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Sample records for adp ribosylation factors

  1. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2011-09-26

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.

  2. TFIIF, a basal eukaryotic transcription factor, is a substrate for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.

    PubMed Central

    Rawling, J M; Alvarez-Gonzalez, R

    1997-01-01

    We have examined the susceptibility of some of the basal eukaryotic transcription factors as covalent targets for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Human recombinant TATA-binding protein, transcription factor (TF)IIB and TFIIF (made up of the 30 and 74 kDa RNA polymerase II-associated proteins RAP30 and RAP74) were incubated with calf thymus poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and [32P]NAD+ at 37 degrees C. On lithium dodecyl sulphate/PAGE and autoradiography, two bands of radioactivity, coincident with RAP30 and RAP74, were observed. No radioactivity co-migrated with TATA-binding protein or TFIIB. The phenomenon was dependent on the presence of nicked DNA, which is essential for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. Covalent modification of TFIIF increased with time of incubation, with increasing TFIIF concentration and with increasing NAD+ concentration. High-resolution PAGE confirmed that the radioactive species associated with RAP30 and RAP74 were ADP-ribose polymers. From these observations, we conclude that both TFIIF subunits are highly specific substrates for covalent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. PMID:9164864

  3. An Entamoeba histolytica ADP-ribosyl transferase from the diphtheria toxin family modifies the bacterial elongation factor Tu.

    PubMed

    Avila, Eva E; Rodriguez, Orlando I; Marquez, Jaqueline A; Berghuis, Albert M

    2016-06-01

    ADP-ribosyl transferases are enzymes involved in the post-translational modification of proteins; they participate in multiple physiological processes, pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. Several reports have characterized the functions of these enzymes in viruses, prokaryotes and higher eukaryotes, but few studies have reported ADP-ribosyl transferases in lower eukaryotes, such as parasites. The locus EHI_155600 from Entamoeba histolytica encodes a hypothetical protein that possesses a domain from the ADP-ribosylation superfamily; this protein belongs to the diphtheria toxin family according to a homology model using poly-ADP-ribosyl polymerase 12 (PARP12 or ARTD12) as a template. The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited in vitro ADP-ribosylation activity that was dependent on the time and temperature. Unlabeled βNAD(+), but not ADP-ribose, competed in the enzymatic reaction using biotin-βNAD(+) as the ADP-ribose donor. The recombinant enzyme, denominated EhToxin-like, auto-ADP-ribosylated and modified an acceptor from E. coli that was identified by MS/MS as the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to identify an ADP-ribosyl transferase from the diphtheria toxin family in a protozoan parasite. The known toxins from this family (i.e., the diphtheria toxin, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin Exo-A, and Cholix from Vibrio cholerae) modify eukaryotic elongation factor two (eEF-2), whereas the amoeba EhToxin-like modified EF-Tu, which is another elongation factor involved in protein synthesis in bacteria and mitochondria. PMID:27234208

  4. Effects of Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin on ADP-Ribosyltransferase Activity and Interaction with ADP-Ribosylation Factors

    PubMed Central

    A. Stevens, Linda; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), an oligomeric protein with one A subunit (LTA) and five B subunits, exerts its effects via the ADP-ribosylation of Gsα, a guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein that activates adenylyl cyclase. LTA also ADP-ribosylates simple guanidino compounds (e.g., arginine) and catalyzes its own auto-ADP-ribosylation. All LTA-catalyzed reactions are enhanced by ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Replacement of arginine-7 (R7K), valine-53 (V53D), serine-63 (S63K), valine 97 (V97K), or tyrosine-104 (Y104K) in LTA resulted in fully assembled but nontoxic proteins. S63K, V53D, and R7K are catalytic-site mutations, whereas V97K and Y104K are amino acid replacements adjacent to and outside of the catalytic site, respectively. The effects of mutagenesis were quantified by measuring ADP-ribosyltransferase activity (i.e., auto-ADP-ribosylation and ADP-ribosylagmatine synthesis) and interaction with ARF (i.e., inhibition of ARF-stimulated cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and effects of ARF on mutant auto-ADP-ribosylation). All mutants were inactive in the ADP-ribosyltransferase assay; however, auto-ADP-ribosylation in the presence of recombinant human ARF6 was detected, albeit much less than that of native LT (Y104K > V53D > V97K > R7K, S63K). Based on the lack of inhibition by free ADP-ribose, the observed auto-ADP-ribosylation activity was enzymatic and not due to the nonenzymatic addition of free ADP-ribose. V53D, S63K, and R7K were more effective than Y104K or V97K in blocking ARF stimulation of cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase. Based on these data, it appears that ARF-binding and catalytic sites are not identical and that a region outside the NAD cleft may participate in the LTA-ARF interaction. PMID:9864224

  5. Effects of site-directed mutagenesis of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin on ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and interaction with ADP-ribosylation factors.

    PubMed

    Stevens, L A; Moss, J; Vaughan, M; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), an oligomeric protein with one A subunit (LTA) and five B subunits, exerts its effects via the ADP-ribosylation of Gsalpha, a guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein that activates adenylyl cyclase. LTA also ADP-ribosylates simple guanidino compounds (e.g., arginine) and catalyzes its own auto-ADP-ribosylation. All LTA-catalyzed reactions are enhanced by ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Replacement of arginine-7 (R7K), valine-53 (V53D), serine-63 (S63K), valine 97 (V97K), or tyrosine-104 (Y104K) in LTA resulted in fully assembled but nontoxic proteins. S63K, V53D, and R7K are catalytic-site mutations, whereas V97K and Y104K are amino acid replacements adjacent to and outside of the catalytic site, respectively. The effects of mutagenesis were quantified by measuring ADP-ribosyltransferase activity (i.e., auto-ADP-ribosylation and ADP-ribosylagmatine synthesis) and interaction with ARF (i.e., inhibition of ARF-stimulated cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and effects of ARF on mutant auto-ADP-ribosylation). All mutants were inactive in the ADP-ribosyltransferase assay; however, auto-ADP-ribosylation in the presence of recombinant human ARF6 was detected, albeit much less than that of native LT (Y104K > V53D > V97K > R7K, S63K). Based on the lack of inhibition by free ADP-ribose, the observed auto-ADP-ribosylation activity was enzymatic and not due to the nonenzymatic addition of free ADP-ribose. V53D, S63K, and R7K were more effective than Y104K or V97K in blocking ARF stimulation of cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase. Based on these data, it appears that ARF-binding and catalytic sites are not identical and that a region outside the NAD cleft may participate in the LTA-ARF interaction. PMID:9864224

  6. ADP-Ribosyltransferases and Poly ADP-Ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Yu, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    Protein ADP-ribosylation is an important posttranslational modification that plays versatile roles in multiple biological processes. ADP-ribosylation is catalyzed by a group of enzymes known as ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs). Using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as the donor, ARTs covalently link single or multiple ADP-ribose moieties from NAD+ to the substrates, forming mono ADP-ribosylation or poly ADP-ribosylation (PARylation). Novel functions of ARTs and ADP-ribosylation have been revealed over the past few years. Here we summarize the current knowledge on ARTs and PARylation. PMID:25938242

  7. Localization and characterization of the human ADP-ribosylation factor 5 (ARF5) gene

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.E. |; Daiger, S.P.; Green, E.D.

    1997-05-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor 5 (ARF5) is a member of the ARF gene family. The ARF proteins stimulate the in vitro ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and appear to play a role in vesicular trafficking in vivo. We have mapped ARF5, one of the six known mammalian ARF genes, to a well-defined yeast artificial chromosome contig on human chromosome 7q31.3. In addition, we have isolated and sequenced an {approximately}3.2-kb genomic segment that contains the entire ARF5 coding region, revealing the complete intron-exon structure of the gene. With six coding exons and five introns, the genomic structure of ARF5 is unique among the mammalian ARF genes and provides insight about the evolutionary history of this ancient gene family. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Endogenous ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 in polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fendrick, J.L.; Iglewski, W.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney (pyBHK) cells were cultured in medium containing ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and 105 (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum. A {sup 32}P-labeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 97 kDa was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with antiserum to ADP-ribosylated elongation factor 2 (EF-2). The {sup 32}P labeling of the protein was enhanced by culturing cells in medium containing 2% serum instead of 10% serum. The {sup 32}P label was completely removed from the protein by treatment with snake venom phosphodiesterase and the digestion product was identified as ({sup 32}P)AMP, indicating the protein was mono-ADP-ribosylated. HPLC analysis of tryptic peptides of the {sup 32}P-labeled 97-kDa protein and purified EF-2, which was ADP-ribosylated in vitro with diphtheria toxin fragment A and ({sup 32}P)NAD, demonstrated an identical labeled peptide in the two proteins. The data strongly suggest that EF-2 was endogenously ADP-ribosylated in pyBHK cells. Maximum incorporation of radioactivity in EF-2 occurred by 12 hr and remained constant over the subsequent 12 hr. It was estimated that 30-35% of the EF-2 was ADP-ribosylated in cells cultured in medium containing 2% serum. When {sup 32}P-labeled cultures were incubated in medium containing unlabeled phosphate, the {sup 32}P label was lost from the EF-2 within 30 min.

  9. ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 4C (ARL4C) interacts with galectin-3 during oocyte development and embryogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 4 (ARL4) is a GTP-binding protein which belongs to the ADP-ribosylation factor protein (ARF) superfamily of small GTPases. ARL4 has been shown to be mainly related to the development of male germ cells and embryogenesis in mouse. To investigate the role of ARL4 i...

  10. ADP-Ribosylation: Activation, Recognition, and Removal

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Chen, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a type of posttranslational modification catalyzed by members of the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase superfamily. ADP-ribosylation is initiated by PARPs, recognized by PAR binding proteins, and removed by PARG and other ADP-ribose hydrolases. These three groups of proteins work together to regulate the cellular and molecular response of PAR signaling, which is critical for a wide range of cellular and physiological functions. PMID:24552704

  11. MARTX effector cross kingdom activation by Golgi-associated ADP-ribosylation factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung Sik; Satchell, Karla J F

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infects humans and causes lethal septicemia. The primary virulence factor is a multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin consisting of conserved repeats-containing regions and various effector domains. Recent genomic analyses for the newly emerged V. vulnificus biotype 3 strain revealed that its MARTX toxin has two previously unknown effector domains. Herein, we characterized one of these domains, Domain X (DmXVv ). A structure-based homology search revealed that DmXVv belongs to the C58B cysteine peptidase subfamily. When ectopically expressed in cells, DmXVv was autoprocessed and induced cytopathicity including Golgi dispersion. When the catalytic cysteine or the region flanking the scissile bond was mutated, both autoprocessing and cytopathicity were significantly reduced indicating that DmXVv cytopathicity is activated by amino-terminal autoprocessing. Consistent with this, host cell protein export was affected by Vibrio cells producing a toxin with wild-type, but not catalytically inactive, DmXVv . DmXVv was found to localize to Golgi and to directly interact with Golgi-associated ADP-ribosylation factors ARF1, ARF3 and ARF4, although ARF binding was not necessary for the subcellular localization. Rather, this interaction was found to induce autoprocessing of DmXVv . These data demonstrate that the V. vulnificus hijacks the host ARF proteins to activate the cytopathic DmXVv effector domain of MARTX toxin. PMID:26780191

  12. Differential interaction of ADP-ribosylation factors 1, 3, and 5 with rat brain Golgi membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Haun, R S; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1992-01-01

    Six mammalian ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) identified by cDNA cloning were expressed as recombinant proteins (rARFs) that stimulated cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Microsequencing of soluble ARFs I and II (sARFs I and II), purified from bovine brain, established that they are ARFs 1 and 3, respectively. Rabbit antibodies (IgG) against sARF II reacted similarly with ARFs 1, 2, and 3 (class I) on Western blots. ARFs 1 and 3 were distinguished by their electrophoretic mobilities. Antiserum against rARF 5 cross-reacted partially with rARF 4 but not detectably with rARF 6 and minimally with class I ARFs. Guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP[gamma S]) increased recovery of ARF activity and immunoreactivity in organelle fractions separated by density gradient centrifugation, after incubation of rat brain homogenate with ATP and a regenerating system. ARF 1 accumulated in microsomes plus Golgi and Golgi fractions, whereas ARF 5 seemed to localize more specifically in Golgi; the smaller increment in ARF 3 was distributed more evenly among fractions. On incubation of Golgi with a crude ARF fraction, GTP[gamma S], and an ATP-regenerating system, association of ARF activity with Golgi increased with increasing ATP concentration paralleled by increases in immunoreactive ARFs 1 and 5 and, to a lesser degree, ARF 3. Golgi incubated with GTP[gamma S] and purified ARF 1 or 3 bound more ARF 1 than ARF 3. Based on immunoreactivity and assay of ARF activity, individual ARFs 1, 3, and 5 appeared to behave independently and selectively in their GTP-dependent association with Golgi in vitro. Images PMID:1409634

  13. Differential interaction of ADP-ribosylation factors 1, 3, and 5 with rat brain Golgi membranes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Haun, R S; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1992-10-01

    Six mammalian ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) identified by cDNA cloning were expressed as recombinant proteins (rARFs) that stimulated cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Microsequencing of soluble ARFs I and II (sARFs I and II), purified from bovine brain, established that they are ARFs 1 and 3, respectively. Rabbit antibodies (IgG) against sARF II reacted similarly with ARFs 1, 2, and 3 (class I) on Western blots. ARFs 1 and 3 were distinguished by their electrophoretic mobilities. Antiserum against rARF 5 cross-reacted partially with rARF 4 but not detectably with rARF 6 and minimally with class I ARFs. Guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP[gamma S]) increased recovery of ARF activity and immunoreactivity in organelle fractions separated by density gradient centrifugation, after incubation of rat brain homogenate with ATP and a regenerating system. ARF 1 accumulated in microsomes plus Golgi and Golgi fractions, whereas ARF 5 seemed to localize more specifically in Golgi; the smaller increment in ARF 3 was distributed more evenly among fractions. On incubation of Golgi with a crude ARF fraction, GTP[gamma S], and an ATP-regenerating system, association of ARF activity with Golgi increased with increasing ATP concentration paralleled by increases in immunoreactive ARFs 1 and 5 and, to a lesser degree, ARF 3. Golgi incubated with GTP[gamma S] and purified ARF 1 or 3 bound more ARF 1 than ARF 3. Based on immunoreactivity and assay of ARF activity, individual ARFs 1, 3, and 5 appeared to behave independently and selectively in their GTP-dependent association with Golgi in vitro. PMID:1409634

  14. Poliovirus Proteins Induce Membrane Association of GTPase ADP-Ribosylation Factor

    PubMed Central

    Belov, George A.; Fogg, Mark H.; Ehrenfeld, Ellie

    2005-01-01

    Poliovirus infection results in the disintegration of intracellular membrane structures and formation of specific vesicles that serve as sites for replication of viral RNA. The mechanism of membrane rearrangement has not been clearly defined. Replication of poliovirus is sensitive to brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite known to prevent normal function of the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of small GTPases. During normal membrane trafficking in uninfected cells, ARFs are involved in vesicle formation from different intracellular sites through interaction with numerous regulatory and coat proteins as well as in regulation of phospholipase D activity and cytoskeleton modifications. We demonstrate here that ARFs 3 and 5, but not ARF6, are translocated to membranes in HeLa cell extracts that are engaged in translation of poliovirus RNA. The accumulation of ARFs on membranes correlates with active replication of poliovirus RNA in vitro, whereas ARF translocation to membranes does not occur in the presence of BFA. ARF translocation can be induced independently by synthesis of poliovirus 3A or 3CD proteins, and we describe mutations that abolished this activity. In infected HeLa cells, an ARF1-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion redistributes from Golgi stacks to the perinuclear region, where poliovirus RNA replication occurs. Taken together, the data suggest an involvement of ARF in poliovirus RNA replication. PMID:15890959

  15. ADP ribosylation factor like 2 (Arl2) protein influences microtubule dynamics in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Beghin, Anne . E-mail: anne.beghin@recherche.univ-lyon1.fr; Honore, Stephane; Messana, Celine; Matera, Eva-Laure; Aim, Jennifer; Burlinchon, Sandrine; Braguer, Diane; Dumontet, Charles

    2007-02-01

    ADP ribosylation factor like 2 (Arl2) protein is involved in the folding of tubulin peptides. Variants of the human adenocarcinoma line MCF7 cells with increased or reduced content of Arl2 protein were produced and characterized. Western blot analysis performed after separation of the different fractions of tubulins showed that the content in polymerizable soluble heterodimers was significantly increased in cells with the highest Arl2 expression level (MA+) and reduced in cells with the lowest Arl2 expression level (MA-) in comparison to control cells (MP). Microtubule dynamic instability, measured after microinjection of rhodamine-labelled tubulin in living cells, was significantly enhanced in MA+ cells and reduced in MA- cells. These alterations involved modifications of the microtubule growth and shortening rates, duration of attenuation phases, percentage of time spent in each phase (growth, shortening and attenuation) and catastrophe frequency. We also observed modifications in the expression level of the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2Ac, which has been shown to form a complex with Arl2. Finally, cell cycle progression was modified in these cells, particularly in regard to duration of telophase. In summary, alterations in Arl2 protein content were found to be associated with modifications in tubulin pools, microtubule dynamics as well as cell cycle progression.

  16. Small G proteins in peroxisome biogenesis: the potential involvement of ADP-ribosylation factor 6

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Peroxisomes execute diverse and vital functions in virtually every eukaryote. New peroxisomes form by budding from pre-existing organelles or de novo by vesiculation of the ER. It has been suggested that ADP-ribosylation factors and COPI coatomer complexes are involved in these processes. Results Here we show that all viable Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in one of the small GTPases which have an important role in the regulation of vesicular transport contain functional peroxisomes, and that the number of these organelles in oleate-grown cells is significantly upregulated in the arf1 and arf3 null strains compared to the wild-type strain. In addition, we provide evidence that a portion of endogenous Arf6, the mammalian orthologue of yeast Arf3, is associated with the cytoplasmic face of rat liver peroxisomes. Despite this, ablation of Arf6 did neither influence the regulation of peroxisome abundance nor affect the localization of peroxisomal proteins in cultured fetal hepatocytes. However, co-overexpression of wild-type, GTP hydrolysis-defective or (dominant-negative) GTP binding-defective forms of Arf1 and Arf6 caused mislocalization of newly-synthesized peroxisomal proteins and resulted in an alteration of peroxisome morphology. Conclusion These observations suggest that Arf6 is a key player in mammalian peroxisome biogenesis. In addition, they also lend strong support to and extend the concept that specific Arf isoform pairs may act in tandem to regulate exclusive trafficking pathways. PMID:19686593

  17. Modes of Action of ADP-Ribosylated Elongation Factor 2 in Inhibiting the Polypeptide Elongation Cycle: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kevin C.; Xie, Honglin; Cai, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EF2) leads to inhibition of protein synthesis, the mechanism by which ADP-ribosylated EF2 (ADPR•EF2) causes this inhibition remains controversial. Here, we applied modeling approaches to investigate the consequences of various modes of ADPR•EF2 inhibitory actions on the two coupled processes, the polypeptide chain elongation and ADP-ribosylation of EF2. Modeling of experimental data indicates that ADPR•EF2 fully blocks the late-phase translocation of tRNAs; but the impairment in the translocation upstream process, mainly the GTP-dependent factor binding with the pretranslocation ribosome and/or the guanine nucleotide exchange in EF2, is responsible for the overall inhibition kinetics. The reduced ADPR•EF2-ribosome association spares the ribosome to bind and shield native EF2 against toxin attack, thereby deferring the inhibition of protein synthesis inhibition and inactivation of EF2. Minimum association with the ribosome also keeps ADPR•EF2 in an accessible state for toxins to catalyze the reverse reaction when nicotinamide becomes available. Our work underscores the importance of unveiling the interactions between ADPR•EF2 and the ribosome, and argues against that toxins inhibit protein synthesis through converting native EF2 to a competitive inhibitor to actively disable the ribosome. PMID:23861744

  18. Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance choleragen ADP-ribosyltransferase activity: nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of an ADP-ribosylation factor cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Price, S R; Nightingale, M; Tsai, S C; Williamson, K C; Adamik, R; Chen, H C; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1988-01-01

    Three (two soluble and one membrane) guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) that enhance ADP-ribosylation of the Gs alpha stimulatory subunit of the adenylyl cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) complex by choleragen have recently been purified from bovine brain. To further define the structure and function of these ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), we isolated a cDNA clone (lambda ARF2B) from a bovine retinal library by screening with a mixed heptadecanucleotide probe whose sequence was based on the partial amino acid sequence of one of the soluble ARFs from bovine brain. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of lambda ARF2B with sequences of peptides from the ARF protein (total of 60 amino acids) revealed only two differences. Whether these are cloning artifacts or reflect the existence of more than one ARF protein remains to be determined. Deduced amino acid sequences of ARF, Go alpha (the alpha subunit of a G protein that may be involved in regulation of ion fluxes), and c-Ha-ras gene product p21 show similarities in regions believed to be involved in guanine nucleotide binding and GTP hydrolysis. ARF apparently lacks a site analogous to that ADP-ribosylated by choleragen in G-protein alpha subunits. Although both the ARF proteins and the alpha subunits bind guanine nucleotides and serve as choleragen substrates, they must interact with the toxin A1 peptide in different ways. In addition to serving as an ADP-ribose acceptor, ARF interacts with the toxin in a manner that modifies its catalytic properties. PMID:3135549

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of an ADP-ribosylation factor 6 gene (ptARF6) from Pisolithus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liling; Li, Haibo; Zhou, Yifeng; Qin, Yuchuan; Wang, Yanbin; Liu, Bentong; Qian, Hua

    2016-05-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) is an evolutionarily conserved molecule that has an essential function in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. To better understand its role during presymbiosis between plant roots and compatible filamentous fungi, the full-length cDNA sequence of ARF6 from Pisolithus tinctorius was cloned and a variety of bioinformatics analyses performed. The full-length sequence was 849 bp long and contained a 549 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 182 amino acids. A phylogenetic analysis showed that ptARF6 was the ortholog of the ADP ribosylation factor 6/GTPase SAR1 gene from the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. A domain architecture analysis of the ARF6 protein revealed a repeat region, which is a common feature of ARF6 in other species. Recombinant ARF6 protein was expressed with an N-terminal 6×His tag and purified using Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the recombinant protein was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 25 kDa. The recombinant ARF6 protein bound strongly to 18:1 and 18:2 phosphatidic acids. Thus, ARF6 may participate in the signaling pathways involved in membrane phospholipid composition. The intracellular distribution of ptADP6 in HEK239T cells also indicates that ptADP6 may function not only in plasma membrane events but also in endosomal membranes events. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the differential expression of ptARF6 was associated with the presymbiotic stage. ptARF6 may be induced by presymbiosis during the regulation of mycorrhizal formation. PMID:26928195

  20. Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yukihide; Papoutsoglou, Panagiotis; Maturi, Varun; Tsubakihara, Yutaro; Hottiger, Michael O; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-06-10

    We previously established a mechanism of negative regulation of transforming growth factor β signaling mediated by the nuclear ADP-ribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and the deribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), which dynamically regulate ADP-ribosylation of Smad3 and Smad4, two central signaling proteins of the pathway. Here we demonstrate that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway can also be regulated by the opposing actions of PARP1 and PARG. PARG positively contributes to BMP signaling and forms physical complexes with Smad5 and Smad4. The positive role PARG plays during BMP signaling can be neutralized by PARP1, as demonstrated by experiments where PARG and PARP1 are simultaneously silenced. In contrast to PARG, ectopic expression of PARP1 suppresses BMP signaling, whereas silencing of endogenous PARP1 enhances signaling and BMP-induced differentiation. The two major Smad proteins of the BMP pathway, Smad1 and Smad5, interact with PARP1 and can be ADP-ribosylated in vitro, whereas PARG causes deribosylation. The overall outcome of this mode of regulation of BMP signal transduction provides a fine-tuning mechanism based on the two major enzymes that control cellular ADP-ribosylation. PMID:27129221

  1. A presynaptic role for the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor msec7-1

    PubMed Central

    Ashery, Uri; Koch, Henriette; Scheuss, Volker; Brose, Nils; Rettig, Jens

    1999-01-01

    ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) represent a family of small monomeric G proteins that switch from an inactive, GDP-bound state to an active, GTP-bound state. One member of this family, ARF6, translocates on activation from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane and has been implicated in regulated exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. Because GDP release in vivo is rather slow, ARF activation is facilitated by specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors like cytohesin-1 or ARNO. Here we show that msec7-1, a rat homologue of cytohesin-1, translocates ARF6 to the plasma membrane in living cells. Overexpression of msec7-1 leads to an increase in basal synaptic transmission at the Xenopus neuromuscular junction. msec7-1-containing synapses have a 5-fold higher frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents than control synapses. On stimulation, the amplitudes of the resulting evoked postsynaptic currents of msec7-1-overexpressing neurons are increased as well. However, further stimulation leads to a decline in amplitudes approaching the values of control synapses. This transient effect on amplitude is strongly reduced on overexpression of msec7-1E157K, a mutant incapable of translocating ARFs. Our results provide evidence that small G proteins of the ARF family and activating factors like msec7-1 play an important role in synaptic transmission, most likely by making more vesicles available for fusion at the plasma membrane. PMID:9927699

  2. Cholix Toxin, a Novel ADP-ribosylating Factor from Vibrio cholerae

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Rene; Purdy, Alexandra E.; Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Kimber, Matthew S.; Bartlett, Douglas H.; Merrill, A. Rod

    2008-07-15

    The ADP-ribosyltransferases are a class of enzymes that display activity in a variety of bacterial pathogens responsible for causing diseases in plants and animals, including those affecting mankind, such as diphtheria, cholera, and whooping cough. We report the characterization of a novel toxin from Vibrio cholerae, which we call cholix toxin. The toxin is active against mammalian cells (IC50 = 4.6 {+-} 0.4 ng/ml) and crustaceans (Artemia nauplii LD50 = 10 {+-} 2 {mu}g/ml). Here we show that this toxin is the third member of the diphthamide-specific class of ADP-ribose transferases and that it possesses specific ADP-ribose transferase activity against ribosomal eukaryotic elongation factor 2. We also describe the high resolution crystal structures of the multidomain toxin and its catalytic domain at 2.1- and 1.25-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The new structural data show that cholix toxin possesses the necessary molecular features required for infection of eukaryotes by receptor-mediated endocytosis, translocation to the host cytoplasm, and inhibition of protein synthesis by specific modification of elongation factor 2. The crystal structures also provide important insight into the structural basis for activation of toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. These results indicate that cholix toxin may be an important virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae that likely plays a significant role in the survival of the organism in an aquatic environment.

  3. Proteomics Approaches to Identify Mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated and Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vivelo, Christina A.; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the addition of one or more ADP-ribose units onto protein substrates and this protein modification has been implicated in various cellular processes including DNA damage repair, RNA metabolism, transcription and cell cycle regulation. This review focuses on a compilation of large-scale proteomics studies that identify ADP-ribosylated proteins and their associated proteins by mass spectrometry using a variety of enrichment strategies. Some methods, such as the use of a poly(ADP-ribose)-specific antibody and boronate affinity chromatography and NAD+ analogues, have been employed for decades while others, such as the use of protein microarrays and recombinant proteins that bind ADP-ribose moieties (such as macrodomains), have only recently been developed. The advantages and disadvantages of each method and whether these methods are specific for identifying mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins will be discussed. Lastly, since poly(ADP-ribose) is heterogeneous in length, it has been difficult to attain a mass signature associated with the modification sites. Several strategies on how to reduce polymer chain length heterogeneity for site identification will be reviewed. PMID:25263235

  4. Proteomics approaches to identify mono-(ADP-ribosyl)ated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins.

    PubMed

    Vivelo, Christina A; Leung, Anthony K L

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the addition of one or more ADP-ribose units onto protein substrates and this protein modification has been implicated in various cellular processes including DNA damage repair, RNA metabolism, transcription, and cell cycle regulation. This review focuses on a compilation of large-scale proteomics studies that identify ADP-ribosylated proteins and their associated proteins by MS using a variety of enrichment strategies. Some methods, such as the use of a poly(ADP-ribose)-specific antibody and boronate affinity chromatography and NAD(+) analogues, have been employed for decades while others, such as the use of protein microarrays and recombinant proteins that bind ADP-ribose moieties (such as macrodomains), have only recently been developed. The advantages and disadvantages of each method and whether these methods are specific for identifying mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins will be discussed. Lastly, since poly(ADP-ribose) is heterogeneous in length, it has been difficult to attain a mass signature associated with the modification sites. Several strategies on how to reduce polymer chain length heterogeneity for site identification will be reviewed. PMID:25263235

  5. Wnt pathway activation by ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eungi; Tacchelly-Benites, Ofelia; Wang, Zhenghan; Randall, Michael P.; Tian, Ai; Benchabane, Hassina; Freemantle, Sarah; Pikielny, Claudio; Tolwinski, Nicholas S.; Lee, Ethan; Ahmed, Yashi

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling directs fundamental processes during metazoan development and can be aberrantly activated in cancer. Wnt stimulation induces the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin from an inhibitory destruction complex to a stimulatory signalosome. Here we analyse the early effects of Wnt on Axin and find that the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks)—known to target Axin for proteolysis—regulates Axin's rapid transition following Wnt stimulation. We demonstrate that the pool of ADP-ribosylated Axin, which is degraded under basal conditions, increases immediately following Wnt stimulation in both Drosophila and human cells. ADP-ribosylation of Axin enhances its interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, an essential step in signalosome assembly. We suggest that in addition to controlling Axin levels, Tnks-dependent ADP-ribosylation promotes the reprogramming of Axin following Wnt stimulation; and propose that Tnks inhibition blocks Wnt signalling not only by increasing destruction complex activity, but also by impeding signalosome assembly. PMID:27138857

  6. Wnt pathway activation by ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eungi; Tacchelly-Benites, Ofelia; Wang, Zhenghan; Randall, Michael P; Tian, Ai; Benchabane, Hassina; Freemantle, Sarah; Pikielny, Claudio; Tolwinski, Nicholas S; Lee, Ethan; Ahmed, Yashi

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling directs fundamental processes during metazoan development and can be aberrantly activated in cancer. Wnt stimulation induces the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin from an inhibitory destruction complex to a stimulatory signalosome. Here we analyse the early effects of Wnt on Axin and find that the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks)--known to target Axin for proteolysis-regulates Axin's rapid transition following Wnt stimulation. We demonstrate that the pool of ADP-ribosylated Axin, which is degraded under basal conditions, increases immediately following Wnt stimulation in both Drosophila and human cells. ADP-ribosylation of Axin enhances its interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, an essential step in signalosome assembly. We suggest that in addition to controlling Axin levels, Tnks-dependent ADP-ribosylation promotes the reprogramming of Axin following Wnt stimulation; and propose that Tnks inhibition blocks Wnt signalling not only by increasing destruction complex activity, but also by impeding signalosome assembly. PMID:27138857

  7. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Apoptosis Antagonizing Transcription Factor Involved in Hydroquinone-Induced DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xiao Xuan; Liu, Jia Xian; Yun, Lin; DU, Yu Jun; Chen, Shao Qian; Chen, Jia Long; Tang, Huan Wen; Liu, Lin Hua

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of DNA damage induced by hydroquinone (HQ) remains unclear. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) usually works as a DNA damage sensor, and hence, it is possible that PARP-1 is involved in the DNA damage response induced by HQ. In TK6 cells treated with HQ, PARP activity as well as the expression of apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor (AATF), PARP-1, and phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) were maximum at 0.5 h, 6 h, 3 h, and 3 h, respectively. To explore the detailed mechanisms underlying the prompt DNA repair reaction, the above indicators were investigated in PARP-1-silenced cells. PARP activity and expression of AATF and PARP-1 decreased to 36%, 32%, and 33%, respectively, in the cells; however, γ-H2AX expression increased to 265%. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays were employed to determine whether PARP-1 and AATF formed protein complexes. The interaction between these proteins together with the results from IP assays and confocal microscopy indicated that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) regulated AATF expression. In conclusion, PARP-1 was involved in the DNA damage repair induced by HQ via increasing the accumulation of AATF through PARylation. PMID:26822515

  8. Identification of a brefeldin A-insensitive guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP-ribosylation factor in bovine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1994-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that participate in vesicular transport in the Golgi and other intracellular compartments and stimulate cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. ARFs are active in the GTP-bound form; hydrolysis of bound GTP to GDP, possibly with the assistance of a GTP hydrolysis (GTPase)-activating protein results in inactivation. Exchange of GDP for GTP and reactivation were shown by other workers to be enhanced by Golgi membranes in a brefeldin A-sensitive reaction, leading to the proposal that the guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (GEP) was a target of brefeldin A. In the studies reported here, a soluble GEP was partially purified from bovine brain. Exchange of nucleotide on ARFs 1 and 3, based on increased ARF activity in a toxin assay and stimulation of binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate, was dependent on phospholipids, with phosphatidylserine being more effective than cardiolipin. GEP appeared to increase the rate of nucleotide exchange but did not affect the affinity of ARF for GTP. Whereas the crude GEP had a size of approximately 700 kDa, the partially purified GEP behaved on Ultrogel AcA 54 as a protein of 60 kDa. With purification, the GEP activity became insensitive to brefeldin A, consistent with the conclusion that, in contrast to earlier inferences, the exchange protein is not itself the target of brefeldin A. PMID:8159707

  9. The family of bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, K M; Barbieri, J T

    1995-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria utilize a variety of virulence factors that contribute to the clinical manifestation of their pathogenesis. Bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins (bAREs) represent one family of virulence factors that exert their toxic effects by transferring the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD onto specific eucaryotic target proteins. The observations that some bAREs ADP-ribosylate eucaryotic proteins that regulate signal transduction, like the heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins and the low-molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins, has extended interest in bAREs beyond the bacteriology laboratory. Molecular studies have shown that bAREs possess little primary amino acid homology and have diverse quaternary structure-function organization. Underlying this apparent diversity, biochemical and crystallographic studies have shown that several bAREs have conserved active-site structures and possess a conserved glutamic acid within their active sites. PMID:7704894

  10. Site of ADP-ribosylation and the RNA-binding site are situated in different domains of the elongation factor EF-2

    SciTech Connect

    Davydova, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    One of the proteins participating in the process of elongation of polypeptide chains - elongation factor 2 (EF-2) - can be ADP-ribosylated at a unique amino acid residue - diphthamide. Since the ADP-ribosylation of EF-2 at dipthamide leads to a loss of affinity of the factor for RNA while the presence of RNA inhibits the ADP-ribosylation reaction, it seemed probable to the authors that diphthamide participated directly in the binding of EF-2 to DNA. The experiments presented in this article showed that this was not the case: diphthamide and the RNA-binding site are situated on different domains of EF-2. Thus, ADP-ribosylation of factor EF-2 in one domain leads to a loss of the ability to bind to RNA in the other. The authors investigated the mutual arrangement of diphthamide and the RNA-binding site on the EF-2 molecule by preparing a factor from rabbit reticulocytes and subjecting it to proteolytic digestion with elastase. The factor was incubated with elastase for 15 min at 37/sup 0/C at an enzyme:substrate ratio of 1:100 in buffer solution containing 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 10 mM KCl, 1 mM MgCl/sub 2/, and 2 mM dithiothreitol. The reaction was stopped by adding para-methylsulfonyl fluoride to 50 micro-M. The authors obtained a preparation as a result of proteolysis and applied it on a column with RNA-Sepharose and separated into two fractions: RNA-binding and without affinity for RNA. The initial preparation and its fractions were subjected to exhaustive ADP-ribosylation in the presence of diphtheria toxin and (U-/sup 14/C) nicotinaide adenine dinucleotide ((/sup 14/C)NAD) (296 mCi/mmole). The samples were analyzed electrophoretically in a polyacrylamide gel gradient in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. For the detection of (/sup 14/C) ADP-ribosylated components, the gels were dried and exposed with RM-V x-ray film.

  11. Nuclear ADP-Ribosylation Reactions in Mammalian Cells: Where Are We Today and Where Are We Going?

    PubMed Central

    Hassa, Paul O.; Haenni, Sandra S.; Elser, Michael; Hottiger, Michael O.

    2006-01-01

    Since poly-ADP ribose was discovered over 40 years ago, there has been significant progress in research into the biology of mono- and poly-ADP-ribosylation reactions. During the last decade, it became clear that ADP-ribosylation reactions play important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inter- and intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, DNA repair pathways and maintenance of genomic stability, telomere dynamics, cell differentiation and proliferation, and necrosis and apoptosis. ADP-ribosylation reactions are phylogenetically ancient and can be classified into four major groups: mono-ADP-ribosylation, poly-ADP-ribosylation, ADP-ribose cyclization, and formation of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. In the human genome, more than 30 different genes coding for enzymes associated with distinct ADP-ribosylation activities have been identified. This review highlights the recent advances in the rapidly growing field of nuclear mono-ADP-ribosylation and poly-ADP-ribosylation reactions and the distinct ADP-ribosylating enzyme families involved in these processes, including the proposed family of novel poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-like mono-ADP-ribose transferases and the potential mono-ADP-ribosylation activities of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases. A special focus is placed on the known roles of distinct mono- and poly-ADP-ribosylation reactions in physiological processes, such as mitosis, cellular differentiation and proliferation, telomere dynamics, and aging, as well as “programmed necrosis” (i.e., high-mobility-group protein B1 release) and apoptosis (i.e., apoptosis-inducing factor shuttling). The proposed molecular mechanisms involved in these processes, such as signaling, chromatin modification (i.e., “histone code”), and remodeling of chromatin structure (i.e., DNA damage response, transcriptional regulation, and insulator function), are described. A potential cross talk between nuclear

  12. ADP-ribosylation Factor-related Protein 1 Interacts with NS5A and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Propagation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun-Sook; Ngo, Huong T T; Lee, Jihye; Son, Kidong; Park, Eun-Mee; Hwang, Soon B

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is tightly coupled to the lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have previously screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet (LD) formation using cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. In this study, we selected and characterized the gene encoding ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1). ARFRP1 is essential for LD growth and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ARFRP1 significantly inhibited HCV replication in both subgenomic replicon cells and HCVcc-infected cells. ARFRP1 interacted with NS5A and NS5A partially colocalized with LD. Silencing of ARFRP1 abrogated HCV-induced LD growth and viral protein expressions. Moreover, ARFRP1 recruited synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) to sites in close proximity to LDs in HCV-infected cells. Silencing of ARFRP1 ablated relocalization of SNAP23 to LD. These data indicate that HCV regulates ARFRP1 for LD growth to facilitate viral propagation and thus ARFRP1 may be a potential target for antiviral therapy. PMID:27550144

  13. ADP-ribosylation Factor-related Protein 1 Interacts with NS5A and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun-Sook; Ngo, Huong T. T.; Lee, Jihye; Son, Kidong; Park, Eun-Mee; Hwang, Soon B.

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is tightly coupled to the lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have previously screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet (LD) formation using cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. In this study, we selected and characterized the gene encoding ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1). ARFRP1 is essential for LD growth and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ARFRP1 significantly inhibited HCV replication in both subgenomic replicon cells and HCVcc-infected cells. ARFRP1 interacted with NS5A and NS5A partially colocalized with LD. Silencing of ARFRP1 abrogated HCV-induced LD growth and viral protein expressions. Moreover, ARFRP1 recruited synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) to sites in close proximity to LDs in HCV-infected cells. Silencing of ARFRP1 ablated relocalization of SNAP23 to LD. These data indicate that HCV regulates ARFRP1 for LD growth to facilitate viral propagation and thus ARFRP1 may be a potential target for antiviral therapy. PMID:27550144

  14. Structure, organization and evolution of ADP-ribosylation factors in rice and foxtail millet, and their expression in rice

    PubMed Central

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Mangu, Venkata R.; Zandkarimi, Hana; Prasad, Manoj; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) have been reported to function in diverse physiological and molecular activities. Recent evidences also demonstrate the involvement of ARFs in conferring tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plant species. In the present study, 23 and 25 ARF proteins were identified in C3 model- rice and C4 model- foxtail millet, respectively. These proteins are classified into four classes (I–IV) based on phylogenetic analysis, with ARFs in classes I–III and ARF-like proteins (ARLs) in class IV. Sequence alignment and domain analysis revealed the presence of conserved and additional motifs, which may contribute to neo- and sub-functionalization of these proteins. Promoter analysis showed the presence of several cis-regulatory elements related to stress and hormone response, indicating their role in stress regulatory network. Expression analysis of rice ARFs and ARLs in different tissues, stresses and abscisic acid treatment highlighted temporal and spatial diversification of gene expression. Five rice cultivars screened for allelic variations in OsARF genes showed the presence of allelic polymorphisms in few gene loci. Altogether, the study provides insights on characteristics of ARF/ARL genes in rice and foxtail millet, which could be deployed for further functional analysis to extrapolate their precise roles in abiotic stress responses. PMID:27097755

  15. Structure, organization and evolution of ADP-ribosylation factors in rice and foxtail millet, and their expression in rice.

