then regulate chromatin structure and transcription. Thus, histone ADP-ribosylation may be considered an additional component of the histone code.

  3. ADP Analysis project for the Human Resources Management Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tureman, Robert L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The ADP (Automated Data Processing) Analysis Project was conducted for the Human Resources Management Division (HRMD) of NASA's Langley Research Center. The three major areas of work in the project were computer support, automated inventory analysis, and an ADP study for the Division. The goal of the computer support work was to determine automation needs of Division personnel and help them solve computing problems. The goal of automated inventory analysis was to find a way to analyze installed software and usage on a Macintosh. Finally, the ADP functional systems study for the Division was designed to assess future HRMD needs concerning ADP organization and activities.

  4. ADP-ribosylation Factor-related Protein 1 Interacts with NS5A and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Propagation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun-Sook; Ngo, Huong T T; Lee, Jihye; Son, Kidong; Park, Eun-Mee; Hwang, Soon B

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is tightly coupled to the lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have previously screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet (LD) formation using cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. In this study, we selected and characterized the gene encoding ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1). ARFRP1 is essential for LD growth and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ARFRP1 significantly inhibited HCV replication in both subgenomic replicon cells and HCVcc-infected cells. ARFRP1 interacted with NS5A and NS5A partially colocalized with LD. Silencing of ARFRP1 abrogated HCV-induced LD growth and viral protein expressions. Moreover, ARFRP1 recruited synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) to sites in close proximity to LDs in HCV-infected cells. Silencing of ARFRP1 ablated relocalization of SNAP23 to LD. These data indicate that HCV regulates ARFRP1 for LD growth to facilitate viral propagation and thus ARFRP1 may be a potential target for antiviral therapy. PMID:27550144

  5. ADP-ribosylation Factor-related Protein 1 Interacts with NS5A and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun-Sook; Ngo, Huong T. T.; Lee, Jihye; Son, Kidong; Park, Eun-Mee; Hwang, Soon B.

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is tightly coupled to the lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have previously screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet (LD) formation using cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. In this study, we selected and characterized the gene encoding ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1). ARFRP1 is essential for LD growth and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ARFRP1 significantly inhibited HCV replication in both subgenomic replicon cells and HCVcc-infected cells. ARFRP1 interacted with NS5A and NS5A partially colocalized with LD. Silencing of ARFRP1 abrogated HCV-induced LD growth and viral protein expressions. Moreover, ARFRP1 recruited synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) to sites in close proximity to LDs in HCV-infected cells. Silencing of ARFRP1 ablated relocalization of SNAP23 to LD. These data indicate that HCV regulates ARFRP1 for LD growth to facilitate viral propagation and thus ARFRP1 may be a potential target for antiviral therapy. PMID:27550144

  6. SNAP-25, a Known Presynaptic Protein with Emerging Postsynaptic Functions

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Flavia; Corradini, Irene; Fossati, Giuliana; Tomasoni, Romana; Menna, Elisabetta; Matteoli, Michela

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of synaptic specializations is their dependence on highly organized complexes of proteins that interact with each other. The loss or modification of key synaptic proteins directly affects the properties of such networks, ultimately impacting synaptic function. SNAP-25 is a component of the SNARE complex, which is central to synaptic vesicle exocytosis, and, by directly interacting with different calcium channels subunits, it negatively modulates neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels, thus regulating intracellular calcium dynamics. The SNAP-25 gene has been associated with distinct brain diseases, including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, indicating that the protein may act as a shared biological substrate among different “synaptopathies”. The mechanisms by which alterations in SNAP-25 may concur to these psychiatric diseases are still undefined, although alterations in neurotransmitter release have been indicated as potential causative processes. This review summarizes recent work showing that SNAP-25 not only controls exo/endocytic processes at the presynaptic terminal, but also regulates postsynaptic receptor trafficking, spine morphogenesis, and plasticity, thus opening the possibility that SNAP-25 defects may contribute to psychiatric diseases by impacting not only presynaptic but also postsynaptic functions. PMID:27047369

  7. SNAP-25, a Known Presynaptic Protein with Emerging Postsynaptic Functions.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Flavia; Corradini, Irene; Fossati, Giuliana; Tomasoni, Romana; Menna, Elisabetta; Matteoli, Michela

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of synaptic specializations is their dependence on highly organized complexes of proteins that interact with each other. The loss or modification of key synaptic proteins directly affects the properties of such networks, ultimately impacting synaptic function. SNAP-25 is a component of the SNARE complex, which is central to synaptic vesicle exocytosis, and, by directly interacting with different calcium channels subunits, it negatively modulates neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels, thus regulating intracellular calcium dynamics. The SNAP-25 gene has been associated with distinct brain diseases, including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, indicating that the protein may act as a shared biological substrate among different "synaptopathies". The mechanisms by which alterations in SNAP-25 may concur to these psychiatric diseases are still undefined, although alterations in neurotransmitter release have been indicated as potential causative processes. This review summarizes recent work showing that SNAP-25 not only controls exo/endocytic processes at the presynaptic terminal, but also regulates postsynaptic receptor trafficking, spine morphogenesis, and plasticity, thus opening the possibility that SNAP-25 defects may contribute to psychiatric diseases by impacting not only presynaptic but also postsynaptic functions.

  8. Structurally-Tailorable, Nonlinear, Snap-Through Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Farley, Gary L.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    Abrupt change in load/deflection response controllable and predictable. Structurally-tailorable, nonlinear, snap-through spring (STNSTS) exhibits controllable and predictable abrupt change in load/deflection response and based upon known phenomenon of snap-through structural response. Composed of pin-connected two-bar linkage which depicts combined tension/compression springs. As load applied to STNSTS, stiffness is function of internal spring and bending stiffness of pin-connected bars. As load increases, bars deform laterally until they collapse and snap through. Has application in passively-tailored rotor-blade flap, pitch, and lag response, to improve aerodynamic performance and stability characteristics of rotors; in aerodynamically- and aeroelastically-tailored wing spars and ribs, to produce tailored deformation state for improved effectiveness in maneuvering, aerodynamic performance, and stability characteristics; and in energy absorbers for automobile bumpers and aircraft land

  9. Territorial aggressiveness and predation: two possible origins of snapping in the ant Plectroctena minor.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Suzzoni, Jean-Pierre; Schatz, Bertrand; Orivel, Jérôme

    2002-07-01

    Plectroctena minor workers have long mandibles that can snap and deliver a sharp blow to intruders or prey, stunning or killing them. Encounters between homocolonial P. minor workers separated for 24 h or 15 days never resulted in snapping, while this behaviour was always noted during encounters between heterocolonial workers on neutral arenas or on the territory of a colony. In the latter case, only the aliens, that generally tried to escape, were snapped at. Snapping also occurred during encounters with workers belonging to sympatric ponerine species. During predation, the percentages of snapping varied according to prey nature, suggesting prey discrimination. Termite soldiers were always snapped at, while other prey were more often snapped close to rather than far from the nest entrances, indicating an intermingling of territorial aggressiveness and predatory behaviour. We discuss the adaptive value of snapping for hunting in galleries. PMID:12360850

  10. Snaps in structures. [encountered in a solar array for a spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1979-01-01

    Snaps as a type of shock phenomena which arise in structures employing films, or strings are studied. The sources and the variety of such snaps are defined and a new mathematical model for their investigation is presented.

  11. Nudix hydrolases degrade protein-conjugated ADP-ribose

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Casey M.; Thirawatananond, Puchong; Ong, Shao-En; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the transfer of the ADP-ribose group from NAD+ to target proteins post-translationally, either attached singly as mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR) or in polymeric chains as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Though ADP-ribosylation is therapeutically important, investigation of this protein modification has been limited by a lack of proteomic tools for site identification. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of a tag-based pipeline in which MAR/PAR is hydrolyzed down to phosphoribose, leaving a 212 Dalton tag at the modification site. While the pipeline has been proven effective by multiple groups, a barrier to application has become evident: the enzyme used to transform MAR/PAR into phosphoribose must be purified from the rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus venom, which is contaminated with proteases detrimental for proteomic applications. Here, we outline the steps necessary to purify snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVP) and describe two alternatives to SVP—the bacterial Nudix hydrolase EcRppH and human HsNudT16. Importantly, expression and purification schemes for these Nudix enzymes have already been proven, with high-quality yields easily attainable. We demonstrate their utility in identifying ADP-ribosylation sites on Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) with mass spectrometry and discuss a structure-based rationale for this Nudix subclass in degrading protein-conjugated ADP-ribose, including both MAR and PAR. PMID:26669448

  12. A Clickable Aminooxy Probe for Monitoring Cellular ADP-Ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Rory K.; Cohen, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is essential for cell function, yet there is a dearth of methods for detecting this post-translational modification in cells. Here, we describe a clickable aminooxy alkyne (AO-alkyne) probe that can detect cellular ADP-ribosylation on acidic amino acids following Cu-catalyzed conjugation to an azide-containing reporter. Using AO-alkyne, we show that PARP10 and PARP11 are auto-ADP-ribosylated in cells. We also demonstrate that AO-alkyne can be used to monitor stimulus-induced ADP-ribosylation in cells. Functional studies using AO-alkyne support a previously unknown mechanism for ADP-ribosylation on acidic amino acids, wherein a glutamate or aspartate at the initial C1′-position of ADP-ribose transfers to the C2′ position. This new mechanism for ADP-ribosylation has important implications for how glutamyl/aspartyl-ADP-ribose is recognized by proteins in cells. PMID:25978521

  13. Analysis of variation for white mold resistance in the BeanCAP snap bean panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary, is one of the most devastated diseases that infect snap and dry beans (Miklas et al. 2013). The USDA-NIFA supported Bean Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) has assembled and genotyped dry and a snap bean panels. The snap bean pa...

  14. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Analysis of Program Administration and Food Law Definitions.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2015-09-01

    Under the current version of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), participants can purchase virtually any food or beverage (collectively, food). Research indicates that SNAP recipients may have worse dietary quality than income-eligible nonparticipants. Policymakers have urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to pilot SNAP purchasing restrictions intended to support a healthier diet, and state legislators have proposed similar bills. The USDA rejected these invitations, stating that it would be administratively and logistically difficult to differentiate among products, amid other concerns. However, the USDA's Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) do just that. Further, state governments define and differentiate among foods and beverages for tax purposes. This paper reviews several factors intended to inform future policy decisions: the science indicating that SNAP recipients have poorer diet quality than income-eligible nonparticipants; the public's support for revising the SNAP program; federal, state, and city legislators' formal proposals to amend SNAP based on nutrition criteria and the USDA's public position in opposition to these proposals; state bills to amend eligible foods purchasable with SNAP benefits; state retail food tax laws; and the retail administration and program requirements for both WIC and SNAP. The paper finds that the government has a clear ability to align SNAP benefits with nutrition science and operationalize this into law.

  15. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Analysis of Program Administration and Food Law Definitions.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2015-09-01

    Under the current version of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), participants can purchase virtually any food or beverage (collectively, food). Research indicates that SNAP recipients may have worse dietary quality than income-eligible nonparticipants. Policymakers have urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to pilot SNAP purchasing restrictions intended to support a healthier diet, and state legislators have proposed similar bills. The USDA rejected these invitations, stating that it would be administratively and logistically difficult to differentiate among products, amid other concerns. However, the USDA's Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) do just that. Further, state governments define and differentiate among foods and beverages for tax purposes. This paper reviews several factors intended to inform future policy decisions: the science indicating that SNAP recipients have poorer diet quality than income-eligible nonparticipants; the public's support for revising the SNAP program; federal, state, and city legislators' formal proposals to amend SNAP based on nutrition criteria and the USDA's public position in opposition to these proposals; state bills to amend eligible foods purchasable with SNAP benefits; state retail food tax laws; and the retail administration and program requirements for both WIC and SNAP. The paper finds that the government has a clear ability to align SNAP benefits with nutrition science and operationalize this into law. PMID:26091926

  16. Reconsidering the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program as community development.

    PubMed

    Chrisinger, Benjamin W

    2015-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) protects households from severe food insecurity or extreme poverty, buffers against certain adverse health effects, and exhibits a multiplier effect on the nation's economy. Nonetheless, SNAP remains contentious and benefit reductions are currently being debated. One new direction is to reconceptualize people-based SNAP allocations within place-based community development. Programs such as the federal Healthy Food Financing Initiative encourage retailer development in underserved neighborhoods, creating healthy options and opportunities to reinvest SNAP dollars locally. By exploring relationships between these programs, researchers and practitioners can better understand how to enhance their impact on individuals and neighborhoods.

  17. The SNAP Platform: Social Networking for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to introduce an enterprise-wide Web 2.0 learning support platform--SNAP, developed at Victoria University in Melbourne, Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Pointing to the evolution of the social web, the paper discusses the potential for the development of e-learning platforms that employ constructivist, connectivist,…

  18. Applications Where Snap is BPM for Radioactive Waste Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.J.

    2008-07-01

    Historically, the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston in the United Kingdom (UK), has used a variety of assay techniques to measure the radioactive content of a diverse range of waste packages from decommissioning, operational and legacy sources. The regulator, the Environment Agency in the UK, places conditions and limits on AWE through an authorisation within the Radioactive Substances Act (RSA93). The conditions and limits require Best Practical Means (BPM) measurements to be used to demonstrate compliance with the authorisation. Hence, the assay technique employed needs to achieve a balance between risk of exposure, environmental considerations, technological considerations, health and safety considerations and cost effectiveness, without being grossly disproportionate in terms of money, time or trouble. Recently published work has concluded that the Spectral Non-destructive Assay Platform (SNAP) assay system is BPM for Depleted Uranium (DU) waste assay at AWE (1) and low level plutonium in soft drummed waste, HEPA filters and soils (2-4). The purpose of this paper is to highlight other applications where SNAP represents BPM for radioactive waste assay. This has been done by intercomparison studies of SNAP with other assay techniques, such as Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and Passive Neutron Coincidence Counter (PNCC). It has been concluded that, for a large range of waste packages encountered at AWE, SNAP is BPM. (author)

  19. Evaluating recent taxonomic changes for alligator snapping turtles (Testudines: Chelydridae).

    PubMed

    Folt, Brian; Guyer, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The Alligator Snapping Turtle (Macrochelys temminckii Troost in Harlan 1835, sensu lato) has been historically treated as a single, wide-ranging species, until a recently published paper by Thomas et al. (2014; hereafter Thomas et al.) analyzed variation in morphology and mitochondrial DNA sequence data to describe two new species of Macrochelys: the Apalachicola Alligator Snapping Turtle (Macrochelys apalachicolae Thomas, Granatosky, Bourque, Krysko, Moler, Gamble, Suarez, Leone & Roman 2014) and the Suwannee Alligator Snapping Turtle (Macrochelys suwanniensis Thomas, Granatosky, Bourque, Krysko, Moler, Gamble, Suarez, Leone & Roman 2014). The specific epithet temminckii was retained for populations in drainages from the Yellow River in Alabama and Florida west to the San Antonio River, Texas. Because populations of Macrochelys have been historically exploited by humans (Pritchard 1989) and the life-history strategies of large, long-lived turtles make them susceptible to declines from harvest (Congdon et al. 1994), a sound understanding of species delimitation and richness is critical for the conservation of alligator snapping turtles, especially if the acceptance of a widely distributed species disguises the presence of multiple, smaller-ranged species. PMID:25947748

  20. Imaging changes in the cytosolic ATP-to-ADP ratio.

    PubMed

    Tantama, Mathew; Yellen, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a central metabolite that plays fundamental roles as an energy transfer molecule, a phosphate donor, and a signaling molecule inside the cells. The phosphoryl group transfer potential of ATP provides a thermodynamic driving force for many metabolic reactions, and phosphorylation of both small metabolites and large proteins can serve as a regulatory modification. In the process of phosphoryl transfer from ATP, the diphosphate ADP is produced, and as a result, the ATP-to-ADP ratio is an important physiological control parameter. The ATP-to-ADP ratio is directly proportional to cellular energy charge and phosphorylation potential. Furthermore, several ATP-dependent enzymes and signaling proteins are regulated by ADP, and their activation profiles are a function of the ATP-to-ADP ratio. Finally, regeneration of ATP from ADP can serve as an important readout of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. We, therefore, developed a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor tuned to sense ATP-to-ADP ratios in the physiological range of healthy mammalian cells. Here, we present a protocol for using this biosensor to visualize energy status using live-cell fluorescence microscopy.

  1. Molecular cloning of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kakefuda, G.; Yeeyung Charng; Iglesias, A.; McIntosh, L. )

    1991-05-01

    Bacterial and higher plant ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase differ in structure (homotetramer vs heterotetramer respectively) and allosteric activator and inhibitor. However, highly conserved regions can be identified when sequence comparisons are made between ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases from diverse species. The fructose 1,6 bisphosphate binding site (activator site) in E. coli is highly conserved in all species for which ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase has been sequenced. A second conserved region, which is labeled by 8-azido-ATP, is also highly conserved in bacteria and higher plants. In previously cloned ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases the two conserved regions are separated by approximately 80 amino acids. The authors have used these conserved amino acid sequences to design degenerate oligonucleotide primers for polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) of part of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase geae. A predicted 240 bp fragment is amplified in PCR reactions using Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 genomic DNA as template. The deduced amino acid sequence from the 240 bp Anabaena fragment shares 75 and 76% identity to that of the rice endosperm and spinach leaf ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases respectively. The Anabaena amino acid sequence shares 42% identity in amino acid sequence to the E. coli enzyme. At the nucleotide level there is 66% identity of the Anabaena sequence to rice endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and 54% to the E. coli gene. The PCR amplified fragments are being used to screen respective Anabaena and Synechocystis genomic gene libraries.

  2. Kinesin-1 plays a role in transport of SNAP-25 to the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, April M.; Cunningham, Anthony L.; Diefenbach, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular molecular motor kinesin-1 mediates the microtubule-dependent transport of a range of cargo. We have previously identified an interaction between the cargo-binding domain of kinesin-1 heavy chain KIF5B and the membrane-associated SNARE proteins SNAP-25 and SNAP-23. In this study we further defined the minimal SNAP-25 binding domain in KIF5B to residues 874-894. Overexpression of a fragment of KIF5B (residues 594-910) resulted in significant colocalization with SNAP-25 with resulting blockage of the trafficking of SNAP-25 to the periphery of cells. This indicates that kinesin-1 facilitates the transport of SNAP-25 containing vesicles as a prerequisite to SNAP-25 driven membrane fusion events.

  3. Expression of the SNARE protein SNAP-23 is essential for cell survival.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sunil; Mittal, Sharad K; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Kruhlak, Michael J; Roche, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Members of the SNARE-family of proteins are known to be key regulators of the membrane-membrane fusion events required for intracellular membrane traffic. The ubiquitously expressed SNARE protein SNAP-23 regulates a wide variety of exocytosis events and is essential for mouse development. Germline deletion of SNAP-23 results in early embryonic lethality in mice, and for this reason we now describe mice and cell lines in which SNAP-23 can be conditionally-deleted using Cre-lox technology. Deletion of SNAP-23 in CD19-Cre expressing mice prevents B lymphocyte development and deletion of SNAP-23 using a variety of T lymphocyte-specific Cre mice prevents T lymphocyte development. Acute depletion of SNAP-23 in mouse fibroblasts leads to rapid apoptotic cell death. These data highlight the importance of SNAP-23 for cell survival and describe a mouse in which specific cell types can be eliminated by expression of tissue-specific Cre-recombinase.

  4. Space nuclear system volume accumulator development (SNAP program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, W. D.; Shimazaki, T. T.

    1973-01-01

    The engineering, design, and fabrication status of the volume accumulator units to be employed in the NaK primary and secondary coolant loops of the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system are described. Three identical VAU's are required - two for the primary coolant loop, and one for the secondary coolant loop. The VAU's utilize nested-formed bellows as the flexing member, are hermetically sealed, provide double containment and utilize a combination of gas pressure force and bellows spring force to obtain the desired pressure regulation of the coolant loops. All parts of the VAU, except the NaK inlet tube, are to be fabricated from Inconel 718.

  5. ADP-ribosylation of proteins: Enzymology and biological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Althaus, F.R.; Richter, C.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the molecular and biological consequences of the posttranslational modification of proteins with ADP-ribose monomers and polymers. Part one focuses on chromatin-associated poly ADP-ribosylation reactions which have evolved in higher eukaryotes as modulators of chromatin functions. The significance of poly ADP-ribosylation in DNA repair, carcinogenesis, and gene expression during terminal differentiation is discussed. Part two reviews mono ADP-ribosylation reactions which are catalyzed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes. Consideration is given to the action of bacterial toxins, such as cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and diphtheria toxin. These toxins have emerged as tools for the molecular probing of proteins involved in signal transduction and protein biosynthesis.

  6. ADP study of the structure of the IUE halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck

    1992-01-01

    Results of a two year ADP study of gas in the Galactic halo are presented. This is partly a summary of 2 papers which were published in referred journals and partly a discussion of work currently underway.

  7. Automated Data Processing (ADP) research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F.U.; Kohlhepp, V.N.; Leach, R.R. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    Monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT) will require screening tens of thousands of seismic events each year. Reliable automated data analysis will be essential in keeping up with the continuous stream of events that a global monitoring network will detect. We are developing automated event location and identification algorithms by looking at the gaps and weaknesses in conventional ADP systems and by taking advantage of modem computational paradigms. Our research focus is on three areas: developing robust algorithms for signal feature extraction, integrating the analysis of critical measurements, and exploiting joint estimation techniques such as using data from acoustic, hydroacoustic, and seismic sensors. We identify several important problems for research and development; e.g., event location with approximate velocity models and event identification in the presence of outliers. We are employing both linear and nonlinear methods and advanced signal transform techniques to solve these event monitoring problems. Our goal is to increase event-interpretation throughput by employing the power and efficiency of modem computational techniques, and to improve the reliability of automated analysis by reducing the rates of false alarms and missed detections.

  8. {degrees}SnapPea{close_quotes} OS/2 Warp graphical user interface for hyperbolic 3-manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Manoharan, A.C.; Weeks, J.

    1996-12-31

    An interactive color graphical user interface, with animation, has been developed to port SnapPea to the OS/2 Warp Personal Computer (IBM type PC) platform. This fulfills the interest to use an Intel microprocessor based computer to study the geometry and topology of three-dimensional hyperbolic manifolds and to perform mathematical computations with them. Hitherto the program was available only on Macintosh computers. The OS/2 operating system kernel program has for many years supported long file names, had multithreading, pre-emptive multitasking an built in crash-protection. There is also a full 32-bit graphics engine. Already, there is much interest in this product. The software is expected soon to be available to mathematicians around the world, to use in their research. A demonstration was given at the conference.

  9. Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by ADP-ribosylation*

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yukihide; Papoutsoglou, Panagiotis; Maturi, Varun; Tsubakihara, Yutaro; Hottiger, Michael O.; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    We previously established a mechanism of negative regulation of transforming growth factor β signaling mediated by the nuclear ADP-ribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and the deribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), which dynamically regulate ADP-ribosylation of Smad3 and Smad4, two central signaling proteins of the pathway. Here we demonstrate that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway can also be regulated by the opposing actions of PARP1 and PARG. PARG positively contributes to BMP signaling and forms physical complexes with Smad5 and Smad4. The positive role PARG plays during BMP signaling can be neutralized by PARP1, as demonstrated by experiments where PARG and PARP1 are simultaneously silenced. In contrast to PARG, ectopic expression of PARP1 suppresses BMP signaling, whereas silencing of endogenous PARP1 enhances signaling and BMP-induced differentiation. The two major Smad proteins of the BMP pathway, Smad1 and Smad5, interact with PARP1 and can be ADP-ribosylated in vitro, whereas PARG causes deribosylation. The overall outcome of this mode of regulation of BMP signal transduction provides a fine-tuning mechanism based on the two major enzymes that control cellular ADP-ribosylation. PMID:27129221

  10. Inhibiting poly(ADP-ribosylation) improves axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Alexandra B; McWhirter, Rebecca D; Sekine, Yuichi; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Miller, David M; Hammarlund, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The ability of a neuron to regenerate its axon after injury depends in part on its intrinsic regenerative potential. Here, we identify novel intrinsic regulators of axon regeneration: poly(ADP-ribose) glycohodrolases (PARGs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). PARGs, which remove poly(ADP-ribose) from proteins, act in injured C. elegans GABA motor neurons to enhance axon regeneration. PARG expression is regulated by DLK signaling, and PARGs mediate DLK function in enhancing axon regeneration. Conversely, PARPs, which add poly(ADP-ribose) to proteins, inhibit axon regeneration of both C. elegans GABA neurons and mammalian cortical neurons. Furthermore, chemical PARP inhibitors improve axon regeneration when administered after injury. Our results indicate that regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) levels is a critical function of the DLK regeneration pathway, that poly-(ADP ribosylation) inhibits axon regeneration across species, and that chemical inhibition of PARPs can elicit axon regeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12734.001 PMID:27697151

  11. The destructive effect of botulinum neurotoxins on the SNARE protein: SNAP-25 and synaptic membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic exocytosis requires the assembly of syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25 on the plasma membrane and synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP2) on the vesicular membrane to bridge the two opposite membranes. It is believed that the three SNARE proteins assemble in steps along the dynamic assembly pathway. The C-terminus of SNAP-25 is known to be the target of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A and BoNT/E) that block neurotransmitters release in vivo. In this study, we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to investigate the conformation of the SNAP-25 C-terminus in binary and ternary SNARE complexes. The fluorescence lipid mixing assay shows that the C-terminal of SNAP-25 is essential for membrane fusion, and that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants cleaved by BoNT/A and BoNT/E display different inhibition effects on membrane fusion: SNAP-25E (Δ26) abolishes the fusion activity of the SNARE complex, while SNAP-25A (Δ9) loses most of its function, although it can still form a SDS-resistant SNARE complex as the wild-type SNAP-25. CW-EPR spectra validate the unstable structures of the SNARE complex formed by SNAP-25 mutants. We propose that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants will disrupt the assembly of the SNARE core complex, and then inhibit the synaptic membrane fusion accordingly.

  12. γ-SNAP stimulates disassembly of endosomal SNARE complexes and regulates endocytic trafficking pathways.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroki; Matsuzaki, Yuka; Tanaka, Ayaka; Hosoi, Kaori; Ichimura, Kaoru; Arasaki, Kohei; Wakana, Yuichi; Asano, Kenichi; Tanaka, Masato; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Tani, Katsuko; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2015-08-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) that reside in the target membranes and transport vesicles assemble into specific SNARE complexes to drive membrane fusion. N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and its attachment protein, α-SNAP (encoded by NAPA), catalyze disassembly of the SNARE complexes in the secretory and endocytic pathways to recycle them for the next round of fusion events. γ-SNAP (encoded by NAPG) is a SNAP isoform, but its function in SNARE-mediated membrane trafficking remains unknown. Here, we show that γ-SNAP regulates the endosomal trafficking of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and transferrin. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that γ-SNAP interacts with a limited range of SNAREs, including endosomal ones. γ-SNAP, as well as α-SNAP, mediated the disassembly of endosomal syntaxin-7-containing SNARE complexes. Overexpression and small interfering (si)RNA-mediated depletion of γ-SNAP changed the morphologies and intracellular distributions of endosomes. Moreover, the depletion partially suppressed the exit of EGFR and transferrin from EEA1-positive early endosomes to delay their degradation and uptake. Taken together, our findings suggest that γ-SNAP is a unique SNAP that functions in a limited range of organelles - including endosomes - and their trafficking pathways.

  13. The destructive effect of botulinum neurotoxins on the SNARE protein: SNAP-25 and synaptic membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic exocytosis requires the assembly of syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25 on the plasma membrane and synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP2) on the vesicular membrane to bridge the two opposite membranes. It is believed that the three SNARE proteins assemble in steps along the dynamic assembly pathway. The C-terminus of SNAP-25 is known to be the target of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A and BoNT/E) that block neurotransmitters release in vivo. In this study, we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to investigate the conformation of the SNAP-25 C-terminus in binary and ternary SNARE complexes. The fluorescence lipid mixing assay shows that the C-terminal of SNAP-25 is essential for membrane fusion, and that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants cleaved by BoNT/A and BoNT/E display different inhibition effects on membrane fusion: SNAP-25E (Δ26) abolishes the fusion activity of the SNARE complex, while SNAP-25A (Δ9) loses most of its function, although it can still form a SDS-resistant SNARE complex as the wild-type SNAP-25. CW-EPR spectra validate the unstable structures of the SNARE complex formed by SNAP-25 mutants. We propose that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants will disrupt the assembly of the SNARE core complex, and then inhibit the synaptic membrane fusion accordingly. PMID:26157630

  14. Multiple loci for synapse protein SNAP-25 in the tetraploid goldfish.

    PubMed Central

    Risinger, C; Larhammar, D

    1993-01-01

    The common goldfish Carassius auratus is tetraploid and has 100 chromosomes. We describe here goldfish cDNA clones for SNAP-25, a 200-amino-acid synaptosome-associated protein that has remained highly conserved during evolution. SNAP-25 occurs as a single-copy gene in mouse, chicken, and Drosophila melanogaster. Sequences of six distinct goldfish cDNA clones and Southern hybridizations show that the goldfish has three, or possibly four, SNAP-25 loci rather than two as expected. A gene duplication early in actinopterygian fish evolution gave rise to the loci SnapA and SnapB. The proteins SNAP-A and SNAP-B are 94% and 91% identical to the mouse protein but are only 91% identical to each other. SNAP-B has a larger number of unique amino acid replacements than SNAP-A and also has more dramatic replacements. The tetraploidization resulted in two SnapB loci whose divergence from each other is consistent with a tetraploidization event 15-20 million years ago. The presence of duplicate SnapA loci has not yet been possible to confirm, possibly because they are still very similar to each other. Two of the SnapA cDNA clones and one SnapB cDNA clone have frameshift mutations. As these aberrant alleles otherwise display high sequence identity to the functional alleles, they probably became nonfunctional recently. The findings of allelic variability and aberrant alleles emphasize the importance of characterizing multiple DNA clones in tetraploid species. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8248151

  15. SNAP-25 is abundantly expressed in enteric neuronal networks and upregulated by the neurotrophic factor GDNF.

    PubMed

    Barrenschee, M; Böttner, M; Harde, J; Lange, C; Cossais, F; Ebsen, M; Vogel, I; Wedel, T

    2015-06-01

    Control of intestinal motility requires an intact enteric neurotransmission. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) is an essential component of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. The aim of the study was to investigate the localization and expression of SNAP-25 in the human intestine and cultured enteric neurons and to assess its regulation by the neurotrophic factor glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). SNAP-25 expression and distribution were analyzed in GDNF-stimulated enteric nerve cell cultures, and synaptic vesicles were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Human colonic specimens were processed for site-specific SNAP-25 gene expression analysis and SNAP-25 immunohistochemistry including dual-labeling with the pan-neuronal marker PGP 9.5. Additionally, gene expression levels and distributional patterns of SNAP-25 were analyzed in colonic specimens of patients with diverticular disease (DD). GDNF-treated enteric nerve cell cultures showed abundant expression of SNAP-25 and exhibited granular staining corresponding to synaptic vesicles. SNAP-25 gene expression was detected in all colonic layers and isolated myenteric ganglia. SNAP-25 co-localized with PGP 9.5 in submucosal and myenteric ganglia and intramuscular nerve fibers. In patients with DD, both SNAP-25 mRNA expression and immunoreactive profiles were decreased compared to controls. GDNF-induced growth and differentiation of cultured enteric neurons is paralleled by increased expression of SNAP-25 and formation of synaptic vesicles reflecting enhanced synaptogenesis. The expression of SNAP-25 within the human enteric nervous system and its downregulation in DD suggest an essential role in enteric neurotransmission and render SNAP-25 as a marker for impaired synaptic plasticity in enteric neuropathies underlying intestinal motility disorders.

  16. Poly (ADP-ribose) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunjong; Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Yun-Il; Kim, Young Pil; Shin, Joo-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The defining feature of Parkinson’s disease is a progressive and selective demise of dopaminergic neurons. A recent report on Parkinson’s disease animal model demonstrates that poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) dependent cell death, also named parthanatos, is accountable for selective dopaminergic neuronal loss. Parthanatos is a programmed necrotic cell death, characterized by PARP1 activation, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation, and large scale DNA fragmentation. Besides cell death regulation via interaction with AIF, PAR molecule mediates diverse cellular processes including genomic stability, cell division, transcription, epigenetic regulation, and stress granule formation. In this review, we will discuss the roles of PARP1 activation and PAR molecules in the pathological processes of Parkinson’s disease. Potential interaction between PAR molecule and Parkinson’s disease protein interactome are briefly introduced. Finally, we suggest promising points of therapeutic intervention in the pathological PAR signaling cascade to halt progression in Parkinson’s disease. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(8): 424-432] PMID:24874851

  17. The Transformation of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerman, Jacob Alex; Danielson, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2005, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, until recently, the Food Stamp Program) caseload increased by half. As the Great Recession unfolded, the SNAP caseload grew even more rapidly. Further, over the past two decades the composition of the caseload has shifted sharply away from families combining food and cash…

  18. Snap-Through of Unsymmetric Laminates Using Piezocomposite Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Marc R.; Hyer, Michael W.; Williams, R. Brett; Wilkie, W. Keats; Inman, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the concept of using a piezoceramic actuator bonded to one side of a two-layer unsymmetric cross-ply [0/90]T laminate to provide the moments necessary to snap the laminate from one stable equilibrium shape to another. This concept could be applied to the morphing of structures. A model of this concept, which is based on the Rayleigh-Ritz technique and the use of energy and variational methods, is developed. The experimental phase of the study is discussed, including the measurement of the voltage level needed to snap the laminate. The voltage measurements and shapes are compared with predictions of the models and the agreement between measurements and the predictions are reasonable, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Suggestions for future activities are presented.

  19. SnapShot: Nucleic acid immune sensors, part 2.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Veit

    2014-12-18

    The innate immune system has evolved sensors that can detect specific molecular fingerprints of non-self RNA or DNA. At the same time, some receptors respond to nucleic acids of both exogenous and endogenous origin, yet they are spatially segregated from endogenous nucleic acids. This SnapShot schematizes families and individual members of nucleic acid sensors with a focus on their ligands and the signaling pathways they employ.

  20. Status of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Participation in SNAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Rauscher will present programatic status and high-level/summary information on the technical status of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's participation in the SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP). Goddard's participation falls into four areas, and status in each of these will be covered. These areas are as follows: (I) focal plane array and packaging, (2) Teledyne HAWAII-4RG sensor chip assembly, (3) communications studies, and (4) integration and test studies.

  1. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-01

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones.

  2. Overview of the SuperNova/Acceleration probe (SNAP)

    SciTech Connect

    galdering@lbl.gov

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a space-based experiment to measure the expansion history of the Universe and study both its dark energy and the dark matter. The experiment is motivated by the startling discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating. A 0.7 square-degree imager comprised of 36 large format fully-depleted n-type CCD's sharing a focal plane with 36 HgCdTe detectors forms the heart of SNAP, allowing discovery and lightcurve measurements simultaneously for many supernovae. The imager and a high-efficiency low-resolution integral field spectrograph are coupled to a 2-m three mirror anastigmat wide-field telescope, which will be placed in a high-earth orbit. The SNAP mission can obtain high-signal-to-noise calibrated light-curves and spectra for over 2000 Type Ia supernovae at redshifts between z = 0.1 and 1.7. The resulting data set can not only determine the amount of dark energy with high precision, but test the nature of the dark energy by examining its equation of state. In particular, dark energy due to a cosmological constant can be differentiated from alternatives such as ''quintessence'', by measuring the dark energy's equation of state to an accuracy of {+-} 0.05, and by studying its time dependence.

  3. Contactless, photoinitiated snap-through in azobenzene-functionalized polymers

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, M. Ravi; Smith, Matthew L.; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; Lee, Kyung Min; McConney, Michael E.; Wang, David H.; Tan, Loon-Seng; White, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Photomechanical effects in polymeric materials and composites transduce light into mechanical work. The ability to control the intensity, polarization, placement, and duration of light irradiation is a distinctive and potentially useful tool to tailor the location, magnitude, and directionality of photogenerated mechanical work. Unfortunately, the work generated from photoresponsive materials is often slow and yields very small power densities, which diminish their potential use in applications. Here, we investigate photoinitiated snap-through in bistable arches formed from samples composed of azobenzene-functionalized polymers (both amorphous polyimides and liquid crystal polymer networks) and report orders-of-magnitude enhancement in actuation rates (approaching 102 mm/s) and powers (as much as 1 kW/m3). The contactless, ultra-fast actuation is observed at irradiation intensities <<100 mW/cm2. Due to the bistability and symmetry of the snap-through, reversible and bidirectional actuation is demonstrated. A model is developed to elucidate the underlying mechanics of the snap-through, specifically focusing on isolating the role of sample geometry, mechanical properties of the materials, and photomechanical strain. Using light to trigger contactless, ultrafast actuation in an otherwise passive structure is a potentially versatile tool to use in mechanical design at the micro-, meso-, and millimeter scales as actuators, as well as switches that can be triggered from large standoff distances, impulse generators for microvehicles, microfluidic valves and mixers in laboratory-on-chip devices, and adaptive optical elements. PMID:24190994

  4. Hunting for ghosts in elastic snap-through

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Michael; Moulton, Derek E.; Vella, Dominic

    Elastic `snap-through' is a striking instability often seen when an elastic system loses bistability, e.g. due to a change in geometry or external loading. The switch from one state to another is generally rapid and hence is used to generate fast motions in biology and engineering. While the onset of instability has been well studied, the dynamics of the transition itself remain much less well understood. For example, the dynamics exhibited by children's jumping popper toys, or the leaves of the Venus flytrap plant, are much slower than would be expected based on a naive estimate of the elastic timescales. To explain this discrepancy, the natural conclusion has been drawn that some other effect, such as viscoelasticity, must play a role. We demonstrate here that purely elastic systems may show similar `slow' dynamics during snap-through. This behaviour is due to a remnant (or `ghost') of the snap-through bifurcation underlying the instability, analogously to bottleneck phenomena in 1-D dynamical systems. This slowness is a generic consequence of being close to bifurcation -- it does not require dissipation. We obtain scaling laws for the length of the delay and compare these to numerical simulations and experiments on real samples.

  5. SNAP (Sentinel Application Platform) and the ESA Sentinel 3 Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhlke, Marco; Fomferra, Norman; Brockmann, Carsten; Peters, Marco; Veci, Luis; Malik, Julien; Regner, Peter

    2015-12-01

    ESA is developing three new free open source Toolboxes for the scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 missions. The Toolboxes are based on a common software platform, namely the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). SNAP is an evolution of the proven ESA BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current BEAM and NEST functionality including multi-mission support for SAR and optical missions to support ESA and third party missions for years to come. The Sentinel-3 Toolbox includes generic function for visualisation and analysis of Sentinel-3 OLCI and SLSTR Level 1 and Level 2 data, as well as specific processing tools such as cloud screening, water constituent retrieval and SST retrieval. The Toolbox will put emphasis on access to remote in-situ databases such as Felyx or MERMAID, and exploitation of the data-uncertainty information which is included in the Sentinel-3 data products. New image classification, segmentation and filtering methods, as well as interoperability with the ORFEO Toolbox and the GDAL libraries will be additional new tools. New challenges stemming from Sentinel-3 sensors, such as raster data in different resolutions within a single dataset, will be supported gracefully. The development of SNAP and the Sentinel Toolboxes is funded through the “Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM)” programme, a new programme element of ESA’s fourth period of the Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017).

  6. Structural basis for lack of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13/zinc finger antiviral protein.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Tobias; Klepsch, Mirjam; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Andersson, C David; Linusson, Anna; Schüler, Herwig

    2015-03-20

    The mammalian poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family includes ADP-ribosyltransferases with diphtheria toxin homology (ARTD). Most members have mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PARP13/ARTD13, also called zinc finger antiviral protein, has roles in viral immunity and microRNA-mediated stress responses. PARP13 features a divergent PARP homology domain missing a PARP consensus sequence motif; the domain has enigmatic functions and apparently lacks catalytic activity. We used x-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical analyses to investigate the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in human PARP13 and two of its functional partners in stress granules: PARP12/ARTD12, and PARP15/BAL3/ARTD7. The crystal structure of the PARP homology domain of PARP13 shows obstruction of the canonical active site, precluding NAD(+) binding. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this closed cleft conformation is maintained in solution. Introducing consensus side chains in PARP13 did not result in 3-aminobenzamide binding, but in further closure of the site. Three-dimensional alignment of the PARP homology domains of PARP13, PARP12, and PARP15 illustrates placement of PARP13 residues that deviate from the PARP family consensus. Introducing either one of two of these side chains into the corresponding positions in PARP15 abolished PARP15 ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Taken together, our results show that PARP13 lacks the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.

  7. Endoscopic treatment of the external snapping hip syndrome: surgical technique and report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kunac, Nino; Trsek, Denis; Medancić, Nenad; Starcević, Damir; Haspl, Miroslav

    2012-12-01

    Snapping hip or coxa saltans is a condition characterized by an audible and/or palpable snapping during hip movement and can be associated with pain around the hip. There are various causes of this condition and can be divided into two types: extra-articular and intra-articular. The most common type is the external extra-articular, where the snapping is due to thickened posterior part of the iliotibial band or anterior part of the gluteus maximus muscle sliding over the greater trochanter during hip movement. Two patients with external snapping hip are presented, who were treated with our original endoscopic iliotibial band release and greater trochanteric bursectomy. There were no surgical complications and the patients did not experience snapping or pain in the hip during 24-month follow-up period. Results of various open techniques and one endoscopic technique in the treatment of external snapping hip are also reported. PMID:23540176

  8. Snap-through buckling of initially curved microbeam subject to an electrostatic force

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.; Meguid, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the snap-through buckling of an initially curved microbeam subject to an electrostatic force, accounting for fringing field effect, is investigated. The general governing equations of the curved microbeam are developed using Euler–Bernoulli beam theory and used to develop a new criterion for the snap-through buckling of that beam. The size effect of the microbeam is accounted for using the modified couple stress theory, and intermolecular effects, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are also included in our snap-through formulations. The snap-through governing equations are solved using Galerkin decomposition of the deflection. The results of our work enable us to carefully characterize the snap-through behaviour of the initially curved microbeam. They further reveal the significant effect of the beam size, and to a much lesser extent, the effect of fringing field and intermolecular forces, upon the snap-through criterion for the curved beam. PMID:27547104

  9. Development and validation of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality Brief Self-Description Rating Form (SNAP-BSRF).

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Clark, Lee Anna; Vernon, Philip A; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2015-02-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality full-length (SNAP) and short versions (SNAP-SRF and SNAP-ORF) were developed as measures of normal-range and more pathological personality traits. This study investigated the validity of the SNAP Brief Self-Description Rating Form (SNAP-BSRF), an alternative version of the SNAP Self-Description Rating Form (SNAP-SRF) revised for further brevity. The scales of the SNAP-BSRF showed good convergence with the SNAP-SRF and the SNAP Other-Description Rating Form (SNAP-ORF) scales. A three-factor structure consistent with extant literature was found for the SNAP-BSRF using an exploratory structural equation modeling approach. Scales from the SNAP-BSRF showed meaningful associations with self-reported internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that this new version is a reasonable substitute for the SNAP-SRF and will be useful when a very brief measure of adaptive and maladaptive personality is needed.

  10. The effects of photochemical oxidants on the yield of snap beans

    SciTech Connect

    Heggestad, H.E.; Heagle, A.S.; Bennett, J.H.; Koch, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    Research report:The effects of photochemical oxidants on snap bean yields in the eastern U.S. were studied. The most sensitive snap bean strains experienced 14% less bean yield when exposed to nonfiltered ambient air from suburan Washington, D.C. The crop yield of oxidant-tolerant snap bean strains was the same in filtered and unfiltered environments. (2 graphs, 3 photos, 24 references, 6 tables)

  11. Validation of a Computerized Adaptive Version of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2005-01-01

    This is a validation study of a computerized adaptive (CAT) version of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) conducted with 413 undergraduates who completed the SNAP twice, 1 week apart. Participants were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 retest groups: (a) paper-and-pencil (P&P) SNAP, (b) CAT, (c) P&P/CAT, and (d) CAT/P&P. With…

  12. Farmers’ markets and the local food environment: Identifying perceived accessibility barriers for SNAP consumers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in an urban Oklahoma community

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Marianna; Gray, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine barriers to farmer’s market (FM) use by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) consumers receiving TANF. Design Focus groups. Setting An urban community in Oklahoma. Participants SNAP beneficiaries receiving TANF (n = 64, across 8 focus groups). Phenomenon of Interest Perceptions about FM foods and barriers to FM use. Analysis Transcript-based content analysis using the five dimensions of access framework. Results Few participants ate fresh produce regularly and most appreciated the convenience of shopping at a supermarket. FMs were not perceived as available or accommodating to shopping needs and affordability and acceptability concerns were expressed. Few were aware of FMs that accepted SNAP. Emerging themes suggested residential segregation and cultural barriers to FM use. Conclusions and Implications FM managers, community nutritionists, and researchers should develop interventions that correct common misperceptions about FM products, minimize access barriers, and increase awareness of SNAP payment options. Residential segregation and cultural barriers may play a role in FM use and should be explored further. PMID:25754298

  13. Osteochondroma Arising from Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine as a Cause of Snapping Hip

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Kee Hyung; Cho, Kye-Youl; Cho, Young Joo; Lee, Chung Seok; Han, Chung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Snapping hip syndrome is a relatively common problem that can be easily managed with conservative treatment. This syndrome can be divided into external, internal and intra-articular types. Internal snapping hip syndrome is the rarest amongst these and its etiology is not well understood. We report a unique case of osteochondroma arising from the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS), which caused the internal snapping hip syndrome with hip pain and restriction of activity. This rare case of snapping hip syndrome from the AIIS was treated surgically and the symptoms completely disappeared after excision of the tumor. PMID:26929811

  14. Evolving Darwin's 'most wonderful' plant: ecological steps to a snap-trap.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Thomas C; Waller, Donald M

    2009-08-01

    Among carnivorous plants, Darwin was particularly fascinated by the speed and sensitivity of snap-traps in Dionaea and Aldrovanda. Recent molecular work confirms Darwin's conjecture that these monotypic taxa are sister to Drosera, meaning that snap-traps evolved from a 'flypaper' trap. Transitions include tentacles being modified into trigger hairs and marginal 'teeth', the loss of sticky tentacles, depressed digestive glands, and rapid leaf movement. Pre-adaptations are known for all these traits in Drosera yet snap-traps only evolved once. We hypothesize that selection to catch and retain large insects favored the evolution of elongate leaves and snap-tentacles in Drosera and snap-traps. Although sticky traps efficiently capture small prey, they allow larger prey to escape and may lose nutrients. Dionaea's snap-trap efficiently captures and processes larger prey providing higher, but variable, rewards. We develop a size-selective model and parametrize it with field data to demonstrate how selection to capture larger prey strongly favors snap-traps. As prey become larger, they also become rarer and gain the power to rip leaves, causing returns to larger snap-traps to plateau. We propose testing these hypotheses with specific field data and Darwin-like experiments. The complexity of snap-traps, competition with pitfall traps, and their association with ephemeral habitats all help to explain why this curious adaptation only evolved once. PMID:19573135

  15. Dynamic sonography of snapping hip due to gluteus maximus subluxation over greater trochanter.

    PubMed

    Chang, Connie Y; Kreher, Jeffrey; Torriani, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We report on the dynamic sonographic findings of a 10-year-old avid female dancer who presented with symptoms of abrupt left hip motion and associated painful snapping sensation while performing lateral motions of the pelvis suggesting external snapping hip syndrome. Dynamic sonographic evaluation of both hips demonstrated that symptoms were due to gluteus maximus subluxation over the greater trochanter. This etiology of external snapping hip syndrome is rare with limited imaging descriptions in the literature. We present case history, physical examination, and dynamic ultrasound examination, including multiple still images and cine clips, comprehensively characterizing this uncommon source of external snapping hip syndrome. PMID:26490678

  16. SNAP 19 TAGS 85/2N Viking and Pioneer application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linkous, G. F.; Smith, R. D.; Wilbur, A. C.

    1970-01-01

    SNAP 19 radioisotope thermoelectric generator module for Viking Lander and Pioneer applications, discussing design requirements, environmental and mission constraints, life, performance and reliability characteristics, etc

  17. α-SNAP Enhances SNARE Zippering by Stabilizing the SNARE Four-Helix Bundle.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lu; Kang, Yuhao; Jiao, Junyi; Rebane, Aleksander A; Cha, Hyo Keun; Xi, Zhiqun; Qu, Hong; Zhang, Yongli

    2016-04-19

    Intracellular membrane fusion is mediated by dynamic assembly and disassembly of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNAREs). α-SNAP guides NSF to disassemble SNARE complexes after membrane fusion. Recent experiments showed that α-SNAP also dramatically enhances SNARE assembly and membrane fusion. How α-SNAP is involved in these opposing activities is not known. Here, we examine the effect of α-SNAP on the stepwise assembly of the synaptic SNARE complex using optical tweezers. We found that α-SNAP destabilized the linker domain (LD) of the SNARE complex but stabilized its C-terminal domain (CTD) through a conformational selection mechanism. In contrast, α-SNAP minimally affected assembly of the SNARE N-terminal domain (NTD), indicating that α-SNAP barely bound the partially assembled trans-SNARE complex. Thus, α-SNAP recognizes the folded CTD for SNARE disassembly with NSF and subtly modulates membrane fusion by altering the stabilities of the SNARE CTD and LD.

  18. Evolving Darwin's 'most wonderful' plant: ecological steps to a snap-trap.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Thomas C; Waller, Donald M

    2009-08-01

    Among carnivorous plants, Darwin was particularly fascinated by the speed and sensitivity of snap-traps in Dionaea and Aldrovanda. Recent molecular work confirms Darwin's conjecture that these monotypic taxa are sister to Drosera, meaning that snap-traps evolved from a 'flypaper' trap. Transitions include tentacles being modified into trigger hairs and marginal 'teeth', the loss of sticky tentacles, depressed digestive glands, and rapid leaf movement. Pre-adaptations are known for all these traits in Drosera yet snap-traps only evolved once. We hypothesize that selection to catch and retain large insects favored the evolution of elongate leaves and snap-tentacles in Drosera and snap-traps. Although sticky traps efficiently capture small prey, they allow larger prey to escape and may lose nutrients. Dionaea's snap-trap efficiently captures and processes larger prey providing higher, but variable, rewards. We develop a size-selective model and parametrize it with field data to demonstrate how selection to capture larger prey strongly favors snap-traps. As prey become larger, they also become rarer and gain the power to rip leaves, causing returns to larger snap-traps to plateau. We propose testing these hypotheses with specific field data and Darwin-like experiments. The complexity of snap-traps, competition with pitfall traps, and their association with ephemeral habitats all help to explain why this curious adaptation only evolved once.

  19. Influence of dynamic factors on nonwetting fluid snap-off in pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wen; Balhoff, Matthew; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2015-11-01

    Snap-off is an important dynamic multiphase flow phenomenon which occurs in porous media. It plays a dominant role in the residual trapping and mobilization/immobilization of nonwetting fluids such as hydrocarbons or CO2. Current studies, applications, and threshold criteria of snap-off are mostly based on static or equilibrium conditions. Thus, the dynamics of snap-off which is relevant for many real world applications has rarely been systematically studied. While a static criterion indicates the snap-off potential for nonwetting fluids, the competition between the time required for snap-off and the local pore throat capillary number determines whether snap-off actually occurs. Using a theoretical model to couple the wetting film thickness to the local capillary number at the pore throat, we analyzed the dynamics of the wetting/nonwetting interface instability in sinusoidally constricted capillary tubes. The influence of dynamic factors as encapsulated by the effect of local capillary number on nonwetting fluid snap-off time were investigated for varying pore throat to pore body aspect ratio and pore body distances. The analysis showed that snap-off can be inhibited by a sufficiently large local capillary number even in cases where the static snap-off criterion has been met.

  20. Snapping annular ligament of the elbow joint in the throwing arms of young brothers.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Okamura, Kenji; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2003-10-01

    We examined young brothers with symptomatic snapping elbow in the throwing arm. Arthroscopic examination confirmed the mechanism of snapping, in which loose and protruded annular ligament-like tissue covered the volar half of the radial head in elbow extension and uncovered the radial head in deep elbow flexion. Arthroscopic resection of the annular ligament-like tissue was performed in one brother. Histologic examination of the removed tissue showed degenerated ligament tissue. Excision of loose annular ligament abolished snapping. Contralateral elbows of the brothers also showed similar asymptomatic snapping. Researchers suggest that a hereditary factor contributing to loose annular ligament and repetitive microtrauma from throwing is the cause of symptoms.

  1. Design of a 25-kWe Surface Reactor System Based on SNAP Reactor Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, David D.; Hiatt, Matthew T.; Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    A Hastelloy-X clad, sodium-potassium (NaK-78) cooled, moderated spectrum reactor using uranium zirconium hydride (UZrH) fuel based on the SNAP program reactors is a promising design for use in surface power systems. This paper presents a 98 kWth reactor for a power system the uses multiple Stirling engines to produce 25 kWe-net for 5 years. The design utilizes a pin type geometry containing UZrHx fuel clad with Hastelloy-X and NaK-78 flowing around the pins as coolant. A compelling feature of this design is its use of 49.9% enriched U, allowing it to be classified as a category III-D attractiveness and reducing facility costs relative to highly-enriched space reactor concepts. Presented below are both the design and an analysis of this reactor's criticality under various safety and operations scenarios.

  2. Design of a 25-kWe Surface Reactor System Based on SNAP Reactor Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, David D.; Hiatt, Matthew T.; Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.

    2006-01-20

    A Hastelloy-X clad, sodium-potassium (NaK-78) cooled, moderated spectrum reactor using uranium zirconium hydride (UZrH) fuel based on the SNAP program reactors is a promising design for use in surface power systems. This paper presents a 98 kWth reactor for a power system the uses multiple Stirling engines to produce 25 kWe-net for 5 years. The design utilizes a pin type geometry containing UZrHx fuel clad with Hastelloy-X and NaK-78 flowing around the pins as coolant. A compelling feature of this design is its use of 49.9% enriched U, allowing it to be classified as a category III-D attractiveness and reducing facility costs relative to highly-enriched space reactor concepts. Presented below are both the design and an analysis of this reactor's criticality under various safety and operations scenarios.

  3. ADP1 affects plant architecture by regulating local auxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruixi; Li, Jieru; Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  4. Reprogramming cellular events by poly(ADP-ribose)-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pic, Émilie; Ethier, Chantal; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Masson, Jean-Yves; Poirier, Guy G.; Gagné, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). These enzymes covalently modify glutamic, aspartic and lysine amino acid side chains of acceptor proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose (ADPr) units. The poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) polymers formed alter the physico-chemical characteristics of the substrate with functional consequences on its biological activities. Recently, non-covalent binding to pADPr has emerged as a key mechanism to modulate and coordinate several intracellular pathways including the DNA damage response, protein stability and cell death. In this review, we describe the basis of non-covalent binding to pADPr that has led to the emerging concept of pADPr-responsive signaling pathways. This review emphasizes the structural elements and the modular strategies developed by pADPr-binding proteins to exert a fine-tuned control of a variety of pathways. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions are highly regulated processes, both spatially and temporally, for which at least four specialized pADPr-binding modules accommodate different pADPr structures and reprogram protein functions. In this review, we highlight the role of well-characterized and newly discovered pADPr-binding modules in a diverse set of physiological functions. PMID:23268355

  5. Force-producing ADP state of myosin bound to actin

    PubMed Central

    Wulf, Sarah F.; Ropars, Virginie; Fujita-Becker, Setsuko; Oster, Marco; Hofhaus, Goetz; Trabuco, Leonardo G.; Pylypenko, Olena; Sweeney, H. Lee; Houdusse, Anne M.; Schröder, Rasmus R.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motors produce force when they interact with their cellular tracks. For myosin motors, the primary force-generating state has MgADP tightly bound, whereas myosin is strongly bound to actin. We have generated an 8-Å cryoEM reconstruction of this state for myosin V and used molecular dynamics flexed fitting for model building. We compare this state to the subsequent state on actin (Rigor). The ADP-bound structure reveals that the actin-binding cleft is closed, even though MgADP is tightly bound. This state is accomplished by a previously unseen conformation of the β-sheet underlying the nucleotide pocket. The transition from the force-generating ADP state to Rigor requires a 9.5° rotation of the myosin lever arm, coupled to a β-sheet rearrangement. Thus, the structure reveals the detailed rearrangements underlying myosin force generation as well as the basis of strain-dependent ADP release that is essential for processive myosins, such as myosin V. PMID:26976594

  6. Niacin status, NAD distribution and ADP-ribose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, James B

    2009-01-01

    Dietary niacin deficiency, and pharmacological excesses of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide, have dramatic effects on cellular NAD pools, ADP-ribose metabolism, tissue function and health. ADP-ribose metabolism is providing new targets for pharmacological intervention, and it is important to consider how the supply of vitamin B3 may directly influence ADP-ribosylation reactions, or create interactions with other drugs designed to influence these pathways. In addition to its redox roles, NAD+ is used as a substrate for mono-, poly- and cyclic ADP-ribose formation. During niacin deficiency, not all of these processes can be maintained, and dramatic changes in tissue function and clinical condition take place. Conversely, these reactions may be differentially enhanced by pharmacological intakes of vitamin B3, and potentially by changing expression of specific NAD generating enzymes. A wide range of metabolic changes can take place following pharmacological supplementation of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide. As niacin status decreases towards a deficient state, the function of other types of pharmaceutical agents may be modified, including those that target ADP-ribosylation reactions, apoptosis and inflammation. This article will explore what is known and yet to be learned about the response of tissues, cells and subcellular compartments to excessive and limiting supplies of niacin, and will discuss the etiology of the resulting pathologies.

  7. Wrinkling, folding, and snapping instabilities in polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Douglas Peter

    This work focuses on understanding deformation mechanisms and responsiveness associated with the wrinkling, folding, and snapping of thin polymer films. We demonstrated the use of elastic instabilities in confined regimes, such as the crumpling and snapping of surface attached sheets. We gained fundatmental insight into a thin film's ability to localize strain. By taking advantage of geometric strain localization we were able to develop new strategies for responsive surfaces that will have a broad impact on adhesive, optical, and patterning applications. Using the rapid closure of the Venus flytrap's leaflets as dictated by the onset of a snap instability as motivation, we created surfaces with patterned structures to transition through a snap instability at a prescribed stress state. This mechanism causes surface topography to change over large lateral length scales and very short timescales. Changes in the stress state can be related to triggers such as chemical swelling, light-induced architecture transitions, mechanical pressure, or voltage. The primary advantages of the snap transition are that the magnitude of change, the rate of change, and the sensitivity to change can be dictated by a balance of materials properties and geometry. The patterned structures that exhibit these dynamics are elastomeric shells that geometrically localize strain and can snap between concave and convex curvatures. We have demonstrated the control of the microlens shell geometry and that the transition time follows scaling relationships presented for the Venus flytrap. Furthermore, the microlens arrays have been demonstrated as surfaces that can alter wettability. Using a similar novel processing technique, microarrays of freestanding elastomeric plates were placed in equibiaxial compression to fabricate crumpled morphologies with strain localized regions that are difficult to attain through traditional patterning techniques. The microstructures that form can be initially described

  8. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of mammalian cells and xenograft tumors with SNAP-tag.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haibiao; Kovar, Joy L; Baker, Brenda; Zhang, Aihua; Cheung, Lael; Draney, Daniel R; Corrêa, Ivan R; Xu, Ming-Qun; Olive, D Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region is suitable for in vivo imaging due to its reduced background and high penetration capability compared to visible fluorescence. SNAP(f) is a fast-labeling variant of SNAP-tag that reacts with a fluorescent dye-conjugated benzylguanine (BG) substrate, leading to covalent attachment of the fluorescent dye to the SNAP(f). This property makes SNAP(f) a valuable tool for fluorescence imaging. The NIR fluorescent substrate BG-800, a conjugate between BG and IRDye 800CW, was synthesized and characterized in this study. HEK293, MDA-MB-231 and SK-OV-3 cells stably expressing SNAP(f)-Beta-2 adrenergic receptor (SNAP(f)-ADRβ2) fusion protein were created. The ADRβ2 portion of the protein directs the localization of the protein to the cell membrane. The expression of SNAP(f)-ADRβ2 in the stable cell lines was confirmed by the reaction between BG-800 substrate and cell lysates. Microscopic examination confirmed that SNAP(f)-ADRβ2 was localized on the cell membrane. The signal intensity of the labeled cells was dependent on the BG-800 concentration. In vivo imaging study showed that BG-800 could be used to visualize xenograph tumors expressing SNAP(f)-ADRβ2. However, the background signal was relatively high, which may be a reflection of non-specific accumulation of BG-800 in the skin. To address the background issue, quenched substrates that only fluoresce upon reaction with SNAP-tag were synthesized and characterized. Although the fluorescence was successfully quenched, in vivo imaging with the quenched substrate CBG-800-PEG-QC1 failed to visualize the SNAP(f)-ADRβ2 expressing tumor, possibly due to the reduced reaction rate. Further improvement is needed to apply this system for in vivo imaging. PMID:22479502

  9. Association between SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms and cognition in autism: functional consequences and potential therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Braida, D; Guerini, F R; Ponzoni, L; Corradini, I; De Astis, S; Pattini, L; Bolognesi, E; Benfante, R; Fornasari, D; Chiappedi, M; Ghezzo, A; Clerici, M; Matteoli, M; Sala, M

    2015-01-27

    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is involved in different neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Consistently, SNAP-25 polymorphisms in humans are associated with hyperactivity and/or with low cognitive scores. We analysed five SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms (rs363050, rs363039, rs363043, rs3746544 and rs1051312) in 46 autistic children trying to correlate them with Childhood Autism Rating Scale and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The functional effects of rs363050 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the gene transcriptional activity, by means of the luciferase reporter gene, were evaluated. To investigate the functional consequences that SNAP-25 reduction may have in children, the behaviour and EEG of SNAP-25(+/-) adolescent mice (SNAP-25(+/+)) were studied. Significant association of SNAP-25 polymorphism with decreasing cognitive scores was observed. Analysis of transcriptional activity revealed that SNP rs363050 encompasses a regulatory element, leading to protein expression decrease. Reduction of SNAP-25 levels in adolescent mice was associated with hyperactivity, cognitive and social impairment and an abnormal EEG, characterized by the occurrence of frequent spikes. Both EEG abnormalities and behavioural deficits were rescued by repeated exposure for 21 days to sodium salt valproate (VLP). A partial recovery of SNAP-25 expression content in SNAP-25(+/-) hippocampi was also observed by means of western blotting. A reduced expression of SNAP-25 is responsible for the cognitive deficits in children affected by autism spectrum disorders, as presumably occurring in the presence of rs363050(G) allele, and for behavioural and EEG alterations in adolescent mice. VLP treatment could result in novel therapeutic strategies.

  10. Amelogenesis Imperfecta, Facial Esthetics and Snap-On Smile.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lee; Bradshaw, Jonathan P; Marks, Murray K

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary enamel protein disorder affecting deciduous and secondary crown formation. The prevalence ranges from 1:700 to 1:14,000 depending on the population. These teeth may be hypoplastic, hypomineralized, or hypermineralized and are often discolored, sensitive and caries vulnerable. Patients often present with psychosocial issues due to appearance. Primary teeth are often treated with stainless steel crowns while secondary teeth are treated with full coverage esthetic crowns. The presenting preteen male here was fitted with Snap-On Smile? (www.snaponsmile.com). This treatment option provided cosmetic enhancement of the patient's appearance besides stabilization without altering the primary and secondary dentition during adolescent development.

  11. Traumatic Amputation of Finger From an Alligator Snapping Turtle Bite.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert D; Nielsen, Cynthia L

    2016-06-01

    Legend states that the alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) should be handled with extreme caution as it has jaw strength powerful enough to bite a wooden broomstick in half. Tales of bite injuries from what is the largest freshwater turtle in North America exist anecdotally, yet there are few descriptions of medical encounters for such. The risk of infection from reptilian bites to the hand in an aquatic environment warrants thorough antibiotic treatment in conjunction with hand surgery consultation. We present the first case report of a near total amputation of an index finger in an adolescent boy who had been bitten by a wild "gator snapper." PMID:27116923

  12. A preliminary shield design for a SNAP-8 power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, I. M.; Soffer, L.; Clark, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary shield design for a nuclear power system utilizing a SNAP-8 reactor for space base application is presented. A representative space base configuration was selected to set the geometry constraints imposed on the design. The base utilizes two independent power packages each with a reactor operating at 600 kwt and each producing about 50 kwe. The crew compartment is located about 200 feet from each reactor and is large enough in extent to intercept a total shadow angle of 60 deg measured about the center line of each reactor.

  13. An integral field spectrograph for SNAP supernova studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ealet, Anne; Prieto, E.; Bonissent, A.; Malina, R.; Basa, S.; LeFevre, O.; Mazure, A.; Tarle, G.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amidei, D.E.; Astier, P.; Baden, A.R.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bernstein, G.M.; Bower, C.R.; Campbell, M.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Curtis, D.W.; Deustua, S.E.; Edwards, W.R.; Ellis, R.S.; Fruchter, A.; Frye, B.L.; Genat, J.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Goodman, J.A.; Graham, J.R.; Hardin, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Honeycutt, R.; Holland, S.E.; Hook, I.; Huterer, D.; Kasen, D.N.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Lafever, R.; Lampton, M.L.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Levy, J.M.; Lidman, C.; Lin, R.P.; Linder, E.V.; Loken, S.C.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Metzger, M.R.; Miquel, R.; Mourao, A.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.A.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Pankow, D.H.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Refregier, A.; Rich, J.; Robinson, K.E.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schubnell, M.S.; Spadafora, A.; Smoot, G.F.; Sullivan, G.W.; Tomasch, A.D.; SNAP Collaboration

    2002-07-29

    A well-adapted spectrograph concept has been developed for the SNAP (SuperNova/Acceleration Probe) experiment. The goal is to ensure proper identification of Type Ia supernovae and to standardize the magnitude of each candidate by determining explosion parameters. An instrument based on an integral field method with the powerful concept of imager slicing has been designed and is presented in this paper. The spectrograph concept is optimized to have very high efficiency and low spectral resolution (R {approx} 100), constant through the wavelength range (0.35-1.7{micro}m), adapted to the scientific goals of the mission.

  14. SNAP 19 Pioneer F and G. Final Report

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1973-06-01

    The generator developed for the Pioneer mission evolved from the SNAP 19 RTG`s launched aboard the NIMBUS III spacecraft. In order to satisfy the power requirements and environment of earth escape trajectory, significant modifications were made to the thermoelectric converter, heat source, and structural configuration. Specifically, a TAGS 2N thermoelectric couple was designed to provide higher efficiency and improved long term power performance, and the electrical circuitry was modified to yield very low magnetic field from current flow in the RTG. A new heat source was employed to satisfy operational requirements and its integration with the generator required alteration to the method of providing support to the fuel capsule.

  15. SNAP: A VLSI architecture for artificial intelligence processing

    SciTech Connect

    Moldovan, D.I.; Tung, Y.W.

    1985-05-01

    The organization and operation of a semantic network array processor (SNAP) are described. The architecture consists of an array of identical cells each containing a content addressable memory, microprogram control, and communication unit. Each cell is dedicated to one node of the semantic network and its associated relations. The array can perform global associative functions under the supervision of an outside controller. In addition, each cell is equipped with the necessary logic to perform individual functions. A set or primitive instructions was carefully chosen. Some of the applications discussed include pattern search operations, production systems, and inferences. A LISP simulator was developed for this architecture, and some simulation results are presented.

  16. Solar array thermal snap and the characteristics of its effect on UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambertson, M.; Rohrbaugh, D.; Garrick, J.

    1993-01-01

    The single solar array on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is subjected to a thermal distortion when the spacecraft enters and exits the Earth's shadow. The distortion results in a torque that alters the spacecraft attitude. Due to the sudden nature of the attitude discontinuity, the effect has been termed 'thermal snap'. Thermal snap has also been experienced by Landsats 4 and 5. Analyses by the spacecraft builder addressed the impact of the resultant torque on the onboard control system. This paper discusses the results of comparisons between the predicted effects of thermal snap on UARS and actual attitude solutions from UARS telemetry data. In addition, this paper describes the characteristics of the thermal snap on UARS in terms of maximum displacement, solar beta angle, and solar array drive angle. Comparisons are made between the actual times of thermal snaps and the predicted spacecraft sunrise and sunset times. The effects of the UARS thermal snap are summarized and a general comment is made relating possible effects of thermal snap on other satellites. Also, an analysis of UARS attitude solutions that span periods of thermal snap was performed to determine whether the gyro sampling time of 1/8 second is sufficient to properly model the resulting spacecraft attitude without compromising the accuracy requirements. The results of this analysis are discussed.

  17. Epileptiform activity and cognitive deficits in SNAP-25(+/-) mice are normalized by antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Irene; Donzelli, Andrea; Antonucci, Flavia; Welzl, Hans; Loos, Maarten; Martucci, Roberta; De Astis, Silvia; Pattini, Linda; Inverardi, Francesca; Wolfer, David; Caleo, Matteo; Bozzi, Yuri; Verderio, Claudia; Frassoni, Carolina; Braida, Daniela; Clerici, Mario; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Sala, Mariaelvina; Matteoli, Michela

    2014-02-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is a protein that participates in the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis through the formation of the soluble NSF attachment protein receptor complex and modulates voltage-gated calcium channels activity. The Snap25 gene has been associated with schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and bipolar disorder, and lower levels of SNAP-25 have been described in patients with schizophrenia. We used SNAP-25 heterozygous (SNAP-25(+/-)) mice to investigate at which extent the reduction of the protein levels affects neuronal network function and mouse behavior. As interactions of genotype with the specific laboratory conditions may impact behavioral results, the study was performed through a multilaboratory study in which behavioral tests were replicated in at least 2 of 3 distinct European laboratories. Reductions of SNAP-25 levels were associated with a moderate hyperactivity, which disappeared in the adult animals, and with impaired associative learning and memory. Electroencephalographic recordings revealed the occurrence of frequent spikes, suggesting a diffuse network hyperexcitability. Consistently, SNAP-25(+/-) mice displayed higher susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures, paralleled by degeneration of hilar neurons. Notably, both EEG profile and cognitive defects were improved by antiepileptic drugs. These results indicate that reduction of SNAP-25 expression is associated to generation of epileptiform discharges and cognitive dysfunctions, which can be effectively treated by antiepileptic drugs.

  18. Shock and vibration tests of a SNAP-8 NaK pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromquist, A. J.; Nelson, R. B.; Hibben, L.

    1971-01-01

    The pump used for reactor cooling in the SNAP 8 space power system was subjected to the expected vehicle launch vibration, and shock loading in accordance with the SNAP 8 environmental specification. Subsequent disassembly revealed damage to the thrust bearing pins, which should be redesigned and strengthened. The unit was operational, however, when run in a test loop after reassembly.

  19. Simultaneous noncontrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (SNAP) imaging for carotid atherosclerotic disease evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinnan; Börnert, Peter; Zhao, Huilin; Hippe, Daniel S; Zhao, Xihai; Balu, Niranjan; Ferguson, Marina S; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Xu, Jianrong; Yuan, Chun; Kerwin, William S

    2013-02-01

    A simultaneous noncontrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (SNAP) MR imaging technique is proposed to detect both luminal stenosis and hemorrhage in atherosclerosis patients in a single scan. Thirteen patients with diagnosed carotid atherosclerotic plaque were admitted after informed consent. All scans were performed on a 3T MR imaging system with SNAP, 2D time-of-flight and magnetization-prepared 3D rapid acquisition gradient echo sequences. The SNAP sequence utilized a phase sensitive acquisition, and was designed to provide positive signals corresponding to intraplaque hemorrhage and negative signals corresponding to lumen. SNAP images were compared to time-of-flight images to evaluate lumen size measurements using linear mixed models and the intraclass correlation coefficient. Intraplaque hemorrhage identification accuracy was evaluated by comparing to magnetization-prepared 3D rapid acquisition gradient echo images using Cohen's Kappa. Diagnostic quality SNAP images were generated from all subjects. Quantitatively, the lumen size measurements by SNAP were strongly correlated (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.96, P < 0.001) with those measured by time-of-flight. For intraplaque hemorrhage detection, strong agreement (κ = 0.82, P < 0.001) was also identified between SNAP and magnetization-prepared 3D rapid acquisition gradient echo images. In conclusion, a SNAP imaging technique was proposed and shows great promise for imaging both lumen size and carotid intraplaque hemorrhage with a single scan.

  20. Reduced SNAP-25 increases PSD-95 mobility and impairs spine morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fossati, G; Morini, R; Corradini, I; Antonucci, F; Trepte, P; Edry, E; Sharma, V; Papale, A; Pozzi, D; Defilippi, P; Meier, J C; Brambilla, R; Turco, E; Rosenblum, K; Wanker, E E; Ziv, N E; Menna, E; Matteoli, M

    2015-09-01

    Impairment of synaptic function can lead to neuropsychiatric disorders collectively referred to as synaptopathies. The SNARE protein SNAP-25 is implicated in several brain pathologies and, indeed, brain areas of psychiatric patients often display reduced SNAP-25 expression. It has been recently found that acute downregulation of SNAP-25 in brain slices impairs long-term potentiation; however, the processes through which this occurs are still poorly defined. We show that in vivo acute downregulation of SNAP-25 in CA1 hippocampal region affects spine number. Consistently, hippocampal neurons from SNAP-25 heterozygous mice show reduced densities of dendritic spines and defective PSD-95 dynamics. Finally, we show that, in brain, SNAP-25 is part of a molecular complex including PSD-95 and p140Cap, with p140Cap being capable to bind to both SNAP-25 and PSD-95. These data demonstrate an unexpected role of SNAP-25 in controlling PSD-95 clustering and open the possibility that genetic reductions of the protein levels - as occurring in schizophrenia - may contribute to the pathology through an effect on postsynaptic function and plasticity.

  1. The SNAP Rating Scale for the Diagnosis of the Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, James M.; And Others

    The correlation of ratings from the SNAP Rating Scale with the ratings from the established Conners' Ratinq Scale are discussed as a method for assessing the validity of the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria for attention deficient disorder with hyper-activity (ADDH). The questionnaire of SNAP items and…

  2. Reduced SNAP-25 increases PSD-95 mobility and impairs spine morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fossati, G; Morini, R; Corradini, I; Antonucci, F; Trepte, P; Edry, E; Sharma, V; Papale, A; Pozzi, D; Defilippi, P; Meier, J C; Brambilla, R; Turco, E; Rosenblum, K; Wanker, E E; Ziv, N E; Menna, E; Matteoli, M

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of synaptic function can lead to neuropsychiatric disorders collectively referred to as synaptopathies. The SNARE protein SNAP-25 is implicated in several brain pathologies and, indeed, brain areas of psychiatric patients often display reduced SNAP-25 expression. It has been recently found that acute downregulation of SNAP-25 in brain slices impairs long-term potentiation; however, the processes through which this occurs are still poorly defined. We show that in vivo acute downregulation of SNAP-25 in CA1 hippocampal region affects spine number. Consistently, hippocampal neurons from SNAP-25 heterozygous mice show reduced densities of dendritic spines and defective PSD-95 dynamics. Finally, we show that, in brain, SNAP-25 is part of a molecular complex including PSD-95 and p140Cap, with p140Cap being capable to bind to both SNAP-25 and PSD-95. These data demonstrate an unexpected role of SNAP-25 in controlling PSD-95 clustering and open the possibility that genetic reductions of the protein levels – as occurring in schizophrenia – may contribute to the pathology through an effect on postsynaptic function and plasticity. PMID:25678324

  3. SNAP-25 in hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Qiuling; Gao Xiang; Lu Qi; Zhang Xuehan; Tu Yanyang; Jin Meilei; Zhao Guoping; Yu Lei; Jing Naihe; Li Baoming . E-mail: bmli@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-09-08

    SNAP-25 is a synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa, a key component of synaptic vesicle-docking/fusion machinery, and plays a critical role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. We previously reported that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA1 region is involved in consolidation of contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory (Hou et al. European J Neuroscience, 20: 1593-1603, 2004). SNAP-25 is expressed not only in the CA1 region, but also in the CA3 region, and the SNAP-25 mRNA level in the CA3 region is higher than in the CA1 region. Here, we provide evidence that SNAP-25 in the CA3 region is also involved in learning/memory. Intra-CA3 infusion of SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide impaired both long-term contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory, with short-term memory intact. Furthermore, the SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) in the mossy-fiber pathway (DG-CA3 pathway), with no effect on paired-pulse facilitation of the fEPSP. These results are consistent with the notion that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation.

  4. Analysis and Down Select of Flow Passages for Thermal Hydraulic Testing of a SNAP Derived Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, T. J.; Sadasivan, P.; Masterson, S.

    2007-01-01

    As past of the Vision for Space Exploration, man will return to the moon. To enable safe and productive time on the lunar surface will require adequate power resources. To provide the needed power and to give mission planners all landing site possibilities, including a permanently dark crater, a nuclear reactor provides the most options. Designed to be l00kWt providing approx. 25kWe this power plants would be very effective in delivering dependable, site non-specific power to crews or robotic missions on the lunar surface. An affordable reference reactor based upon the successful SNAP program of the 1960's and early 1970's has been designed by Los Alamos National Laboratory that will meet such a requirement. Considering current funding, environmental, and schedule limitations this lunar surface power reactor will be tested using non-nuclear simulators to simulate the heat from fission reactions. Currently a 25kWe surface power SNAP derivative reactor is in the early process of design and testing with collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Glenn Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Sandia National Laboratory to ensure that this new design is affordable and can be tested using non-nuclear methods as have proven so effective in the past. This paper will discuss the study and down selection of a flow passage concept for a approx. 25kWe lunar surface power reactor. Several different flow passages designs were evaluated using computational fluid dynamics to determine pressure drop and a structural assessment to consider thermal and stress of the passage walls. The reactor design basis conditions are discussed followed by passage problem setup and results for each concept. A recommendation for passage design is made with rationale for selection.

  5. A Monoclonal Antibody That Discriminates Between SNAP-Tagged and CLIP-Tagged Proteins.

    PubMed

    Bialon, Magdalena; Grezella, Clara; Friesen, Ludmila; Sieben, Thorsten; Pham, Anh-Tuan; Fischer, Rainer; Barth, Stefan; Püttmann, Christiane; Stein, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    SNAP-tag technology allows recombinant proteins to be covalently labeled to O(6)-benzylguanine (BG)-modified substrates with 1:1 stoichiometry. By attaching according fluorophores, this method is ideally suited for in vitro and in vivo imaging, as well as protein interaction analyses. Fluorophores modified with BG react with the SNAP-tag, whereas those modified with O(2)-benzylcytosine (BC) conjugate to a more recent derivative known as the CLIP-tag. The orthogonal substrate specificity of the SNAP- and CLIP-tags extends the range of applications by allowing double labeling. We previously developed a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes both tags. In this study, we describe a new mAb, which is specific for the SNAP-tag alone. Therefore, this mAb allows discrimination between SNAP- and CLIP-tags within a broad range of immunological methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry.

  6. O-GlcNAc-modification of SNAP-29 regulates autophagosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Liang, Qianqian; Li, Lin; Hu, Zhe; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Peipei; Ma, Yongfen; Zhao, Bin; Kovács, Attila L; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Feng, Du; Chen, She; Zhang, Hong

    2014-12-01

    The mechanism by which nutrient status regulates the fusion of autophagosomes with endosomes/lysosomes is poorly understood. Here, we report that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) mediates O-GlcNAcylation of the SNARE protein SNAP-29 and regulates autophagy in a nutrient-dependent manner. In mammalian cells, OGT knockdown, or mutating the O-GlcNAc sites in SNAP-29, promotes the formation of a SNAP-29-containing SNARE complex, increases fusion between autophagosomes and endosomes/lysosomes, and promotes autophagic flux. In Caenorhabditis elegans, depletion of ogt-1 has a similar effect on autophagy; moreover, expression of an O-GlcNAc-defective SNAP-29 mutant facilitates autophagic degradation of protein aggregates. O-GlcNAcylated SNAP-29 levels are reduced during starvation in mammalian cells and in C. elegans. Our study reveals a mechanism by which O-GlcNAc-modification integrates nutrient status with autophagosome maturation.

  7. The SNARE proteins SNAP25 and synaptobrevin are involved in endocytosis at hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Dongsheng; Sun, Tao; Xu, Jianhua; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Shin, Wonchul; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2013-05-22

    SNAP25, an essential component of the soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex that mediates exocytosis, is not considered to play a role in endocytosis, which couples to exocytosis by retrieving a similar amount of exocytosed vesicles. By knocking down SNAP25 and imaging slow endocytosis at a conventional synapse, the rat cultured hippocampal synapse, we found that SNAP25 is involved in slow, clathrin-dependent endocytosis. With similar techniques, we found that not only SNAP25, but also synaptobrevin is involved in slow endocytosis. These results provide the first evidence showing the dual role of SNAP25 and synaptobrevin in both exocytosis and slow endocytosis at conventional synapses. Such a dual role may contribute to mediate the coupling between exocytosis and clathrin-dependent endocytosis at conventional synapses, a mechanism critical for the maintenance of synaptic transmission and the normal structure of nerve terminals.

  8. Distribution of SNAP-25 in transient neuronal circuitries of the developing human forebrain.

    PubMed

    Ulfig, N; Setzer, M; Neudörfer, F; Bohl, J

    2000-04-27

    The distribution of SNAP-25 is demonstrated within prominent transient structures in the developing human forebrain. During early fetal development SNAP-25 is mainly expressed in axons of the intermediate zone and the internal capsule. The fibers appear directed towards the mantle zone of the ganglionic eminence and the perireticular nucleus located within the internal capsule. Cells of these two areas are shown to interact with SNAP-25 immunoreactive structures with the aid of double-labellings. The SNAP-25 immunoreactive fibers may represent corticofugal axons which contact the perireticular nucleus and ganglionic eminence which are regarded as intermediate targets providing a scaffold for growing axons. Anti-SNAP-25, thus, is an appropriate marker of intermediate targets which are involved in brain injuries of preterm infants. PMID:10817603

  9. The SNAP spacecraft, optics, and primary mission plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2000-12-01

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission uses frequent deep reobservation of selected survey fields to deliver its planned detection rate of Type 1a supernovae at cosmological distances. The primary science mission is conducted in two alternating phases: discovery, which demands large sky coverage and sensitivity, and follow-up spectroscopy of detected SNe. The combination of sky area and sensitivity will be achieved in part through the use of a two-meter-aperture three-mirror-anastigmat telescope that delivers nearly diffraction-limited images in the visible and near-IR throughout its one square degree field of view. The spacecraft will include an attitude control system with focal plane sensors giving sustained pointing accuracy better than 0.03 arc seconds. Additional features include a 50Mb/s downlink data rate that will allow the image processing and data processing to be conducted at our ground facility rather than onboard. The orbits being studied for SNAP are high Earth orbits that keep the spacecraft well outside the geomagnetically trapped energetic particle environment, with inclinations high enough to minimize or eliminate eclipses to achieve the best possible thermal stability. This research has been supported in part by the U.S.Department of Energy.

  10. Snapping scapular syndrome secondary to rib intramedullary fixation device

    PubMed Central

    Zaidenberg, Ezequiel E.; Rossi, Luciano A.; Bongiovanni, Santiago L.; Tanoira, Ignacio; Maignon, Gaston; Ranalletta, Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Background Scapulo-thoracic joint disorders, including bursitis and crepitus, are commonly misdiagnosed problems and can be a source of persistent pain and dysfunction Presentation of the case This article describes an unusual case of a snapping scapula syndrome secondary to a migration through the lateral cortex of a rib splint intramedullary fixation device into the scapulothoracic joint. Discussion Recently, the operative fixation of multiple ribs fractures with intramedullary fixation devices has become popular. Despite the good outcomes with new rib splint designs, concern remains about the potential complications related to potential loss of fracture reduction with migration of the wire resulting in pain or additional injury to the surrounding tissues. Conclusion Surgeons should pay attention to any protrusion of intramedullary rib implants, especially in the evaluation of routine X-rays following surgical treatment. We should be aware of the possibility of this rare cause of snapping scapula syndrome to avoid delayed diagnosis and consider removing the implant will resolve the pain. PMID:26629853

  11. SnapShot: Visualization to Propel Ice Hockey Analytics.

    PubMed

    Pileggi, H; Stolper, C D; Boyle, J M; Stasko, J T

    2012-12-01

    Sports analysts live in a world of dynamic games flattened into tables of numbers, divorced from the rinks, pitches, and courts where they were generated. Currently, these professional analysts use R, Stata, SAS, and other statistical software packages for uncovering insights from game data. Quantitative sports consultants seek a competitive advantage both for their clients and for themselves as analytics becomes increasingly valued by teams, clubs, and squads. In order for the information visualization community to support the members of this blossoming industry, it must recognize where and how visualization can enhance the existing analytical workflow. In this paper, we identify three primary stages of today's sports analyst's routine where visualization can be beneficially integrated: 1) exploring a dataspace; 2) sharing hypotheses with internal colleagues; and 3) communicating findings to stakeholders.Working closely with professional ice hockey analysts, we designed and built SnapShot, a system to integrate visualization into the hockey intelligence gathering process. SnapShot employs a variety of information visualization techniques to display shot data, yet given the importance of a specific hockey statistic, shot length, we introduce a technique, the radial heat map. Through a user study, we received encouraging feedback from several professional analysts, both independent consultants and professional team personnel.