    PubMed

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Mangu, Venkata R; Zandkarimi, Hana; Prasad, Manoj; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) have been reported to function in diverse physiological and molecular activities. Recent evidences also demonstrate the involvement of ARFs in conferring tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plant species. In the present study, 23 and 25 ARF proteins were identified in C3 model- rice and C4 model- foxtail millet, respectively. These proteins are classified into four classes (I-IV) based on phylogenetic analysis, with ARFs in classes I-III and ARF-like proteins (ARLs) in class IV. Sequence alignment and domain analysis revealed the presence of conserved and additional motifs, which may contribute to neo- and sub-functionalization of these proteins. Promoter analysis showed the presence of several cis-regulatory elements related to stress and hormone response, indicating their role in stress regulatory network. Expression analysis of rice ARFs and ARLs in different tissues, stresses and abscisic acid treatment highlighted temporal and spatial diversification of gene expression. Five rice cultivars screened for allelic variations in OsARF genes showed the presence of allelic polymorphisms in few gene loci. Altogether, the study provides insights on characteristics of ARF/ARL genes in rice and foxtail millet, which could be deployed for further functional analysis to extrapolate their precise roles in abiotic stress responses. PMID:27097755

  16. Arfaptin 1, a putative cytosolic target protein of ADP-ribosylation factor, is recruited to Golgi membranes.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, H; Williger, B T; Exton, J H

    1997-02-28

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) have been implicated in vesicle transport in the Golgi complex. Employing yeast two-hybrid screening of an HL60 cDNA library using a constitutively active mutant of ARF3 (ARF3.Q71L), as a probe, we have identified a cDNA encoding a novel protein with a calculated molecular mass of 38.6 kDa, which we have named arfaptin 1. The mRNA of arfaptin 1 was ubiquitously expressed, and recombinant arfaptin 1 bound preferentially to class I ARFs, especially ARF1, but only in the GTP-bound form. The interactions were independent of myristoylation of ARF. Arfaptin 1 in cytosol was recruited to Golgi membranes by ARF in a guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)-dependent and brefeldin A-sensitive manner. When expressed in COS cells, arfaptin 1 was localized to the Golgi complex. The yeast two-hybrid system yielded another clone, which encoded a putative protein, which we have named arfaptin 2. This consisted of the same number of amino acids as arfaptin 1 and was 60% identical to it. Arfaptin 2 was also ubiquitously expressed and bound to the GTP-, but not GDP-liganded form of class I ARFs, especially ARF1. These results suggest that arfaptins 1 and 2 may be direct target proteins of class 1 ARFs. Arfaptin 1 may be involved in Golgi function along with ARF1. PMID:9038142

  17. Differential expression during development of ADP-ribosylation factors, 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding protein activators of cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Tsuchiya, M; Chang, P P; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1991-05-01

    Cholera toxin exerts its effects on cells in large part through the ADP-ribosylation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation is enhanced by approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins termed ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are allosteric activators of the toxin catalytic unit. Rabbit antiserum against a purified bovine brain ARF (sARF II) reacted on immunoblots with two approximately 20-kDa ARF-like proteins (sARF I and II) in tissue extracts from bovine, rat, frog, and chicken. Levels of ARF were higher in brain than in non-neural tissues. In rat brain, on the second postnatal day, amounts of sARF I and II were similar. By the 10th postnatal day and thereafter, sARF II predominated. Relative levels of ARF determined by immunoreactivity were in agreement with levels assessed in functional assays of cholera toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Based on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of human and bovine cDNAs, there appear to be at least six different ARF-like genes. Northern blots of rat brain poly(A)+ RNA were hybridized with cDNA and oligonucleotide probes specific for each of the human and bovine ARF genes. From the second to the 27th postnatal day, ARF 3 mRNA increased, whereas mRNAs for ARFs 2 and 4 decreased; and those for ARFs 1, 5, and 6 were apparently unchanged. Partial amino acid sequence of sARF II is consistent with it being either the ARF 1 or 3 gene product. The developmental changes in rat brain ARF parallel neuronal maturation and synapse formation. PMID:1902473

  18. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 (ARF6) Promotes Acrosomal Exocytosis by Modulating Lipid Turnover and Rab3A Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Pelletán, Leonardo E.; Suhaiman, Laila; Vaquer, Cintia C.; Bustos, Matías A.; De Blas, Gerardo A.; Vitale, Nicolas; Mayorga, Luis S.; Belmonte, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Regulated secretion is a central issue for the specific function of many cells; for instance, mammalian sperm acrosomal exocytosis is essential for egg fertilization. ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) is a small GTPase implicated in exocytosis, but its downstream effectors remain elusive in this process. We combined biochemical, functional, and microscopy-based methods to show that ARF6 is present in human sperm, localizes to the acrosomal region, and is required for calcium and diacylglycerol-induced exocytosis. Results from pulldown assays show that ARF6 exchanges GDP for GTP in sperm challenged with different exocytic stimuli. Myristoylated and guanosine 5′-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPγS)-loaded ARF6 (active form) added to permeabilized sperm induces acrosome exocytosis even in the absence of extracellular calcium. We explore the ARF6 signaling cascade that promotes secretion. We demonstrate that ARF6 stimulates a sperm phospholipase D activity to produce phosphatidic acid and boosts the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. We present direct evidence showing that active ARF6 increases phospholipase C activity, causing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent intra-acrosomal calcium release. We show that active ARF6 increases the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rab3A, a prerequisite for secretion. We propose that exocytic stimuli activate ARF6, which is required for acrosomal calcium efflux and the assembly of the membrane fusion machinery. This report highlights the physiological importance of ARF6 as a key factor for human sperm exocytosis and fertilization. PMID:25713146

  19. GTP but not GDP analogues promote association of ADP-ribosylation factors, 20-kDa protein activators of cholera toxin, with phospholipids and PC-12 cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Walker, M W; Bobak, D A; Tsai, S C; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1992-02-15

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins initially identified by their ability to enhance cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in the presence of GTP. ARFs have been purified from both membrane and cytosolic fractions. ARF purified from bovine brain cytosol requires phospholipid plus detergent for high affinity guanine nucleotide binding and for optimal enhancement of cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The phospholipid requirements, combined with a putative role for ARF in vesicular transport, suggested that the soluble protein might interact reversibly with membranes. A polyclonal antibody against purified bovine ARF (sARF II) was used to detect ARF by immunoblot in membrane and soluble fractions from rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cell homogenates. ARF was predominantly cytosolic but increased in membranes during incubation of homogenates with nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), guanylyl-(beta gamma-imido)-diphosphate, and guanylyl-(beta gamma-methylene)-diphosphate, and to a lesser extent, adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). GTP, GDP, GMP, and ATP were inactive. Cytosolic ARF similarly associated with added phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, or cardiolipin in GTP gamma S-dependent fashion. ARF binding to phosphatidylserine was reversible and coincident with stimulation of cholera toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. These observations may reflect a mechanism by which ARF could cycle between soluble and membrane compartments in vivo. PMID:1737779

  20. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm. PMID:20435371

  1. Centaurin-alpha 1, an ADP-ribosylation factor 6 GTPase activating protein, inhibits beta 2-adrenoceptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Joanna; Mundell, Stuart J; Yun, Hongruo; Kelly, Eamonn; Venkateswarlu, Kanamarlapudi

    2005-06-01

    The small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) has recently been implicated in the internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), although its precise molecular mechanism in this process remains unclear. We have recently identified centaurin alpha(1) as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for ARF6. In the current study, we characterized the effects of centaurin alpha(1) on the agonist-induced internalization of the beta(2)-adrenoceptor transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as confocal imaging of cells, we found that expression of centaurin alpha(1) strongly inhibited the isoproterenol-induced internalization of beta(2)-adrenoceptor. On the other hand, expression of functionally inactive versions of centaurin alpha(1), including an R49C mutant, which has no catalytic activity, and a double pleckstrin homology (PH) mutant (DM; R148C/R273C), which has mutations in both the PH domains of centaurin alpha(1), rendering it unable to translocate to the cell membrane, were unable to inhibit beta(2)-adrenoceptor internalization. In addition, a constitutively active version of ARF6, ARF6Q67L, reversed the ability of centaurin alpha(1) to inhibit beta(2)-adrenoceptor internalization. Finally, expression of centaurin alpha(1) also inhibited the agonist-induced internalization of beta(2)-adrenoceptor endogenously expressed in HEK 293 cells, whereas the R49C and DM mutant versions of centaurin alpha(1) had no effect. Together, these data indicate that by acting as an ARF6 GAP, centaurin alpha(1) is able to switch off ARF6 and so inhibit its ability to mediate beta(2)-adrenoceptor internalization. Thus, ARF6 GAPs, such as centaurin alpha(1), are likely to play a crucial role in GPCR trafficking by modulating the activity of ARF6. PMID:15778454

  2. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of human ADP-ribosylation factors: two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, D A; Nightingale, M S; Murtagh, J J; Price, S R; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1989-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance the enzymatic activities of cholera toxin. Two ARF cDNAs, ARF1 and ARF3, were cloned from a human cerebellum library. Based on deduced amino acid sequences and patterns of hybridization of cDNA and oligonucleotide probes with mammalian brain poly(A)+ RNA, human ARF1 is the homologue of bovine ARF1. Human ARF3, which differs from bovine ARF1 and bovine ARF2, appears to represent a newly identified third type of ARF. Hybridization patterns of human ARF cDNA and clone-specific oligonucleotides with poly(A)+ RNA are consistent with the presence of at least two, and perhaps four, separate ARF messages in human brain. In vitro translation of ARF1, ARF2, and ARF3 produced proteins that behaved, by SDS/PAGE, similar to a purified soluble brain ARF. Deduced amino acid sequences of human ARF1 and ARF3 contain regions, similar to those in other G proteins, that are believed to be involved in GTP binding and hydrolysis. ARFs also exhibit a modest degree of homology with a bovine phospholipase C. The observations reported here support the conclusion that the ARFs are members of a multigene family of small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Definition of the regulation of ARF mRNAs and of function(s) of recombinant ARF proteins will aid in the elucidation of the physiologic role(s) of ARFs. Images PMID:2474826

  3. A Clickable Aminooxy Probe for Monitoring Cellular ADP-Ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Rory K.; Cohen, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is essential for cell function, yet there is a dearth of methods for detecting this post-translational modification in cells. Here, we describe a clickable aminooxy alkyne (AO-alkyne) probe that can detect cellular ADP-ribosylation on acidic amino acids following Cu-catalyzed conjugation to an azide-containing reporter. Using AO-alkyne, we show that PARP10 and PARP11 are auto-ADP-ribosylated in cells. We also demonstrate that AO-alkyne can be used to monitor stimulus-induced ADP-ribosylation in cells. Functional studies using AO-alkyne support a previously unknown mechanism for ADP-ribosylation on acidic amino acids, wherein a glutamate or aspartate at the initial C1′-position of ADP-ribose transfers to the C2′ position. This new mechanism for ADP-ribosylation has important implications for how glutamyl/aspartyl-ADP-ribose is recognized by proteins in cells. PMID:25978521

  4. Mechanism of activation of cholera toxin by ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF): both low- and high-affinity interactions of ARF with guanine nucleotides promote toxin activation.

    PubMed

    Bobak, D A; Bliziotes, M M; Noda, M; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Moss, J

    1990-01-30

    Activation of adenylyl cyclase by cholera toxin A subunit (CT-A) results from the ADP-ribosylation of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein (GS alpha). This process requires GTP and an endogenous guanine nucleotide binding protein known as ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF). One membrane (mARF) and two soluble forms (sARF I and sARF II) of ARF have been purified from bovine brain. Because the conditions reported to enhance the binding of guanine nucleotides by ARF differ from those observed to promote optimal activity, we sought to characterize the determinants influencing the functional interaction of guanine nucleotides with ARF. High-affinity GTP binding by sARF II (apparent KD of approximately 70 nM) required Mg2+, DMPC, and sodium cholate. sARF II, in DMPC/cholate, also enhanced CT-A ADP-ribosyltransferase activity (apparent EC50 for GTP of approximately 50 nM), although there was a delay before achievement of a maximal rate of sARF II stimulated toxin activity. The delay was abolished by incubation of sARF II with GTP at 30 degrees C before initiation of the assay. In contrast, a maximal rate of activation of toxin by sARF II, in 0.003% SDS, occurred without delay (apparent EC50 for GTP of approximately 5 microM). High-affinity GTP binding by sARF II was not detectable in SDS. Enhancement of CT-A ADP-ribosyltransferase activity by sARF II, therefore, can occur under conditions in which sARF II exhibits either a relatively low affinity or a relatively high affinity for GTP. The interaction of GTP with ARF under these conditions may reflect ways in which intracellular membrane and cytosolic environments modulate GTP-mediated activation of ARF. PMID:2111167

  5. Arginine-Specific Mono ADP-Ribosylation In Vitro of Antimicrobial Peptides by ADP-Ribosylating Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Castagnini, Marta; Picchianti, Monica; Talluri, Eleonora; Biagini, Massimiliano; Del Vecchio, Mariangela; Di Procolo, Paolo; Norais, Nathalie; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Balducci, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Among the several toxins used by pathogenic bacteria to target eukaryotic host cells, proteins that exert ADP-ribosylation activity represent a large and studied family of dangerous and potentially lethal toxins. These proteins alter cell physiology catalyzing the transfer of the ADP-ribose unit from NAD to cellular proteins involved in key metabolic pathways. In the present study, we tested the capability of four of these toxins, to ADP-ribosylate α- and β- defensins. Cholera toxin (CT) from Vibrio cholerae and heat labile enterotoxin (LT) from Escherichia coli both modified the human α-defensin (HNP-1) and β- defensin-1 (HBD1), as efficiently as the mammalian mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase-1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S was inactive on both HNP-1 and HBD1. Neisseria meningitidis NarE poorly recognized HNP-1 as a substrate but it was completely inactive on HBD1. On the other hand, HNP-1 strongly influenced NarE inhibiting its transferase activity while enhancing auto-ADP-ribosylation. We conclude that only some arginine-specific ADP-ribosylating toxins recognize defensins as substrates in vitro. Modifications that alter the biological activities of antimicrobial peptides may be relevant for the innate immune response. In particular, ADP-ribosylation of antimicrobial peptides may represent a novel escape mechanism adopted by pathogens to facilitate colonization of host tissues. PMID:22879887

  6. Structure-based Mechanism of ADP-ribosylation by Sirtuins

    SciTech Connect

    Hawse, William F.; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2009-12-01

    Sirtuins comprise a family of enzymes found in all organisms, where they play a role in diverse processes including transcriptional silencing, aging, regulation of transcription, and metabolism. The predominant reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is NAD{sup +}-dependent lysine deacetylation, although some sirtuins exhibit a weaker ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Although the Sir2 deacetylation mechanism is well established, much less is known about the Sir2 ADP-ribosylation reaction. We have studied the ADP-ribosylation activity of a bacterial sirtuin, Sir2Tm, and show that acetylated peptides containing arginine or lysine 2 residues C-terminal to the acetyl lysine, the +2 position, are preferentially ADP-ribosylated at the +2 residue. A structure of Sir2Tm bound to the acetylated +2 arginine peptide shows how this arginine could enter the active site and react with a deacetylation reaction intermediate to yield an ADP-ribosylated peptide. The new biochemical and structural studies presented here provide mechanistic insights into the Sir2 ADP-ribosylation reaction and will aid in identifying substrates of this reaction.

  7. ADP-ribosylation of proteins: Enzymology and biological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Althaus, F.R.; Richter, C.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the molecular and biological consequences of the posttranslational modification of proteins with ADP-ribose monomers and polymers. Part one focuses on chromatin-associated poly ADP-ribosylation reactions which have evolved in higher eukaryotes as modulators of chromatin functions. The significance of poly ADP-ribosylation in DNA repair, carcinogenesis, and gene expression during terminal differentiation is discussed. Part two reviews mono ADP-ribosylation reactions which are catalyzed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes. Consideration is given to the action of bacterial toxins, such as cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and diphtheria toxin. These toxins have emerged as tools for the molecular probing of proteins involved in signal transduction and protein biosynthesis.

  8. PARPs and ADP-Ribosylation: Fifty Years… and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, W. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over 50 years ago, the discovery of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) set a new field of science in motion - the field of poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases (PARPs) and ADP-ribosylation. The field is still flourishing today. The diversity of biological processes now known to require PARPs and ADP-ribosylation was practically unimaginable even two decades ago. From an initial focus on DNA damage detection and repair in response to genotoxic stresses, the field has expanded to include the regulation of chromatin structure, gene expression, and RNA processing in a wide range of biological systems, including reproduction, development, aging, stem cells, inflammation, metabolism, and cancer. This special focus issue of Molecular Cell includes a collection of three Reviews, three Perspectives, and a SnapShot, which together summarize the current state of the field and suggest where it may be headed. PMID:26091339

  9. Intracellular Mono-ADP-Ribosylation in Signaling and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bütepage, Mareike; Eckei, Laura; Verheugd, Patricia; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A key process in the regulation of protein activities and thus cellular signaling pathways is the modification of proteins by post-translational mechanisms. Knowledge about the enzymes (writers and erasers) that attach and remove post-translational modifications, the targets that are modified and the functional consequences elicited by specific modifications, is crucial for understanding cell biological processes. Moreover detailed knowledge about these mechanisms and pathways helps to elucidate the molecular causes of various diseases and in defining potential targets for therapeutic approaches. Intracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation refers to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent modification of proteins with ADP-ribose and is catalyzed by enzymes of the ARTD (ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin like, also known as PARP) family as well as some members of the Sirtuin family. Poly-ADP-ribosylation is relatively well understood with inhibitors being used as anti-cancer agents. However, the majority of ARTD enzymes and the ADP-ribosylating Sirtuins are restricted to catalyzing mono-ADP-ribosylation. Although writers, readers and erasers of intracellular mono-ADP-ribosylation have been identified only recently, it is becoming more and more evident that this reversible post-translational modification is capable of modulating key intracellular processes and signaling pathways. These include signal transduction mechanisms, stress pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and stress granules, and chromatin-associated processes such as transcription and DNA repair. We hypothesize that mono-ADP-ribosylation controls, through these different pathways, the development of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26426055

  10. The Structure of RalF, an ADP-Ribosylation Factor Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor from Legionella pneumophila, Reveals the Presence of a Cap over the Active Site

    SciTech Connect

    Amor,J.; Swails, J.; Zhu, X.; Roy, C.; Nagai, H.; Ingmundson, A.; Cheng, X.; Kahn, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Legionella pneumophila protein RalF is secreted into host cytosol via the Dot/Icm type IV transporter where it acts to recruit ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) to pathogen-containing phagosomes in the establishment of a replicative organelle. The presence in RalF of the Sec7 domain, present in all Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors, has suggested that recruitment of Arf is an early step in pathogenesis. We have determined the crystal structure of RalF and of the isolated Sec7 domain and found that RalF is made up of two domains. The Sec7 domain is homologous to mammalian Sec7 domains. The C-terminal domain forms a cap over the active site in the Sec7 domain and contains a conserved folding motif, previously observed in adaptor subunits of vesicle coat complexes. The importance of the capping domain and of the glutamate in the 'glutamic finger,' conserved in all Sec7 domains, to RalF functions was examined using three different assays. These data highlight the functional importance of domains other than Sec7 in Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors to biological activities and suggest novel mechanisms of regulation of those activities.

  11. Quantitative site-specific ADP-ribosylation profiling of DNA-dependent PARPs.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Ethier, Chantal; Defoy, Daniel; Bourassa, Sylvie; Langelier, Marie-France; Riccio, Amanda A; Pascal, John M; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Foster, Leonard J; Ning, Zhibin; Figeys, Daniel; Droit, Arnaud; Poirier, Guy G

    2015-06-01

    An important feature of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) is their ability to readily undergo automodification upon activation. Although a growing number of substrates were found to be poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated, including histones and several DNA damage response factors, PARPs themselves are still considered as the main acceptors of poly(ADP-ribose). By monitoring spectral counts of specific hydroxamic acid signatures generated after the conversion of the ADP-ribose modification onto peptides by hydroxylamine hydrolysis, we undertook a thorough mass spectrometry mapping of the glutamate and aspartate ADP-ribosylation sites onto automodified PARP-1, PARP-2 and PARP-3. Thousands of hydroxamic acid-conjugated peptides were identified with high confidence and ranked based on their spectral count. This semi-quantitative approach allowed us to locate the preferentially targeted residues in DNA-dependent PARPs. In contrast to what has been reported in the literature, automodification of PARP-1 is not predominantly targeted towards its BRCT domain. Our results show that interdomain linker regions that connect the BRCT to the WGR module and the WGR to the PRD domain undergo prominent ADP-ribosylation during PARP-1 automodification. We also found that PARP-1 efficiently automodifies the D-loop structure within its own catalytic fold. Interestingly, additional major ADP-ribosylation sites were identified in functional domains of PARP-1, including all three zinc fingers. Similar to PARP-1, specific residues located within the catalytic sites of PARP-2 and PARP-3 are major targets of automodification following their DNA-dependent activation. Together our results suggest that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation hot spots make a dominant contribution to the overall automodification process. PMID:25800440

  12. ARNO3, a Sec7-domain guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP ribosylation factor 1, is involved in the control of Golgi structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Michel; Boretto, Joëlle; Robineau, Sylviane; Monier, Solange; Goud, Bruno; Chardin, Pierre; Chavrier, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    Budding of transport vesicles in the Golgi apparatus requires the recruitment of coat proteins and is regulated by ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) 1. ARF1 activation is promoted by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which catalyze the transition to GTP-bound ARF1. We recently have identified a human protein, ARNO (ARF nucleotide-binding-site opener), as an ARF1-GEF that shares a conserved domain with the yeast Sec7 protein. We now describe a human Sec7 domain-containing GEF referred to as ARNO3. ARNO and ARNO3, as well as a third GEF called cytohesin-1, form a family of highly related proteins with identical structural organization that consists of a central Sec7 domain and a carboxy-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. We show that all three proteins act as ARF1 GEF in vitro, whereas they have no effect on ARF6, an ARF protein implicated in the early endocytic pathway. Substrate specificity of ARNO-like GEFs for ARF1 depends solely on the Sec7 domain. Overexpression of ARNO3 in mammalian cells results in (i) fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus, (ii) redistribution of Golgi resident proteins as well as the coat component β-COP, and (iii) inhibition of SEAP transport (secreted form of alkaline phosphatase). In contrast, the distribution of endocytic markers is not affected. This study indicates that Sec7 domain-containing GEFs control intracellular membrane compartment structure and function through the regulation of specific ARF proteins in mammalian cells. PMID:9707577

  13. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 6 Acts as an Allosteric Activator for the Folded but not Disordered Cholera Toxin A1 Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Taylor, Michael; Jobling, Michael G.; Burress, Helen; Yang, ZhiJie; Serrano, Albert; Holmes, Randall K.; Tatulian, Suren A.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Summary The catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CTA1) has a disordered structure at 37°C. An interaction with host factors must therefore place CTA1 in a folded conformation for the modification of its Gsα target which resides in a lipid raft environment. Host ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) act as in vitro allosteric activators of CTA1, but the molecular events of this process are not fully characterized. Isotope-edited Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy monitored ARF6-induced structural changes to CTA1, which were correlated to changes in CTA1 activity. We found ARF6 prevents the thermal disordering of structured CTA1 and stimulates the activity of stabilized CTA1 over a range of temperatures. Yet ARF6 alone did not promote the refolding of disordered CTA1 to an active state. Instead, lipid rafts shifted disordered CTA1 to a folded conformation with a basal level of activity that could be further stimulated by ARF6. Thus, ARF alone is unable to activate disordered CTA1 at physiological temperature: additional host factors such as lipid rafts place CTA1 in the folded conformation required for its ARF-mediated activation. Interaction with ARF is required for in vivo toxin activity, as enzymatically active CTA1 mutants that cannot be further stimulated by ARF6 fail to intoxicate cultured cells. PMID:25257027

  14. ADP-ribosylation factor arf6p may function as a molecular switch of new end take off in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    Small GTPases act as molecular switches in a wide variety of cellular processes. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the directions of cell growth change from a monopolar manner to a bipolar manner, which is known as 'New End Take Off' (NETO). Here I report the identification of a gene, arf6{sup +}, encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPase, that may be essential for NETO. arf6{delta} cells completely fail to undergo NETO. arf6p localizes at both cell ends and presumptive septa in a cell-cycle dependent manner. And its polarized localization is not dependent on microtubules, actin cytoskeletons and some NETO factors (bud6p, for3p, tea1p, tea3p, and tea4p). Notably, overexpression of a fast GDP/GTP-cycling mutant of arf6p can advance the timing of NETO. These findings suggest that arf6p functions as a molecular switch for the activation of NETO in fission yeast.

  15. Auto ADP-ribosylation of NarE, a Neisseria meningitidis ADP-ribosyltransferase, regulates its catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Picchianti, Monica; Del Vecchio, Mariangela; Di Marcello, Federica; Biagini, Massimiliano; Veggi, Daniele; Norais, Nathalie; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Balducci, Enrico

    2013-12-01

    NarE is an arginine-specific mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase identified in Neisseria meningitidis that requires the presence of iron in a structured cluster for its enzymatic activities. In this study, we show that NarE can perform auto-ADP-ribosylation. This automodification occurred in a time- and NAD-concentration-dependent manner; was inhibited by novobiocin, an ADP-ribosyltransferase inhibitor; and did not occur when NarE was heat inactivated. No reduction in incorporation was evidenced in the presence of high concentrations of ATP, GTP, ADP-ribose, or nicotinamide, which inhibits NAD-glycohydrolase, impeding the formation of free ADP-ribose. Based on the electrophoretic profile of NarE on auto-ADP-ribosylation and on the results of mutagenesis and mass spectrometry analysis, the auto-ADP-ribosylation appeared to be restricted to the addition of a single ADP-ribose. Chemical stability experiments showed that the ADP-ribosyl linkage was sensitive to hydroxylamine, which breaks ADP-ribose-arginine bonds. Site-directed mutagenesis suggested that the auto-ADP-ribosylation site occurred preferentially on the R(7) residue, which is located in the region I of the ADP-ribosyltransferase family. After auto-ADP-ribosylation, NarE showed a reduction in ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, while NAD-glycohydrolase activity was increased. Overall, our findings provide evidence for a novel intramolecular mechanism used by NarE to regulate its enzymatic activities. PMID:23964075

  16. Analysis of Chromatin ADP-Ribosylation at the Genome-wide Level and at Specific Loci by ADPr-ChAP.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Giody; Leutert, Mario; Manzo, Massimiliano; Baubec, Tuncay; Hottiger, Michael O

    2016-02-01

    Chromatin ADP-ribosylation regulates important cellular processes. However, the exact location and magnitude of chromatin ADP-ribosylation are largely unknown. A robust and versatile method for assessing chromatin ADP-ribosylation is therefore crucial for further understanding its function. Here, we present a chromatin affinity precipitation method based on the high specificity and avidity of two well-characterized ADP-ribose binding domains to map chromatin ADP-ribosylation at the genome-wide scale and at specific loci. Our ADPr-ChAP method revealed that in cells exposed to oxidative stress, ADP-ribosylation of chromatin scales with histone density, with highest levels at heterochromatic sites and depletion at active promoters. Furthermore, in growth factor-induced adipocyte differentiation, increased chromatin ADP-ribosylation was observed at PPARγ target genes, whose expression is ADP-ribosylation dependent. In combination with deep-sequencing and conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation, the established ADPr-ChAP provides a valuable resource for the bioinformatic comparison of ADP-ribosylation with other chromatin modifications and for addressing its role in other biologically important processes. PMID:26833088

  17. ADP-ribosylation factor 1 expression regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and predicts poor clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schlienger, Sabrina; Campbell, Shirley; Pasquin, Sarah; Gaboury, Louis; Claing, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic capacities are fundamental features of tumor malignancy. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 1 has emerged as a key regulator of invasion in breast cancer cells. However, the importance of this GTPase, in vivo, remains to be demonstrated. We report that ARF1 is highly expressed in breast tumors of the most aggressive and advanced subtypes. Furthermore, we show that lowered expression of ARF1 impairs growth of primary tumors and inhibits lung metastasis in a murine xenograft model. To understand how ARF1 contributes to invasiveness, we used a poorly invasive breast cancer cell line, MCF7 (ER+), and examined the effects of overexpressing ARF1 to levels similar to that found in invasive cell lines. We demonstrate that ARF1 overexpression leads to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanistically, ARF1 controls cell–cell adhesion through ß-catenin and E-cadherin, oncogenic Ras activation and expression of EMT inducers. We further show that ARF1 overexpression enhances invasion, proliferation and resistance to a chemotherapeutic agent. In vivo, ARF1 overexpressing MCF7 cells are able to form more metastases to the lung. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ARF1 is a molecular switch for cancer progression and thus suggest that limiting the expression/activation of this GTPase could help improve outcome for breast cancer patients. PMID:26908458

  18. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex through FIP3/Arfophilin-1-dependent Endosomal Trafficking of N-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yoshinobu; Fukaya, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Kawauchi, Takeshi; Nakajima, Kazunori; Sakagami, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 family-interacting protein 3 (FIP3)/Arfophilin-1, a dual effector for Arf6 and Rab11, as a downstream effector of Arf6 in migrating neurons. The knockdown of FIP3 led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin in migrating neurons, similar to that of Arf6, which could be rescued by the coexpression of wild-type FIP3 but not FIP3 mutants lacking the binding site for Arf6 or Rab11. These results suggest that Arf6 regulates cortical neuronal migration in the intermediate zone through the FIP3-dependent endosomal trafficking. PMID:27622210

  19. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex through FIP3/Arfophilin-1-dependent Endosomal Trafficking of N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yoshinobu; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 family-interacting protein 3 (FIP3)/Arfophilin-1, a dual effector for Arf6 and Rab11, as a downstream effector of Arf6 in migrating neurons. The knockdown of FIP3 led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin in migrating neurons, similar to that of Arf6, which could be rescued by the coexpression of wild-type FIP3 but not FIP3 mutants lacking the binding site for Arf6 or Rab11. These results suggest that Arf6 regulates cortical neuronal migration in the intermediate zone through the FIP3-dependent endosomal trafficking. PMID:27622210

  20. ADP-ribosylation factor 1 expression regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and predicts poor clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schlienger, Sabrina; Campbell, Shirley; Pasquin, Sarah; Gaboury, Louis; Claing, Audrey

    2016-03-29

    Metastatic capacities are fundamental features of tumor malignancy. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 1 has emerged as a key regulator of invasion in breast cancer cells. However, the importance of this GTPase, in vivo, remains to be demonstrated. We report that ARF1 is highly expressed in breast tumors of the most aggressive and advanced subtypes. Furthermore, we show that lowered expression of ARF1 impairs growth of primary tumors and inhibits lung metastasis in a murine xenograft model. To understand how ARF1 contributes to invasiveness, we used a poorly invasive breast cancer cell line, MCF7 (ER+), and examined the effects of overexpressing ARF1 to levels similar to that found in invasive cell lines. We demonstrate that ARF1 overexpression leads to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanistically, ARF1 controls cell-cell adhesion through ß-catenin and E-cadherin, oncogenic Ras activation and expression of EMT inducers. We further show that ARF1 overexpression enhances invasion, proliferation and resistance to a chemotherapeutic agent. In vivo, ARF1 overexpressing MCF7 cells are able to form more metastases to the lung. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ARF1 is a molecular switch for cancer progression and thus suggest that limiting the expression/activation of this GTPase could help improve outcome for breast cancer patients. PMID:26908458

  1. Nuclear localization and molecular partners of BIG1, a brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP-ribosylation factors.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Philip Ian; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2004-03-01

    Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 1 (BIG1) is an approximately 200-kDa brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein that preferentially activates ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) and ARF3. BIG1 was found in cytosol in a multiprotein complex with a similar ARF-activating protein, BIG2, which is also an A kinase-anchoring protein. In HepG2 cells growing with serum, BIG1 was primarily cytosolic and Golgi-associated. After incubation overnight without serum, a large fraction of endogenous BIG1 was in the nuclei. By confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, BIG1 was localized with nucleoporin p62 at the nuclear envelope (probably during nucleocytoplasmic transport) and also in nucleoli, clearly visible against the less concentrated overall matrix staining. BIG1 was also identified by Western blot analyses in purified subnuclear fractions (e.g., nucleoli and nuclear matrix). Antibodies against BIG1, nucleoporin, or nucleolin coimmunoprecipitated the other two proteins from purified nuclei. In contrast, BIG2 was not associated with nuclear BIG1. Also of note, ARF was never detected among proteins precipitated from purified nuclei by anti-BIG1 antibodies, although microscopically the two proteins do appear sometimes to be colocalized in the nucleus. These data are consistent with independent intracellular movements and actions of BIG1 and BIG2, and they are also evidence of the participation of BIG1 in both Golgi and nuclear functions. PMID:14973189

  2. GB virus type C E2 protein inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag assembly by downregulating human ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenliang; Timmons, Christine L.; Shao, Qiujia; Kinlock, Ballington L.; Turner, Tiffany M.; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Huanliang; Liu, Bindong

    2015-01-01

    GB virus type C (GBV-C) glycoprotein E2 protein disrupts HIV-1 assembly and release by inhibiting Gag plasma membrane targeting, however the mechanism by which the GBV-C E2 inhibits Gag trafficking remains unclear. In the present study, we identified ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) contributed to the inhibitory effect of GBV-C E2 on HIV-1 Gag membrane targeting. Expression of GBV-C E2 decreased ARF1 expression in a proteasomal degradation-dependent manner. The restoration of ARF1 expression rescued the HIV-1 Gag processing and membrane targeting defect imposed by GBV-C E2. In addition, GBV-C E2 expression also altered Golgi morphology and suppressed protein traffic through the secretory pathway, which are all consistent with a phenotype of disrupting the function of ARF1 protein. Thus, our results indicate that GBV-C E2 inhibits HIV-1 assembly and release by decreasing ARF1, and may provide insights regarding GBV-C E2's potential for a new therapeutic approach for treating HIV-1. PMID:26675377

  3. ADP-ribosylation of transducin by pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, P.A.; Burns, D.L.; Kanaho, Y.; Liu, T.Y.; Hewlett, E.L.; Moss, J.

    1985-11-05

    Transducin, the guanyl nucleotide-binding regulatory protein of retinal rod outer segments that couples the photon receptor, rhodopsin, with the light-activated cGMP phosphodiesterase, can be resolved into two functional components, T alpha and T beta gamma. T alpha (39 kDa), which is (TSP)ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin and (TSP)NAD in rod outer segments and in purified transducin, was also labeled by the toxin after separation from T beta gamma (36 kDa and approximately 10 kDa); neither component of T beta gamma was a pertussis toxin substrate. Labeling of T alpha was enhanced by T beta gamma and was maximal at approximately 1:1 molar ratio of T alpha : T beta gamma. Limited proteolysis by trypsin of T alpha in the presence of guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) resulted in the sequential appearance of proteins of 38 and TS kDa. The amino terminus of both 38- and TS-kDa proteins was leucine, whereas that of T alpha could not be identified and was assumed to be blocked. The TS-kDa peptide was not a pertussis toxin substrate. Labeling of the 38-kDa protein was poor and was not enhanced by T beta gamma. Trypsin treatment of (TSP)ADP-ribosyl-T alpha produced a labeled 37-38-kDa doublet followed by appearance of radioactivity at the dye front. It appears, therefore, that, although the 38-kDa protein was poor toxin substrate, it contained the ADP-ribosylation site. Without rhodopsin, labeling of T alpha (in the presence of T beta gamma) was unaffected by Gpp(NH)p, guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S), GTP, GDP, and guanosine 5'-O-(thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S) but was increased by ATP. When photolyzed rhodopsin and T beta gamma were present, Gpp(NH)p and GTP gamma S decreased (TSP)ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin. Thus, pertussis toxin-catalyzed (TSP)ADP-ribosylation of T alpha was affected by nucleotides, rhodopsin and light in addition to T beta gamma.

  4. The natural history of ADP-ribosyltransferases and the ADP-ribosylation system.

    PubMed

    Aravind, L; Zhang, Dapeng; de Souza, Robson F; Anand, Swadha; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M

    2015-01-01

    Catalysis of NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosylation of proteins, nucleic acids, or small molecules has evolved in at least three structurally unrelated superfamilies of enzymes, namely ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART), the Sirtuins, and probably TM1506. Of these, the ART superfamily is the most diverse in terms of structure, active site residues, and targets that they modify. The primary diversification of the ART superfamily occurred in the context of diverse bacterial conflict systems, wherein ARTs play both offensive and defensive roles. These include toxin-antitoxin systems, virus-host interactions, intraspecific antagonism (polymorphic toxins), symbiont/parasite effectors/toxins, resistance to antibiotics, and repair of RNAs cleaved in conflicts. ARTs evolving in these systems have been repeatedly acquired by lateral transfer throughout eukaryotic evolution, starting from the PARP family, which was acquired prior to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. They were incorporated into eukaryotic regulatory/epigenetic control systems (e.g., PARP family and NEURL4), and also used as defensive (e.g., pierisin and CARP-1 families) or immunity-related proteins (e.g., Gig2-like ARTs). The ADP-ribosylation system also includes other domains, such as the Macro, ADP-ribosyl glycohydrolase, NADAR, and ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which appear to have initially diversified in bacterial conflict-related systems. Unlike ARTs, sirtuins appear to have a much smaller presence in conflict-related systems. PMID:25027823

  5. 50Years of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.

    PubMed

    Virág, László

    2013-12-01

    The seminal paper published in 1963 by Chambon, Weil and Mandel reporting a new NAD-dependent protein modification now known as poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) marked the launch of a new era in both protein research and cell biology. In the coming decades, the identity, biochemical characteristics and regulation of enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of protein-bound poly(ADP-ribose) have been discovered and the surprisingly multifarious biological roles of PARylation have not ceased to amaze cell and molecular biologists ever since. The review series on PARylation following this preface is comprised of ten papers written by great experts of the field and aims to provide practicing physicians and basic scientists with the state-of-the-art on the "writers, readers and erasers" of poly(ADP-ribose), some recent paradigm shifts of the field and its translational potential. PMID:23727362

  6. Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in butterflies and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed. PMID:25033755

  7. HPF1/C4orf27 Is a PARP-1-Interacting Protein that Regulates PARP-1 ADP-Ribosylation Activity.

    PubMed

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Fontana, Pietro; Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    We report the identification of histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1; also known as C4orf27) as a regulator of ADP-ribosylation signaling in the DNA damage response. HPF1/C4orf27 forms a robust protein complex with PARP-1 in cells and is recruited to DNA lesions in a PARP-1-dependent manner, but independently of PARP-1 catalytic ADP-ribosylation activity. Functionally, HPF1 promotes PARP-1-dependent in trans ADP-ribosylation of histones and limits DNA damage-induced hyper-automodification of PARP-1. Human cells lacking HPF1 exhibit sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and PARP inhibition, thereby suggesting an important role for HPF1 in genome maintenance and regulating the efficacy of PARP inhibitors. Collectively, our results demonstrate how a fundamental step in PARP-1-dependent ADP-ribosylation signaling is regulated and suggest that HPF1 functions at the crossroads of histone ADP-ribosylation and PARP-1 automodification. PMID:27067600

  8. HPF1/C4orf27 Is a PARP-1-Interacting Protein that Regulates PARP-1 ADP-Ribosylation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Fontana, Pietro; Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Summary We report the identification of histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1; also known as C4orf27) as a regulator of ADP-ribosylation signaling in the DNA damage response. HPF1/C4orf27 forms a robust protein complex with PARP-1 in cells and is recruited to DNA lesions in a PARP-1-dependent manner, but independently of PARP-1 catalytic ADP-ribosylation activity. Functionally, HPF1 promotes PARP-1-dependent in trans ADP-ribosylation of histones and limits DNA damage-induced hyper-automodification of PARP-1. Human cells lacking HPF1 exhibit sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and PARP inhibition, thereby suggesting an important role for HPF1 in genome maintenance and regulating the efficacy of PARP inhibitors. Collectively, our results demonstrate how a fundamental step in PARP-1-dependent ADP-ribosylation signaling is regulated and suggest that HPF1 functions at the crossroads of histone ADP-ribosylation and PARP-1 automodification. PMID:27067600

  9. The Promise of Proteomics for the Study of ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Casey M.; Ong, Shao-En; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification where single units (mono-ADP-ribosylation) or polymeric chains (poly-ADP-ribosylation) of ADP-ribose are conjugated to proteins by ADP-ribosyltransferases. This post-translational modification and the ADP-ribosyltransferases (also known as PARPs) responsible for its synthesis have been found to play a role in nearly all major cellular processes, including DNA repair, transcription, translation, cell signaling and cell death. Furthermore, dysregulation of ADP-ribosylation has been linked to diseases including cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders and heart failure, leading to the development of therapeutic PARP inhibitors, many of which are currently in clinical trials. The study of this therapeutically important modification has recently been bolstered by the application of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, arguably the most powerful tool for the unbiased analysis of protein modifications. Unfortunately, progress has been hampered by the inherent challenges that stem from the physicochemical properties of ADP-ribose which as a post-translational modification is highly charged, heterogeneous (linear or branched polymers, as well as monomers), labile, and found on a wide range of amino acid acceptors. In this perspective, we discuss the progress that has been made in addressing these challenges, including the recent breakthroughs in proteomics techniques to identify ADP-ribosylation sites, and future developments to provide a proteome-wide view of the many cellular processes regulated by ADP-ribosylation. PMID:26091340

  10. Characterization of ADP ribosylation factor 1 gene from Exopalaemon carinicauda and its immune response to pathogens challenge and ammonia-N stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jitao; Liu, Ping

    2016-08-01

    ADP ribosylation factors (Arf), as highly conserved small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins, participates in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. In this study, a full-length cDNA of Arf1 (designated EcArf1) was cloned from Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EcArf1 was 1428 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 549 bp, encoding a 182 amino-acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 20.69 kDa and estimated isoelectric point was 7.24. Sequence analysis revealed that the conserved Arf protein family signatures were identified in EcArf1. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcArf1 shared high identity (95%-98%) with that of other species and clustered together with Arf1 of other shrimp in the NJ phylogenetic tree, indicating that EcArf1 should be a member of the Arf1 family. Quantitative real-time RT-qPCR analysis indicated that EcArf1 was expressed in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, muscle, ovary, intestine, stomach and heart, and the most abundant level was in hemocytes and gills, which were also the two main target tissues of pathogen infection and environmental stress. After Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge, EcArf1 transcripts level significantly increased in hemocytes and hepatopancreas at 3 h and 6 h, respectively. The expression of EcArf1 in hemocytes and hepatopancreas significantly up-regulated at 12 h and 6 h respectively, and down-regulated at 72 h and 48 h, respectively. EcArf1 expression in hepatopancreas and gills both significantly increased at 6 h and decreased at 24 h under ammonia-N stress. The results suggested that EcArf1 might be involved in immune responses to pathogens (V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV) challenge and ammonia-N stress in E. carinicauda. PMID:27231192

  11. Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation Affects Histone Acetylation and Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Verdone, Loredana; La Fortezza, Marco; Ciccarone, Fabio; Caiafa, Paola; Zampieri, Michele; Caserta, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a posttranslational protein modification catalyzed by members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme family. PARylation regulates a wide variety of biological processes in most eukaryotic cells including energy metabolism and cell death, maintenance of genomic stability, chromatin structure and transcription. Inside the nucleus, cross-talk between PARylation and other epigenetic modifications, such as DNA and histone methylation, was already described. In the present work, using PJ34 or ABT888 to inhibit PARP activity or over-expressing poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), we show decrease of global histone H3 and H4 acetylation. This effect is accompanied by a reduction of the steady state mRNA level of p300, Pcaf, and Tnfα, but not of Dnmt1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses, performed at the level of the Transcription Start Site (TSS) of these four genes, reveal that changes in histone acetylation are specific for each promoter. Finally, we demonstrate an increase of global deacetylase activity in nuclear extracts from cells treated with PJ34, whereas global acetyltransferase activity is not affected, suggesting a role for PARP in the inhibition of histone deacetylases. Taken together, these results show an important link between PARylation and histone acetylation regulated transcription. PMID:26636673

  12. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in the regulation of nuclear functions.

    PubMed Central

    D'Amours, D; Desnoyers, S; D'Silva, I; Poirier, G G

    1999-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins. During this process, molecules of ADP-ribose are added successively on to acceptor proteins to form branched polymers. This modification is transient but very extensive in vivo, as polymer chains can reach more than 200 units on protein acceptors. The existence of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymer was first reported nearly 40 years ago. Since then, the importance of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis has been established in many cellular processes. However, a clear and unified picture of the physiological role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation still remains to be established. The total dependence of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis on DNA strand breaks strongly suggests that this post-translational modification is involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids. This view is also supported by the identification of direct protein-protein interactions involving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (113 kDa PARP), an enzyme catalysing the formation of poly(ADP-ribose), and key effectors of DNA repair, replication and transcription reactions. The presence of PARP in these multiprotein complexes, in addition to the actual poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of some components of these complexes, clearly supports an important role for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in DNA transactions. Accordingly, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis by any of several approaches and the analysis of PARP-deficient cells has revealed that the absence of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation strongly affects DNA metabolism, most notably DNA repair. The recent identification of new poly(ADP-ribosyl)ating enzymes with distinct (non-standard) structures in eukaryotes and archaea has revealed a novel level of complexity in the regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism. PMID:10455009

  13. State of the art of protein mono-ADP-ribosylation: biological role and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Gaia; Scarpa, Emanuele Salvatore; Di Girolamo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that was discovered more than five decades ago, and it consists of the enzymatic transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD⁺ to acceptor proteins. In viruses and prokaryotes, mono-ADP-ribosylation is mainly, but not exclusively, a mechanism used to take control of the host cell. In mammals, mono-ADP-ribosylation serves to regulate protein functions, and it is catalysed by two families of toxin-related cellular ADP-ribosyltransferases: ecto-enzymes that modify various cell-surface proteins, like integrins and receptors, and intracellular enzymes that act on a variety of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. These two families have been recently renamed the ARTCs (clostridia toxin like) and ARTDs (diphtheria toxin like), depending on their conserved structural features, and in terms of their relationships to the bacterial toxins. In addition, two members of the structurally non-related sirtuin family can also modify cellular proteins by mono-ADP-ribosylation. Recently, new examples of ADP-ribosylation of proteins involved in signal transduction and intracellular trafficking have been discovered, thus opening the route to the better molecular understanding of this reaction and of its role in human cell physiology and pathology. PMID:25553458

  14. Microtubule protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro leads to assembly inhibition and rapid depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Scaife, R.M. ); Wilson, L. ); Purich, D.L. )

    1992-01-14

    Bovine brain microtubule protein, containing both tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, undergoes ADP-ribosylation in the presence of ({sup 14}C)NAD{sup +} and a turkey erythrocyte mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase in vitro. The modification reaction could be demonstrated in crude brain tissue extracts where selective ADP-ribosylation of both the {alpha} and {beta} chains of tubulin and of the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 occurred. In experiments with purified microtubule protein, tubulin dimer, the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2, and another high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein which may be a MAP-1 species were heavily labeled. Tubulin and MAP-2 incorporated ({sup 14}C)ADP-ribose to an average extent of approximately 2.4 and 30 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of protein, respectively. Assembly of microtubule protein into microtubules in vitro was inhibited by ADP-ribosylation, and incubation of assembled steady-state microtubules with ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD{sup +} resulted in rapid depolymerization of the microtubules. Thus, the eukaryotic enzyme can ADP-ribosylate tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins to much greater extents than previously observed with cholera and pertussis toxins, and the modification can significantly modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

  15. Role of NAD+ and ADP-Ribosylation in the Maintenance of the Golgi Structure

    PubMed Central

    Mironov, Alexander; Colanzi, Antonino; Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Fiucci, Giusy; Flati, Silvio; Fusella, Aurora; Polishchuk, Roman; Mironov, Alexander; Tullio, Giuseppe Di; Weigert, Roberto; Malhotra, Vivek; Corda, Daniela; Matteis, Maria Antonietta De; Luini, Alberto

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the ADP- ribosylation induced by brefeldin A (BFA) in the mechanisms controlling the architecture of the Golgi complex. BFA causes the rapid disassembly of this organelle into a network of tubules, prevents the association of coatomer and other proteins to Golgi membranes, and stimulates the ADP-ribosylation of two cytosolic proteins of 38 and 50 kD (GAPDH and BARS-50; De Matteis, M.A., M. DiGirolamo, A. Colanzi, M. Pallas, G. Di Tullio, L.J. McDonald, J. Moss, G. Santini, S. Bannykh, D. Corda, and A. Luini. 1994. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 91:1114–1118; Di Girolamo, M., M.G. Silletta, M.A. De Matteis, A. Braca, A. Colanzi, D. Pawlak, M.M. Rasenick, A. Luini, and D. Corda. 1995. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92:7065–7069). To study the role of ADP-ribosylation, this reaction was inhibited by depletion of NAD+ (the ADP-ribose donor) or by using selective pharmacological blockers in permeabilized cells. In NAD+-depleted cells and in the presence of dialized cytosol, BFA detached coat proteins from Golgi membranes with normal potency but failed to alter the organelle's structure. Readdition of NAD+ triggered Golgi disassembly by BFA. This effect of NAD+ was mimicked by the use of pre–ADP- ribosylated cytosol. The further addition of extracts enriched in native BARS-50 abolished the ability of ADP-ribosylated cytosol to support the effect of BFA. Pharmacological blockers of the BFA-dependent ADP-ribosylation (Weigert, R., A. Colanzi, A. Mironov, R. Buccione, C. Cericola, M.G. Sciulli, G. Santini, S. Flati, A. Fusella, J. Donaldson, M. DiGirolamo, D. Corda, M.A. De Matteis, and A. Luini. 1997. J. Biol. Chem. 272:14200–14207) prevented Golgi disassembly by BFA in permeabilized cells. These inhibitors became inactive in the presence of pre–ADP-ribosylated cytosol, and their activity was rescued by supplementing the cytosol with a native BARS-50–enriched fraction. These results indicate that ADP-ribosylation plays a role in the

  16. ADP-ribosylation of membrane components by pertussis and cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro-Neto, F.A.P.; Mattera, F.; Hildebrandt, J.D.; Codina, J.; Field, J.B.; Birnbaumer, L.; Sekura, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Pertussis and cholera toxins are important tools to investigate functional and structural aspects of the stimulatory (N/sub s/) and inhibitory (N/sub i/) regulatory components of adenylyl cyclase. Cholera toxin acts on N/sub s/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha../sub s/ subunit; pertussis toxin acts on N/sub i/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha..; subunit. By using (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and determining the transfer of its (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribose moiety to membrane components, it is possible to obtain information on N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A set of protocols is presented that can be used to study simultaneously and comparatively the susceptibility of N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ to be ADP-ribosylated by cholera and pertussis toxin.