  12. Geometrically controlled snapping transitions in shells with curved creases

    PubMed Central

    Bende, Nakul Prabhakar; Evans, Arthur A.; Innes-Gold, Sarah; Marin, Luis A.; Cohen, Itai; Hayward, Ryan C.; Santangelo, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    Curvature and mechanics are intimately connected for thin materials, and this coupling between geometry and physical properties is readily seen in folded structures from intestinal villi and pollen grains to wrinkled membranes and programmable metamaterials. While the well-known rules and mechanisms behind folding a flat surface have been used to create deployable structures and shape transformable materials, folding of curved shells is still not fundamentally understood. Shells naturally deform by simultaneously bending and stretching, and while this coupling gives them great stability for engineering applications, it makes folding a surface of arbitrary curvature a nontrivial task. Here we discuss the geometry of folding a creased shell, and demonstrate theoretically the conditions under which it may fold smoothly. When these conditions are violated we show, using experiments and simulations, that shells undergo rapid snapping motion to fold from one stable configuration to another. Although material asymmetry is a proven mechanism for creating this bifurcation of stability, for the case of a creased shell, the inherent geometry itself serves as a barrier to folding. We discuss here how two fundamental geometric concepts, creases and curvature, combine to allow rapid transitions from one stable state to another. Independent of material system and length scale, the design rule that we introduce here explains how to generate snapping transitions in arbitrary surfaces, thus facilitating the creation of programmable multistable materials with fast actuation capabilities. PMID:26294253

  13. Wrinkling, Crumpling and Snapping for Surface Property Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Alfred

    2008-03-01

    Upon the development of a critical stress, many materials and geometries experience a mechanical instability, which produces significant changes in geometry with very small changes in stress. In nature, mechanical instabilities are ubiquitous with the definition of shape, morphology, and function. Examples range from wrinkles on human skin to the snapping of Venus Flytrap leaflets. Inspired by these examples and others, we use elastic instabilities to control the morphology and function of soft polymer surfaces. We present three strategies. The first is a novel approach for the development of surface wrinkles on a top-constrained elastomer surface. We demonstrate and understand the control of kinetically-trapped and equilibrium wrinkle morphologies associated with changes in the materials properties and geometric constraint. These structures are stabilized to create surfaces with enhanced adhesion and advantageous optical properties. A second strategy is based on the controlled buckling of surface attached sheets. This method allows the fabrication of responsive surface structures that are prone to snap-through instabilities and the fabrication of pattern features that are difficult, if not impossible, to achieve with any other method. The third strategy brings the bio-inspired surface control full circle with the use of mechanical instabilities to control and characterize monolayer sheets of biological cells.

  14. Impact of Dabigatran versus Phenprocoumon on ADP Induced Platelet Aggregation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation with or without Concomitant Clopidogrel Therapy (the Dabi-ADP-1 and Dabi-ADP-2 Trials)

    PubMed Central

    Martischnig, Amadea M.; Mehilli, Julinda; Pollak, Janina; Petzold, Tobias; Fiedler, Anette K.; Mayer, Katharina; Schulz-Schüpke, Stefanie; Sibbing, Dirk; Massberg, Steffen; Kastrati, Adnan; Sarafoff, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Background. A relevant number of patients receive triple therapy with clopidogrel, aspirin, and oral anticoagulation. Clopidogrel's efficacy on ADP induced platelet function may be influenced by concomitant antithrombotic therapies. Data regarding the effect of dabigatran on platelet function is limited to in vitro studies and healthy individuals. Methods. The “Dabi-ADP-1” and “Dabi-ADP-2” trials randomized patients with atrial fibrillation to either dabigatran or phenprocoumon for a 2-week period. In Dabi-ADP-1 (n = 70) patients with clopidogrel therapy were excluded and in Dabi-ADP-2 (n = 46) patients had to be treated concomitantly with clopidogrel. The primary endpoint was ADP-induced platelet aggregation between dabigatran and phenprocoumon at 14 days. Secondary endpoints were ADPtest HS-, TRAP-, and COL-induced platelet aggregation. Results. There was no significant difference regarding the primary endpoint between both groups in either trial (Dabi-ADP-1: Dabigatran: 846 [650–983] AU × min versus phenprocoumon: 839 [666–1039] AU × min, P = 0.90 and Dabi-ADP-2: 326 [268–462] versus 350 [214–535], P = 0.70) or regarding the secondary endpoints, ADPtest HS-, TRAP-, and COL-induced platelet aggregation. Conclusion. Dabigatran as compared to phenprocoumon has no impact on ADP-induced platelet aggregation in atrial fibrillation patients neither with nor without concomitant clopidogrel therapy. PMID:26229963

  15. Evaluation of a semiquantitative SNAP test for measurement of bile acids in dogs.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Rachel L; Tobias, Karen M; Reed, Ann; Snyder, Karl R

    2014-01-01

    Background. Serum bile acids (SBA) are used as a routine screening tool of liver function in dogs. Serum samples are usually shipped to a referral laboratory for quantitative analysis with an enzymatic chemistry analyzer. The canine SNAP Bile Acids Test (SNAP-BAT) provides an immediate, semi-quantitative measurement of bile acid concentrations in-house. With the SNAP-BAT, bile acids concentrations of 5-30 µmol/L are quantified, and results outside of that range are classified as <5 or >30 µmol/L. Agreement of the SNAP-BAT with the enzymatic method has not been extensively investigated. Objectives. The purposes of this prospective clinical study were to assess the precision of the SNAP-BAT and determine agreement of SNAP-BAT with results from an in-house chemistry analyzer. Methods. After verifying intra-assay precision of the SNAP-BAT, a prospective analysis was performed using blood samples collected from 56 dogs suspected to have liver disease. Each sample was analyzed with an enzymatic, in-house chemistry analyzer and the SNAP-BAT. Agreement between the two methods was statistically assessed using the κ index of agreement. Results. Intra-assay variability was minimal. The κ index for agreement between the SNAP-BAT and routine chemistry analyzer was between 0.752 and 0.819, indicating substantial to near perfect agreement. Conclusions. The SNAP-BAT is a highly accurate, semi-quantitative test that yields immediate results, and has very little intra-assay variability, particularly for results >30 µmol/L.

  16. Crystal structure of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiangshu; Ballicora, Miguel A; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H

    2005-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis in plants and glycogen biosynthesis in bacteria. It is the enzymatic site for regulation of storage polysaccharide accumulation in plants and bacteria, being allosterically activated or inhibited by metabolites of energy flux. We report the first atomic resolution structure of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Crystals of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase α subunit were grown in high concentrations of sulfate, resulting in the sulfate-bound, allosterically inhibited form of the enzyme. The N-terminal catalytic domain resembles a dinucleotide-binding Rossmann fold and the C-terminal domain adopts a left-handed parallel β helix that is involved in cooperative allosteric regulation and a unique oligomerization. We also report structures of the enzyme in complex with ATP and ADP-glucose. Communication between the regulator-binding sites and the active site is both subtle and complex and involves several distinct regions of the enzyme including the N-terminus, the glucose-1-phosphate-binding site, and the ATP-binding site. These structures provide insights into the mechanism for catalysis and allosteric regulation of the enzyme. PMID:15692569

  17. 7 CFR 272.10 - ADP/CIS Model Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false ADP/CIS Model Plan. 272.10 Section 272.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... other State agencies that have similar characteristics such as whether they are urban or rural,...

  18. Crystal structure of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangshu; Ballicora, Miguel A; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H

    2005-02-23

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis in plants and glycogen biosynthesis in bacteria. It is the enzymatic site for regulation of storage polysaccharide accumulation in plants and bacteria, being allosterically activated or inhibited by metabolites of energy flux. We report the first atomic resolution structure of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Crystals of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase alpha subunit were grown in high concentrations of sulfate, resulting in the sulfate-bound, allosterically inhibited form of the enzyme. The N-terminal catalytic domain resembles a dinucleotide-binding Rossmann fold and the C-terminal domain adopts a left-handed parallel beta helix that is involved in cooperative allosteric regulation and a unique oligomerization. We also report structures of the enzyme in complex with ATP and ADP-glucose. Communication between the regulator-binding sites and the active site is both subtle and complex and involves several distinct regions of the enzyme including the N-terminus, the glucose-1-phosphate-binding site, and the ATP-binding site. These structures provide insights into the mechanism for catalysis and allosteric regulation of the enzyme.

  19. Abiogenic Photophosphorylation of ADP to ATP Sensitized by Flavoproteinoid Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Michael P.; Telegina, Taisiya A.; Lyudnikova, Tamara A.; Kritsky, Mikhail S.

    2008-06-01

    A model for abiogenic photophosphorylation of ADP by orthophosphate to yield ATP was studied. The model is based on the photochemical activity of flavoproteinoid microspheres that are formed by aggregation in an aqueous medium of products of thermal condensation of a glutamic acid, glycine and lysine mixture (8:3:1) and contain, along with amino acid polymers (proteinoids), abiogenic isoalloxazine (flavin) pigments. Irradiation of aqueous suspensions of microspheres with blue visible light or ultraviolet in the presence of ADP and orthophosphate resulted in ATP formation. The yield of ATP in aerated suspensions was 10 20% per one mol of starting ADP. Deaeration reduced the photophosphorylating activity of microspheres five to 10 times. Treatment of aerated microsphere suspensions with superoxide dismutase during irradiation partially suppressed ATP formation. Deaerated microspheres restored completely their photophosphorylating activity after addition of hydrogen peroxide to the suspension. The photophosphorylating activity of deaerated suspensions of flavoproteinoid microspheres was also recovered by introduction of Fe3+-cytochrome c, an electron acceptor alternative to oxygen. On the basis of the results obtained, a chemical mechanism of phosphorylation is proposed in which the free radical form of reduced flavin sensitizer left( {{text{FlH}}^ bullet } right) and ADP are involved.

  20. American Diploma Project (ADP) End-of-Course Exams: 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    To assess the raised expectations of college and career readiness for all students, a group of American Diploma Project (ADP) Network states formed the ADP Assessment Consortium in 2005. The Consortium created Algebra I and II end-of-course exams, based in large part on Achieve's ADP mathematics benchmarks, which would provide an honest assessment…

  1. Structure and function of the ARH family of ADP-ribose-acceptor hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Mashimo, Masato; Kato, Jiro; Moss, Joel

    2014-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational protein modification, in which ADP-ribose is transferred from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to specific acceptors, thereby altering their activities. The ADP-ribose transfer reactions are divided into mono- and poly-(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Cellular ADP-ribosylation levels are tightly regulated by enzymes that transfer ADP-ribose to acceptor proteins (e.g. ADP-ribosyltransferases, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP)) and those that cleave the linkage between ADP-ribose and acceptor (e.g. ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolases (ARH), poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolases (PARG)), thereby constituting an ADP-ribosylation cycle. This review summarizes current findings related to the ARH family of proteins. This family comprises three members (ARH1-3) with similar size (39 kDa) and amino acid sequence. ARH1 catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of mono-(ADP-ribosyl)ated arginine. ARH3 hydrolyzes poly-(ADP-ribose) (PAR) and O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. The different substrate specificities of ARH1 and ARH3 contribute to their unique roles in the cell. Based on a phenotype analysis of ARH1−/− and ARH3−/− mice, ARH1 is involved in the action by bacterial toxins as well as in tumorigenesis. ARH3 participates in the degradation of PAR that is synthesized by PARP1 in response to oxidative stress-induced DNA damage; this hydrolytic reaction suppresses PAR-mediated cell death, a pathway termed parthanatos. PMID:24746921

  2. Technological implications of SNAP reactor power system development on future space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.V.

    1982-11-16

    Nuclear reactor systems are one method of satisfying space mission power needs. The development of such systems must proceed on a path consistent with mission needs and schedules. This path, or technology roadmap, starts from the power system technology data base available today. Much of this data base was established during the 1960s and early 1970s, when government and industry developed space nuclear reactor systems for steady-state power and propulsion. One of the largest development programs was the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Program. By the early 1970s, a technology base had evolved from this program at the system, subsystem, and component levels. There are many implications of this technology base on future reactor power systems. A review of this base highlights the need for performing a power system technology and mission overview study. Such a study is currently being performed by Rockwell's Energy Systems Group for the Department of Energy and will assess power system capabilities versus mission needs, considering development, schedule, and cost implications. The end product of the study will be a technology roadmap to guide reactor power system development.

  3. Developmentally regulated switch in alternatively spliced SNAP-25 isoforms alters facilitation of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Bark, Christina; Bellinger, Frederick P; Kaushal, Ashutosh; Mathews, James R; Partridge, L Donald; Wilson, Michael C

    2004-10-01

    Although the basic molecular components that promote regulated neurotransmitter release are well established, the contribution of these proteins as regulators of the plasticity of neurotransmission and refinement of synaptic connectivity during development is elaborated less fully. For example, during the period of synaptic growth and maturation in brain, the expression of synaptosomal protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25), a neuronal t-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) essential for action potential-dependent neuroexocytosis, is altered through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA transcripts. We addressed the role of the two splice-variant isoforms of SNAP-25 with a targeted mouse mutation that impairs the shift from SNAP-25a to SNAP-25b. Most of these mutant mice die between 3 and 5 weeks of age, which coincides with the time when SNAP-25b expression normally reaches mature levels in brain and synapse formation is essentially completed. The altered expression of these SNAP-25 isoforms influences short-term synaptic function by affecting facilitation but not the initial probability of release. This suggests that mechanisms controlling alternative splicing between SNAP-25 isoforms contribute to a molecular switch important for survival that helps to guide the transition from immature to mature synaptic connections, as well as synapse regrowth and remodeling after neural injury.

  4. Protein phosphatase 2A dephosphorylates SNAP-25 through two distinct mechanisms in mouse brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yuuki; Yamamori, Saori; Itakura, Makoto; Miyaoka, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Masami

    2013-03-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) plays an essential role in exocytotic neurotransmitter release as a t-SNARE protein. SNAP-25 is phosphorylated at Ser(187) in a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, but the mechanism for dephosphorylation has yet to be clarified. We investigated SNAP-25 dephosphorylation by comparing it to growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43), another PKC-dependent presynaptic phosphoprotein, in crude mouse brain synaptosome preparations. Phosphorylation levels for both SNAP-25 and GAP-43 increased significantly after treatment with PKC activator phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDB), and ionomycin treatment induced a striking reduction in a time-dependent manner. This dephosphorylation occurred only in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), indicating involvement of a Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase. Ca(2+)-dependent dephosphorylation was not suppressed by calcineurin/PP2B inhibitors such as FK506 and cyclosporine A. SNAP-25 dephosphorylation, however, was suppressed by calyculin A, a non-selective inhibitor of PP1 and PP2A, and okadaic acid selective for PP2A, but not by tautomycin selective for PP1. In contrast, none of these inhibitors suppressed GAP-43 dephosphorylation. PDB-induced SNAP-25 phosphorylation was enhanced by okadaic acid in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that PP2A participates in SNAP-25 dephosphorylation through Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent mechanisms but is not involved in GAP-43 dephosphorylation.

  5. Cryo-EM structure of SNAP-SNARE assembly in 20S particle

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Xuan; Sun, Shan; Li, Xueming; Wang, Hong-Wei; Sui, Sen-Fang

    2015-01-01

    N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and α soluble NSF attachment proteins (α-SNAPs) work together within a 20S particle to disassemble and recycle the SNAP receptor (SNARE) complex after intracellular membrane fusion. To understand the disassembly mechanism of the SNARE complex by NSF and α-SNAP, we performed single-particle cryo-electron microscopy analysis of 20S particles and determined the structure of the α-SNAP-SNARE assembly portion at a resolution of 7.35 Å. The structure illustrates that four α-SNAPs wrap around the single left-handed SNARE helical bundle as a right-handed cylindrical assembly within a 20S particle. A conserved hydrophobic patch connecting helices 9 and 10 of each α-SNAP forms a chock protruding into the groove of the SNARE four-helix bundle. Biochemical studies proved that this structural element was critical for SNARE complex disassembly. Our study suggests how four α-SNAPs may coordinate with the NSF to tear the SNARE complex into individual proteins. PMID:25906996

  6. Arthroscopic Visualization of Abnormal Movement of Discoid Lateral Meniscus With Snapping Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Harato, Kengo; Niki, Yasuo; Nagashima, Masaki; Masumoto, Ko; Otani, Toshiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Suda, Yasunori

    2015-06-01

    Discoid lateral meniscus with snapping phenomenon is a rare pathologic condition. The purpose of this article is to present an arthroscopic technique for the treatment of discoid lateral meniscus with snapping phenomenon. The patient is placed in the supine position for confirmation of snapping. As the patient's knee bends, it can be confirmed by arthroscopy that the posterior horn of the discoid lateral meniscus moves posteriorly and the central portion of the discoid lateral meniscus moves anteriorly at the same time with snapping at deep flexion angles. The anterior segment of the discoid lateral meniscus is found to be redundant and is often folded. On the contrary, as the patient's knee extends, the central portion is returned to the original position accompanied by snapping at nearly full extension. After excision of the central portion, the movement of the meniscus is evaluated again and the disappearance of the snapping phenomenon can be confirmed. Although it includes limitations, this application is easy and would certainly help surgeons to treat snapping knee with discoid lateral meniscus.

  7. α-SNAP regulates dynamic, on-site assembly and calcium selectivity of Orai1 channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyao; Miao, Yong; Dani, Adish; Vig, Monika

    2016-08-15

    Orai1 forms a highly calcium-selective pore of the calcium release activated channel, and α-SNAP is necessary for its function. Here we show that α-SNAP regulates on-site assembly of Orai1 dimers into calcium-selective multimers. We find that Orai1 is a dimer in resting primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts but displays variable stoichiometry in the plasma membrane of store-depleted cells. Remarkably, α-SNAP depletion induces formation of higher-order Orai1 oligomers, which permeate significant levels of sodium via Orai1 channels. Sodium permeation in α-SNAP-deficient cells cannot be corrected by tethering multiple Stim1 domains to Orai1 C-terminal tail, demonstrating that α-SNAP regulates functional assembly and calcium selectivity of Orai1 multimers independently of Stim1 levels. Fluorescence nanoscopy reveals sustained coassociation of α-SNAP with Stim1 and Orai1, and α-SNAP-depleted cells show faster and less constrained mobility of Orai1 within ER-PM junctions, suggesting Orai1 and Stim1 coentrapment without stable contacts. Furthermore, α-SNAP depletion significantly reduces fluorescence resonance energy transfer between Stim1 and Orai1 N-terminus but not C-terminus. Taken together, these data reveal a unique role of α-SNAP in the on-site functional assembly of Orai1 subunits and suggest that this process may, in part, involve enabling crucial low-affinity interactions between Orai1 N-terminus and Stim1.

  8. Cold snaps still a threat despite global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-07-01

    Long stretches of extreme cold weather can cause serious damage to agriculture as well as to transportation, water, and energy infrastructure. Cold snaps have the potential to kill people, with deaths attributed to cold weather often outpacing those caused by extreme heat. With climate projections anticipating at least 2deg;C increases in global average temperature by the end of the century, some regional planners may be taking solace in the idea that the threat of cold weather extremes could fade as the world warms. Research by Kodra et al., however, suggests that on a global scale the intensity and duration of extreme cold weather events will persist and in some regions will possibly even increase by the end of the 21st century. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/ 2011GL047103, 2011)

  9. Modeling radiation loads to detectors in a SNAP mission

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolai V. Mokhov et al.

    2004-05-12

    In order to investigate degradation of optical detectors of the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) space mission due to irradiation, a three-dimensional model of the satellite has been developed. Realistic radiation environment at the satellite orbit, including both galactic and trapped in radiation belts cosmic rays, has been taken into account. The modeling has been performed with the MARS14 Monte Carlo code. In a current design, the main contribution to dose accumulated in the photodetectors is shown to be due to trapped protons. A contribution of primary {alpha}-particles is estimated. Predicted performance degradation for the photo-detector for a 4-year space mission is 40% and can be reduced further by means of shielding optimization.

  10. Long term tests of a SNAP-19 thermoelectric generator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouklove, P.; Truscello, V.

    1972-01-01

    Results of tests performed on a SNAP 19 thermoelectric generator, SN-20. The SN-20 generator was tested for approximately 37,000 hours using electrical heating to simulate the heat released by isotope decay. After 27,000 hours of operation the output power from the generator decreased to approximately 1/3 of the beginning of life value while the internal resistance increased by a factor of 5. Analysis of the test results, confirmed by preliminary metallographic examination, indicated that the output power degradation was the result of excessive sublimation of the thermoelectric material and loss of the hot junction bond due to the depletion of the internal cover gas. This also resulted in excessive junction temperatures. Comparison is made with the behavior observed from the two flight generators and a tentative conclusion is advanced as to the reason for their failure.

  11. Seeing the Invisible Universe with Gravitational Lensing and SNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Gary

    2005-11-03

    Recent high-precision cosmological measurements provide solid evidence that normal matter comprises only 4% of the content of the Universe. The dominant substances are completely invisible and have never been detected in a laboratory: 23% in some 'dark matter' particles, and 73% in a form of 'dark energy' that is currently accelerating the expansion of the Universe. The dark matter and dark energy do, however, distort our view of the Universe behind them through gravitational lensing, just as the 'obscure glass' on the doors of a shower stall is designed to be transparent but produces a distorted view of its occupant. I will describe how present and future experiments such as the SNAP spacecraft can measure this very subtle distorting effect and use it to infer the properties of the dark matter and dark energy that dominate the Universe.

  12. Snap-shot survey of unidentified Fermi sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangelov, Blagoy

    2014-09-01

    We propose a mini-survey of unclassified Fermi sources from the 2FGL catalog. Using an intelligent parameter selection, we have identified a sub-sample that is likely to be dominated by pulsars with a possible inclusion of HMXBs. We aim to identify 5 new gamma-ray pulsars and their X-ray counterparts, and thus increase the population of pulsars detected in both gamma-rays and X-rays. The existing limited data hint at an intriguing change in the slope of the L(Edot) dependence at log(Edot)=35-36 erg/s. By identifying more pulsars in both gamma- and X-rays, we will be able to confirm the existence of those breaks and investigate their origin. We will also identify new X-ray bright pulsars suitable for detailed study using the prudent snap-shot approach.

  13. Amelogenesis Imperfecta, Facial Esthetics and Snap-On Smile.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lee; Bradshaw, Jonathan P; Marks, Murray K

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary enamel protein disorder affecting deciduous and secondary crown formation. The prevalence ranges from 1:700 to 1:14,000 depending on the population. These teeth may be hypoplastic, hypomineralized, or hypermineralized and are often discolored, sensitive and caries vulnerable. Patients often present with psychosocial issues due to appearance. Primary teeth are often treated with stainless steel crowns while secondary teeth are treated with full coverage esthetic crowns. The presenting preteen male here was fitted with Snap-On Smile? (www.snaponsmile.com). This treatment option provided cosmetic enhancement of the patient's appearance besides stabilization without altering the primary and secondary dentition during adolescent development. PMID:26433999

  14. Cellular Functions of NSF: Not Just SNAPs and SNAREs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunxia; Slevin, John T.; Whiteheart, Sidney W.

    2007-01-01

    NSF is an AAA protein, broadly required for intracellular membrane fusion. NSF functions as a SNARE chaperone which binds, through SNAPs, to SNARE complexes and utilizes the energy of ATP hydrolysis to disassemble them thus facilitating SNARE recycling. While this is a major function of NSF, it does seem to interact with other proteins, such as the AMPA receptor subunit, GluR2, and β2-AR and is thought to affect their trafficking patterns. New data suggest that NSF may be regulated by transient post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and nitrosylation. These new aspects of NSF function as well as its role in SNARE complex dynamics will be discussed. PMID:17397838

  15. Proximal ADP-ribose Hydrolysis in Trypanosomatids is Catalyzed by a Macrodomain

    PubMed Central

    Haikarainen, Teemu; Lehtiö, Lari

    2016-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification utilized by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for several cellular functions, such as DNA repair, proliferation, and cell signaling. Higher eukaryotes, such as humans, utilize various enzymes to reverse the modification and to regulate ADP-ribose dependent signaling. In contrast, some lower eukaryotes, including trypanosomatids, lack many of these enzymes and therefore have a much more simplified ADP-ribose metabolism. Here we identified and characterized ADP-ribose hydrolases from Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi, which are homologous to human O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylases MacroD1 and MacroD2. The enzymes are capable for hydrolysis of protein linked ADP-ribose and a product of sirtuin-mediated lysine deacetylation, O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. Crystal structures of the trypanosomatid macrodomains revealed a conserved catalytic site with distinct differences to human MacroD1 and MacroD2. PMID:27064071

  16. Acoustic Response to Playback of Pile-Driving Sounds by Snapping Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Spiga, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    There is concern about the effects of noise from impact pile driving as this constructional technique becomes increasingly widespread in coastal areas. The habitats of most marine invertebrate species are likely to overlap with the areas of human activities along the coast and be affected by the increased levels of noise produced. This paper investigates the acoustic response of chorusing snapping shrimp to different sound pressure levels. A significant increase in the snap number and snap amplitude was recorded during the playback of piling noise, suggesting that noise exposure affected the acoustic behavior of these animals.

  17. Snapping scapula syndrome: current concepts review in conservative and surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Cerciello, Simone; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Summary The snapping scapula, also called “washboard syndrome” is a controversial condition attributed to bony and soft tissue abnormalities. The syndrome was understimated for long time and often associated only with specific osseous abnormalities. The nodal point in the overview of the syndrome is that crepitus associated with symptomatic bursitis may be physiologic and is not uncommon a clinical presentation without any form of crepitus or craquement. In the current rewiew we analyzed the current concepts in the conservative and surgical management of snapping scapula syndrome, preceded by a description of scapular anatomy, pathophysiology of scapulothoracic articulation and clinical features of snapping scapula. PMID:23888290

  18. The new Teledyne NIR detectors for the SNAP/JDEM mission spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzet, P. E.

    2009-10-01

    A new generation of near infrared (NIR) detectors have been developed by Teledyne for the SNAP/JDEM (SuperNova/Acceleration Probe) project. The new detectors are hybridized HgCdTe on a multiplexer with indium bump bonded. Since 2004, Teledyne and the SNAP collaboration have tried to characterize and improve the large format (2k×2k) H2RG detectors to meet the SNAP requirements. The results for quantum efficiency and total noise as an integration of a H2RG in a spectrograph demonstrator are presented.

  19. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in the regulation of nuclear functions.

    PubMed Central

    D'Amours, D; Desnoyers, S; D'Silva, I; Poirier, G G

    1999-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins. During this process, molecules of ADP-ribose are added successively on to acceptor proteins to form branched polymers. This modification is transient but very extensive in vivo, as polymer chains can reach more than 200 units on protein acceptors. The existence of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymer was first reported nearly 40 years ago. Since then, the importance of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis has been established in many cellular processes. However, a clear and unified picture of the physiological role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation still remains to be established. The total dependence of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis on DNA strand breaks strongly suggests that this post-translational modification is involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids. This view is also supported by the identification of direct protein-protein interactions involving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (113 kDa PARP), an enzyme catalysing the formation of poly(ADP-ribose), and key effectors of DNA repair, replication and transcription reactions. The presence of PARP in these multiprotein complexes, in addition to the actual poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of some components of these complexes, clearly supports an important role for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in DNA transactions. Accordingly, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis by any of several approaches and the analysis of PARP-deficient cells has revealed that the absence of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation strongly affects DNA metabolism, most notably DNA repair. The recent identification of new poly(ADP-ribosyl)ating enzymes with distinct (non-standard) structures in eukaryotes and archaea has revealed a novel level of complexity in the regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism. PMID:10455009

  20. The 1994 NASA/USRA/ADP Design Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, Thomas; Richardson, Joseph; Tryon, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/USRA/ADP Design Projects from Vanderbilt University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (1994) are enclosed in this final report. Design projects include: (1) Protein Crystal Growth, both facilities and methodology; (2) ACES Deployable Space Boom; (3) Hybrid Launch System designs for both manned and unmanned systems; (4) LH2 Fuel Tank design (SSTO); (5) SSTO design; and (6) Pressure Tank Feed System design.

  1. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2011-09-26

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  5. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  6. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  7. 75 FR 54295 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Evaluation of SNAP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Evaluation of SNAP Nutrition Education Practices Study AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  8. Snapping shrimp prefer natural as opposed to artificial materials as their habitat in laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Lai Kean; Ghazali, Shahriman M.

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzed the habitat selection behavior of the snapping shrimp, Alpheus spp., comparing natural shelters (Rocks with oysters attached on the surface Sh; rocks with smooth surface, Ro and coral rubble, Co with plastic bottle. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the habitat preference, effect of photoperiod and shrimp orientation at shelter. The current study indicated that snapping shrimp preferred natural materials but rejected plastic bottle as their shelter. Among the natural shelters, coral rubble was the most preferred habitat followed by shell and rock. Photoperiod showed minimum effect on the shrimp where they spend most of the time inside and underneath the shelters. In conclusion the current study showed that snapping shrimp preferred coral rubble as opposed to other natural material and plastic bottle. The result also suggested that plastic debris in the marine environment is not an alternative habitat for snapping shrimp.

  9. The Promise of Proteomics for the Study of ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Casey M.; Ong, Shao-En; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification where single units (mono-ADP-ribosylation) or polymeric chains (poly-ADP-ribosylation) of ADP-ribose are conjugated to proteins by ADP-ribosyltransferases. This post-translational modification and the ADP-ribosyltransferases (also known as PARPs) responsible for its synthesis have been found to play a role in nearly all major cellular processes, including DNA repair, transcription, translation, cell signaling and cell death. Furthermore, dysregulation of ADP-ribosylation has been linked to diseases including cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders and heart failure, leading to the development of therapeutic PARP inhibitors, many of which are currently in clinical trials. The study of this therapeutically important modification has recently been bolstered by the application of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, arguably the most powerful tool for the unbiased analysis of protein modifications. Unfortunately, progress has been hampered by the inherent challenges that stem from the physicochemical properties of ADP-ribose which as a post-translational modification is highly charged, heterogeneous (linear or branched polymers, as well as monomers), labile, and found on a wide range of amino acid acceptors. In this perspective, we discuss the progress that has been made in addressing these challenges, including the recent breakthroughs in proteomics techniques to identify ADP-ribosylation sites, and future developments to provide a proteome-wide view of the many cellular processes regulated by ADP-ribosylation. PMID:26091340

  10. Submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration is impaired in ZDF rats and recovered by resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brennan K; Perry, Christopher G R; Herbst, Eric A F; Ritchie, Ian R; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Smith, Jeffrey C; Neufer, P Darrell; Wright, David C; Holloway, Graham P

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the aetiology of skeletal muscle insulin resistance, although there is considerable controversy regarding these concepts. Mitochondrial function has been traditionally assessed in the presence of saturating ADP, but ATP turnover and the resultant ADP is thought to limit respiration in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the potential link between submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration rates, ROS generation and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the ZDF rat. Utilizing permeabilized muscle fibres we observed that submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration rates (250-2000 μm ADP) were lower in ZDF rats than in lean controls, which coincided with decreased adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (ANT2) protein content. This decrease in submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration occurred in the absence of a decrease in electron transport chain function. Treating ZDF rats with resveratrol improved skeletal muscle insulin resistance and this was associated with elevated submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration rates as well as an increase in ANT2 protein content. These results coincided with a greater ability of ADP to attenuate mitochondrial ROS emission and an improvement in cellular redox balance. Together, these data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is present in skeletal muscle insulin resistance when assessed at submaximal ADP concentrations and that ADP dynamics may influence skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through alterations in the propensity for mitochondrial ROS emission.

  11. SNAP-25a/b Isoform Levels in Human Brain Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Peter M; Cruz, Dianne A; Fucich, Elizabeth A; Olukotun, Dianna Y; Takahashi, Masami; Itakura, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    SNAP-25 is a neurotransmitter vesicular docking protein which has been associated with brain disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. In this project, we were interested if clinical factors are associated with differential SNAP-25 expression. We examined the SNAP-25 isoform mRNA and protein levels in postmortem cortex Brodmann's area 9 (BA9) and BA24 (n = 29). Subjects were divided by psychiatric diagnosis, clinical variables including mood state in the last week of life and lifetime impulsiveness. We found affected subjects with a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD) had a lower level of SNAP-25b BA24 protein compared to those without AUD. Hispanic subjects had lower levels of SNAP-25a, b and BA9 mRNA than Anglo-American subjects. Subjects who smoked had a total pan (total) SNAP-25 BA9/BA24 ratio. Subjects in the group with a low level of anxious-psychotic symptoms had higher SNAP-25a BA24 mRNA compared to normal controls, and both the high and low symptoms groups had higher pan (total) SNAP-25 BA9/BA24 ratios than normal controls. These data expand our understanding of clinical factors associated with SNAP-25. They suggest that SNAP-25 total and isoform levels may be useful biomarkers beyond limited neurological and psychiatric diagnostic categories. PMID:27606314

  12. SNAP-25a/b Isoform Levels in Human Brain Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Peter M; Cruz, Dianne A; Fucich, Elizabeth A; Olukotun, Dianna Y; Takahashi, Masami; Itakura, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    SNAP-25 is a neurotransmitter vesicular docking protein which has been associated with brain disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. In this project, we were interested if clinical factors are associated with differential SNAP-25 expression. We examined the SNAP-25 isoform mRNA and protein levels in postmortem cortex Brodmann's area 9 (BA9) and BA24 (n = 29). Subjects were divided by psychiatric diagnosis, clinical variables including mood state in the last week of life and lifetime impulsiveness. We found affected subjects with a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD) had a lower level of SNAP-25b BA24 protein compared to those without AUD. Hispanic subjects had lower levels of SNAP-25a, b and BA9 mRNA than Anglo-American subjects. Subjects who smoked had a total pan (total) SNAP-25 BA9/BA24 ratio. Subjects in the group with a low level of anxious-psychotic symptoms had higher SNAP-25a BA24 mRNA compared to normal controls, and both the high and low symptoms groups had higher pan (total) SNAP-25 BA9/BA24 ratios than normal controls. These data expand our understanding of clinical factors associated with SNAP-25. They suggest that SNAP-25 total and isoform levels may be useful biomarkers beyond limited neurological and psychiatric diagnostic categories.

  13. Rapid identification of human SNAP-25 transcript variants by a miniaturized capillary electrophoresis system.

    PubMed

    Németh, Nóra; Kerékgyártó, Márta; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Rónai, Zsolt; Guttman, András

    2014-02-01

    The 25 kDa synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP-25) is a crucial component of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complex and plays an important role in neurotransmission in the central nervous system. SNAP-25 has two different splice variants, SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b, differing in nine amino acids that results in a slight functional alteration of the generated soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complex. Two independent techniques, a PCR-miniaturized CE method and a real-time PCR based approach were elaborated for the specific and quantitative detection of the two SNAP-25 transcription variants. DNA-constructs coding for the two isoforms were used for optimization. Excellent specificity was observed with the use of our previously described highly sensitive miniaturized CE system in combination with quantitative PCR. The ratio of the two isoforms were reliably detected in a range of at least four orders of magnitude with a linear regression of R(2) = 0.987. Expression of the two isoforms was determined in human samples, where SNAP-25 was detected even in non-neural tissues, although at approximately a 100-fold lower level compared to the central nervous system. The relative amount of the SNAP-25b isoform was higher in the brain, whereas expression of SNAP-25a variant proved to be slightly higher in extra-neural cell types. The genomics approach in conjunction with the miniaturized CE system introduced in this paper is readily applicable for rapid alternative splice variant analysis.

  14. Synaptotagmin-7 is an asynchronous calcium sensor for synaptic transmission in neurons expressing SNAP-23.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jens P; Toft-Bertelsen, Trine L; Mohrmann, Ralf; Delgado-Martinez, Ignacio; Sørensen, Jakob B

    2014-01-01

    Synchronization of neurotransmitter release with the presynaptic action potential is essential for maintaining fidelity of information transfer in the central nervous system. However, synchronous release is frequently accompanied by an asynchronous release component that builds up during repetitive stimulation, and can even play a dominant role in some synapses. Here, we show that substitution of SNAP-23 for SNAP-25 in mouse autaptic glutamatergic hippocampal neurons results in asynchronous release and a higher frequency of spontaneous release events (mEPSCs). Use of neurons from double-knock-out (SNAP-25, synaptotagmin-7) mice in combination with viral transduction showed that SNAP-23-driven release is triggered by endogenous synaptotagmin-7. In the absence of synaptotagmin-7 release became even more asynchronous, and the spontaneous release rate increased even more, indicating that synaptotagmin-7 acts to synchronize release and suppress spontaneous release. However, compared to synaptotagmin-1, synaptotagmin-7 is a both leaky and asynchronous calcium sensor. In the presence of SNAP-25, consequences of the elimination of synaptotagmin-7 were small or absent, indicating that the protein pairs SNAP-25/synaptotagmin-1 and SNAP-23/synaptotagmin-7 might act as mutually exclusive calcium sensors. Expression of fusion proteins between pHluorin (pH-sensitive GFP) and synaptotagmin-1 or -7 showed that vesicles that fuse using the SNAP-23/synaptotagmin-7 combination contained synaptotagmin-1, while synaptotagmin-7 barely displayed activity-dependent trafficking between vesicle and plasma membrane, implying that it acts as a plasma membrane calcium sensor. Overall, these findings support the idea of alternative syt∶SNARE combinations driving release with different kinetics and fidelity.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin A Substrate Binding Pockets and Their Re-Engineering for Human SNAP-23.

    PubMed

    Sikorra, Stefan; Litschko, Christa; Müller, Carina; Thiel, Nadine; Galli, Thierry; Eichner, Timo; Binz, Thomas

    2016-01-29

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent bacterial proteins that block neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction by cleaving SNAREs (soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors). However, their serotype A (BoNT/A) that cleaves SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa) has also been an established pharmaceutical for treatment of medical conditions that rely on hyperactivity of cholinergic nerve terminals for 25 years. The expansion of its use to a variety of further medical conditions associated with hypersecretion components is prevented partly because the involved SNARE isoforms are not cleaved. Therefore, we examined by mutational analyses the reason for the resistance of human SNAP-23, an isoform of SNAP-25. We show that replacement of 10 SNAP-23 residues with their SNAP-25 counterparts effects SNAP-25-like cleavability. Conversely, transfer of each of the replaced SNAP-23 residues to SNAP-25 drastically decreased the cleavability of SNAP-25. By means of the existing SNAP-25-toxin co-crystal structure, molecular dynamics simulations, and corroborative mutagenesis studies, the appropriate binding pockets for these residues in BoNT/A were characterized. Systematic mutagenesis of two major BoNT/A binding pockets was conducted in order to adapt these pockets to corresponding amino acids of human SNAP-23. Human SNAP-23 cleaving mutants were isolated using a newly established yeast-based screening system. This method may be useful for engineering novel BoNT/A pharmaceuticals for the treatment of diseases that rely on SNAP-23-mediated hypersecretion.

  16. Proteomic investigation of phosphorylation sites in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Moreel, Xavier; Gagné, Pierre; Labelle, Yves; Droit, Arnaud; Chevalier-Paré, Mélissa; Bourassa, Sylvie; McDonald, Darin; Hendzel, Michael J; Prigent, Claude; Poirier, Guy G

    2009-02-01

    Phosphorylation is a very common post-translational modification event known to modulate a wide range of biological responses. Beyond the regulation of protein activity, the interrelation of phosphorylation with other post-translational mechanisms is responsible for the control of diverse signaling pathways. Several observations suggest that phosphorylation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulates its activity. There is also accumulating evidence to suggest the establishment of phosphorylation-dependent assembly of PARP-1-associated multiprotein complexes. Although it is relatively straightforward to demonstrate phosphorylation of a defined target, identification of the actual amino acids involved still represents a technical challenge for many laboratories. With the use of a combination of bioinformatics-based predictions tools for generic and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites, in vitro phosphorylation assays and mass spectrometry analysis, we investigated the phosphorylation profile of PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), two major enzymes responsible for poly(ADP-ribose) turnover. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed the phosphorylation of several serine/threonine residues within important regulatory domains and motifs of both enzymes. With the use of in vivo microirradiation-induced DNA damage, we show that altered phosphorylation at specific sites can modify the dynamics of assembly and disassembly of PARP-1 at sites of DNA damage. By documenting and annotating a collection of known and newly identified phosphorylation sites, this targeted proteomics study significantly advances our understanding of the roles of phosphorylation in the regulation of PARP-1 and PARG.

  17. Practical Experience of Discharge Measurement in Flood Conditions with ADP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate discharge estimation is important for an efficient river basin management and especially for flood forecasting. The traditional way of estimating the discharge in hydrological practice is to measure the water stage and to convert the recorded water stage values into discharge by using the single-valued rating curve .Relationship between the stage and discharge values of the rating curve for the extreme events are usually extrapolated by using different mathematical methods and are not directly measured. Our practice shows that by using the Accoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP) instrument we can record the actual relation between the water stage and the flow velocity at the occurrence of flood waves very successfully. Measurement in flood conditions it is not easy task, because of high water surface velocity and large amounts of sediments in the water and floating objects on the surface like branches, bushes, trees, piles and others which can also easily damage ADP instrument. We made several measurements in such extreme events on the Sava River down to the nuclear power plant Kr\\vsko where we have install fixed cable way. During the several measurement with traditional "moving-boat" measurement technique a mowing bed phenomenon was clearly seen. Measuring flow accurately using ADP that uses the "moving-boat" technique, the system needs a reference against which to relate water velocities to. This reference is river bed and must not move. During flood events we detected difficulty finding a static bed surface to which to relate water velocities. This is caused by motion of the surface layer of bed material or also sediments suspended in the water near bed very densely. So these traditional »moving-boat« measurement techniques that we normally use completely fail. Using stationary measurement method to making individual velocity profile measurements, using an Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP), at certain time at fixed locations across the width of a stream gave

  18. A Biomechanical Comparison of the Long Snap in Football Between High School and University Football Players.

    PubMed

    Chizewski, Michael G; Alexander, Marion J L

    2015-08-01

    Limited previous research was located that examined the technique of the long snap in football. The purpose of the study was to compare the joint movements, joint velocities, and body positions used to perform fast and accurate long snaps in high school (HS) and university (UNI) athletes. Ten HS and 10 UNI subjects were recruited for filming, each performing 10 snaps at a target with the fastest and most accurate trial being selected for subject analysis. Eighty-three variables were measured using Dartfish Team Pro 4.5.2 video analysis software, with statistical analysis performed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS 16.0. Several significant comparisons to long snapping technique between groups were noted during analysis; however, the body position and movement variables at release showed the greatest number of significant differences. The UNI athletes demonstrated significantly higher release velocity and left elbow extension velocity, with significantly lower release height and release angle than the HS group. Total snap time (release time + total flight time) was determined to have the strongest correlation to release velocity for the HS group (r = -0.915) and UNI group (r = -0.918). The study suggests HS long snappers may benefit from less elbow flexion and more knee flexion in the backswing (set position) to increase release velocity. University long snappers may benefit from increased left elbow extension range of motion during force production and decreased shoulder flexion at critical instant to increase long snap release velocity.

  19. In vitro toxicity of the galanin receptor 3 antagonist SNAP 37889.

    PubMed

    Koller, Andreas; Rid, Raphaela; Beyreis, Marlena; Bianchini, Rodolfo; Holub, Barbara S; Lang, Andreas; Locker, Felix; Brodowicz, Bernhard; Velickovic, Ognjen; Jakab, Martin; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Önder, Kamil; Kofler, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Galanin and its receptors (GAL1, GAL2, GAL3) modulate a range of neuronal, immune and vascular activities. In vivo administration of SNAP 37889 (1-phenyl-3-[[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]imino]-1H-indol-2-one), a potent small non-peptidergic antagonist of GAL3, was reported to reduce anxiety- and depression-related behavior, ethanol consumption, and antagonizes the effect of galanin on plasma extravasation in rodent models. Accordingly, SNAP 37889 has been proposed as a potential therapeutic agent to treat anxiety and depression disorders. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of SNAP 37889 to different cell types. Our experiments revealed that SNAP 37889 (≥10μM) induced apoptosis in epithelial (HMCB) and microglial (BV-2) cell lines expressing endogenous GAL3, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) expressing GAL2, and in a neuronal cell line (SH-SY5Y) lacking galanin receptor expression altogether. In conclusion, SNAP 37889 is toxic to a variety of cell types independent of GAL3 expression. We caution that the clinical use of SNAP 37889 at doses that might be used to treat anxiety- or depression- related diseases could have unexpected non-galanin receptor-mediated toxicity, especially on immune cells.

  20. Ergonomic evaluation of novel tool for snap-off the neck of ampoule.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bor-Shong; Lee, Jun-Ting; Lien, Ching-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Needlestick and Sharps Injuries (NSI) represent an important workplace issue in contemporary health care. Present study provided the new method to snap-off the neck of sealed ampoule. The idea of novel opener tool is prepare the grinding slice inside rubber ring, so users could put the ampoule inside the rubber ring and then rotated the rubber ring to snap-off the neck of ampoule. The purpose of present study was evaluated the methods of snap-off and sizes of ampoule on forearm muscle activities, wrist postures and performance. The pronator teres muscle were heavier load as increased the sizes of ampoule. For performance analysis, Duncan's multiple range tests indicated that time of snap-off were longer in 10 ml and 20 ml of ampoule. The EMG of pronator teres muscle was significantly affected by methods of snap-off. Duncan's multiple range tests indicated that lower load was experienced on forearm muscles while using grinding slice with glove. For wrist posture, the ranges of motion for wrist were significant lower while using the novel tool. Present study provided the novel tool effectively to snap-off the ampoule to decrease forearm workload and sharp injuries.

  1. Evidence that putative ADHD low risk alleles at SNAP25 may increase the risk of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, L S; Kendall, K; O'Donovan, M C; Owen, M J; Williams, N M

    2009-10-01

    Synaptosomal Associated Protein 25 kDa (SNAP25) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia by numerous neuropathological studies and genetic variation at SNAP25 has been reported to be associated with ADHD. Expression levels of the putative schizophrenia susceptibility gene DTNBP1 has been shown to influence the levels of SNAP25 in vitro. We undertook directed mutation screening of SNAP25 in UK schizophrenic cases followed by direct association analysis of all variants identified and identified known exonic SNPs that showed evidence for association (rs3746544 P = 0.004 OR = 1.26, rs8636 P = 0.003 OR = 1.27), although these SNPs are highly correlated (r(2) > 0.99). We additionally genotyped a further 31 tag SNPs spanning the SNAP25 locus and identified several independent SNPs that were nominally associated with schizophrenia (strongest association at rs3787283, P = 0.006, OR = 1.25) however, due to the number of tests performed no SNP met experiment-wise significance (minimum permuted P-value = 0.1). Post hoc analysis revealed that the SNPs nominally associated with schizophrenia (rs3787283, rs3746544) were the same as those previously demonstrated to be associated with ADHD but with the opposite alleles, allowing the intriguing hypothesis that genetic variation at SNAP25 may be differentially associated with both schizophrenia and ADHD. PMID:19132710

  2. Instability signature for detecting snap-through buckling of dome structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Guirong; Duan, Qiuhua; Hua, Xugang

    2016-04-01

    Dome structures have been built as roofs for venues where many people convene. Failure of this type of structure may jeopardize the safety of hundreds or even thousands people. For this type of structure, snap-through buckling may occur in a local area and gradually expand to the entire structure, leading to a failure of the overall structure. Although numerous structural health monitoring techniques and damage detection approaches have been developed, no research on the detection of a snap-through buckling has been reported. The objective of this study is to find a signature that is sensitive to snap-through buckling in dome structures and can be used to detect snap-through buckling. Considering that a snap-through buckling results in a significant deformation in a local area, which can be reflected by the change in tilting angles of members in that local area, the change in tilting angles of members will be proposed to be a signature to detect snap-through buckling. To verify the proposed instability signature, a reticulated dome structure will be investigated. Both an eigenvalue buckling analysis and a nonlinear buckling analysis will be conducted. The significant changes in tilting angles of members in the buckled regions have demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed instability signature. This research will bridge the research gap between structural health monitoring and structural stability research.

  3. Reduced SNAP-25 alters short-term plasticity at developing glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Flavia; Corradini, Irene; Morini, Raffaella; Fossati, Giuliana; Menna, Elisabetta; Pozzi, Davide; Pacioni, Simone; Verderio, Claudia; Bacci, Alberto; Matteoli, Michela

    2013-07-01

    SNAP-25 is a key component of the synaptic-vesicle fusion machinery, involved in several psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and ADHD. SNAP-25 protein expression is lower in different brain areas of schizophrenic patients and in ADHD mouse models. How the reduced expression of SNAP-25 alters the properties of synaptic transmission, leading to a pathological phenotype, is unknown. We show that, unexpectedly, halved SNAP-25 levels at 13-14 DIV not only fail to impair synaptic transmission but instead enhance evoked glutamatergic neurotransmission. This effect is possibly dependent on presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channel activity and is not accompanied by changes in spontaneous quantal events or in the pool of readily releasable synaptic vesicles. Notably, synapses of 13-14 DIV neurons with reduced SNAP-25 expression show paired-pulse depression as opposed to paired-pulse facilitation occurring in their wild-type counterparts. This phenotype disappears with synapse maturation. As alterations in short-term plasticity represent a new mechanism contributing to cognitive impairments in intellectual disabilities, our data provide mechanistic clues for neuronal circuit alterations in psychiatric diseases characterized by reduced expression of SNAP-25. PMID:23732542

  4. Kinetics of a self-amplifying substrate cycle: ADP-ATP cycling assay.

    PubMed Central

    Valero, E; Varón, R; García-Carmona, F

    2000-01-01

    A kinetic study of an ATP-ADP amplification cyclic system involving the enzymes adenylate kinase, pyruvate kinase and L-lactate dehydrogenase has been made. The stoichiometry of the cycle is 2:1, because two molecules of ADP are synthesized from one each of ATP and AMP, and one molecule of ADP is converted back into one of ATP at each turn of the cycle. This results in a continuous exponential increase in the concentrations of ATP and ADP in the reaction medium, according to the equations obtained. This is therefore a substrate cycle that amplifies itself, the cycling rate increasing continuously with time. The background signal of the reagent was reduced by using apyrase to degrade ATP and ADP in the reagent, permitting detection limits as low as 16 pmol of ATP and/or ADP in a continuous spectrophotometric assay. PMID:10926849

  5. Seasonal cycles of mitochondrial ADP sensitivity and oxidative capacities in trout oxidative muscle.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; St Pierre, J

    1999-10-01

    Mitochondria from red myotomal muscle of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, showed seasonal cycles of their maximal rates of substrate oxidation (nmol.min-1 mg-1 mitochondrial protein) and their apparent ADP affinity (Kmapp), as well as in the thermal sensitivity of these properties. Increases in the maximal capacity of pyruvate oxidation were sufficient to compensate for seasonal changes in temperature, except during the winter months when rates at habitat temperature were depressed relative to other periods. The ADP affinity of isolated mitochondria was highest during cold months. Thus, the Kmapp for ADP at habitat temperature showed less seasonal variation than the ADP Kmapp at a given temperature. A loss in ADP affinity with decreasing temperature occurred through much of the year, and only was definitively suppressed in December and July. Both the ADP affinity and the maximal oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria seem to be regulated parameters. PMID:10595316

  6. 75 FR 23565 - Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, which was published on January 29, 2010 (75 FR 4912... from Food Stamp Program to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). The Office of...

  7. Semitendinosus snapping: analysis of movement, electromyographic activities, muscle strength and endurance, motor control and joint position sense

    PubMed Central

    Guney, Hande; Kaya, Defne; Yilgor, Caglar; Cilli, Murat; Aritan, Serdar; Yuksel, Inci; Doral, Mahmut Nedim

    2013-01-01

    Summary A female ballet with a history of two-years of semi-tendinosus (ST) snapping was assessed. On physical examination snapping was observed during hyperextension of the knee. Neither any history of trauma nor treatment was recalled. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), movement analysis, onset timing of ST and Bisceps Femoris (BF), motor control, isokinetic muscle strength and endurance, joint position sense (JPS) were assessed. The MRI findings were normal. There were abnormal oscillations observed during hyperextension of the snapping knee compared to healthy side. There were no isokinetic muscle strength nor do muscle endurance differences. The motor control and JPS deficits were greater on the snapping knee than the healthy side. ST onset timing was earlier than BF on the snapping side. Snapping of the semitendinosus tendon has an adverse affect on JPS, motor control and onset timing of the knee muscles. PMID:24367776

  8. Semitendinosus snapping: analysis of movement, electromyographic activities, muscle strength and endurance, motor control and joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Guney, Hande; Kaya, Defne; Yilgor, Caglar; Cilli, Murat; Aritan, Serdar; Yuksel, Inci; Doral, Mahmut Nedim

    2013-07-01

    A female ballet with a history of two-years of semi-tendinosus (ST) snapping was assessed. On physical examination snapping was observed during hyperextension of the knee. Neither any history of trauma nor treatment was recalled. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), movement analysis, onset timing of ST and Bisceps Femoris (BF), motor control, isokinetic muscle strength and endurance, joint position sense (JPS) were assessed. The MRI findings were normal. There were abnormal oscillations observed during hyperextension of the snapping knee compared to healthy side. There were no isokinetic muscle strength nor do muscle endurance differences. The motor control and JPS deficits were greater on the snapping knee than the healthy side. ST onset timing was earlier than BF on the snapping side. Snapping of the semitendinosus tendon has an adverse affect on JPS, motor control and onset timing of the knee muscles.

  9. Regulated vesicular fusion in neurons: snapping together the details.

    PubMed Central

    Bark, I C; Wilson, M C

    1994-01-01

    In the past year major strides have been made toward our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulated vesicle fusion and exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Much of this advance has come from the identification of proteins participating in these events and of their potential roles mediated by interactions with each other, the constituent membranes, and, in some cases, Ca2+ signaling. The involvement of vesicle fusion in elongation of neuronal processes during development and release of transmitters and neuromodulatory peptides in the mature nervous system indicates, however, that refinements in the fusion machinery may be required for each of these acts. For many of the participants in synaptic membrane fusion, variant isoforms have been identified that exhibit modifications that might alter interactive properties of these proteins. We discuss the idea that diversification of isoforms, as illustrated by the expression of alternatively spliced variants of SNAP-25, is likely to be an important component in providing the detail necessary to differentiate the physiology of regulated fusion of different classes of vesicles employed in development, neurotransmission, and secretion. Images PMID:8197108

  10. Snap-off in constricted capillary with elastic interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, P.; Alvarado, V.; Carvalho, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Snap-off of bubbles and drops in constricted capillaries occurs in many different situations, from bio-fluid to multiphase flow in porous media. The breakup process has been extensively analyzed both by theory and experiments, but most work has been limited to pure interfaces, at which the surface stress is isotropic and fully defined by the interfacial tension and interface curvature. Complex interfaces may present viscous and elastic behavior leading to a complex stress state that may change the dynamics of the interface deformation and breakup. We extend the available asymptotic model based on lubrication approximation to include elastic interfacial stress. Drop breakup time is determined as a function of the capillary geometry and liquid properties, including the interfacial elastic modulus. Results show that the interfacial elasticity has a stabilizing effect by slowing down the growth of the liquid collar, leading to a larger break-up time. This stabilizing effect has been observed experimentally in different, but related flows [Alvarado et al., "Interfacial visco-elasticity of crude oil-brine: An alternative EOR mechanism in smart waterflooding," in SPE-169127 Improved Oil Recovery Symposium (Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2014)].

  11. The Self-Assembled Nanophase Particle (SNAP) Process: A Nanoscience Approach to Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, Michael S.; Mantz, Robert A.; Khramov, A. N.; Balbyshev, Vsevolod; Kasten, Linda S.; Gaspar, Dan J.

    2003-09-15

    In the corrosion protection of aluminum-skinned aircraft, surface pretreatment and cleaning are critical steps in protecting aerospace alloys from corrosion. Our recent discovery of a revolutionary new method of forming functionalized silica nanoparticles in situ in an aqueous-based sol-gel process, and then crosslinking the nanoparticles to form a thin film, is an excellent example of a nanoscience approach to coatings. This coating method is called the self-assembled nanophase particle (SNAP) process. The SNAP coating process consists of three stages: (1) sol-gel processing; (2) SNAP solution mixing; (3) SNAP coating application and cure. Here, we report on key parameters in the ''sol-gel processing'' and the ''coating application and cure'' stages in the GPTMS/TMOS system. The SNAP process is discussed from the formation of the nanosized macromolecules to the coating application and curing process. The ''sol-gel processing'' stage involves hydrolysis and condensation reactions and is controlled by the solution pH and water content. Here, the molar ratio of water to hydrolysable silane is a key factor. SNAP solutions have been investigated by NMR, IR, light scattering, and GPC to identify molecular condensation structures formed as a function of aging time in the solution. In moderate pH and highwater content solutions, hydrolysis occurs rapidly and condensation kinetic conditions are optimized to generate nanophase siloxane macromolecules. In the ''SNAP solution mixing'' stage, crosslinking agents and additives are added to the solution, which is then applied to a substrate by dip-coating to form the SNAP coating. The chemical structure and morphology of the films have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SNAP films are amorphous but exhibit nanostructured assembly of siloxane oligomers at a separation of about 1.8 nm as well as molecular level ordering of O

  12. Structures of the Human Poly (ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase Catalytic Domain Confirm Catalytic Mechanism and Explain Inhibition by ADP-HPD Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Julie A.; Bennett, Neil; Brassington, Claire; Durant, Stephen T.; Hassall, Giles; Holdgate, Geoff; McAlister, Mark; Nissink, J. Willem M.; Truman, Caroline; Watson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is the only enzyme known to catalyse hydrolysis of the O-glycosidic linkages of ADP-ribose polymers, thereby reversing the effects of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. PARG deficiency leads to cell death whilst PARG depletion causes sensitisation to certain DNA damaging agents, implicating PARG as a potential therapeutic target in several disease areas. Efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors of PARG activity have until recently been hampered by a lack of structural information on PARG. We have used a combination of bio-informatic and experimental approaches to engineer a crystallisable, catalytically active fragment of human PARG (hPARG). Here, we present high-resolution structures of the catalytic domain of hPARG in unliganded form and in complex with three inhibitors: ADP-ribose (ADPR), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidinediol (ADP-HPD) and 8-n-octyl-amino-ADP-HPD. Our structures confirm conservation of overall fold amongst mammalian PARG glycohydrolase domains, whilst revealing additional flexible regions in the catalytic site. These new structures rationalise a body of published mutational data and the reported structure-activity relationship for ADP-HPD based PARG inhibitors. In addition, we have developed and used biochemical, isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance assays to characterise the binding of inhibitors to our PARG protein, thus providing a starting point for the design of new inhibitors. PMID:23251397

  13. The role of ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Alasdair R.; Banos-Pinero, Benito; Paschke, Peggy; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Ariza, Antonio; Day, Joseph; Emrich, Mehera; Leys, David; Ponting, Chris P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADP-ribosylation by ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) has a well-established role in DNA strand break repair by promoting enrichment of repair factors at damage sites through ADP-ribose interaction domains. Here, we exploit the simple eukaryote Dictyostelium to uncover a role for ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair and redundancy of this pathway with non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). In silico searches were used to identify a protein that contains a permutated macrodomain (which we call aprataxin/APLF-and-PNKP-like protein; APL). Structural analysis reveals that this permutated macrodomain retains features associated with ADP-ribose interactions and that APL is capable of binding poly(ADP-ribose) through this macrodomain. APL is enriched in chromatin in response to cisplatin treatment, an agent that induces DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). This is dependent on the macrodomain of APL and the ART Adprt2, indicating a role for ADP-ribosylation in the cellular response to cisplatin. Although adprt2− cells are sensitive to cisplatin, ADP-ribosylation is evident in these cells owing to redundant signalling by the double-strand break (DSB)-responsive ART Adprt1a, promoting NHEJ-mediated repair. These data implicate ADP-ribosylation in DNA ICL repair and identify that NHEJ can function to resolve this form of DNA damage in the absence of Adprt2. PMID:27587838

  14. The rise and fall of poly(ADP-ribose): An enzymatic perspective.

    PubMed

    Pascal, John M; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Human cells respond to DNA damage with an acute and transient burst in production of poly(ADP-ribose), a posttranslational modification that expedites damage repair and plays a pivotal role in cell fate decisions. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and glycohydrolase (PARG) are the key set of enzymes that orchestrate the rise and fall in cellular levels of poly(ADP-ribose). In this perspective, we focus on recent structural and mechanistic insights into the enzymes involved in poly(ADP-ribose) production and turnover, and we highlight important questions that remain to be answered.

  15. Bovine spermatozoa incorporate 32Pi into ADP by an unknown pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, J A; Lardy, H A

    1992-03-15

    Intact ejaculated bovine sperm incorporate 32Pi into ADP to a specific activity two to three times higher than into ATP. This contrasts with other cell types where ATP specific activity is higher than that of ADP. Predominant labeling of ADP may be partially due to compartmentation of ATP, but removal of cytosolic ATP does not change the relative labeling of ADP and ATP. Dilution of extracellular 32Pi following labeling resulted in loss of 70% of label from ADP but only 50% loss from gamma-ATP at 26 min. ADP was labeled in the absence of detectable ATP in the presence of rotenone plus antimycin. Fractionation of ejaculated sperm yielded midpieces that are depleted of adenylate kinase and have coupled respiration. ATP was labeled with 32Pi, but ADP was not in midpieces. Evidence for mitochondrial substrate level phosphorylation-supported incorporation of 32Pi into nucleotides was observed for intact sperm incubated with pyruvate and inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, but this activity did not occur in midpieces and does not appear to explain disproportionate labeling of ADP. We conclude that labeling of ADP in intact and permeabilized cells occurs by two pathways; one involves adenylate kinase, and the other is an unknown pathway which may be independent of ATP. PMID:1544901

  16. The transport mechanism of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier.

    PubMed

    Kunji, Edmund R S; Aleksandrova, Antoniya; King, Martin S; Majd, Homa; Ashton, Valerie L; Cerson, Elizabeth; Springett, Roger; Kibalchenko, Mikhail; Tavoulari, Sotiria; Crichton, Paul G; Ruprecht, Jonathan J

    2016-10-01

    The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier imports ADP from the cytosol and exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix, which are key transport steps for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotic organisms. The transport protein belongs to the mitochondrial carrier family, a large transporter family in the inner membrane of mitochondria. It is one of the best studied members of the family and serves as a paradigm for the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial carriers. Structurally, the carrier consists of three homologous domains, each composed of two transmembrane α-helices linked with a loop and short α-helix on the matrix side. The transporter cycles between a cytoplasmic and matrix state in which a central substrate binding site is alternately accessible to these compartments for binding of ADP or ATP. On both the cytoplasmic and matrix side of the carrier are networks consisting of three salt bridges each. In the cytoplasmic state, the matrix salt bridge network is formed and the cytoplasmic network is disrupted, opening the central substrate binding site to the intermembrane space and cytosol, whereas the converse occurs in the matrix state. In the transport cycle, tighter substrate binding in the intermediate states allows the interconversion of conformations by lowering the energy barrier for disruption and formation of these networks, opening and closing the carrier to either side of the membrane in an alternating way. Conversion between cytoplasmic and matrix states might require the simultaneous rotation of three domains around a central translocation pathway, constituting a unique mechanism among transport proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou.

  17. Discovery of novel poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors by a quantitative assay system using dot-blot with anti-poly(ADP-ribose)

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, Naoyuki; Ashizawa, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Hideaki; Tanuma, Sei-ichi

    2010-02-19

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which is mainly regulated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), is a unique protein modification involved in cellular responses such as DNA repair and replication. PARG hydrolyzes glycosidic linkages of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized by PARP and liberates ADP-ribose residues. Recent studies have suggested that inhibitors of PARG are able to be potent anti-cancer drug. In order to discover the potent and specific Inhibitors of PARG, a quantitative and high-throughput screening assay system is required. However, previous PARG assay systems are not appropriate for high-throughput screening because PARG activity is measured by radioactivities of ADP-ribose residues released from radioisotope (RI)-labeled poly(ADP-ribose). In this study, we developed a non-RI and quantitative assay system for PARG activity based on dot-blot assay using anti-poly(ADP-ribose) and nitrocellulose membrane. By our method, the maximum velocity (V{sub max}) and the michaelis constant (k{sub m}) of PARG reaction were 4.46 {mu}M and 128.33 {mu}mol/min/mg, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 of adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol (ADP-HPD), known as a non-competitive PARG inhibitor, was 0.66 {mu}M. These kinetics values were similar to those obtained by traditional PARG assays. By using our assay system, we discovered two novel PARG inhibitors that have xanthene scaffold. Thus, our quantitative and convenient method is useful for a high-throughput screening of PARG specific inhibitors.

  18. Abscisic acid signaling through cyclic ADP-ribose in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yan; Kuzma, J.; Marechal, E.

    1997-12-19

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the primary hormone that mediates plant responses to stresses such as cold, drought, and salinity. Single-cell microinjection experiments in tomato were used to identify possible intermediates involved in ABA signal transduction. Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) was identified as a signaling molecule in the ABA response and was shown to exert its effects by way of calcium. Bioassay experiments showed that the amounts of cADPR in Arabidopsis thaliana plants increased in response to ABA treatment and before ABA-induced gene expression.

  19. Molecular bases of catalysis and ADP-ribose preference of human Mn2+-dependent ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatase and conversion by mutagenesis to a preferential cyclic ADP-ribose phosphohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Alicia; Ribeiro, João Meireles; Rodrigues, Joaquim Rui; López-Villamizar, Iralis; Fernández, Ascensión; Canales, José; Pinto, Rosa María; Costas, María Jesús; Cameselle, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Among metallo-dependent phosphatases, ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatases form a protein family (ADPRibase-Mn-like) mainly restricted, in eukaryotes, to vertebrates and plants, with preferential expression, at least in rodents, in immune cells. Rat and zebrafish ADPRibase-Mn, the only biochemically studied, are phosphohydrolases of ADP-ribose and, somewhat less efficiently, of CDP-alcohols and 2´,3´-cAMP. Furthermore, the rat but not the zebrafish enzyme displays a unique phosphohydrolytic activity on cyclic ADP-ribose. The molecular basis of such specificity is unknown. Human ADPRibase-Mn showed similar activities, including cyclic ADP-ribose phosphohydrolase, which seems thus common to mammalian ADPRibase-Mn. Substrate docking on a homology model of human ADPRibase-Mn suggested possible interactions of ADP-ribose with seven residues located, with one exception (Cys253), either within the metallo-dependent phosphatases signature (Gln27, Asn110, His111), or in unique structural regions of the ADPRibase-Mn family: s2s3 (Phe37 and Arg43) and h7h8 (Phe210), around the active site entrance. Mutants were constructed, and kinetic parameters for ADP-ribose, CDP-choline, 2´,3´-cAMP and cyclic ADP-ribose were determined. Phe37 was needed for ADP-ribose preference without catalytic effect, as indicated by the increased ADP-ribose Km and unchanged kcat of F37A-ADPRibase-Mn, while the Km values for the other substrates were little affected. Arg43 was essential for catalysis as indicated by the drastic efficiency loss shown by R43A-ADPRibase-Mn. Unexpectedly, Cys253 was hindering for cADPR phosphohydrolase, as indicated by the specific tenfold gain of efficiency of C253A-ADPRibase-Mn with cyclic ADP-ribose. This allowed the design of a triple mutant (F37A+L196F+C253A) for which cyclic ADP-ribose was the best substrate, with a catalytic efficiency of 3.5´104 M-1s-1 versus 4´103 M-1s-1 of the wild type.

  20. Molecular Bases of Catalysis and ADP-Ribose Preference of Human Mn2+-Dependent ADP-Ribose/CDP-Alcohol Diphosphatase and Conversion by Mutagenesis to a Preferential Cyclic ADP-Ribose Phosphohydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas, Alicia; Ribeiro, João Meireles; Rodrigues, Joaquim Rui; López-Villamizar, Iralis; Fernández, Ascensión; Canales, José; Pinto, Rosa María; Costas, María Jesús; Cameselle, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Among metallo-dependent phosphatases, ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatases form a protein family (ADPRibase-Mn-like) mainly restricted, in eukaryotes, to vertebrates and plants, with preferential expression, at least in rodents, in immune cells. Rat and zebrafish ADPRibase-Mn, the only biochemically studied, are phosphohydrolases of ADP-ribose and, somewhat less efficiently, of CDP-alcohols and 2´,3´-cAMP. Furthermore, the rat but not the zebrafish enzyme displays a unique phosphohydrolytic activity on cyclic ADP-ribose. The molecular basis of such specificity is unknown. Human ADPRibase-Mn showed similar activities, including cyclic ADP-ribose phosphohydrolase, which seems thus common to mammalian ADPRibase-Mn. Substrate docking on a homology model of human ADPRibase-Mn suggested possible interactions of ADP-ribose with seven residues located, with one exception (Cys253), either within the metallo-dependent phosphatases signature (Gln27, Asn110, His111), or in unique structural regions of the ADPRibase-Mn family: s2s3 (Phe37 and Arg43) and h7h8 (Phe210), around the active site entrance. Mutants were constructed, and kinetic parameters for ADP-ribose, CDP-choline, 2´,3´-cAMP and cyclic ADP-ribose were determined. Phe37 was needed for ADP-ribose preference without catalytic effect, as indicated by the increased ADP-ribose Km and unchanged kcat of F37A-ADPRibase-Mn, while the Km values for the other substrates were little affected. Arg43 was essential for catalysis as indicated by the drastic efficiency loss shown by R43A-ADPRibase-Mn. Unexpectedly, Cys253 was hindering for cADPR phosphohydrolase, as indicated by the specific tenfold gain of efficiency of C253A-ADPRibase-Mn with cyclic ADP-ribose. This allowed the design of a triple mutant (F37A+L196F+C253A) for which cyclic ADP-ribose was the best substrate, with a catalytic efficiency of 3.5´104 M-1s-1 versus 4´103 M-1s-1 of the wild type. PMID:25692488

  1. Should We Have Blind Faith in Bioinformatics Software? Illustrations from the SNAP Web-Based Tool

    PubMed Central

    Robiou-du-Pont, Sébastien; Li, Aihua; Christie, Shanice; Sohani, Zahra N.; Meyre, David

    2015-01-01

    Bioinformatics tools have gained popularity in biology but little is known about their validity. We aimed to assess the early contribution of 415 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with eight cardio-metabolic traits at the genome-wide significance level in adults in the Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY Life (FAMILY) birth cohort. We used the popular web-based tool SNAP to assess the availability of the 415 SNPs in the Illumina Cardio-Metabochip genotyped in the FAMILY study participants. We then compared the SNAP output with the Cardio-Metabochip file provided by Illumina using chromosome and chromosomal positions of SNPs from NCBI Human Genome Browser (Genome Reference Consortium Human Build 37). With the HapMap 3 release 2 reference, 201 out of 415 SNPs were reported as missing in the Cardio-Metabochip by the SNAP output. However, the Cardio-Metabochip file revealed that 152 of these 201 SNPs were in fact present in the Cardio-Metabochip array (false negative rate of 36.6%). With the more recent 1000 Genomes Project release, we found a false-negative rate of 17.6% by comparing the outputs of SNAP and the Illumina product file. We did not find any ‘false positive’ SNPs (SNPs specified as available in the Cardio-Metabochip by SNAP, but not by the Cardio-Metabochip Illumina file). The Cohen’s Kappa coefficient, which calculates the percentage of agreement between both methods, indicated that the validity of SNAP was fair to moderate depending on the reference used (the HapMap 3 or 1000 Genomes). In conclusion, we demonstrate that the SNAP outputs for the Cardio-Metabochip are invalid. This study illustrates the importance of systematically assessing the validity of bioinformatics tools in an independent manner. We propose a series of guidelines to improve practices in the fast-moving field of bioinformatics software implementation. PMID:25742008

  2. α-SNAP regulates dynamic, on-site assembly and calcium selectivity of Orai1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peiyao; Miao, Yong; Dani, Adish; Vig, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Orai1 forms a highly calcium-selective pore of the calcium release activated channel, and α-SNAP is necessary for its function. Here we show that α-SNAP regulates on-site assembly of Orai1 dimers into calcium-selective multimers. We find that Orai1 is a dimer in resting primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts but displays variable stoichiometry in the plasma membrane of store-depleted cells. Remarkably, α-SNAP depletion induces formation of higher-order Orai1 oligomers, which permeate significant levels of sodium via Orai1 channels. Sodium permeation in α-SNAP–deficient cells cannot be corrected by tethering multiple Stim1 domains to Orai1 C-terminal tail, demonstrating that α-SNAP regulates functional assembly and calcium selectivity of Orai1 multimers independently of Stim1 levels. Fluorescence nanoscopy reveals sustained coassociation of α-SNAP with Stim1 and Orai1, and α-SNAP–depleted cells show faster and less constrained mobility of Orai1 within ER-PM junctions, suggesting Orai1 and Stim1 coentrapment without stable contacts. Furthermore, α-SNAP depletion significantly reduces fluorescence resonance energy transfer between Stim1 and Orai1 N-terminus but not C-terminus. Taken together, these data reveal a unique role of α-SNAP in the on-site functional assembly of Orai1 subunits and suggest that this process may, in part, involve enabling crucial low-affinity interactions between Orai1 N-terminus and Stim1. PMID:27335124

  3. Synaptotagmin interaction with SNAP-25 governs vesicle docking, priming, and fusion triggering.

    PubMed

    Mohrmann, Ralf; de Wit, Heidi; Connell, Emma; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Leese, Charlotte; Bruns, Dieter; Davletov, Bazbek; Verhage, Matthijs; Sørensen, Jakob B

    2013-09-01

    SNARE complex assembly constitutes a key step in exocytosis that is rendered Ca(2+)-dependent by interactions with synaptotagmin-1. Two putative sites for synaptotagmin binding have recently been identified in SNAP-25 using biochemical methods: one located around the center and another at the C-terminal end of the SNARE bundle. However, it is still unclear whether and how synaptotagmin-1 × SNARE interactions at these sites are involved in regulating fast neurotransmitter release. Here, we have used electrophysiological techniques with high time-resolution to directly investigate the mechanistic ramifications of proposed SNAP-25 × synaptotagmin-1 interaction in mouse chromaffin cells. We demonstrate that the postulated central binding domain surrounding layer zero covers both SNARE motifs of SNAP-25 and is essential for vesicle docking, priming, and fast fusion-triggering. Mutation of this site caused no further functional alterations in synaptotagmin-1-deficient cells, indicating that the central acidic patch indeed constitutes a mechanistically relevant synaptotagmin-1 interaction site. Moreover, our data show that the C-terminal binding interface only plays a subsidiary role in triggering but is required for the full size of the readily releasable pool. Intriguingly, we also found that mutation of synaptotagmin-1 interaction sites led to more pronounced phenotypes in the context of the adult neuronal isoform SNAP-25B than in the embryonic isoform SNAP-25A. Further experiments demonstrated that stronger synaptotagmin-1 × SNAP-25B interactions allow for the larger primed vesicle pool supported by SNAP-25 isoform B. Thus, synaptotagmin-1 × SNARE interactions are not only required for multiple mechanistic steps en route to fusion but also underlie the developmental control of the releasable vesicle pool.

  4. Should we have blind faith in bioinformatics software? Illustrations from the SNAP web-based tool.

    PubMed

    Robiou-du-Pont, Sébastien; Li, Aihua; Christie, Shanice; Sohani, Zahra N; Meyre, David

    2015-01-01

    Bioinformatics tools have gained popularity in biology but little is known about their validity. We aimed to assess the early contribution of 415 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with eight cardio-metabolic traits at the genome-wide significance level in adults in the Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY Life (FAMILY) birth cohort. We used the popular web-based tool SNAP to assess the availability of the 415 SNPs in the Illumina Cardio-Metabochip genotyped in the FAMILY study participants. We then compared the SNAP output with the Cardio-Metabochip file provided by Illumina using chromosome and chromosomal positions of SNPs from NCBI Human Genome Browser (Genome Reference Consortium Human Build 37). With the HapMap 3 release 2 reference, 201 out of 415 SNPs were reported as missing in the Cardio-Metabochip by the SNAP output. However, the Cardio-Metabochip file revealed that 152 of these 201 SNPs were in fact present in the Cardio-Metabochip array (false negative rate of 36.6%). With the more recent 1000 Genomes Project release, we found a false-negative rate of 17.6% by comparing the outputs of SNAP and the Illumina product file. We did not find any 'false positive' SNPs (SNPs specified as available in the Cardio-Metabochip by SNAP, but not by the Cardio-Metabochip Illumina file). The Cohen's Kappa coefficient, which calculates the percentage of agreement between both methods, indicated that the validity of SNAP was fair to moderate depending on the reference used (the HapMap 3 or 1000 Genomes). In conclusion, we demonstrate that the SNAP outputs for the Cardio-Metabochip are invalid. This study illustrates the importance of systematically assessing the validity of bioinformatics tools in an independent manner. We propose a series of guidelines to improve practices in the fast-moving field of bioinformatics software implementation.

  5. Data-Driven Zero-Sum Neuro-Optimal Control for a Class of Continuous-Time Unknown Nonlinear Systems With Disturbance Using ADP.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qinglai; Song, Ruizhuo; Yan, Pengfei

    2016-02-01

    This paper is concerned with a new data-driven zero-sum neuro-optimal control problem for continuous-time unknown nonlinear systems with disturbance. According to the input-output data of the nonlinear system, an effective recurrent neural network is introduced to reconstruct the dynamics of the nonlinear system. Considering the system disturbance as a control input, a two-player zero-sum optimal control problem is established. Adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) is developed to obtain the optimal control under the worst case of the disturbance. Three single-layer neural networks, including one critic and two action networks, are employed to approximate the performance index function, the optimal control law, and the disturbance, respectively, for facilitating the implementation of the ADP method. Convergence properties of the ADP method are developed to show that the system state will converge to a finite neighborhood of the equilibrium. The weight matrices of the critic and the two action networks are also convergent to finite neighborhoods of their optimal ones. Finally, the simulation results will show the effectiveness of the developed data-driven ADP methods.

  6. Differential activities of cellular and viral macro domain proteins in binding of ADP-ribose metabolites.

    PubMed

    Neuvonen, Maarit; Ahola, Tero

    2009-01-01

    Macro domain is a highly conserved protein domain found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Macro domains are also encoded by a set of positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of animal cells, including coronaviruses and alphaviruses. The functions of the macro domain are poorly understood, but it has been suggested to be an ADP-ribose-binding module. We have here characterized three novel human macro domain proteins that were found to reside either in the cytoplasm and nucleus [macro domain protein 2 (MDO2) and ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2] or in mitochondria [macro domain protein 1 (MDO1)], and compared them with viral macro domains from Semliki Forest virus, hepatitis E virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and with a yeast macro protein, Poa1p. MDO2 specifically bound monomeric ADP-ribose with a high affinity (K(d)=0.15 microM), but did not bind poly(ADP-ribose) efficiently. MDO2 also hydrolyzed ADP-ribose-1'' phosphate, resembling Poa1p in all these properties. Ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2 did not show affinity for ADP-ribose or its derivatives, but instead bound poly(A). MDO1 was generally active in these reactions, including poly(A) binding. Individual point mutations in MDO1 abolished monomeric ADP-ribose binding, but not poly(ADP-ribose) binding; in poly(ADP-ribose) binding assays, the monomer did not compete against polymer binding. The viral macro proteins bound poly(ADP-ribose) and poly(A), but had a low affinity for monomeric ADP-ribose. Thus, the viral proteins do not closely resemble any of the human proteins in their biochemical functions. The differential activity profiles of the human proteins implicate them in different cellular pathways, some of which may involve RNA rather than ADP-ribose derivatives.

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Six Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education Interventions on Children's At-Home Diets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Pamela A.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Blitstein, Jonathan L.; Hersey, James C.; Kosa, Katherine M.; Long, Valerie A.; Singh, Anita; Berman, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) is designed to promote healthy eating behaviors in a low-income target population. Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of six SNAP-Ed interventions delivered in child care centers or elementary school settings in increasing participating…

  8. Frequency doubling of copper lasers using temperature-tuned ADP

    SciTech Connect

    Molander, W.A.

    1994-03-01

    The ability to generate high average power uv at 255 nm by frequency doubling the green line (510.6 nm) of copper lasers would greatly extend the utility of copper lasers. Material processing and microlithography are two areas of interest. The frequency-doubled copper laser could replace the KrF excimer laser, which has a similar wavelength (248 nm), in some applications. The frequency-doubled copper laser has a narrow linewidth and excellent beam quality at a competitive cost. Other attractive features are high reliability, low operating costs, and the absence of toxic gases. This paper will report recent progress in high-efficiency, high-average-power harmonic generation of the copper laser green line using noncritical phase matching in ADP. Frequency doubling of the yellow line (578.2 nm) and sum-frequency mixing of the two lines are also of interest. These processes, however, cannot be phase-matched in ADP and, therefore, will not be discussed here. The results reported and the issues identified here would be important in these other processes and also in many other frequency conversion schemes in the uv such as 4{omega} conversion of Nd{sup 3+}:YAG lasers.

  9. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrer, Joerg; Wagner, Silvia; Buerkle, Alexander; Koenigsrainer, Alfred

    2009-08-14

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  10. Nitrogen Control of Atrazine Utilization in Pseudomonas sp. Strain ADP

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Vicente; Govantes, Fernando; Shaw, Liz J.; Burns, Richard G.; Santero, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP uses the herbicide atrazine as the sole nitrogen source. We have devised a simple atrazine degradation assay to determine the effect of other nitrogen sources on the atrazine degradation pathway. The atrazine degradation rate was greatly decreased in cells grown on nitrogen sources that support rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP compared to cells cultivated on growth-limiting nitrogen sources. The presence of atrazine in addition to the nitrogen sources did not stimulate degradation. High degradation rates obtained in the presence of ammonium plus the glutamine synthetase inhibitor MSX and also with an Nas− mutant derivative grown on nitrate suggest that nitrogen regulation operates by sensing intracellular levels of some key nitrogen-containing metabolite. Nitrate amendment in soil microcosms resulted in decreased atrazine mineralization by the wild-type strain but not by the Nas− mutant. This suggests that, although nitrogen repression of the atrazine catabolic pathway may have a strong impact on atrazine biodegradation in nitrogen-fertilized soils, the use of selected mutant variants may contribute to overcoming this limitation. PMID:14660340

  11. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  12. Transcription termination between polo and snap, two closely spaced tandem genes of D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Telmo; Ji, Zhe; Tan-Wong, Sue Mei; Carmo, Alexandre M; Tian, Bin; Proudfoot, Nicholas J; Moreira, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Transcription termination of RNA polymerase II between closely spaced genes is an important, though poorly understood, mechanism. This is true, in particular, in the Drosophila genome, where approximately 52% of tandem genes are separated by less than 1 kb. We show that a set of Drosophila tandem genes has a negative correlation of gene expression and display several molecular marks indicative of promoter pausing. We find that an intergenic spacing of 168 bp is sufficient for efficient transcription termination between the polo-snap tandem gene pair, by a mechanism that is independent of Pcf11 and Xrn2. In contrast, analysis of a tandem gene pair containing a longer intergenic region reveals that termination occurs farther downstream of the poly(A) signal and is, in this case, dependent on Pcf11 and Xrn2. For polo-snap, displacement of poised polymerase from the snap promoter by depletion of the initiation factor TFIIB results in an increase of polo transcriptional read-through. This suggests that poised polymerase is necessary for transcription termination. Interestingly, we observe that polo forms a TFIIB dependent gene loop between its promoter and terminator regions. Furthermore, in a plasmid containing the polo-snap locus, deletion of the polo promoter causes an increase in snap expression, as does deletion of polo poly(A) signals. Taken together, our results indicate that polo forms a gene loop and polo transcription termination occurs by an Xrn2 and Pcf11 independent mechanism that requires TFIIB.

  13. Phosphorylation of αSNAP is Required for Secretory Organelle Biogenesis in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Rebecca J; Ferguson, David J P; Whitehead, Lachlan; Bradin, Clare H; Wu, Hong J; Tonkin, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Upon infection, apicomplexan parasites quickly invade host cells and begin a replicative cycle rapidly increasing in number over a short period of time, leading to tissue lysis and disease. The secretory pathway of these highly polarized protozoan parasites tightly controls, in time and space, the biogenesis of specialized structures and organelles required for invasion and intracellular survival. In other systems, regulation of protein trafficking can occur by phosphorylation of vesicle fusion machinery. Previously, we have shown that Toxoplasma gondii αSNAP - a protein that controls the disassembly of cis-SNARE complexes--is phosphorylated. Here, we show that this post-translational modification is required for the correct function of αSNAP in controlling secretory traffic. We demonstrate that during intracellular development conditional expression of a non-phosphorylatable form of αSNAP results in Golgi fragmentation and vesiculation of all downstream secretory organelles. In addition, we show that the vestigial plastid (termed apicoplast), although reported not to be reliant on Golgi trafficking for biogenesis, is also affected upon overexpression of αSNAP and is much more sensitive to the levels of this protein than targeting to other organelles. This work highlights the importance of αSNAP and its phosphorylation in Toxoplasma organelle biogenesis and exposes a hereto fore-unexplored mechanism of regulation of vesicle fusion during secretory pathway trafficking in apicomplexan parasites.

  14. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans.

  15. CFTR chloride channels are regulated by a SNAP-23/syntaxin 1A complex

    PubMed Central

    Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Di, Anke; Chang, Steven Y.; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; Tousson, Albert; Nelson, Deborah J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2002-01-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate membrane fusion reactions in eukaryotic cells by assembling into complexes that link vesicle-associated SNAREs with SNAREs on target membranes (t-SNAREs). Many SNARE complexes contain two t-SNAREs that form a heterodimer, a putative intermediate in SNARE assembly. Individual t-SNAREs (e.g., syntaxin 1A) also regulate synaptic calcium channels and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the epithelial chloride channel that is defective in cystic fibrosis. Whether the regulation of ion channels by individual t-SNAREs is related to SNARE complex assembly and membrane fusion is unknown. Here we show that CFTR channels are coordinately regulated by two cognate t-SNAREs, SNAP-23 (synaptosome-associated protein of 23 kDa) and syntaxin 1A. SNAP-23 physically associates with CFTR by binding to its amino-terminal tail, a region that modulates channel gating. CFTR-mediated chloride currents are inhibited by introducing excess SNAP-23 into HT29-Cl.19A epithelial cells. Conversely, CFTR activity is stimulated by a SNAP-23 antibody that blocks the binding of this t-SNARE to the CFTR amino-terminal tail. The physical and functional interactions between SNAP-23 and CFTR depend on syntaxin 1A, which binds to both proteins. We conclude that CFTR channels are regulated by a t-SNARE complex that may tune CFTR activity to rates of membrane traffic in epithelial cells. PMID:12209004

  16. VAMP-2 promotes neurite elongation and SNAP-25A increases neurite sprouting in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Shirasu, M; Kimura, K; Kataoka, M; Takahashi, M; Okajima, S; Kawaguchi, S; Hirasawa, Y; Ide, C; Mizoguchi, A

    2000-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attached protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE)-mediated membrane fusion system is involved in vesicle fusion in the plasma membrane that allows expansion for neurite elongation. There have been several reports analyzing the effects of neurite outgrowth by inhibition of SNAREs. In this study, we took the opposite approach by overexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion SNAREs, including VAMP-2, SNAP-25A, and syntaxin1A, in PC12 cells to investigate the role of SNAREs in the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. Neurite outgrowth analysis demonstrated that: (1) GFP-VAMP-2 increased the length of individual neurites, without changing the number of neurites per cell; (2) GFP-SNAP-25A increased the number of neurites per cell, with no change in the length of the individual neurites. In both cases, the total length of neurites per cell was increased; (3) GFP-syntaxin1A resulted in no significant change, either in neurite length, or in the number of neurites per cell. These findings suggest that when overexpressed in PC12 cells, VAMP-2 can promote neurite elongation, while SNAP-25A can stimulate neurite sprouting. On the other hand, overexpression of syntaxin1A neither promotes nor inhibits neurite outgrowth. Thus VAMP-2 and SNAP-25A play different roles in neurite elongation and sprouting.