  17. Phosphoproteomic Approach to Characterize Protein Mono- and Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation Sites from Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose), or PAR, is a cellular polymer implicated in DNA/RNA metabolism, cell death, and cellular stress response via its role as a post-translational modification, signaling molecule, and scaffolding element. PAR is synthesized by a family of proteins known as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, or PARPs, which attach PAR polymers to various amino acids of substrate proteins. The nature of these polymers (large, charged, heterogeneous, base-labile) has made these attachment sites difficult to study by mass spectrometry. Here we propose a new pipeline that allows for the identification of mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation sites via the enzymatic product of phosphodiesterase-treated ADP-ribose, or phospho(ribose). The power of this method lies in the enrichment potential of phospho(ribose), which we show to be enriched by phosphoproteomic techniques when a neutral buffer, which allows for retention of the base-labile attachment site, is used for elution. Through the identification of PARP-1 in vitro automodification sites as well as endogenous ADP-ribosylation sites from whole cells, we have shown that ADP-ribose can exist on adjacent amino acid residues as well as both lysine and arginine in addition to known acidic modification sites. The universality of this technique has allowed us to show that enrichment of ADP-ribosylated proteins by macrodomain leads to a bias against ADP-ribose modifications conjugated to glutamic acids, suggesting that the macrodomain is either removing or selecting against these distinct protein attachments. Ultimately, the enrichment pipeline presented here offers a universal approach for characterizing the mono- and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteome. PMID:24920161

  18. ADP ribosylation of human neutrophil peptide-1 regulates its biological properties.

    PubMed

    Paone, Gregorino; Wada, Akihiro; Stevens, Linda A; Matin, Abul; Hirayama, Toshiya; Levine, Rodney L; Moss, Joel

    2002-06-11

    In human airways, epithelial cells lining the lumen and intraluminal cells (e.g., polymorphonuclear cells) participate in the innate immune response. These cells secrete or express on their surfaces arginine-specific ADP ribosyltransferases. Defensins, antimicrobial proteins secreted by immune cells, are arginine-rich, leading us to hypothesize that ADP ribosylation could modify their biological activities. We found that an arginine-specific ADP ribosyltransferase-1 present on airway epithelial cells modifies Arg-14 of alpha defensin-1. ADP-ribosylated defensin-1 had decreased antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities but still stimulated T cell chemotaxis and IL-8 release from A549 cells. Further, ADP-ribosylated defensin-1 inhibited cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of unmodified defensin-1. We identified ADP-ribosylated defensin-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from smokers but not from nonsmokers, confirming its existence in vivo. Thus, airway mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases could have an important regulatory role in the innate immune response through modification of alpha defensin-1 and perhaps other basic molecules, with alteration of their biological properties. PMID:12060767

  19. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation by Dioxin Targets Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK) for ADP-ribosylation via 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (TiPARP)*

    PubMed Central

    Diani-Moore, Silvia; Zhang, Sheng; Ram, Payal; Rifkind, Arleen B.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of the environmental toxin and carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) include a wasting syndrome associated with decreased gluconeogenesis. TCDD is a potent activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand activated transcription factor. The relationship between gene activation by the AHR and TCDD toxicities is not well understood. We recently identified a pathway by which the AHR target gene TiPARP (TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase) contributes to TCDD suppression of transcription of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a key regulator of gluconeogenesis, by consuming NAD+ and decreasing Sirtuin 1 activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α), a transcriptional activator of PEPCK. We report here that TCDD-induced TiPARP also targets PEPCK for ADP-ribosylation. Both cytosolic and mitochondrial forms of PEPCK were found to undergo ADP-ribosylation. Unexpectedly, AHR suppression also enhanced ADP-ribosylation and did so by a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-independent mechanism. This report 1) identifies ADP-ribosylation as a new posttranslational modification for PEPCK, 2) describes a pathway by which transcriptional induction of TiPARP by the AHR can lead to a downstream posttranslational change in a TCDD target protein (PEPCK), and 3) reveals that the AHR exerts complex, previously unidentified modulatory effects on ADP-ribosylation. PMID:23770670

  20. Transcutaneous Immunization with Bacterial ADP-Ribosylating Exotoxins, Subunits, and Unrelated Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Scharton-Kersten, Tanya; Yu, Jian-mei; Vassell, Russell; O'Hagan, Derek; Alving, Carl R.; Glenn, Gregory M.

    2000-01-01

    We have recently described a needle-free method of vaccination, transcutaneous immunization, consisting of the topical application of vaccine antigens to intact skin. While most proteins themselves are poor immunogens on the skin, we have shown that the addition of cholera toxin (CT), a mucosal adjuvant, results in cellular and humoral immune responses to the adjuvant and coadministered antigens. The present study explores the breadth of adjuvants that have activity on the skin, using diphtheria toxoid (DTx) and tetanus toxoid as model antigens. Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) displayed adjuvant properties similar to those of CT when used on the skin and induced protective immune responses against tetanus toxin challenge when applied topically at doses as low as 1 μg. Interestingly, enterotoxin derivatives LTR192G, LTK63, and LTR72 and the recombinant CT B subunit also exhibited adjuvant properties on the skin. Consistent with the latter finding, non-ADP-ribosylating exotoxins, including an oligonucleotide DNA sequence, as well as several cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β] fragment, IL-2, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and lipopolysaccharide also elicited detectable anti-DTx immunoglobulin G titers in the immunized mice. These results indicate that enhancement of the immune response to topical immunization is not restricted to CT or the ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as adjuvants. This study also reinforces earlier findings that addition of an adjuvant is important for the induction of robust immune responses to vaccine antigens delivered by topical application. PMID:10948159

  1. Regulation of chromatin structure by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Beneke, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of DNA with proteins in the context of chromatin has to be tightly regulated to achieve so different tasks as packaging, transcription, replication and repair. The very rapid and transient post-translational modification of proteins by poly(ADP-ribose) has been shown to take part in all four. Originally identified as immediate cellular answer to a variety of genotoxic stresses, already early data indicated the ability of this highly charged nucleic acid-like polymer to modulate nucleosome structure, the basic unit of chromatin. At the same time the enzyme responsible for synthesizing poly(ADP-ribose), the zinc-finger protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1), was shown to control transcription initiation as basic factor TFIIC within the RNA-polymerase II machinery. Later research focused more on PARP-mediated regulation of DNA repair and cell death, but in the last few years, transcription as well as chromatin modulation has re-appeared on the scene. This review will discuss the impact of PARP1 on transcription and transcription factors, its implication in chromatin remodeling for DNA repair and probably also replication, and its role in controlling epigenetic events such as DNA methylation and the functionality of the insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor. PMID:22969794

  2. Identification of a Class of Protein ADP-Ribosylating Sirtuins in Microbial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Morra, Rosa; Barkauskaite, Eva; Kraehenbuehl, Rolf; Ariza, Antonio; Qu, Yue; Ortmayer, Mary; Leidecker, Orsolya; Cameron, David R; Matic, Ivan; Peleg, Anton Y; Leys, David; Traven, Ana; Ahel, Ivan

    2015-07-16

    Sirtuins are an ancient family of NAD(+)-dependent deacylases connected with the regulation of fundamental cellular processes including metabolic homeostasis and genome integrity. We show the existence of a hitherto unrecognized class of sirtuins, found predominantly in microbial pathogens. In contrast to earlier described classes, these sirtuins exhibit robust protein ADP-ribosylation activity. In our model organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, the activity is dependent on prior lipoylation of the target protein and can be reversed by a sirtuin-associated macrodomain protein. Together, our data describe a sirtuin-dependent reversible protein ADP-ribosylation system and establish a crosstalk between lipoylation and mono-ADP-ribosylation. We propose that these posttranslational modifications modulate microbial virulence by regulating the response to host-derived reactive oxygen species. PMID:26166706

  3. Identification of a Class of Protein ADP-Ribosylating Sirtuins in Microbial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Morra, Rosa; Barkauskaite, Eva; Kraehenbuehl, Rolf; Ariza, Antonio; Qu, Yue; Ortmayer, Mary; Leidecker, Orsolya; Cameron, David R.; Matic, Ivan; Peleg, Anton Y.; Leys, David; Traven, Ana; Ahel, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sirtuins are an ancient family of NAD+-dependent deacylases connected with the regulation of fundamental cellular processes including metabolic homeostasis and genome integrity. We show the existence of a hitherto unrecognized class of sirtuins, found predominantly in microbial pathogens. In contrast to earlier described classes, these sirtuins exhibit robust protein ADP-ribosylation activity. In our model organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, the activity is dependent on prior lipoylation of the target protein and can be reversed by a sirtuin-associated macrodomain protein. Together, our data describe a sirtuin-dependent reversible protein ADP-ribosylation system and establish a crosstalk between lipoylation and mono-ADP-ribosylation. We propose that these posttranslational modifications modulate microbial virulence by regulating the response to host-derived reactive oxygen species. PMID:26166706

  4. Chemical reporters for exploring ADP-ribosylation and AMPylation at the host-pathogen interface

    PubMed Central

    Westcott, Nathan P.; Hang, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens secrete protein toxins and effectors that hijack metabolites to covalently modify key host proteins and interfere with their function during infection. Adenosine metabolites, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), have in particular been co-opted by these secreted virulence factors to reprogram host pathways. While some host targets for secreted virulence factors have been identified, other toxin and effector substrates have been elusive, which require new methods for their characterization. In this review, we focus on chemical reporters based on NAD and ATP that should facilitate the discovery and characterization of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation and adenylylation/AMPylation in bacterial pathogenesis and cell biology. PMID:25461386

  5. Rapid Evolution of PARP Genes Suggests a Broad Role for ADP-Ribosylation in Host-Virus Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Matthew D.; Young, Janet M.; Kerns, Julie A.; Malik, Harmit S.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitinylation are common molecular targets of conflict between viruses and their hosts. However, the role of other post-translational modifications, such as ADP-ribosylation, in host-virus interactions is less well characterized. ADP-ribosylation is carried out by proteins encoded by the PARP (also called ARTD) gene family. The majority of the 17 human PARP genes are poorly characterized. However, one PARP protein, PARP13/ZAP, has broad antiviral activity and has evolved under positive (diversifying) selection in primates. Such evolution is typical of domains that are locked in antagonistic ‘arms races’ with viral factors. To identify additional PARP genes that may be involved in host-virus interactions, we performed evolutionary analyses on all primate PARP genes to search for signatures of rapid evolution. Contrary to expectations that most PARP genes are involved in ‘housekeeping’ functions, we found that nearly one-third of PARP genes are evolving under strong recurrent positive selection. We identified a >300 amino acid disordered region of PARP4, a component of cytoplasmic vault structures, to be rapidly evolving in several mammalian lineages, suggesting this region serves as an important host-pathogen specificity interface. We also found positive selection of PARP9, 14 and 15, the only three human genes that contain both PARP domains and macrodomains. Macrodomains uniquely recognize, and in some cases can reverse, protein mono-ADP-ribosylation, and we observed strong signatures of recurrent positive selection throughout the macro-PARP macrodomains. Furthermore, PARP14 and PARP15 have undergone repeated rounds of gene birth and loss during vertebrate evolution, consistent with recurrent gene innovation. Together with previous studies that implicated several PARPs in immunity, as well as those that demonstrated a role for virally encoded macrodomains in host immune evasion, our

  6. Structural basis of actin recognition and arginine ADP-ribosylation by Clostridium perfringens ι-toxin

    PubMed Central

    Tsuge, Hideaki; Nagahama, Masahiro; Oda, Masataka; Iwamoto, Shinobu; Utsunomiya, Hiroko; Marquez, Victor E.; Katunuma, Nobuhiko; Nishizawa, Mugio; Sakurai, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The ADP-ribosylating toxins (ADPRTs) produced by pathogenic bacteria modify intracellular protein and affect eukaryotic cell function. Actin-specific ADPRTs (including Clostridium perfringens ι-toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin) ADP-ribosylate G-actin at Arg-177, leading to disorganization of the cytoskeleton and cell death. Although the structures of many actin-specific ADPRTs are available, the mechanisms underlying actin recognition and selective ADP-ribosylation of Arg-177 remain unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of actin-Ia in complex with the nonhydrolyzable NAD analog βTAD at 2.8 Å resolution. The structure indicates that Ia recognizes actin via five loops around NAD: loop I (Tyr-60–Tyr-62 in the N domain), loop II (active-site loop), loop III, loop IV (PN loop), and loop V (ADP-ribosylating turn–turn loop). We used site-directed mutagenesis to confirm that loop I on the N domain and loop II are essential for the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Furthermore, we revealed that Glu-378 on the EXE loop is in close proximity to Arg-177 in actin, and we proposed that the ADP-ribosylation of Arg-177 proceeds by an SN1 reaction via first an oxocarbenium ion intermediate and second a cationic intermediate by alleviating the strained conformation of the first oxocarbenium ion. Our results suggest a common reaction mechanism for ADPRTs. Moreover, the structure might be of use in rational drug design to block toxin-substrate recognition. PMID:18490658

  7. Agonist-induced ADP-ribosylation of a cytosolic protein in human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Bruene, B.; Molina Y Vedia, L.; Lapetina, E.G. )

    1990-05-01

    {alpha}-Thrombin and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate stimulated the mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a 42-kDa cytosolic protein of human platelets. This effect was mediated by protein kinase C activation and was inhibited by protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine. It also was prevented by prostacyclin, which is known to inhibit the phospholipase C-induced formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol, which is one of the endogenous activators of protein kinase C. On sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the 42-kDa protein that is ADP-ribosylated by {alpha}-thrombin was clearly distinct from the {alpha} subunits of membrane-bound inhibitory and stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins, respectively G{sub i{alpha}} and G{sub s{alpha}}; the 47-kDa protein that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C in platelets; and the 39-kDa protein that has been shown to be endogenously ADP-ribosylated by agents that release nitric oxide. This information shows that agonist-induced activation of protein kinase leads to the ADP-ribosylation of a specific protein. This covalent modification might have a functional role in platelet activation.

  8. Radiolabelling of bovine myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS) in an ADP-ribosylation reaction.

    PubMed

    Chao, D; Severson, D L; Zwiers, H; Hollenberg, M D

    1994-01-01

    In an ADP-ribosylation reaction, we have observed the radiolabelling of a protein in a crude bovine brain homogenate, which upon two-dimensional gel electrophoresis migrated with an acidic pI (< 4.5) and an apparent molecular mass (80-90 kDa) consistent with the properties of the myristoylated, alanine-rich, protein kinase C substrate protein termed MARCKS. To establish the identity of this radiolabelled constituent in brain homogenates, we first purified bovine brain MARCKS using calmodulin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and we then supplemented the crude ADP-ribosylation reaction mixture with this purified MARCKS fraction. Concordant increases in radiolabelling and silver staining of the same protein component from the MARCKS-supplemented ADP-ribosylation reaction, as compared with the ADP-ribosylated crude homogenate, established the identity of this constituent as MARCKS. The radiolabelling of MARCKS was lower in comparison with the ADP-ribosylation of the related neuronal protein B-50/GAP-43 under identical reaction conditions. The potential functional consequences of the ADP-ribosylation of MARCKS are discussed and the possibility is raised that other members of the MARCKS family, such as the F52/MacMARCKS/MRP protein, may also be subject to ADP-ribosylation. PMID:7605610

  9. NADP/sup +/ enhances cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Y.; Whitsel, C.; Arinze, I.J.

    1986-05-01

    Cholera or pertussis toxin-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation is frequently used to estimate the concentration of the stimulatory (Ns) or inhibitory (Ni) guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins which modulate the activity of adenylate cyclase. With this assay, however, the degradation of the substrate, NAD/sup +/, by endogenous enzymes such as NAD/sup +/-glycohydrolase (NADase) present in the test membranes can influence the results. In this study the authors show that both cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation of liver membrane proteins is markedly enhanced by NADP/sup +/. The effect is concentration dependent; with 20 ..mu..M (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ as substrate maximal enhancement is obtained at 0.5-1.0 mM NADP/sup +/. The enhancement of (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation by NADP/sup +/ was much greater than that by other known effectors such as Mg/sup 2 +/, phosphate or isoniazid. The effect of NADP/sup +/ on ADP-ribosylation may occur by inhibition of the degradation of NAD/sup +/ probably by acting as an alternate substrate for NADase. Among inhibitors tested (NADP/sup +/, isoniazid, imidazole, nicotinamide, L-Arg-methyl-ester and HgCl/sub 2/) to suppress NADase activity, NADP/sup +/ was the most effective and, 10 mM, inhibited activity of the enzyme by about 90%. In membranes which contain substantial activities of NADase the inclusion of NADP/sup +/ in the assay is necessary to obtain maximal ADP-ribosylation.

  10. Detection and Quantification of ADP-Ribosylated RhoA/B by Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry. PMID:27043630

  11. Detection and Quantification of ADP-Ribosylated RhoA/B by Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry. PMID:27043630

  12. Distribution of protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation systems across all domains of life

    PubMed Central

    Perina, Dragutin; Mikoč, Andreja; Ahel, Josip; Ćetković, Helena; Žaja, Roko; Ahel, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in regulation of many cellular pathways. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) consists of chains of repeating ADP-ribose nucleotide units and is synthesized by the family of enzymes called poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). This modification can be removed by the hydrolytic action of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3). Hydrolytic activity of macrodomain proteins (MacroD1, MacroD2 and TARG1) is responsible for the removal of terminal ADP-ribose unit and for complete reversion of protein ADP-ribosylation. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is widely utilized in eukaryotes and PARPs are present in representatives from all six major eukaryotic supergroups, with only a small number of eukaryotic species that do not possess PARP genes. The last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed at least five types of PARP proteins that include both mono and poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases. Distribution of PARGs strictly follows the distribution of PARP proteins in eukaryotic species. At least one of the macrodomain proteins that hydrolyse terminal ADP-ribose is also always present. Therefore, we can presume that the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed a fully functional and reversible PAR metabolism and that PAR signalling provided the conditions essential for survival of the ancestral eukaryote in its ancient environment. PARP proteins are far less prevalent in bacteria and were probably gained through horizontal gene transfer. Only eleven bacterial species possess all proteins essential for a functional PAR metabolism, although it is not known whether PAR metabolism is truly functional in bacteria. Several dsDNA viruses also possess PARP homologues, while no PARP proteins have been identified in any archaeal genome. Our analysis of the distribution of enzymes involved in PAR metabolism provides insight into the evolution of these important signalling systems, as well as

  13. Poly-ADP-ribosylation of HMGB1 regulates TNFSF10/TRAIL resistance through autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Minghua; Liu, Liying; Xie, Min; Sun, Xiaofang; Yu, Yan; Kang, Rui; Yang, Liangchun; Zhu, Shan; Cao, Lizhi; Tang, Daolin

    2015-01-01

    Both apoptosis ("self-killing") and autophagy ("self-eating") are evolutionarily conserved processes, and their crosstalk influences anticancer drug sensitivity and cell death. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1), normally a nuclear protein, is a crucial regulator of TNFSF10/TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor [ligand] superfamily, member 10)-induced cancer cell death. Activation of PARP1 (poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1) was required for TNFSF10-induced ADP-ribosylation of HMGB1 in cancer cells. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 activity or knockdown of PARP1 gene expression significantly inhibited TNFSF10-induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and subsequent HMGB1-BECN1 complex formation. Furthermore, suppression of the PARP1-HMGB1 pathway diminished autophagy, increased apoptosis, and enhanced the anticancer activity of TNFSF10 in vitro and in a subcutaneous tumor model. These results indicate that PARP1 acts as a prominent upstream regulator of HMGB1-mediated autophagy and maintains a homeostatic balance between apoptosis and autophagy, which provides new insight into the mechanism of TNFSF10 resistance. PMID:25607248

  14. Calcium-dependent ADP-ribosylation of high-mobility-group I (HMGI) proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Giancotti, V; Bandiera, A; Sindici, C; Perissin, L; Crane-Robinson, C

    1996-01-01

    Micrococcal nuclease digestion of nuclei from mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cells releases a protein mixture into the supernatant that lacks histone H1 and contains a full complement of high-mobility-group I (HMGI) proteins (i.e. I, Y and I-C). This implies that all three HMGI proteins are localized at the nuclease-sensitive regions of active chromatin. It is also shown that if Ca2+ ions are present in the nuclear incubation buffer (with or without exogenous nuclease), all three HMGI proteins become ADP-ribosylated. We propose that this modification of HMGI family proteins is part of the general poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation that accompanies DNA damage in apoptosis and other processes. PMID:8760375

  15. Arsenite induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of tumor suppressor P53 in human skin keratinocytes as a possible mechanism for carcinogenesis associated with arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Komissarova, Elena V.; Rossman, Toby G.

    2010-03-15

    Arsenite is an environmental pollutant. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water is associated with elevated cancer risk, especially in skin. Arsenite alone does not cause skin cancer in animals, but arsenite can enhance the carcinogenicity of solar UV. Arsenite is not a significant mutagen at non-toxic concentrations, but it enhances the mutagenicity of other carcinogens. The tumor suppressor protein P53 and nuclear enzyme PARP-1 are both key players in DNA damage response. This laboratory demonstrated earlier that in cells treated with arsenite, the P53-dependent increase in p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} expression, normally a block to cell cycle progression after DNA damage, is deficient. Here we show that although long-term exposure of human keratinocytes (HaCaT) to a nontoxic concentration (0.1 muM) of arsenite decreases the level of global protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, it increases poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of P53 protein and PARP-1 protein abundance. We also demonstrate that exposure to 0.1 muM arsenite depresses the constitutive expression of p21 mRNA and P21 protein in HaCaT cells. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of P53 is reported to block its activation, DNA binding and its functioning as a transcription factor. Our results suggest that arsenite's interference with activation of P53 via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation may play a role in the comutagenic and cocarcinogenic effects of arsenite.

  16. Brefeldin A-induced ADP-ribosylation in the structure and function of the Golgi complex.

    PubMed

    Colanzi, A; Mironov, A; Weigert, R; Limina, C; Flati, S; Cericola, C; Di Tullio, G; Di Girolamo, M; Corda, D; De Matteis, M A; Luini, A

    1997-01-01

    Brefeldin A (BFA) is a fungal metabolite that exerts generally inhibitory actions on membrane transport and induces the disappearance of the Golgi complex. Previously we have shown that BFA stimulates the ADP-ribosylation of two cytosolic proteins of 38 and 50 KD. The BFA-binding components mediating the BFA-sensitive ADP-ribosylation (BAR) and the effect of BFA on ARF binding to Golgi membranes have similar specificities and affinities for BFA and its analogues, suggesting that BAR may have a role in the cellular effects of BFA. To investigate this we used the approach to impair BAR activity by the use of BAR inhibitors. A series of BAR inhibitors was developed and their effects were studied in RBL cells treated with BFA. In addition to the common ADP-ribosylation inhibitors (nicotinamide and aminobenzamide), compounds belonging to the cumarin (novobiocin, cumermycin, dicumarol) class were active BAR inhibitors. All BAR inhibitors were able to prevent the BFA-induced redistribution of a Golgi marker (Helix pomatia lectin) into the endoplasmic reticulum, as assessed in immunofluorescence experiments. At the ultrastructural level, BAR inhibitors prevented the tubular-vesicular transformation of the Golgi complex caused by BFA. The potencies of these compounds in preventing the BFA effects on the Golgi complex were similar to those at which they inhibited BAR. Altogether these data support the hypothesis that BAR mediates at least some of the effects of BFA on the Golgi structure and function. PMID:9193673

  17. ADP ribosylation factor 1 mutants identify a phospholipase D effector region and reveal that phospholipase D participates in lysosomal secretion but is not sufficient for recruitment of coatomer I.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D H; Bax, B; Fensome, A; Cockcroft, S

    1999-01-01

    The small GTP-binding protein, ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is essential for the formation of coatomer-coated vesicles from the Golgi and is also an activator of phospholipase D (PLD). Moreover, ARF1-regulated PLD is part of the signal-transduction pathway that can lead to secretion. In this study, substitution and deletion mutants of ARF1 were tested for their ability to activate PLD. These map the PLD effector region of ARF1 to the alpha2 helix, part of the beta2-strand and the N-terminal helix and its ensuing loop. ARF mutants with an increased or decreased ability to activate PLD showed similar characteristics when tested for their ability to stimulate secretion from HL60 cells. ARF1, deleted of the N-terminal 17 amino acid residues (Ndel17), did not support PLD activity or secretion, and neither did it inhibit the activity of wild-type myristoylated ARF1 (myrARF1). In contrast, Ndel17 effectively competed with wild-type myrARF1 to prevent coatomer binding to membranes. This appears to define a structural role for Ndel17, as it can bind a high-molecular mass complex in cytosol. In addition, ethanol has no effect on recruitment of coatomer to membrane. We conclude that the function of ARF-regulated PLD is in the signal-transduction pathway leading to secretion of lysosomal granules, and not as an essential component of ARF1-mediated coatomer binding. PMID:10377261

  18. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrer, Joerg; Wagner, Silvia; Buerkle, Alexander; Koenigsrainer, Alfred

    2009-08-14

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  19. The ADP-ribosyl cyclases--the current evolutionary state of the ARCs.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Enza; Lo Buono, Nicola; Horenstein, Alberto L; Funaro, Ada; Malavasi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The major ADP-ribosylating enzyme families are the focus of this special issue of Frontiers in Bioscience . However, there is room for another family of enzymes with the capacity to utilize nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD): the ADP-ribosyl cyclases (ARCs). These unique enzymes catalyse the cyclization of NAD to cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR), a widely distributed second messenger. However, the ARCs are versatile enzymes that can manipulate NAD, NAD phosphate (NADP) and other substrates to generate various bioactive molecules including nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide diphosphate (NAADP) and ADP ribose (ADPR). This review will focus on the group of well-characterized invertebrate and vertebrate ARCs whose common gene structure allows us to trace their origin to the ancestor of bilaterian animals. Behind a facade of gene and protein homology lies a family with a disparate functional repertoire dictated by the animal model and the physical trait under investigation. Here we present a phylogenetic view of the ARCs to better understand the evolution of function in this family. PMID:24896331

  20. Roles of Asp179 and Glu270 in ADP-Ribosylation of Actin by Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Belyy, Alexander; Tabakova, Irina; Lang, Alexander E.; Jank, Thomas; Belyi, Yury; Aktories, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens iota toxin is a binary toxin composed of the enzymatically active component Ia and receptor binding component Ib. Ia is an ADP-ribosyltransferase, which modifies Arg177 of actin. The previously determined crystal structure of the actin-Ia complex suggested involvement of Asp179 of actin in the ADP-ribosylation reaction. To gain more insights into the structural requirements of actin to serve as a substrate for toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation, we engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, in which wild type actin was replaced by actin variants with substitutions in residues located on the Ia-actin interface. Expression of the actin mutant Arg177Lys resulted in complete resistance towards Ia. Actin mutation of Asp179 did not change Ia-induced ADP-ribosylation and growth inhibition of S. cerevisiae. By contrast, substitution of Glu270 of actin inhibited the toxic action of Ia and the ADP-ribosylation of actin. In vitro transcribed/translated human β-actin confirmed the crucial role of Glu270 in ADP-ribosylation of actin by Ia. PMID:26713879

  1. The inhibitory G protein G(i) identified as pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Katada, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis toxin (PTX) produced by Bordetella pertussis was first introduced by Ui and his colleagues in research on signal transduction under the name islet-activating protein in 1979, when the mechanism of toxin-induced stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets was reported in the rat. The stimulatory effect of PTX in vivo results from the blockage of α(2)-adrenergic receptor-mediated inhibition of insulin release. The receptor-induced inhibition of cAMP formation was also abolished in pancreatic islets isolated from PTX-treated rats, suggesting that the toxin caused uncoupling of adenylyl cyclase inhibition from receptor stimulation. The action of PTX on isolated membranes required a cytosolic factor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and the uncoupling induced by PTX was shown to be due to the toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of a 41-kDa protein with NAD as another substrate. The 41-kDa PTX substrate was soon identified and purified as the α-subunit of the inhibitory G protein that transmits an inhibitory signal from membrane receptors to adenylyl cyclase. After demonstration of the molecular mechanism of PTX, the toxin was widely utilized as a probe for identifying and analyzing major αβγ-trimeric G proteins. Thus, PTX-sensitive G proteins appeared to carry positive and negative signals from many membrane receptors to a variety of effectors other than adenylyl cyclase. PMID:23207763

  2. Protein Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation Regulates Arabidopsis Immune Gene Expression and Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Baomin; Liu, Chenglong; de Oliveira, Marcos V. V.; Intorne, Aline C.; Li, Bo; Babilonia, Kevin; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo A.; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) elicits transcriptional reprogramming in hosts and activates defense to pathogen attacks. The molecular mechanisms underlying plant pattern-triggered immunity remain elusive. A genetic screen identified Arabidopsis poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase 1 (atparg1) mutant with elevated immune gene expression upon multiple MAMP and pathogen treatments. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is predicted to remove poly(ADP-ribose) polymers on acceptor proteins modified by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) with three PARPs and two PARGs in Arabidopsis genome. AtPARP1 and AtPARP2 possess poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, and the activity of AtPARP2 was enhanced by MAMP treatment. AtPARG1, but not AtPARG2, carries glycohydrolase activity in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, mutation (G450R) in atparg1 blocks its activity and the corresponding residue is highly conserved and essential for human HsPARG activity. Consistently, mutant atparp1atparp2 plants exhibited compromised immune gene activation and enhanced susceptibility to pathogen infections. Our study indicates that protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays critical roles in plant immune gene expression and defense to pathogen attacks. PMID:25569773

  3. Common features of the NAD-binding and catalytic site of ADP-ribosylating toxins.

    PubMed

    Domenighini, M; Magagnoli, C; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R

    1994-10-01

    Computer analysis of the three-dimensional structure of ADP-ribosylating toxins showed that in all toxins the NAD-binding site is located in a cavity. This cavity consists of 18 contiguous amino acids that form an alpha-helix bent over a beta-strand. The tertiary folding of this structure is strictly conserved despite the differences in the amino acid sequence. Catalysis is supported by two spatially conserved amino acids, each flanking the NAD-binding site. These are: a glutamic acid that is conserved in all toxins, and a nucleophilic residue, which is a histidine in the diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and an arginine in the cholera toxin, the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins, the pertussis toxin and the mosquitocidal toxin of Bacillus sphaericus. The latter group of toxins presents an additional histidine that appears important for catalysis. This structure suggests a general mechanism of ADP-ribosylation evolved to work on different target proteins. PMID:7830559

  4. The ARTT motif and a unified structural understanding of substraterecognition in ADP ribosylating bacterial toxins and eukaryotic ADPribosyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.; Tainer, J.A.

    2001-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a widely occurring and biologically critical covalent chemical modification process in pathogenic mechanisms, intracellular signaling systems, DNA repair, and cell division. The reaction is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases, which transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to a target protein with nicotinamide release. A family of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic enzymes has been termed the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases, in distinction to the poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases, which catalyze the addition of multiple ADP-ribose groups to the carboxyl terminus of eukaryotic nucleoproteins. Despite the limited primary sequence homology among the different ADP-ribosyltransferases, a central cleft bearing NAD-binding pocket formed by the two perpendicular b-sheet core has been remarkably conserved between bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono- and poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases. The majority of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved His and catalytic Glu residues. In contrast, Diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and eukaryotic poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. The NAD-binding core of a binary toxin and a C3-like toxin family identified an ARTT motif (ADP-ribosylating turn-turn motif) that is implicated in substrate specificity and recognition by structural and mutagenic studies. Here we apply structure-based sequence alignment and comparative structural analyses of all known structures of ADP-ribosyltransfeases to suggest that this ARTT motif is functionally important in many ADP-ribosylating enzymes that bear a NAD binding cleft as characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. Overall, structure-based sequence analysis reveals common core structures and conserved active sites of ADP-ribosyltransferases to support similar NAD binding mechanisms but differing mechanisms of target protein binding via sequence variations within the ARTT

  5. TCDD-inducible poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (TIPARP/PARP7) mono-ADP-ribosylates and co-activates liver X receptors.

    PubMed

    Bindesbøll, Christian; Tan, Susanna; Bott, Debbie; Cho, Tiffany; Tamblyn, Laura; MacPherson, Laura; Grønning-Wang, Line; Nebb, Hilde Irene; Matthews, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Members of the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) family catalyse the ADP-ribosylation of target proteins and are known to play important roles in many cellular processes, including DNA repair, differentiation and transcription. The majority of PARPs exhibit mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity rather than PARP activity; however, little is known about their biological activity. In the present study, we report that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (TIPARP), mono-ADP-ribosylates and positively regulates liver X receptor α (LXRα) and LXRβ activity. Overexpression of TIPARP enhanced LXR-reporter gene activity. TIPARP knockdown or deletion reduced LXR regulated target gene expression levels in HepG2 cells and inTiparp(-/-)mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) respectively. Deletion and mutagenesis studies showed that TIPARP's zinc-finger and catalytic domains were required to enhance LXR activity. Protein interaction studies using TIPARP and LXRα/β peptide arrays revealed that LXRs interacted with an N-terminal sequence (a.a. 209-236) of TIPARP, which also overlapped with a putative co-activator domain of TIPARP (a.a. 200-225). Immunofluorescence studies showed that TIPARP and LXRα or LXRβ co-localized in the nucleus.In vitroribosylation assays provided evidence that TIPARP mono-ADP-ribosylated both LXRα and LXRβ. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) studies revealed that ADP-ribosylase macrodomain 1 (MACROD1), but not MACROD2, interacted with LXRs in a TIPARP-dependent manner. This was complemented by reporter gene studies showing that MACROD1, but not MACROD2, prevented the TIPARP-dependent increase in LXR activity. GW3965-dependent increases in hepatic Srebp1 mRNA and protein expression levels were reduced inTiparp(-/-)mice compared withTiparp(+/+)mice. Taken together, these data identify a new mechanism of LXR regulation that involves TIPARP, ADP-ribosylation and MACROD1. PMID:26814197

  6. The NarE protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of several ADP-ribose acceptors despite an N-terminal deletion.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Paula I; Álamos-Musre, A Said; Álvarez, Francisca P; Escobar, Alejandro; Tapia, Cecilia V; Osorio, Eduardo; Otero, Carolina; Calderón, Iván L; Fuentes, Juan A; Gil, Fernando; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-09-01

    The ADP-ribosylating enzymes are encoded in many pathogenic bacteria in order to affect essential functions of the host. In this study, we show that Neisseria gonorrhoeae possess a locus that corresponds to the ADP-ribosyltransferase NarE, a previously characterized enzyme in N. meningitidis The 291 bp coding sequence of gonococcal narE shares 100% identity with part of the coding sequence of the meningococcal narE gene due to a frameshift previously described, thus leading to a 49-amino-acid deletion at the N-terminus of gonococcal NarE protein. However, we found a promoter region and a GTG start codon, which allowed expression of the protein as demonstrated by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Using a gonococcal NarE-6xHis fusion protein, we demonstrated that the gonococcal enzyme underwent auto-ADP-ribosylation but to a lower extent than meningococcal NarE. We also observed that gonoccocal NarE exhibited ADP-ribosyltransferase activity using agmatine and cell-free host proteins as ADP-ribose acceptors, but its activity was inhibited by human β-defensins. Taken together, our results showed that NarE of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a functional enzyme that possesses key features of bacterial ADP-ribosylating enzymes. PMID:27465490

  7. A novel Hsp70 inhibitor prevents cell intoxication with the actin ADP-ribosylating Clostridium perfringens iota toxin

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Katharina; Liebscher, Markus; Mathea, Sebastian; Granzhan, Anton; Schmid, Johannes; Popoff, Michel R.; Ihmels, Heiko; Barth, Holger; Schiene-Fischer, Cordelia

    2016-01-01

    Hsp70 family proteins are folding helper proteins involved in a wide variety of cellular pathways. Members of this family interact with key factors in signal transduction, transcription, cell-cycle control, and stress response. Here, we developed the first Hsp70 low molecular weight inhibitor specifically targeting the peptide binding site of human Hsp70. After demonstrating that the inhibitor modulates the Hsp70 function in the cell, we used the inhibitor to show for the first time that the stress-inducible chaperone Hsp70 functions as molecular component for entry of a bacterial protein toxin into mammalian cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Hsp70 protected cells from intoxication with the binary actin ADP-ribosylating iota toxin from Clostridium perfringens, the prototype of a family of enterotoxins from pathogenic Clostridia and inhibited translocation of its enzyme component across cell membranes into the cytosol. This finding offers a starting point for novel therapeutic strategies against certain bacterial toxins. PMID:26839186

  8. Fanconi anemia protein FANCD2 inhibits TRF1 polyADP-ribosylation through tankyrase1-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by developmental abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to cancer. The key FA protein FANCD2 crosstalks with members of DNA damage and repair pathways that also play a role at telomeres. Therefore, we investigated whether FANCD2 has a similar involvement at telomeres. Results We reveal that FANCD2 may perform a novel function separate to the FANCD2/BRCA pathway. This function includes FANCD2 interaction with one of the telomere components, the PARP family member tankyrase-1. Moreover, FANCD2 inhibits tankyrase-1 activity in vitro. In turn, FANCD2 deficiency increases the polyADP-ribosylation of telomere binding factor TRF1. Conclusions FANCD2 binding and inhibiting tankyrase-1PARsylation at telomeres may provide an additional step within the FA pathway for the regulation of genomic integrity. PMID:21314979

  9. Rifamycin Antibiotic Resistance by ADP-Ribosylation: Structure and Diversity of Arr

    SciTech Connect

    Baysarowich, J.; Koteva, K; Hughes, D; Ejim, L; Griffiths, E; Zhang, K; Junop, M; Wright, G

    2008-01-01

    The rifamycin antibiotic rifampin is important for the treatment of tuberculosis and infections caused by multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Recent iterations of the rifampin core structure have resulted in new drugs and drug candidates for the treatment of a much broader range of infectious diseases. This expanded use of rifamycin antibiotics has the potential to select for increased resistance. One poorly characterized mechanism of resistance is through Arr enzymes that catalyze ADP-ribosylation of rifamycins. We find that genes encoding predicted Arr enzymes are widely distributed in the genomes of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Biochemical analysis of three representative Arr enzymes from environmental and pathogenic bacterial sources shows that these have equally efficient drug resistance capacity in vitro and in vivo. The 3D structure of one of these orthologues from Mycobacterium smegmatis was determined and reveals structural homology with ADP-ribosyltransferases important in eukaryotic biology, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and bacterial toxins, despite no significant amino acid sequence homology with these proteins. This work highlights the extent of the rifamycin resistome in microbial genera with the potential to negatively impact the expanded use of this class of antibiotic.

  10. Poly(ADP-ribosylation) regulates chromatin organization through histone H3 modification and DNA methylation of the first cell cycle of mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Osada, Tomoharu; Rydén, Anna-Margareta; Masutani, Mitsuko

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Histone modification of the mouse pronuclei is regulated by poly(ADP-ribosylation). •Hypermethylation of the mouse female pronuclei is maintained by poly(ADP-ribosylation). •Parp1 is physically interacted with Suz12, which may function in the pronuclei. •Poly(ADP-ribosylation) affects ultrastructure of chromatin of the mouse pronucleus. -- Abstract: We examined the roles of poly(ADP-ribosylation) in chromatin remodeling during the first cell cycle of mouse embryos. Drug-based inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosylation) by a PARP inhibitor, PJ-34, revealed up-regulation of dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 in male pronuclei and down-regulation of dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9) and lysine 27 (H3K27). Association of poly(ADP-ribosylation) with histone modification was suggested to be supported by the interaction of Suz12, a histone methyltransferase in the polycomb complex, with Parp1. PARP activity was suggested to be required for a proper localization and maintenance of Suz12 on chromosomes. Notably, DNA methylation level of female pronuclei in one-cell embryos was robustly decreased by PJ-34. Electron microscopic analysis showed a frequent appearance of unusual electron-dense areas within the female pronuclei, implying the disorganized and hypercondensed chromatin ultrastructure. These results show that poly(ADP-ribosylation) is important for the integrity of non-equivalent epigenetic dynamics of pronuclei during the first cell cycle of mouse embryos.

  11. Poly-ADP-ribosylation-mediated degradation of ARTD1 by the NLRP3 inflammasome is a prerequisite for osteoclast maturation.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Qu, C; Alippe, Y; Bonar, S L; Civitelli, R; Abu-Amer, Y; Hottiger, M O; Mbalaviele, G

    2016-01-01

    Evidence implicates ARTD1 in cell differentiation, but its role in skeletal metabolism remains unknown. Osteoclasts (OC), the bone-resorbing cells, differentiate from macrophages under the influence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). We found that M-CSF induced ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1 (ARTD1) auto-ADP-ribosylation in macrophages, a modification that marked ARTD1 for cleavage, and subsequently, for degradation upon RANKL exposure. We established that ARTD1 proteolysis was NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent, and occurred via the proteasome pathway. Since ARTD1 is cleaved at aspartate(214), we studied the impact of ARTD1 rendered uncleavable by D214N substitution (ARTD1(D214N)) on skeletal homeostasis. ARTD1(D214N), unlike wild-type ARTD1, was resistant to cleavage and degradation during osteoclastogenesis. As a result, ARTD1(D214N) altered histone modification and promoted the abundance of the repressors of osteoclastogenesis by interfering with the expression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1), the master regulator of anti-osteoclastogenic transcription factors. Importantly, ARTD1(D214N)-expressing mice exhibited higher bone mass compared with controls, owing to decreased osteoclastogenesis while bone formation was unaffected. Thus, unless it is degraded, ARTD1 represses OC development through transcriptional regulation. PMID:27010854

  12. Poly-ADP-ribosylation-mediated degradation of ARTD1 by the NLRP3 inflammasome is a prerequisite for osteoclast maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C; Qu, C; Alippe, Y; Bonar, S L; Civitelli, R; Abu-Amer, Y; Hottiger, M O; Mbalaviele, G

    2016-01-01

    Evidence implicates ARTD1 in cell differentiation, but its role in skeletal metabolism remains unknown. Osteoclasts (OC), the bone-resorbing cells, differentiate from macrophages under the influence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). We found that M-CSF induced ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1 (ARTD1) auto-ADP-ribosylation in macrophages, a modification that marked ARTD1 for cleavage, and subsequently, for degradation upon RANKL exposure. We established that ARTD1 proteolysis was NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent, and occurred via the proteasome pathway. Since ARTD1 is cleaved at aspartate214, we studied the impact of ARTD1 rendered uncleavable by D214N substitution (ARTD1D214N) on skeletal homeostasis. ARTD1D214N, unlike wild-type ARTD1, was resistant to cleavage and degradation during osteoclastogenesis. As a result, ARTD1D214N altered histone modification and promoted the abundance of the repressors of osteoclastogenesis by interfering with the expression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1), the master regulator of anti-osteoclastogenic transcription factors. Importantly, ARTD1D214N-expressing mice exhibited higher bone mass compared with controls, owing to decreased osteoclastogenesis while bone formation was unaffected. Thus, unless it is degraded, ARTD1 represses OC development through transcriptional regulation. PMID:27010854

  13. PARP-2 regulates cell cycle-related genes through histone deacetylation and methylation independently of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Ya-Chen; Hsu, Chiao-Yu; Yao, Ya-Li; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► PARP-2 acts as a transcription co-repressor independently of PARylation activity. ► PARP-2 recruits HDAC5, 7, and G9a and generates repressive chromatin. ► PARP-2 is recruited to the c-MYC promoter by DNA-binding factor YY1. ► PARP-2 represses cell cycle-related genes and alters cell cycle progression. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and regulates numerous nuclear processes, including transcription. Depletion of PARP-2 alters the activity of transcription factors and global gene expression. However, the molecular action of how PARP-2 controls the transcription of target promoters remains unclear. Here we report that PARP-2 possesses transcriptional repression activity independently of its enzymatic activity. PARP-2 interacts and recruits histone deacetylases HDAC5 and HDAC7, and histone methyltransferase G9a to the promoters of cell cycle-related genes, generating repressive chromatin signatures. Our findings propose a novel mechanism of PARP-2 in transcriptional regulation involving specific protein–protein interactions and highlight the importance of PARP-2 in the regulation of cell cycle progression.

  14. How to kill tumor cells with inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.

    PubMed

    Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2011-01-15

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification catalyzed by the enzyme family of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). PARPs exhibit pleiotropic cellular functions ranging from maintenance of genomic stability and chromatin remodeling to regulation of cell death, thereby rendering PARP homologues promising targets in cancer therapy. Depending on the molecular status of a cancer cell, low-molecular weight PARP inhibitors can (i) either be used as monotherapeutic agents following the concept of synthetic lethality or (ii) to support classical chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The rationales are the following: (i) in cancers with selective defects in homologous recombination repair, inactivation of PARPs directly causes cell death. In cancer treatment, this phenomenon can be employed to specifically target tumor cells while sparing nonmalignant tissue. (ii) PARP inhibitors can also be used to sensitize cells to cytotoxic DNA-damaging treatments, as some PARPs actively participate in genomic maintenance. Apart from that, PARP inhibitors possess antiangiogenic functions, thus opening up a further option to inhibit tumor growth. In view of the above, a number of high-potency PARP inhibitors have been developed during the last decade and are currently evaluated as cancer therapeutics in clinical trials by several leading pharmaceutical companies. PMID:20853319

  15. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Methyl CpG Binding Domain Protein 2 Regulates Chromatin Structure.