  17. [Influence of ozone on snap bean under ambient air in two sites of northern China].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Sun, Jing-Song; Hu, En-Zhu; Zhang, Yu-Long; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Tian, Yuan; Feng, Zhao-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) has been assumed the most phytotoxic air pollutant and the snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is known to be an ozone-sensitive species. Two genotypes (R123, ozone-tolerance, S156, ozone-sensitivity) of snap bean were explored in three places. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the snap bean was influenced under the current ambient ozone concentration. The findings indicated that the leaves of bean grown at Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences (RCEES), Chinese Academy of Sciences and ChangPing showed visible ozone symptoms under the ambient ozone concentration, and the averaged ozone injury proportion in S156 was 23.5% higher than R123 during the entire growth season. The ozone damage to the snap bean depends on the plant growing stages. The injury symptoms appeared just after flowering, increased from the stages of flowering to pod formation, and reached the maximum at the stages of pod maturation. The ratio of S156/R123 in pod yield was 0.48, and 0.24 and 0.73 in the RCEES, ChangPing and Harbin, respectively. The ratio close to 1 was assumed that the plant growth is not affected by ozone, and the lower ratio is, the more damage caused by ozone. Obviously, the current ambient ozone concentration of Beijing area has significantly caused the yield loss of snap bean.

  18. Cortical Granule Exocytosis Is Mediated by Alpha-SNAP and N-Ethilmaleimide Sensitive Factor in Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Paola, Matilde; Bello, Oscar Daniel; Michaut, Marcela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Cortical granule exocytosis (CGE), also known as cortical reaction, is a calcium- regulated secretion that represents a membrane fusion process during meiotic cell division of oocytes. The molecular mechanism of membrane fusion during CGE is still poorly understood and is thought to be mediated by the SNARE pathway; nevertheless, it is unkown if SNAP (acronym for soluble NSF attachment protein) and NSF (acronym for N-ethilmaleimide sensitive factor), two key proteins in the SNARE pathway, mediate CGE in any oocyte model. In this paper, we documented the gene expression of α-SNAP, γ-SNAP and NSF in mouse oocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of these proteins maintains a similar level during oocyte maturation and early activation. Their localization was mainly observed at the cortical region of metaphase II oocytes, which is enriched in cortical granules. To evaluate the function of these proteins in CGE we set up a functional assay based on the quantification of cortical granules metaphase II oocytes activated parthenogenetically with strontium. Endogenous α-SNAP and NSF proteins were perturbed by microinjection of recombinant proteins or antibodies prior to CGE activation. The microinjection of wild type α-SNAP and the negative mutant of α-SNAP L294A in metaphase II oocytes inhibited CGE stimulated by strontium. NEM, an irreversibly inhibitor of NSF, and the microinjection of the negative mutant NSF D1EQ inhibited cortical reaction. The microinjection of anti-α-SNAP and anti-NSF antibodies was able to abolish CGE in activated metaphase II oocytes. The microinjection of anti-γ SNAP antibody had no effect on CGE. Our findings indicate, for the first time in any oocyte model, that α-SNAP, γ-SNAP, and NSF are expressed in mouse oocytes. We demonstrate that α-SNAP and NSF have an active role in CGE and propose a working model. PMID:26267363

  19. Cortical Granule Exocytosis Is Mediated by Alpha-SNAP and N-Ethilmaleimide Sensitive Factor in Mouse Oocytes.

    PubMed

    de Paola, Matilde; Bello, Oscar Daniel; Michaut, Marcela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Cortical granule exocytosis (CGE), also known as cortical reaction, is a calcium- regulated secretion that represents a membrane fusion process during meiotic cell division of oocytes. The molecular mechanism of membrane fusion during CGE is still poorly understood and is thought to be mediated by the SNARE pathway; nevertheless, it is unkown if SNAP (acronym for soluble NSF attachment protein) and NSF (acronym for N-ethilmaleimide sensitive factor), two key proteins in the SNARE pathway, mediate CGE in any oocyte model. In this paper, we documented the gene expression of α-SNAP, γ-SNAP and NSF in mouse oocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of these proteins maintains a similar level during oocyte maturation and early activation. Their localization was mainly observed at the cortical region of metaphase II oocytes, which is enriched in cortical granules. To evaluate the function of these proteins in CGE we set up a functional assay based on the quantification of cortical granules metaphase II oocytes activated parthenogenetically with strontium. Endogenous α-SNAP and NSF proteins were perturbed by microinjection of recombinant proteins or antibodies prior to CGE activation. The microinjection of wild type α-SNAP and the negative mutant of α-SNAP L294A in metaphase II oocytes inhibited CGE stimulated by strontium. NEM, an irreversibly inhibitor of NSF, and the microinjection of the negative mutant NSF D1EQ inhibited cortical reaction. The microinjection of anti-α-SNAP and anti-NSF antibodies was able to abolish CGE in activated metaphase II oocytes. The microinjection of anti-γ SNAP antibody had no effect on CGE. Our findings indicate, for the first time in any oocyte model, that α-SNAP, γ-SNAP, and NSF are expressed in mouse oocytes. We demonstrate that α-SNAP and NSF have an active role in CGE and propose a working model.

  20. The expression of the t-SNARE AtSNAP33 is induced by pathogens and mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wick, Peter; Gansel, Xavier; Oulevey, Catherine; Page, Valérie; Studer, Ingrid; Dürst, Michael; Sticher, Liliane

    2003-05-01

    The fusion of vesicles in the secretory pathway involves the interaction of t-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (t-SNAREs) on the target membrane and v-SNAREs on the vesicle membrane. AtSNAP33 is an Arabidopsis homolog of the neuronal t-SNARE SNAP-25 involved in exocytosis and is localized at the cell plate and at the plasma membrane. In this paper, the expression of AtSNAP33 was analyzed after different biotic and abiotic stresses. The expression of AtSNAP33 increased after inoculation with the pathogens Plectosporium tabacinum and virulent and avirulent forms of Peronospora parasitica and Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. The expression of PR1 transcripts encoding the secreted pathogenesis-related protein 1 also increased after inoculation with these pathogens and the expression of AtSNAP33 preceded or occurred at the same time as the expression of PR1. AtSNAP33 was also expressed in npr1 plants that do not express PR1 after pathogen inoculation as well as in cpr1 plants that overexpress PR1 in the absence of a pathogen. The level of AtSNAP33 decreased slightly in leaves inoculated with P. parasitica in the NahG plants, and eds5 and sid2 mutants that are unable to accumulate salicylic acid (SA) after pathogen inoculation, indicating a partial dependence on SA. AtSNAP33 was also expressed in systemic noninoculated leaves of plants inoculated with P. syringae. In contrast to the situation in infected leaves, the expression of AtSNAP33 in systemic leaves was fully SA dependent. Thus, the expression of AtSNAP33 after pathogen attack is regulated by SA-dependent and SA-independent pathways. Mechanical stimulation also led to an increase of AtSNAP33 transcripts. PMID:12746539

  1. The Expression of the t-SNARE AtSNAP33 Is Induced by Pathogens and Mechanical Stimulation1

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Peter; Gansel, Xavier; Oulevey, Catherine; Page, Valérie; Studer, Ingrid; Dürst, Michael; Sticher, Liliane

    2003-01-01

    The fusion of vesicles in the secretory pathway involves the interaction of t-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (t-SNAREs) on the target membrane and v-SNAREs on the vesicle membrane. AtSNAP33 is an Arabidopsis homolog of the neuronal t-SNARE SNAP-25 involved in exocytosis and is localized at the cell plate and at the plasma membrane. In this paper, the expression of AtSNAP33 was analyzed after different biotic and abiotic stresses. The expression of AtSNAP33 increased after inoculation with the pathogens Plectosporium tabacinum and virulent and avirulent forms of Peronospora parasitica and Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. The expression of PR1 transcripts encoding the secreted pathogenesis-related protein 1 also increased after inoculation with these pathogens and the expression of AtSNAP33 preceded or occurred at the same time as the expression of PR1. AtSNAP33 was also expressed in npr1 plants that do not express PR1 after pathogen inoculation as well as in cpr1 plants that overexpress PR1 in the absence of a pathogen. The level of AtSNAP33 decreased slightly in leaves inoculated with P. parasitica in the NahG plants, and eds5 and sid2 mutants that are unable to accumulate salicylic acid (SA) after pathogen inoculation, indicating a partial dependence on SA. AtSNAP33 was also expressed in systemic noninoculated leaves of plants inoculated with P. syringae. In contrast to the situation in infected leaves, the expression of AtSNAP33 in systemic leaves was fully SA dependent. Thus, the expression of AtSNAP33 after pathogen attack is regulated by SA-dependent and SA-independent pathways. Mechanical stimulation also led to an increase of AtSNAP33 transcripts. PMID:12746539

  2. Microtubule protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro leads to assembly inhibition and rapid depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Scaife, R.M. ); Wilson, L. ); Purich, D.L. )

    1992-01-14

    Bovine brain microtubule protein, containing both tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, undergoes ADP-ribosylation in the presence of ({sup 14}C)NAD{sup +} and a turkey erythrocyte mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase in vitro. The modification reaction could be demonstrated in crude brain tissue extracts where selective ADP-ribosylation of both the {alpha} and {beta} chains of tubulin and of the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 occurred. In experiments with purified microtubule protein, tubulin dimer, the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2, and another high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein which may be a MAP-1 species were heavily labeled. Tubulin and MAP-2 incorporated ({sup 14}C)ADP-ribose to an average extent of approximately 2.4 and 30 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of protein, respectively. Assembly of microtubule protein into microtubules in vitro was inhibited by ADP-ribosylation, and incubation of assembled steady-state microtubules with ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD{sup +} resulted in rapid depolymerization of the microtubules. Thus, the eukaryotic enzyme can ADP-ribosylate tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins to much greater extents than previously observed with cholera and pertussis toxins, and the modification can significantly modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

  3. Effect of heat shock on poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase and DNA repair in Drosophila cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, N.L.; Kidwell, W.R.

    1982-04-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, a chromatin-bound enzyme which attaches polyanionic chains of ADP-ribose to nuclear proteins, was found to be temperature sensitive in intact Drosophila melanogaster cells. The synthetase was completely inactivated by heat-shocking the cells at 37/sup 0/C for 5 min, a condition which had no appreciable effect on the subsequent growth of Drosophila cells at their physiological temperature. The heat-shock effect on synthetase was reversible; enzyme activity began to reappear about 2 hr post heat shock. During the 2-hr interval when poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase was absent, the cells were competent in repair of ..gamma..-ray-induced DNA strand breaks as shown by DNA sedimentation studies on alkaline sucrose gradients. It is thus concluded that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis is unnecessary for repair of DNA strand breaks introduced by irradiation. The same conclusion was reached from the fact that two inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase 3-aminobenzamide and 5-methylnicotinamide, failed to block repair of ..gamma..-ray-induced DNA chain breaks even though both inhibitors reduced the amount of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized in cells by 50-75%. Although it was found that the repair of DNA strand breaks is independent of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis, irradiation does activate the synthetase in control cells, as shown by radioimmunoassay of poly(ADP-ribose) levels.

  4. The NarE protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of several ADP-ribose acceptors despite an N-terminal deletion.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Paula I; Álamos-Musre, A Said; Álvarez, Francisca P; Escobar, Alejandro; Tapia, Cecilia V; Osorio, Eduardo; Otero, Carolina; Calderón, Iván L; Fuentes, Juan A; Gil, Fernando; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-09-01

    The ADP-ribosylating enzymes are encoded in many pathogenic bacteria in order to affect essential functions of the host. In this study, we show that Neisseria gonorrhoeae possess a locus that corresponds to the ADP-ribosyltransferase NarE, a previously characterized enzyme in N. meningitidis The 291 bp coding sequence of gonococcal narE shares 100% identity with part of the coding sequence of the meningococcal narE gene due to a frameshift previously described, thus leading to a 49-amino-acid deletion at the N-terminus of gonococcal NarE protein. However, we found a promoter region and a GTG start codon, which allowed expression of the protein as demonstrated by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Using a gonococcal NarE-6xHis fusion protein, we demonstrated that the gonococcal enzyme underwent auto-ADP-ribosylation but to a lower extent than meningococcal NarE. We also observed that gonoccocal NarE exhibited ADP-ribosyltransferase activity using agmatine and cell-free host proteins as ADP-ribose acceptors, but its activity was inhibited by human β-defensins. Taken together, our results showed that NarE of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a functional enzyme that possesses key features of bacterial ADP-ribosylating enzymes.

  5. The NarE protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of several ADP-ribose acceptors despite an N-terminal deletion.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Paula I; Álamos-Musre, A Said; Álvarez, Francisca P; Escobar, Alejandro; Tapia, Cecilia V; Osorio, Eduardo; Otero, Carolina; Calderón, Iván L; Fuentes, Juan A; Gil, Fernando; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-09-01

    The ADP-ribosylating enzymes are encoded in many pathogenic bacteria in order to affect essential functions of the host. In this study, we show that Neisseria gonorrhoeae possess a locus that corresponds to the ADP-ribosyltransferase NarE, a previously characterized enzyme in N. meningitidis The 291 bp coding sequence of gonococcal narE shares 100% identity with part of the coding sequence of the meningococcal narE gene due to a frameshift previously described, thus leading to a 49-amino-acid deletion at the N-terminus of gonococcal NarE protein. However, we found a promoter region and a GTG start codon, which allowed expression of the protein as demonstrated by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Using a gonococcal NarE-6xHis fusion protein, we demonstrated that the gonococcal enzyme underwent auto-ADP-ribosylation but to a lower extent than meningococcal NarE. We also observed that gonoccocal NarE exhibited ADP-ribosyltransferase activity using agmatine and cell-free host proteins as ADP-ribose acceptors, but its activity was inhibited by human β-defensins. Taken together, our results showed that NarE of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a functional enzyme that possesses key features of bacterial ADP-ribosylating enzymes. PMID:27465490

  6. Nutrition Assistance Programs: Cause or Solution to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Guthrie, Joanne F

    2016-06-01

    Three nutrition assistance programs-Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), and National School Lunch Program (NSLP)-serve as the backbone of the nutrition safety net in the USA. These programs have been successful in achieving many of their initial goals of improving food purchases, food intake, and/or nutritional status of low-income, vulnerable Americans. The emphasis in these programs has now broadened to also include an obesity prevention focus. Recent changes in program components demonstrate the revised objectives of the program. SNAP, WIC, and NSLP increase economic access to an adequate diet but access alone is unlikely to be the total solution to obesity prevention. An ecological approach, incorporating the nutrition programs, appears to be a more promising strategy to leverage the impact of SNAP, WIC, and NSLP. PMID:27033876

  7. ADP1 affects abundance and endocytosis of PIN-FORMED proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieru; Li, Ruixi; Jiang, Zhaoyun; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Auxin, as a vital plant hormone, regulates almost every aspect of plant growth and development. We previously identified a dominant mutant, adp1-D, displaying loss of apical dominance. We also demonstrated that down-regulation of local auxin biosynthesis in adp1-D was responsible for the bushy phenotype of this mutant. Consistent with the reduction of local auxin biosynthesis, we recently discovered that protein abundance of PIN1, PIN3, and PIN7 was reduced in adp1-D without accompanying transcription level changes. Additionally, subcellular analysis revealed that over-expression of ADP1 inhibited endocytosis of PIN proteins. Taken together, we conclude that ADP1 regulates plant architecture through the fine-tuning of local auxin biosynthesis and through post-transcriptional regulation of auxin transporters. PMID:25482774

  8. The Mitochondrial Fission Receptor MiD51 Requires ADP as a Cofactor

    PubMed Central

    Losón, Oliver C.; Liu, Raymond; Rome, Michael E.; Meng, Shuxia; Kaiser, Jens T.; Shan, Shu-ou; Chan, David C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitochondrial fission requires recruitment of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to the mitochondrial surface and activation of its GTP-dependent scission function. The Drp1 receptors MiD49 and MiD51 recruit Drp1 to facilitate mitochondrial fission, but their mechanism of action is poorly understood. Using X-ray crystallography, we demonstrate that MiD51 contains a nucleotidyl transferase domain that binds ADP with high affinity. MiD51 recruits Drp1 via a surface loop that functions independently of ADP binding. However, in the absence of nucleotide binding, the recruited Drp1 cannot be activated for fission. Purified MiD51 strongly inhibits Drp1 assembly and GTP hydrolysis in the absence of ADP. Addition of ADP relieves this inhibition and promotes Drp1 assembly into spirals with enhanced GTP hydrolysis. Our results reveal ADP as an essential cofactor for MiD51 during mitochondrial fission. PMID:24508339

  9. The mitochondrial fission receptor MiD51 requires ADP as a cofactor.

    PubMed

    Losón, Oliver C; Liu, Raymond; Rome, Michael E; Meng, Shuxia; Kaiser, Jens T; Shan, Shu-ou; Chan, David C

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondrial fission requires recruitment of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to the mitochondrial surface and activation of its GTP-dependent scission function. The Drp1 receptors MiD49 and MiD51 recruit Drp1 to facilitate mitochondrial fission, but their mechanism of action is poorly understood. Using X-ray crystallography, we demonstrate that MiD51 contains a nucleotidyl transferase domain that binds ADP with high affinity. MiD51 recruits Drp1 via a surface loop that functions independently of ADP binding. However, in the absence of nucleotide binding, the recruited Drp1 cannot be activated for fission. Purified MiD51 strongly inhibits Drp1 assembly and GTP hydrolysis in the absence of ADP. Addition of ADP relieves this inhibition and promotes Drp1 assembly into spirals with enhanced GTP hydrolysis. Our results reveal ADP as an essential cofactor for MiD51 during mitochondrial fission.

  10. Arthroscopic Resection of Osteochondroma of Hip Joint Associated with Internal Snapping: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Heung-Tae; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Jeon, Yoo-Sun

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year old male patient visited the hospital complaining of inguinal pain and internal snapping of right hip joint. In physical examination, the patient was presumed to be diagnosed femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and acetabular labral tear. In radiologic evaluation, FAI and acetabular labral tear were identified and bony tumor associated with internal snapping was found on the posteromedial portion of the femoral neck. Despite of conservative treatment, there was no symptomatic improvement. So arthroscopic labral repair, osteoplasty and resection of bony tumor were performed. The tumor was pathologically diagnosed as osteochondroma through biopsy and all symptoms improved after surgery. There was no recurrence, complication or abnormal finding during 1 year follow up. Osteochondroma located at posteromedial portion of femoral neck can be a cause of internal snapping hip and although technical demands are challenging, arthroscopic resection can be a good treatment option. PMID:27536601

  11. Nonlinear and snap-through responses of curved panels to intense acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, C. F.

    1989-01-01

    Assuming a single-mode transverse displacement, a simple formula is derived for the transverse load-displacement relationship of a plate under in-plane compression. The formula is used to derive a simple analytical expression for the nonlinear dynamic response of postbuckled plates under sinusoidal or random excitation. The highly nonlinear motion of snap-through can be easily interpreted using the single-mode formula. Experimental results are obtained with buckled and cylindrical aluminum panels using discrete frequency and broadband excitation of mechanical and acoustic forces. Some important effects of the snap-through motion on the dynamic response of the postbuckled plates are described. Static tests were used to identify the deformation shape during snap-through.

  12. Neurally expressed Drosophila genes encoding homologs of the NSF and SNAP secretory proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, R W; Pallanck, L; Ganetzky, B

    1994-01-01

    Several lines of investigation have now converged to indicate that the neurotransmitter release apparatus is formed by assembly of cytosolic proteins with proteins of the synaptic vesicle and presynaptic terminal membranes. We are undertaking a genetic approach in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the functions of two types of cytosolic proteins thought to function in this complex: N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and the soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs). We have identified Drosophila homologs of the vertebrate and yeast NSF and SNAP genes. Both Drosophila genes encode polypeptides that closely resemble their vertebrate counterparts and are expressed in the nervous system; neither appears to be in a family of closely related Drosophila genes. These results indicate that the Drosophila NSF and SNAP genes are excellent candidates for mutational analysis of neurotransmitter release. Images PMID:8202553

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect survival and development of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) embryos and hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Spotila, James R; Avery, Harold W

    2006-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds found in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We assessed the impact of PAHs and crude oil on snapping turtle development and behavior by exposing snapping turtle eggs from the Refuge and from three clean reference sites to individual PAHs or a crude oil mixture at stage 9 of embryonic development. Exposure to PAHs had a significant effect on survival rates in embryos from one clean reference site, but not in embryos from the other sites. There was a positive linear relationship between level of exposure to PAHs and severity of deformities in embryos collected from two of the clean reference sites. Neither righting response nor upper temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTM) of snapping turtle hatchlings with no or minor deformities was significantly affected by exposure to PAHs. PMID:16360251

  14. High-speed video analysis of wing-snapping in two manakin clades (Pipridae: Aves).

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Kimberly S; Prum, Richard O

    2003-10-01

    Basic kinematic and detailed physical mechanisms of avian, non-vocal sound production are both unknown. Here, for the first time, field-generated high-speed video recordings and acoustic analyses are used to test numerous competing hypotheses of the kinematics underlying sonations, or non-vocal communicative sounds, produced by two genera of Pipridae, Manacus and Pipra (Aves). Eleven behaviorally and acoustically distinct sonations are characterized, five of which fall into a specific acoustic class of relatively loud, brief, broad-frequency sound pulses, or snaps. The hypothesis that one kinematic mechanism of snap production is used within and between birds in general, and manakins specifically, is rejected. Instead, it is verified that three of four competing hypotheses of the kinematic mechanisms used for producing snaps, namely: (1). above-the-back wing-against-wing claps, (2). wing-against-body claps and (3). wing-into-air flicks, are employed between these two clades, and a fourth mechanism, (4). wing-against-tail feather interactions, is discovered. The kinematic mechanisms used to produce snaps are invariable within each identified sonation, despite the fact that a diversity of kinematic mechanisms are used among sonations. The other six sonations described are produced by kinematic mechanisms distinct from those used to create snaps, but are difficult to distinguish from each other and from the kinematics of flight. These results provide the first detailed kinematic information on mechanisms of sonation in birds in general, and the Pipridae specifically. Further, these results provide the first evidence that acoustically similar avian sonations, such as brief, broad frequency snaps, can be produced by diverse kinematic means, both among and within species. The use of high-speed video recordings in the field in a comparative manner documents the diversity of kinematic mechanisms used to sonate, and uncovers a hidden, sexually selected radiation of

  15. Developmental and diurnal expression of the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25) in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin F; Rohde, Kristian; Toft, Trine; Møller, Morten

    2013-06-01

    Snap25 (synaptosomal-associated protein) is a 25 kDa protein, belonging to the SNARE-family (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) of proteins, essential for synaptic and secretory vesicle exocytosis. Snap25 has by immunohistochemistry been demonstrated in the rat pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected the expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept of a vesicular release. At the transcriptional level, this Snap25-based release mechanism does not exhibit any diurnal rhythmicity and is regulated independently of the sympathetic nervous input to the gland.

  16. α-SNAP inhibits AMPK signaling to reduce mitochondrial biogenesis and dephosphorylates Thr172 in AMPKα in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifu; Brautigan, David L

    2013-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates metabolism in normal and pathological conditions and responds to nutrients, hormones, anti-diabetic drugs and physical exercise. AMPK is activated by the kinase LKB1 and inactivated by phosphatases whose identities remain uncertain. Here we show that AMPK associates with α-SNAP, an adapter that enables disassembly of cis-SNARE complexes formed during membrane fusion. Knockdown of α-SNAP activates AMPK to phosphorylate its endogenous substrates acetyl CoA carboxylase and Raptor, and provokes mitochondrial biogenesis. AMPK phosphorylation is rescued from α-SNAP RNA interference by LKB1 knockdown or expression of wild-type but not mutated α-SNAP. Recombinant wild-type but not mutated α-SNAP dephosphorylates pThr172 in AMPKα in vitro. Overexpression of wild-type but not mutated α-SNAP prevents AMPK activation in cells treated with agents to elevate AMP concentration. The mouse α-SNAP mutant hyh (hydrocephalus with hop gait) shows enhanced binding and inhibition of AMPK. By negatively controlling AMPK, α-SNAP therefore potentially coordinates membrane trafficking and metabolism.

  17. Establishment of Two Mouse Models for CEDNIK Syndrome Reveals the Pivotal Role of SNAP29 in Epidermal Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Stina A; Seebode, Christina; Wieser, Georg L; Goebbels, Sandra; Möbius, Wiebke; Horowitz, Mia; Sarig, Ofer; Sprecher, Eli; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the synaptosomal-associated protein 29 (SNAP29) gene cause the cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma syndrome. In this study, we created total (Snap29(-/-)) as well as keratinocyte-specific (Snap29(fl/fl)/K14-Cre) Snap29 knockout mice. Both mutant mice exhibited a congenital distinct ichthyotic phenotype resulting in neonatal lethality. Mutant mice revealed acanthosis and hyperkeratosis as well as abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and increased proliferation. In addition, the epidermal barrier was severely impaired. These results indicate an essential role of SNAP29 in epidermal differentiation and barrier formation. Markedly decreased deposition of lamellar body contents in mutant mice epidermis and the observation of malformed lamellar bodies indicate severe impairments in lamellar body function due to the Snap29 knockout. We also found increased microtubule associated protein-1 light chain 3, isoform B-II levels, unchanged p62/SQSTM1 protein amounts, and strong induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker C/EBP homologous protein in mutant mice. This emphasizes a role of SNAP29 in autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our murine models serve as powerful tools for investigating keratinocyte differentiation processes and provide insights into the essential contribution of SNAP29 to epidermal differentiation. PMID:26747696

  18. ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase from Clostridium pasteurianum prevents its inhibition of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Murrell, S A; Lowery, R G; Ludden, P W

    1988-04-15

    The effect of ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase on its binding to dinitrogenase was investigated. Dinitrogenase reductase from Clostridium pasteurianum (Cp2) was a substrate for the ADP-ribosyltransferase and the dinitrogenase-reductase-activating glycohydrolase from Rhodospirillum rubrum. ADP-ribosylation inactivated Cp2 and prevented its formation of a tight complex with dinitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii (Av1). The complex between Cp2 and Av1 could not be ADP-ribosylated once it formed.

  19. Causal pattern recovery from neural spike train data using the Snap Shot Score.

    PubMed

    Echtermeyer, Christoph; Smulders, Tom V; Smith, V Anne

    2010-08-01

    We present a new approach to learning directed information flow networks from multi-channel spike train data. A novel scoring function, the Snap Shot Score, is used to assess potential networks with respect to their quality of causal explanation for the data. Additionally, we suggest a generic concept of plausibility in order to assess network learning techniques under partial observability conditions. Examples demonstrate the assessment of networks with the Snap Shot Score, and neural network simulations show its performance in complex situations with partial observability. We discuss the application of the new score to real data and indicate how it can be modified to suit other neural data types.

  20. Photochemical oxidants potentiate yield losses in snap beans attributable to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Heggestad, H.E.; Bennett, J.H.

    1981-08-28

    Field-grown snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were given recurring midday exposures to sulfur dioxide in open-top field chambers containing ambient photochemical oxidants. There was a linear correlation (correlation coefficient = -.99) between increasing concentrations of sulfur dioxide and the yields of snap beans. Synergism was indicated for the mixtures of ambient ozone plus sulfur dioxide, leading to threefold greater yield losses in nonfiltered air than in charcoal-filtered air (to remove the ozone). Even the lowest sulfur dioxide dose in nonfiltered air reduced the yields of Astro, a cultivar that exhibited no visible pollutant-induced foliar injury. 16 referances, 1 figure, 1 table.

  1. Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.; Bourne, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins.

  2. Crosstalk between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and sirtuin enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, Carles; Sauve, Anthony A.; Bai, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are NAD+ dependent enzymes that were identified as DNA repair proteins, however, today it seems clear that PARPs are responsible for a plethora of biological functions. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD+-dependent deacetylase enzymes involved in the same biological processes as PARPs raising the question whether PARP and SIRT enzymes may interact with each other in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Hereby we review the current understanding of the SIRT-PARP interplay in regard to the biochemical nature of the interaction (competition for the common NAD+ substrate, mutual posttranslational modifications and direct transcriptional effects) and the physiological, or pathophysiological consequences of the interactions (metabolic events, oxidative stress response, genomic stability and ageing). Finally, we give an overview of the possibilities of pharmacological intervention to modulate PARP and SIRT enzymes either directly, or through modulating NAD+ homeostasis. PMID:23357756

  3. Crosstalk between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and sirtuin enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Carles; Sauve, Anthony A; Bai, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are NAD(+) dependent enzymes that were identified as DNA repair proteins, however, today it seems clear that PARPs are responsible for a plethora of biological functions. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase enzymes involved in the same biological processes as PARPs raising the question whether PARP and SIRT enzymes may interact with each other in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Hereby we review the current understanding of the SIRT-PARP interplay in regard to the biochemical nature of the interaction (competition for the common NAD(+) substrate, mutual posttranslational modifications and direct transcriptional effects) and the physiological or pathophysiological consequences of the interactions (metabolic events, oxidative stress response, genomic stability and aging). Finally, we give an overview of the possibilities of pharmacological intervention to modulate PARP and SIRT enzymes either directly, or through modulating NAD(+) homeostasis.

  4. Ground Based Calibration of Standard Stars for SNAP in the Near Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkle, J.; Mufson, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    This R&D project was designed to explore the possibility of calibrating fundamental stars for SNAP in the near infrared from the ground in select narrow bandpasses by comparing stellar photometric observations to a stable, calibrated light source. The test measurements were made with a single channel photometer equipped with a thermoelectrically-cooled Hamamatsu InGaAs detector attached to an 8-inch Meade telescope. The calibrated light source was a 40 watt lamp regulated by a DC power supply purchased from Oriel. The narrow-band (10 nm) interference filters were also obtained from Oriel. The key filter used in this experiment was centered at 1,050 nm, a band that is free of water vapor opacity. The project consisted of two experiments. First, laboratory measurements of the lamp source were made over a baseline of 8 meters to test the 1/r2 dependence of our setup in a dry, thermally stable environment; these measurements were compared with 1/r2 measurements over an unobstructed distance of 125 meters from the roof of the physics/astronomy building to the roof of the law school. The experiment used both the 1,050 nm filter and a second 1,200 nm filter, a band which is contaminated with large water vapor opacity. This experiment tested whether the 1/r2-law holds for the calibration lamp source in the water-free 1,050 nm band far enough away so that the lamp mimics a star. Second, the moon was followed as a function of hour angle in both the 1,050 nm and 1,200 nm bands to test whether highly accurate stellar calibration measurements can be made in narrow clear bandpasses in the near infrared. Results of these experiments will be presented. This research was carried out through the Research Experience for Undergraduates program at Indiana University Bloomington. Support from the National Science Foundation through AST-0139617 is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Controlled assembly of SNAP-PNA-fluorophore systems on DNA templates to produce fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Zahra; Hanley, Quentin

    2014-10-15

    The SNAP protein is a widely used self-labeling tag that can be used for tracking protein localization and trafficking in living systems. A model system providing controlled alignment of SNAP-tag units can provide a new way to study clustering of fusion proteins. In this work, fluorescent SNAP-PNA conjugates were controllably assembled on DNA frameworks, forming dimers, trimers, and tetramers. Modification of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) with the O(6)-benzyl guanine (BG) group allowed the generation of site-selective covalent links between PNA and the SNAP protein. The modified BG-PNAs were labeled with fluorescent Atto dyes and subsequently chemo-selectively conjugated to SNAP protein. Efficient assembly into dimer and oligomer forms was verified via size exclusion chromatography (SEC), electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and fluorescence spectroscopy. DNA-directed assembly of homo- and heterodimers of SNAP-PNA constructs induced homo- and hetero-FRET, respectively. Longer DNA scaffolds controllably aligned similar fluorescent SNAP-PNA constructs into higher oligomers exhibiting homo-FRET. The combined SEC and homo-FRET studies indicated the 1:1 and saturated assemblies of SNAP-PNA-fluorophore:DNA formed preferentially in this system. This suggested a kinetic/stoichiometric model of assembly rather than binomially distributed products. These BG-PNA-fluorophore building blocks allow facile introduction of fluorophores and/or assembly directing moieties onto any protein containing SNAP. Template-directed assembly of PNA-modified SNAP proteins may be used to investigate clustering behavior both with and without fluorescent labels, which may find use in the study of assembly processes in cells.

  6. Role of the SNARE protein SNAP23 on cAMP-stimulated renin release in mouse juxtaglomerular cells

    PubMed Central

    Gaisano, Herbert Y.

    2013-01-01

    Renin, the rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of angiotensin II, is synthesized and stored in granules in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. Therefore, the controlled mechanism involved in renin release is essential for the regulation of blood pressure. Exocytosis of renin-containing granules is likely involved in renin release; a process stimulated by cAMP. We found that the “soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) attachment protein receptor” (SNARE) protein VAMP2 mediates cAMP-stimulated renin release and exocytosis in JG cells. To mediate exocytosis, VAMP2 must interact with a synaptosome-associated protein (SNAP). In the renal cortex, the isoform SNAP23 is abundantly expressed. We hypothesized that SNAP23 mediates cAMP-stimulated renin release from primary cultures of mouse JG cells. We found that SNAP23 protein is expressed and colocalized with renin-containing granules in primary cultures of mouse JG cell lysates. Thus, we then tested the involvement of SNAP23 in cAMP-stimulated renin release by transducing JG cells with a dominant-negative SNAP23 construct. In control JG cells transduced with a scrambled sequence, increasing cAMP stimulated renin release from 1.3 ± 0.3 to 5.3 ± 1.2% of renin content. In cells transduced with dominant-negative SNAP23, cAMP increased renin from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 3.0 ± 0.6% of renin content, a 50% blockade. Botulinum toxin E, which cleaves and inactivates SNAP23, reduced cAMP-stimulated renin release by 42 ± 17%. Finally, adenovirus-mediated silencing of SNAP23 significantly blocked cAMP-stimulated renin release by 50 ± 13%. We concluded that the SNARE protein SNAP23 mediates cAMP-stimulated renin release. These data show that renin release is a SNARE-dependent process. PMID:23269646

  7. Comparative studies on antibodies to poly(ADP-ribose) in rabbits and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Y; Sugimura, T

    1981-01-01

    Immunochemical studies were made on the antibodies induced in rabbits against poly(ADP-ribose) and naturally-occurring antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Antibodies against poly(ADP-ribose) could also be induced in rabbits by oligo(ADP-ribose) associated with rat liver histones and by a complex of poly(ADP-ribose) with methylated bovine serum albumin (MBSA). The two types of antibody were inhibited to the same extent by poly(ADP-ribose). However, the antibody induced by oligo(ADP-ribose) associated with histones was inhibited by oligo(ADP-ribose) with an average chain length if 4 ADP-ribosyl units and by phosphoribosyl adenosine monophosphate (PR-AMP) but not by mono ADP-ribose, whereas that induced by poly(ADP-ribose) was practically not inhibited by these related compounds even in excess amounts. The sera of ten cases of systemic lupus erythematosus showing high antibody activity against poly(ADP-ribose) were also examined immunochemically. It was found that the antibodies of three patients showed a similar inhibitory pattern to that of antibody induced in rabbits by oligo(ADP-ribose) associated with histones, those of three patients showed a similar pattern to that of antibody produced in rabbits by poly(ADP-ribose), and the remainder did not show either pattern. These findings suggest that oligo(ADP-ribose) associated with histones may serve as antigen to elicit naturally-occuring antibodies to poly(ADP-ribose) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:7251045

  8. State of the art of protein mono-ADP-ribosylation: biological role and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Gaia; Scarpa, Emanuele Salvatore; Di Girolamo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that was discovered more than five decades ago, and it consists of the enzymatic transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD⁺ to acceptor proteins. In viruses and prokaryotes, mono-ADP-ribosylation is mainly, but not exclusively, a mechanism used to take control of the host cell. In mammals, mono-ADP-ribosylation serves to regulate protein functions, and it is catalysed by two families of toxin-related cellular ADP-ribosyltransferases: ecto-enzymes that modify various cell-surface proteins, like integrins and receptors, and intracellular enzymes that act on a variety of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. These two families have been recently renamed the ARTCs (clostridia toxin like) and ARTDs (diphtheria toxin like), depending on their conserved structural features, and in terms of their relationships to the bacterial toxins. In addition, two members of the structurally non-related sirtuin family can also modify cellular proteins by mono-ADP-ribosylation. Recently, new examples of ADP-ribosylation of proteins involved in signal transduction and intracellular trafficking have been discovered, thus opening the route to the better molecular understanding of this reaction and of its role in human cell physiology and pathology.

  9. Proteome-wide identification of the endogenous ADP-ribosylome of mammalian cells and tissue

    PubMed Central

    Martello, Rita; Leutert, Mario; Jungmichel, Stephanie; Bilan, Vera; Larsen, Sara C.; Young, Clifford; Hottiger, Michael O.; Nielsen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Although protein ADP-ribosylation is involved in diverse biological processes, it has remained a challenge to identify ADP-ribose acceptor sites. Here, we present an experimental workflow for sensitive and unbiased analysis of endogenous ADP-ribosylation sites, capable of detecting more than 900 modification sites in mammalian cells and mouse liver. In cells, we demonstrate that Lys residues, besides Glu, Asp and Arg residues, are the dominant in vivo targets of ADP-ribosylation during oxidative stress. In normal liver tissue, we find Arg residues to be the predominant modification site. The cellular distribution and biological processes that involve ADP-ribosylated proteins are different in cultured cells and liver tissue, in the latter of which the majority of sites were found to be in cytosolic and mitochondrial protein networks primarily associated with metabolism. Collectively, we describe a robust methodology for the assessment of the role of ADP-ribosylation and ADP-ribosyltransferases in physiological and pathological states. PMID:27686526

  10. Structure of the Escherichia coli heptosyltransferase WaaC: binary complexes with ADP and ADP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro heptose.

    PubMed

    Grizot, Sylvestre; Salem, Michèle; Vongsouthi, Vanida; Durand, Lionel; Moreau, François; Dohi, Hirofumi; Vincent, Stéphane; Escaich, Sonia; Ducruix, Arnaud

    2006-10-20

    Lipopolysaccharides constitute the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and are therefore essential for cell growth and viability. The heptosyltransferase WaaC is a glycosyltransferase (GT) involved in the synthesis of the inner core region of LPS. It catalyzes the addition of the first L-glycero-D-manno-heptose (heptose) molecule to one 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) residue of the Kdo2-lipid A molecule. Heptose is an essential component of the LPS core domain; its absence results in a truncated lipopolysaccharide associated with the deep-rough phenotype causing a greater susceptibility to antibiotic and an attenuated virulence for pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, WaaC represents a promising target in antibacterial drug design. Here, we report the structure of WaaC from the Escherichia coli pathogenic strain RS218 alone at 1.9 A resolution, and in complex with either ADP or the non-cleavable analog ADP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-heptose of the sugar donor at 2.4 A resolution. WaaC adopts the GT-B fold in two domains, characteristic of one glycosyltransferase structural superfamily. The comparison of the three different structures shows that WaaC does not undergo a domain rotation, characteristic of the GT-B family, upon substrate binding, but allows the substrate analog and the reaction product to adopt remarkably distinct conformations inside the active site. In addition, both binary complexes offer a close view of the donor subsite and, together with results from site-directed mutagenesis studies, provide evidence for a model of the catalytic mechanism.

  11. Innovative, wearable snap connector technology for improved device networking in electronic garments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Lee, Kang S.; Gans, Eric; Winterhalter, Carole A.; Jannson, Tomasz P.

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses Physical Optics Corporation's (POC) wearable snap connector technology that provides for the transfer of data and power throughout an electronic garment (e-garment). These connectors resemble a standard garment button and can be mated blindly with only one hand. Fully compatible with military clothing, their application allows for the networking of multiple electronic devices and an intuitive method for adding/removing existing components from the system. The attached flexible cabling also permits the rugged snap connectors to be fed throughout the standard webbing found in military garments permitting placement in any location within the uniform. Variations of the snap electronics/geometry allow for integration with USB 2.0 devices, RF antennas, and are capable of transferring high bandwidth data streams such as the 221 Mbps required for VGA video. With the trend towards providing military officers with numerous electronic devices (i.e., heads up displays (HMD), GPS receiver, PDA, etc), POC's snap connector technology will greatly improve cable management resulting in a less cumbersome uniform. In addition, with electronic garments gaining widespread adoption in the commercial marketplace, POC's technology is finding applications in such areas as sporting good manufacturers and video game technology.

  12. EFNEP and SNAP-Ed Initial Paraprofessional Training Materials and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byington, Charlene; Baker, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Western Region EFNEP coordinators were frustrated by the apparent lack of materials available for training newly hired paraprofessional nutrition educators. An on-line survey was distributed to all EFNEP and SNAP-Ed state coordinators seeking details about initial training and available materials and requesting copies of materials for review.…

  13. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment of cutaneous papillomas in a common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    PubMed

    Raiti, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser was used to treat multiple cutaneous papillomas on an adult female common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina serpentina. A combination of excisional and ablative techniques provided excellent intraoperative visibility and postoperative results due to the laser's unique ability to incise and vaporize soft tissue. PMID:18634218

  14. Insights into the mechanism of ADP action on flagellar motility derived from studies on bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Lesich, Kathleen A; Pelle, Dominic W; Lindemann, Charles B

    2008-07-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is known to have interesting effects on flagellar motility. Permeabilized and reactivated bull sperm exhibit a marked reduction in beating frequency and a greatly increased beat amplitude in the presence of 1-4 mM ADP. In this study we examined the force production of sperm reactivated with 0.1 mM ATP with and without 1 mM ADP and found that there is little or no resulting change in the stalling force produced by a bull sperm flagella in response to ADP. Because bull sperm bend to a higher curvature after ADP treatment we explored the possibility that ADP-treated sperm flagella are more flexible. We measured the stiffness of 50 muM sodium vanadate treated bull sperm in the presence of 4 mM ADP, but found no change in the passive flagellar stiffness. When we analyzed the torque that develops in ADP-treated sperm at the point of beat reversal we found that the torque developed by the flagellum is significantly increased. Our torque estimates also allow us to calculate the transverse force (t-force) acting on the flagellum at the point of beat direction reversal. We find that the t-force at the switch-point of the beat is increased significantly in the ADP treated condition, averaging 0.7 +/- 0.29 nN/microm in 0.1 mM ATP and increasing to 2.9 +/- 1.2 nN/microm in 0.1 mM ATP plus 4 mM ADP. This suggests that ADP is exerting its effect on the beat by increasing the tenacity of dynein attachment at the B-subtubule. This could be a direct result of a regulatory effect of ADP on the binding affinity of dynein for the B-subtubule of the outer doublets. This result could also help to explain a number of previous experimental observations, as discussed. PMID:18375503

  15. Insights into the Mechanism of ADP Action on Flagellar Motility Derived from Studies on Bull Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Lesich, Kathleen A.; Pelle, Dominic W.; Lindemann, Charles B.