    PubMed

    Becker, Annette; Zhang, Peng; Allmann, Lena; Meilinger, Daniela; Bertulat, Bianca; Eck, Daniel; Hofstaetter, Maria; Bartolomei, Giody; Hottiger, Michael O; Schreiber, Valérie; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2016-03-01

    The epigenetic information encoded in the genomic DNA methylation pattern is translated by methylcytosine binding proteins like MeCP2 into chromatin topology and structure and gene activity states. We have shown previously that the MeCP2 level increases during differentiation and that it causes large-scale chromatin reorganization, which is disturbed by MeCP2 Rett syndrome mutations. Phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications of MeCP2 have been described recently to modulate its function. Here we show poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of endogenous MeCP2 in mouse brain tissue. Consequently, we found that MeCP2 induced aggregation of pericentric heterochromatin and that its chromatin accumulation was enhanced in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1(-/-) compared with wild-type cells. We mapped the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation domains and engineered MeCP2 mutation constructs to further analyze potential effects on DNA binding affinity and large-scale chromatin remodeling. Single or double deletion of the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated regions and PARP inhibition increased the heterochromatin clustering ability of MeCP2. Increased chromatin clustering may reflect increased binding affinity. In agreement with this hypothesis, we found that PARP-1 deficiency significantly increased the chromatin binding affinity of MeCP2 in vivo. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of MeCP2-mediated, higher-order chromatin architecture and suggest therapeutic opportunities to manipulate MeCP2 function. PMID:26772194

  16. Two novel human members of an emerging mammalian gene family related to mono-ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Koch-Nolte, F.; Haag, F.; Braren, R.

    1997-02-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is one of the posttranslational protein modifications regulating cellular metabolism, e.g., nitrogen fixation, in prokaryotes. Several bacterial toxins mono-ADP-ribosylate and inactivate specific proteins in their animal hosts. Recently, two mammalian GPI-anchored cell surface enzymes with similar activities were cloned (designated ART1 and ART2). We have now identified six related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public database and cloned the two novel human genes from which these are derived (designated ART3 and ART4). The deduced amino acid sequences of the predicted gene products show 28% sequence identity to one another and 32-41% identity vs the muscle and T cell enzymes. They contain signal peptide sequences characteristic of GPI anchorage. Southern Zoo blot analyses suggest the presence of related genes in other mammalian species. By PCR screening of somatic cell hybrids and by in situ hybridization, we have mapped the two genes to human chromosomes 4p14-p15.l and 12q13.2- q13.3. Northern blot analyses show that these genes are specifically expressed in testis and spleen, respectively. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences reveals a conserved exon/intron structure, with an unusually large exon encoding the predicted mature membrane proteins. Secondary structure prediction analyses indicate conserved motifs and amino acid residues consistent with a common ancestry of this emerging mammalian enzyme family and bacterial mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases. It is possible that the four human gene family members identified so far represent the {open_quotes}tip of an iceberg,{close_quote} i.e., a larger family of enzymes that influences the function of target proteins via mono-ADP-ribosylation. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Allosteric Activation of the RNF146 Ubiquitin Ligase by a Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation Signal

    PubMed Central

    DaRosa, Paul A.; Wang, Zhizhi; Jiang, Xiaomo; Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Cong, Feng; Klevit, Rachel E.; Xu, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) plays a role in diverse cellular processes such as DNA repair, transcription, Wnt signaling, and cell death1–6. Recent studies have shown that PARylation can serve as a signal for the polyubiquitination and degradation of several critical regulatory proteins, including Axin and 3BP2 (refs 7–9). The RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF146 (a.k.a. Iduna) is responsible for PARylation-dependent ubiquitination (PARdU)10–12. Here we provide a structural basis for RNF146 catalyzed PARdU and how PARdU specificity is achieved. First, we show that iso-ADPr, the smallest internal poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) structural unit, binds between the WWE and RING domains of RNF146 and functions as an allosteric signal that switches the RING domain from a catalytically inactive state to an active one. In the absence of PAR, the RING domain is unable to efficiently bind and activate an E2. Binding of PAR/iso-ADPr induces a major conformational change that creates a functional RING structure. Thus RNF146 represents a new mechanistic class of RING E3 ligases whose activities are regulated by non-covalent ligand binding, which may provide a template for designing inducible protein-degradation systems. Second, we found that RNF146 directly interacts with the PAR polymerase tankyrase (TNKS). Disruption of the RNF146/TNKS interaction inhibits turnover of the substrate Axin in cells. Thus, both substrate PARylation and PARdU are catalyzed by enzymes within the same protein complex, and PARdU substrate specificity may be primarily determined by the substrate-TNKS interaction. We propose that maintenance of unliganded RNF146 in an inactive state may serve to maintain the stability of the RNF146-TNKS complex, which in turn regulates the homeostasis of PARdU activity in the cell. PMID:25327252

  18. Cellular regulation of ADP-ribosylation of proteins: 3. Selective augmentation of in vitro ADP-ribosylation of histone H3 in murine thymic cells after in vivo emetine treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sooki-Toth, A.; Banfalvi, G.; Staub, M.; Antoni, F. ); Szoelloesi, J. ); Kirsten, E. ); Kun, E. )

    1989-09-01

    Thymic cells were isolated at intervals of between 0 and 144 h from mice that received one intraperitoneal injection of emetine, and thymus weight, incorporation of ({sup 14}C)leucine into proteins and ({sup 3}H)thymidine into DNA in intact thymic cells, as well as initial rates of protein ADP-ribosylation in permeabilized cells were simultaneously monitored. The effect of emetine as an inhibitor of protein synthesis corresponds to the induction of sequential cellular events, such as cell exit and remigration, by other antimitotic agents and produces an activation of proliferation of cells reentering into this organ. Proliferation, as demonstrated by a large increase in DNA synthesis and entrance into S phase, was kinetically related to an apparent increase in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in thymic cells and a highly significant in vitro ADP-ribosylation of histone H3. since no DNA fragmentation occurred in thymic cells, as tested by a fluorometric technique it is probable that a selective activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase may have been induced in cells that undergo differentiation and proliferation while repopulating thymus.

  19. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Methyl CpG Binding Domain Protein 2 Regulates Chromatin Structure*

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Annette; Zhang, Peng; Allmann, Lena; Meilinger, Daniela; Bertulat, Bianca; Eck, Daniel; Hofstaetter, Maria; Bartolomei, Giody; Hottiger, Michael O.; Schreiber, Valérie; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M. Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic information encoded in the genomic DNA methylation pattern is translated by methylcytosine binding proteins like MeCP2 into chromatin topology and structure and gene activity states. We have shown previously that the MeCP2 level increases during differentiation and that it causes large-scale chromatin reorganization, which is disturbed by MeCP2 Rett syndrome mutations. Phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications of MeCP2 have been described recently to modulate its function. Here we show poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of endogenous MeCP2 in mouse brain tissue. Consequently, we found that MeCP2 induced aggregation of pericentric heterochromatin and that its chromatin accumulation was enhanced in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1−/− compared with wild-type cells. We mapped the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation domains and engineered MeCP2 mutation constructs to further analyze potential effects on DNA binding affinity and large-scale chromatin remodeling. Single or double deletion of the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated regions and PARP inhibition increased the heterochromatin clustering ability of MeCP2. Increased chromatin clustering may reflect increased binding affinity. In agreement with this hypothesis, we found that PARP-1 deficiency significantly increased the chromatin binding affinity of MeCP2 in vivo. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of MeCP2-mediated, higher-order chromatin architecture and suggest therapeutic opportunities to manipulate MeCP2 function. PMID:26772194

  20. Activation of exocytosis by cross-linking of the IgE receptor is dependent on ADP-ribosylation factor 1-regulated phospholipase D in RBL-2H3 mast cells: evidence that the mechanism of activation is via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Way, G; O'luanaigh, N; Cockcroft, S

    2000-01-01

    The physiological stimulus to exocytosis in mast cells is the cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcepsilonR1, with antigen. We demonstrate a novel function for ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) in the regulation of antigen-stimulated secretion using cytosol-depleted RBL-2H3 mast cells for reconstitution of secretory responses. When antigen is used as the stimulus, ARF1 also reconstitutes phospholipase D activation. Using ethanol to divert the phosphatidic acid (the product of phospholipase D activity) to phosphatidylethanol causes inhibition of ARF1-reconstituted secretion. In addition. ARF1 causes an increase in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) levels at the expense of phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate. The requirement for PIP(2) in exocytosis was confirmed by using phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITPalpha) to increase PIP(2) levels. Exocytosis, restored by either ARF1 or PITPalpha, was inhibited when PIP(2) levels were depleted by phospholipase Cdelta1. We conclude that the function of ARF1 and PITPalpha is to increase the local synthesis of PIP(2), the function of which in exocytosis is likely to be linked to lipid-protein interactions, whereby recruitment of key components of the exocytotic machinery are targeted to the appropriate membrane compartment. PMID:10657240

  1. AmtB Is Necessary for NH4+-Induced Nitrogenase Switch-Off and ADP-Ribosylation in Rhodobacter capsulatus‡

    PubMed Central

    Yakunin, Alexander F.; Hallenbeck, Patrick C.

    2002-01-01

    Rhodobacter capsulatus possesses two genes potentially coding for ammonia transporters, amtB and amtY. In order to better understand their role in the physiology of this bacterium and their possible significance in nitrogen fixation, we created single-knockout mutants. Strains mutated in either amtB or amtY did not show a growth defect under any condition tested and were still capable of taking up ammonia at nearly wild-type rates, but an amtB mutant was no longer capable of transporting methylamine. The amtB strain but not the amtY strain was also totally defective in carrying out ADP-ribosylation of Fe-protein or the switch-off of in vivo nitrogenase activity in response to NH4+ addition. ADP-ribosylation in response to darkness was unaffected in amtB and amtBY strains, and glutamine synthetase activity was normally regulated in these strains in response to ammonium addition, suggesting that one role of AmtB is to function as an ammonia sensor for the processes that regulate nitrogenase activity. PMID:12107124

  2. Studies on protein poly(ADP-ribosylation) using high resolution gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Boulikas, T

    1990-08-25

    Analysis of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized in cellular lysates or in isolated nuclei on 100-cm-long thin gels of 20% polyacrylamide, 2.5 M urea permits determination of the exact size of poly(ADP-ribose) molecules using labeled oligonucleotides as molecular weight markers. The size and concentration of poly(ADP-ribose) molecules increase at time intervals during its synthesis. Differences in the concentration of poly(ADP-ribose) size classes among cell lines are also shown. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) degradation by ethacridine that directly interacts with the polymer and inhibits its hydrolysis by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase shows a dramatic increase in both polymer size and concentration. Use of alkaline conditions for the hydrolysis of poly(ADP-ribose)-protein linkages reveals a specific shortening of all size classes of poly(ADP-ribose) compared with its size in preparations obtained by extensive digestion of nuclei with nucleases, RNases, and proteases. PMID:2167322

  3. Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation Is Required to Modulate Chromatin Changes at c-MYC Promoter during Emergence from Quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Battistelli, Cecilia; Ciotti, Agnese; Amati, Paolo; Maione, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of various proteins and participates in the regulation of chromatin structure and transcription through complex mechanisms not completely understood. We have previously shown that PARP-1, the major family member of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases, plays an important role in the cell cycle reactivation of resting cells by regulating the expression of Immediate Early Response Genes, such as c-MYC, c-FOS, JUNB and EGR-1. In the present work we have investigated the molecular mechanisms by which the enzyme induces c-MYC transcription upon serum stimulation of quiescent cells. We show that PARP-1 is constitutively associated in vivo to a c-MYC promoter region recognized as biologically relevant for the transcriptional regulation of the gene. Moreover, we report that serum stimulation causes the prompt accumulation of ADP-ribose polymers on the same region and that this modification is required for chromatin decondensation and for the exchange of negative for positive transcriptional regulators. Finally we provide evidence that the inhibition of PARP activity along with serum stimulation impairs c-MYC induction by preventing the proper accumulation of histone H3 phosphoacetylation, a specific chromatin mark for the activation of Immediate Early Response Genes. These findings not only suggest a novel strategy by which PARP-1 regulates the transcriptional activity of promoters but also provide new information about the complex regulation of c-MYC expression, a critical determinant of the transition from quiescence to proliferation. PMID:25047032

  4. Activation of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins by native and recombinant adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factors, 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C M; Chang, P P; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Price, S R; Kunz, B C; Moss, J; Twiddy, E M; Holmes, R K

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) are responsible in part for "traveler's diarrhea" and related diarrheal illnesses. The family of LTs comprises two serogroups termed LT-I and LT-II; each serogroup includes two or more antigenic variants. The effects of LTs result from ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, a stimulatory component of adenylyl cyclase; the mechanism of action is identical to that of cholera toxin (CT). The ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of CT is enhanced by 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, known as ADP-ribosylation factors or ARFs. These proteins directly activate the CTA1 catalytic unit and stimulate its ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, other proteins, and simple guanidino compounds (e.g., agmatine). Because of the similarities between CT and LTs, we investigated the effects of purified bovine brain ARF and a recombinant form of bovine ARF synthesized in Escherichia coli on LT activity. ARF enhanced the LT-I-, LT-IIa-, and LT-IIb-catalyzed ADP ribosylation of agmatine, as well as the auto-ADP ribosylation of the toxin catalytic unit. Stimulation of ADP-ribosylagmatine formation by LTs and CT in the presence of ARF was GTP dependent and enhanced by sodium dodecyl sulfate. With agmatine as substrate, LT-IIa and LT-IIb exhibited less than 1% the activity of CT and LT-Ih. CT and LTs catalyzed ADP-ribosyl-Gs alpha formation in a reaction dependent on ARF, GTP, and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/cholate. With Gs alpha as substrate, the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of the toxins were similar, although CT and LT-Ih appeared to be slightly more active than LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Thus, LT-IIa and LT-IIb appear to differ somewhat from CT and LT-Ih in substrate specificity. Responsiveness to stimulation by ARF, GTP, and phospholipid/detergent as well as the specificity of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity are functions of LTs from serogroups LT-I and LT-II that are shared with CT. Images PMID:1902492

  5. Yeast Golgi-localized, gamma-Ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins are but adaptor protein-1 is not required for cell-free transport of membrane proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the prevacuolar compartment.

    PubMed

    Abazeed, Mohamed E; Fuller, Robert S

    2008-11-01

    Golgi-localized, gamma-Ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. To examine the roles of the Ggas and AP-1 in TGN-PVC transport, we used a cell-free assay that measures delivery to the PVC of either Kex2p or a chimeric protein (K-V), in which the Vps10p cytosolic tail replaces the Kex2p tail. Either antibody inhibition or dominant-negative Gga2p completely blocked K-V transport but only partially blocked Kex2p transport. Deletion of APL2, encoding the beta subunit of AP-1, did not affect K-V transport but partially blocked Kex2p transport. Residual Kex2p transport seen with apl2Delta membranes was insensitive to dominant-negative Gga2p, suggesting that the apl2Delta mutation causes Kex2p to localize to a compartment that precludes Gga-dependent trafficking. These results suggest that yeast Ggas facilitate the specific and direct delivery of Vps10p and Kex2p from the TGN to the PVC and that AP-1 modulates Kex2p trafficking through a distinct pathway, presumably involving the early endosome. PMID:18784256

  6. Yeast Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-Ribosylation Factor-binding Proteins Are but Adaptor Protein-1 Is Not Required for Cell-free Transport of Membrane Proteins from the Trans-Golgi Network to the Prevacuolar Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Abazeed, Mohamed E.

    2008-01-01

    Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. To examine the roles of the Ggas and AP-1 in TGN–PVC transport, we used a cell-free assay that measures delivery to the PVC of either Kex2p or a chimeric protein (K-V), in which the Vps10p cytosolic tail replaces the Kex2p tail. Either antibody inhibition or dominant-negative Gga2p completely blocked K-V transport but only partially blocked Kex2p transport. Deletion of APL2, encoding the β subunit of AP-1, did not affect K-V transport but partially blocked Kex2p transport. Residual Kex2p transport seen with apl2Δ membranes was insensitive to dominant-negative Gga2p, suggesting that the apl2Δ mutation causes Kex2p to localize to a compartment that precludes Gga-dependent trafficking. These results suggest that yeast Ggas facilitate the specific and direct delivery of Vps10p and Kex2p from the TGN to the PVC and that AP-1 modulates Kex2p trafficking through a distinct pathway, presumably involving the early endosome. PMID:18784256

  7. NO-Mediated [Ca2+]cyt Increases Depend on ADP-Ribosyl Cyclase Activity in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Carlos T.; Davey, Matthew P.; Dodd, Antony N.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) is a Ca2+-mobilizing intracellular second messenger synthesized from NAD by ADP-ribosyl cyclases (ADPR cyclases). In animals, cADPR targets the ryanodine receptor present in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum to promote Ca2+ release from intracellular stores to increase the concentration of cytosolic free Ca2+ in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and cADPR has been proposed to play a central role in signal transduction pathways evoked by the drought and stress hormone, abscisic acid, and the circadian clock. Despite evidence for the action of cADPR in Arabidopsis, no predicted proteins with significant similarity to the known ADPR cyclases have been reported in any plant genome database, suggesting either that there is a unique route for cADPR synthesis or that a homolog of ADPR cyclase with low similarity might exist in plants. We sought to determine whether the low levels of ADPR cyclase activity reported in Arabidopsis are indicative of a bona fide activity that can be associated with the regulation of Ca2+ signaling. We adapted two different fluorescence-based assays to measure ADPR cyclase activity in Arabidopsis and found that this activity has the characteristics of a nucleotide cyclase that is activated by nitric oxide to increase cADPR and mobilize Ca2+. PMID:26932235

  8. Pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of a G protein in mouse oocytes, eggs, and preimplantation embryos: Developmental changes and possible functional roles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.; Schultz, R.M. )

    1990-06-01

    G proteins, which in many somatic cells serve as mediators of signal transduction, were identified in preimplantation mouse embryos by their capacity to undergo pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Two pertussis toxin (PT) substrates with Mr = 38,000 and 39,000 (alpha 38 and alpha 39) are present in approximately equal amounts. Relative to the amount in freshly isolated germinal vesicle (GV)-intact oocytes, the amount of PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 falls during oocyte maturation, rises between the one- and two-cell stages, falls by the eight-cell and morula stages, and increases again by the blastocyst stage. The decrease in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 that occurs during oocyte maturation, however, does not require germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), since inhibiting GVBD with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX) does not prevent the decrease in the extent of PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. A biologically active phorbol diester (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate), but not an inactive one (4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, 4 alpha-PDD), totally inhibits the increase in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 that occurs between the one- and two-cell stage; TPA inhibits cleavage, but not transcriptional activation, which occurs in the two-cell embryo. In contrast, cytochalasin D, genistein, or aphidicolin, each of which inhibits cleavage of one-cell embryos, or alpha-amanitin or H8, each of which inhibits transcriptional activation but not cleavage of one-cell embryos, have little or inhibitory effects on the increase in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39. Results of immunoblotting experiments using an antibody that is highly specific for alpha il-3 reveal the presence of a cross-reactive species of Mr = 38,000 (alpha 38) in the GV-intact oocyte, metaphase II-arrested egg, and one-, two-cell embryos.

  9. Differences in the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation patterns of ICP4, the herpes simplex virus major regulatory protein, in infected cells and in isolated nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Blaho, J A; Michael, N; Kang, V; Aboul-Ela, N; Smulson, M E; Jacobson, M K; Roizman, B

    1992-01-01

    Infected-cell protein 4 (ICP4), the major regulatory protein in herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, was previously reported to accept 32P from [32P]NAD in isolated nuclei. This modification was attributed to poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (C. M. Preston and E. L. Notarianni, Virology 131:492-501, 1983). We determined that an antibody specific for poly(ADP-ribose) reacts with ICP4 extracted from infected cells, electrophoretically separated in denaturing gels, and electrically transferred to nitrocellulose. Our results indicate that all forms of ICP4 observed in one-dimensional gel electrophoresis are poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated. Poly(ADP-ribose) on ICP4 extracted from infected cells was resistant to cleavage by purified poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase unless ICP4 was in a denatured state. Poly(ADP-ribose) added to ICP4 in isolated nuclei was sensitive to this enzyme. This result indicates that the two processes are distinct and may involve different sites on the ICP4 molecule. Images PMID:1328673

  10. Thromboxane-induced renal vasoconstriction is mediated by the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 and superoxide anion

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Paul A.; Kopple, Tayler E.; Arendshorst, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The present renal hemodynamic study tested the hypothesis that CD38 and superoxide anion (O2·−) participate in the vasoconstriction produced by activation of thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors in the mouse kidney. CD38 is the major mammalian ADP-ribosyl cyclase contributing to vasomotor tone through the generation of cADP-ribose, a second messenger that activates ryanodine receptors to release Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in vascular smooth muscle cells. We evaluated whether the stable thromboxane mimetic U-46619 causes less pronounced renal vasoconstriction in CD38-deficient mice and the involvement of O2·− in U-46619-induced renal vasoconstriction. Our results indicate that U-46619 activation of TP receptors causes renal vasoconstriction in part by activating cADP-ribose signaling in renal resistance arterioles. Based on maximal renal blood flow and renal vascular resistance responses to bolus injections of U-46619, CD38 contributes 30–40% of the TP receptor-induced vasoconstriction. We also found that the antioxidant SOD mimetic tempol attenuated the magnitude of vasoconstriction by U-46619 in both groups of mice, suggesting mediation by O2·−. The degree of tempol blockage of U-46619-induced renal vasoconstriction was greater in wild-type mice, attenuating renal vasoconstriction by 40% compared with 30% in CD38-null mice. In other experiments, U-46619 rapidly stimulated O2·− production (dihydroethidium fluorescence) in isolated mouse afferent arterioles, an effect abolished by tempol. These observations provide the first in vivo demonstration of CD38 and O2·− involvement in the vasoconstrictor effects of TP receptor activation in the kidney and in vitro evidence for TP receptor stimulation of O2·− production by the afferent arteriole. PMID:23884143

  11. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in cancer: old and new paradigms revisited.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Barbara; Trusolino, Livio

    2014-08-01

    Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases actualized the biological concept of synthetic lethality in the clinical practice, yielding a paradigmatic example of translational medicine. The profound sensitivity of tumors with germline BRCA mutations to PARP1/2 blockade owes to inherent defects of the BRCA-dependent homologous recombination machinery, which are unleashed by interruption of PARP DNA repair activity and lead to DNA damage overload and cell death. Conversely, aspirant BRCA-like tumors harboring somatic DNA repair dysfunctions (a vast entity of genetic and epigenetic defects known as "BRCAness") not always align with the familial counterpart and appear not to be equally sensitive to PARP inhibition. The acquisition of secondary resistance in initially responsive patients and the lack of standardized biomarkers to identify "BRCAness" pose serious threats to the clinical advance of PARP inhibitors; a feeling is also emerging that a BRCA-centered perspective might have missed the influence of additional, not negligible and DNA repair-independent PARP contributions onto therapy outcome. While regulatory approval for PARP1/2 inhibitors is still pending, novel therapeutic opportunities are sprouting from different branches of the PARP family, although they remain immature for clinical extrapolation. This review is an endeavor to provide a comprehensive appraisal of the multifaceted biology of PARPs and their evolving impact on cancer therapeutics. PMID:25026313

  12. Kinase-mediated changes in nucleosome conformation trigger chromatin decondensation via poly-ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Colin J.; Kotova, Elena; Andrake, Mark; Adolf-Bryfogle, Jared; Glaser, Robert; Regnard, Catherine; Tulin, Alexei V.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dynamically controlled post-translational modifications of nucleosomal histones alter chromatin condensation to regulate transcriptional activation. We report that a nuclear tandem kinase, JIL-1, controls gene expression by activating Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP-1). JIL-1 phosphorylates the C-terminus of the H2Av histone variant, which stimulates PARP-1 enzymatic activity in the surrounding chromatin, leading to further modification of histones and chromatin loosening. The H2Av nucleosome has a higher surface representation of PARP-1 binding patch consisting of H3 and H4 epitopes. Phosphorylation of H2Av by JIL-1 restructures this surface patch leading to activation of PARP-1. Exposure of Val61 and Leu23 of the H4 histone is critical for PARP-1 binding on nucleosome and PARP-1 activation following H2Av phosphorylation. We propose that chromatin loosening and associated initiation of gene expression is activated by phosphorylation of H2Av in a nucleosome positioned in promoter regions of PARP-1 dependent genes. PMID:24508391

  13. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of a 46 kDa protein is decreased in brains of ethanol-fed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nhamburo, P.T.; Hoffman, P.L.; Tabakoff, B.

    1988-01-01

    The acute in vitro effects of ethanol on cerebral cortical adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenergic receptor characteristics suggested a site of action of ethanol at Gs, the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein. After chronic ethanol ingestion, the beta-adrenergic receptor appeared to be uncoupled (i.e., the form of the receptor with high affinity for agonist was undetectable), and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by isoproterenol or guanine nucleotides was reduced, suggesting an alteration in the properties of Gs. To further characterize this change, cholera and pertussis toxin-mediated /sup 32/P-ADP-ribosylation of mouse cortical membranes was assessed in mice that had chronically ingested ethanol in a liquid diet. /sup 32/P-labeled proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantitated by autoradiography. There was a selective 30-50% decrease in cholera toxin-induced labeling of 46 kDa protein band in membranes of ethanol-fed mice, with no apparent change in pertussis toxin-induced labeling. The 46 kDa protein has a molecular weight similar to that of the alpha subunit of Gs, suggesting a reduced amount of this protein or a change in its characteristics as a substrate for cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation in cortical membranes of ethanol-fed mice.

  14. Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) generation or IL-1[beta]-induced intracellular NO production stimulates inhibitory auto-ADP-ribosylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in RINm5F cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dimmeler, S.; Bruene, B. ); Ankarcrona, M.; Nicotera, P. )

    1993-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates the auto-ADP-ribosylation of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) which results in the inhibition of enzyme activity. In the present work the authors show that addition of exogenous NO or IL-1[beta]-induced intracellular NO generation cause GAPDH ADP-ribosylation and inhibition of enzyme activity. Incubation of RINm5F cells with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 18 h caused a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of GAPDH activity. Half-maximal inhibition of GAPDH activity was observed with 80 [mu]M of the NO donor, with maximal inhibition after roughly 6 h of incubation. In parallel, SNP induced endogenous ADP-ribosylation of GAPDH measured by a decreased incorporation of [[sup 32]P]ADP-ribose from [[sup 32]P]NAD[sup +] in the cytosol of the SNP-treated cells. Stimulation of endogenous NO production by inducing the NO synthase by exposure to the cytokine IL-1[beta] results in decreased GAPDH activity. IL-1[beta] (10[sup [minus]9] M) inhibited GAPDH activity about 55%, compared with control values. Production of nitrite and inhibition of GAPDH was reversed by the NAD[sup +] synthease inhibitor N[sub G]-monomethyl-L-arginine, indicating the endogenous generated NO was the effective molecule. Again, GAPDH inhibition was associated with NO-stimulated endogenous ADP-ribosylation of the enzyme Western blot analysis of GAPDH excluded degradation of GAPDH by NO. NO-stimulated auto-ADP-ribosylation resulted in inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH and may be relevant as a cytotoxic effect of NO. In concert with its inhibitory actions on iron-sulfur enzymes like aconitase and electron transport proteins of the respiratory chain, NO may mediate autocytotoxic effect in [beta]-cells. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Platelet cytosolic 44-kDa protein is a substrate of cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation and is not recognized by antisera against the. alpha. subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Molina Y Vedia, L.M.; Reep, B.R.; Lapetina, E.G. )

    1988-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation induced by cholera toxin and pertussis toxin was studied in particulate and cytosolic fractions of human platelets. Platelets were disrupted by a cycle of freezing and thawing in the presence of a hyposmotic buffer containing protease inhibitors. In both fractions, the A subunit of cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates two proteins with molecular masses of 42 and 44 kDa, whereas pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylates a 41-kDa polypeptide. Two antisera against the {alpha} subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein recognize only the 42-kDa polypeptide. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of the 42- and 44-kDa proteins is reduced by pretreatment of platelets with iloprost, a prostacyclin analog. The 44-kDa protein, which is substrate of cholera toxin, could be extracted completely from the membrane and recovered in the cytosolic fraction when the cells were disrupted by Dounce homogenization and the pellet was extensively washed. A 44-kDa protein can also be labeled with 8-azidoguanosine 5{prime}-({alpha}-{sup 32}P)triphosphate in the cytosol and membranes. These finding indicate that cholera and pertussis toxins produced covalent modifications of proteins present in particulate and cytosolic platelet fractions. Moreover, the 44-kDa protein might be an {alpha} subunit of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein that is not recognized by available antisera.

  16. Cellular regulation of poly ADP-ribosylation of proteins: II. Augmentation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in SV40 3T3 cells following methotrexate-induced G1/S inhibition of cell cycle progression

    SciTech Connect

    Sooki-Toth, A.; Asghari, F.; Kirsten, E.; Kun, E. )

    1987-05-01

    SV40-3T3 cells were exposed in monolayer cultures to 5{times}10{sup {minus}7} M methotrexate (MTX), that inhibited thymidylate synthetase, arrested cell growth without cell killing in 24 h and did not induce single- (ss) or double-strand (ds) breaks in DNA. Following 24, up to 72 h, the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase content of attached cells was induced by 5{times}10{sup {minus}7} MTX and the augmentation of the enzyme increased with the time of exposure to the drug. Inhibition of protein or RNA synthesis abolished augmentation of enzymatic activity; so too did the initiation of maximal cell growth by thymidine + hypoxanthine, by-passing the inhibitory site of MTX. Isolation of the ADP-ribosylated enzyme protein by gel electrophoresis identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein as the molecule that was induced by 5{times}10{sup {minus}7} M MTX. Under identical conditions, the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase induction in 3T3 cells could not be demonstrated. A possible cell-cycle dependent biosynthesis of the enzyme protein is proposed in SV40 3T3 cells.

  17. 2-Azido-( sup 32 P)NAD+, a photoactivatable probe for G-protein structure: Evidence for holotransducin oligomers in which the ADP-ribosylated carboxyl terminus of alpha interacts with both alpha and gamma subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Vaillancourt, R.R.; Dhanasekaran, N.; Johnson, G.L.; Ruoho, A.E. )

    1990-05-01

    A radioactive and photoactivatable derivative of NAD+, 2-azido-(adenylate-32P)NAD+, has been synthesized and used with pertussis toxin to ADP-ribosylate Cys347 of the alpha subunit (alpha T) of GT, the retinal guanine nucleotide-binding protein. ADP-ribosylation of alpha T followed by light activation of the azide moiety of 2-azido-(adenylate-32P)ADP-ribose produced four crosslinked species involving the alpha and gamma subunits of the GT heterotrimer: an alpha trimer (alpha-alpha-alpha), and alpha-alpha-gamma crosslink, an alpha dimer (alpha-alpha), and an alpha-gamma crosslink. The alpha trimer, alpha-alpha-gamma complex, alpha dimer, and alpha-gamma complexes were immunoreactive with alpha T antibodies. The alpha-alpha-gamma and the alpha-gamma complexes were immunoreactive with antisera recognizing gamma subunits. No evidence was found for crosslinking of alpha T to beta T subunits. Hydrolysis of the thioglycosidic bond between Cys347 and 2-azido-(adenylate-32P)ADP-ribose using mercuric acetate resulted in the transfer of radiolabel from Cys347 of alpha T in the crosslinked oligomers to alpha monomers, indicative of intermolecular photocrosslinking, and to gamma monomers, indicative of either intermolecular crosslinked complexes (between heterotrimers) or intramolecular crosslinked complexes (within the heterotrimer). These results demonstrate that GT exists as an oligomer and that ADP-ribosylated Cys347, which is four residues from the alpha T-carboxyl terminus, is oriented toward and in close proximity to the gamma subunit.

  18. Identification of a GTP-binding protein. cap alpha. subunit that lacks an apparent ADP-ribosylation site for pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, H.K.W.; Yoshimoto, K.K.; Eversole-Cire, P.; Simon, M.I.

    1988-05-01

    Recent molecular cloning of cDNA for the ..cap alpha.. subunit of bovine transducin (a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein, or G protein) has revealed the presence of two retinal-specific transducins, called T/sub r/ and T/sub c/, which are expressed in rod or cone photoreceptor cells. In a further study of G-protein diversity and signal transduction in the retina, the authors have identified a G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunit, which they refer to as G/sub z/..cap alpha.., by isolating a human retinal cDNA clone that cross-hybridizes at reduced stringency with bovine T/sub r/ ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence of G/sub z/..cap alpha.. is 41-67% identical with those of other known G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunits. However, the 355-residue G/sub z/..cap alpha.. lacks a consensus site for ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin, and its amino acid sequence varies within a number of regions that are strongly conserved among all of the other G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunits. They suggest that G/sub z/..cap alpha.., which appears to be highly expressed in neural tissues, represents a member of a subfamily of G proteins that mediate signal transduction in pertussis toxin-insensitive systems.

  19. Functional Characterization of an Extended Binding Component of the Actin-ADP-Ribosylating C2 Toxin Detected in Clostridium botulinum Strain (C) 2300 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sterthoff, Charlott; Lang, Alexander E.; Schwan, Carsten; Tauch, Andreas; Aktories, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin consists of the binding component C2II and the enzyme component C2I, which ADP-ribosylates G-actin of eukaryotic cells. Trypsin-activated C2II (C2IIa) forms heptamers that mediate cell binding and translocation of C2I from acidic endosomes into the cytosol of target cells. By genome sequencing of C. botulinum strain (C) 2300, we found that C2II from this strain carries a C-terminal extension of 129 amino acids, unlike its homologous counterparts from strains (C) 203U28, (C) 468, and (D) 1873. This extension shows a high similarity to the C-terminal receptor-binding domain of C2II and is presumably the result of a duplication of this domain. The C2II extension facilitates the binding to cell surface receptors, which leads to an increased intoxication efficiency compared to that of C2II proteins from other C. botulinum strains. PMID:20145093

  20. The Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Enzyme Tankyrase Antagonizes Activity of the β-Catenin Destruction Complex through ADP-ribosylation of Axin and APC2.

    PubMed

    Croy, Heather E; Fuller, Caitlyn N; Giannotti, Jemma; Robinson, Paige; Foley, Andrew V A; Yamulla, Robert J; Cosgriff, Sean; Greaves, Bradford D; von Kleeck, Ryan A; An, Hyun Hyung; Powers, Catherine M; Tran, Julie K; Tocker, Aaron M; Jacob, Kimberly D; Davis, Beckley K; Roberts, David M

    2016-06-10

    Most colon cancer cases are initiated by truncating mutations in the tumor suppressor, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). APC is a critical negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway that participates in a multi-protein "destruction complex" to target the key effector protein β-catenin for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Prior work has established that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme Tankyrase (TNKS) antagonizes destruction complex activity by promoting degradation of the scaffold protein Axin, and recent work suggests that TNKS inhibition is a promising cancer therapy. We performed a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen and uncovered TNKS as a putative binding partner of Drosophila APC2, suggesting that TNKS may play multiple roles in destruction complex regulation. We find that TNKS binds a C-terminal RPQPSG motif in Drosophila APC2, and that this motif is conserved in human APC2, but not human APC1. In addition, we find that APC2 can recruit TNKS into the β-catenin destruction complex, placing the APC2/TNKS interaction at the correct intracellular location to regulate β-catenin proteolysis. We further show that TNKS directly PARylates both Drosophila Axin and APC2, but that PARylation does not globally regulate APC2 protein levels as it does for Axin. Moreover, TNKS inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases β-catenin signaling, which we find cannot be explained solely through Axin stabilization. Instead, our findings suggest that TNKS regulates destruction complex activity at the level of both Axin and APC2, providing further mechanistic insight into TNKS inhibition as a potential Wnt pathway cancer therapy. PMID:27068743

  1. Sulfur and nitrogen mustards induce characteristic poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation responses in HaCaT keratinocytes with distinctive cellular consequences.

    PubMed

    Mangerich, Aswin; Debiak, Malgorzata; Birtel, Matthias; Ponath, Viviane; Balszuweit, Frank; Lex, Kirsten; Martello, Rita; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Strobelt, Romano; Siegert, Markus; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Mustard agents are potent DNA alkylating agents with mutagenic, cytotoxic and vesicant properties. They include bi-functional agents, such as sulfur mustard (SM) or nitrogen mustard (mustine, HN2), as well as mono-functional agents, such as "half mustard" (CEES). Whereas SM has been used as a chemical warfare agent, several nitrogen mustard derivatives, such as chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide, are being used as established chemotherapeutics. Upon induction of specific forms of genotoxic stimuli, several poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize the nucleic acid-like biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by using NAD(+) as a substrate. Previously, it was shown that SM triggers cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl) ation (PARylation), but so far this phenomenon is poorly characterized. In view of the protective effects of PARP inhibitors, the latter have been proposed as a treatment option of SM-exposed victims. In an accompanying article (Debiak et al., 2016), we have provided an optimized protocol for the analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to further analyze mustard-induced PARylation and its functional consequences, in general. Thus, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the PARylation response in HaCaT cells after treatment with four different mustard agents, i.e., SM, CEES, HN2, and chlorambucil, on a qualitative, quantitative and functional level. In particular, we recorded substance-specific as well as dose- and time-dependent PARylation responses using independent bioanalytical methods based on single-cell immuno-fluorescence microscopy and quantitative isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we analyzed if and how PARylation contributes to mustard-induced toxicity by treating HaCaT cells with CEES, SM, and HN2 in combination with the clinically relevant PARP inhibitor ABT888. As evaluated by a novel immunofluorescence-based protocol for the detection of

  2. Vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the Octopus vulgaris brain: a regulatory factor of actin polymerization dynamic.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Anna; Natale, Emiliana; Rotondo, Sergio; Di Cosmo, Anna; Faraone-Mennella, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Our previous behavioural, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses conducted in selected regions (supra/sub oesophageal masses) of the Octopus vulgaris brain detected a cytoplasmic poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (more than 90% of total enzyme activity). The protein was identified as the vault-free form of vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. The present research extends and integrates the biochemical characterization of poly-ADP-ribosylation system, namely, reaction product, i.e., poly-ADP-ribose, and acceptor proteins, in the O. vulgaris brain. Immunochemical analyses evidenced that the sole poly-ADP-ribose acceptor was the octopus cytoskeleton 50-kDa actin. It was present in both free, endogenously poly-ADP-ribosylated form (70kDa) and in complex with V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and poly-ADP-ribose (260kDa). The components of this complex, alkali and high salt sensitive, were purified and characterized. The kind and the length of poly-ADP-ribose corresponded to linear chains of 30-35 ADP-ribose units, in accordance with the features of the polymer synthesized by the known vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. In vitro experiments showed that V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase activity of brain cytoplasmic fraction containing endogenous actin increased upon the addition of commercial actin and was highly reduced by ATP. Anti-actin immunoblot of the mixture in the presence and absence of ATP showed that the poly-ADP-ribosylation of octopus actin is a dynamic process balanced by the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeleton protein, a fundamental mechanism for synaptic plasticity. PMID:23831359

  3. Enhancement of choleragen ADP-ribosyltransferase activities by guanyl nucleotides and a 19-kDa membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S C; Noda, M; Adamik, R; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1987-01-01

    Choleragen activates adenylate cyclase by catalyzing, in the presence of NAD, the ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha, the stimulatory guanyl nucleotide-binding protein of the cyclase system. Kahn and Gilman [Kahn, R. A. & Gilman, A. G. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 7906-7911] identified another guanyl nucleotide-binding protein termed ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) that stimulated this reaction. It was proposed that the toxin substrate is an ARF-Gs alpha complex and that ARF may have a physiological role in regulation of Gs alpha activity. We have found that purified ARF from bovine brain enhances not only the ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha but also Gs alpha-independent choleragen-catalyzed reactions. These are (i) ADP-ribosylation of agmatine, a low molecular weight guanidino compound; (ii) ADP-ribosylation of several proteins unrelated to Gs alpha; and (iii) auto-ADP-ribosylation of the toxin A1 peptide. These reactions, as well as the ADP-ribosylation of ARF itself, were stimulated by GTP or stable GTP analogues such as guanyl-5'-yl imido-beta gamma-diphosphate and guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio]triphosphate; GDP and guanosine 5'-O-[beta-thio]diphosphate were inactive. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that ARF interacts directly with the A subunit of choleragen in a GTP-dependent fashion thereby enhancing catalytic activity manifest as transfer of ADP-ribose to Gs alpha and other proteins, to the toxin A1 peptide, or to agmatine. It is tempting to speculate that ARF may be involved in regulating one or another of the ADP-ribosyltransferases found in animal cells. Images PMID:3110784

  4. Immunochemical analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by the mono-alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES): Impact of experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Debiak, Malgorzata; Lex, Kirsten; Ponath, Viviane; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent with a long history of use as a chemical weapon. Although its last military use is dated for the eighties of the last century, a potential use in terroristic attacks against civilians remains a significant threat. Thus, improving medical therapy of mustard exposed individuals is still of particular interest. PARP inhibitors were recently brought into the focus as a potential countermeasure for mustard-induced pathologies, supported by the availability of efficient compounds successfully tested in cancer therapy. PARP activation after SM treatment was reported in several cell types and tissues under various conditions; however, a detailed characterization of this phenomenon is still missing. This study provides the basis for such studies by developing and optimizing experimental conditions to investigate poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) in HaCaT keratinocytes upon treatment with the monofunctional alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide ("half mustard", CEES). By using an immunofluorescence-based approach, we show that optimization of experimental conditions with regards to the type of solvent, dilution factors and treatment procedure is essential to obtain a homogenous PAR staining in HaCaT cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different CEES treatment protocols significantly influence the cytotoxicity profiles of treated cells. Using an optimized treatment protocol, our data reveals that CEES induces a dose- and time-dependent dynamic PARylation response in HaCaT cells that could be completely blocked by treating cells with the clinically relevant pharmacological PARP inhibitor ABT888 (also known as veliparib). Finally, siRNA experiments show that CEES-induced PAR formation is predominantly due to the activation of PARP1. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to study the

  5. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A complexed with a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide analog: implications for the activation process and for ADP ribosylation.

    PubMed Central

    Li, M; Dyda, F; Benhar, I; Pastan, I; Davies, D R

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic, or third domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PEIII) catalyzes the transfer of ADP ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to elongation factor-2 in eukaryotic cells, inhibiting protein synthesis. We have determined the structure of PEIII crystallized in the presence of NAD to define the site of binding and mechanism of activation. However, NAD undergoes a slow hydrolysis and the crystal structure revealed only the hydrolysis products, AMP and nicotinamide, bound to the enzyme. To better define the site of NAD binding, we have now crystallized PEIII in the presence of a less hydrolyzable NAD analog, beta-methylene-thiazole-4-carboxamide adenine dinucleotide (beta-TAD), and refined the complex structure at 2.3 angstroms resolution. There are two independent molecules of PEIII in the crystal, and the conformations of beta-TAD show some differences in the two binding sites. The beta-TAD attached to molecule 2 appears to have been hydrolyzed between the pyrophosphate and the nicotinamide ribose. However molecule 1 binds to an intact beta-TAD and has no crystal packing contacts in the vicinity of the binding site, so that the observed conformation and interaction with the PEIII most likely resembles that of NAD bound to PEIII in solution. We have compared this complex with the catalytic domains of diphtheria toxin, heat labile enterotoxin, and pertussis toxin, all three of which it closely resembles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8692916

  6. Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in skeletal muscle tissue of pediatric patients with severe burn injury: prevention by propranolol treatment

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Gábor; Finnerty, Celeste; Sbrana, Elena; Elijah, Itoro; Gerö, Domokos; Herndon, David; Szabó, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    Summary Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has been shown to promote cellular energetic collapse and cellular necrosis in various forms of critical illness. Most of the evidence implicating the PARP pathway in disease processes is derived from preclinical studies. With respect to PARP and burns, studies in rodent and large animal models of burn injury have demonstrated the activation of PARP in various tissues and the beneficial effect of its pharmacological inhibition. The aim of the current study was to measure the activation of PARP in human skeletal muscle biopsies at various stages of severe pediatric burn injury and to identify the cell types where this activation may occur. Another aim of the study was to test the effect of propranolol (an effective treatment of patients with burns), on the activation of PARP in skeletal muscle biopsies. PARP activation was measured by Western blotting for its product, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The localization of PARP activation was determined by PAR immunohistochemistry. The results showed that PARP becomes activated in the skeletal muscle tissue after burns, with the peak of the activation occurring in the middle stage of the disease (13–18 days after burns). Even at the late stage of the disease (69–369 days post-burn) an elevated degree of PARP activation persisted in some of the patients. Immunohistochemical studies localized the staining of PAR primarily to vascular endothelial cells, and occasionally to resident mononuclear cells. There was a marked suppression of PARP activation in the skeletal muscle biopsies of patients who received propranolol treatment. We conclude that human burn injury is associated with the activation of PARP. We hypothesize that this response may contribute to the inflammatory responses and cell dysfunction in burns. Some of the clinical benefit of propranolol in burns may be related to its inhibitory effect on PARP activation. PMID:21368715

  7. Single molecule detection of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with DNA strand breaks and their poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation using high-resolution AFM imaging.