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is known to have interesting effects on flagellar motility. Permeabilized and reactivated bull sperm exhibit a marked reduction in beating frequency and a greatly increased beat amplitude in the presence of 1–4 mM ADP. In this study we examined the force production of sperm reactivated with 0.1 mM ATP with and without 1 mM ADP and found that there is little or no resulting change in the stalling force produced by a bull sperm flagella in response to ADP. Because bull sperm bend to a higher curvature after ADP treatment we explored the possibility that ADP-treated sperm flagella are more flexible. We measured the stiffness of 50 μM sodium vanadate treated bull sperm in the presence of 4 mM ADP, but found no change in the passive flagellar stiffness. When we analyzed the torque that develops in ADP-treated sperm at the point of beat reversal we found that the torque developed by the flagellum is significantly increased. Our torque estimates also allow us to calculate the transverse force (t-force) acting on the flagellum at the point of beat direction reversal. We find that the t-force at the switch-point of the beat is increased significantly in the ADP treated condition, averaging 0.7 ± 0.29 nN/μm in 0.1 mM ATP and increasing to 2.9 ± 1.2 nN/μm in 0.1 mM ATP plus 4 mM ADP. This suggests that ADP is exerting its effect on the beat by increasing the tenacity of dynein attachment at the B-subtubule. This could be a direct result of a regulatory effect of ADP on the binding affinity of dynein for the B-subtubule of the outer doublets. This result could also help to explain a number of previous experimental observations, as discussed. PMID:18375503

  16. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase and poly(ADP-ribose)-interacting protein Hrp38 regulate pattern formation during Drosophila eye development.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yingbiao; Jarnik, Michael; Tulin, Alexei V

    2013-09-10

    Drosophila Hrp38, a homolog of human hnRNP A1, has been shown to regulate splicing, but its function can be modified by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Notwithstanding such findings, our understanding of the roles of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated Hrp38 on development is limited. Here, we have demonstrated that Hrp38 is essential for fly eye development based on a rough-eye phenotype with disorganized ommatidia observed in adult escapers of the hrp38 mutant. We also observed that poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (Parg) loss-of-function, which caused increased Hrp38 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, also resulted in the rough-eye phenotype with disrupted ommatidial lattice and reduced number of photoreceptor cells. In addition, ectopic expression of DE-cadherin, which is required for retinal morphogenesis, fully rescued the rough-eye phenotype of the hrp38 mutant. Similarly, Parg mutant eye clones had decreased expression level of DE-cadherin with orientation defects, which is reminiscent of DE-cadherin mutant eye phenotype. Therefore, our results suggest that Hrp38 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation controls eye pattern formation via regulation of DE-cadherin expression, a finding which has implications for understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of Hrp38-related Fragile X syndrome and PARP1-related retinal degeneration diseases.

  17. The Level of AdpA Directly Affects Expression of Developmental Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wolański, Marcin; Donczew, Rafał; Kois-Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Masiewicz, Paweł; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    AdpA is a key regulator of morphological differentiation in Streptomyces. In contrast to Streptomyces griseus, relatively little is known about AdpA protein functions in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, we report for the first time the translation accumulation profile of the S. coelicolor adpA (adpASc) gene; the level of S. coelicolor AdpA (AdpASc) increased, reaching a maximum in the early stage of aerial mycelium formation (after 36 h), and remained relatively stable for the next several hours (48 to 60 h), and then the signal intensity decreased considerably. AdpASc specifically binds the adpASc promoter region in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that its expression is autoregulated; surprisingly, in contrast to S. griseus, the protein presumably acts as a transcriptional activator. We also demonstrate a direct influence of AdpASc on the expression of several genes whose products play key roles in the differentiation of S. coelicolor: STI, a protease inhibitor; RamR, an atypical response regulator that itself activates expression of the genes for a small modified peptide that is required for aerial growth; and ClpP1, an ATP-dependent protease. The diverse influence of AdpASc protein on the expression of the analyzed genes presumably results mainly from different affinities of AdpASc protein to individual promoters. PMID:21926228

  18. Organelle-targetable fluorescent probes for imaging hydrogen peroxide in living cells via SNAP-Tag protein labeling.

    PubMed

    Srikun, Duangkhae; Albers, Aaron E; Nam, Christine I; Iavarone, Anthony T; Chang, Christopher J

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a potent small-molecule oxidant that can exert a diverse array of physiological and/or pathological effects within living systems depending on the timing and location of its production, accumulation, trafficking, and consumption. To help study the chemistry and biology of this reactive oxygen species (ROS) in its native cellular context, we now present a new method for monitoring local, subcellular changes in H(2)O(2) levels by fluorescence imaging. Specifically, we have exploited the versatility of the SNAP-tag technology for site-specific protein labeling with small molecules on the surface or interior of living cells with the use of boronate-capped dyes to selectively visualize H(2)O(2). The resulting SNAP-Peroxy-Green (SNAP-PG) probes consist of appropriately derivatized boronates bioconjugated to SNAP-tag fusion proteins. Spectroscopic measurements of the SNAP-PG constructs confirm their ability to detect H(2)O(2) with specificity over other biologically relevant ROS. Moreover, these hybrid small-molecule/protein reporters can be used in live mammalian cells expressing SNAP-tag fusion proteins directed to the plasma membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. Imaging experiments using scanning confocal microscopy establish organelle-specific localization of the SNAP-tag probes and their fluorescence turn-on in response to changes in local H(2)O(2) levels. This work provides a general molecular imaging platform for assaying H(2)O(2) chemistry in living cells with subcellular resolution.

  19. Nitric oxide donor s-nitroso-n-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) alters meiotic spindle morphogenesis in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gelaude, Armance; Marin, Matthieu; Cailliau, Katia; Jeseta, Michal; Lescuyer-Rousseau, Arlette; Vandame, Pauline; Nevoral, Jan; Sedmikova, Marketa; Martoriati, Alain; Bodart, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) has been involved in both intra- and extra-cellular signaling pathways in a wide range of organisms, and can be detected in some reproductive tissues. Based upon previous results reporting that NO-donor SNAP (s-nitroso-n-acetyl penicillamine) promoted the release from the metaphase II-anaphase II block in amphibian eggs, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of SNAP on the activation of the molecular mechanisms triggering meiotic resumption of Xenopus oocytes, analogous to G2/M transition of the cell cycle. A high concentration of SNAP (2.5 mM) was found to inhibit the appearance of the white spot (meiotic resumption) and promoted alteration of spindle morphogenesis leading to atypical structures lacking bipolarity and correct chromosomes equatorial alignment. The medium acidification (pH = 4) promoted by SNAP specifically impacted the white spot occurrence. However, even when pH was restored to 7.4 in SNAP medium, observed spindles remained atypical (microtubule disorganization), suggesting SNAP impacted spindle assembly regardless of the pH. n-Acetyl-d,l-penicillamine disulfide, a degradation product of SNAP with the same molecular characteristics, albeit without release of NO, yielded spindle assemblies typical of metaphase II suggesting the specificity of NO action on meiotic spindle morphogenesis in Xenopus oocytes.

  20. Cytotoxicity of botulinum neurotoxins reveals a direct role of syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 in neuron survival.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lisheng; Liu, Huisheng; Ruan, Hongyu; Tepp, William H; Stoothoff, William H; Brown, Robert H; Johnson, Eric A; Yao, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Su-Chun; Dong, Min

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G) act by blocking synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Whether BoNTs disrupt additional neuronal functions has not been addressed. Here we report that cleavage of syntaxin 1 by BoNT/C, and cleavage of SNAP-25 by BoNT/E both induce degeneration of neurons. Furthermore, although SNAP-25 cleaved by BoNT/A still supports neuron survival, it has reduced capacity to tolerate additional mutations. We demonstrate that syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 cooperate as SNARE proteins to support neuron survival. Exogenous expression of other homologous SNARE proteins, syntaxin 2/3/4 and SNAP-23, which are resistant to BoNT/C and E in neurons, can substitute syntaxin 1/SNAP-25 and prevent toxin-induced neuron death. Finally, we find that neuronal death is due to blockage of plasma membrane recycling processes that utilize syntaxin 1/SNAP-25, independent of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. These findings establish neuronal cytotoxicity for BoNTs and reveal syntaxin 1/SNAP-25 as the ubiquitous and essential SNARE proteins mediating multiple fusion events on neuronal plasma membranes.

  1. An experimental framework for improved selection of binding proteins using SNAP display.

    PubMed

    Houlihan, Gillian; Gatti-Lafranconi, Pietro; Kaltenbach, Miriam; Lowe, David; Hollfelder, Florian

    2014-03-01

    Display technologies (e.g. phage and ribosome display) are powerful tools for selecting and evolving protein binders against various target molecules. SNAP display is a DNA display technology that is conducted entirely in vitro: DNA encoding a library of variants is encapsulated in water-in-oil droplets wherein in vitro protein expression and covalent coupling to the encoding DNA occurs. Here, we explore critical factors for the successful performance of SNAP display based on a set of experiments designed to measure and quantify to what extent they affect selection efficiency. We find that, in SNAP display, the reconstituted cell free expression system PURExpress led to 1.5-fold more active protein and achieved 3.5-fold greater DNA recovery in model selections compared to the RTS 100 Escherichia coli lysate based expression system. We report on the influence parameters including droplet occupancy, valency and selection stringency have on recovery and enrichment. An improved procedure involving bivalent display and stringent selection against a model target, Her2, led to a 10(7)-fold enrichment of a DARPin (H10-2-G3, known to bind Her2 with picomolar affinity) over a non-binding DARPin after three rounds of selection. Furthermore, when spiked into a mixture of DARPins with different affinities, DARPin H10-2-G3 outcompeted all other variants demonstrating SNAP display's ability to efficiently resolve clones with affinities in the nano- to picomolar range. These data establish SNAP display as an in vitro protein engineering tool for isolating protein binders and provide a framework for troubleshooting affinity selections.

  2. A technique for optimal temperature estimation for modeling sunrise/sunset thermal snap disturbance torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, D. F.; Dennehy, C. J.; Welch, R. V.; Born, G. H.

    1990-01-01

    A predictive temperature estimation technique which can be used to drive a model of the Sunrise/Sunset thermal 'snap' disturbance torque experienced by low Earth orbiting spacecraft is described. The twice per orbit impulsive disturbance torque is attributed to vehicle passage in and out of the Earth's shadow cone (umbra), during which large flexible appendages undergo rapidly changing thermal conditions. Flexible members, in particular solar arrays, experience rapid cooling during umbra entrance (Sunset) and rapid heating during exit (Sunrise). The thermal 'snap' phenomena has been observed during normal on-orbit operations of both the LANDSAT-4 satellite and the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS). Thermal 'snap' has also been predicted to be a dominant source of error for the TOPEX satellite. The fundamental equations used to model the Sunrise/Sunset thermal 'snap' disturbance torque for a typical solar array like structure will be described. For this derivation the array is assumed to be a thin, cantilevered beam. The time varying thermal gradient is shown to be the driving force behind predicting the thermal 'snap' disturbance torque and therefore motivates the need for accurate estimates of temperature. The development of a technique to optimally estimate appendage surface temperature is highlighted. The objective analysis method used is structured on the Gauss-Markov Theorem and provides an optimal temperature estimate at a prescribed location given data from a distributed thermal sensor network. The optimally estimated surface temperatures could then be used to compute the thermal gradient across the body. The estimation technique is demonstrated using a typical satellite solar array.

  3. Gas-bubble snap-off under pressure driven flow in constricted noncircular capillaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kovscek, A.R.; Radke, C.J.

    1996-04-01

    A model for snap-off of a gas thread in a constricted cornered pore is developed. The time for wetting liquid to accumulate at a pore throat into an unstable collar is examined, as for the resulting pore-spanning lens to be displaced from the pore so that snap-off is the time may repeat. A comer-flow hydrodynamic analysis for the accumulation rate of wetting liquid due to both gradients in interfacial curvature and in applied liquid-phase pressure reveals that wetting-phase pressure gradients significantly increase the frequency of liquid accumulation for snap-off as compared to liquid rearrangement driven only by differences in pore-wall curvature. For moderate and large pressure gradients, the frequency of accumulation increases linearly with pressure gradient because of the increased rate of wetting liquid flow along pore comers. Pore topology is important to the theory, for pores with relatively small throats connected to large bodies demonstrate excellent ability to snapoff gas threads even when the initial capillary pressure is high or equivalently when the liquid saturation is low. A macroscopic momentum balance across the lens resulting from snap-off reveals that lens displacement rates are not linear with the imposed pressure drop. Instead, the frequency of lens displacement scales with powers between 0.5 and 0.6 for pores with dimensionless constriction radii between 0.15 and 0.40. Statistical percolation arguments are employed to form a generation rate expression and connect pore-level foam generation events to macroscopic pressure gradients in porous media. The rate of foam generation by capillary snap-off increases linearly with the liquid-phase pressure gradient and according to a power-law relationship with respect to the imposed gas-phase pressure gradient.

  4. Multiple functions of the SNARE protein Snap29 in autophagy, endocytic, and exocytic trafficking during epithelial formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Elena; Ginefra, Pierpaolo; Mastrodonato, Valeria; Beznoussenko, Galina V; Rusten, Tor Erik; Bilder, David; Stenmark, Harald; Mironov, Alexandre A; Vaccari, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    How autophagic degradation is linked to endosomal trafficking routes is little known. Here we screened a collection of uncharacterized Drosophila mutants affecting membrane transport to identify new genes that also have a role in autophagy. We isolated a loss of function mutant in Snap29 (Synaptosomal-associated protein 29 kDa), the gene encoding the Drosophila homolog of the human protein SNAP29 and have characterized its function in vivo. Snap29 contains 2 soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) domains and a asparagine-proline-phenylalanine (NPF motif) at its N terminus and rescue experiments indicate that both SNARE domains are required for function, whereas the NPF motif is in part dispensable. We find that Snap29 interacts with SNARE proteins, localizes to multiple trafficking organelles, and is required for protein trafficking and for proper Golgi apparatus morphology. Developing tissue lacking Snap29 displays distinctive epithelial architecture defects and accumulates large amounts of autophagosomes, highlighting a major role of Snap29 in autophagy and secretion. Mutants for autophagy genes do not display epithelial architecture or secretion defects, suggesting that the these alterations of the Snap29 mutant are unlikely to be caused by the impairment of autophagy. In contrast, we find evidence of elevated levels of hop-Stat92E (hopscotch-signal transducer and activator of transcription protein at 92E) ligand, receptor, and associated signaling, which might underlie the epithelial defects. In summary, our findings support a role of Snap29 at key steps of membrane trafficking, and predict that signaling defects may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and palmoplantar keratoderma (CEDNIK), a human congenital syndrome due to loss of Snap29. PMID:25551675

  5. Therapeutic effectiveness of botulinum neurotoxin A: potent blockade of autonomic transmission by targeted cleavage of only the pertinent SNAP-25.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gary W; Ovsepian, Saak V; Wang, Jiafu; Aoki, K Roger; Dolly, J Oliver

    2013-07-01

    In search of a basis for the impressive potency of an endoprotease that cleaves SNAP-25, botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A), in treating numerous diseases due to hyper-active autonomic nerves, truncation of its target and inhibition of neurotransmission were studied in rat sympathetic neurons. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive spontaneous cholinergic neurotransmission was blocked >80% by 1 pM BoNT/A despite cleaving <20% of the SNAP-25. A maximum cleavage of ∼60% SNAP-25 could be achieved with >1 nM BoNT/A, despite an absence of non-cleavable SNAP-25 in the detergent-solubilised neurons. In contrast, BoNT/E (100 nM) truncated nearly all the SNAP-25 in the intact cells, but was unable to block neurotransmission at low concentrations like BoNT/A. Chimeras created by inserting the acceptor-binding HC domain of BoNT/A into BoNT/E still cleaved all the SNAP-25, indicating ubiquitous expression of BoNT/A acceptors. Accordingly, SV2 and SNAP-25 were found to be co-expressed and broadly co-localised in neurons, but absent from non-neuronal cells. On the other hand, partial cleavage by the BoNT/A protease persisted upon replacing its HC with counterparts from BoNT/E or BoNT/B. Moreover, limited cleavage of SNAP-25 was conferred onto the protease from BoNT/E when fused to the N-terminus of BoNT/A. Thus, the BoNT/A protease is uniquely well-adapted for selectively inactivating the SNAP-25 directly involved in neurotransmission; this together with the toxin's acceptor and its target being localised on the peri-somatic boutons likely contribute to its exceptional therapeutic utility in the clinic.

  6. Evaluation of fluorophores to label SNAP-tag fused proteins for multicolor single-molecule tracking microscopy in live cells.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Peter J; Corrêa, Ivan R; Sonntag, Michael H; Ibach, Jenny; Brunsveld, Luc; Kanger, Johannes S; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2014-08-19

    Single-molecule tracking has become a widely used technique for studying protein dynamics and their organization in the complex environment of the cell. In particular, the spatiotemporal distribution of membrane receptors is an active field of study due to its putative role in the regulation of signal transduction. The SNAP-tag is an intrinsically monovalent and highly specific genetic tag for attaching a fluorescent label to a protein of interest. Little information is currently available on the choice of optimal fluorescent dyes for single-molecule microscopy utilizing the SNAP-tag labeling system. We surveyed 6 green and 16 red excitable dyes for their suitability in single-molecule microscopy of SNAP-tag fusion proteins in live cells. We determined the nonspecific binding levels and photostability of these dye conjugates when bound to a SNAP-tag fused membrane protein in live cells. We found that only a limited subset of the dyes tested is suitable for single-molecule tracking microscopy. The results show that a careful choice of the dye to conjugate to the SNAP-substrate to label SNAP-tag fusion proteins is very important, as many dyes suffer from either rapid photobleaching or high nonspecific staining. These characteristics appear to be unpredictable, which motivated the need to perform the systematic survey presented here. We have developed a protocol for evaluating the best dyes, and for the conditions that we evaluated, we find that Dy 549 and CF 640 are the best choices tested for single-molecule tracking. Using an optimal dye pair, we also demonstrate the possibility of dual-color single-molecule imaging of SNAP-tag fusion proteins. This survey provides an overview of the photophysical and imaging properties of a range of SNAP-tag fluorescent substrates, enabling the selection of optimal dyes and conditions for single-molecule imaging of SNAP-tagged fusion proteins in eukaryotic cell lines.

  7. Evaluation of Fluorophores to Label SNAP-Tag Fused Proteins for Multicolor Single-Molecule Tracking Microscopy in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Peter J.; Corrêa, Ivan R.; Sonntag, Michael H.; Ibach, Jenny; Brunsveld, Luc; Kanger, Johannes S.; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule tracking has become a widely used technique for studying protein dynamics and their organization in the complex environment of the cell. In particular, the spatiotemporal distribution of membrane receptors is an active field of study due to its putative role in the regulation of signal transduction. The SNAP-tag is an intrinsically monovalent and highly specific genetic tag for attaching a fluorescent label to a protein of interest. Little information is currently available on the choice of optimal fluorescent dyes for single-molecule microscopy utilizing the SNAP-tag labeling system. We surveyed 6 green and 16 red excitable dyes for their suitability in single-molecule microscopy of SNAP-tag fusion proteins in live cells. We determined the nonspecific binding levels and photostability of these dye conjugates when bound to a SNAP-tag fused membrane protein in live cells. We found that only a limited subset of the dyes tested is suitable for single-molecule tracking microscopy. The results show that a careful choice of the dye to conjugate to the SNAP-substrate to label SNAP-tag fusion proteins is very important, as many dyes suffer from either rapid photobleaching or high nonspecific staining. These characteristics appear to be unpredictable, which motivated the need to perform the systematic survey presented here. We have developed a protocol for evaluating the best dyes, and for the conditions that we evaluated, we find that Dy 549 and CF 640 are the best choices tested for single-molecule tracking. Using an optimal dye pair, we also demonstrate the possibility of dual-color single-molecule imaging of SNAP-tag fusion proteins. This survey provides an overview of the photophysical and imaging properties of a range of SNAP-tag fluorescent substrates, enabling the selection of optimal dyes and conditions for single-molecule imaging of SNAP-tagged fusion proteins in eukaryotic cell lines. PMID:25140415

  8. Multiple functions of the SNARE protein Snap29 in autophagy, endocytic, and exocytic trafficking during epithelial formation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Elena; Ginefra, Pierpaolo; Mastrodonato, Valeria; Beznoussenko, Galina V; Rusten, Tor Erik; Bilder, David; Stenmark, Harald; Mironov, Alexandre A; Vaccari, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    How autophagic degradation is linked to endosomal trafficking routes is little known. Here we screened a collection of uncharacterized Drosophila mutants affecting membrane transport to identify new genes that also have a role in autophagy. We isolated a loss of function mutant in Snap29 (Synaptosomal-associated protein 29 kDa), the gene encoding the Drosophila homolog of the human protein SNAP29 and have characterized its function in vivo. Snap29 contains 2 soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) domains and a asparagine-proline-phenylalanine (NPF motif) at its N terminus and rescue experiments indicate that both SNARE domains are required for function, whereas the NPF motif is in part dispensable. We find that Snap29 interacts with SNARE proteins, localizes to multiple trafficking organelles, and is required for protein trafficking and for proper Golgi apparatus morphology. Developing tissue lacking Snap29 displays distinctive epithelial architecture defects and accumulates large amounts of autophagosomes, highlighting a major role of Snap29 in autophagy and secretion. Mutants for autophagy genes do not display epithelial architecture or secretion defects, suggesting that the these alterations of the Snap29 mutant are unlikely to be caused by the impairment of autophagy. In contrast, we find evidence of elevated levels of hop-Stat92E (hopscotch-signal transducer and activator of transcription protein at 92E) ligand, receptor, and associated signaling, which might underlie the epithelial defects. In summary, our findings support a role of Snap29 at key steps of membrane trafficking, and predict that signaling defects may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and palmoplantar keratoderma (CEDNIK), a human congenital syndrome due to loss of Snap29.

  9. Snapping Sharks, Maddening Mindreaders, and Interactive Images: Teaching Correlation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mark L.

    Understanding correlation coefficients is difficult for students. A free computer program that helps introductory psychology students distinguish between positive and negative correlation, and which also teaches them to understand the differences between correlation coefficients of different size is described in this paper. The program is…

  10. ADP-ribosylation of membrane components by pertussis and cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro-Neto, F.A.P.; Mattera, F.; Hildebrandt, J.D.; Codina, J.; Field, J.B.; Birnbaumer, L.; Sekura, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Pertussis and cholera toxins are important tools to investigate functional and structural aspects of the stimulatory (N/sub s/) and inhibitory (N/sub i/) regulatory components of adenylyl cyclase. Cholera toxin acts on N/sub s/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha../sub s/ subunit; pertussis toxin acts on N/sub i/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha..; subunit. By using (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and determining the transfer of its (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribose moiety to membrane components, it is possible to obtain information on N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A set of protocols is presented that can be used to study simultaneously and comparatively the susceptibility of N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ to be ADP-ribosylated by cholera and pertussis toxin.

  11. Botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase activity as affected by detergents and phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Maehama, T; Ohoka, Y; Ohtsuka, T; Takahashi, K; Nagata, K; Nozawa, Y; Ueno, K; Ui, M; Katada, T

    1990-04-24

    GTP-binding proteins with Mr values of 22,000 and 25,000 in bovine brain cytosol were ADP-ribosylated by an exoenzyme (termed C3) purified from Clostridium botulinum type C. The rate of C3-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of the partially purified substrates was extremely low by itself, but was increased enormously when a protein factor(s) obtained from the cytosol was simultaneously added. The rate of the C3-catalyzed reaction was also stimulated by the addition of certain types of detergents or phospholipids even in the absence of the protein factors. The ADP-ribosylation appeared to be enhanced to an extent more than the additive effect of either the protein factors or the detergents (and phospholipids). Thus, ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by botulinum C3 enzyme was affected not only by cytoplasmic protein factors but also by detergents or phospholipids in manners different from each other.

  12. Unidirectional growth of pure and L-lysine added ADP crystals from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salarian, Samaneh; Dizaji, Hamid Rezagholipour

    2014-01-01

    Pure and L-lysine added ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) crystals were grown in the <001> direction by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (S-R) method. The grown crystals were characterized by X-Ray diffractometry (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Vicker's Microhardness analysis. XRD spectrum of each of the grown crystals proved its crystallinity. The crystals showed good transparency in the entire visible region. FT-IR spectra of the specimens revealed the presence of functional groups in them. The hardness of the pure and L-lysine added ADP crystals were measured and that of the added one was found higher. Meanwhile, it was found that the ADP crystals (pure and L-lysine added) grown by S-R method had higher hardness compared to ADP crystal grown by conventional method.

  13. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Cupp-Vickery, Jill R. Igarashi, Robert Y.; Meyer, Christopher R.

    2005-03-01

    Crystallization and X-ray diffraction methods for native A. tumefaciens ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and its selenomethionyl derivative are described. Two crystal forms are identified, both of which diffract to 2 Å.

  14. Use of genetically encoded sensors to monitor cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in living cells.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Andrei I; Rutter, Guy A

    2014-01-01

    ATP is not only recognized as the universal energy "currency" in most cells but also plays a less well-known role as an intracellular and extracellular messenger. Here, we review novel approaches for measuring free ATP (or ATP/ADP ratios) in living mammalian cells by using genetically encoded sensors. We also discuss the key technical aspects of routine real-time ATP/ADP monitoring using as a model one of the last-generation fluorescent probes, a fusion protein commonly known as "Perceval." Finally, we present detailed guidelines for the simultaneous measurement of cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios and Ca(2+) concentrations alongside electrical parameters in individual pancreatic β cells, in which energy metabolism is tightly linked to plasma membrane excitability to control the secretion of insulin. With appropriate variations, this approach can be adapted to the study of cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios and Ca(2+) concentrations in malignant cells, two important aspects of oncometabolism.

  15. Unscheduled synthesis of DNA and poly(ADP-ribose) in human fibroblasts following DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    McCurry, L.S.; Jacobson, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis has been measured in human fibroblasts under conditions of reduced rates of conversion of NAD to poly)ADP-ribose). Cells heterozygous for the xeroderma pigmentosum genotype showed normal rates of uv induced unscheduled DNA synthesis under conditions in which the rate of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis was one-half the rate of normal cells. The addition of theophylline, a potent inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, to the culture medium of normal cells blocked over 90% of the conversion of NAD to poly(ADP-ribose) following treatment with uv or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitro-soguanidine but did not affect the rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis.

  16. The energetics of allosteric regulation of ADP release from myosin heads.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Del R; Baker, Josh E

    2009-06-28

    Myosin molecules are involved in a wide range of transport and contractile activities in cells. A single myosin head functions through its ATPase reaction as a force generator and as a mechanosensor, and when two or more myosin heads work together in moving along an actin filament, the interplay between these mechanisms contributes to collective myosin behaviors. For example, the interplay between force-generating and force-sensing mechanisms coordinates the two heads of a myosin V molecule in its hand-over-hand processive stepping along an actin filament. In muscle, it contributes to the Fenn effect and smooth muscle latch. In both examples, a key force-sensing mechanism is the regulation of ADP release via interhead forces that are generated upon actin-myosin binding. Here we present a model describing the mechanism of allosteric regulation of ADP release from myosin heads as a change, DeltaDeltaG(-D), in the standard free energy for ADP release that results from the work, Deltamicro(mech), performed by that myosin head upon ADP release, or DeltaDeltaG(-D) = Deltamicro(mech). We show that this model is consistent with previous measurements for strain-dependent kinetics of ADP release in both myosin V and muscle myosin II. The model makes explicit the energetic cost of accelerating ADP release, showing that acceleration of ADP release during myosin V processivity requires approximately 4 kT of energy whereas the energetic cost for accelerating ADP release in a myosin II-based actin motility assay is only approximately 0.4 kT. The model also predicts that the acceleration of ADP release involves a dissipation of interhead forces. To test this prediction, we use an in vitro motility assay to show that the acceleration of ADP release from both smooth and skeletal muscle myosin II correlates with a decrease in interhead force. Our analyses provide clear energetic constraints for models of the allosteric regulation of ADP release and provide novel, testable insights

  17. Distribution of protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation systems across all domains of life

    PubMed Central

    Perina, Dragutin; Mikoč, Andreja; Ahel, Josip; Ćetković, Helena; Žaja, Roko; Ahel, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in regulation of many cellular pathways. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) consists of chains of repeating ADP-ribose nucleotide units and is synthesized by the family of enzymes called poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). This modification can be removed by the hydrolytic action of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3). Hydrolytic activity of macrodomain proteins (MacroD1, MacroD2 and TARG1) is responsible for the removal of terminal ADP-ribose unit and for complete reversion of protein ADP-ribosylation. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is widely utilized in eukaryotes and PARPs are present in representatives from all six major eukaryotic supergroups, with only a small number of eukaryotic species that do not possess PARP genes. The last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed at least five types of PARP proteins that include both mono and poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases. Distribution of PARGs strictly follows the distribution of PARP proteins in eukaryotic species. At least one of the macrodomain proteins that hydrolyse terminal ADP-ribose is also always present. Therefore, we can presume that the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed a fully functional and reversible PAR metabolism and that PAR signalling provided the conditions essential for survival of the ancestral eukaryote in its ancient environment. PARP proteins are far less prevalent in bacteria and were probably gained through horizontal gene transfer. Only eleven bacterial species possess all proteins essential for a functional PAR metabolism, although it is not known whether PAR metabolism is truly functional in bacteria. Several dsDNA viruses also possess PARP homologues, while no PARP proteins have been identified in any archaeal genome. Our analysis of the distribution of enzymes involved in PAR metabolism provides insight into the evolution of these important signalling systems, as well as

  18. The energetics of allosteric regulation of ADP release from myosin heads.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Del R; Baker, Josh E

    2009-06-28

    Myosin molecules are involved in a wide range of transport and contractile activities in cells. A single myosin head functions through its ATPase reaction as a force generator and as a mechanosensor, and when two or more myosin heads work together in moving along an actin filament, the interplay between these mechanisms contributes to collective myosin behaviors. For example, the interplay between force-generating and force-sensing mechanisms coordinates the two heads of a myosin V molecule in its hand-over-hand processive stepping along an actin filament. In muscle, it contributes to the Fenn effect and smooth muscle latch. In both examples, a key force-sensing mechanism is the regulation of ADP release via interhead forces that are generated upon actin-myosin binding. Here we present a model describing the mechanism of allosteric regulation of ADP release from myosin heads as a change, DeltaDeltaG(-D), in the standard free energy for ADP release that results from the work, Deltamicro(mech), performed by that myosin head upon ADP release, or DeltaDeltaG(-D) = Deltamicro(mech). We show that this model is consistent with previous measurements for strain-dependent kinetics of ADP release in both myosin V and muscle myosin II. The model makes explicit the energetic cost of accelerating ADP release, showing that acceleration of ADP release during myosin V processivity requires approximately 4 kT of energy whereas the energetic cost for accelerating ADP release in a myosin II-based actin motility assay is only approximately 0.4 kT. The model also predicts that the acceleration of ADP release involves a dissipation of interhead forces. To test this prediction, we use an in vitro motility assay to show that the acceleration of ADP release from both smooth and skeletal muscle myosin II correlates with a decrease in interhead force. Our analyses provide clear energetic constraints for models of the allosteric regulation of ADP release and provide novel, testable insights

  19. Multiple forms of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from tomato fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. Y.; Janes, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) was purified from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit to apparent homogeneity. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the enzyme migrated as two close bands with molecular weights of 50,000 and 51,000. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the purified enzyme, however, revealed at least five major protein spots that could be distinguished by their slight differences in net charge and molecular weight. Whereas all of the spots were recognized by the antiserum raised against tomato fruit AGP holoenzyme, only three of them reacted strongly with antiserum raised against the potato tuber AGP large subunit, and the other two spots (with lower molecular weights) reacted specifically with antisera raised against spinach leaf AGP holoenzyme and the potato tuber AGP small subunit. The results suggest the existence of at least three isoforms of the AGP large subunit and two isoforms of the small subunit in tomato fruit in vivo. The native molecular mass of the enzyme determined by gel filtration was 220 +/- 10 kD, indicating a tetrameric structure for AGP from tomato fruit. The purified enzyme is very sensitive to 3-phosphoglycerate/inorganic phosphate regulation.

  20. ADP-stimulated contraction: A predictor of thin-filament activation in cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Vasco; Najafi, Aref; Wijnker, Paul J. M.; Michels, Michelle; Kuster, Diederik W. D.; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is general to all idiopathic dilated (IDCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients. Relaxation deficits may result from increased actin–myosin formation during diastole due to altered tropomyosin position, which blocks myosin binding to actin in the absence of Ca2+. We investigated whether ADP-stimulated force development (without Ca2+) can be used to reveal changes in actin–myosin blockade in human cardiomyopathy cardiomyocytes. Cardiac samples from HCM patients, harboring thick-filament (MYH7mut, MYBPC3mut) and thin-filament (TNNT2mut, TNNI3mut) mutations, and IDCM were compared with sarcomere mutation-negative HCM (HCMsmn) and nonfailing donors. Myofilament ADP sensitivity was higher in IDCM and HCM compared with donors, whereas it was lower for MYBPC3. Increased ADP sensitivity in IDCM, HCMsmn, and MYH7mut was caused by low phosphorylation of myofilament proteins, as it was normalized to donors by protein kinase A (PKA) treatment. Troponin exchange experiments in a TNNT2mut sample corrected the abnormal actin–myosin blockade. In MYBPC3trunc samples, ADP sensitivity highly correlated with cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) protein level. Incubation of cardiomyocytes with cMyBP-C antibody against the actin-binding N-terminal region reduced ADP sensitivity, indicative of cMyBP-C’s role in actin–myosin regulation. In the presence of Ca2+, ADP increased myofilament force development and sarcomere stiffness. Enhanced sarcomere stiffness in sarcomere mutation-positive HCM samples was irrespective of the phosphorylation background. In conclusion, ADP-stimulated contraction can be used as a tool to study how protein phosphorylation and mutant proteins alter accessibility of myosin binding on actin. In the presence of Ca2+, pathologic [ADP] and low PKA-phosphorylation, high actin–myosin formation could contribute to the impaired myocardial relaxation observed in cardiomyopathies. PMID:26621701

  1. Biosynthesis Pathway of ADP-l-glycero-β-d-manno-Heptose in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kneidinger, Bernd; Marolda, Cristina; Graninger, Michael; Zamyatina, Alla; McArthur, Fiona; Kosma, Paul; Valvano, Miguel A.; Messner, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The steps involved in the biosynthesis of the ADP-l-glycero-β-d-manno-heptose (ADP-l-β-d-heptose) precursor of the inner core lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have not been completely elucidated. In this work, we have purified the enzymes involved in catalyzing the intermediate steps leading to the synthesis of ADP-d-β-d-heptose and have biochemically characterized the reaction products by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. We have also constructed a deletion in a novel gene, gmhB (formerly yaeD), which results in the formation of an altered LPS core. This mutation confirms that the GmhB protein is required for the formation of ADP-d-β-d-heptose. Our results demonstrate that the synthesis of ADP-d-β-d-heptose in Escherichia coli requires three proteins, GmhA (sedoheptulose 7-phosphate isomerase), HldE (bifunctional d-β-d-heptose 7-phosphate kinase/d-β-d-heptose 1-phosphate adenylyltransferase), and GmhB (d,d-heptose 1,7-bisphosphate phosphatase), as well as ATP and the ketose phosphate precursor sedoheptulose 7-phosphate. A previously characterized epimerase, formerly named WaaD (RfaD) and now renamed HldD, completes the pathway to form the ADP-l-β-d-heptose precursor utilized in the assembly of inner core LPS. PMID:11751812

  2. Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in butterflies and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed.

  3. Syntheses of precursors and reference compounds of the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) tracers [¹¹C]SNAP-7941 and [¹⁸F]FE@SNAP for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Eva; Shanab, Karem; Datterl, Barbara; Neudorfer, Catharina; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Philippe, Cécile; Spreitzer, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The MCH receptor has been revealed as a target of great interest in positron emission tomography imaging. The receptor's eponymous substrate melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic peptide hormone, which is located predominantly in the hypothalamus with a major influence on energy and weight regulation as well as water balance and memory. Therefore, it is thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of adiposity, which is nowadays a big issue worldwide. Based on the selective and high-affinity MCH receptor 1 antagonist SNAP-7941, a series of novel SNAP derivatives has been developed to provide different precursors and reference compounds for the radiosyntheses of the novel PET radiotracers [(11)C]SNAP-7941 and [(18)F]FE@SNAP. Positron emission tomography promotes a better understanding of physiologic parameters on a molecular level, thus giving a deeper insight into MCHR1 related processes as adiposity. PMID:24084017

  4. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Is a Substrate Recognized by Two Metacaspases of Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    The two metacaspases MCA1 and MCA2 of the fungal aging model organism Podospora anserina (PaMCA1 and PaMCA2, respectively) have previously been demonstrated to be involved in the control of programmed cell death (PCD) and life span. In order to identify specific pathways and components which are controlled by the activity of these enzymes, we set out to characterize them further. Heterologous overexpression in Escherichia coli of the two metacaspase genes resulted in the production of proteins which aggregate and form inclusion bodies from which the active protein has been recovered via refolding in appropriate buffers. The renaturated proteins are characterized by an arginine-specific activity and are active in caspase-like self-maturation leading to the generation of characteristic small protein fragments. Both activities are dependent on the presence of calcium. Incubation of the two metacaspases with recombinant poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a known substrate of mammalian caspases, led to the identification of PARP as a substrate of the two P. anserina proteases. Using double mutants in which P. anserina Parp (PaParp) is overexpressed and PaMca1 is either overexpressed or deleted, we provide evidence for in vivo degradation of PaPARP by PaMCA1. These results support the idea that the substrate profiles of caspases and metacaspases are at least partially overlapping. Moreover, they link PCD and DNA maintenance in the complex network of molecular pathways involved in aging and life span control. PMID:23584991

  5. Vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the Octopus vulgaris brain: a regulatory factor of actin polymerization dynamic.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Anna; Natale, Emiliana; Rotondo, Sergio; Di Cosmo, Anna; Faraone-Mennella, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Our previous behavioural, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses conducted in selected regions (supra/sub oesophageal masses) of the Octopus vulgaris brain detected a cytoplasmic poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (more than 90% of total enzyme activity). The protein was identified as the vault-free form of vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. The present research extends and integrates the biochemical characterization of poly-ADP-ribosylation system, namely, reaction product, i.e., poly-ADP-ribose, and acceptor proteins, in the O. vulgaris brain. Immunochemical analyses evidenced that the sole poly-ADP-ribose acceptor was the octopus cytoskeleton 50-kDa actin. It was present in both free, endogenously poly-ADP-ribosylated form (70kDa) and in complex with V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and poly-ADP-ribose (260kDa). The components of this complex, alkali and high salt sensitive, were purified and characterized. The kind and the length of poly-ADP-ribose corresponded to linear chains of 30-35 ADP-ribose units, in accordance with the features of the polymer synthesized by the known vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. In vitro experiments showed that V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase activity of brain cytoplasmic fraction containing endogenous actin increased upon the addition of commercial actin and was highly reduced by ATP. Anti-actin immunoblot of the mixture in the presence and absence of ATP showed that the poly-ADP-ribosylation of octopus actin is a dynamic process balanced by the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeleton protein, a fundamental mechanism for synaptic plasticity.

  6. ADP-dependent 6-Phosphofructokinase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3: STRUCTURE DETERMINATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PH1645

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Mark A.; Merino, Felipe; Skarina, Tatiana; Wong, Andrew H.Y.; Singer, Alexander; Brown, Greg; Savchenko, Alexei; Caniuguir, Andrés; Guixé, Victoria; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Jia, Zongchao

    2009-12-01

    Some hyperthermophilic archaea use a modified glycolytic pathway that employs an ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADP-GK) and an ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase (ADP-PFK) or, in the case of Methanococcus jannaschii, a bifunctional ADP-dependent glucophosphofructokinase (ADP-GK/PFK). The crystal structures of three ADP-GKs have been determined. However, there is no structural information available for ADP-PFKs or the ADP-GK/PFK. Here, we present the first crystal structure of an ADP-PFK from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PhPFK) in both apo- and AMP-bound forms determined to 2.0-{angstrom} and 1.9-{angstrom} resolution, respectively, along with biochemical characterization of the enzyme. The overall structure of PhPFK maintains a similar large and small {alpha}/{beta} domain structure seen in the ADP-GK structures. A large conformational change accompanies binding of phosphoryl donor, acceptor, or both, in all members of the ribokinase superfamily characterized thus far, which is believed to be critical to enzyme function. Surprisingly, no such conformational change was observed in the AMP-bound PhPFK structure compared with the apo structure. Through comprehensive site-directed mutagenesis of the substrate binding pocket we identified residues that were critical for both substrate recognition and the phosphotransfer reaction. The catalytic residues and many of the substrate binding residues are conserved between PhPFK and ADP-GKs; however, four key residues differ in the sugar-binding pocket, which we have shown determine the sugar-binding specificity. Using these results we were able to engineer a mutant PhPFK that mimics the ADP-GK/PFK and is able to phosphorylate both fructose 6-phosphate and glucose.

  7. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) derivatization of peptide primary amines to create inducible nitric oxide donor biomaterials.

    PubMed

    VanWagner, Michael; Rhadigan, Jessica; Lancina, Michael; Lebovsky, Allison; Romanowicz, Genevieve; Holmes, Hal; Brunette, Margaret A; Snyder, Katherine L; Bostwick, Michael; Lee, Bruce P; Frost, Megan C; Rajachar, Rupak M

    2013-09-11

    An S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) derivatization approach was used to modify existing free primary amines found in fibrin (a natural protein-based biomaterial) to generate a controlled nitric oxide (NO) releasing scaffold material. The duration of the derivatization reaction affects the NO release kinetics, the induction of controlled NO-release, hydrophobicity, swelling behavior, elastic moduli, rheometric character, and degradation behavior. These properties were quantified to determine changes in fibrin hydrogels following covalent attachment of SNAP. NO-releasing materials exhibited minimal cytotoxicity when cultured with fibroblasts or osteoblasts. Cells maintained viability and proliferative character on derivatized materials as demonstrated by Live/Dead cell staining and counting. In addition, SNAP-derivatized hydrogels exhibited an antimicrobial character indicative of NO-releasing materials. SNAP derivatization of natural polymeric biomaterials containing free primary amines offers a means to generate inducible NO-releasing biomaterials for use as an antimicrobial and regenerative support for tissue engineering. PMID:23964741

  8. Implications of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Tax Exemption on Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    US state and local governments are debating sugar-sweetened beverage excise taxes to support public health. A related issue is whether such taxes would apply to beverage purchases made by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Federal law proscribes states from collecting excise taxes on SNAP purchases, but the law is confined to taxes at the point of sale. I provide legal analysis and recommendations for policymakers to enact taxes that are not subject to the SNAP tax exemption to potentially deter consumption by all consumers. PMID:26378844

  9. Support for Policies to Improve the Nutritional Impact of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in California.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Linares, Amanda; Induni, Marta; Sugerman, Sharon; Long, Michael W; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

    2015-08-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides a vital buffer against hunger and poverty for 47.6 million Americans. Using 2013 California Dietary Practices Survey data, we assessed support for policies to strengthen the nutritional influence of SNAP. Among SNAP participants, support ranged from 74% to 93% for providing monetary incentives for fruits and vegetables, restricting purchases of sugary beverages, and providing more total benefits. Nonparticipants expressed similar levels of support. These approaches may alleviate the burden of diet-related disease in low-income populations. PMID:26066922

  10. Implications of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Tax Exemption on Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    US state and local governments are debating sugar-sweetened beverage excise taxes to support public health. A related issue is whether such taxes would apply to beverage purchases made by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Federal law proscribes states from collecting excise taxes on SNAP purchases, but the law is confined to taxes at the point of sale. I provide legal analysis and recommendations for policymakers to enact taxes that are not subject to the SNAP tax exemption to potentially deter consumption by all consumers.