    PubMed

    Sukhanova, Maria V; Abrakhi, Sanae; Joshi, Vandana; Pastre, David; Kutuzov, Mikhail M; Anarbaev, Rashid O; Curmi, Patrick A; Hamon, Loic; Lavrik, Olga I

    2016-04-01

    PARP1 and PARP2 are implicated in the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) after detection of DNA damage. The specificity of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with long DNA fragments containing single- and/or double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging in combination with biochemical approaches. Our data show that PARP1 localizes mainly on DNA breaks and exhibits a slight preference for nicks over DSBs, although the protein has a moderately high affinity for undamaged DNA. In contrast to PARP1, PARP2 is mainly detected at a single DNA nick site, exhibiting a low level of binding to undamaged DNA and DSBs. The enhancement of binding affinity of PARP2 for DNA containing a single nick was also observed using fluorescence titration. AFM studies reveal that activation of both PARPs leads to the synthesis of highly branched PAR whose size depends strongly on the presence of SSBs and DSBs for PARP1 and of SSBs for PARP2. The initial affinity between the PARP1, PARP2 and the DNA damaged site appears to influence both the size of the PAR synthesized and the time of residence of PARylated PARP1 and PARP2 on DNA damages. PMID:26673720

  8. Single molecule detection of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with DNA strand breaks and their poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation using high-resolution AFM imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sukhanova, Maria V.; Abrakhi, Sanae; Joshi, Vandana; Pastre, David; Kutuzov, Mikhail M.; Anarbaev, Rashid O.; Curmi, Patrick A.; Hamon, Loic; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2016-01-01

    PARP1 and PARP2 are implicated in the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) after detection of DNA damage. The specificity of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with long DNA fragments containing single- and/or double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging in combination with biochemical approaches. Our data show that PARP1 localizes mainly on DNA breaks and exhibits a slight preference for nicks over DSBs, although the protein has a moderately high affinity for undamaged DNA. In contrast to PARP1, PARP2 is mainly detected at a single DNA nick site, exhibiting a low level of binding to undamaged DNA and DSBs. The enhancement of binding affinity of PARP2 for DNA containing a single nick was also observed using fluorescence titration. AFM studies reveal that activation of both PARPs leads to the synthesis of highly branched PAR whose size depends strongly on the presence of SSBs and DSBs for PARP1 and of SSBs for PARP2. The initial affinity between the PARP1, PARP2 and the DNA damaged site appears to influence both the size of the PAR synthesized and the time of residence of PARylated PARP1 and PARP2 on DNA damages. PMID:26673720

  9. Inhibition of potentially lethal radiation damage repair in normal and neoplastic human cells by 3-aminobenzamide: an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribosylation)

    SciTech Connect

    Thraves, P.J.; Mossman, K.L.; Frazier, D.T.; Dritschilo, A.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of 3-aminobenzamide (3AB), an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, on potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) was investigated in normal human fibroblasts and four human tumor cell lines from tumors with varying degrees of radiocurability. The tumor lines selected were: Ewing's sarcoma, a bone tumor considered radiocurable and, human lung adenocarcinoma, osteosarcoma, and melanoma, three tumors considered nonradiocurable. PLDR was measured by comparing cell survival when cells were irradiated in a density-inhibited state and replated at appropriate cell numbers at specified times following irradiation to cell survival when cells were replated immediately following irradiation. 3AB was added to cultures 2 hr prior to irradiation and removed at the time of replating. Different test radiation doses were used for the various cell lines to obtain equivalent levels of cell survival. In the absence of inhibitor, PLDR was similar in all cell lines tested. In the presence of 8 mM 3AB, differential inhibition of PLDR was observed. PLDR was almost completely inhibited in Ewing's sarcoma cells and partially inhibited in normal fibroblast cells and osteosarcoma cells. No inhibition of PLDR was observed in the lung adenocarcinoma or melanoma cells. Except for the osteosarcoma cells, inhibition of PLDR by 3AB correlated well with radiocurability.

  10. Activation of Telomerase by Ionizing Radiation: Differential Response to the Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Abrogation of Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, by LY294002, or by Wortmannin

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhof, Dirk Zwicker, Felix; Kuepper, Jan-Heiner; Debus, Juergen; Weber, Klaus-Josef

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: Telomerase activity represents a radiation-inducible function, which may be targeted by a double-strand break (DSB)-activated signal transduction pathway. Therefore, the effects of DNA-PK inhibitors (Wortmannin and LY294002) on telomerase upregulation after irradiation were studied. In addition, the role of trans-dominant inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which strongly reduces DSB rejoining, was assessed in comparison with 3-aminobenzamide. Methods and Materials: COM3 rodent cells carry a construct for the dexamethasone-inducible overexpression of the DNA-binding domain of PARP1 and exhibit greatly impaired DSB rejoining after irradiation. Telomerase activity was measured using polymerase chain reaction ELISA 1 h after irradiation with doses up to 10 Gy. Phosphorylation status of PKB/Akt and of PKC{alpha}/{beta}{sub II} was assessed by western blotting. Results: No telomerase upregulation was detectable for irradiated cells with undisturbed DSB rejoining. In contrast, incubation with LY294002 or dexamethasone yielded pronounced radiation induction of telomerase activity that could be suppressed by Wortmannin. 3-Aminobenzamide not only was unable to induce telomerase activity but also suppressed telomerase upregulation upon incubation with LY294002 or dexamethasone. Phospho-PKB was detectable independent of irradiation or dexamethasone pretreatment, but was undetectable upon incubations with LY294002 or Wortmannin, whereas phospho-PKC rested detectable. Conclusions: Telomerase activation postirradiation was triggered by different treatments that interfere with DNA DSB processing. This telomerase upregulation, however, was not reflected by the phosporylation status of the putative mediators of TERT activation, PKB and PKC. Although an involvement of PKB in TERT activation is not supported by the present findings, a respective role of PKC isoforms other than {alpha}/{beta}{sub II} cannot be ruled out.

  11. Renal vasoconstriction by vasopressin V1a receptors is modulated by nitric oxide, prostanoids, and superoxide but not the ADP ribosyl cyclase CD38

    PubMed Central

    Kopple, Tayler E.; Arendshorst, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) responses to arginine vasopressin (AVP) were tested in anesthetized wild-type (WT) and CD38−/− mice that lack the major calcium-mobilizing second messenger cyclic ADP ribose. AVP (3–25 ng) injected intravenously produced dose-dependent decreases in RBF, reaching a maximum of 25 ± 2% below basal RBF in WT and 27 ± 2% in CD38−/− mice with 25 ng of AVP. Renal vascular resistance (RVR) increased 75 ± 6% and 78 ± 6% in WT and CD38−/− mice. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) increased the maximum RVR response to AVP to 308 ± 76% in WT and 388 ± 81% in CD38−/− (P < 0.001 for both). Cyclooxygenase inhibition with indomethacin increased the maximum RVR response to 125 ± 15% in WT and 120 ± 14% in CD38−/− mice (P < 0.001, <0.05). Superoxide suppression with tempol inhibited the maximum RVR response to AVP by 38% in both strains (P < 0.005) but was ineffective when administered after l-NAME. The rate of RBF recovery (relaxation) after AVP was slowed by l-NAME and indomethacin (P < 0.001, <0.005) but was unchanged by tempol. All vascular responses to AVP were abolished by an AVP V1a receptor antagonist. A V2 receptor agonist or antagonist had no effect on AVP-induced renal vasoconstriction. Taken together, the results indicate that renal vasoconstriction by AVP in the mouse is strongly buffered by vasodilatory actions of NO and prostanoids. The vasoconstriction depends on V1a receptor activation without involvement of CD38 or concomitant vasodilatation by V2 receptors. The role of superoxide is to enhance the contractile response to AVP, most likely by reducing the availability of NO rather than directly stimulating intracellular contraction signaling pathways. PMID:24623148

  12. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 Interacts with Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1 (NRF-1) and Plays a Role in NRF-1 Transcriptional Regulation*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad B.; Ji, Ping; Anish, Ramakrishnan; Jacobson, Raymond H.; Takada, Shinako

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) is one of the key transcriptional activators for nuclear-coded genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as for many housekeeping genes. A transcriptional co-activator PGC-1 and its related family member PRC have previously been shown to interact with NRF-1 and co-activate NRF-1. We show here that NRF-1 can also directly interact with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and co-purify the PARP-1·DNA-PK·Ku80·Ku70·topoisomerase IIβ-containing protein complex. Our in vitro binding experiments show that DNA-binding/dimerization domain of NRF-1 and the N-terminal half of PARP-1, which contains two Zinc fingers and the auto-modification domain, are responsible for the interaction, and that this interaction occurs with or without PARP-1 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation). DNA-bound NRF-1 can form a complex with PARP-1, suggesting that NRF-1 can recruit the PARP-1·DNA-PK·Ku80·Ku70·topoisomerase IIβ-containing protein complex to the promoter. PARP-1 can also PARylate the DNA-binding domain of NRF-1 and negatively regulate NRF-1·PARP-1 interaction. Transient transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that PARP-1 plays a role during transcriptional activation by NRF-1. Our finding identifies a new aspect of transcriptional regulation used by NRF-1. PMID:19181665

  13. Structure and function of the ARH family of ADP-ribose-acceptor hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Mashimo, Masato; Kato, Jiro; Moss, Joel

    2014-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational protein modification, in which ADP-ribose is transferred from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to specific acceptors, thereby altering their activities. The ADP-ribose transfer reactions are divided into mono- and poly-(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Cellular ADP-ribosylation levels are tightly regulated by enzymes that transfer ADP-ribose to acceptor proteins (e.g. ADP-ribosyltransferases, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP)) and those that cleave the linkage between ADP-ribose and acceptor (e.g. ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolases (ARH), poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolases (PARG)), thereby constituting an ADP-ribosylation cycle. This review summarizes current findings related to the ARH family of proteins. This family comprises three members (ARH1-3) with similar size (39 kDa) and amino acid sequence. ARH1 catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of mono-(ADP-ribosyl)ated arginine. ARH3 hydrolyzes poly-(ADP-ribose) (PAR) and O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. The different substrate specificities of ARH1 and ARH3 contribute to their unique roles in the cell. Based on a phenotype analysis of ARH1−/− and ARH3−/− mice, ARH1 is involved in the action by bacterial toxins as well as in tumorigenesis. ARH3 participates in the degradation of PAR that is synthesized by PARP1 in response to oxidative stress-induced DNA damage; this hydrolytic reaction suppresses PAR-mediated cell death, a pathway termed parthanatos. PMID:24746921

  14. A novel role for the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP14/ARTD8 in promoting homologous recombination and protecting against replication stress.

    PubMed

    Nicolae, Claudia M; Aho, Erin R; Choe, Katherine N; Constantin, Daniel; Hu, He-Juan; Lee, Deokjae; Myung, Kyungjae; Moldovan, George-Lucian

    2015-03-31

    Genomic instability, a major hallmark of cancer cells, is caused by incorrect or ineffective DNA repair. Many DNA repair mechanisms cooperate in cells to fight DNA damage, and are generally regulated by post-translational modification of key factors. Poly-ADP-ribosylation, catalyzed by PARP1, is a post-translational modification playing a prominent role in DNA repair, but much less is known about mono-ADP-ribosylation. Here we report that mono-ADP-ribosylation plays an important role in homologous recombination DNA repair, a mechanism essential for replication fork stability and double strand break repair. We show that the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP14 interacts with the DNA replication machinery component PCNA and promotes replication of DNA lesions and common fragile sites. PARP14 depletion results in reduced homologous recombination, persistent RAD51 foci, hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents and accumulation of DNA strand breaks. Our work uncovered PARP14 as a novel factor required for mitigating replication stress and promoting genomic stability. PMID:25753673

  15. Structural biology of the writers, readers, and erasers in mono- and poly(ADP-ribose) mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Karlberg, Tobias; Langelier, Marie-France; Pascal, John M.; Schüler, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation of proteins regulates protein activities in various processes including transcription control, chromatin organization, organelle assembly, protein degradation, and DNA repair. Modulating the proteins involved in the metabolism of ADP-ribosylation can have therapeutic benefits in various disease states. Protein crystal structures can help understand the biological functions, facilitate detailed analysis of single residues, as well as provide a basis for development of small molecule effectors. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the structural biology of the writers, readers, and erasers of ADP-ribosylation. PMID:23458732

  16. Nudix hydrolases degrade protein-conjugated ADP-ribose.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Casey M; Thirawatananond, Puchong; Ong, Shao-En; Gabelli, Sandra B; Leung, Anthony K L

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the transfer of the ADP-ribose group from NAD(+) to target proteins post-translationally, either attached singly as mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR) or in polymeric chains as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Though ADP-ribosylation is therapeutically important, investigation of this protein modification has been limited by a lack of proteomic tools for site identification. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of a tag-based pipeline in which MAR/PAR is hydrolyzed down to phosphoribose, leaving a 212 Dalton tag at the modification site. While the pipeline has been proven effective by multiple groups, a barrier to application has become evident: the enzyme used to transform MAR/PAR into phosphoribose must be purified from the rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus venom, which is contaminated with proteases detrimental for proteomic applications. Here, we outline the steps necessary to purify snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVP) and describe two alternatives to SVP-the bacterial Nudix hydrolase EcRppH and human HsNudT16. Importantly, expression and purification schemes for these Nudix enzymes have already been proven, with high-quality yields easily attainable. We demonstrate their utility in identifying ADP-ribosylation sites on Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) with mass spectrometry and discuss a structure-based rationale for this Nudix subclass in degrading protein-conjugated ADP-ribose, including both MAR and PAR. PMID:26669448

  17. Nudix hydrolases degrade protein-conjugated ADP-ribose

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Casey M.; Thirawatananond, Puchong; Ong, Shao-En; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the transfer of the ADP-ribose group from NAD+ to target proteins post-translationally, either attached singly as mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR) or in polymeric chains as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Though ADP-ribosylation is therapeutically important, investigation of this protein modification has been limited by a lack of proteomic tools for site identification. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of a tag-based pipeline in which MAR/PAR is hydrolyzed down to phosphoribose, leaving a 212 Dalton tag at the modification site. While the pipeline has been proven effective by multiple groups, a barrier to application has become evident: the enzyme used to transform MAR/PAR into phosphoribose must be purified from the rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus venom, which is contaminated with proteases detrimental for proteomic applications. Here, we outline the steps necessary to purify snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SVP) and describe two alternatives to SVP—the bacterial Nudix hydrolase EcRppH and human HsNudT16. Importantly, expression and purification schemes for these Nudix enzymes have already been proven, with high-quality yields easily attainable. We demonstrate their utility in identifying ADP-ribosylation sites on Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) with mass spectrometry and discuss a structure-based rationale for this Nudix subclass in degrading protein-conjugated ADP-ribose, including both MAR and PAR. PMID:26669448

  18. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and apoptosis inducing factor in neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong-Woon; Wang, Hongmin; Dawson, Ted M; Dawson, Valina L

    2003-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is the guardian of the genome acting as a sentinel for genomic damage. However, PARP-1 is also mediator of cell death after ischemia-reperfusion injury, glutamate excitotoxicity, and various inflammatory processes. The biochemistry underlying PARP-1-mediated cell death has remained elusive, although NAD(+) consumption and energy failure have been thought to be one of the possible molecular mechanisms. Recent observations link PARP-1 activation with translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) to the nucleus and indicate that AIF is an essential downstream effector of PARP-1-mediated cell death. PARP-1 activation signals AIF release from the mitochondria, resulting in a novel, caspase-independent pathway of programmed cell death. These recent findings suggest that AIF maybe a target for development of future therapeutic treatment for many neurological disorders involving excitotoxicity. PMID:14678748

  19. Mediation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-dependent cell death by apoptosis-inducing factor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong-Woon; Wang, Hongmin; Poitras, Marc F; Coombs, Carmen; Bowers, William J; Federoff, Howard J; Poirier, Guy G; Dawson, Ted M; Dawson, Valina L

    2002-07-12

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) protects the genome by functioning in the DNA damage surveillance network. PARP-1 is also a mediator of cell death after ischemia-reperfusion injury, glutamate excitotoxicity, and various inflammatory processes. We show that PARP-1 activation is required for translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to the nucleus and that AIF is necessary for PARP-1-dependent cell death. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, H2O2, and N-methyl-d-aspartate induce AIF translocation and cell death, which is prevented by PARP inhibitors or genetic knockout of PARP-1, but is caspase independent. Microinjection of an antibody to AIF protects against PARP-1-dependent cytotoxicity. These data support a model in which PARP-1 activation signals AIF release from mitochondria, resulting in a caspase-independent pathway of programmed cell death. PMID:12114629

  20. PARP1 Is a TRF2-associated Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase and Protects Eroded Telomeres

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yie; Wu, Jun; Schreiber, Valerie; Dunlap, John; Dantzer, Francoise; Wang, Yisong

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1) is well characterized for its role in base excision repair (BER), where it is activated by and binds to DNA breaks and catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of several substrates involved in DNA damage repair. Here we demonstrate that PARP1 associates with telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) and is capable of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of TRF2, which affects binding of TRF2 to telomeric DNA. Immunostaining of interphase cells or metaphase spreads shows that PARP1 is detected sporadically at normal telomeres, but it appears preferentially at eroded telomeres caused by telomerase deficiency or damaged telomeres induced by DNA-damaging reagents. Although PARP1 is dispensable in the capping of normal telomeres, Parp1 deficiency leads to an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA in primary murine cells after induction of DNA damage. Our results suggest that upon DNA damage, PARP1 is recruited to damaged telomeres, where it can help protect telomeres against chromosome end-to-end fusions and genomic instability.

  1. PARP1 is a TRF2-associated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and protects eroded telomeres

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Marla V; Wu, Jun; Wang, Yisong; Liu, Yie

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1) is well characterized for its role in base excision repair (BER), where it is activated by and binds to DNA breaks and catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of several substrates involved in DNA damage repair. Here we demonstrate that PARP1 associates with telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) and is capable of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of TRF2, which affects binding of TRF2 to telomeric DNA. Immunostaining of interphase cells or metaphase spreads shows that PARP1 is detected sporadically at normal telomeres, but it appears preferentially at eroded telomeres caused by telomerase deficiency or damaged telomeres induced by DNA-damaging reagents. Although PARP1 is dispensable in the capping of normal telomeres, Parp1 deficiency leads to an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA in primary murine cells after induction of DNA damage. Our results suggest that upon DNA damage, PARP1 is recruited to damaged telomeres, where it can help protect telomeres against chromosome end-to-end fusions and genomic instability.

  2. LdARL-3A, a Leishmania promastigote-specific ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein, is essential for flagellum integrity.

    PubMed

    Cuvillier, A; Redon, F; Antoine, J C; Chardin, P; DeVos, T; Merlin, G

    2000-06-01

    The small G protein-encoding LdARL-3A gene, a homologue of the human ARL-3 gene, was isolated from Leishmania donovani, and its protein product characterised. It is unique in the Leishmania genome and expressed only in the extracellular promastigote insect form, but not in the intracellular amastigote mammalian form, as shown by northern blots and western blots developed with a specific anti-C terminus immune serum. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed distinct labelled spots regularly distributed on the plasma membrane, including the part lining the flagellum and the flagellar pocket. By transfection experiments, it was found that wild-type LdARL-3A-overexpressing promastigotes reached higher densities in culture, but released significantly less secreted acid phosphatase in the extracellular medium than the parental strain. When LdARL-3A blocked under the GDP-bound 'inactive' form or with an inactivated potential myristoylation site was overexpressed, the cells displayed an apparent wild-type phenotype, but died earlier in the stationary phase; in contrast to parental cells, they showed a diffuse pattern of fluorescence labelling in the cytoplasm and on the cell membrane. Strikingly, when a constitutively 'active' form of LdARL-3A (blocked under the GTP-bound form) was overexpressed, the promastigotes were immobile with a very short flagellum, a slow growth rate and a low level of acid phosphatase secretion; the length of the flagellum was inversely proportional to mutant protein expression. We concluded that LdARL-3A could be an essential gene involved in flagellum biogenesis; it may provide new approaches for control of the parasite at the insect stage. PMID:10806117

  3. ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4C (ARL4C), a novel ovarian cancer metastasis suppressor, identified by integrated genomics

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dan; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Xu, Shenhua; Xu, Haiyan; Gao, Yun; Biglia, Nicoletta; Feng, Jianguo; Ying, Lisha; Zhang, Ping; Benedetto, Chiara; Yu, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involving the initiation, progression, and metastasis of ovarian cancer is important for the prevention, detection, and treatment of ovarian cancer. In this study, two ovarian cancer cell lines, HO-8910 and its derivative HO-8910PM with highly metastatic potential, were applied to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis. We found 14 chromosome fragments with different copy numbers between the two cell lines, one (2q36.1-37.3) of which was confirmed to be one-copy loss in HO-8910PM by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Using the microarray data on gene expression profiles from these cell lines, 6 significantly expression-decreased genes located on 2q36.1-37.3 in HO-8910PM were identified. Of the 6 genes, ARL4C was identified as a novel ovarian cancer-related gene using integrated molecular and genomic analyses. ARL4C mRNA expression was validated by quantitative PCR to be markedly decreased in HO-8910PM cells, compared to that in HO-8910. Both overexpression and knockdown of ARL4C demonstrated that low ARL4C expression promotes the migration but not influences proliferation capability of ovarian cancer cells in vitro, indicating its specific role in ovarian cancer progression. Furthermore, ovarian cancer patients with medium and high expression of ARL4C mRNA had a favorable prognosis compared to those with low expression, suggesting the ARL4C could be a potential predictor for ovarian cancer prognosis. PMID:25901194

  4. Regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 activity by the phosphorylation state of the nuclear NAD biosynthetic enzyme NMN adenylyl transferase 1

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Felicitas; Lau, Corinna; Ziegler, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear NAD+ metabolism constitutes a major component of signaling pathways. It includes NAD+-dependent protein deacetylation by members of the Sir2 family and protein modification by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 has emerged as an important mediator of processes involving DNA rearrangements. High-affinity binding to breaks in DNA activates PARP-1, which attaches poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) to target proteins. NMN adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) catalyze the final step of NAD+ biosynthesis. We report here that the nuclear isoform NMNAT-1 stimulates PARP-1 activity and binds to PAR. Its overexpression in HeLa cells promotes the relocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from the mitochondria to the nucleus, a process known to depend on poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Moreover, NMNAT-1 is subject to phosphorylation by protein kinase C, resulting in reduced binding to PAR. Mimicking phosphorylation, substitution of the target serine residue by aspartate precludes PAR binding and stimulation of PARP-1. We conclude that, depending on its state of phosphorylation, NMNAT-1 binds to activated, automodifying PARP-1 and thereby amplifies poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. PMID:17360427

  5. Coordinated Regulation of TIP60 and Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 in Damaged-Chromatin Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ikura, Masae; Furuya, Kanji; Fukuto, Atsuhiko; Matsuda, Ryo; Adachi, Jun; Matsuda, Tomonari; Kakizuka, Akira; Ikura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-05-15

    The dynamic exchange of histones alleviates the nucleosome barrier and simultaneously facilitates various aspects of cellular DNA metabolism, such as DNA repair and transcription. In response to DNA damage, the acetylation of Lys5 in the histone variant H2AX, catalyzed by TIP60, plays a key role in promoting histone exchange; however, the detailed molecular mechanism still is unclear. Here, we show that the TIP60 complex includes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 is required for the rapid exchange of H2AX on chromatin at DNA damage sites. It is known that PARP-1 binds dynamically to damaged chromatin and is crucial for the subsequent recruitment of other repair factors, and its auto-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is required for the dynamics. We also show that the acetylation of histone H2AX at Lys5 by TIP60, but not the phosphorylation of H2AX, is required for the ADP-ribosylation activity of PARP-1 and its dynamic binding to damaged chromatin. Our results indicate the reciprocal regulation of K5 acetylation of H2AX and PARP-1, which could modulate the chromatin structure to facilitate DNA metabolism at damage sites. This could explain the rather undefined roles of PARP-1 in various DNA damage responses. PMID:26976643

  6. Deficiency of terminal ADP-ribose protein glycohydrolase TARG1/C6orf130 in neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Reza; Morra, Rosa; Denise Appel, C; Tallis, Michael; Chioza, Barry; Jankevicius, Gytis; Simpson, Michael A; Matic, Ivan; Ozkan, Ege; Golia, Barbara; Schellenberg, Matthew J; Weston, Ria; Williams, Jason G; Rossi, Marianna N; Galehdari, Hamid; Krahn, Juno; Wan, Alexander; Trembath, Richard C; Crosby, Andrew H; Ahel, Dragana; Hay, Ron; Ladurner, Andreas G; Timinszky, Gyula; Williams, R Scott; Ahel, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a post-translational protein modification implicated in the regulation of a range of cellular processes. A family of proteins that catalyse ADP-ribosylation reactions are the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerases (PARPs). PARPs covalently attach an ADP-ribose nucleotide to target proteins and some PARP family members can subsequently add additional ADP-ribose units to generate a PAR chain. The hydrolysis of PAR chains is catalysed by PAR glycohydrolase (PARG). PARG is unable to cleave the mono(ADP-ribose) unit directly linked to the protein and although the enzymatic activity that catalyses this reaction has been detected in mammalian cell extracts, the protein(s) responsible remain unknown. Here, we report the homozygous mutation of the c6orf130 gene in patients with severe neurodegeneration, and identify C6orf130 as a PARP-interacting protein that removes mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation on glutamate amino acid residues in PARP-modified proteins. X-ray structures and biochemical analysis of C6orf130 suggest a mechanism of catalytic reversal involving a transient C6orf130 lysyl-(ADP-ribose) intermediate. Furthermore, depletion of C6orf130 protein in cells leads to proliferation and DNA repair defects. Collectively, our data suggest that C6orf130 enzymatic activity has a role in the turnover and recycling of protein ADP-ribosylation, and we have implicated the importance of this protein in supporting normal cellular function in humans. PMID:23481255

  7. Three Chymotrypsin Genes Are Members of the AdpA Regulon in the A-Factor Regulatory Cascade in Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Tomono, Ayami; Tsai, Yisan; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2005-01-01

    AdpA is a key transcriptional activator in the A-factor regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus, activating a number of genes required for secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation. Of the five chymotrypsin-type serine protease genes, sprA, sprB, and sprD were transcribed in response to AdpA, showing that these protease genes are members of the AdpA regulon. These proteases were predicted to play the same physiological role, since these protease genes were transcribed in a similar time course during growth and the matured enzymes showed high end-to-end similarity to one another. AdpA bound two sites upstream of the sprA promoter approximately at positions −375 and −50 with respect to the transcriptional start point of sprA. Mutational analysis of the AdpA-binding sites showed that both AdpA-binding sites were essential for transcriptional activation. AdpA bound a single site at position −50 in front of the sprB promoter and greatly enhanced the transcription of sprB. The AdpA-binding site at position −40 was essential for transcription of sprD, although there was an additional AdpA-binding site at position −180. Most chymotrypsin activity excreted by S. griseus was attributed to SprA and SprB, because mutant ΔsprAB, having a deletion in both sprA and sprB, lost almost all chymotrypsin activity, as did mutant ΔadpA. Even the double mutant ΔsprAB and triple mutant ΔsprABD grew normally and developed aerial hyphae and spores over the same time course as the wild-type strain. PMID:16159767

  8. Proteome-wide identification of poly(ADP-ribose) binding proteins and poly(ADP-ribose)-associated protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Isabelle, Maxim; Lo, Ken Sin; Bourassa, Sylvie; Hendzel, Michael J; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M; Poirier, Guy G

    2008-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) is a polymer assembled from the enzymatic polymerization of the ADP-ribosyl moiety of NAD by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). The dynamic turnover of pADPr within the cell is essential for a number of cellular processes including progression through the cell cycle, DNA repair and the maintenance of genomic integrity, and apoptosis. In spite of the considerable advances in the knowledge of the physiological conditions modulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions, and notwithstanding the fact that pADPr can play a role of mediator in a wide spectrum of biological processes, few pADPr binding proteins have been identified so far. In this study, refined in silico prediction of pADPr binding proteins and large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteome analysis of pADPr binding proteins were used to establish a comprehensive repertoire of pADPr-associated proteins. Visualization and modeling of these pADPr-associated proteins in networks not only reflect the widespread involvement of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in several pathways but also identify protein targets that could shed new light on the regulatory functions of pADPr in normal physiological conditions as well as after exposure to genotoxic stimuli. PMID:18981049

  9. Proteome-wide identification of poly(ADP-ribose) binding proteins and poly(ADP-ribose)-associated protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Isabelle, Maxim; Lo, Ken Sin; Bourassa, Sylvie; Hendzel, Michael J.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Poirier, Guy G.

    2008-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) is a polymer assembled from the enzymatic polymerization of the ADP-ribosyl moiety of NAD by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). The dynamic turnover of pADPr within the cell is essential for a number of cellular processes including progression through the cell cycle, DNA repair and the maintenance of genomic integrity, and apoptosis. In spite of the considerable advances in the knowledge of the physiological conditions modulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions, and notwithstanding the fact that pADPr can play a role of mediator in a wide spectrum of biological processes, few pADPr binding proteins have been identified so far. In this study, refined in silico prediction of pADPr binding proteins and large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteome analysis of pADPr binding proteins were used to establish a comprehensive repertoire of pADPr-associated proteins. Visualization and modeling of these pADPr-associated proteins in networks not only reflect the widespread involvement of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in several pathways but also identify protein targets that could shed new light on the regulatory functions of pADPr in normal physiological conditions as well as after exposure to genotoxic stimuli. PMID:18981049

  10. Does inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase prevent energy overconsumption under microgravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrota, C.; Piso, M. I.; Keul, A.

    When plants are exposed to a stress signal they expend a lot of energy and exhibit enhanced respiration rates This is partially due to a breakdown in the NAD pool caused by the enhanced activity PARP which uses NAD as a substrate to synthesize polymers of ADP-ribose Stress-induced depletion of NAD results in a similar depletion of energy since ATP molecules are required to resynthesize the depleted NAD It seems that plants with lowered poly ADP ribosyl ation activity appear tolerant to multiple stresses Inhibiting PARP activity prevents energy overconsumption under stress allowing normal mitochondrial respiration We intend to study if the microgravity is perceived by plants as a stress factor and if experimental inhibition of poly ADP-ribose polymerase may improve the energetic level of the cells References DeBlock M Verduyn C De Brouwer D and Cornelissen M 2005 Poly ADP-ribose polymerase in plants affects energy homeostasis cell death and stress tolerance The Plant Journal 41 95--106 Huang S Greenway H Colmerm T D and Millar A H 2005 Protein synthesis by rice coleoptiles during prolonged anoxia Implications for glycolysis growth and energy utilization Annals of Botany 96 703--715 Mittler R Vanderauwera S Gollery M and Van Breusegem F 2005 Reactive oxygen gene network of plants Trends in Plant Science 9 10 490-498

  11. Expression of ADP-ribosyltransferase 1 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis of Glioma Patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Yan, Xinling; Sun, Yuyan; Yang, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Glioma has a poor prognosis due to its rapid overgrowth, diffuse invasion, and chemotherapy resistance. The improvements in clinical outcome are still limited and the identification of novel biomarkers involved in the progression of gliomas is still under critical demands. Amino acid ADP-ribosyltransferase 1 (ART1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the mono-ADP-ribosylation, a reversible post-translational modification. For example, the mono-ADP-ribosylation of transcription factors can affect their binding to target gene promoters. However, the functional significance of ART1 in glioma has not been reported. We collected 107 glioma cases from Qianfoshan Hospital and Yidu Central Hospital of Weifang between April 2008 and September 2015 to analyze the prognosis value of ART1 in gliomas. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression level of ART1 mRNA in glioma tissues was 4-fold higher than that in normal brain tissues. According to the immunohistochemical staining results, 44 patients (41.1%) were categorized as ART1 positive (≥ 20% of stained glioma cells), while the other 63 patients (58.9%) categorized as ART1 negative (< 20% of stained glioma cells). Moreover, the mean percentage of ART1-positive cells was 43.7%, 53.6% and 64.2% in WHO grade II, III and IV specimens, respectively. Through univariate and multivariate analyses, we identified ART1 as an independent prognostic factor. We also found that ART1 overexpression in U251 glioblastoma cells could significantly decrease the susceptibility to vincristine, one of tubulin-targeted drugs, which is widely used in clinical treatment for glioma. Taken together, we propose that up-regulation of ART1 expression is associated with the aggressiveness of glioma. PMID:27466078

  12. Control of the Streptomyces Subtilisin Inhibitor Gene by AdpA in the A-Factor Regulatory Cascade in Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Setsu; Kato, Jun-ya; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2006-01-01

    AdpA in the A-factor regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus activates a number of genes required for secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation, forming an AdpA regulon. The Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) gene, sgiA, in S. griseus was transcribed in response to AdpA, showing that sgiA is a member of the AdpA regulon. AdpA bound a single site upstream of the sgiA promoter at approximately position −70 with respect to its transcriptional start point. Mutational analysis of the AdpA-binding site showed that the AdpA-binding site was essential for transcriptional activation. Mutants in which sgiA was disrupted had higher trypsin, chymotrypsin, metalloendopeptidase, and total protease activities than the wild-type strain, which showed that SgiA modulated the activities of these extracellularly produced proteases. Because a number of genes encoding chymotrypsins, trypsins, and metalloendopeptidases, most of which are SSI-sensitive proteases, are also under the control of AdpA, the A-factor regulatory cascade was thought to play a crucial role in modulating the extracellular protease activities by triggering simultaneous production of the proteases and their inhibitor at a specific timing during growth. Mutants in which sgiA was disrupted grew normally and formed aerial hyphae and spores with the same time course as the wild-type strain. However, exogenous addition of purified SgiA to substrate mycelium grown on agar medium resulted in a delay in aerial mycelium formation, indicating that SgiA is involved in aerial hypha formation in conjunction with proteases. PMID:16923887

  13. Control of the Streptomyces Subtilisin inhibitor gene by AdpA in the A-factor regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Setsu; Kato, Jun-ya; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2006-09-01

    AdpA in the A-factor regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus activates a number of genes required for secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation, forming an AdpA regulon. The Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) gene, sgiA, in S. griseus was transcribed in response to AdpA, showing that sgiA is a member of the AdpA regulon. AdpA bound a single site upstream of the sgiA promoter at approximately position -70 with respect to its transcriptional start point. Mutational analysis of the AdpA-binding site showed that the AdpA-binding site was essential for transcriptional activation. Mutants in which sgiA was disrupted had higher trypsin, chymotrypsin, metalloendopeptidase, and total protease activities than the wild-type strain, which showed that SgiA modulated the activities of these extracellularly produced proteases. Because a number of genes encoding chymotrypsins, trypsins, and metalloendopeptidases, most of which are SSI-sensitive proteases, are also under the control of AdpA, the A-factor regulatory cascade was thought to play a crucial role in modulating the extracellular protease activities by triggering simultaneous production of the proteases and their inhibitor at a specific timing during growth. Mutants in which sgiA was disrupted grew normally and formed aerial hyphae and spores with the same time course as the wild-type strain. However, exogenous addition of purified SgiA to substrate mycelium grown on agar medium resulted in a delay in aerial mycelium formation, indicating that SgiA is involved in aerial hypha formation in conjunction with proteases. PMID:16923887

  14. Visualization of poly(ADP-ribose) bound to PARG reveals inherent balance between exo- and endo-glycohydrolase activities

    PubMed Central

    Barkauskaite, Eva; Brassington, Amy; Tan, Edwin S.; Warwicker, Jim; Dunstan, Mark S.; Banos, Benito; Lafite, Pierre; Ahel, Marijan; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Ahel, Ivan; Leys, David

    2013-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that regulates processes involved in genome stability. Breakdown of the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer is catalysed by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), whose endo-glycohydrolase activity generates PAR fragments. Here we present the crystal structure of PARG incorporating the PAR substrate. The two terminal ADP-ribose units of the polymeric substrate are bound in exo-mode. Biochemical and modelling studies reveal that PARG acts predominantly as an exo-glycohydrolase. This preference is linked to Phe902 (human numbering), which is responsible for low-affinity binding of the substrate in endo-mode. Our data reveal the mechanism of poly-ADP-ribosylation reversal, with ADP-ribose as the dominant product, and suggest that the release of apoptotic PAR fragments occurs at unusual PAR/PARG ratios. PMID:23917065

  15. Regulation of Myofibroblast Differentiation by Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Biao; Wu, Zhe; Hergert, Polla; Henke, Craig A.; Bitterman, Peter B.; Phan, Sem H.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a post-translational protein modification effected by enzymes belonging to the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) superfamily, mainly by PARP-1. The key acceptors of poly(ADP-ribose) include PARP-1 itself, histones, DNA repair proteins, and transcription factors. Because many of these factors are involved in the regulation of myofibroblast differentiation, we examined the role of PARylation on myofibroblast differentiation. Overexpression of PARP-1 with an expression plasmid activated expression of the α-SMA gene (Acta2), a marker of myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibroblasts. Suppression of PARP-1 activity or gene expression with PARP-1 inhibitors or siRNA, respectively, had the opposite effect on these cells. PARP-1–deficient cells also had reduced α-SMA gene expression. DNA pyrosequencing identified hypermethylated regions of the α-SMA gene in PARP-1–deficient cells, relative to wild-type cells. Interestingly, and of potential relevance to human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, PARP activity in lung fibroblasts isolated from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients was significantly higher than that in cells isolated from control subjects. Furthermore, PARP-1–deficient mice exhibited reduced pulmonary fibrosis in response to bleomycin-induced lung injury, relative to wild-type controls. These results suggest that PARylation is important for myofibroblast differentiation and the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:23260200

  16. Regulation of myofibroblast differentiation by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1.

    PubMed

    Hu, Biao; Wu, Zhe; Hergert, Polla; Henke, Craig A; Bitterman, Peter B; Phan, Sem H

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a post-translational protein modification effected by enzymes belonging to the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) superfamily, mainly by PARP-1. The key acceptors of poly(ADP-ribose) include PARP-1 itself, histones, DNA repair proteins, and transcription factors. Because many of these factors are involved in the regulation of myofibroblast differentiation, we examined the role of PARylation on myofibroblast differentiation. Overexpression of PARP-1 with an expression plasmid activated expression of the α-SMA gene (Acta2), a marker of myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibroblasts. Suppression of PARP-1 activity or gene expression with PARP-1 inhibitors or siRNA, respectively, had the opposite effect on these cells. PARP-1-deficient cells also had reduced α-SMA gene expression. DNA pyrosequencing identified hypermethylated regions of the α-SMA gene in PARP-1-deficient cells, relative to wild-type cells. Interestingly, and of potential relevance to human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, PARP activity in lung fibroblasts isolated from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients was significantly higher than that in cells isolated from control subjects. Furthermore, PARP-1-deficient mice exhibited reduced pulmonary fibrosis in response to bleomycin-induced lung injury, relative to wild-type controls. These results suggest that PARylation is important for myofibroblast differentiation and the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:23260200

  17. Complex Structure of the DNA-binding Domain of AdpA, the Global Transcription Factor in Streptomyces griseus, and a Target Duplex DNA Reveals the Structural Basis of Its Tolerant DNA Sequence Specificity*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ming Dong; Ohtsuka, Jun; Nagata, Koji; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Zhi, Yuehua; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Tanokura, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    AdpA serves as the global transcription factor in the A-factor regulatory cascade, controlling the secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation of the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces griseus. AdpA binds to over 500 operator regions with the consensus sequence 5′-TGGCSNGWWY-3′ (where S is G or C, W is A or T, Y is T or C, and N is any nucleotide). However, it is still obscure how AdpA can control hundreds of genes. To elucidate the structural basis of this tolerant DNA recognition by AdpA, we focused on the interaction between the DNA-binding domain of AdpA (AdpA-DBD), which consists of two helix-turn-helix motifs, and a target duplex DNA containing the consensus sequence 5′-TGGCGGGTTC-3′. The crystal structure of the AdpA-DBD-DNA complex and the mutant analysis of AdpA-DBD revealed its unique manner of DNA recognition, whereby only two arginine residues directly recognize the consensus sequence, explaining the strict recognition of G and C at positions 2 and 4, respectively, and the tolerant recognition of other positions of the consensus sequence. AdpA-DBD confers tolerant DNA sequence specificity to AdpA, allowing it to control hundreds of genes as a global transcription factor. PMID:24019524

  18. Proximal ADP-ribose Hydrolysis in Trypanosomatids is Catalyzed by a Macrodomain.

    PubMed

    Haikarainen, Teemu; Lehtiö, Lari

    2016-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification utilized by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for several cellular functions, such as DNA repair, proliferation, and cell signaling. Higher eukaryotes, such as humans, utilize various enzymes to reverse the modification and to regulate ADP-ribose dependent signaling. In contrast, some lower eukaryotes, including trypanosomatids, lack many of these enzymes and therefore have a much more simplified ADP-ribose metabolism. Here we identified and characterized ADP-ribose hydrolases from Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi, which are homologous to human O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylases MacroD1 and MacroD2. The enzymes are capable for hydrolysis of protein linked ADP-ribose and a product of sirtuin-mediated lysine deacetylation, O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. Crystal structures of the trypanosomatid macrodomains revealed a conserved catalytic site with distinct differences to human MacroD1 and MacroD2. PMID:27064071

  19. Proximal ADP-ribose Hydrolysis in Trypanosomatids is Catalyzed by a Macrodomain

    PubMed Central

    Haikarainen, Teemu; Lehtiö, Lari

    2016-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification utilized by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for several cellular functions, such as DNA repair, proliferation, and cell signaling. Higher eukaryotes, such as humans, utilize various enzymes to reverse the modification and to regulate ADP-ribose dependent signaling. In contrast, some lower eukaryotes, including trypanosomatids, lack many of these enzymes and therefore have a much more simplified ADP-ribose metabolism. Here we identified and characterized ADP-ribose hydrolases from Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi, which are homologous to human O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylases MacroD1 and MacroD2. The enzymes are capable for hydrolysis of protein linked ADP-ribose and a product of sirtuin-mediated lysine deacetylation, O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. Crystal structures of the trypanosomatid macrodomains revealed a conserved catalytic site with distinct differences to human MacroD1 and MacroD2. PMID:27064071

  20. The structure and catalytic mechanism of a poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Dea; Dunstan, Mark S.; Barkauskaite, Eva; Weston, Ria; Lafite, Pierre; Dixon, Neil; Ahel, Marijan; Leys, David; Ahel, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates many cellular pathways that are critical for genome stability, including DNA repair, chromatin structure, mitosis and apoptosis1. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is composed of repeating ADP-ribose units linked via a unique glycosidic ribose-ribose bond, and is synthesised from NAD by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs)1,2. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is the only protein capable of specific hydrolysis of the ribose-ribose bonds present in PAR chains; its deficiency leads to cell death3,4. Here we show that filamentous fungi and a number of bacteria possess a divergent form of PARG that exhibits all the main characteristics of the human PARG enzyme. We present the first PARG crystal structure (derived from the bacterium Thermomonospora curvata), which reveals that the PARG catalytic domain is a distant member of the ubiquitous ADP-ribose-binding macro domain family5,6. High resolution structures of T. curvata PARG in complexes with ADP-ribose and the PARG inhibitor ADP-HPD, complemented by biochemical studies, allow us to propose a model for PAR binding and catalysis by PARG. Our insights into the PARG structure and catalytic mechanism should greatly improve our understanding of how PARG activity controls reversible protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and potentially of how the defects in this regulation link to human disease. PMID:21892188

  1. Fragmentation behavior of Amadori-peptides obtained by non-enzymatic glycosylation of lysine residues with ADP-ribose in tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Maria; Frolov, Andrej; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2010-06-01

    Mono- and poly-adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation are common post-translational modifications incorporated by sequence-specific enzymes at, predominantly, arginine, asparagine, glutamic acid or aspartic acid residues, whereas non-enzymatic ADP-ribosylation (glycation) modifies lysine and cysteine residues. These glycated proteins and peptides (Amadori-compounds) are commonly found in organisms, but have so far not been investigated to any great degree. In this study, we have analyzed their fragmentation characteristics using different mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MS, the ADP-ribosyl group was cleaved, almost completely, at the pyrophosphate bond by in-source decay. In contrast, this cleavage was very weak in electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. The same fragmentation site also dominated the MALDI-PSD (post-source decay) and ESI-CID (collision-induced dissociation) mass spectra. The remaining phospho-ribosyl group (formed by the loss of adenosine monophosphate) was stable, providing a direct and reliable identification of the modification site via the b- and y-ion series. Cleavage of the ADP-ribose pyrophosphate bond under CID conditions gives access to both neutral loss (347.10 u) and precursor-ion scans (m/z 348.08), and thereby permits the identification of ADP-ribosylated peptides in complex mixtures with high sensitivity and specificity. With electron transfer dissociation (ETD), the ADP-ribosyl group was stable, providing ADP-ribosylated c- and z-ions, and thus allowing reliable sequence analyses. PMID:20527035

  2. Reprogramming cellular events by poly(ADP-ribose)-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pic, Émilie; Ethier, Chantal; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Masson, Jean-Yves; Poirier, Guy G.; Gagné, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). These enzymes covalently modify glutamic, aspartic and lysine amino acid side chains of acceptor proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose (ADPr) units. The poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) polymers formed alter the physico-chemical characteristics of the substrate with functional consequences on its biological activities. Recently, non-covalent binding to pADPr has emerged as a key mechanism to modulate and coordinate several intracellular pathways including the DNA damage response, protein stability and cell death. In this review, we describe the basis of non-covalent binding to pADPr that has led to the emerging concept of pADPr-responsive signaling pathways. This review emphasizes the structural elements and the modular strategies developed by pADPr-binding proteins to exert a fine-tuned control of a variety of pathways. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions are highly regulated processes, both spatially and temporally, for which at least four specialized pADPr-binding modules accommodate different pADPr structures and reprogram protein functions. In this review, we highlight the role of well-characterized and newly discovered pADPr-binding modules in a diverse set of physiological functions. PMID:23268355

  3. The Neisseria meningitidis ADP-Ribosyltransferase NarE Enters Human Epithelial Cells and Disrupts Epithelial Monolayer Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Colanzi, Antonino; Lapazio, Lucia; Corda, Daniela; Soriani, Marco; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rossi Paccani, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria utilize ADP-ribosylating toxins to modify and impair essential functions of eukaryotic cells. It has been previously reported that Neisseria meningitidis possesses an ADP-ribosyltransferase enzyme, NarE, retaining the capacity to hydrolyse NAD and to transfer ADP-ribose moiety to arginine residues in target acceptor proteins. Here we show that upon internalization into human epithelial cells, NarE gains access to the cytoplasm and, through its ADP-ribosylating activity, targets host cell proteins. Notably, we observed that these events trigger the disruption of the epithelial monolayer integrity and the activation of the apoptotic pathway. Overall, our findings provide, for the first time, evidence for a biological activity of NarE on host cells, suggesting its possible involvement in Neisseria pathogenesis. PMID:25996923

  4. Crystal Structure of Human ADP-ribose Transferase ARTD15/PARP16 Reveals a Novel Putative Regulatory Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Karlberg, Tobias; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Kallas, Åsa; Schüler, Herwig

    2012-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is involved in the regulation of DNA repair, transcription, and other processes. The 18 human ADP-ribose transferases with diphtheria toxin homology include ARTD1/PARP1, a cancer drug target. Knowledge of other family members may guide therapeutics development and help evaluate potential drug side effects. Here, we present the crystal structure of human ARTD15/PARP16, a previously uncharacterized enzyme. ARTD15 features an α-helical domain that packs against its transferase domain without making direct contact with the NAD+-binding crevice or the donor loop. Thus, this novel domain does not resemble the regulatory domain of ARTD1. ARTD15 displays auto-mono(ADP-ribosylation) activity and is affected by canonical poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. These results add to a framework that will facilitate research on a medically important family of enzymes. PMID:22661712

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of molecular chaperone-like diol dehydratase-reactivating factor in ADP-bound and nucleotide-free forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Koichi; Hieda, Naoki; Yamanishi, Mamoru; Shibata, Naoki; Toraya, Tetsuo

    2005-06-01

    The molecular chaperone-like reactivating factor for adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B{sub 12}) dependent diol dehydratase was crystallized in ADP-bound and nucleotide-free forms. Preliminary X-ray analysis indicated that crystals are orthorhombic and diffract to 2.0 Å. Adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B{sub 12}) dependent diol dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.28) catalyzes the conversion of 1,2-diols and glycerol to the corresponding aldehydes. It undergoes mechanism-based inactivation by glycerol. The diol dehydratase-reactivating factor (DDR) reactivates the inactivated holoenzymes in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, ATP and Mg{sup 2+} by mediating the release of a damaged cofactor. This molecular chaperone-like factor was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in the ADP-bound and nucleotide-free forms by the sandwich-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of the ADP-bound form belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and unit-cell parameters a = 83.26, b = 84.60, c = 280.09 Å, and diffract to 2.0 Å. In the absence of nucleotide, DDR crystals were orthorhombic, with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and unit-cell parameters a = 81.92, b = 85.37, c = 296.99 Å and diffract to 3.0 Å. Crystals of both forms were suitable for structural analysis.