  11. Support for Policies to Improve the Nutritional Impact of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in California.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Linares, Amanda; Induni, Marta; Sugerman, Sharon; Long, Michael W; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

    2015-08-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides a vital buffer against hunger and poverty for 47.6 million Americans. Using 2013 California Dietary Practices Survey data, we assessed support for policies to strengthen the nutritional influence of SNAP. Among SNAP participants, support ranged from 74% to 93% for providing monetary incentives for fruits and vegetables, restricting purchases of sugary beverages, and providing more total benefits. Nonparticipants expressed similar levels of support. These approaches may alleviate the burden of diet-related disease in low-income populations.

  12. The use of a PC-ADP in Shallow Rivers: Potential and Limitations for Turbulence Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassista, A.; Roy, A. G.

    2005-12-01

    Turbulence plays an important role for processes such as mixing, sediment transport, scour and energy dissipation in rivers. Information in both space and time is essential to characterize flow turbulence in rivers, which would lead to a better understanding of sediment transport processes and bedform dynamics. Characterization of turbulent structures and their dynamics from conventionnal single point velocity measurements is time- and labor-intensive. Acoustic Doppler Profilers (ADP) have the ability to measure instantaneous velocity profiles in three dimensions and have shown a potential to measure turbulence characteristics. New Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (PC-ADP) technology provides a higher spatial resolution than conventional ADP and allows their use in shallow rivers. However, the measurement noise, the spreading of the instrument beams and the temporal and spatial averaging from this device may limit its application in rivers. The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential and the limitations of turbulence measurement using PC-ADP in shallow rivers. Field measurements were undertaken on the Rouge River (Quebec, Canada) during summer 2005 using a 1.5 MHz PC-ADP. The downward-looking PC-ADP was used to measure velocities at fixed river locations in ten 8-cm cells at a frequency of 1 Hz for long sampling duration. PC-ADP data were compared to a reference instrument, a 10 MHz Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), that can measure flow velocities in three dimensions in a small sampling volume. Comparison with single point measurements were conducted to evaluate the effects of temporal and spatial averaging, Doppler noise and beam spreading in PC-ADP data. An algorithm for correcting ambiguity errors was developed to measure velocities up to 70 cms-1. Autocorrelation, power spectra and profiles of turbulence characteristics such as Reynolds stresses and TKE estimated from PC-ADP velocities were compared to those obtained from ADV data. Results show

  13. The expression of a naturally occurring, truncated allele of an α-SNAP gene suppresses plant parasitic nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Matsye, Prachi D; Lawrence, Gary W; Youssef, Reham M; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Lawrence, Katheryn S; Matthews, Benjamin F; Klink, Vincent P

    2012-09-01

    Transcriptional mapping experiments of the major soybean cyst nematode resistance locus, rhg1, identified expression of the vesicular transport machinery component, α soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP), occurring during defense. Sequencing the α-SNAP coding regions from the resistant genotypes G. max ([Peking/PI 548402]) and G. max ([PI 437654]) revealed they are identical, but differ from the susceptible G. max ([Williams 82/PI 518671]) by the presence of several single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using G. max ([Williams 82/PI 518671]) as a reference, a G → T(2,822) transversion in the genomic DNA sequence at a functional splice site of the α-SNAP([Peking/PI 548402]) allele produced an additional 17 nucleotides of mRNA sequence that contains an in-frame stop codon caused by a downstream G → A(2,832) transition. The G. max ([Peking/PI 548402]) genotype has cell wall appositions (CWAs), structures identified as forming as part of a defense response by the activity of the vesicular transport machinery. In contrast, the 17 nt α-SNAP([Peking/PI 548402]) mRNA motif is not found in G. max ([PI 88788]) that exhibits defense to H. glycines, but lack CWAs. The α-SNAP([PI 88788]) promoter contains sequence elements that are nearly identical to the α-SNAP([Peking/PI 548402]) allele, but differs from the G. max ([Williams 82/PI 518671]) ortholog. Overexpressing the α-SNAP([Peking/PI 548402]) allele in the susceptible G. max ([Williams 82/PI 518671]) genotype suppressed H. glycines infection. The experiments indicate a role for the vesicular transport machinery during infection of soybean by the soybean cyst nematode. However, increased GmEREBP1, PR1, PR2, PR5 gene activity but suppressed PR3 expression accompanied the overexpression of the α-SNAP([Peking/PI 548402]) allele prior to infection.

  14. The gait pattern is not impaired in subjects with external snapping hip: a comparative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Symptomatic external snapping hip is a painful condition, where pain in the trochantor region and limitations of daily activity dominate clinical findings. The aetiology of symptomatic external snapping hip is elusive, but previous studies have suggested that weakness of the hip abductors and an altered walking pattern may play a role in the development of symptomatic external snapping hip. The aim of this study was to compare the walking pattern and muscular activity of the hip muscles between subjects with symptomatic external snapping hip and healthy subjects. Methods Thirteen subjects with diagnosed symptomatic external snapping hip (age: 25.5 years) were matched with 13 healthy subjects (age: 25.6 years). Joint kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity were quantified by the peak hip adduction angle; the average knee rotation range of motion (ROM) and the peak valgus knee angle after data recording using a Vicon 612 motion capture system. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally using surface electromyography (sEMG) on five muscles: gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, tensor fascia latae, rectus femoris and biceps femoris. A paired t-test was used to evaluate differences between the two groups. Results No significant differences were found between the groups concerning the peak hip adduction angle, the average knee rotation ROM, and the static valgus knee angle. No significant between-group differences were found concerning all other kinematics, kinetics or muscle activity. In subjects with symptomatic external snapping hip activity of the gluteus medius muscle during the acceptance phase of walking was 0.58 ± 0.19 whereas the activity was 0.68±0.07 in the asymptomatic group (p=0.115). Conclusions No significant differences in the walking pattern were found between subjects with symptomatic external snapping hip and healthy subjects. This suggest that subjects with symptomatic external snapping hip does not have an impaired gait pattern. PMID

  15. Immunofluorescence microscopy of SNAP23 in human skeletal muscle reveals colocalization with plasma membrane, lipid droplets, and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Juliette A; Shaw, Christopher S; Bradley, Helen; Wilson, Oliver J; Dorval, Thierry; Pilling, James; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    2016-01-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) is a SNARE protein expressed abundantly in human skeletal muscle. Its established role is to mediate insulin-stimulated docking and fusion of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) with the plasma membrane. Recent in vitro research has proposed that SNAP23 may also play a role in the fusion of growing lipid droplets (LDs) and the channeling of LD-derived fatty acids (FAs) into neighboring mitochondria for β-oxidation. This study investigates the subcellular distribution of SNAP23 in human skeletal muscle using immunofluorescence microscopy to confirm that SNAP23 localization supports the three proposed metabolic roles. Percutaneous biopsies were obtained from the m. vastus lateralis of six lean, healthy males in the rested, overnight fasted state. Cryosections were stained with antibodies targeting SNAP23, the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase and the plasma membrane marker dystrophin, whereas intramuscular LDs were stained using the neutral lipid dye oil red O. SNAP23 displayed areas of intense punctate staining in the intracellular regions of all muscle fibers and continuous intense staining in peripheral regions of the cell. Quantitation of confocal microscopy images showed colocalization of SNAP23 with the plasma membrane marker dystrophin (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.50 ± 0.01). The intense punctate intracellular staining colocalized primarily with the mitochondrial marker cytochrome C oxidase (r = 0.50 ± 0.012) and to a lesser extent with LDs (r = 0.21 ± 0.01) visualized with oil red O. We conclude that the observed subcellular distribution of SNAP23 in human skeletal muscle supports the three aforementioned metabolic roles. PMID:26733245

  16. Arthroscopic treatment of bilateral snapping scapula syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Freche, Sven; Juch, Franziska; Nusselt, Thomas; Delank, Karl Stefan; Hagel, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Snapping scapula syndrome represents a rare entity in shoulder surgery. Clinically, it presents as shoulder pain and loud crepitus during shoulder movement. Moreover, glenohumeral bursitis can cause additional pain. Snapping scapula syndrome is caused by an increased angulation of the superomedial part of the scapula combined with bursitis. Other common causes such as subscapular osteochondroma or rib fracture non-unions were excluded. We report a 24-year-old female patient with persisting shoulder pain and disturbing crepitus during movement of the left shoulder. Radiographic examination revealed increased angulation of the superomedial scapula on both sides and MRI, bursitis of the left shoulder. The patient was successfully treated with minimally invasive arthroscopic trimming of the prominent osseous formation at the left scapula combined with bursectomy. Additionally, specific pain-adapted physiotherapeutic exercises of both shoulders were performed. The patient had a pain-free shoulder movement without crepitus on both sides at the 6th month follow-up. PMID:25803260

  17. How the Venus flytrap actively snaps: hydrodynamic measurements at the cellular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, Mathieu; Forterre, Yoel; GEP Team

    2012-11-01

    Although they lack muscle, plants have evolved a remarkable range of mechanisms to create rapid motion, from the rapid folding of sensitive plants to seed dispersal. Of these spectacular examples that have long fascinated scientists, the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap, whose leaves snap together in a fraction of second to capture insects, has long been a paradigm for study. Recently, we have shown that this motion involves a snap-buckling instability due to the shell-like geometry of the leaves of the trap. However, the origin of the movement that allows the plant to cross the instability threshold and actively bend remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigate this active motion using a micro-fluidic pressure probe that gives direct hydraulic and mechanical measurements at the cellular level (osmotic pressure, cell membrane permeability, cell wall elasticity). Our results challenge the role of osmotically-driven water flows usually put forward to explain Venus flytrap's active closure.

  18. MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY OF SNAP FUEL COMPONENTS DURING SHIPMENT IN 9975 PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2006-11-14

    Materials Science and Technology has evaluated materials compatibility for the SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) fuel for containment within a 9975 packaging assembly for a shipping period of one year. The evaluation included consideration for potential for water within the convenience can, corrosion from water, galvanic corrosion, tape degradation, and thermal expansion risk. Based on a review of existing literature and assumed conditions, corrosion and/or degradation of the 304 stainless steel (SS) Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) and the 304 stainless steel convenience cans containing the SNAP fuel is not significant to cause failure during the 1 year time shipping period in the 9975 packaging assembly. However, storage beyond the 1 year shipping period has not been validated.

  19. The SNAP 27 gamma radiation spectrum obtained with a Ge/Li/ detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taherzadeh, M.

    1976-01-01

    The pulse height distribution, obtained experimentally using a Ge(Li) detector, was employed to determine the photon emission rate characteristic of a PuO2 fuel source known as the SNAP 27 heat source. The selfshielding parameters of the photon emitter, the efficiency of the detector and the geometry of the experiment were utilized to determine the unscattered photon emission rate of the source and the unscattered flux spectrum at a certain specified distance from the source. For the scattered part of the flux spectrum a Monte Carlo technique was employed so that the total flux spectrum could be determined at any point in the radiation field. As a result of this work, a technique was developed to obtain the unfolded radiation spectrum of the SNAP 27 heat source.

  20. SNARE proteins synaptobrevin, SNAP-25, and syntaxin are involved in rapid and slow endocytosis at synapses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianhua; Luo, Fujun; Zhang, Zhen; Xue, Lei; Wu, Xin-Sheng; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Shin, Wonchul; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2013-05-30

    Rapid endocytosis, which takes only a few seconds, is widely observed in secretory cells. Although it is more efficient in recycling vesicles than in slow clathrin-mediated endocytosis, its underlying mechanism, thought to be clathrin independent, is largely unclear. Here, we report that cleavage of three SNARE proteins essential for exocytosis, including synaptobrevin, SNAP-25, and syntaxin, inhibited rapid endocytosis at the calyx of Held nerve terminal, suggesting the involvement of the three SNARE proteins in rapid endocytosis. These SNARE proteins were also involved in slow endocytosis. In addition, SNAP-25 and syntaxin facilitated vesicle mobilization to the readily releasable pool, most likely via their roles in endocytosis and/or exocytosis. We conclude that both rapid and slow endocytosis share the involvement of SNARE proteins. The dual role of three SNARE proteins in exo- and endocytosis suggests that SNARE proteins may be molecular substrates contributing to the exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, which maintains exocytosis in secretory cells.

  1. Diminished Lipid Raft SNAP23 Increases Blood Pressure by Inhibiting the Membrane Fluidity of Vascular Smooth-Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mi So; Won, Kyung-Jong; Kim, Do-Yoon; Hwang, Dae Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Jung, Seung Hyo; Lee, Kang Pa; Jung, Dongju; Choi, Wahn Soo; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-01-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) is involved in microvesicle trafficking and exocytosis in various cell types, but its functional role in blood pressure (BP) regulation has not yet been defined. Here, we found that lipid raft SNAP23 expression was much lower in vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in those from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. This led us to investigate the hypothesis that this lower expression may be linked to the spontaneous hypertension found in SHR. The expression level of lipid raft SNAP23 and the fluidity in the plasma membrane of VSMCs were lower in SHR than in WKY rats. Cholesterol content in the VSMC membrane was higher, but the secreted cholesterols found in VSMC-conditioned medium and in the blood serum were lower in SHR than in WKY rats. SNAP23 knockdown in WKY rat VSMCs reduced the membrane fluidity and increased the membrane cholesterol level. Systemic overexpression of SNAP23 in SHR resulted in an increase of cholesterol content in their serum, a decrease in cholesterol in their aorta and the reduction of their BP. Our findings suggest that the low expression of the lipid raft SNAP23 in VSMCs might be a potential cause for the characteristic hypertension of SHR.

  2. Sweet vs. Snap! Effective Dispositions in the Media Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standard, April

    2011-01-01

    In "What Defines an Exemplary School Librarian," Jami Jones and Gail Bush make a strong argument that professional disposition is the key to a successful library media program. The authors emphasize the relevance of INTASC standards which specify that teachers must promote "positive social interaction and (develop) healthy and helping…

  3. Predicting the size of droplets produced through Laplace pressure induced snap-off.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Solomon; Scarfe, Samantha J; Weeks, Eric R; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2016-09-21

    Laplace pressure driven snap-off is a technique that is used to produce droplets for emulsions and microfluidics purposes. Previous predictions of droplet size have assumed a quasi-equilibrium low flow limit. We present a simple model to predict droplet sizes over a wide range of flow rates, demonstrating a rich landscape of droplet stability depending on droplet size and growth rate. The model accounts for the easily adjusted experimental parameters of geometry, interfacial tension, and the viscosities of both phases.

  4. Non-isothermal elastoviscoplastic snap-through and creep buckling of shallow arches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, G. J.; Riff, R.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of buckling of shallow arches under transient thermomechanical loads is investigated. The analysis is based on nonlinear geometric and constitutive relations, and is expressed in a rate form. The material constitutive equations are capable of reproducing all non-isothermal, elasto-viscoplastic characteristics. The solution scheme is capable of predicting response which includes pre and postbuckling with creep and plastic effects. The solution procedure is demonstrated through several examples which include both creep and snap-through behavior.

  5. Transmission of Haemogregarina balli from painted turtles to snapping turtles through the leech Placobdella ornata.

    PubMed

    Siddall, M E; Desser, S S

    2001-10-01

    Six leeches (Placobdella ornata) were allowed to feed on a painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) infected with Haemogregarina balli and subjected to a period of diapause before being allowed to feed on 2 laboratory-reared snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Weekly examination of thin blood films revealed infections of the turtles at 130 days postfeeding. These observations provide support for broad host specificity of hemogregarine parasites of chelonians. PMID:11695407

  6. Overview on poly(ADP-ribose) immuno-biomedicine and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose), identified in 1966 independently by three groups Strassbourg, Kyoto and Tokyo, is synthesized by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) from NAD(+) as a substrate in the presence of Mg(2+). The structure was unique in that it has ribose-ribose linkage. In the early-1970s, however, its function in vivo/in vitro was still controversial and the antibody against it was desired to help clear its significance. Thereupon, the author tried to produce antibody against poly(ADP-ribose) in rabbits and succeeded in it for the first time in the world. Eventually, this success has led to the following two groundbreaking papers in Nature: "Naturally-occurring antibody against poly(ADP-ribose) in patients with autoimmune disease SLE", and "Induction of anti-poly(ADP-ribose) antibody by immunization with synthetic double-stranded RNA, poly(A)·poly(U)".On the way to the publication of the first paper, a reviewer gave me a friendly comment that there is "heteroclitic" fashion as a mechanism of the production of natural antibody. This comment was really a God-send for me, and became a train of power for publication of another paper, as described above. Accordingly, I thought this, I would say, episode is worth describing herein. Because of its importance in biomedical phenomena, a certain number of articles related to "heteroclitic" have become to be introduced in this review, although they were not always directly related to immuno-biological works on poly(ADP-ribose). Also, I tried to speculate on the future prospects of poly(ADP-ribose), product of PARP, as an immuno-regulatory molecule, including either induced or naturally-occurring antibodies, in view of "heteroclitic".

  7. Overview on poly(ADP-ribose) immuno-biomedicine and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose), identified in 1966 independently by three groups Strassbourg, Kyoto and Tokyo, is synthesized by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) from NAD(+) as a substrate in the presence of Mg(2+). The structure was unique in that it has ribose-ribose linkage. In the early-1970s, however, its function in vivo/in vitro was still controversial and the antibody against it was desired to help clear its significance. Thereupon, the author tried to produce antibody against poly(ADP-ribose) in rabbits and succeeded in it for the first time in the world. Eventually, this success has led to the following two groundbreaking papers in Nature: "Naturally-occurring antibody against poly(ADP-ribose) in patients with autoimmune disease SLE", and "Induction of anti-poly(ADP-ribose) antibody by immunization with synthetic double-stranded RNA, poly(A)·poly(U)".On the way to the publication of the first paper, a reviewer gave me a friendly comment that there is "heteroclitic" fashion as a mechanism of the production of natural antibody. This comment was really a God-send for me, and became a train of power for publication of another paper, as described above. Accordingly, I thought this, I would say, episode is worth describing herein. Because of its importance in biomedical phenomena, a certain number of articles related to "heteroclitic" have become to be introduced in this review, although they were not always directly related to immuno-biological works on poly(ADP-ribose). Also, I tried to speculate on the future prospects of poly(ADP-ribose), product of PARP, as an immuno-regulatory molecule, including either induced or naturally-occurring antibodies, in view of "heteroclitic". PMID:27477457

  8. Negative feedback of extracellular ADP on ATP release in goldfish hepatocytes: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Chara, Osvaldo; Pafundo, Diego E; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J

    2010-06-21

    A mathematical model was built to account for the kinetic of extracellular ATP (ATPe) and extracellular ADP (ADPe) concentrations from goldfish hepatocytes exposed to hypotonicity. The model was based on previous experimental results on the time course of ATPe accumulation, ectoATPase activity, and cell viability [Pafundo et al., 2008]. The kinetic of ATPe is controlled by a lytic ATP flux, a non-lytic ATP flux, and ecto-ATPase activity, whereas ADPe kinetic is governed by a lytic ADP flux and both ecto-ATPase and ecto-ADPase activities. Non-lytic ATPe efflux was included as a diffusion equation modulated by ATPe activation (positive feedback) and ADPe inhibition (negative feedback). The model yielded physically meaningful and stable steady-state solutions, was able to fit the experimental time evolution of ATPe and simulated the concomitant kinetic of ADPe. According to the model during the first minute of hypotonicity the concentration of ATPe is mainly governed by both lytic and non-lytic ATP efflux, with almost no contribution from ecto-ATPase activity. Later on, ecto-ATPase activity becomes important in defining the time dependent decay of ATPe levels. ADPe inhibition of the non-lytic ATP efflux was strong, whereas ATPe activation was minimal. Finally, the model was able to predict the consequences of partial inhibition of ecto-ATPase activity on the ATPe kinetic, thus emulating the exposure of goldfish cells to hypotonic medium in the presence of the ATP analog AMP-PCP. The model predicts this analog to both inhibit ectoATPase activity and increase non-lytic ATP release.

  9. Development of NIR detectors and science driven requirements forSNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.G.; Bebek, C.; Bernstein, G.; Bonissent, A.; Carithers,B.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Gerdes, D.; Gladney, L.; Lorenzon, W.; Kim, A.; Kushner, G.; Kuznetsova, N.; Linder, E.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Mostek,N.; Mufson, S.; Schubnell, M.; Seshadri, S.; Shukla, H.; Smith, R.; Stebbins, A.; Stoughton, C.; Tarle, G.

    2006-05-23

    Precision near infrared (NIR) measurements are essential for the next generation of ground and space based instruments. The SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will measure thousands of type Ia supernovae upto a redshift of 1.7. The highest redshift supernovae provide the most leverage for determining cosmological parameters, in particular the dark energy equation of state and its possible time evolution. Accurate NIR observations are needed to utilize the full potential of the highest redshift supernovae. Technological improvements in NIR detector fabrication have lead to high quantum efficiency, low noise detectors using a HgCdTe diode with a band-gap that is tuned to cutoff at 1:7 1m. The effects of detector quantum efficiency, read noise, and dark current on lightcurve signal to noise, lightcurve parameter errors, and distance modulus ?ts are simulated in the SNAP sim framework. Results show that improving quantum efficiency leads to the largest gains in photometric accuracy for type Ia supernovae. High quantum efficiency in the NIR reduces statistical errors and helps control systematic uncertainties at the levels necessary to achieve the primary SNAP science goals.

  10. Palisade endings in extraocular eye muscles revealed by SNAP-25 immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Eberhorn, Andreas C; Horn, Anja K E; Eberhorn, Nicola; Fischer, Petra; Boergen, Klaus-Peter; Büttner-Ennever, Jean A

    2005-03-01

    Palisade endings form a cuff of nerve terminals around the tip of muscle fibres. They are found only in extraocular muscles, but no definite evidence for their role in eye movements has been established. Palisade endings have been reported in all species so far investigated except the rat. In this study we demonstrate that antibodies against SNAP-25, the synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa, reliably visualize the complete motor, sensory and autonomic innervation of the extraocular muscles in human, monkey and rat. The SNAP-25 antibody can be combined with other immunofluorescence procedures, and is used here to study properties of palisade endings. With SNAP-25 immunolabelling putative palisade endings are identified in the rat for the first time. They are not well branched, but fulfil several criteria of palisade endings, being associated with non-twitch fibres as shown by double labelling with 'myosin heavy chain slow-twitch' antibodies. The putative palisade endings of the rat lack alpha-bungarotoxin binding, which implies that these synapses are sensory. If palisade endings are sensory then they could function as an eye muscle proprioceptor. They seem to be a general feature of all vertebrate eye muscles, unlike the other two extraocular proprioceptors, muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs, the presence of which varies widely between species.

  11. Dynamic Snap-Through of Thermally Buckled Structures by a Reduced Order Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures exposed to combined high intensity random pressure fluctuations and thermal loadings. The study is conducted on a flat aluminum beam, which permits a comparison of results obtained by a reduced-order analysis with those obtained from a numerically intensive simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. A uniformly distributed thermal loading is first applied to investigate the dynamic instability associated with thermal buckling. A uniformly distributed random loading is added to investigate the combined thermal-acoustic response. In the latter case, three types of response characteristics are considered, namely: (i) small amplitude vibration around one of the two stable buckling equilibrium positions, (ii) intermittent snap-through response between the two equilibrium positions, and (iii) persistent snap-through response between the two equilibrium positions. For the reduced-order analysis, four categories of modal basis functions are identified including those having symmetric transverse, anti-symmetric transverse, symmetric in-plane, and anti-symmetric in-plane displacements. The effect of basis selection on the quality of results is investigated for the dynamic thermal buckling and combined thermal-acoustic response. It is found that despite symmetric geometry, loading, and boundary conditions, the anti-symmetric transverse and symmetric in-plane modes must be included in the basis as they participate in the snap-through behavior.

  12. Dynamic Snap-Through of Thin-Walled Structures by a Reduced Order Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures exposed to combined high intensity random pressure fluctuations and thermal loadings. The study is conducted on a flat aluminum beam, which permits a comparison of results obtained by a reduced-order analysis with those obtained from a numerically intensive simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. A uniformly distributed thermal loading is first applied to investigate the dynamic instability associated with thermal buckling. A uniformly distributed random loading is added to investigate the combined thermal-acoustic response. In the latter case, three types of response characteristics are considered, namely: (i) small amplitude vibration around one of the two stable buckling equilibrium positions, (ii) intermittent snap-through response between the two equilibrium positions, and (iii) persistent snap-through response between the two equilibrium positions. For the reduced order analysis, four categories of modal basis functions are identified including those having symmetric transverse (ST), anti-symmetric transverse (AT), symmetric in-plane (SI), and anti-symmetric in-plane (AI) displacements. The effect of basis selection on the quality of results is investigated for the dynamic thermal buckling and combined thermal-acoustic response. It is found that despite symmetric geometry, loading, and boundary conditions, the AT and SI modes must be included in the basis as they participate in the snap-through behavior.

  13. SNAP23 is selectively expressed in airway secretory cells and mediates baseline and stimulated mucin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Binhui; Azzegagh, Zoulikha; Jaramillo, Ana M.; Zhu, Yunxiang; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Bagirzadeh, Rustam; Flores, Jose R.; Han, Wei; Tang, Yong-jun; Tu, Jing; Alanis, Denise M.; Evans, Christopher M.; Guindani, Michele; Roche, Paul A.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Chen, Jichao; Davis, C. William; Tuvim, Michael J.; Dickey, Burton F.

    2015-01-01

    Airway mucin secretion is important pathophysiologically and as a model of polarized epithelial regulated exocytosis. We find the trafficking protein, SNAP23 (23-kDa paralogue of synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa), selectively expressed in secretory cells compared with ciliated and basal cells of airway epithelium by immunohistochemistry and FACS, suggesting that SNAP23 functions in regulated but not constitutive epithelial secretion. Heterozygous SNAP23 deletant mutant mice show spontaneous accumulation of intracellular mucin, indicating a defect in baseline secretion. However mucins are released from perfused tracheas of mutant and wild-type (WT) mice at the same rate, suggesting that increased intracellular stores balance reduced release efficiency to yield a fully compensated baseline steady state. In contrast, acute stimulated release of intracellular mucin from mutant mice is impaired whether measured by a static imaging assay 5 min after exposure to the secretagogue ATP or by kinetic analysis of mucins released from perfused tracheas during the first 10 min of ATP exposure. Together, these data indicate that increased intracellular stores cannot fully compensate for the defect in release efficiency during intense stimulation. The lungs of mutant mice develop normally and clear bacteria and instilled polystyrene beads comparable to WT mice, consistent with these functions depending on baseline secretion that is fully compensated. PMID:26182382

  14. Atrazine and glyphosate dynamics in a lotic ecosystem: the common snapping turtle as a sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Douros, Derrick L; Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M

    2015-03-01

    Atrazine and glyphosate are two of the most common pesticides used in the US Midwest that impact water quality via runoff, and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is an excellent indicator species to monitor these pesticides especially in lotic systems. The goals of this study were to (1) quantify atrazine, the atrazine metabolite diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), and glyphosate burdens in common snapping turtle tissue from individuals collected within the Embarras River in Illinois; (2) quantify atrazine, DACT, and glyphosate loads in water from the aquatic habitats in which common snapping turtles reside; and (3) investigate tissue loads based on turtle morphology and habitat choice. Concentrations of atrazine, DACT, and glyphosate in tissue did not show any relationship with lake habitat, carapace length, width, or mass. Both atrazine and glyphosate tissue samples varied as a function of site (river vs. lake), but DACT did not. Atrazine and glyphosate concentrations in water samples showed a linear effect on distance from the reservoir spillway and a deviation from linearity. Water column concentrations of all three contaminants varied across capture sites, but atrazine water concentration did not influence DACT water concentration nor did it exhibit a site interaction. Water atrazine and glyphosate concentrations were greater than tissue concentrations, whereas DACT water and tissue concentrations did not differ. This study showed that turtles are useful in long-term pesticide monitoring, and because DACT as a metabolite is less sensitive to variation, it should be considered as a preferred biomarker for pesticide runoff. PMID:25678354

  15. [SNAP-25 and DTNBP1 as candidate genes for cognitive reserve in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Afimova, M V; Golimbet, V E; Monakhov, M V; Abramova, L I; Aksenova, E V; Kaleda, V G; Velikaia, N V

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) postulates that individual differences in the cognitive processes or neural networks underlying task performance allow some people to cope better than others with brain damage. An aim of the study was to search for candidate genes for CR in schizophrenia. We propose that higher frequencies of low risk alleles is observed in healthy relatives of schizophrenic patients compared to patients and controls and in patients without neurocognitive deficit and with less severity of the disease compared to other patients and controls. Besides, frequencies of these alleles in patients should be similar to those in general population. Authors studied SNAP-25 and DTNBP1 genes. The polymorphism T1065G of SNAP-25 was genotyped in 278 patients with schizophrenia, 126 their relatives and 207 controls and the polymorphism P1763 of DTNBP1 was genotyped in 202 patients, 229 relatives and 262 controls. There was a trend towards the increase in the frequency of an G allele of SNAP-25 in siblings of patients. The frequency of this allele was higher in patients without neurocognitive deficit compared to patients with cognitive deficit (p=0.003) and controls (p=0.002). The allele was associated with index of cognitive functioning in patients (p=0.012) and controls (p=0.006) and with the severity of negative symptoms in patients (p=0.023). At the same time, the polymorphism T1065G was not associated with schizophrenia. Therefore, an allele G may be considered as a marker for higher CR.

  16. Atrazine and glyphosate dynamics in a lotic ecosystem: the common snapping turtle as a sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Douros, Derrick L; Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M

    2015-03-01

    Atrazine and glyphosate are two of the most common pesticides used in the US Midwest that impact water quality via runoff, and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is an excellent indicator species to monitor these pesticides especially in lotic systems. The goals of this study were to (1) quantify atrazine, the atrazine metabolite diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), and glyphosate burdens in common snapping turtle tissue from individuals collected within the Embarras River in Illinois; (2) quantify atrazine, DACT, and glyphosate loads in water from the aquatic habitats in which common snapping turtles reside; and (3) investigate tissue loads based on turtle morphology and habitat choice. Concentrations of atrazine, DACT, and glyphosate in tissue did not show any relationship with lake habitat, carapace length, width, or mass. Both atrazine and glyphosate tissue samples varied as a function of site (river vs. lake), but DACT did not. Atrazine and glyphosate concentrations in water samples showed a linear effect on distance from the reservoir spillway and a deviation from linearity. Water column concentrations of all three contaminants varied across capture sites, but atrazine water concentration did not influence DACT water concentration nor did it exhibit a site interaction. Water atrazine and glyphosate concentrations were greater than tissue concentrations, whereas DACT water and tissue concentrations did not differ. This study showed that turtles are useful in long-term pesticide monitoring, and because DACT as a metabolite is less sensitive to variation, it should be considered as a preferred biomarker for pesticide runoff.

  17. Nitrogen removal from old landfill leachate with SNAP technology using biofix as a biomass carrier.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thanh Tung; Nguyen, Tan Phong

    2016-08-01

    Single-stage nitrogen removal using Anammox and partial nitritation (SNAP) is a novel technology developed in recent years for removing nitrogen. To evaluate the ability of SNAP technology to remove nitrogen in old landfill leachate under the conditions in Vietnam, we conducted a survey with 7 different nitrogen loading rates of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4 kg-N/m(3) day and a concentration from 100 to 700 mg-N/L. The operating conditions were as follows: DO at 1.0-5.3 mg/L, HRT at 12 h, and pH at 7.5-7.8. The biomass carrier was a biofix made from acrylic fiber. The maximum ammonium conversion and nitrogen removal efficiency were approximately 98% and 85%, respectively, at 1.2 kg-N/m(3) day. In general, the nitrogen removal efficiency increased and stabilized at the end of each loading rate. The first step showed that SNAP could potentially be applied in real life for removing nitrogen from old landfill leachate. PMID:27005592

  18. Health assessment of free-ranging alligator snapping turtles (Macrochelys temminckii) in Georgia and Florida.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Kristen; Norton, Terry M; Gilardi, Kirsten; Poppenga, Robert; Jensen, John B; Moler, Paul; Cray, Carolyn; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Chen, Tai; Oliva, Marcie; Origgi, Francesco C; Gibbs, Samantha; Mazzaro, Lisa; Mazet, Jonna

    2008-07-01

    The Alligator Snapping Turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) is a large freshwater turtle endemic to river systems that drain into the Gulf of Mexico. Turtle populations were sharply reduced by commercial harvest in the 1970s and 1980s; however, the species has yet to be protected under the Endangered Species Act. While anthropogenic stressors such as habitat fragmentation and degradation and illegal capture continue to threaten populations, the degree to which disease may be contributing to any decline of the Alligator Snapping Turtle is unknown. Data were collected from 97 free-ranging Alligator Snapping Turtles in nine waterways in Florida and Georgia from 2001 to 2006. Eleven turtles were captured more than once, resulting in a total sample pool of 123. Reference ranges were established for complete blood count, plasma biochemistry values, trace metals (mercury, zinc, copper, lead, and arsenic), and nutrient parameters (vitamins A, E, D, and selenium). Variations by capture location, sex, and season were detected and likely resulted from external factors such as habitat and diet. Turtles sampled in one location were positive for tortoise herpesviral antibodies. Blood mercury values also differed among populations. This study provides justification for the use of these long-lived aquatic turtles as biologic monitors of the health of local freshwater ecosystems. PMID:18689653

  19. Disposition of low and high environmental concentrations of PCBs in snapping turtle tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, A.M.; Olafsson, P.G.; Stone, W.B.

    1987-06-01

    Snapping turtles, as a result of their ability to store high concentrations of PCBs in their fat, provide an excellent screen for the detection of trace toxic substances in water. Snapping turtles may also be of value in the monitoring of the disposition of environmental pollutants in the tissues of organisms living in a particular ecosystem. Many organochlorine compounds are only slowly metabolized by animals and consequently the parent compounds tend to persist in the tissues. Differences in the degree of dissolution of various polychlorinated hydrocarbons in blood may be attributed to differences in the relative solubility of these compounds in one or more of the blood components. It has been shown that binding of individual organochlorine compounds by lipoproteins and albumin involves slowly reversible hydrophobic interactions with a quasi steady state between adipose tissue, blood and remaining tissues. If such a dynamic equilibrium is involved, it might be anticipated that, under the impact of a multi-component pollutant such as an Aroclor, the biological system would respond in the same manner over a wide range of concentrations provided that the binding of each the congeners involved reversible interactions with the quasi steady state. The net result would be that the order of quantitative disposition of PCBs in the various tissues would be maintained as the concentration in each site increased. It is the objective of this study to determine if such a pharmacodynamic equilibrium is operative in snapping turtles subjected to widely differing degrees of PCB environment contamination.

  20. Deficiency of terminal ADP-ribose protein glycohydrolase TARG1/C6orf130 in neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Reza; Morra, Rosa; Denise Appel, C; Tallis, Michael; Chioza, Barry; Jankevicius, Gytis; Simpson, Michael A; Matic, Ivan; Ozkan, Ege; Golia, Barbara; Schellenberg, Matthew J; Weston, Ria; Williams, Jason G; Rossi, Marianna N; Galehdari, Hamid; Krahn, Juno; Wan, Alexander; Trembath, Richard C; Crosby, Andrew H; Ahel, Dragana; Hay, Ron; Ladurner, Andreas G; Timinszky, Gyula; Williams, R Scott; Ahel, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a post-translational protein modification implicated in the regulation of a range of cellular processes. A family of proteins that catalyse ADP-ribosylation reactions are the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerases (PARPs). PARPs covalently attach an ADP-ribose nucleotide to target proteins and some PARP family members can subsequently add additional ADP-ribose units to generate a PAR chain. The hydrolysis of PAR chains is catalysed by PAR glycohydrolase (PARG). PARG is unable to cleave the mono(ADP-ribose) unit directly linked to the protein and although the enzymatic activity that catalyses this reaction has been detected in mammalian cell extracts, the protein(s) responsible remain unknown. Here, we report the homozygous mutation of the c6orf130 gene in patients with severe neurodegeneration, and identify C6orf130 as a PARP-interacting protein that removes mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation on glutamate amino acid residues in PARP-modified proteins. X-ray structures and biochemical analysis of C6orf130 suggest a mechanism of catalytic reversal involving a transient C6orf130 lysyl-(ADP-ribose) intermediate. Furthermore, depletion of C6orf130 protein in cells leads to proliferation and DNA repair defects. Collectively, our data suggest that C6orf130 enzymatic activity has a role in the turnover and recycling of protein ADP-ribosylation, and we have implicated the importance of this protein in supporting normal cellular function in humans. PMID:23481255

  1. The ARTT motif and a unified structural understanding of substraterecognition in ADP ribosylating bacterial toxins and eukaryotic ADPribosyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.; Tainer, J.A.

    2001-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a widely occurring and biologically critical covalent chemical modification process in pathogenic mechanisms, intracellular signaling systems, DNA repair, and cell division. The reaction is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases, which transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to a target protein with nicotinamide release. A family of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic enzymes has been termed the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases, in distinction to the poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases, which catalyze the addition of multiple ADP-ribose groups to the carboxyl terminus of eukaryotic nucleoproteins. Despite the limited primary sequence homology among the different ADP-ribosyltransferases, a central cleft bearing NAD-binding pocket formed by the two perpendicular b-sheet core has been remarkably conserved between bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono- and poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases. The majority of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved His and catalytic Glu residues. In contrast, Diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and eukaryotic poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. The NAD-binding core of a binary toxin and a C3-like toxin family identified an ARTT motif (ADP-ribosylating turn-turn motif) that is implicated in substrate specificity and recognition by structural and mutagenic studies. Here we apply structure-based sequence alignment and comparative structural analyses of all known structures of ADP-ribosyltransfeases to suggest that this ARTT motif is functionally important in many ADP-ribosylating enzymes that bear a NAD binding cleft as characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. Overall, structure-based sequence analysis reveals common core structures and conserved active sites of ADP-ribosyltransferases to support similar NAD binding mechanisms but differing mechanisms of target protein binding via sequence variations within the ARTT

  2. Beryllium(II) binding to ATP and ADP: potentiometric determination of the thermodynamic constants and implications for in vivo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Boukhalfa, Hakim; Lewis, James G; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2004-04-01

    Highly toxic beryllium(II) is divalent metal ion with a high charge density, making it a potential target for binding to bio-molecules rich in O donor groups. In aqueous solution Be2+ binds to ATP and ADP to form 1:1 Be2+:ATP and Be2+:ADP complexes in relatively acidic media. At neutral pH the complex formed undergoes hydrolysis. Be2+ binding to ATP and ADP is much stronger than Ca2+ and Mg2+ binding. The high affinity of Be2+ toward ATP and ADP binding suggests a mechanism relevant to understanding the in vivo chemical toxicity of this metal.

  3. Three αSNAP and 10 ATP Molecules Are Used in SNARE Complex Disassembly by N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor (NSF)*

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Niket; Colbert, Karen N.; Enos, Michael D.; Herschlag, Daniel; Weis, William I.