  6. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 attenuates the toxicity of carbon tetrachloride

    PubMed Central

    Banasik, Marek; Stedeford, Todd; Strosznajder, Robert P; Takehashi, Masanori; Tanaka, Seigo; Ueda, Kunihiro

    2011-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is routinely used as a model compound for eliciting centrilobular hepatotoxicity. It can be bioactivated to the trichloromethyl radical, which causes extensive lipid peroxidation and ultimately cell death by necrosis. Overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) can rapidly reduce the levels of (β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and adenosine triphosphate and ultimately promote necrosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of PARP-1 could decrease CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, as measured by degree of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lipid peroxidation,and oxidative DNA damage. For this purpose, male ICR mice were administered intraperitoneally a hepatotoxic dose of CCl4 with or without 6(5H)-phenanthridinone, a potent inhibitor of PARP-1. Animals treated with CCl4 exhibited extensive poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in centrilobular hepatocytes, elevated serum levels of LDH, and increased lipid peroxidation. In contrast, animals treated concomitantly with CCl4 and 6(5H)-phenanthridinone showed significantly lower levels of poly(ADP-ribosyl) ation, serum LDH, and lipid peroxidation. No changes were observed in the levels of oxidative DNA damage regardless of treatment. These results demonstrated that the hepatotoxicity of CCl4is dependent on the overactivation of PARP-1 and that inhibition of this enzyme attenuates the hepatotoxicity of CCl4. PMID:21395487

  7. Molecular Insights into Poly(ADP-ribose) Recognition and Processing

    PubMed Central

    Žaja, Roko; Mikoč, Andreja; Barkauskaite, Eva; Ahel, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational protein modification involved in the regulation of important cellular functions including DNA repair, transcription, mitosis and apoptosis. The amount of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PAR) in cells reflects the balance of synthesis, mediated by the PARP protein family, and degradation, which is catalyzed by a glycohydrolase, PARG. Many of the proteins mediating PAR metabolism possess specialised high affinity PAR-binding modules that allow the efficient sensing or processing of the PAR signal. The identification of four such PAR-binding modules and the characterization of a number of proteins utilising these elements during the last decade has provided important insights into how PAR regulates different cellular activities. The macrodomain represents a unique PAR-binding module which is, in some instances, known to possess enzymatic activity on ADP-ribose derivatives (in addition to PAR-binding). The most recently discovered example for this is the PARG protein, and several available PARG structures have provided an understanding into how the PARG macrodomain evolved into a major enzyme that maintains PAR homeostasis in living cells. PMID:24970154

  8. Regulation of Epstein-Barr virus OriP replication by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Italo; Deng, Zhong; Atanasiu, Constandache; Chen, Chi-Ju; D'Erme, Maria; Lieberman, Paul M

    2010-05-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is an abundant, chromatin-associated, NAD-dependent enzyme that functions in multiple chromosomal processes, including DNA replication and chromatin remodeling. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) origin of plasmid replication (OriP) is a dynamic genetic element that confers stable episome maintenance, DNA replication initiation, and chromatin organization functions. OriP function depends on the EBV-encoded origin binding protein EBNA1. We have previously shown that EBNA1 is subject to negative regulation by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation). We now show that PARP1 physically associates with OriP in latently EBV-infected B cells. Short hairpin RNA depletion of PARP1 enhances OriP replication activity and increases EBNA1, origin recognition complex 2 (ORC2), and minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) association with OriP. Pharmacological inhibitors of PARP1 enhance OriP plasmid maintenance and increase EBNA1, ORC2, and MCM3 occupancy at OriP. PARylation in vitro inhibits ORC2 recruitment and remodels telomere repeat factor (TRF) binding at the dyad symmetry (DS) element of OriP. Purified PARP1 can ribosylate EBNA1 at multiple sites throughout its amino terminus but not in the carboxy-terminal DNA binding domain. We also show that EBNA1 linking regions (LR1 and LR2) can bind directly to oligomers of PAR. We propose that PARP1-dependent PARylation of EBNA1 and adjacently bound TRF2 induces structural changes at the DS element that reduce EBNA1 DNA binding affinity and functional recruitment of ORC. PMID:20219917

  9. ADP-ribosyltransferase from Helix pomatia. Purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, H J; Klocker, H; Schneider, R; Auer, B; Hirsch-Kauffmann, M; Schweiger, M

    1987-12-15

    ADP-ribosyltransferases from several higher eukaryotes have been purified and characterized, but little is known about ADP-ribosyltransferases in lower eukaryotes. We have purified an ADP-ribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.30) from Helix pomatia. The enzyme has an apparent Km of 26.7 microM. Optimal conditions for the enzyme reaction are 17.5 degrees C and pH 8. The time course is linear during the first 10 min of the reaction. The enzyme is capable of poly-ADP-ribosylation. The most highly purified preparation shows one major band at an Mr of 75,000 on electrophoresis in an SDS/polyacrylamide gel, with minor bands at Mr 115,000 and 155,000. Re-activation of SDS/polyacrylamide gels in situ shows the 75,000-Mr band to be enzymically active and additional active bands with Mr values of 115,000, 90,000 and 87,000 respectively. The 115,000-Mr and 75,000-Mr bands cross-react with a polyclonal affinity-purified antiserum against human ADP-ribosyltransferase. Like enzymes from higher eukaryotes, the activity from Helix pomatia is inhibited by thymidine, theophylline, theobromine nicotinamide, 3-methoxybenzamide and 3-aminobenzamide, and is dependent on histone and DNA. PMID:3124818

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of molecular chaperone-like diol dehydratase-reactivating factor in ADP-bound and nucleotide-free forms

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Koichi; Hieda, Naoki; Yamanishi, Mamoru; Shibata, Naoki; Toraya, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    Adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12) dependent diol dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.28) catalyzes the conversion of 1,2-diols and glycerol to the corresponding aldehydes. It undergoes mechanism-based inactivation by glycerol. The diol dehydratase-reactivating factor (DDR) reactivates the inactivated holoenzymes in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, ATP and Mg2+ by mediating the release of a damaged cofactor. This molecular chaperone-like factor was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in the ADP-bound and nucleotide-free forms by the sandwich-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of the ADP-bound form belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P212121 and unit-cell parameters a = 83.26, b = 84.60, c = 280.09 Å, and diffract to 2.0 Å. In the absence of nucleotide, DDR crystals were orthorhombic, with space group P212121 and unit-cell parameters a = 81.92, b = 85.37, c = 296.99 Å and diffract to 3.0 Å. Crystals of both forms were suitable for structural analysis. PMID:16511107

  11. Poly ADP-Ribose Polymerase Inhibition Ameliorates Hind Limb Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in a Murine Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Long, Chandler A.; Boloum, Valy; Albadawi, Hassan; Tsai, Shirling; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Oklu, Rahmi; Goldman, Mitchell H.; Watkins, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is known to increase poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) activity and posttranslational poly-ADP-ribosylation of several regulatory proteins involved in inflammation and energy metabolism. These experiments test the hypothesis that PARP inhibition will modulate hind limb ischemia reperfusion (IR) in a mouse model of type-II diabetes; ameliorate the ribosylation and the activity/transnuclear localization of the key glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Methods db/db mice underwent 1.5hrs of hind limb ischemia followed by 1, 7, or 24hrs reperfusion. The treatment group received the PARP inhibitor PJ34 (PJ34) over a 24hrs period; the untreated group received Lactated ringer’s (LR) at the same time points. IR muscles were analyzed for indices of PARP activity, fiber injury, metabolic activity, inflammation, GAPDH activity /intracellular localization and poly-ADP-ribosylation of GAPDH. Results PARP activity was significantly lower in the PJ34 treated groups compared to the LR group at 7 and 24 hours reperfusion. There was significantly less muscle fiber injury in the PJ34 treated group compared to LR treated mice at 24 hrs reperfusion. PJ34 lowered levels of select proinflammatory molecules at 7hrs and 24hrs IR. There were significant increases in metabolic activity only at 24 hours IR in the PJ34 group, which temporally correlated with increase in GAPDH activity, decreased GAPDH poly ADP-ribosylation and nuclear translocation of GAPDH. Conclusions PJ34 reduced PARP activity, GAPDH ribosylation, GAPDH translocation, ameliorated muscle fiber injury, and increased metabolic activity following hind limb IR injury in a murine model of type-II diabetes. PARP inhibition might be a therapeutic strategy following IR in diabetic humans. PMID:23549425

  12. Poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) Binding to Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is Critical For PAR Polymerase-1-Dependent Cell Death (Parthanatos)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingfei; Kim, No Soo; Haince, Jean-Francois; Kang, HoChul; David, Karen K.; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial protein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) plays a pivotal role in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)-mediated cell death (parthanatos), during which it is released from the mitochondria and translocates to the nucleus. Here, we show that AIF is a high affinity poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)–binding protein and that PAR binding to AIF is required for parthanatos both in vitro and in vivo. AIF bound PAR at a site distinct from AIF’s DNA binding site and this interaction triggered AIF release from the cytosolic side of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Mutation of the PAR binding site in AIF did not affect its NADH oxidase activity, its ability to bind FAD or DNA, or its ability to induce nuclear condensation. However, this AIF mutant was not released from mitochondria and did not translocate to the nucleus or mediate cell death following PARP-1 activation. These results suggest a mechanism for PARP-1 to initiate AIF-mediated cell death and indicate that AIF’s bioenergetic cell survival-promoting functions are separate from its effects as a mitochondrially-derived death effector. Interference with the PAR-AIF interaction or PAR signaling may provide unique opportunities for preventing cell death following activation of PARP-1. PMID:21467298

  13. Discovery of novel benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-3(4H)-ones as poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, Anthony R; Brown, Jason; de Jong, Ron; Dougan, Douglas R; Grimshaw, Charles E; Hixon, Mark; Jennings, Andy; Kamran, Ruhi; Kiryanov, Andre; O'Connell, Shawn; Taylor, Ewan; Vu, Phong

    2013-08-15

    Structure based drug design of a series of novel 1,4-benzoxazin-3-one derived PARP-1 inhibitors are described. The synthesis, enzymatic & cellular activities and pharmacodynamic effects are described. Optimized analogs demonstrated inhibition of poly-ADP-ribosylation in SW620 tumor bearing nude mice through 24h following a single dose. PMID:23850199

  14. Global Transcriptome Analysis Reveals That Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 Regulates Gene Expression through EZH2.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kayla A; Cesaroni, Matteo; Denny, Michael F; Lupey, Lena N; Tempera, Italo

    2015-12-01

    Posttranslational modifications, such as poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), regulate chromatin-modifying enzymes, ultimately affecting gene expression. This study explores the role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) on global gene expression in a lymphoblastoid B cell line. We found that inhibition of PARP catalytic activity with olaparib resulted in global gene deregulation, affecting approximately 11% of the genes expressed. Gene ontology analysis revealed that PARP could exert these effects through transcription factors and chromatin-remodeling enzymes, including the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) member EZH2. EZH2 mediates the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3), a modification associated with chromatin compaction and gene silencing. Both pharmacological inhibition of PARP and knockdown of PARP1 induced the expression of EZH2, which resulted in increased global H3K27me3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that PARP1 inhibition led to H3K27me3 deposition at EZH2 target genes, which resulted in gene silencing. Moreover, increased EZH2 expression is attributed to the loss of the occupancy of the transcription repressor E2F4 at the EZH2 promoter following PARP inhibition. Together, these data show that PARP plays an important role in global gene regulation and identifies for the first time a direct role of PARP1 in regulating the expression and function of EZH2. PMID:26370511

  15. Global Transcriptome Analysis Reveals That Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 Regulates Gene Expression through EZH2

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kayla A.; Cesaroni, Matteo; Denny, Michael F.; Lupey, Lena N.

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications, such as poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), regulate chromatin-modifying enzymes, ultimately affecting gene expression. This study explores the role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) on global gene expression in a lymphoblastoid B cell line. We found that inhibition of PARP catalytic activity with olaparib resulted in global gene deregulation, affecting approximately 11% of the genes expressed. Gene ontology analysis revealed that PARP could exert these effects through transcription factors and chromatin-remodeling enzymes, including the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) member EZH2. EZH2 mediates the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3), a modification associated with chromatin compaction and gene silencing. Both pharmacological inhibition of PARP and knockdown of PARP1 induced the expression of EZH2, which resulted in increased global H3K27me3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that PARP1 inhibition led to H3K27me3 deposition at EZH2 target genes, which resulted in gene silencing. Moreover, increased EZH2 expression is attributed to the loss of the occupancy of the transcription repressor E2F4 at the EZH2 promoter following PARP inhibition. Together, these data show that PARP plays an important role in global gene regulation and identifies for the first time a direct role of PARP1 in regulating the expression and function of EZH2. PMID:26370511

  16. PARP2 Is the Predominant Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Arabidopsis DNA Damage and Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Song, Junqi; Keppler, Brian D.; Wise, Robert R.; Bent, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze the transfer of multiple poly(ADP-ribose) units onto target proteins. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes including, most prominently, auto-activation of PARP at sites of DNA breaks to activate DNA repair processes. In humans, PARP1 (the founding and most characterized member of the PARP family) accounts for more than 90% of overall cellular PARP activity in response to DNA damage. We have found that, in contrast with animals, in Arabidopsis thaliana PARP2 (At4g02390), rather than PARP1 (At2g31320), makes the greatest contribution to PARP activity and organismal viability in response to genotoxic stresses caused by bleomycin, mitomycin C or gamma-radiation. Plant PARP2 proteins carry SAP DNA binding motifs rather than the zinc finger domains common in plant and animal PARP1 proteins. PARP2 also makes stronger contributions than PARP1 to plant immune responses including restriction of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato growth and reduction of infection-associated DNA double-strand break abundance. For poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) enzymes, we find that Arabidopsis PARG1 and not PARG2 is the major contributor to poly(ADP-ribose) removal from acceptor proteins. The activity or abundance of PARP2 is influenced by PARP1 and PARG1. PARP2 and PARP1 physically interact with each other, and with PARG1 and PARG2, suggesting relatively direct regulatory interactions among these mediators of the balance of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. As with plant PARP2, plant PARG proteins are also structurally distinct from their animal counterparts. Hence core aspects of plant poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation are mediated by substantially different enzymes than in animals, suggesting the likelihood of substantial differences in regulation. PMID:25950582

  17. PARP2 Is the Predominant Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Arabidopsis DNA Damage and Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Song, Junqi; Keppler, Brian D; Wise, Robert R; Bent, Andrew F

    2015-05-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze the transfer of multiple poly(ADP-ribose) units onto target proteins. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes including, most prominently, auto-activation of PARP at sites of DNA breaks to activate DNA repair processes. In humans, PARP1 (the founding and most characterized member of the PARP family) accounts for more than 90% of overall cellular PARP activity in response to DNA damage. We have found that, in contrast with animals, in Arabidopsis thaliana PARP2 (At4g02390), rather than PARP1 (At2g31320), makes the greatest contribution to PARP activity and organismal viability in response to genotoxic stresses caused by bleomycin, mitomycin C or gamma-radiation. Plant PARP2 proteins carry SAP DNA binding motifs rather than the zinc finger domains common in plant and animal PARP1 proteins. PARP2 also makes stronger contributions than PARP1 to plant immune responses including restriction of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato growth and reduction of infection-associated DNA double-strand break abundance. For poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) enzymes, we find that Arabidopsis PARG1 and not PARG2 is the major contributor to poly(ADP-ribose) removal from acceptor proteins. The activity or abundance of PARP2 is influenced by PARP1 and PARG1. PARP2 and PARP1 physically interact with each other, and with PARG1 and PARG2, suggesting relatively direct regulatory interactions among these mediators of the balance of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. As with plant PARP2, plant PARG proteins are also structurally distinct from their animal counterparts. Hence core aspects of plant poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation are mediated by substantially different enzymes than in animals, suggesting the likelihood of substantial differences in regulation. PMID:25950582

  18. High residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) for adenosine diphosphate (ADP) stimuli is a determinant factor for long-term outcomes in acute ischemic stroke with anti-platelet agents: The meaning of HRPR after ADP might be more prominent in large atherosclerotic infarction than other subtypes of AIS.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Kwan; Park, Hyun-Seok; Nah, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Kang, Myong-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hyung; Huh, Jae-Taeck; Suh, Hyun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    High residual platelet activation (HRPA) after ADP stimuli has associated with recurrent vascular events in acute atherothrombosis with the use of antiplatelet agents (APAs). However, there has been little evidence supporting this association in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In this study, we evaluated the influences of HRPR after ADP stimuli on the 1-year incidence of recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality in AIS with APAs. We conducted an observational, referral center cohort study on 968 AIS patients with APAs from January 2010 to December 2013 who were evaluated using optical platelet aggregometry (OPA). All patients received the dual APA combination of aspirin and clopidogrel or aspirin alone. We evaluated their platelet function 5 days after hospital admission using OPA. HRPR after ADP stimuli was defined as platelet aggregation of 70 % or greater according to OPA after 10 µM ADP stimuli. The primary endpoint was a composite of all causes of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke at the 1-year follow-up. The secondary endpoints were each component of the primary endpoint. The event rate of primary endpoint was 11.3 % (109/968). Its rate was significantly higher in the patients with HRPR (16.7 %) than in those without (9.7 %). HPRP was independently associated with the primary endpoint (OR = 1.97, CI 1.22-3.18, p < 0.01). According to the AIS subtype, the presence of HRPR was independently significant for the occurrence of the primary endpoint in the large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) subtype only (OR = 2.26, CI 1.15-4.45, p = 0.02). In this study, the presence of HRPR after ADP stimuli is associated with a poor long-term outcome after acute ischemic stroke. In particular, the influence of this factor might be more prominent in LAA compared with other types of AIS. PMID:26680778

  19. Differential regulation of activator protein-1 and heat shock factor-1 in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury: role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.

    PubMed

    Zingarelli, Basilia; Hake, Paul W; O'Connor, Michael; Denenberg, Alvin; Wong, Hector R; Kong, Sue; Aronow, Bruce J

    2004-04-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a nuclear enzyme activated in response to DNA strand breaks, has been implicated in cell dysfunction in myocardial reperfusion injury. PARP-1 has also been shown to participate in transcription and regulation of gene expression. In this study, we investigated the role of PARP-1 on the signal transduction pathway of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) in myocardial reperfusion injury. Mice genetically deficient of PARP-1 (PARP-1(-/-) mice) exhibited a significant reduction of myocardial damage after occlusion and reperfusion of the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery compared with their wild-type littermates. This cardioprotection was associated with a reduction of the phosphorylative activity of JNK and, subsequently, reduction of the DNA binding of the signal transduction factor AP-1. On the contrary, in PARP-1(-/-) mice, DNA binding of HSF-1 was enhanced and was associated with a significant increase of the cardioprotective heat shock protein (HSP)70 compared with wild-type mice. Microarray analysis revealed that expression of several AP-1-dependent genes of proinflammatory mediators and HSPs was altered in PARP-1(-/-) mice. The data indicate that PARP-1 may exert a pathological role in reperfusion injury by functioning as an enhancing factor of AP-1 activation and as a repressing factor of HSF-1 activation and HSP70 expression. PMID:14670820

  20. Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress and Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Activation in Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Obrosova, Irina G.; Drel, Viktor R.; Pacher, Pal; Ilnytska, Olga; Wang, Zhong Q.; Stevens, Martin J.; Yorek, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation, an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications, is considered a downstream effector of oxidative-nitrosative stress. However, some recent findings suggest that it is not necessarily the case and that PARP activation may precede and contribute to free radical and oxidant-induced injury. This study evaluated the effect of PARP inhibition on oxidative-nitrosative stress in diabetic peripheral nerve, vasa nervorum, aorta, and high glucose–exposed human Schwann cells. In vivo experiments were performed in control rats and streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats treated with and without the PARP inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (ABA) (30 mg · kg−1 · day−1 i.p. for 2 weeks after 2 weeks of untreated diabetes). Human Schwann cells (HSC) (passages 7–10; ScienCell Research Labs) were cultured in 5.5 or 30 mmol/l glucose with and without 5 mmol/l ABA. Diabetes-induced increase in peripheral nerve nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity, epineurial vessel superoxide and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivities, and aortic superoxide production was reduced by ABA. PARP-1 (Western blot analysis) was abundantly expressed in HSC, and its expression was not affected by high glucose or ABA treatment. High-glucose–induced superoxide production and overexpression of nitrosylated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated protein, chemically reduced amino acid-(4)-hydroxynonenal adducts, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were decreased by ABA. We concluded that PARP activation contributes to superoxide anion radical and peroxynitrite formation in peripheral nerve, vasa nervorum, and aorta of STZ-induced diabetic rats and high-glucose–exposed HSC. The relations between oxidative-nitrosative stress and PARP activation in diabetes are bi-rather than unidirectional, and PARP activation cannot only result from but also lead to free radical and oxidant generation. PMID:16306359

  1. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 modulates the lethality of CHK1 inhibitors in carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Clint; Park, Margaret; Eulitt, Patrick; Yang, Chen; Yacoub, Adly; Dent, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that inhibition of CHK1 can promote the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylation of histone H2AX and that inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) can affect growth factor-induced ERK1/2 activation. The present studies were initiated to determine whether CHK1 inhibitors interacted with PARP1 inhibition to facilitate apoptosis. Transient expression of dominant-negative CHK1 raised basal ERK1/2 activity and prevented CHK1 inhibitors from activating ERK1/2. CHK1 inhibitors modestly increased the levels of PARP1 ADP ribosylation and molecular or small-molecule inhibition of PARP1 blocked CHK1 inhibitor-stimulated histone H2AX phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2. Stimulated histone H2AX phosphorylation was ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein-dependent. Multiple CHK1 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion with multiple PARP1 inhibitors to cause transformed cell-killing in short-term viability assays and synergistically killed tumor cells in colony-formation assays. Overexpression of BCL-xL or loss of BAX/BAK function, but not the function of BID, suppressed CHK1 inhibitor + PARP1 inhibitor lethality. Inhibition of BCL-2 family protein function enhanced CHK1 inhibitor + PARP1 inhibitor lethality and restored drug-induced cell-killing in cells overexpressing BCL-xL. Thus, PARP1 plays an important role in regulating the ability of CHK1 inhibitors to activate ERK1/2 and the DNA damage response. An inability of PARP1 to modulate this response results in transformed cell death mediated through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. PMID:20696794

  2. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 modulates Nrf2-dependent transcription.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tongde; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Tian, Wang; Jaramillo, Melba C; Lau, Alexandria; Zhang, Donna D

    2014-02-01

    The basic leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2 has emerged as a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis by controlling the expression of a battery of redox-balancing antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes. Under oxidative stress conditions, Nrf2 is induced at the protein level through redox-sensitive modifications on critical cysteine residues in Keap1, a component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets Nrf2 for proteasomal degradation. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is historically known to function in DNA damage detection and repair; however, recently PARP-1 has been shown to play an important role in other biochemical activities, such as DNA methylation and imprinting, insulator activity, chromosome organization, and transcriptional regulation. The exact role of PARP-1 in transcription modulation and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. In this study, we report that PARP-1 forms complexes with the antioxidant response element (ARE) within the promoter region of Nrf2 target genes and upregulates the transcriptional activity of Nrf2. Interestingly, PARP-1 neither physically interacts with Nrf2 nor promotes the expression of Nrf2. In addition, PARP-1 does not target Nrf2 for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Instead, PARP-1 interacts directly with small Maf proteins and the ARE of Nrf2 target genes, which augments ARE-specific DNA-binding of Nrf2 and enhances the transcription of Nrf2 target genes. Collectively, these results suggest that PARP-1 serves as a transcriptional coactivator, upregulating the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 by enhancing the interaction among Nrf2, MafG, and the ARE. PMID:24140708

  3. PARP16/ARTD15 Is a Novel Endoplasmic-Reticulum-Associated Mono-ADP-Ribosyltransferase That Interacts with, and Modifies Karyopherin-ß1

    PubMed Central

    Di Paola, Simone; Micaroni, Massimo; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Buccione, Roberto; Di Girolamo, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein mono-ADP-ribosylation is a reversible post-translational modification that modulates the function of target proteins. The enzymes that catalyze this reaction in mammalian cells are either bacterial pathogenic toxins or endogenous cellular ADP-ribosyltransferases. The latter include members of three different families of proteins: the well characterized arginine-specific ecto-enzymes ARTCs, two sirtuins and, more recently, novel members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP/ARTD) family that have been suggested to act as cellular mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases. Here, we report on the characterisation of human ARTD15, the only known ARTD family member with a putative C-terminal transmembrane domain. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy were performed to characterise the sub-cellular localisation of ARTD15, which was found to be associated with membranes of the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum. The orientation of ARTD15 was determined using protease protection assay, and is shown to be a tail-anchored protein with a cytosolic catalytic domain. Importantly, by combining immunoprecipitation with mass spectrometry and using cell lysates from cells over-expressing FLAG-ARTD15, we have identified karyopherin-ß1, a component of the nuclear trafficking machinery, as a molecular partner of ARTD15. Finally, we demonstrate that ARTD15 is a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase able to induce the ADP-ribosylation of karyopherin-ß1, thus defining the first substrate for this enzyme. Conclusions/Significance Our data reveal that ARTD15 is a novel ADP-ribosyltransferase enzyme with a new intracellular location. Finally, the identification of karyopherin-ß1 as a target of ARTD15-mediated ADP-ribosylation, hints at a novel regulatory mechanism of karyopherin-ß1 functions. PMID:22701565

  4. Loss of the Mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, Tiparp, Increases Sensitivity to Dioxin-induced Steatohepatitis and Lethality*

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shaimaa; Bott, Debbie; Gomez, Alvin; Tamblyn, Laura; Rasheed, Adil; Cho, Tiffany; MacPherson, Laura; Sugamori, Kim S.; Yang, Yang; Grant, Denis M.; Cummins, Carolyn L.; Matthews, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of the environmental contaminant dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD). Dioxin causes a range of toxic responses, including hepatic damage, steatohepatitis, and a lethal wasting syndrome; however, the mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we show that the loss of TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Tiparp), an ADP-ribosyltransferase and AHR repressor, increases sensitivity to dioxin-induced toxicity, steatohepatitis, and lethality. Tiparp−/− mice given a single injection of 100 μg/kg dioxin did not survive beyond day 5; all Tiparp+/+ mice survived the 30-day treatment. Dioxin-treated Tiparp−/− mice exhibited increased liver steatosis and hepatotoxicity. Tiparp ADP-ribosylated AHR but not its dimerization partner, the AHR nuclear translocator, and the repressive effects of TIPARP on AHR were reversed by the macrodomain containing mono-ADP-ribosylase MACROD1 but not MACROD2. These results reveal previously unidentified roles for Tiparp, MacroD1, and ADP-ribosylation in AHR-mediated steatohepatitis and lethality in response to dioxin. PMID:25975270

  5. Analysis of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity in nuclear extracts from mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, R; Rossi, L; Poirier, G G; Scovassi, A I

    1997-03-01

    We have analysed poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase, the enzyme responsible for in vivo degradation of ADP-ribose polymers, by means of a biochemical assay based on the capacity of the enzyme to use a synthetic 32P-labelled polymer as a substrate. The visualization of the reaction has been achieved by separation of poly and mono(ADP-ribose) by thin-layer chromatography followed by autoradiography, whereas polymer hydrolysis has been quantified by counting the spots corresponding to poly and mono(ADP-ribose). By addition of the enzyme inhibitor ethacridine to the reaction mixture, we have confirmed the specificity of the procedure we have developed. The protocol has been applied to study the specific activity of glycohydrolase in nuclear extracts from different mammalian cell lines and to an apoptotic experimental system, namely HL60 cells treated with etoposide. We have observed the activation of the enzyme after a two-hour drug treatment, that is concomitant with the activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, the enzyme which synthesizes the polymer. These data suggest a precise regulation of ADP-ribosylation process during cell death by apoptosis. PMID:9074616

  6. [From poly(ADP-ribose) discovery to PARP inhibitors in cancer therapy].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Valérie; Illuzzi, Giuditta; Héberlé, Eléa; Dantzer, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. PARP-1 is a molecular sensor of DNA breaks, playing a key role in the spatial and temporal organization of their repair, contributing to the maintenance of genome integrity and cell survival. The fact that PARP inhibition impairs efficacy of break repair has been exploited as anticancer strategies to potentiate the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Numerous clinical trials based on this innovative approach are in progress. PARP inhibition has also proved to be exquisitely efficient to kill tumour cells deficient in double strand break repair by homologous recombination, such as cells mutated for the breast cancer early onset genes BRCA1 or BRCA2, by synthetic lethality. Several phase III clinical trials are in progress for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers with BRCA mutations and the PARP inhibitor olaparib has just been approved for advanced ovarian cancers with germline BRCA mutation. This review recapitulates the history from the discovery of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction to the promising therapeutic applications of its inhibition in innovating anticancer strategies. Benefits, hopes and obstacles are discussed. PMID:26384693

  7. ADP's ABCs of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company's core competence is processing data, it is sometimes easy to lose sight of the obvious--the information right under its nose. In the case of Automatic Data Processing, Inc. (ADP), a business outsourcing company specializing in human resources, payroll, tax, and benefits administrations solutions, that is not a problem. Through…

  8. Prolonged poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity regulates JP-8-induced sustained cytokine expression in alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Luis A; Smulson, Mark E; Chen, Zun

    2007-05-01

    Environmental pollutants inducing oxidative stress stimulate chronic inflammatory responses in the lung leading to pulmonary tissue dysfunction. In response to oxidative stress, alveolar macrophages produce both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, which induce the expression of a wide variety of immune-response genes. We found that a prolonged exposure of alveolar macrophages to a nonlethal dose (8 microg/ml) of JP-8, the kerosene-based hydrocarbon jet fuel, induced the persistent expression of IL-1, iNOS, and COX-2, as well as cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). Because poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1), a coactivator of NF-kappaB, regulates inflammatory responses and associated disorders in the airways, we determined whether JP-8 induces the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation automodification of PARP-1 in alveolar macrophages. We observed that PARP-1 is activated in a time-dependent manner, which was temporally coincident with the prolonged activation of NF-kappaB and with the augmented expression of the proinflammatory factors described above. The 4 microg/ml dilution of JP-8 also increased the activity of PARP-1 as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2, indicating that lower doses of JP-8 also affect the regulation of proinflammatory factors in pulmonary macrophages. Together, these results demonstrate that an extensive induction of PARP-1 might coordinate the persistent expression of proinflammatory mediators in alveolar macrophages activated by aromatic hydrocarbons that can result in lung injury from occupational exposure. PMID:17395016

  9. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 Represses Liver X Receptor-mediated ABCA1 Expression and Cholesterol Efflux in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Elina; Hussein, Maryem A; Savas, Jeffery N; Ouimet, Mireille; Barrett, Tessa J; Leone, Sarah; Yates, John R; Moore, Kathryn J; Fisher, Edward A; Garabedian, Michael J

    2016-05-20

    Liver X receptors (LXR) are oxysterol-activated nuclear receptors that play a central role in reverse cholesterol transport through up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCA1 and ABCG1) that mediate cellular cholesterol efflux. Mouse models of atherosclerosis exhibit reduced atherosclerosis and enhanced regression of established plaques upon LXR activation. However, the coregulatory factors that affect LXR-dependent gene activation in macrophages remain to be elucidated. To identify novel regulators of LXR that modulate its activity, we used affinity purification and mass spectrometry to analyze nuclear LXRα complexes and identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) as an LXR-associated factor. In fact, PARP-1 interacted with both LXRα and LXRβ. Both depletion of PARP-1 and inhibition of PARP-1 activity augmented LXR ligand-induced ABCA1 expression in the RAW 264.7 macrophage line and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages but did not affect LXR-dependent expression of other target genes, ABCG1 and SREBP-1c. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed PARP-1 recruitment at the LXR response element in the promoter of the ABCA1 gene. Further, we demonstrated that LXR is poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated by PARP-1, a potential mechanism by which PARP-1 influences LXR function. Importantly, the PARP inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide enhanced macrophage ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux to the lipid-poor apolipoprotein AI. These findings shed light on the important role of PARP-1 on LXR-regulated lipid homeostasis. Understanding the interplay between PARP-1 and LXR may provide insights into developing novel therapeutics for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:27026705

  10. Effect of inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase on the radiation response of HeLa S3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Burgman, P.; Konings, A.W. )

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible involvement of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in X-ray-induced cell killing, repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD), and formation and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage. As tools we used the inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, 3-aminobenzamide (3AB), and 4-aminobenzamide (4AB). Both drugs inhibited PLD repair equally well but did not increase radiation-induced cell killing when cells were plated immediately after irradiation. 3AB affected repair of radiation-induced DNA damage, while 4AB had no effect. When 3AB was combined with aphidicolin (APC), it was found that the amount of DNA damage increased during the postirradiation incubation period. This means that the presence of 3AB stimulates the formation of DNA damage after X-irradiation. It is concluded that 3AB and 4AB sensitize HeLaS3 cells for radiation-induced cell killing by inhibiting repair of PLD. Because of the different effects of both inhibitors on repair of PLD and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage (a process known to be affected by inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation), it is concluded that the observed inhibition of PLD repair is not caused by inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, and that the inhibitors affect repair of PLD and repair of DNA damage through independent mechanisms.

  11. Effect of inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase on the radiation response of HeLa S3 cells.

    PubMed

    Burgman, P; Konings, A W

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible involvement of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in X-ray-induced cell killing, repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD), and formation and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage. As tools we used the inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, 3-aminobenzamide (3AB), and 4-aminobenzamide (4AB). Both drugs inhibited PLD repair equally well but did not increase radiation-induced cell killing when cells were plated immediately after irradiation. 3AB affected repair of radiation-induced DNA damage, while 4AB had no effect. When 3AB was combined with aphidicolin (APC), it was found that the amount of DNA damage increased during the postirradiation incubation period. This means that the presence of 3AB stimulates the formation of DNA damage after X-irradiation. It is concluded that 3AB and 4AB sensitize HeLaS3 cells for radiation-induced cell killing by inhibiting repair of PLD. Because of the different effects of both inhibitors on repair of PLD and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage (a process known to be affected by inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation), it is concluded that the observed inhibition of PLD repair is not caused by inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, and that the inhibitors affect repair of PLD and repair of DNA damage through independent mechanisms. PMID:2502817

  12. Host cell cytotoxicity and cytoskeleton disruption by CerADPr, an ADP-ribosyltransferase of Bacillus cereus G9241.

    PubMed

    Simon, Nathan C; Vergis, James M; Ebrahimi, Avesta V; Ventura, Christy L; O'Brien, Alison D; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2013-04-01

    Bacillus cereus G9241 was isolated from a welder suffering from an anthrax-like inhalation illness. B. cereus G9241 encodes two megaplasmids, pBCXO1 and pBC210, which are analogous to the toxin- and capsule-encoding virulence plasmids of Bacillus anthracis. Protein modeling predicted that the pBC210 LF homologue contained an ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPr) domain. This putative bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase domain was denoted CerADPr. Iterative modeling showed that CerADPr possessed several conserved ADP-ribosyltransferase features, including an α-3 helix, an ADP-ribosyltransferase turn-turn loop, and a "Gln-XXX-Glu" motif. CerADPr ADP-ribosylated an ~120 kDa protein in HeLa cell lysates and intact cells. EGFP-CerADPr rounded HeLa cells, elicited cytoskeletal changes, and yielded a cytotoxic phenotype, indicating that CerADPr disrupts cytoskeletal signaling. CerADPr(E431D) did not possess ADP-ribosyltransferase or NAD glycohydrolase activities and did not elicit a phenotype in HeLa cells, implicating Glu431 as a catalytic residue. These experiments identify CerADPr as a cytotoxic ADP-ribosyltransferase that disrupts the host cytoskeleton. PMID:22934824

  13. Host cell cytotoxicity and cytoskeleton disruption by CerADPr, an ADP-ribosyltransferase of Bacillus cereus G9241

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nathan C.; Vergis, James M.; Ebrahimi, Avesta V.; Ventura, Christy L.; O’Brien, Alison D.; Barbieri, Joseph T.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus cereus G9241 was isolated from a welder suffering from an anthrax-like inhalation illness. B. cereus G9241 encodes two megaplasmids, pBCXO1 and pBC210, which are analogous to the toxin- and capsule-encoding virulence plasmids of B. anthracis. Protein modeling predicted that the pBC210 LF homolog contained an ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPr) domain. This putative bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase domain was denoted CerADPr. Iterative modeling showed that CerADPr possessed several conserved ADP-ribosyltransferase features, including an α-3 helix, an ADP-ribosyltransferase turn-turn loop, and a “Gln-XXX-Glu” motif. CerADPr ADP-ribosylated a ~120kDa protein in HeLa cell lysates and intact cells. EGFP-CerADPr rounded HeLa cells, elicited cytoskeletal changes, and yielded a cytotoxic phenotype, indicating that CerADPr disrupts cytoskeletal signaling. CerADPr(E431D) did not possess ADP-ribosyltransferase or NAD glycohydrolase activities and did not elicit a phenotype in HeLa cells, implicating Glu431 as a catalytic residue. These experiments identify CerADPr as a cytotoxic ADP-ribosyltransferase that disrupts the host cytoskeleton. PMID:22934824

  14. Family-wide analysis of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity

    PubMed Central

    Uchima, Lilen; Rood, Jenny; Zaja, Roko; Hay, Ronald T.; Ahel, Ivan; Chang, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein family generates ADP-ribose (ADPr) modifications onto target proteins using NAD+ as substrate. Based on the composition of three NAD+ coordinating amino acids, the H-Y-E motif, each PARP is predicted to generate either poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) or mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR). However, the reaction product of each PARP has not been clearly defined, and is an important priority since PAR and MAR function via distinct mechanisms. Here we show that the majority of PARPs generate MAR, not PAR, and demonstrate that the H-Y-E motif is not the sole indicator of PARP activity. We identify automodification sites on seven PARPs, and demonstrate that MAR and PAR generating PARPs modify similar amino acids, suggesting that the sequence and structural constraints limiting PARPs to MAR synthesis do not limit their ability to modify canonical amino acid targets. In addition, we identify cysteine as a novel amino acid target for ADP-ribosylation on PARPs. PMID:25043379

  15. Cyclic ADP ribose-mediated Ca2+ signaling in mediating endothelial nitric oxide production in bovine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo; Teggatz, Eric G; Zhang, Andrew Y; Koeberl, Matthew J; Yi, Fan; Chen, Li; Li, Pin-Lan

    2006-03-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) serves as a novel second messenger to mediate intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs) and thereby contributes to endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In isolated and perfused small bovine coronary arteries, bradykinin (BK)-induced concentration-dependent vasodilation was significantly attenuated by 8-bromo-cADPR (a cell-permeable cADPR antagonist), ryanodine (an antagonist of ryanodine receptors), or nicotinamide (an ADP-ribosyl cyclase inhibitor). By in situ simultaneously fluorescent monitoring, Ca2+ transient and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the intact coronary arterial endothelium preparation, 8-bromo-cADPR (30 microM), ryanodine (50 microM), and nicotinamide (6 mM) substantially attenuated BK (1 microM)-induced increase in intracellular [Ca2+] by 78%, 80%, and 74%, respectively, whereas these compounds significantly blocked BK-induced NO increase by about 80%, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor blockade with 2-aminethoxydiphenyl borate (50 microM) only blunted BK-induced Ca2+-NO signaling by about 30%. With the use of cADPR-cycling assay, it was found that inhibition of ADP-ribosyl cyclase by nicotinamide substantially blocked BK-induced intracellular cADPR production. Furthermore, HPLC analysis showed that the conversion rate of beta-nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide into cyclic GDP ribose dramatically increased by stimulation with BK, which was blockable by nicotinamide. However, U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, had no effect on this BK-induced increase in ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity for cADPR production. In conclusion, these results suggest that cADPR importantly contributes to BK- and A-23187-induced NO production and vasodilator response in coronary arteries through its Ca2+ signaling mechanism in CAECs. PMID:16243917

  16. The XRCC1 phosphate-binding pocket binds poly (ADP-ribose) and is required for XRCC1 function

    PubMed Central

    Breslin, Claire; Hornyak, Peter; Ridley, Andrew; Rulten, Stuart L.; Hanzlikova, Hana; Oliver, Antony W.; Caldecott, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) is synthesized at DNA single-strand breaks and can promote the recruitment of the scaffold protein, XRCC1. However, the mechanism and importance of this process has been challenged. To address this issue, we have characterized the mechanism of poly (ADP-ribose) binding by XRCC1 and examined its importance for XRCC1 function. We show that the phosphate-binding pocket in the central BRCT1 domain of XRCC1 is required for selective binding to poly (ADP-ribose) at low levels of ADP-ribosylation, and promotes interaction with cellular PARP1. We also show that the phosphate-binding pocket is required for EGFP-XRCC1 accumulation at DNA damage induced by UVA laser, H2O2, and at sites of sub-nuclear PCNA foci, suggesting that poly (ADP-ribose) promotes XRCC1 recruitment both at single-strand breaks globally across the genome and at sites of DNA replication stress. Finally, we show that the phosphate-binding pocket is required following DNA damage for XRCC1-dependent acceleration of DNA single-strand break repair, DNA base excision repair, and cell survival. These data support the hypothesis that poly (ADP-ribose) synthesis promotes XRCC1 recruitment at DNA damage sites and is important for XRCC1 function. PMID:26130715

  17. The XRCC1 phosphate-binding pocket binds poly (ADP-ribose) and is required for XRCC1 function.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Claire; Hornyak, Peter; Ridley, Andrew; Rulten, Stuart L; Hanzlikova, Hana; Oliver, Antony W; Caldecott, Keith W

    2015-08-18

    Poly (ADP-ribose) is synthesized at DNA single-strand breaks and can promote the recruitment of the scaffold protein, XRCC1. However, the mechanism and importance of this process has been challenged. To address this issue, we have characterized the mechanism of poly (ADP-ribose) binding by XRCC1 and examined its importance for XRCC1 function. We show that the phosphate-binding pocket in the central BRCT1 domain of XRCC1 is required for selective binding to poly (ADP-ribose) at low levels of ADP-ribosylation, and promotes interaction with cellular PARP1. We also show that the phosphate-binding pocket is required for EGFP-XRCC1 accumulation at DNA damage induced by UVA laser, H2O2, and at sites of sub-nuclear PCNA foci, suggesting that poly (ADP-ribose) promotes XRCC1 recruitment both at single-strand breaks globally across the genome and at sites of DNA replication stress. Finally, we show that the phosphate-binding pocket is required following DNA damage for XRCC1-dependent acceleration of DNA single-strand break repair, DNA base excision repair, and cell survival. These data support the hypothesis that poly (ADP-ribose) synthesis promotes XRCC1 recruitment at DNA damage sites and is important for XRCC1 function. PMID:26130715

  18. Regulation of the RhoA/ROCK/AKT/β-catenin pathway by arginine-specific ADP-ribosytransferases 1 promotes migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Guang-Lin; Jin, Cong-Cong; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Yi; Wang, Ya-Lan; Li, Ming; Xiao, Ming; Li, Xian; Li, Qing-Shu; Lin, Xiao; Chen, Wen-Wen; Kuang, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Arginine-specific ADP-ribosytransferases 1 (ART1) is able to modify the arginine of specific proteins by mono-ADP-ribosylation. We previously reported that the expression of ART1 in human colon adenocarcinoma tissues was higher than in adjacent tissues. Herein, we primarily revealed that ART1 could regulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and, therefore, the development of colon carcinoma. In CT26 cells, which overexpressed ART1 by lentiviral transfection, the following were promoted: alterations of spindle-like non-polarization, expression of EMT inducers and mesenchymal markers, migration, invasion and adhesion. However, epithelial marker expression was decreased. Correspondingly, knockdown of ART1 in CT26 cells had the opposite effects. The effect of ART1 on EMT and carcinoma metastasis was also verified in a liver metastasis model of BALB/c mice. To further explore the molecular mechanism of ART1 in EMT, CT26 cells were treated with several specific inhibitors and gene silencing. Our data suggest that ART1 could regulate EMT by regulating the RhoA/ROCK1/AKT/β-catenin pathway and its downstream factors (snail1, vimentin, N-cadherin and E-cadherin) and that it therefore plays an important role in the progression of colon carcinoma. PMID:27277835

  19. Adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation of G-actin by botulinum C2 toxin increases endothelial permeability in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Suttorp, N; Polley, M; Seybold, J; Schnittler, H; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F; Aktories, K

    1991-01-01

    The endothelial cytoskeleton is believed to play an important role in the regulation of endothelial permeability. We used botulinum C2 toxin to perturb cellular actin and determined its effect on the permeability of endothelial cell monolayers derived from porcine pulmonary arteries. The substrate for botulinum C2 toxin is nonmuscle monomeric actin which becomes ADP-ribosylated. This modified actin cannot participate in actin polymerization and, in addition, acts as a capping protein. Exposure of endothelial cell monolayers to botulinum C2 toxin resulted in a dose- (3-100 ng/ml) and time-dependent (30-120 min) increase in the hydraulic conductivity and decrease in the selectivity of the cell monolayers. The effects of C2 toxin were accompanied by a time- and dose-dependent increase in ADP-ribosylatin of G-actin. G-Actin content increased and F-actin content decreased time- and dose-dependently in C2 toxin-treated endothelial cells. Phalloidin which stabilizes filamentous actin prevented the effects of botulinum C2 toxin on endothelial permeability. Botulinum C2 toxin induced interendothelial gaps. The effects occurred in the absence of overt cell damage and were not reversible within 2 h. The data suggest that the endothelial microfilament system is important for the regulation of endothelial permeability. Images PMID:2022729

  20. Analysis of knockout mutants reveals non-redundant functions of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase isoforms in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pham, Phuong Anh; Wahl, Vanessa; Tohge, Takayuki; de Souza, Laise Rosado; Zhang, Youjun; Do, Phuc Thi; Olas, Justyna J; Stitt, Mark; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) has a dual function being involved both in the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and being a constituent of the NAD(+) salvage pathway. To date most studies, both in plant and non-plant systems, have focused on the signaling role of PARP in poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation rather than any role that can be ascribed to its metabolic function. In order to address this question we here used a combination of expression, transcript and protein localization studies of all three PARP isoforms of Arabidopsis alongside physiological analysis of the corresponding mutants. Our analyses indicated that whilst all isoforms of PARP were localized to the nucleus they are also present in non-nuclear locations with parp1 and parp3 also localised in the cytosol, and parp2 also present in the mitochondria. We next isolated and characterized insertional knockout mutants of all three isoforms confirming a complete knockout in the full length transcript levels of the target genes as well as a reduced total leaf NAD hydrolase activity in the two isoforms (PARP1, PARP2) that are highly expressed in leaves. Physiological evaluation of the mutant lines revealed that they displayed distinctive metabolic and root growth characteristics albeit unaltered leaf morphology under optimal growth conditions. We therefore conclude that the PARP isoforms play non-redundant non-nuclear metabolic roles and that their function is highly important in rapidly growing tissues such as the shoot apical meristem, roots and seeds. PMID:26428915

  1. NarE: a novel ADP-ribosyltransferase from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Masignani, Vega; Balducci, Enrico; Di Marcello, Federica; Savino, Silvana; Serruto, Davide; Veggi, Daniele; Bambini, Stefania; Scarselli, Maria; Aricò, Beatrice; Comanducci, Maurizio; Adu-Bobie, Jeannette; Giuliani, Marzia M; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia

    2003-11-01

    Mono ADP-ribosyltransferases (ADPRTs) are a class of functionally conserved enzymes present in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In bacteria, these enzymes often act as potent toxins and play an important role in pathogenesis. Here we report a profile-based computational approach that, assisted by secondary structure predictions, has allowed the identification of a previously undiscovered ADP-ribosyltransferase in Neisseria meningitidis (NarE). NarE shows structural homologies with E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and possesses ADP-ribosylating and NAD-glycohydrolase activities. As in the case of LT and CT, NarE catalyses the transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety to arginine residues. Despite the absence of a signal peptide, the protein is efficiently exported into the periplasm of Neisseria. The narE gene is present in 25 out of 43 strains analysed, is always present in ET-5 and Lineage 3 but absent in ET-37 and Cluster A4 hypervirulent lineages. When present, the gene is 100% conserved in sequence and is inserted upstream of and co-transcribed with the lipoamide dehydrogenase E3 gene. Possible roles in the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis are discussed. PMID:14617161

  2. Purification and biochemical characterization of a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-like enzyme from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed Central

    Faraone-Mennella, M R; Gambacorta, A; Nicolaus, B; Farina, B

    1998-01-01

    A poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-like enzyme, detected in a crude homogenate from Sulfolobus solfataricus by means of activity and immunoblot analyses, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by a rapid procedure including two sequential affinity chromatographies, on NAD+-agarose and DNA-Sepharose. The latter column selected specifically the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ating enzyme with a 17% recovery of enzymic activity and a purification of more than 15000-fold. The molecular mass (54-55 kDa) assessed by SDS/PAGE and immunoblot was definitely lower than that determined for the corresponding eukaryotic protein. The enzyme was proved to be thermophilic, with a temperature optimum of approx. 80 degreesC, and thermostable, with a half-life of 204 min at 80 degreesC, in good agreement with the requirements of a thermozyme. It displayed a Km towards NAD+ of 154+/-50 microM; in the pH range 6.5-10.0 the activity values were similar, not showing a real optimum pH. The enzyme was able to bind homologous DNA, as evidenced by the ethidium bromide displacement assay. The product of the ADP-ribosylating reaction co-migrated with the short oligomers of ADP-ribose (less than 6 residues) from a eukaryotic source. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of the products, after digestion with phosphodiesterase I, gave an elution profile reproducing that obtained by the enzymic digestion of the rat testis poly(ADP-ribose). These results strongly suggest that the activities of the purified enzyme include the elongation step. PMID:9761745

  3. Properties of the manganese(II) binding site in ternary complexes of Mnter dot ADP and Mnter dot ATP with chloroplast coupling factor 1: Magnetic field dependence of solvent sup 1 H and sup 2 H NMR relaxation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Haddy, A.E.; Frasch, W.D.; Sharp, R.R. )

    1989-05-02

    The influence of the binding of ADP and ATP on the high-affinity Mn(II) binding site of chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF{sub 1}) was studied by analysis of field-dependent solvent proton and deuteron spin-lattice relaxation data. In order to characterize metal-nucleotide complexes of CF{sub 1} under conditions similar to those of the NMR experiments, the enzyme was analyzed for bound nucleotides and Mn(II) after incubation with AdN and MnCl{sub 2} and removal of labile ligands by extensive gel filtration chromatography. In the field-dependent NMR experiments, the Mn(II) binding site of CF{sub 1} was studied for three mole ratios of added Mn(II) to CF{sub 1}, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5, in the presence of an excess of either ADP or ATP. The results were extrapolated to zero Mn(II) concentration to characterize the environment of the first Mn(II) binding site of Cf{sub 1}. In the presence of both adenine nucleotides, pronounced changes in the Mn(II) environment relative to that in Mn(II)-CF{sub 1} were evident; the local relaxation rate maxima were more pronounced and shifted to higher field strengths, and the relaxation rate per bound Mn(II) increased at all field strengths. Analysis of the data revealed that the number of exchangeable water molecules liganded to bound Mn(II) increased from one in the binary Mn(II)-CF{sub 1} complex to three and two in the ternary Mn(II)-ADP-CF{sub 1} and Mn(II)-ATP-CF{sub 1} complexes, respectively; these results suggest that a water ligand to bound Mn(II) in the Mn(II)-ADP-CF{sub 1} complex is replaced by the {gamma}-phosphate of ATP in the Mn(II)-ATP-CF{sub 1} complex. A binding model is presented to account for these observations.

  4. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase regulates glycolytic activity in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hana; Yoon, Sang Pil

    2016-01-01

    After renal injury, selective damage occurs in the proximal tubules as a result of inhibition of glycolysis. The molecular mechanism of damage is not known. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation plays a critical role of proximal tubular cell death in several renal disorders. Here, we studied the role of PARP on glycolytic flux in pig kidney proximal tubule epithelial LLC-PK1 cells using XFp extracellular flux analysis. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP activation was increased approximately 2-fold by incubation of the cells in 10 mM glucose for 30 minutes, but treatment with the PARP inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) does-dependently prevented the glucose-induced PARP activation (approximately 14.4% decrease in 0.1 mM 3-AB–treated group and 36.7% decrease in 1 mM 3-AB–treated group). Treatment with 1 mM 3-AB significantly enhanced the glucose-mediated increase in the extracellular acidification rate (61.1±4.3 mpH/min vs. 126.8±6.2 mpH/min or approximately 2-fold) compared with treatment with vehicle, indicating that PARP inhibition increases only glycolytic activity during glycolytic flux including basal glycolysis, glycolytic activity, and glycolytic capacity in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells. Glucose increased the activities of glycolytic enzymes including hexokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase-1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, and pyruvate kinase in LLC-PK1 cells. Furthermore, PARP inhibition selectively augmented the activities of hexokinase (approximately 1.4-fold over vehicle group), phosphofructokinase-1 (approximately 1.6-fold over vehicle group), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (approximately 2.2-fold over vehicle group). In conclusion, these data suggest that PARP activation may regulate glycolytic activity via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells. PMID:27382509

  5. A Role for Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase in the Transcriptional Regulation of the Melanoma Growth Stimulatory Activity (CXCL1) Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Nirodi, Chaitanya; NagDas, Subir; Gygi, Steven P.; Olson, Gary; Aebersold, Ruedi; Richmond, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The melanoma growth stimulatory activity/growth-regulated protein, CXCL1, is constitutively expressed at high levels during inflammation and progression of melanocytes into malignant melanoma. It has been shown previously that CXCL1 overexpression in melanoma cells is due to increased transcription as well as stability of the CXCL1 message. The transcription of CXCL1 is regulated through several cis-acting elements including Sp1, NF-κB, HMGI(Y), and the immediate upstream region (IUR) element (nucleotides −94 to −78), which lies immediately upstream to the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) element. Previously, it has been shown that the IUR is necessary for basal and cytokine-induced transcription of the CXCL1 gene. UV cross-linking and Southwestern blot analyses indicate that the IUR oligonucleotide probe selectively binds a 115-kDa protein. In this study, the IUR element has been further characterized. We show here that proximity of the IUR element to the adjacent NF-κB element is critical to its function as a positive regulatory element. Using binding site oligonucleotide affinity chromatography, we have selectively purified the 115-kDa IUR-F. Mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight spectroscopy and amino acid analysis as well as microcapillary reverse phase chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry identified this protein as the 114-kDa poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP1). Furthermore, 3-aminobenzamide, an inhibitor of PARP-specific ADP-ribosylation, inhibits CXCL1 promoter activity and reduces levels of CXCL1 mRNA. The data point to the possibility that PARP may be a coactivator of CXCL1 transcription. PMID:11112786

  6. Poly(ADP-ribose) in the bone: from oxidative stress signal to structural element.

    PubMed

    Hegedűs, Csaba; Robaszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Lakatos, Petra; Szabó, Éva; Virág, László

    2015-05-01

    Contrary to common perception bone is a dynamic organ flexibly adapting to changes in mechanical loading by shifting the delicate balance between bone formation and bone resorption carried out by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. In the past decades numerous studies demonstrating production of reactive oxygen or nitrogen intermediates, effects of different antioxidants, and involvement of prototypical redox control mechanisms (Nrf2-Keap1, Steap4, FoxO, PAMM, caspase-2) have proven the central role of redox regulation in the bone. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a NAD-dependent protein modification carried out by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes recently emerged as a new regulatory mechanism fine-tuning osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. Interestingly PARylation does not simply serve as a signaling mechanism during osteoblast differentiation but also couples it to osteoblast death. Even more strikingly, the poly(ADP-ribose) polymer likely released from succumbed cells at the terminal stage of differentiation is incorporated into the bone matrix representing the first structural role of this versatile biopolymer. Moreover, this new paradigm explains why and how osteodifferentiation and death of cells entering this pathway are closely coupled to each other. Here we review the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates as well as PARylation in osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, function, and cell death. PMID:25660995

  7. cADP-ribose formation by blood platelets is not responsible for intracellular calcium mobilization.

    PubMed Central

    Ohlmann, P; Leray, C; Ravanat, C; Hallia, A; Cassel, D; Cazenave, J P; Gachet, C

    1998-01-01

    Human platelet CD38 is a multifunctional ectoenzyme catalysing the synthesis and hydrolysis of cADP-ribose (cADPR), a recently identified calcium-mobilizing agent that acts independently of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and is known to be expressed by human platelets. The present work shows that ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity is exclusively a membrane activity, of which the major part is located in plasma membranes and a small part in internal membranes. In broken cells, cyclase activity was insensitive to the presence of calcium and was not modulated by agonists such as thrombin or ADP, whereas in intact cells thrombin increased cADPR formation by 30%, an effect due to fusion of granules with the plasma membrane. In order to assess the role of cADPR as a calcium-mobilizing agent, vesicles were prepared from internal membranes and loaded with 45CaCl2. These vesicles were efficiently discharged by IP3 in a dose-dependent manner, but were not responsive to cADPR or ryanodine in the presence or absence of calmodulin. Thus cADPR is unlikely to play a role in intracellular calcium release in human blood platelets. PMID:9531481

  8. Deficiency in Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) Accelerates Aging and Spontaneous Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Piskunova, Tatiana S.; Yurova, Maria N.; Ovsyannikov, Anton I.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Popovich, Irina G.; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Anisimov, Vladimir N.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical studies have shown that PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation play an important role in DNA repair, genomic stability, cell death, inflammation, telomere maintenance, and suppressing tumorigenesis, suggesting that the homeostasis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and PARP-1 may also play an important role in aging. Here we show that PARP-1−/− mice exhibit a reduction of life span and a significant increase of population aging rate. Analysis of noninvasive parameters, including body weight gain, body temperature, estrous function, behavior, and a number of biochemical indices suggests the acceleration of biological aging in PARP-1−/− mice. The incidence of spontaneous tumors in both PARP-1−/− and PARP-1+/+ groups is similar; however, malignant tumors including uterine tumors, lung adenocarcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas, develop at a significantly higher frequency in PARP-1−/− mice than PARP-1+/+ mice (72% and 49%, resp.; P < .05). In addition, spontaneous tumors appear earlier in PARP-1−/− mice compared to the wild type group. Histopathological studies revealed a wide spectrum of tumors in uterus, ovaries, liver, lungs, mammary gland, soft tissues, and lymphoid organs in both groups of the mice. These results demonstrate that inactivation of DNA repair gene PARP-1 in mice leads to acceleration of aging, shortened life span, and increased spontaneous carcinogenesis. PMID:19415146

  9. Posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum strains overexpressing the regulatory enzymes dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase and dinitrogenase reductase activating glycohydrolase.

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, S K; Lies, D P; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1995-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum strains that overexpress the enzymes involved in posttranslational nitrogenase regulation, dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DRAT) and dinitrogenase reductase activating glycohydrolase (DRAG), were constructed, and the effect of this overexpression on in vivo DRAT and DRAG regulation was investigated. Broad-host-range plasmid constructs containing a fusion of the R. rubrum nifH promoter and translation initiation sequences to the second codon of draT, the first gene of the dra operon, were constructed. Overexpression plasmid constructs which overexpressed (i) only functional DRAT, (ii) only functional DRAG and presumably the putative downstream open reading frame (ORF)-encoded protein, or (iii) all three proteins were generated and introduced into wild-type R. rubrum. Overexpression of DRAT still allowed proper regulation of nitrogenase activity, with ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase by DRAT occurring only upon dark or ammonium stimuli, suggesting that DRAT is still regulated upon overexpression. However, overexpression of DRAG and the downstream ORF altered nitrogenase regulation such that dinitrogenase reductase did not accumulate in the ADP-ribosylated form under inactivation conditions, suggesting that DRAG was constitutively active and that therefore DRAG regulation is altered upon overexpression. Proper DRAG regulation was observed in a strain overexpressing DRAT, DRAG, and the downstream ORF, suggesting that a proper balance of DRAT and DRAG levels is required for proper DRAG regulation. PMID:7836296

  10. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... all ADP systems used by State and local governments to administer programs covered under 45 CFR part... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ADP reviews. 95.621 Section 95.621 Public Welfare....621 ADP reviews. The Department will conduct periodic onsite surveys and reviews of State and...

  11. Differential and Concordant Roles for Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 and Poly(ADP-Ribose) in Regulating WRN and RECQL5 Activities.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Prabhat; Hsu, Joseph K; Veith, Sebastian; Tadokoro, Takashi; Shamanna, Raghavendra A; Mangerich, Aswin; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2015-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase 1 (PARP1) catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) of proteins, a posttranslational modification which forms the nucleic acid-like polymer PAR. PARP1 and PAR are integral players in the early DNA damage response, since PARylation orchestrates the recruitment of repair proteins to sites of damage. Human RecQ helicases are DNA unwinding proteins that are critical responders to DNA damage, but how their recruitment and activities are regulated by PARPs and PAR is poorly understood. Here we report that all human RecQ helicases interact with PAR noncovalently. Furthermore, we define the effects that PARP1, PARylated PARP1, and PAR have on RECQL5 and WRN, using both in vitro and in vivo assays. We show that PARylation is involved in the recruitment of RECQL5 and WRN to laser-induced DNA damage and that RECQL5 and WRN have differential responses to PARylated PARP1 and PAR. Furthermore, we show that the loss of RECQL5 or WRN resulted in increased sensitivity to PARP inhibition. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PARP1 and PAR actively, and in some instances differentially, regulate the activities and cellular localization of RECQL5 and WRN, suggesting that PARylation acts as a fine-tuning mechanism to coordinate their functions in time and space during the genotoxic stress response. PMID:26391948

  12. Differential and Concordant Roles for Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 and Poly(ADP-Ribose) in Regulating WRN and RECQL5 Activities

    PubMed Central

    Khadka, Prabhat; Hsu, Joseph K.; Veith, Sebastian; Tadokoro, Takashi; Shamanna, Raghavendra A.; Mangerich, Aswin; Croteau, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase 1 (PARP1) catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) of proteins, a posttranslational modification which forms the nucleic acid-like polymer PAR. PARP1 and PAR are integral players in the early DNA damage response, since PARylation orchestrates the recruitment of repair proteins to sites of damage. Human RecQ helicases are DNA unwinding proteins that are critical responders to DNA damage, but how their recruitment and activities are regulated by PARPs and PAR is poorly understood. Here we report that all human RecQ helicases interact with PAR noncovalently. Furthermore, we define the effects that PARP1, PARylated PARP1, and PAR have on RECQL5 and WRN, using both in vitro and in vivo assays. We show that PARylation is involved in the recruitment of RECQL5 and WRN to laser-induced DNA damage and that RECQL5 and WRN have differential responses to PARylated PARP1 and PAR. Furthermore, we show that the loss of RECQL5 or WRN resulted in increased sensitivity to PARP inhibition. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PARP1 and PAR actively, and in some instances differentially, regulate the activities and cellular localization of RECQL5 and WRN, suggesting that PARylation acts as a fine-tuning mechanism to coordinate their functions in time and space during the genotoxic stress response. PMID:26391948

  13. Quantitative proteomics profiling of the poly(ADP-ribose)-related response to genotoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Pic, Émilie; Isabelle, Maxim; Krietsch, Jana; Éthier, Chantal; Paquet, Éric; Kelly, Isabelle; Boutin, Michel; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Foster, Leonard J.; Poirier, Guy G.

    2012-01-01

    Upon DNA damage induction, DNA-dependent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize an anionic poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) scaffold to which several proteins bind with the subsequent formation of pADPr-associated multiprotein complexes. We have used a combination of affinity-purification methods and proteomics approaches to isolate these complexes and assess protein dynamics with respect to pADPr metabolism. As a first approach, we developed a substrate trapping strategy by which we demonstrate that a catalytically inactive Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) mutant can act as a physiologically selective bait for the isolation of specific pADPr-binding proteins through its macrodomain-like domain. In addition to antibody-mediated affinity-purification methods, we used a pADPr macrodomain affinity resin to recover pADPr-binding proteins and their complexes. Second, we designed a time course experiment to explore the changes in the composition of pADPr-containing multiprotein complexes in response to alkylating DNA damage-mediated PARP activation. Spectral count clustering based on GeLC-MS/MS analysis was complemented with further analyses using high precision quantitative proteomics through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)- and Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics. Here, we present a valuable resource in the interpretation of systems biology of the DNA damage response network in the context of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and provide a basis for subsequent investigations of pADPr-binding protein candidates. PMID:22669911

  14. Quantitative proteomics profiling of the poly(ADP-ribose)-related response to genotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Pic, Emilie; Isabelle, Maxim; Krietsch, Jana; Ethier, Chantal; Paquet, Eric; Kelly, Isabelle; Boutin, Michel; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Foster, Leonard J; Poirier, Guy G

    2012-09-01

    Upon DNA damage induction, DNA-dependent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize an anionic poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) scaffold to which several proteins bind with the subsequent formation of pADPr-associated multiprotein complexes. We have used a combination of affinity-purification methods and proteomics approaches to isolate these complexes and assess protein dynamics with respect to pADPr metabolism. As a first approach, we developed a substrate trapping strategy by which we demonstrate that a catalytically inactive Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) mutant can act as a physiologically selective bait for the isolation of specific pADPr-binding proteins through its macrodomain-like domain. In addition to antibody-mediated affinity-purification methods, we used a pADPr macrodomain affinity resin to recover pADPr-binding proteins and their complexes. Second, we designed a time course experiment to explore the changes in the composition of pADPr-containing multiprotein complexes in response to alkylating DNA damage-mediated PARP activation. Spectral count clustering based on GeLC-MS/MS analysis was complemented with further analyses using high precision quantitative proteomics through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)- and Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics. Here, we present a valuable resource in the interpretation of systems biology of the DNA damage response network in the context of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and provide a basis for subsequent investigations of pADPr-binding protein candidates. PMID:22669911

  15. Cyclic ADP-ribose is a second messenger in the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bruzzone, Santina; De Flora, Antonio; Usai, Cesare; Graeff, Richard; Lee, Hon Cheung

    2003-01-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a universal calcium mobilizer from intracellular stores, was recently demonstrated to stimulate proliferation of various cell types. The role of cADPR in a specific process of monocyte- and plasma-mediated activation of T-lymphocytes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was addressed using human mononuclear cells from peripheral blood (PBMCs). Incubation of PBMCs with 0.1 microg/ml of LPS for 24 h provided a doubling in the intracellular levels of cADPR as compared with unstimulated PBMCs. The cADPR increase was abolished either by prior removal of monocytes or by pre-incubating a whole PBMC population with a monoclonal antibody against the monocyte marker CD14. The increased concentrations of intracellular cADPR elicited by LPS stimulation were paralleled by significant increases in NAD+ levels and in the activities of ectocellular and membrane-bound fractions of ADP-ribosyl cyclase/cADPR hydrolase activities. A cytosolic ADP-ribosyl cyclase was also detectable in PBMCs and its activity was comparably enhanced by LPS stimulation. This soluble cyclase is distinguished from the membrane-bound cyclase by both substrate and inhibitor sensitivities. LPS-stimulated PBMCs showed 2-3-fold increases of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), and these changes were prevented completely by the cADPR antagonist 8-Br-cADPR and by ryanodine. Both compounds, and the cyclase inhibitor nicotinamide, significantly inhibited the T-lymphocyte proliferation induced by LPS in PBMCs. These results demonstrate that cADPR plays a role of second messenger in the adaptive immune recognition process of LPS-stimulated proliferation of PBMCs. PMID:12852785

  16. Role of the Dinitrogenase Reductase Arginine 101 Residue in Dinitrogenase Reductase ADP-Ribosyltransferase Binding, NAD Binding, and Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Ludden, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Dinitrogenase reductase is posttranslationally regulated by dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DRAT) via ADP-ribosylation of the arginine 101 residue in some bacteria. Rhodospirillum rubrum strains in which the arginine 101 of dinitrogenase reductase was replaced by tyrosine, phenylalanine, or leucine were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis of the nifH gene. The strain containing the R101F form of dinitrogenase reductase retains 91%, the strain containing the R101Y form retains 72%, and the strain containing the R101L form retains only 28% of in vivo nitrogenase activity of the strain containing the dinitrogenase reductase with arginine at position 101. In vivo acetylene reduction assays, immunoblotting with anti-dinitrogenase reductase antibody, and [adenylate-32P]NAD labeling experiments showed that no switch-off of nitrogenase activity occurred in any of the three mutants and no ADP-ribosylation of altered dinitrogenase reductases occurred either in vivo or in vitro. Altered dinitrogenase reductases from strains UR629 (R101Y) and UR630 (R101F) were purified to homogeneity. The R101F and R101Y forms of dinitrogenase reductase were able to form a complex with DRAT that could be chemically cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide. The R101F form of dinitrogenase reductase and DRAT together were not able to cleave NAD. This suggests that arginine 101 is not critical for the binding of DRAT to dinitrogenase reductase but that the availability of arginine 101 is important for NAD cleavage. Both DRAT and dinitrogenase reductase can be labeled by [carbonyl-14C]NAD individually upon UV irradiation, but most 14C label is incorporated into DRAT when both proteins are present. The ability of R101F dinitrogenase reductase to be labeled by [carbonyl-14C]NAD suggested that Arg 101 is not absolutely required for NAD binding. PMID:11114923

  17. Txk, a member of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase of the Tec family, forms a complex with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 and elongation factor 1α and regulates interferon-γ gene transcription in Th1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, T; Nara, K; Yoshikawa, H; Suzuki, N

    2007-01-01

    We have found previously that Txk, a member of the Tec family tyrosine kinases, is involved importantly in T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine production. However, how Txk regulates interferon (IFN)-γ gene transcription in human T lymphocytes was not fully elucidated. In this study, we identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) as Txk-associated molecules that bound to the Txk responsive element of the IFN-γ gene promoter. Txk phosphorylated EF-1α and PARP1 formed a complex with them, and bound to the IFN-γ gene promoter in vitro. In particular, the N terminal region containing the DNA binding domain of PARP1 was important for the trimolecular complex formation involving Txk, EF-1α and PARP1. Several mutant Txk which lacked kinase activity were unable to form the trimolecular complex. A PARP1 inhibitor, PJ34, suppressed IFN-γ but not interleukin (IL)-4 production by normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Multi-colour confocal analysis revealed that Txk and EF-1α located in the cytoplasm in the resting condition. Upon activation, a complex involving Txk, EF-1α and PARP1 was formed and was located in the nucleus. Collectively, Txk in combination with EF-1α and PARP1 bound to the IFN-γ gene promoter, and exerted transcriptional activity on the IFN-γ gene. PMID:17177976

  18. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion differentially activate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and Bax to induce nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kay L H; Hsu, Chin; Chan, Julie Y H

    2009-07-01

    We reported previously that complete spinal cord transection (SCT) results in depression of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity that triggers apoptosis via sequential activations of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)- and caspase-dependent cascades in the injured spinal cord. This study tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O(2)(.-)) serve as the interposing signals between SCT and impaired mitochondrial respiratory functions. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats manifested a significant increase in NO or O(2)(.-) level in the injured spinal cord during the first 3 days after SCT. The augmented O(2)(.-) production, along with concomitant reduction in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity or ATP level, nuclear translocation of AIF, cytosolic release of cytochrome c, and DNA fragmentation were reversed by osmotic minipump infusion of a NO trapping agent, carboxy-PTIO, or a superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol, into the epicenter of the transected spinal cord. Intriguingly, carboxy-PTIO significantly suppressed upregulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the nucleus, attenuated nuclear translocation of AIF, inhibited mitochondrial translocation of Bax and antagonized mitochondrial release of cytochrome c; whereas tempol only inhibited the later two cellular events after SCT. We conclude that overproduction of NO and O(2)(.-) in the injured spinal cord promulgates mitochondrial dysfunction and triggers AIF- and caspase-dependent apoptotic signaling cascades via differential upregulation of nuclear PARP-1 and mitochondrial translocation of Bax. PMID:19473058

  19. Readers of poly(ADP-ribose): designed to be fit for purpose

    PubMed Central

    Teloni, Federico; Altmeyer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate many aspects of protein function and are indispensable for the spatio-temporal regulation of cellular processes. The proteome-wide identification of PTM targets has made significant progress in recent years, as has the characterization of their writers, readers, modifiers and erasers. One of the most elusive PTMs is poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a nucleic acid-like PTM involved in chromatin dynamics, genome stability maintenance, transcription, cell metabolism and development. In this article, we provide an overview on our current understanding of the writers of this modification and their targets, as well as the enzymes that degrade and thereby modify and erase poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Since many cellular functions of PARylation are exerted through dynamic interactions of PAR-binding proteins with PAR, we discuss the readers of this modification and provide a synthesis of recent findings, which suggest that multiple structurally highly diverse reader modules, ranging from completely folded PAR-binding domains to intrinsically disordered sequence stretches, evolved as PAR effectors to carry out specific cellular functions. PMID:26673700

  20. Silent information regulator 2 family of NAD- dependent histone/protein deacetylases generates a unique product, 1-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose.

    PubMed

    Tanner, K G; Landry, J; Sternglanz, R; Denu, J M

    2000-12-19

    Conflicting reports have suggested that the silent information regulator 2 (SIR2) protein family employs NAD(+) to ADP-ribosylate histones [Tanny, J. C., Dowd, G. J., Huang, J., Hilz, H. & Moazed, D. (1999) Cell 99, 735-745; Frye, R. A. (1999) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 260, 273-279], deacetylate histones [Landry, J., Sutton, A., Tafrov, S. T., Heller, R. C., Stebbins, J., Pillus, L. & Sternglanz, R. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 5807-5811; Smith, J. S., Brachmann, C. B., Celic, I., Kenna, M. A., Muhammad, S., Starai, V. J., Avalos, J. L., Escalante-Semerena, J. C., Grubmeyer, C., Wolberger, C. & Boeke, J. D. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 6658-6663], or both [Imai, S., Armstrong, C. M., Kaeberlein, M. & Guarente, L. (2000) Nature (London) 403, 795-800]. Uncovering the true enzymatic function of SIR2 is critical to the basic understanding of its cellular function. Therefore, we set out to authenticate the reaction products and to determine the intrinsic catalytic mechanism. We provide direct evidence that the efficient histone/protein deacetylase reaction is tightly coupled to the formation of a previously unidentified acetyl-ADP-ribose product (1-O-acetyl-ADP ribose). One molecule of NAD(+) and one molecule of acetyl-lysine are readily catalyzed to one molecule of deacetylated lysine, nicotinamide, and 1-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. A unique reaction mechanism involving the attack of enzyme-bound acetate or the direct attack of acetyl-lysine on an oxocarbenium ADP-ribose intermediate is proposed. We suggest that the reported histone/protein ADP-ribosyltransferase activity is a low-efficiency side reaction that can be explained through the partial uncoupling of the intrinsic deacetylation and acetate transfer to ADP-ribose. PMID:11106374

  1. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of NarE, an Iron-containing ADP-ribosyltransferase from Neisseria meningitidis*

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Christian; Carlier, Ludovic; Veggi, Daniele; Balducci, Enrico; Di Marcello, Federica; Ferrer-Navarro, Mario; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Daura, Xavier; Soriani, Marco; Boelens, Rolf; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.

    2011-01-01

    NarE is a 16 kDa protein identified from Neisseria meningitidis, one of the bacterial pathogens responsible for meningitis. NarE belongs to the family of ADP-ribosyltransferases (ADPRT) and catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose moieties to arginine residues in target protein acceptors. Many pathogenic bacteria utilize ADP-ribosylating toxins to modify and alter essential functions of eukaryotic cells. NarE is further the first ADPRT which could be shown to bind iron through a Fe-S center, which is crucial for the catalytic activity. Here we present the NMR solution structure of NarE, which shows structural homology to other ADPRTs. Using NMR titration experiments we could identify from Chemical Shift Perturbation data both the NAD binding site, which is in perfect agreement with a consensus sequence analysis between different ADPRTs, as well as the iron coordination site, which consists of 2 cysteines and 2 histidines. This atypical iron coordination is also capable to bind zinc. These results could be fortified by site-directed mutagenesis of the catalytic region, which identified two functionally crucial residues. We could further identify a main interaction region of NarE with antibodies using two complementary methods based on antibody immobilization, proteolytic digestion, and mass spectrometry. This study combines structural and functional features of NarE providing for the first time a characterization of an iron-dependent ADPRT. PMID:21367854

  2. Effect of inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase on the heat response of HeLa S3 cells.

    PubMed

    Burgman, P; Konings, A W

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible involvement of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in hyperthermic cell killing and hyperthermic DNA strand-break induction and repair in HeLa S3 cells. The inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and 4-aminobenzamide (4AB), were used as tools in this study. Both inhibitors could sensitize the cells for hyperthermic cell killing equally well, although 3AB is known to be a more effective enzyme inhibitor. The heat sensitization at the level of cell killing could be reversed when the compounds were still present during a 4-h postincubation at 37 degrees C. More heat-induced DNA strand breaks were formed in the presence of 3AB and 4AB. Repair of strand breaks was inhibited during the postincubation at 37 degrees C. Thus the effect of 3AB and 4AB on DNA strand-break repair was different from the cited effect on cell survival. It is concluded that the sensitizing effect of 3AB and 4AB on hyperthermic cell killing is not caused by inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and is also not related to repair of DNA strand breaks. PMID:3144718

  3. Poly(ADP-ribose) binding to Chk1 at stalled replication forks is required for S-phase checkpoint activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Wookee; Bruhn, Christopher; Grigaravicius, Paulius; Zhou, Zhong-Wei; Li, Fu; Krüger, Anja; Siddeek, Bénazir; Greulich, Karl-Otto; Popp, Oliver; Meisezahl, Chris; Calkhoven, Cornelis F.; Bürkle, Alexander; Xu, Xingzhi; Wang, Zhao-Qi

    2013-12-01

    Damaged replication forks activate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), which catalyses poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) formation; however, how PARP1 or poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is involved in the S-phase checkpoint is unknown. Here we show that PAR, supplied by PARP1, interacts with Chk1 via a novel PAR-binding regulatory (PbR) motif in Chk1, independent of ATR and its activity. iPOND studies reveal that Chk1 associates readily with the unperturbed replication fork and that PAR is required for efficient retention of Chk1 and phosphorylated Chk1 at the fork. A PbR mutation, which disrupts PAR binding, but not the interaction with its partners Claspin or BRCA1, impairs Chk1 and the S-phase checkpoint activation, and mirrors Chk1 knockdown-induced hypersensitivity to fork poisoning. We find that long chains, but not short chains, of PAR stimulate Chk1 kinase activity. Collectively, we disclose a previously unrecognized mechanism of the S-phase checkpoint by PAR metabolism that modulates Chk1 activity at the replication fork.

  4. Adiponectin Agonist ADP355 Attenuates CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Smith, Tekla; Rahman, Khalidur; Thorn, Natalie E.; Anania, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a growing global health problem characterized by excess deposition of fibrillar collagen, and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Adiponectin is known to possess anti-fibrotic properties; however a high physiological concentration and multiple forms circulating in blood prohibit clinical use. Recently, an adiponectin-like small synthetic peptide agonist (ADP355: H-DAsn-Ile-Pro-Nva-Leu-Tyr-DSer-Phe-Ala-DSer-NH2) was synthesized for the treatment of murine breast cancer. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ADP355 as an anti-fibrotic agent in the in vivo carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis model. Liver fibrosis was induced in eight-week old male C57BL/6J mice by CCl4-gavage every other day for four weeks before injection of a nanoparticle-conjugated with ADP355 (nano-ADP355). Control gold nanoparticles and nano-ADP355 were administered by intraperitoneal injection for two weeks along with CCl4-gavage. All mice were sacrificed after 6 weeks, and serum and liver tissue were collected for biochemical, histopathologic and molecular analyses. Biochemical studies suggested ADP355 treatment attenuates liver fibrosis, determined by reduction of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase ALT) and hydroxyproline. Histopathology revealed chronic CCl4-treatment results in significant fibrosis, while ADP355 treatment induced significantly reversed fibrosis. Key markers for fibrogenesis–α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase I (TIMP1) were also markedly attenuated. Conversely, liver lysates from ADP355 treated mice increased phosphorylation of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and AMPK while AKT phosphorylation was diminished. These findings suggest ADP355 is a potent anti-fibrotic agent that can be an effective intervention against liver fibrosis. PMID

  5. Mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin lacking ADP-ribosyltransferase activity act as nontoxic, mucosal adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Douce, G; Turcotte, C; Cropley, I; Roberts, M; Pizza, M; Domenghini, M; Rappuoli, R; Dougan, G

    1995-02-28

    A nontoxic mutant (LTK7) of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) lacking ADP-ribosylating activity but retaining holotoxin formation was constructed. By using site-directed mutagenesis, the arginine at position 7 of the A subunit was replaced with lysine. This molecule, which was nontoxic in several assays, was able to bind to eukaryotic cells and acted as a mucosal adjuvant for co-administered proteins; BALB/c mice immunized intranasally with LTK7 and ovalbumin developed high levels of serum and local antibodies to ovalbumin and toxin. In addition, mice immunized intranasally with fragment C of tetanus toxin and LTK7 were protected against lethal challenge with tetanus toxin. Thus nontoxic mutants of heat-labile toxin can act as effective intranasal mucosal adjuvants. PMID:7878032

  6. Pre-exposure to heat shock inhibits peroxynitrite-induced activation of poly(ADP) ribosyltransferase and protects against peroxynitrite cytotoxicity in J774 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Szabó, C; Wong, H R; Salzman, A L

    1996-11-14

    The reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with superoxide yields the cytotoxic oxidant peroxynitrite, produced during inflammation and shock. A novel pathway of peroxynitrite cytotoxicity involves activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP) ribosyltransferase, and concomitant ADP-ribosylation. NAD+ consumption and exhaustion of intracellular energy stores. In the present report we provide evidence that pre-exposure of J774 macrophages to heat shock reduces peroxynitrite-induced activation of poly(ADP) ribosyltransferase and protects against the peroxynitrite-induced suppression of mitochondrial respiration. The protection was significant at 8 h after heat shock, but was absent at 24 h after heat shock. Thus, the protection showed a temporal correlation with the expression of heat shock protein 70, the expression of which was maximal at 8 h. Exposure to heat shock did not alter the expression of poly(ADP) ribosyltransferase over 24 h. In summary, the heat shock phenotype or heat shock proteins may protect against peroxynitrite induced cytotoxicity. PMID:8960887

  7. Approach for determination of ATP:ADP molar ratio in mixed solution by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Yin, Hong Jun; Lv, Ming Yang; Xu, Hai Jun; Zhao, Yong Mei; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Luo; Tan, Tian Wei

    2015-07-15

    The ATP:ADP molar ratio is an important physiological factor. However, in previous literatures, ATP and ADP could not be distinguished by Raman spectroscopy due to the high similarity of molecular structure. To challenge this problem, also considering that the γ phosphate group may interact with adenine group and cause a different variation of the Raman spectrum than that of ADP, a highly sensitive, low-cost, environment protecting, flexible and super-hydrophobic Au nanoparticles/cicada wing (Au/CW) substrate with three-dimension structure was fabricated and employed as an active surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to detect the ATP:ADP molar ratios. The concentration as low as 10(-8)M for ATP and ADP was analyzed to determine the limit of detection. This SERS study on various ATP:ADP molar ratios demonstrates that ATP:ADP could be distinguished and the quantitative determination of ATP content was achieved. Moreover, a principle was speculated based on the molecular structures of ATP and ADP of the Raman peaks centered at ~685 and ~731cm(-1) to explain the linear relationship between the area ratio and the molar ratio. A new method has been developed for quantitative determination of ATP:ADP molar ratio based on Au/CW substrate by the SERS method. PMID:25703730

  8. Ultrastructural Localization of Endogenous Exchange Factor for ARF6 in Adrenocortical Cells In Situ of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chomphoo, Surang; Mothong, Wilaiwan; Sawatpanich, Tarinee; Kanla, Pipatphong; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisatake; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

    2016-01-01

    EFA6 (exchange factor for ARF6) activates Arf6 (ADP ribosylation factor 6) by exchanging ADP to ATP, and the resulting activated form of Arf6 is involved in the membrane dynamics and actin re-organization of cells. The present study was attempted to localize EFA6 type D (EFA6D) in mouse adrenocortical cells in situ whose steroid hormone secretion is generally considered not to depend on the vesicle-involved regulatory mechanism. In immunoblotting, an immunoreactive band with the same size as brain EFA6D was detected in homogenates of adrenal cortical tissues almost free of adrenal capsules and medulla. In immuno-light microscopy, EFA6D-immunoreactivity was positive in adrenocortical cells and it was often distinct along the plasmalemma, especially along portions of the cell columns facing the interstitium. In immuno-electron microscopy, the gold-labeling was more dense in the peripheral intracellular domains than the central domain of the immunopositive cells. The labeling was deposited on the plasma membranes in a discontinuous pattern and in cytoplasmic domains rich in filaments. It was also associated with some, but not all, of pleiomorphic vesicles and coated pits/vesicles. No labeling was seen in association with lipid droplets or smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The present finding is in support of the importance of EFA6D for activation of Arf6 in adrenocortical cells. PMID:27462133

  9. Ultrastructural Localization of Endogenous Exchange Factor for ARF6 in Adrenocortical Cells In Situ of Mice.

    PubMed

    Chomphoo, Surang; Mothong, Wilaiwan; Sawatpanich, Tarinee; Kanla, Pipatphong; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisatake; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

    2016-06-28

    EFA6 (exchange factor for ARF6) activates Arf6 (ADP ribosylation factor 6) by exchanging ADP to ATP, and the resulting activated form of Arf6 is involved in the membrane dynamics and actin re-organization of cells. The present study was attempted to localize EFA6 type D (EFA6D) in mouse adrenocortical cells in situ whose steroid hormone secretion is generally considered not to depend on the vesicle-involved regulatory mechanism. In immunoblotting, an immunoreactive band with the same size as brain EFA6D was detected in homogenates of adrenal cortical tissues almost free of adrenal capsules and medulla. In immuno-light microscopy, EFA6D-immunoreactivity was positive in adrenocortical cells and it was often distinct along the plasmalemma, especially along portions of the cell columns facing the interstitium. In immuno-electron microscopy, the gold-labeling was more dense in the peripheral intracellular domains than the central domain of the immunopositive cells. The labeling was deposited on the plasma membranes in a discontinuous pattern and in cytoplasmic domains rich in filaments. It was also associated with some, but not all, of pleiomorphic vesicles and coated pits/vesicles. No labeling was seen in association with lipid droplets or smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The present finding is in support of the importance of EFA6D for activation of Arf6 in adrenocortical cells. PMID:27462133

  10. Connexin-43 hemichannels mediate cyclic ADP-ribose generation and its Ca2+-mobilizing activity by NAD+/cyclic ADP-ribose transport.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun-Kyung; Rah, So-Young; Lee, Young-Rae; Yoo, Chae-Hwa; Kim, Yu-Ri; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Suk; Kim, Uh-Hyun; Han, Myung-Kwan

    2011-12-30

    The ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 whose catalytic domain resides in outside of the cell surface produces the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) from NAD(+). cADPR increases intracellular Ca(2+) through the intracellular ryanodine receptor/Ca(2+) release channel (RyR). It has been known that intracellular NAD(+) approaches ecto-CD38 via its export by connexin (Cx43) hemichannels, a component of gap junctions. However, it is unclear how cADPR extracellularly generated by ecto-CD38 approaches intracellular RyR although CD38 itself or nucleoside transporter has been proposed to import cADPR. Moreover, it has been unknown what physiological stimulation can trigger Cx43-mediated export of NAD(+). Here we demonstrate that Cx43 hemichannels, but not CD38, import cADPR to increase intracellular calcium through RyR. We also demonstrate that physiological stimulation such as Fcγ receptor (FcγR) ligation induces calcium mobilization through three sequential steps, Cx43-mediated NAD(+) export, CD38-mediated generation of cADPR and Cx43-mediated cADPR import in J774 cells. Protein kinase A (PKA) activation also induced calcium mobilization in the same way as FcγR stimulation. FcγR stimulation-induced calcium mobilization was blocked by PKA inhibition, indicating that PKA is a linker between FcγR stimulation and NAD(+)/cADPR transport. Cx43 knockdown blocked extracellular cADPR import and extracellular cADPR-induced calcium mobilization in J774 cells. Cx43 overexpression in Cx43-negative cells conferred extracellular cADPR-induced calcium mobilization by the mediation of cADPR import. Our data suggest that Cx43 has a dual function exporting NAD(+) and importing cADPR into the cell to activate intracellular calcium mobilization. PMID:22033928

  11. Molecular Dynamics Study of Hsp90 and ADP: Hydrogen Bond Analysis for ADP Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Kazutomo; Saito, Hiroaki; Nagao, Hidemi

    The contacts between the N-terminal domain of heat shock protein 90 (N-Hsp90) and ADP involve both direct and water-mediated hydrogen bonds in X-ray crystallographic structure. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of N-Hsp90 and ADP to investigate the changes of the hydrogen bond lengths during ADP dissociation. We show the difference between the hydrogen bonds in the crystal structure and MD simulations. Moreover, the N6 group of ADP does not contact with the Cγ group of Asp93, and the hydrogen bonds between Asn51 side chain and ADP are stable in the early step of ADP dissociation.