    2015-01-01

    The fusion of intracellular membranes is driven by the formation of a highly stable four-helix bundle of SNARE proteins embedded in the vesicle and target membranes. N-Ethylmaleimide sensitive factor recycles SNAREs after fusion by binding to the SNARE complex through an adaptor protein, αSNAP, and using the energy of ATP hydrolysis to disassemble the complex. Although only a single molecule of αSNAP binds to a soluble form of the SNARE complex, we find that three molecules of αSNAP are used for SNARE complex disassembly. We describe an engineered αSNAP trimer that supports more efficient SNARE complex disassembly than monomeric αSNAP. Using the trimerized αSNAP, we find that N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor hydrolyzes 10 ATP molecules on average to disassemble a single SNARE complex. PMID:25492864

  4. Synergistic role of ADP and Ca2+ in diastolic myocardial stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Vasco; Najafi, Aref; McConnell, Mark; Fowler, Ewan D; Bollen, Ilse A E; Wüst, Rob C I; dos Remedios, Cris; Helmes, Michiel; White, Ed; Stienen, Ger J M; Tardiff, Jil; Kuster, Diederik W D; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure (HF) with diastolic dysfunction has been attributed to increased myocardial stiffness that limits proper filling of the ventricle. Altered cross-bridge interaction may significantly contribute to high diastolic stiffness, but this has not been shown thus far. Cross-bridge interactions are dependent on cytosolic [Ca2+] and the regeneration of ATP from ADP. Depletion of myocardial energy reserve is a hallmark of HF leading to ADP accumulation and disturbed Ca2+ handling. Here, we investigated if ADP elevation in concert with increased diastolic [Ca2+] promotes diastolic cross-bridge formation and force generation and thereby increases diastolic stiffness. ADP dose-dependently increased force production in the absence of Ca2+ in membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes from human hearts. Moreover, physiological levels of ADP increased actomyosin force generation in the presence of Ca2+ both in human and rat membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Diastolic stress measured at physiological lattice spacing and 37°C in the presence of pathological levels of ADP and diastolic [Ca2+] revealed a 76 ± 1% contribution of cross-bridge interaction to total diastolic stress in rat membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of creatine kinase (CK), which increases cytosolic ADP, in enzyme-isolated intact rat cardiomyocytes impaired diastolic re-lengthening associated with diastolic Ca2+ overload. In isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, CK inhibition increased ventricular stiffness only in the presence of diastolic [Ca2+]. We propose that elevations of intracellular ADP in specific types of cardiac disease, including those where myocardial energy reserve is limited, contribute to diastolic dysfunction by recruiting cross-bridges, even at low Ca2+, and thereby increase myocardial stiffness. Key points Diastolic dysfunction in heart failure patients is evident from stiffening of the passive properties of the ventricular wall. Increased actomyosin

  5. Synergistic role of ADP and Ca(2+) in diastolic myocardial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Vasco; Najafi, Aref; McConnell, Mark; Fowler, Ewan D; Bollen, Ilse A E; Wüst, Rob C I; dos Remedios, Cris; Helmes, Michiel; White, Ed; Stienen, Ger J M; Tardiff, Jil; Kuster, Diederik W D; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2015-09-01

    Diastolic dysfunction in heart failure patients is evident from stiffening of the passive properties of the ventricular wall. Increased actomyosin interactions may significantly limit diastolic capacity, however, direct evidence is absent. From experiments at the cellular and whole organ level, in humans and rats, we show that actomyosin-related force development contributes significantly to high diastolic stiffness in environments where high ADP and increased diastolic [Ca(2+) ] are present, such as the failing myocardium. Our basal study provides a mechanical mechanism which may partly underlie diastolic dysfunction. Heart failure (HF) with diastolic dysfunction has been attributed to increased myocardial stiffness that limits proper filling of the ventricle. Altered cross-bridge interaction may significantly contribute to high diastolic stiffness, but this has not been shown thus far. Cross-bridge interactions are dependent on cytosolic [Ca(2+) ] and the regeneration of ATP from ADP. Depletion of myocardial energy reserve is a hallmark of HF leading to ADP accumulation and disturbed Ca(2+) handling. Here, we investigated if ADP elevation in concert with increased diastolic [Ca(2+) ] promotes diastolic cross-bridge formation and force generation and thereby increases diastolic stiffness. ADP dose-dependently increased force production in the absence of Ca(2+) in membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes from human hearts. Moreover, physiological levels of ADP increased actomyosin force generation in the presence of Ca(2+) both in human and rat membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Diastolic stress measured at physiological lattice spacing and 37°C in the presence of pathological levels of ADP and diastolic [Ca(2+) ] revealed a 76 ± 1% contribution of cross-bridge interaction to total diastolic stress in rat membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of creatine kinase (CK), which increases cytosolic ADP, in enzyme-isolated intact rat cardiomyocytes impaired

  6. Yolk hormone levels in the eggs of snapping turtles and painted turtles.

    PubMed

    Elf, P K; Lang, J W; Fivizzani, A J

    2002-06-01

    Although yolk steroids appear to play important roles in the development, growth, and behavior of some birds, their effects in oviparous reptiles are largely unknown. These investigations were initiated to determine initial levels of steroid hormones in the yolks of eggs from two turtle species. Clutches of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and of painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) eggs were collected and individual egg yolks were analyzed for estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and testosterone (T) using specific RIAs. E(2) and T levels differed significantly between species, the mean E(2) value in snapping turtles was 2.78+/-0.095 (ng/g) compared to 0.89+/-0.064 (ng/g) for painted turtles, and the mean value for T in snapping turtle yolks was 2.56+/-0.098 (ng/g) compared to 0.68+/-0.045 (ng/g) for painted turtles. In addition, E(2) levels were greater than T levels in both species. Within each species, there were significant differences among clutches from different females. E(2) levels in the snapping turtle yolks varied from a clutch mean of 1.38 to 4.55 ng/g and in painted turtles, the clutch means for E(2) varied from 0.34 to 1.34 ng/g. T levels demonstrated similar phenomena within species, with levels in snapping turtles varying from a clutch mean of 0.68 to 4.71 ng/g. Painted turtle levels of T varied from a clutch mean of 0.22 to 0.72 ng/g. There were also significant differences in the E(2)/T ratio, however, E(2)/T ratios did not differ between species. Painted turtle follicles of different sizes showed significant differences in levels of both E(2) and T, and these differences may reflect differing deposition patterns of these steroids in the egg yolk of this turtle during vitellogenesis. The differences in E(2) and T concentration reported here could have important implications for development, growth, and behavior in oviparous reptilian species. PMID:12161198

  7. A fluorometric assay for measurement of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Klebl, B M; Pette, D

    1996-08-01

    Using 1,N6-etheno NAD, a fluorescent analog of NAD, we extended an existing assay for NAD glycohydrolase to the measurement of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mADP-RT) activity using agmatine as acceptor for ADP-ribose. The reaction products were analyzed by reversed-phase chromatography. In the presence of agmatine two newly formed fluorescent products were tentatively identified as ADP-ribosylagmatine anomers. Fluorescence intensity increased upon splitting the N-glycoside bondage of 1,N6-etheno NAD. Therefore, 1, N6-etheno AMP could be used for calibration. The nonradioactive assay yielded values nearly identical to those obtained with the [carbonyl-14C]NAD method. It proved to be highly reproducible, rapid, and suitable for an improved purification protocol yielding a 76,000-fold enriched mADP-RT preparation from rabbit skeletal muscle. The identity and high purity of the enzyme were confirmed immunochemically. The assay served to determine the pH optimum of the enzyme (pH 9.0) and its KM for 1,N6-etheno NAD (287 microM). PMID:8811894

  8. Study on A.C. electrical properties of pure and L-serine doped ADP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, J. H.; Dixit, K. P.; Joshi, M. J.; Parikh, K. D.

    2016-05-01

    Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADP) crystals have a wide range of applications in integrated and nonlinear optics. Amino acids having significant properties like molecular chirality, zwitter ionic nature, etc. attracted many researchers to dope them in various NLO crystals. In the present study, pure and different weight percentage L-serine doped ADP crystals were grown by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature. The A.C. electrical study was carried out for palletized samples at room temperature. The Nyquist plot showed two semi circles for pure ADP indicated the effect of grain and grain boundary, whereas the doped ADP samples exhibited the single semi circle suggesting the effect of grain. The values resistance and capacitance for grain and grain boundary were calculated. The effect of doping was clearly seen in the grain capacitance and resistance values. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss decreased with increase in frequency for all samples. The Jonscher power law was applied for A.C. conductivity for pure and doped ADP samples. The imaginary part of modulus and impedance versus frequency were drawn and the value of stretch exponent (β) was calculated for all the samples.

  9. Post-Transcriptional Regulation by Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yingbiao; Tulin, Alexei V.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is intricately regulated at the post-transcriptional level by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) via their interactions with pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) and mRNA during development. However, very little is known about the mechanism regulating RBP activities in RNA metabolism. During the past few years, a large body of evidence has suggested that many RBPs, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), undergo post-translational modification through poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation to modulate RNA processing, including splicing, polyadenylation, translation, miRNA biogenesis and rRNA processing. Accordingly, RBP poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation has been shown to be involved in stress responses, stem cell differentiation and retinal morphogenesis. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the biological roles of RBP poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, as controlled by Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases (PARPs) and Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase (PARG). In addition, we discuss the potential of PARP and PARG inhibitors for the treatment of RBP-related human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23921685

  10. Diphosphosinositol polyphosphates and energy metabolism: assay for ATP/ADP ratio.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Andreas; Barker, Christopher J; Berggren, Per-Olof; Illies, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Several inositol compounds undergo rapid cycles of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. These cycles are dependent on ATP and energy metabolism. Therefore, interfering with the cellular energy metabolism can change the concentration of rapidly turning over inositols. Many pharmacological inhibitors, apart from their intended action, also affect the energy metabolism of the cells and lower ATP. This can unspecifically influence rapidly turning over inositol phosphates. Thus, the ATP concentration should be checked when reduced inositol phosphates are observed after application of pharmacological inhibitors. A luminescence-based assay for the measurement of ATP and ADP is described. ATP is measured luminometrically using firefly luciferase. Detection of ADP is performed in a two-step enzymatic procedure: (1) The sample ATP is degraded to AMP and (2) ADP is phosphorylated to ATP, which can then be measured luminometrically. This method gives a better signal-to-noise ratio than other methods that do not degrade the sample ATP, but convert ADP directly to ATP and then measure the sum of ATP plus ADP.

  11. Genetic evidence of a high-affinity cyanuric acid transport system in Pseudomonas sp. ADP.

    PubMed

    Platero, Ana I; Santero, Eduardo; Govantes, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. ADP plasmid pADP-1 encodes the activities involved in the hydrolytic degradation of the s-triazine herbicide atrazine. Here, we explore the presence of a specific transport system for the central intermediate of the atrazine utilization pathway, cyanuric acid, in Pseudomonas sp. ADP. Growth in fed-batch cultures containing limiting cyanuric acid concentrations is consistent with high-affinity transport of this substrate. Acquisition of the ability to grow at low cyanuric acid concentrations upon conjugal transfer of pADP1 to the nondegrading host Pseudomonas putida KT2442 suggests that all activities required for this phenotype are encoded in this plasmid. Co-expression of the pADP1-borne atzDEF and atzTUVW genes, encoding the cyanuric acid utilization pathway and the subunits of an ABC-type solute transport system, in P. putida KT2442 was sufficient to promote growth at cyanuric acid concentrations as low as 50 μM in batch culture. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the atzTUVW gene products are involved in high-affinity transport of cyanuric acid.

  12. Niacin, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Hageman, G J; Stierum, R H

    2001-04-18

    Nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinamide (NAM), commonly called niacin, are the dietary precursors for NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), which is required for DNA synthesis, as well as for the activity of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1; EC 2.4.2.30) for which NAD(+) is the sole substrate. The enzyme PARP-1 is highly activated by DNA strand breaks during the cellular genotoxic stress response, is involved in base excision repair, plays a role in p53 expression and activation, and hence, is thought to be important for genomic stability. In this review, first the absorption, metabolism of niacin to NAD(+), as well as the assessment of niacin status are discussed. Since NAD(+) is important for PARP-1 activity, various aspects of PARP-1 in relation to DNA synthesis and repair, and regulation of gene expression are addressed. This is followed by a discussion on interactions between dietary methyl donor deficiency, niacin status, PARP-1 activity and genomic stability. In vitro studies show that PARP-1 function is impaired and genomic stability decreased when cells are either depleted from NAD(+) or incubated with high concentrations of NAM which is a PARP-1 inhibitor. In vitro as well as animal studies indicate that niacin deficiency increases genomic instability especially in combination with genotoxic and oxidative stress. Niacin deficiency may also increase the risk for certain tumors. Preliminary data suggest that niacin supplementation may protect against UV-induced tumors of the skin in mice, but data on similar preventive effects in humans are not available. NAM has been shown in vitro to have an antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. Data on niacin status and genomic stability in vivo in humans are limited and yield ambiguous results. Therefore, no firm conclusions with respect to optimal niacin intake are possible. As a consequence of oral niacin supplementation, however, NAM levels in the body may increase, which may

  13. Inhibition of the hepatitis C virus helicase-associated ATPase activity by the combination of ADP, NaF, MgCl2, and poly(rU). Two ADP binding sites on the enzyme-nucleic acid complex.

    PubMed

    Porter, D J

    1998-03-27

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase has an intrinsic ATPase activity and a nucleic acid (poly(rU))-stimulated ATPase activity. The poly(rU)-stimulated ATPase activity was inhibited by F- in a time-dependent manner during ATP hydrolysis. Inhibition was the result of trapping an enzyme-bound ADP-poly(rU) ternary complex generated during the catalytic cycle and was not the result of generating enzyme-free ADP that subsequently inhibited the enzyme. However, catalysis was not required for efficient inhibition by F-. The stimulated and the intrinsic ATPase activities were also inhibited by treatment of the enzyme with F-, ADP, and poly(rU). The inhibited enzyme slowly recovered (t1/2 = 23 min) ATPase activity after a 2000-fold dilution into assay buffer. The onset of inhibition by 500 microM ADP and 15 mM F- in the absence of nucleic acid was very slow (t1/2 > 40 min). However, the sequence of addition of poly(rU) to a diluted solution of ADP/NaF-treated enzyme had a profound effect on the extent of inhibition. If the ADP/NaF-treated enzyme was diluted into an assay that lacked poly(rU) and the assay was subsequently initiated with poly(rU), the treated enzyme was not inhibited. Alternatively, if the treated enzyme was diluted into an assay containing poly(rU), the enzyme was inhibited. ATP protected the enzyme from inhibition by ADP/NaF. The stoichiometry between ADP and enzyme monomer in the inhibited enzyme complex was 2, as determined from titration of the ATPase activity ([ADP]/[E] = 2.2) and from the number of radiolabeled ADP bound to the inhibited enzyme ([ADP]/[E] = 1.7) in the presence of excess NaF, MgCl2, and poly(rU). The Hill coefficient for titration of ATPase activity with F- (n = 2.8) or MgCl2 (n = 2.1) in the presence of excess ADP and poly(rU) suggested that multiple F- and Mg2+ were involved in forming the inhibited enzyme complex. The stoichiometry between (dU)18, a defined oligomeric nucleic acid substituting for poly(rU), and enzyme monomer in the

  14. Differential role of SNAP-25 phosphorylation by protein kinases A and C in the regulation of SNARE complex formation and exocytosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Hirata, Makiko; Mizokami, Akiko; Zhao, Jin; Takahashi, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masato

    2016-05-01

    The final step of regulated exocytosis, membrane fusion, is mediated by formation of the SNARE complex by syntaxin, SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa), and VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein). Phosphorylation of SNARE and accessory proteins contributes to regulation of exocytosis. We previously identified residues of SNAP-25 phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC. However, the physiological role of SNAP-25 phosphorylation in exocytosis, in particular with regard to SNARE complex formation, has remained elusive. SNARE complex formation by purified recombinant SNAP-25, syntaxin-1, and VAMP-2 in vitro was inhibited or promoted as a result of the phosphorylation at Thr(138) by PKA or at Ser(187) by PKC, respectively. SNARE complex formation in intact PC12 cells was similarly inhibited by forskolin (activator of PKA) and promoted by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, activator of PKC). Noradrenaline secretion from PC12 cells induced by a high K(+) concentration was enhanced by forskolin or PMA. Stable depletion of SNAP-25 inhibited high-K(+)-induced noradrenaline secretion. Forced expression of WT SNAP-25 restored the secretory response of the SNAP-25-depleted cells to high-K(+), and this response was enhanced by forskolin or PMA. Expression of the nonphosphorylatable T138A or S187A mutants of SNAP-25 similarly rescued the secretory response to high-K(+), but the augmentation of this response by forskolin was more pronounced in the cells expressing SNAP-25 (T138A) than in those expressing SNAP-25 (WT), whereas that by PMA was less pronounced in those expressing SNAP-25 (S187A). Our results thus suggest that SNAP-25 phosphorylation by PKA or PKC contributes differentially to the control of exocytosis in PC12 cells by regulating SNARE complex formation.

  15. Dynamics of nonlinear snap--through chains with application to energy harvesting and wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Smruti Ranjan

    There is much current research interest in nonlinear structures, smart materials, and metamaterials, that incorporate bistable, or snap-through, structural elements. Various applications include energy harvesting, energy dissipation, vibration absorption, vibration isolation, targeted energy transfer, bandgap design and metamaterials. In this dissertation, we explore snap-through structures with nonlinearity and negative linear stiffness. We start with a study of a simple Duffing oscillator with snap-through orbits around the separatrix. Multi-degree-of-freedom snap-through structures are known to convert the low-frequency inputs into high-frequency oscillations, and are called twinkling oscillators. A generalized two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) snap-through oscillator is shown to have rich bifurcation structure. The steady-state bifurcation analysis uncovered two unique bifurcations "star" and "eclipse" bifurcations, named due to their structures. The 2-DOF twinkler exhibits transient chaos in the snap-through regime. A fractal basin boundary study provides insight into the regions in the parameter space where the total energy level is predictable in an unsymmetric twinkler. Due to its capacity to convert low frequency to high-frequency oscillations, the snap-through oscillators can be used to harvest energy from low-frequency vibration sources. This idea has led us to explore the energy harvesting capacity of twinkling oscillators. Using magnets and linear springs we built (in collaboration with researchers at Duke university) novel experimental twinkling oscillators (SDOF and 2-DOF) for energy harvesting. When the magnets exhibit high-frequency oscillations through the inducting coil, a current is generated in the coil. This experiment shows promising results both for the SDOF and the 2-DOF twinkling energy generators by validating the frequency up-conversion and generating power from the low-frequency input oscillations. The experimental twinkling oscillator

  16. Possible association between SNAP-25 single nucleotide polymorphisms and alterations of categorical fluency and functional MRI parameters in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Guerini, Franca Rosa; Agliardi, Cristina; Sironi, Manuela; Arosio, Beatrice; Calabrese, Elena; Zanzottera, Milena; Bolognesi, Elisabetta; Ricci, Cristian; Costa, Andrea Saul; Galimberti, Daniela; Griffanti, Ludovica; Bianchi, Anna; Savazzi, Federica; Mari, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Baglio, Francesca; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is an age-regulated vesicular SNARE protein involved in the exocytosis of neurotransmitters from synapses, a process that is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Changes in SNAP-25 levels are suggested to contribute to age-related decline of cognitive function, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SNAP-25 gene are present in neuropsychiatric conditions and play a role in determining IQ phenotypes. To verify a possible role of SNAP-25 in AD, we analyzed five gene polymorphisms in patients with AD (n = 607), replicating the study in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 148) and in two groups of age-matched healthy controls (HC1: n = 615 and HC2: n = 310). Results showed that the intronic rs363050 (A) and rs363043 (T) alleles, as well as the rs363050/rs363043 A-T haplotype are significantly more frequent in AD and aMCI and are associated with pathological scores of categorical fluency in AD. Notably, functional MRI analyses indicated that SNAP-25 genotypes correlate with a significantly decreased brain activity in the cingulate cortex and in the frontal (middle and superior gyri) and the temporo-parietal (angular gyrus) area. SNAP-25 polymorphisms may be associated with AD and correlate with alterations in categorical fluency and a reduced localized brain activity. SNAP-25 polymorphisms could be used as surrogate markers for the diagnosis of AD and of cognitive deficit; these SNPs might also have a possible predictive role in the natural history of AD. PMID:25024311

  17. Possible association between SNAP-25 single nucleotide polymorphisms and alterations of categorical fluency and functional MRI parameters in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Guerini, Franca Rosa; Agliardi, Cristina; Sironi, Manuela; Arosio, Beatrice; Calabrese, Elena; Zanzottera, Milena; Bolognesi, Elisabetta; Ricci, Cristian; Costa, Andrea Saul; Galimberti, Daniela; Griffanti, Ludovica; Bianchi, Anna; Savazzi, Federica; Mari, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Baglio, Francesca; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is an age-regulated vesicular SNARE protein involved in the exocytosis of neurotransmitters from synapses, a process that is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Changes in SNAP-25 levels are suggested to contribute to age-related decline of cognitive function, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SNAP-25 gene are present in neuropsychiatric conditions and play a role in determining IQ phenotypes. To verify a possible role of SNAP-25 in AD, we analyzed five gene polymorphisms in patients with AD (n = 607), replicating the study in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 148) and in two groups of age-matched healthy controls (HC1: n = 615 and HC2: n = 310). Results showed that the intronic rs363050 (A) and rs363043 (T) alleles, as well as the rs363050/rs363043 A-T haplotype are significantly more frequent in AD and aMCI and are associated with pathological scores of categorical fluency in AD. Notably, functional MRI analyses indicated that SNAP-25 genotypes correlate with a significantly decreased brain activity in the cingulate cortex and in the frontal (middle and superior gyri) and the temporo-parietal (angular gyrus) area. SNAP-25 polymorphisms may be associated with AD and correlate with alterations in categorical fluency and a reduced localized brain activity. SNAP-25 polymorphisms could be used as surrogate markers for the diagnosis of AD and of cognitive deficit; these SNPs might also have a possible predictive role in the natural history of AD.

  18. N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Protein α (αSNAP) Regulates Matrix Adhesion and Integrin Processing in Human Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Naydenov, Nayden G.; Feygin, Alex; Wang, Lifu; Ivanov, Andrei I.

    2014-01-01

    Integrin-based adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays critical roles in controlling differentiation, survival, and motility of epithelial cells. Cells attach to the ECM via dynamic structures called focal adhesions (FA). FA undergo constant remodeling mediated by vesicle trafficking and fusion. A soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein α (αSNAP) is an essential mediator of membrane fusion; however, its roles in regulating ECM adhesion and cell motility remain unexplored. In this study, we found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of αSNAP induced detachment of intestinal epithelial cells, whereas overexpression of αSNAP increased ECM adhesion and inhibited cell invasion. Loss of αSNAP impaired Golgi-dependent glycosylation and trafficking of β1 integrin and decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin resulting in FA disassembly. These effects of αSNAP depletion on ECM adhesion were independent of apoptosis and NSF. In agreement with our previous reports that Golgi fragmentation mediates cellular effects of αSNAP knockdown, we found that either pharmacologic or genetic disruption of the Golgi recapitulated all the effects of αSNAP depletion on ECM adhesion. Furthermore, our data implicates β1 integrin, FAK, and paxillin in mediating the observed pro-adhesive effects of αSNAP. These results reveal novel roles for αSNAP in regulating ECM adhesion and motility of epithelial cells. PMID:24311785

  19. ADP-2Ho as a Phasing Tool for Nucleotide-Containing Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Smith, G.; Howell, P.

    2007-01-01

    Trivalent holmium ions were shown to isomorphously replace magnesium ions to form an ADP-2Ho complex in the nucleotide-binding domain of Bacillus subtilis 5-methylthioribose (MTR) kinase. This nucleotide-holmium complex provided sufficient phasing power to allow SAD and SIRAS phasing of this previously unknown structure using the L{sub III} absorption edge of holmium. The structure of ADP-2Ho reveals that the two Ho ions are approximately 4 {angstrom} apart and are likely to share their ligands: the phosphoryl O atoms of ADP and a water molecule. The structure determination of MTR kinase using data collected using Cu K X-radiation was also attempted. Although the heavy-atom substructure determination was successful, interpretation of the map was more challenging. The isomorphous substitution of holmium for magnesium in the MTR kinase-nucleotide complex suggests that this could be a useful phasing tool for other metal-dependent nucleotide-containing proteins.

  20. Photorhabdus luminescens toxins ADP-ribosylate actin and RhoA to force actin clustering.

    PubMed

    Lang, Alexander E; Schmidt, Gudula; Schlosser, Andreas; Hey, Timothy D; Larrinua, Ignacio M; Sheets, Joel J; Mannherz, Hans G; Aktories, Klaus

    2010-02-26

    The bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens is mutualistically associated with entomopathogenetic nematodes. These nematodes invade insect larvae and release the bacteria from their intestine, which kills the insects through the action of toxin complexes. We elucidated the mode of action of two of these insecticidal toxins from P. luminescens. We identified the biologically active components TccC3 and TccC5 as adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyltransferases, which modify unusual amino acids. TccC3 ADP-ribosylated threonine-148 of actin, resulting in actin polymerization. TccC5 ADP-ribosylated Rho guanosine triphosphatase proteins at glutamine-61 and glutamine-63, inducing their activation. The concerted action of both toxins inhibited phagocytosis of target insect cells and induced extensive intracellular polymerization and clustering of actin. Several human pathogenic bacteria produce related toxins. PMID:20185726

  1. Identification of a Class of Protein ADP-Ribosylating Sirtuins in Microbial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Morra, Rosa; Barkauskaite, Eva; Kraehenbuehl, Rolf; Ariza, Antonio; Qu, Yue; Ortmayer, Mary; Leidecker, Orsolya; Cameron, David R.; Matic, Ivan; Peleg, Anton Y.; Leys, David; Traven, Ana; Ahel, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sirtuins are an ancient family of NAD+-dependent deacylases connected with the regulation of fundamental cellular processes including metabolic homeostasis and genome integrity. We show the existence of a hitherto unrecognized class of sirtuins, found predominantly in microbial pathogens. In contrast to earlier described classes, these sirtuins exhibit robust protein ADP-ribosylation activity. In our model organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, the activity is dependent on prior lipoylation of the target protein and can be reversed by a sirtuin-associated macrodomain protein. Together, our data describe a sirtuin-dependent reversible protein ADP-ribosylation system and establish a crosstalk between lipoylation and mono-ADP-ribosylation. We propose that these posttranslational modifications modulate microbial virulence by regulating the response to host-derived reactive oxygen species. PMID:26166706

  2. Effect of Co2+ doping on solubility, crystal growth and properties of ADP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd.; AlFaify, S.; Yahia, I. S.

    2016-09-01

    Bulk size crystal growth of ADP with different concentrations doping of cobalt (Co2+) has been done by low cost slow evaporation technique at ambient conditions. The solubility measurement was carried out on pure and doped crystals and found that the solubility is decreasing with doping concentrations. The presence of Co2+ ion in crystalline matrix of ADP has been confirmed by structural, vibrational and elemental analyses. Scanning electron microscopic study reveals that the doping has strong effect on the quality of the crystals. The optical absorbance and transmission confirms the enhancement of quality of ADP crystals due to Co2+ doping and so the optical band gap. Further the dislocation, photoluminescence, dielectric and mechanical studies confirms that the properties of grown crystals with Co2+ doping has been enriched and propose it as a better candidate for optoelectronic applications.

  3. Thiol reagents are substrates for the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of pertussis toxin.

    PubMed

    Lobban, M D; van Heyningen, S

    1988-06-20

    Thiols such as cysteine and dithiothreitol are substrates for the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of pertussis toxin. When cysteine was incubated with NAD+ and toxin at pH 7.5, a product containing ADP-ribose and cysteine (presumably ADP-ribosylcysteine) was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized by its composition and release of AMP with phosphodiesterase. Cysteine has a Km of 105 mM at saturating NAD+ concentration. The ability of thiols to act as a substrate is one explanation for the very high concentrations (250 mM or greater) that have been observed to enhance the apparent NAD glycohydrolase activity of the toxin. PMID:3133246

  4. ADP-ribose-derived nuclear ATP synthesis by NUDIX5 is required for chromatin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wright, Roni H G; Lioutas, Antonios; Le Dily, Francois; Soronellas, Daniel; Pohl, Andy; Bonet, Jaume; Nacht, A S; Samino, Sara; Font-Mateu, Jofre; Vicent, Guillermo P; Wierer, Michael; Trabado, Miriam A; Schelhorn, Constanze; Carolis, Carlo; Macias, Maria J; Yanes, Oscar; Oliva, Baldo; Beato, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    Key nuclear processes in eukaryotes, including DNA replication, repair, and gene regulation, require extensive chromatin remodeling catalyzed by energy-consuming enzymes. It remains unclear how the ATP demands of such processes are met in response to rapid stimuli. We analyzed this question in the context of the massive gene regulation changes induced by progestins in breast cancer cells and found that ATP is generated in the cell nucleus via the hydrolysis of poly(ADP-ribose) to ADP-ribose. In the presence of pyrophosphate, ADP-ribose is used by the pyrophosphatase NUDIX5 to generate nuclear ATP. The nuclear source of ATP is essential for hormone-induced chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation, and cell proliferation. PMID:27257257

  5. Binding of ADP to beef-heart mitochondrial ATPase (F1).

    PubMed

    Wielders, J P; Slater, E C; Muller, J L

    1980-02-01

    1. ADP binding to beef-heart mitochondrial ATPase (F1), in the absence of Mg2+, has been determined by separating the free ligand by ultrafiltration and determining it in the filtrate by a specially modified isotachophoretic procedure. 2. Since during the binding experiments the 'tightly' bound ADP (but not the ATP) dissociates, it is necessary to take this into account in calculating the binding parameters. 3. The binding data show that only one tight binding site (Kd about 0.5 microM) for ADP is present. 4. It is not possible to calculate from the binding data alone the number of or the dissociation constants for the weak binding sites. It can be concluded, however, that the latter is not less than about 50 microM.

  6. Bacillus cereus Certhrax ADP-ribosylates vinculin to disrupt focal adhesion complexes and cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Simon, Nathan C; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2014-04-11

    Bacillus cereus is often associated with mild to moderate gastroenteritis; however, some recent isolates cause inhalational anthrax-like diseases and death. These potential emerging human pathogens express multiple virulence factors. B. cereus strain G9241 expresses anthrax toxin, several polysaccharide capsules, and the novel ADP-ribosyltransferase, Certhrax. In this study, we show that Certhrax ADP-ribosylates Arg-433 of vinculin, a protein that coordinates actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix interactions. ADP-ribosylation of vinculin disrupted focal adhesion complexes and redistributed vinculin to the cytoplasm. Exogenous vinculin rescued these phenotypes. This provides a mechanism for strain G9241 to breach host barrier defenses and promote bacterial growth and spread. Certhrax is the first bacterial toxin to add a post-translational modification to vinculin to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton.

  7. Enlightening energy parasitism by analysis of an ATP/ADP transporter from chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Trentmann, Oliver; Horn, Matthias; van Scheltinga, Anke C Terwisscha; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Haferkamp, Ilka

    2007-09-01

    Energy parasitism by ATP/ADP transport proteins is an essential, common feature of intracellular bacteria such as chlamydiae and rickettsiae, which are major pathogens of humans. Although several ATP/ADP transport proteins have so far been characterized, some fundamental questions regarding their function remained unaddressed. In this study, we focused on the detailed biochemical analysis of a representative ATP/ADP transporter (PamNTT1), from the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila (UWE25) to further clarify the principle of energy exploitation. We succeeded in the purification of the first bacterial nucleotide transporter (NTT) and its functional reconstitution into artificial lipid vesicles. Reconstituted PamNTT1 revealed high import velocities for ATP and an unexpected and previously unobserved stimulating effect of the luminal ADP on nucleotide import affinities. Latter preference of the nucleotide hetero-exchange is independent of the membrane potential, and therefore, PamNTT1 not only structurally but also functionally differs from the well-characterized mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers. Reconstituted PamNTT1 exhibits a bidirectional orientation in lipid vesicles, but interestingly, only carriers inserted with the N-terminus directed to the proteoliposomal interior are functional. The data presented here comprehensively explain the functional basis of how the intracellular P. amoebophila manages to exploit the energy pool of its host cell effectively by using the nucleotide transporter PamNTT1. This membrane protein mediates a preferred import of ATP, which is additionally stimulated by a high internal (bacterial) ADP/ATP ratio, and the orientation-dependent functionality of the transporter ensures that it is not working in a mode that is detrimental to P. amoebophila. Heterologous expression and purification of high amounts of PamNTT1 provides the basis for its crystallization and detailed structure/function analyses. Furthermore, functional

  8. Detection and Quantification of ADP-Ribosylated RhoA/B by Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry. PMID:27043630

  9. Detection and Quantification of ADP-Ribosylated RhoA/B by Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry. PMID:27043630

  10. Host Cell Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase Is Crucial for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C.; Schlesinger, Mariana; Kevorkian, María L.; Flawiá, Mirtha M.; Alonso, Guillermo D.; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H.

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas’ disease, has a complex life cycle which involves the invasion of mammalian host cells, differentiation and intracellular replication. Here we report the first insights into the biological role of a poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in a trypanosomatid (TcPARG). In silico analysis of the TcPARG gene pointed out the conservation of key residues involved in the catalytic process and, by Western blot, we demonstrated that it is expressed in a life stage-dependant manner. Indirect immunofluorescence assays and electron microscopy using an anti-TcPARG antibody showed that this enzyme is localized in the nucleus independently of the presence of DNA damage or cell cycle stage. The addition of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors ADP-HPD (adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol) or DEA (6,9-diamino-2-ethoxyacridine lactate monohydrate) to the culture media, both at a 1 µM concentration, reduced in vitro epimastigote growth by 35% and 37% respectively, when compared to control cultures. We also showed that ADP-HPD 1 µM can lead to an alteration in the progression of the cell cycle in hydroxyurea synchronized cultures of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Outstandingly, here we demonstrate that the lack of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity in Vero and A549 host cells, achieved by chemical inhibition or iRNA, produces the reduction of the percentage of infected cells as well as the number of amastigotes per cell and trypomastigotes released, leading to a nearly complete abrogation of the infection process. We conclude that both, T. cruzi and the host, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activities are important players in the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, emerging as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of Chagas’ disease. PMID:23776710

  11. Host cell poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase is crucial for Trypanosoma cruzi infection cycle.

    PubMed

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C; Schlesinger, Mariana; Kevorkian, María L; Flawiá, Mirtha M; Alonso, Guillermo D; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, has a complex life cycle which involves the invasion of mammalian host cells, differentiation and intracellular replication. Here we report the first insights into the biological role of a poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in a trypanosomatid (TcPARG). In silico analysis of the TcPARG gene pointed out the conservation of key residues involved in the catalytic process and, by Western blot, we demonstrated that it is expressed in a life stage-dependant manner. Indirect immunofluorescence assays and electron microscopy using an anti-TcPARG antibody showed that this enzyme is localized in the nucleus independently of the presence of DNA damage or cell cycle stage. The addition of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors ADP-HPD (adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol) or DEA (6,9-diamino-2-ethoxyacridine lactate monohydrate) to the culture media, both at a 1 µM concentration, reduced in vitro epimastigote growth by 35% and 37% respectively, when compared to control cultures. We also showed that ADP-HPD 1 µM can lead to an alteration in the progression of the cell cycle in hydroxyurea synchronized cultures of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Outstandingly, here we demonstrate that the lack of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity in Vero and A549 host cells, achieved by chemical inhibition or iRNA, produces the reduction of the percentage of infected cells as well as the number of amastigotes per cell and trypomastigotes released, leading to a nearly complete abrogation of the infection process. We conclude that both, T. cruzi and the host, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activities are important players in the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, emerging as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of Chagas' disease. PMID:23776710

  12. Nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 rapidly triggers mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Giulia; Rapizzi, Elena; Vannacci, Alfredo; Rizzuto, Rosario; Moroni, Flavio; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2005-04-29

    To obtain further information on time course and mechanisms of cell death after poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) hyperactivation, we used HeLa cells exposed for 1 h to the DNA alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. This treatment activated PARP-1 and caused a rapid drop of cellular NAD(H) and ATP contents, culminating 8-12 h later in cell death. PARP-1 antagonists fully prevented nucleotide depletion and death. Interestingly, in the early 60 min after challenge with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, mitochondrial membrane potential and superoxide production significantly increased, whereas cellular ADP contents decreased. Again, these events were prevented by PARP-1 inhibitors, suggesting that PARP-1 hyperactivity leads to mitochondrial state 4 respiration. Mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed at later time points (3 h), when mitochondria released apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c. Using immunocytochemistry and targeted luciferase transfection, we found that, despite an exclusive localization of PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) in the nucleus, ATP levels first decreased in mitochondria and then in the cytoplasm of cells undergoing PARP-1 activation. PARP-1 inhibitors rescued ATP (but not NAD(H) levels) in cells undergoing hyper-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Glycolysis played a central role in the energy recovery, whereas mitochondria consumed ATP in the early recovery phase and produced ATP in the late phase after PARP-1 inhibition, further indicating that nuclear poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation rapidly modulates mitochondrial functioning. Together, our data provide evidence for rapid nucleus-mitochondria cross-talk during hyper-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation-dependent cell death.

  13. Design, Synthesis, and Chemical and Biological Properties of Cyclic ADP-4-Thioribose as a Stable Equivalent of Cyclic ADP-Ribose

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzuki, Takayoshi; Takano, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Natsumi; Kudoh, Takashi; Murayama, Takashi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hashii, Minako; Higashida, Haruhiro; Weber, Karin; Guse, Andreas H.; Kameda, Tomoshi; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Kumaki, Yasuhiro; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Potter, Barry V. L.; Shuto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the successful synthesis of cyclic ADP-4-thioribose (cADPtR, 3), designed as a stable mimic of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR, 1), a Ca2+-mobilizing second messenger, in which the key N1-β-thioribosyladenosine structure was stereoselectively constructed by condensation between the imidazole nucleoside derivative 8 and the 4-thioribosylamine 7 via equilibrium in 7 between the α-anomer (7α) and the β-anomer (7β) during the reaction course. cADPtR is, unlike cADPR, chemically and biologically stable, while it effectively mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ like cADPR in various biological systems, such as sea urchin homogenate, NG108-15 neuronal cells, and Jurkat T-lymphocytes. Thus, cADPtR is a stable equivalent of cADPR, which can be useful as a biological tool for investigating cADPR-mediated Ca2+-mobilizing pathways. PMID:27200225

  14. Purification and properties of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase from Crithidia fasciculata. Automodification and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DNA topoisomerase I.

    PubMed

    Podestá, Dolores; García-Herreros, María I; Cannata, Joaquín J B; Stoppani, Andrés O M; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H

    2004-06-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase has been purified more than 160000-fold from Crithidia fasciculata. This is the first PARP isolated to apparent homogeneity from trypanosomatids. The purified enzyme absolutely required DNA for catalytic activity and histones enhanced it 2.5-fold, when the DNA:histone ratio was 1:1.3. The enzyme required no magnesium or any other metal ion cofactor. The apparent molecular mass of 111 kDa, determined by gel filtration would correspond to a dimer of two identical 55-kDa subunits. Activity was inhibited by nicotinamide, 3-aminobenzamide, theophylline, thymidine, xanthine and hypoxanthine but not by adenosine. The enzyme was localized to the cell nucleus. Our findings suggest that covalent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP itself or DNA topoisomerase I resulted in the inhibition of their activities and provide an initial biochemical characterization of this covalent post-translational modification in trypanosomatids.

  15. Effects of epinephrine on ADP-induced changes in platelet inositol phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Vickers, J.D.; Keraly, C.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.

    1986-03-01

    Epinephrine (EPI) does not aggregate rabbit platelets, but it does increase the labelling of inositol phosphate (IP) at 60s (21%, p < 0.05) in the presence of 20 mM Li/sup +/, in platelets prelabelled with (/sup 3/H) inositol. In contrast, 0.5 ..mu..M ADP which causes aggregation, increases the labelling of inositol bisphosphate (IP/sub 2/) by 30% (p < 0.01) at 10s and by 46% (p < 0.05) at 60s and IP by 26% (p < 0.05) at 60s. The combination of 0.5 ..mu..M ADP and 50 ..mu..M EPI causes more extensive aggregation and increases IP/sub 2/ by 154% (p < 0.01) and IP by 65% (p < 0.01) at 60s. The increase in IP/sub 2/ stimulated by ADP + EPI was greater than the increase caused by ADP (p < 0.05). The authors examined the effects of ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-adrenergic receptor blockers on EPI + ADP-induced changes in the inositol phosphates. The ..beta..-adrenergic blocker Sotalol (50 ..mu..M), which had no effect by itself, enhanced the accumulation of IP/sub 2/ due to 0.2 ..mu..M ADP + 0.6 ..mu..M EPI by 70% (p < 0.01) at 60s, as well as aggregation. This is consistent with EPI inhibition mediated through stimulation of adenylate cyclase via the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic blocker phentolamine (50 ..mu..M), reduced aggregation stimulated by 0.5 ..mu..M ADP + 50 ..mu..M EPI, and reduced the accumulation of IP by 53% (p < 0.05) and IP/sub 2/ by 108% (0 < 0.05). These data are compatible with the hypothesis that the effect of EPI on ADP-induced aggregation involves IP/sub 2/ metabolism stimulated via the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor.

  16. Structure and Mechanism of an ADP-Glucose Phosphorylase from Arabidopsis thaliana†,‡

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Jason G.; Arabshahi, Abolfazl; Bitto, Eduard; Bingman, Craig A.; Ruzicka, Frank J.; Frey, Perry A.; Phillips, George N.

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of the At5g18200.1 protein has been solved to a nominal resolution of 2.30 Å. The structure has a histidine triad (HIT)-like fold containing two distinct HIT-like motifs. The sequence of At5g18200.1 indicates a distant family relationship to the Escherichia coli galactose-1-P uridylyltransferase (GalT): the determined structure of the At5g18200.1 protein confirms this relationship. The At5g18200.1 protein does not demonstrate GalT activity but instead catalyzes adenylyltransfer in the reaction of ADP-glucose with various phosphates. The best acceptor among those evaluated is phosphate itself, thus the At5g18200.1 enzyme appears to be an ADP-glucose phosphorylase. The enzyme catalyzes the exchange of 14C between ADP-[14C]glucose and glucose-1-P in the absence of phosphate. The steady state kinetics of exchange follows the ping pong bi bi kinetic mechanism, with kcat = 4.1 s−1 and Km-values of 1.4 µM and 83 µM for ADP-[14C]glucose and glucose-1-P, respectively, at pH 8.5 and 25 °C. The overall reaction of ADP-glucose with phosphate to produce ADP and glucose-1-P follows ping pong bi bi steady state kinetics, with kcat = 2.7 s−1 and Km-values of 6.9 µM and 90 µM for ADP-glucose and phosphate, respectively, at pH 8.5 and 25 °C. The kinetics are consistent with a double displacement mechanism that involves a covalent adenylyl-enzyme intermediate. The X-ray crystal structure of this intermediate was solved to 1.83 Å resolution, and shows the AMP-group bonded to His186. The value of Keq in the direction of ADP and glucose-1-P formation is 5.0 at pH 7.0 and 25 °C in the absence of a divalent metal ion, and it is 40 in the presence of 1 mM MgCl2. PMID:16519510

  17. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is recognized by ECT2 during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an unique posttranslational modification and required for spindle assembly and function during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show the evidence that PAR is recognized by ECT2, a key guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mitosis. The BRCT domain of ECT2 directly binds to PAR both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that α-tubulin is PARylated during mitosis. PARylation of α-tubulin is recognized by ECT2 and recruits ECT2 to mitotic spindle for completing mitosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which PAR regulates mitosis.

  18. Human lymphocyte antigen CD38 catalyzes the production of cyclic ADP-ribose.

    PubMed

    Summerhill, R J; Jackson, D G; Galione, A

    1993-12-01

    The human lymphocyte antigen CD38 has been shown to share sequence homology with ADP-ribosyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of NAD+ to cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a potent Ca(2+)-mobilizing agent. In this study COS1 cells from African Green Monkey kidney were transiently transfected with CD38 cDNA, inducing expression of authentic CD38 on the cell surface. We demonstrate that CD38 expressed in this manner can convert NAD+ to cADPR in the extracellular medium as assessed by Ca2+ release from sea-urchin egg microsomes. PMID:8253202

  19. Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance choleragen ADP-ribosyltransferase activity: nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of an ADP-ribosylation factor cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Price, S R; Nightingale, M; Tsai, S C; Williamson, K C; Adamik, R; Chen, H C; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1988-01-01

    Three (two soluble and one membrane) guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) that enhance ADP-ribosylation of the Gs alpha stimulatory subunit of the adenylyl cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) complex by choleragen have recently been purified from bovine brain. To further define the structure and function of these ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), we isolated a cDNA clone (lambda ARF2B) from a bovine retinal library by screening with a mixed heptadecanucleotide probe whose sequence was based on the partial amino acid sequence of one of the soluble ARFs from bovine brain. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of lambda ARF2B with sequences of peptides from the ARF protein (total of 60 amino acids) revealed only two differences. Whether these are cloning artifacts or reflect the existence of more than one ARF protein remains to be determined. Deduced amino acid sequences of ARF, Go alpha (the alpha subunit of a G protein that may be involved in regulation of ion fluxes), and c-Ha-ras gene product p21 show similarities in regions believed to be involved in guanine nucleotide binding and GTP hydrolysis. ARF apparently lacks a site analogous to that ADP-ribosylated by choleragen in G-protein alpha subunits. Although both the ARF proteins and the alpha subunits bind guanine nucleotides and serve as choleragen substrates, they must interact with the toxin A1 peptide in different ways. In addition to serving as an ADP-ribose acceptor, ARF interacts with the toxin in a manner that modifies its catalytic properties. PMID:3135549

  20. Robust adaptive dynamic programming with an application to power systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2013-07-01

    This brief presents a novel framework of robust adaptive dynamic programming (robust-ADP) aimed at computing globally stabilizing and suboptimal control policies in the presence of dynamic uncertainties. A key strategy is to integrate ADP theory with techniques in modern nonlinear control with a unique objective of filling up a gap in the past literature of ADP without taking into account dynamic uncertainties. Neither the system dynamics nor the system order are required to be precisely known. As an illustrative example, the computational algorithm is applied to the controller design of a two-machine power system. PMID:24808528