  12. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1–Sirtuin 1 Functional Interplay Regulates LPS-Mediated High Mobility Group Box 1 Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Walko, Thomas D; Di Caro, Valentina; Piganelli, Jon; Billiar, Timothy R; Clark, Robert SB; Aneja, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Pathophysiological conditions that lead to the release of the prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern molecule high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) also result in activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1; now known as ADP-ribosyl transferase 1 [ARTD1]). Persistent activation of PARP1 promotes energy failure and cell death. The role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HMGB1 release has been explored previously; however, PARP1 is a versatile enzyme and performs several other functions including cross-talk with another nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- (NAD+) dependent member of the Class III histone deacetylases (HDACs), sirtuin-1 (SIRT1). Previously, it has been shown that the hyperacetylation of HMGB1 is a seminal event prior to its secretion, a process that also is dependent on HDACs. Therefore, in this study, we seek to determine if PARP1 inhibition alters LPS-mediated HMGB1 hyperacetylation and subsequent secretion due to its effect on SIRT1. We demonstrate in an in vitro model that LPS treatment leads to hyperacetylated HMGB1 with concomitant reduction in nuclear HDAC activity. Treatment with PARP1 inhibitors mitigates the LPS-mediated reduction in nuclear HDAC activity and decreases HMGB1 acetylation. By utilizing an NAD+-based mechanism, PARP1 inhibition increases the activity of SIRT1. Consequently, there is an increased nuclear retention and decreased extracellular secretion of HMGB1. We also demonstrate that PARP1 physically interacts with SIRT1. Further confirmation of this data was obtained in a murine model of sepsis, that is, administration of PJ-34, a specific PARP1 inhibitor, led to decreased serum HMGB1 concentrations in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) as compared with untreated mice. In conclusion, our study provides new insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms of HMGB1 secretion in sepsis. PMID:25517228

  13. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-Limiting ADP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, David D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S. A. Kuznetsov and V. I. Gelfand [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8530-8534)] is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin (turnover rate per 120-kDa peptide increases from ≈ 0.009 sec-1 to 9 sec-1). The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that Pi release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (Ki < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by [14C]ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  14. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-limiting ADP release

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, D.D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S.A. Kuznetsov and V.I. Gelfand is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin. The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that P/sub i/ release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (K/sub i/ < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by (/sup 14/C)ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  15. Hydrogen bonding nature during ADP crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Congting; Xue, Dongfeng

    2014-02-01

    The hydrogen bonding nature during ADP crystallization is studied on the basis of anisotropic chemical bonding conditions in ADP crystal combined with in situ IR observation. The variations of hydrogen bonding nature of NH4+ and HPO4- groups dominate the transformation from the free hydrated ionic state to crystalline state during ADP crystallization. Anisotropic ADP crystal morphology depends on the anisotropic chemical bonding conditions along [1 0 0] and [1 0 1] directions. ADP crystal morphologies with different HPO4-n (n = 1-8) clusters can be calculated on the basis of hydrogen bonding conditions and HPO4-n cluster structures at the growth interface. Experimentally, in situ IR spectrum can record the breaking of P-O⋯H-O-H and H-N⋯H-O-H, and the formation of P-O⋯H-O-P and H-N⋯H-O-P hydrogen bonding during ADP crystallization. The present work provides a promising strategy to identify the chemical bonding nature during crystallization processes of molecular crystals from aqueous solution.

  16. Macromolecular association of ADP-ribosyltransferase and its correlation with enzymic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, P I; Buki, K G; Hakam, A; Kun, E

    1990-01-01

    The macromolecular self-association of ADP-ribosyltransferase protein in solution was studied by several experimental techniques: quantitative gel filtration, electrophoretic analyses in non-denaturing gels, and cross-linking the enzyme protein with glutaraldehyde, dimethyl pimelimidate, dimethyl suberimidate, dimethyl 3,3'-dithiobisproprionimidate and tetranitromethane. The self-association of the polypeptide components obtained by plasmin digestion was also determined by using the above cross-linking agents. Monomers and cross-linked dimers of the enzyme protein, possessing enzymic activity, were separated in non-denaturing gels by electrophoresis. The basic polypeptide fragments, exhibiting molecular masses of 29 kDa and 36 kDa, self-associated, whereas the polypeptides with molecular masses of 56 kDa and 42 kDa associated only to a negligible extent, indicating that the peptide regions that also bind DNA and histones are probable sites of self-association in the intact enzyme molecule. Macromolecular association of the enzyme was indicated by a protein-concentration-dependent red-shift in protein fluorescence. The specific enzymic activity of the isolated ADP-ribosyltransferase depended on the concentration of the enzyme protein, and at 2.00 microM concentration the enzyme was self-inhibitory. Dilution of the enzyme protein to 30-40 nM resulted in a large increase in its specific activity. Further dilution to 1-3 nM coincided with a marked decrease of specific activity. Direct enzymic assays of electrophoretically separated monomers and cross-linked dimers demonstrated that the dimer appears to be the active molecular species that catalyses poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis. The NAD+ glycohydrolase activity of the enzyme was also dependent on protein concentration and was highest at 1-3 nM enzyme concentration, when polymerase activity was minimal, indicating that the monomeric enzyme behaved as a glycohydrolase, whereas poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of enzyme molecules was

  17. The Ratio of ADP- to TRAP-Induced Platelet Aggregation Quantifies P2Y12-Dependent Platelet Inhibition Independently of the Platelet Count

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Christoph B.; Meyer, Melanie; Bauer, Hans; Schnabel, Katharina; Weik, Patrick; Zhou, Qian; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin; Diehl, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the association of clinical factors with P2Y12-dependent platelet inhibition as monitored by the ratio of ADP- to TRAP-induced platelet aggregation and conventional ADP-induced aggregation, respectively. Background Controversial findings to identify and overcome high platelet reactivity (HPR) after coronary stent-implantation and to improve clinical outcome by tailored anti-platelet therapy exist. Monitoring anti-platelet therapy ex vivo underlies several confounding parameters causing that ex vivo platelet aggregation might not reflect in vivo platelet inhibition. Methods In a single centre observational study, multiple electrode aggregometry was performed in whole blood of patients after recent coronary stent-implantation. Relative ADP-induced aggregation (r-ADP-agg) was defined as the ratio of ADP- to TRAP- induced aggregation reflecting the individual degree of P2Y12-mediated platelet reactivity. Results Platelet aggregation was assessed in 359 patients. Means (± SD) of TRAP-, ADP-induced aggregation and r-ADP-agg were 794 ± 239 AU*min, 297 ± 153 AU*min and 37 ± 14%, respectively. While ADP- and TRAP-induced platelet aggregation correlated significantly with platelet count (ADP: r = 0.302; p<0.001; TRAP: r = 0.509 p<0.001), r-ADP-agg values did not (r = -0.003; p = 0.960). These findings were unaltered in multivariate analyses adjusting for a range of factors potentially influencing platelet aggregation. The presence of an acute coronary syndrome and body weight were found to correlate with both ADP-induced platelet aggregation and r-ADP-agg. Conclusion The ratio of ADP- to TRAP-induced platelet aggregation quantifies P2Y12-dependent platelet inhibition independently of the platelet count in contrast to conventional ADP-induced aggregation. Furthermore, r-ADP-agg was associated with the presence of an acute coronary syndrome and body weight as well as ADP-induced aggregation. Thus, the r-ADP-agg is a more valid

  18. PIASy Mediates SUMO-2/3 Conjugation of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1) on Mitotic Chromosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyunju; Al-Ani, Gada; Deckert, Katelyn; Kirkpatrick, Donald; Gygi, Steven P.; Dasso, Mary; Azuma, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    PIASy is a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) ligase that modifies chromosomal proteins in mitotic Xenopus egg extracts and plays an essential role in mitotic chromosome segregation. We have isolated a novel SUMO-2/3-modified mitotic chromosomal protein and identified it as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). PARP1 was robustly conjugated to SUMO-2/3 on mitotic chromosomes but not on interphase chromatin. PIASy promotes SUMOylation of PARP1 both in egg extracts and in vitro reconstituted SUMOylation assays. Through tandem mass spectrometry analysis of mitotically SUMOylated PARP1, we identified a residue within the BRCA1 C-terminal domain of PARP1 (lysine 482) as its primary SUMOylation site. Mutation of this residue significantly reduced PARP1 SUMOylation in egg extracts and enhanced the accumulation of species derived from modification of secondary lysine residues in assays using purified components. SUMOylation of PARP1 did not alter in vitro PARP1 enzyme activity, poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation), nor did inhibition of SUMOylation of PARP1 alter the accumulation of PARP1 on mitotic chromosomes, suggesting that SUMOylation regulates neither the intrinsic activity of PARP1 nor its localization. However, loss of SUMOylation increased PARP1-dependent PARylation on isolated chromosomes, indicating SUMOylation controls the capacity of PARP1 to modify other chromatin-associated proteins. PMID:20228053

  19. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation induces high mobility group box 1 release from proximal tubular cells during cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, J

    2016-06-20

    Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs against cancer, but its major side effect such as nephrotoxicity limits its use. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protects against various renal diseases via gene transactivation and/or ADP-ribosylation. However, the role of PARP in necrotic cell death during cisplatin nephrotoxicity remains an open question. Here we demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of PARP by postconditioning dose-dependently prevented tubular injury and renal dysfunction following cisplatin administration in mice. PARP inhibition by postconditioning also attenuated ATP depletion during cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Systemic release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in plasma induced by cisplatin administration was significantly diminished by PARP inhibition by postconditioning. In in vitro kidney proximal tubular cell lines, PARP inhibition by postconditioning also diminished HMGB1 release from cells. These data demonstrate that cisplatin-induced PARP1 activation contributes to HMGB1 release from kidney proximal tubular cells, resulting in the promotion of inflammation during cisplatin nephrotoxicity. PMID:26447520

  20. Effect of site-directed mutagenic alterations on ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the A subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Lobet, Y; Cluff, C W; Cieplak, W

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin, an NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase, suggested that a small amino-terminal region of amino acid sequence similarity to the active fragments of both cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin represents a region containing critical active-site residues that might be involved in the binding of the substrate NAD+. Other studies of two other bacterial toxins possessing ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A, have revealed the presence of essential glutamic acid residues vicinal to the active site. To help determine the relevance of these observations to activities of the enterotoxins, the A-subunit gene of the E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin was subjected to site-specific mutagenesis in the region encoding the amino-terminal region of similarity to the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin delineated by residues 6 through 17 and at two glutamic acid residues, 110 and 112, that are conserved in the active domains of all of the heat-labile enterotoxin variants and in cholera toxin. Mutant proteins in which arginine 7 was either deleted or replaced with lysine exhibited undetectable levels of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. However, limited trypsinolysis of the arginine 7 mutants yielded fragmentation kinetics that were different from that yielded by the wild-type recombinant subunit or the authentic A subunit. In contrast, mutant proteins in which glutamic acid residues at either position 110 or 112 were replaced with aspartic acid responded like the wild-type subunit upon limited trypsinolysis, while exhibiting severely depressed, but detectable, ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The latter results may indicate that either glutamic acid 110 or glutamic acid 112 of the A subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin is analogous to those active-site glutamic acids identified in several other ADP-ribosylating toxins. Images PMID:1908825

  1. Raman gains of ADP and KDP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Wang, Bo; Xu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Li-Song; Liu, Bao-An; Chai, Xiang-Xu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the Raman gain coefficients of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are measured. By using a pump source of a 30-ps, 532-nm laser, the gain coefficients of ADP and KDP are 1.22 cm/GW, and 0.91 cm/GW, respectively. While for a 20-ps, 355-nm pump laser, the gain coefficients of these two crystals are similar, which are 1.95 cm/GW for ADP and 1.86 for KDP. The present results indicate that for ultra-violet frequency conversion, the problem of stimulated Raman scattering for ADP crystal will not be more serious than that for KDP crystal. Considering other advantages such the larger nonlinear optical coefficient, higher laser damage threshold, and lower noncritical phase-matching temperature, it can be anticipated that ADP will be a powerful competitor to KDP in large aperture, high energy third-harmonic generation or fourth-harmonic generation applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51323002 and 51402173), the Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University, China (Grant Nos. IIFSDU and 2012JC016), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-10-0552), the Fund from the Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2014BB07), and the Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholar of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. JQ201218).

  2. Transition-State Analysis of 2-O-Acetyl-ADP-Ribose Hydrolysis by Human Macrodomain 1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Macrodomains, including the human macrodomain 1 (MacroD1), are erasers of the post-translational modification of monoadenosinediphospho-ribosylation and hydrolytically deacetylate the sirtuin product O-acetyl-ADP-ribose (OAADPr). OAADPr has been reported to play a role in cell signaling based on oocyte microinjection studies, and macrodomains affect an array of cell processes including transcription and response to DNA damage. Here, we investigate human MacroD1 by transition-state (TS) analysis based on kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) from isotopically labeled OAADPr substrates. Competitive radiolabeled-isotope effects and mass spectrometry were used to obtain KIE data to yield intrinsic KIE values. Intrinsic KIEs were matched to a quantum chemical structure of the TS that includes the active site residues Asp184 and Asn174 and a structural water molecule. Transition-state analysis supports a concerted mechanism with an early TS involving simultaneous nucleophilic water attack and leaving group bond cleavage where the breaking C–O ester bond = 1.60 Å and the C–O bond to the attacking water nucleophile = 2.30 Å. The MacroD1 TS provides mechanistic understanding of the OAADPr esterase chemistry. PMID:25051211

  3. Chemical genetic discovery of PARP targets reveals a role for PARP-1 in transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bryan A; Zhang, Yajie; Jiang, Hong; Hussey, Kristine M; Shrimp, Jonathan H; Lin, Hening; Schwede, Frank; Yu, Yonghao; Kraus, W Lee

    2016-07-01

    Poly[adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerases (PARPs) are a family of enzymes that modulate diverse biological processes through covalent transfer of ADP-ribose from the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) onto substrate proteins. Here we report a robust NAD(+) analog-sensitive approach for PARPs, which allows PARP-specific ADP-ribosylation of substrates that is suitable for subsequent copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions. Using this approach, we mapped hundreds of sites of ADP-ribosylation for PARPs 1, 2, and 3 across the proteome, as well as thousands of PARP-1-mediated ADP-ribosylation sites across the genome. We found that PARP-1 ADP-ribosylates and inhibits negative elongation factor (NELF), a protein complex that regulates promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Depletion or inhibition of PARP-1 or mutation of the ADP-ribosylation sites on NELF-E promotes Pol II pausing, providing a clear functional link between PARP-1, ADP-ribosylation, and NELF. This analog-sensitive approach should be broadly applicable across the PARP family and has the potential to illuminate the ADP-ribosylated proteome and the molecular mechanisms used by individual PARPs to mediate their responses to cellular signals. PMID:27256882

  4. Activation of immobilized, biotinylated choleragen AI protein by a 19-kilodalton guanine nucleotide-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Bobak, D A; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1989-09-19

    Cholera toxin catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation that results in activation of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein of the adenylyl cyclase system, known as Gs. The toxin also ADP-ribosylates other proteins and simple guanidino compounds and auto-ADP-ribosylates its AI protein (CTA1). All of the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of CTAI are enhanced by 19-21-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins known as ADP-ribosylation factors, or ARFs. CTAI contains a single cysteine located near the carboxy terminus. CTAI was immobilized through this cysteine by reaction with iodoacetyl-N-biotinyl-hexylenediamine and binding of the resulting biotinylated protein to avidin-agarose. Immobilized CTAI catalyzed the ARF-stimulated ADP-ribosylation of agmatine. The reaction was enhanced by detergents and phospholipid, but the fold stimulation by purified sARF-II from bovine brain was considerably less than that observed with free CTA. ADP-ribosylation of Gsa by immobilized CTAI, which was somewhat enhanced by sARF-II, was much less than predicted on the basis of the NAD:agmatine ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Immobilized CTAI catalyzed its own auto-ADP-ribosylation as well as the ADP-ribosylation of the immobilized avidin and CTA2, with relatively little stimulation by sARF-II. ADP-ribosylation of CTA2 by free CTAI is minimal. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that the cysteine near the carboxy terminus of the toxin is not critical for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity or for its regulation by sARF-II. Biotinylation and immobilization of the toxin through this cysteine may, however, limit accessibility to Gsa or SARF-II, or perhaps otherwise reduce interaction with these proteins whether as substrates or activator. PMID:2514798

  5. Inhibiting poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase: a potential therapy against oligodendrocyte death

    PubMed Central

    Veto, Sara; Acs, Peter; Bauer, Jan; Lassmann, Hans; Berente, Zoltan; Setalo, Gyorgy; Borgulya, Gabor; Sumegi, Balazs; Komoly, Samuel; Gallyas, Ferenc; Illes, Zsolt

    2010-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination are major pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. In pattern III lesions, inflammation is minor in the early stages, and oligodendrocyte apoptosis prevails, which appears to be mediated at least in part through mitochondrial injury. Here, we demonstrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation and apoptosis inducing factor nuclear translocation within apoptotic oligodendrocytes in such multiple sclerosis lesions. The same morphological and molecular pathology was observed in an experimental model of primary demyelination, induced by the mitochondrial toxin cuprizone. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in this model attenuated oligodendrocyte depletion and decreased demyelination. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition suppressed c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, increased the activation of the cytoprotective phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-Akt pathway and prevented caspase-independent apoptosis inducing factor-mediated apoptosis. Our data indicate that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pattern III multiple sclerosis lesions. Since poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition was also effective in the inflammatory model of multiple sclerosis, it may target all subtypes of multiple sclerosis, either by preventing oligodendrocyte death or attenuating inflammation. PMID:20157013

  6. Differences in the transient kinetics of the binding of D-ADP and its mirror image L-ADP to human 3-phosphoglycerate kinase revealed by the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate.

    PubMed

    Gondeau, Claire; Chaloin, Laurent; Varga, Andrea; Roy, Béatrice; Lallemand, Perrine; Périgaud, Christian; Barman, Tom; Vas, Mária; Lionne, Corinne

    2008-03-18

    L-Nucleosides comprise a new class of antiviral and anticancer agents that are converted in vivo by a cascade of kinases to pharmacologically active nucleoside triphosphates. The last step of the cascade may be catalyzed by 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), an enzyme that has low specificity for nucleoside diphosphate (NDP): NDP + 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate <--> NTP + 3-phosphoglycerate. Here we compared the kinetics of the formation of the complexes of human PGK with d- and its mirror image l-ADP and the effect of 3-phosphoglycerate (PG) on these by exploiting the fluorescence signal of PGK that occurs upon its interaction with nucleotide substrate. Two types of experiment were carried out: equilibrium (estimation of dissociation constants) and stopped-flow (transient kinetics of the interactions). We show that under our experimental conditions (buffer containing 30% methanol, 4 degrees C) PGK binds d- and l-ADP with similar kinetics. However, whereas PG increased the dissociation rate constant for d-ADP by a factor of 8-which is a kinetic explanation for "substrate antagonism"-PG had little effect on this constant for l-ADP. We explain this difference by a molecular modeling study that showed that the beta-phosphates of d- and l-ADP have different orientations when bound to the active site of human PGK. The difference is unexpected because l-ADP is almost as catalytically competent as d-ADP [ Varga, A. et al. (2008) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 366, 994-1000]. PMID:18288812

  7. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 74 and the conditions of this subpart and to determine the efficiency, economy and... claim provisions of 45 CFR part 95, subpart A; and (iv) The service agreement was not previously... all ADP systems used by State and local governments to administer programs covered under 45 CFR...

  8. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... all ADP systems used by State and local governments to administer programs covered under 45 CFR part... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC... services, equipment or system when installed and operational. (b) Post-installation. A review...

  9. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... all ADP systems used by State and local governments to administer programs covered under 45 CFR part... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC... services, equipment or system when installed and operational. (b) Post-installation. A review...

  10. 45 CFR 95.621 - ADP reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... all ADP systems used by State and local governments to administer programs covered under 45 CFR part... Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC... services, equipment or system when installed and operational. (b) Post-installation. A review...

  11. 42 CFR 457.230 - FFP for State ADP expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures regarding the availability of FFP for ADP expenditures are in 45 CFR part 74, 45 CFR part 95... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP for State ADP expenditures. 457.230 Section 457...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.230 FFP for State ADP expenditures. FFP is available for...

  12. Identification of an Iron-Sulfur Cluster That Modulates the Enzymatic Activity in NarE, a Neisseria meningitidis ADP-ribosyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Mariangela; Pogni, Rebecca; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Nobbs, Angela; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Balducci, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    In prokaryotes, mono-ADP-ribose transfer enzymes represent a family of exotoxins that display activity in a variety of bacterial pathogens responsible for causing disease in plants and animals, including those affecting mankind, such as diphtheria, cholera, and whooping cough. We report here that NarE, a putative ADP-ribosylating toxin previously identified from Neisseria meningitidis, which shares structural homologies with Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin and toxin from Vibrio cholerae, possesses an iron-sulfur center. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli, and when purified at high concentration, NarE is a distinctive golden brown in color. Evidence from UV-visible spectrophotometry and EPR spectroscopy revealed characteristics consistent of an iron-binding protein. The presence of iron was determined by colorimetric method and by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. To identify the amino acids involved in binding iron, a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and UV-visible and enzymatic assays were performed. All four cysteine residues were individually replaced by serine. Substitution of Cys67 and Cys128 into serine caused a drastic reduction in the E420/E280 ratio, suggesting that these two residues are essential for the formation of a stable coordination. This modification led to a consistent loss in ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, while decrease in NAD-glycohydrolase activity was less dramatic in these mutants, indicating that the correct assembly of the iron-binding site is essential for transferase but not hydrolase activity. This is the first observation suggesting that a member of the ADP-ribosyltransferase family contains an Fe-S cluster implicated in catalysis. This observation may unravel novel functions exerted by this class of enzymes. PMID:19744927

  13. Identification of an iron-sulfur cluster that modulates the enzymatic activity in NarE, a Neisseria meningitidis ADP-ribosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Mariangela; Pogni, Rebecca; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Nobbs, Angela; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Balducci, Enrico

    2009-11-27

    In prokaryotes, mono-ADP-ribose transfer enzymes represent a family of exotoxins that display activity in a variety of bacterial pathogens responsible for causing disease in plants and animals, including those affecting mankind, such as diphtheria, cholera, and whooping cough. We report here that NarE, a putative ADP-ribosylating toxin previously identified from Neisseria meningitidis, which shares structural homologies with Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin and toxin from Vibrio cholerae, possesses an iron-sulfur center. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli, and when purified at high concentration, NarE is a distinctive golden brown in color. Evidence from UV-visible spectrophotometry and EPR spectroscopy revealed characteristics consistent of an iron-binding protein. The presence of iron was determined by colorimetric method and by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. To identify the amino acids involved in binding iron, a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and UV-visible and enzymatic assays were performed. All four cysteine residues were individually replaced by serine. Substitution of Cys(67) and Cys(128) into serine caused a drastic reduction in the E(420)/E(280) ratio, suggesting that these two residues are essential for the formation of a stable coordination. This modification led to a consistent loss in ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, while decrease in NAD-glycohydrolase activity was less dramatic in these mutants, indicating that the correct assembly of the iron-binding site is essential for transferase but not hydrolase activity. This is the first observation suggesting that a member of the ADP-ribosyltransferase family contains an Fe-S cluster implicated in catalysis. This observation may unravel novel functions exerted by this class of enzymes. PMID:19744927

  14. Demonstration of a transitory tight binding of ATP and of committed Pi and ADP during ATP synthesis by chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel J.; Boyer, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Rapid mixing, quenching, and filtration experiments with chloroplast thylakoid membranes, with energization by acid-base transition, demonstrate that an ATP tightly bound to the isolated membranes is a transient intermediate in the catalytic sequence for ATP synthesis. The experiments also show that most of the Pi and ADP bound at a catalytic site is committed to ATP formation without interchange with medium Pi or ADP. Other results give evidence that upon energization, the tightly bound ADP that is detectable in isolated thylakoid membranes or coupling factor ATPase is rapidly released to the medium from a catalytic site. These findings support an alternating site model in which an energy-requiring conformational transition loosens ATP binding at one site and simultaneously promotes Pi and ADP binding at the other site in a manner favoring ATP formation. PMID:16592374

  15. GDP-Mannose-4,6-Dehydratase Is a Cytosolic Partner of Tankyrase 1 That Inhibits Its Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Kamlesh K.; Dudognon, Charles; Chang, William G.; Sokol, Ethan S.; Ramirez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Tankyrase 1 is a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) that participates in a broad range of cellular activities due to interaction with multiple binding partners. Tankyrase 1 recognizes a linear six-amino-acid degenerate motif and, hence, has hundreds of potential target proteins. Binding of partner proteins to tankyrase 1 usually results in their poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARsylation) and can lead to ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. However, it is not known how tankyrase 1 PARP activity is regulated. Here we identify GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) as a binding partner of tankyrase 1. GMD is a cytosolic protein required for the first step of fucose synthesis. We show that GMD is complexed to tankyrase 1 in the cytosol throughout interphase, but its association with tankyrase 1 is reduced upon entry into mitosis, when tankyrase 1 binds to its other partners TRF1 (at telomeres) and NuMA (at spindle poles). In contrast to other binding partners, GMD is not PARsylated by tankyrase 1. Indeed, we show that GMD inhibits tankyrase 1 PARP activity in vitro, dependent on the GMD tankyrase 1 binding motif. In vivo, depletion of GMD led to degradation of tankyrase 1, dependent on the catalytic PARP activity of tankyrase 1. We speculate that association of tankyrase 1 with GMD in the cytosol sequesters tankyrase 1 in an inactive stable form that can be tapped by other target proteins as needed. PMID:22645305

  16. Pathophysiological role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation during acetaminophen-induced liver cell necrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Cover, Cathleen; Fickert, Peter; Knight, Tamara R; Fuchsbichler, Andrea; Farhood, Anwar; Trauner, Michael; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2005-03-01

    DNA fragmentation in hepatocytes occurs early after acetaminophen (AAP) overdose in mice. DNA strandbreaks can induce excessive activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), which may lead to oncotic necrosis. Based on controversial findings with chemical PARP inhibitors, the role of PARP-1 activation in AAP hepatotoxicity remains unclear. To investigate PARP-1 activation and evaluate a pathophysiological role of PARP-1, we used both PARP inhibitors (3-aminobenzamide; 5-aminoisoquinolinone) and PARP gene knockout mice (PARP-/-). Treatment of C3Heb/FeJ mice with 300 mg/kg AAP resulted in DNA fragmentation and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release as early as 3 h, with further increase of these parameters up to 12 h. Few nuclei of hepatocytes stained positive for poly-ADP-ribosylated nuclear proteins (PAR) as indicator for PARP-1 activation at 4.5 h. However, the number of PAR-positive cells and staining intensity increased substantially at 6 and 12 h. Pretreatment with 500 mg/kg 3-aminobenzamide before AAP attenuated hepatic glutathione depletion and completely eliminated DNA fragmentation and liver injury. Delayed treatment several hours after AAP was still partially protective. On the other hand, liver injury was not attenuated in PARP-/- mice compared to wild-type animals. Similarly, the specific PARP-1 inhibitor 5-aminoisoquinolinone (5 mg/kg) was not protective. However, 3-aminobenzamide attenuated liver injury in WT and PARP-/- mice. In summary, PARP-1 activation is a consequence of DNA fragmentation after AAP overdose. However, PARP-1 activation is not a relevant event for AAP-induced oncotic necrosis. The protection of 3-aminobenzamide against AAP-induced liver injury was due to reduced metabolic activation and potentially its antioxidant effect but independent of PARP-1 inhibition. PMID:15601672

  17. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 by arsenite interferes with repair of oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei; Liu, Wenlan; Cooper, Karen L; Qin, Xu-Jun; de Souza Bergo, Patrícia L; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2009-03-13

    Arsenic enhances skin tumor formation when combined with other carcinogens, including UV radiation (UVR). In this study we report that low micromolar concentrations of arsenite synergistically increases UVR-induced oxidative DNA damage in human keratinocytes as detected by 8-hydroxyl-2'-deoxyguanine (8-OHdG) formation. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is involved in base excision repair, a process that repairs 8-OHdG lesions. Arsenite suppresses UVR-induced PARP-1 activation in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of PARP-1 activity by 3-aminobenzamide or small interfering RNA silencing of PARP-1 expression significantly increases UVR-induced 8-OHdG formation, suggesting that inhibition of PARP-1 activity by arsenite contributes to oxidative DNA damage. PARP-1 is a zinc finger protein, and mass spectrometry analysis reveals that arsenite can occupy a synthetic apopeptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1 (PARPzf). When the PARPzf peptide is preincubated with Zn(II) followed by incubation with increasing concentrations of arsenite, the ZnPARPzf signal is decreased while the AsPARPzf signal intensity is increased as a function of arsenite dose, suggesting a competition between zinc and arsenite for the same binding site. Addition of Zn(II) abolished arsenite enhancement of UVR-stimulated 8-OHdG generation and restored PARP-1 activity. Our findings demonstrate that arsenite inhibits oxidative DNA damage repair and suggest that interaction of arsenite with the PARP-1 zinc finger domain contributes to the inhibition of PARP-1 activity by arsenite. Arsenite inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is one likely mechanism for the reported co-carcinogenic activities of arsenic in UVR-induced skin carcinogenesis. PMID:19056730

  18. Poly(ADP-ribose): An organizer of cellular architecture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Distinct properties of poly(ADP-ribose)—including its structural diversity, nucleation potential, and low complexity, polyvalent, highly charged nature—could contribute to organizing cellular architectures. Emergent data indicate that poly(ADP-ribose) aids in the formation of nonmembranous structures, such as DNA repair foci, spindle poles, and RNA granules. Informatics analyses reported here show that RNA granule proteins enriched for low complexity regions, which aid self-assembly, are preferentially modified by poly(ADP-ribose), indicating how poly(ADP-ribose) could direct cellular organization. PMID:24914234

  19. ADP Analysis project for the Human Resources Management Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tureman, Robert L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The ADP (Automated Data Processing) Analysis Project was conducted for the Human Resources Management Division (HRMD) of NASA's Langley Research Center. The three major areas of work in the project were computer support, automated inventory analysis, and an ADP study for the Division. The goal of the computer support work was to determine automation needs of Division personnel and help them solve computing problems. The goal of automated inventory analysis was to find a way to analyze installed software and usage on a Macintosh. Finally, the ADP functional systems study for the Division was designed to assess future HRMD needs concerning ADP organization and activities.

  20. LACIE ADP/PI joint case study: ADP analysis guidelines. [using ERTS 1 photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minter, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    The procedure is described which was used to train automatic data processing (ADP) analysts to process ERTS 1 imagery from a 5 nm by 6 nm area in Delisle, Canada, and to estimate wheat acreage using training fields provided by photointerpreters. The exercise also served to evaluate and test current large area crop inventory experiment (LACIE) procedures.

  1. Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine exchange factor 2 regulates filamin A phosphorylation and neuronal migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingping; Neal, Jason; Lian, Gewei; Shi, Bingxing; Ferland, Russell J; Sheen, Volney

    2012-09-01

    Periventricular heterotopia (PH) is a human malformation of cortical development associated with gene mutations in ADP-ribosylation factor guanine exchange factor 2 (ARFGEF2 encodes for Big2 protein) and Filamin A (FLNA). PH is thought to derive from neuroependymal disruption, but the extent to which neuronal migration contributes to this phenotype is unknown. Here, we show that Arfgef2 null mice develop PH and exhibit impaired neural migration with increased protein expression for both FlnA and phosphoFlnA at Ser2152. Big2 physically interacts with FlnA and overexpression of phosphomimetic Ser2512 FLNA impairs neuronal migration. FlnA phosphorylation directs FlnA localization toward the cell cytoplasm, diminishes its binding affinity to actin skeleton, and alters the number and size of paxillin focal adhesions. Collectively, our results demonstrate a molecular mechanism whereby Big2 inhibition promotes phosphoFlnA (Ser2152) expression, and increased phosphoFlnA impairs its actin binding affinity and the distribution of focal adhesions, thereby disrupting cell intrinsic neuronal migration. PMID:22956851

  2. Molecular Control of the Amount, Subcellular Location and Activity State of Translation Elongation Factor 2 (eEF-2) in Neurons Experiencing Stress

    PubMed Central

    Argüelles-Castilla, Sandro; Camandola, Simonetta; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Cutler, Roy G.; Ayala, Antonio; Mattson, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) is an important regulator of the protein translation machinery wherein it controls the movement of the ribosome along the mRNA. The activity of eEF-2 is regulated by changes in cellular energy status and nutrient availability, and posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation and mono-ADP-ribosylation. However, the mechanisms regulating protein translation under conditions of cellular stress in neurons are unknown. Here we show that when rat hippocampal neurons experience oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation induced by exposure to cumene hydroperoxide; CH), eEF-2 is hyperphosphorylated and ribosylated resulting in reduced translational activity. The degradation of eEF-2 requires calpain proteolytic activity and is accompanied by accumulation of eEF-2 in the nuclear compartment. The subcellular localization of both native and phosphorylated forms of eEF-2 is influenced by CRM1 and 14.3.3, respectively. In hippocampal neurons p53 interacts with non-phosphorylated (active) eEF-2, but not with its phosphorylated form. The p53 – eEF-2 complexes are present in cytoplasm and nucleus, and their abundance increases when neurons experience oxidative stress. The nuclear localization of active eEF-2 depends upon its interaction with p53, as cells lacking p53 contain less active eEF-2 in the nuclear compartment. Overexpression of eEF-2 in hippocampal neurons results in increased nuclear levels of eEF-2, and decreased cell death following exposure to CH. Our results reveal novel molecular mechanisms controlling the differential subcellular localization and activity state of eEF-2 that may influence the survival status of neurons during periods of elevated oxidative stress. PMID:23542375

  3. Effect of EDTA on the metastable zone width of ADP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, N. P.; Meera, K.; Srinivasan, K.; Santhana Raghavan, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2000-06-01

    Enhancement of the metastable zone width in ammonium dihydrogen ortho phosphate (ADP) was achieved by the addition of 1 mol% of the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) to ADP solution. The metastable zone width studies were conducted and the nucleation parameters were calculated from the measurements of the dependence of the metastable zone width on the cooling rate.

  4. ADP Protects Cardiac Mitochondria under Severe Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Niina; Pan, Shi; Provazza, Sarah; Beutner, Gisela; Vendelin, Marko; Birkedal, Rikke; Sheu, Shey-Shing

    2013-01-01

    ADP is not only a key substrate for ATP generation, but also a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). In this study, we assessed how oxidative stress affects the potency of ADP as an mPTP inhibitor and whether its reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production might be involved. We determined quantitatively the effects of ADP on mitochondrial Ca2+ retention capacity (CRC) until the induction of mPTP in normal and stressed isolated cardiac mitochondria. We used two models of chronic oxidative stress (old and diabetic mice) and two models of acute oxidative stress (ischemia reperfusion (IR) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH)). In control mitochondria, the CRC was 344 ± 32 nmol/mg protein. 500 μmol/L ADP increased CRC to 774 ± 65 nmol/mg protein. This effect of ADP seemed to relate to its concentration as 50 μmol/L had a significantly smaller effect. Also, oligomycin, which inhibits the conversion of ADP to ATP by F0F1ATPase, significantly increased the effect of 50 μmol/L ADP. Chronic oxidative stress did not affect CRC or the effect of 500 μmol/L ADP. After IR or t-BH exposure, CRC was drastically reduced to 1 ± 0.2 and 32 ± 4 nmol/mg protein, respectively. Surprisingly, ADP increased the CRC to 447 ± 105 and 514 ± 103 nmol/mg protein in IR and t-BH, respectively. Thus, it increased CRC by the same amount as in control. In control mitochondria, ADP decreased both substrate and Ca2+-induced increase of ROS. However, in t-BH mitochondria the effect of ADP on ROS was relatively small. We conclude that ADP potently restores CRC capacity in severely stressed mitochondria. This effect is most likely not related to a reduction in ROS production. As the effect of ADP relates to its concentration, increased ADP as occurs in the pathophysiological situation may protect mitochondrial integrity and function. PMID:24349464

  5. Expanding functions of GIT Arf GTPase-activating proteins, PIX Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GIT-PIX complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu; Li, Xiaobo; Premont, Richard T

    2016-05-15

    The GIT proteins, GIT1 and GIT2, are GTPase-activating proteins (inactivators) for the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) small GTP-binding proteins, and function to limit the activity of Arf proteins. The PIX proteins, α-PIX and β-PIX (also known as ARHGEF6 and ARHGEF7, respectively), are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (activators) for the Rho family small GTP-binding protein family members Rac1 and Cdc42. Through their multi-domain structures, GIT and PIX proteins can also function as signaling scaffolds by binding to numerous protein partners. Importantly, the constitutive association of GIT and PIX proteins into oligomeric GIT-PIX complexes allows these two proteins to function together as subunits of a larger structure that coordinates two distinct small GTP-binding protein pathways and serves as multivalent scaffold for the partners of both constituent subunits. Studies have revealed the involvement of GIT and PIX proteins, and of the GIT-PIX complex, in numerous fundamental cellular processes through a wide variety of mechanisms, pathways and signaling partners. In this Commentary, we discuss recent findings in key physiological systems that exemplify current understanding of the function of this important regulatory complex. Further, we draw attention to gaps in crucial information that remain to be filled to allow a better understanding of the many roles of the GIT-PIX complex in health and disease. PMID:27182061

  6. Genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals novel host factors required for Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin-mediated toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Virreira Winter, Sebastian; Zychlinsky, Arturo; Bardoel, Bart W.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide variety of infections and antibiotic resistant strains are a major problem in hospitals. One of the best studied virulence factors of S. aureus is the pore-forming toxin alpha hemolysin (αHL) whose mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We performed a genome-wide loss-of-function screen using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to identify host targets required for αHL susceptibility in human myeloid cells. We found gRNAs for ten genes enriched after intoxication with αHL and focused on the top five hits. Besides a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10), the host receptor for αHL, we identified three proteins, Sys1 golgi trafficking protein (SYS1), ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARFRP1), and tetraspanin-14 (TSPAN14) which regulate the presentation of ADAM10 on the plasma membrane post-translationally. Interestingly, we also showed that cells lacking sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SGMS1) resist αHL intoxication, but have only a slightly reduced ADAM10 surface expression. SGMS1 regulates lipid raft formation, suggesting that αHL requires these membrane microdomains for attachment and cytotoxicity. PMID:27066838

  7. Proteolytic elimination of N-myristoyl modifications by the Shigella virulence factor IpaJ

    PubMed Central

    Burnaevskiy, Nikolay; Fox, Thomas G.; Plymire, Daniel A.; Ertelt, James M.; Weigele, Bethany A.; Selyunin, Andrey S.; Way, Sing Sing; Patrie, Steven M.; Alto, Neal M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein N-myristoylation is a 14-carbon fatty-acid modification that is conserved across eukaryotic species and occurs on nearly 1% of the cellular proteome1,2. The ability of the myristoyl group to facilitate dynamic protein–protein and protein–membrane interactions (known as the myristoyl switch) makes it an essential feature of many signal transduction systems3. Thus pathogenic strategies that facilitate protein demyristoylation would markedly alter the signalling landscape of infected host cells. Here we describe an irreversible mechanism of protein demyristoylation catalysed by invasion plasmid antigen J (IpaJ), a previously uncharacterized Shigella flexneri type III effector protein with cysteine protease activity. A yeast genetic screen for IpaJ substrates identified ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)1p and ARF2p, small molecular mass GTPases that regulate cargo transport through the Golgi apparatus4. Mass spectrometry showed that IpaJ cleaved the peptide bond between N-myristoylated glycine-2 and asparagine-3 of human ARF1, thereby providing a new mechanism for host secretory inhibition by a bacterial pathogen5,6. We further demonstrate that IpaJ cleaves an array of N-myristoylated proteins involved in cellular growth, signal transduction, autophagasome maturation and organelle function. Taken together, these findings show a previously unrecognized pathogenic mechanism for the site-specific elimination of N-myristoyl protein modification. PMID:23535599

  8. Modulation of transmembrane signalling in HL-60 granulocytes by tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    McLeish, K R; Klein, J B; Schepers, T; Sonnenfeld, G

    1991-01-01

    Differentiated HL-60 granulocytes were used to study the mechanism by which tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) enhances responses to N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine (FMLP). Cultivation of differentiated HL-60 cells with 100 units of TNF/ml for 24 h resulted in a 3-fold increase in superoxide release and 4-fold increase in prostaglandin E2 production on stimulation with 1 microM-FMLP. On the other hand, cultivation with TNF failed to increase phorbol diester stimulation of superoxide release. Formyl-peptide-receptor expression determined on isolated membranes from cells cultivated with TNF (TNF-M) was increased by 50% compared with membranes from control cells (NM). Similarly, FMLP binding to intact HL-60 cells was increased by cultivation with TNF. Guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G-protein) levels were not different between TNF-M and NM, as determined by pertussis-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation and by immunoblotting with antisera recognizing alpha i2 subunit. Binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and GTP hydrolysis stimulated by FMLP were enhanced by about 50% in TNF-M. The efficiency of G-protein activation by formyl-peptide receptors did not differ between TNF-M and NM. TNF regulates expression of formyl-peptide receptors independently of G-protein levels. The regulation of receptor expression is one mechanism by which TNF enhances cell responses to formylated peptides. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1659380

  9. Arf guanine nucleotide-exchange factors BIG1 and BIG2 regulate nonmuscle myosin IIA activity by anchoring myosin phosphatase complex

    PubMed Central

    Le, Kang; Li, Chun-Chun; Ye, Guan; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors BIG1 and BIG2 activate, through their Sec7 domains, ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs) by accelerating the replacement of Arf-bound GDP with GTP for initiation of vesicular transport or activation of specific enzymes that modify important phospholipids. They are also implicated in regulation of cell polarization and actin dynamics for directed migration. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous HeLa cell BIG1 and BIG2 with myosin IIA was demonstrably independent of Arf guanine nucleotide-exchange factor activity, because effects of BIG1 and BIG2 depletion were reversed by overexpression of the cognate BIG molecule C-terminal sequence that follows the Arf activation site. Selective depletion of BIG1 or BIG2 enhanced specific phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (T18/S19) and F-actin content, which impaired cell migration in Transwell assays. Our data are clear evidence of these newly recognized functions for BIG1 and BIG2 in transduction or integration of mechanical signals from integrin adhesions and myosin IIA-dependent actin dynamics. Thus, by anchoring or scaffolding the assembly, organization, and efficient operation of multimolecular myosin phosphatase complexes that include myosin IIA, protein phosphatase 1δ, and myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1, BIG1 and BIG2 serve to integrate diverse biophysical and biochemical events in cells. PMID:23918382

  10. Type 2 Diabetes and ADP Receptor Blocker Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Samoš, Matej; Fedor, Marián; Kovář, František; Mokáň, Michal; Bolek, Tomáš; Galajda, Peter; Kubisz, Peter; Mokáň, Marián

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with several abnormalities in haemostasis predisposing to thrombosis. Moreover, T2D was recently connected with a failure in antiplatelet response to clopidogrel, the most commonly used ADP receptor blocker in clinical practice. Clopidogrel high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) was repeatedly associated with the risk of ischemic adverse events. Patients with T2D show significantly higher residual platelet reactivity on ADP receptor blocker therapy and are more frequently represented in the group of patients with HTPR. This paper reviews the current knowledge about possible interactions between T2D and ADP receptor blocker therapy. PMID:26824047

  11. Poly(ADP-ribose) Signals to Mitochondrial AIF: A Key Event in Parthanatos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingfei; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays a pivotal role in multiple neurologic diseases by mediating caspase-independent cell death, which has recently been designated parthanatos to distinguish it from other forms of cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release and translocation to the nucleus is the commitment point for parthanatos. This process involves a pathogenic role of poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer. It generates in the nucleus and translocates to the mitochondria to mediate AIF release following lethal PARP-1 activation. PAR polymer itself is toxic to cells. Thus, PAR polymer signaling to mitochondrial AIF is the key event initiating the deadly crosstalk between the nucleus and the mitochondria in parthanatos. Targeting PAR-mediated AIF release could be a potential approach for the therapy of neurologic disorders. PMID:19332058

  12. Biology of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerases: The Factotums of Cell Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bai, Peter

    2015-06-18

    The protein family of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) or diphtheria toxin-type ADP-ribose transferases (ARTDs) are multidomain proteins originally identified as DNA repair factors. There are 17 PARP enzymes in humans, and it is now evident that PARPs undertake more tasks than DNA repair. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive view of the biological roles of the PARP family starting from the simplest biochemical reactions to complex regulatory circuits. Special attention will be laid on discussing linkage of PARP enzymes with tumor biology, oxidative stress, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. A better understanding of PARP-mediated processes and pathologies may help in identifying new pathways and, by these, new targets to combat diseases that affect large populations and seriously shorten life expectancy and the quality of life, such as cancer, metabolic, or inflammatory diseases. PMID:26091343

  13. Issues on stability of ADP feedback controllers for dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, S N; Ding, Jie; Lewis, Frank L

    2008-08-01

    This paper traces the development of neural-network (NN)-based feedback controllers that are derived from the principle of adaptive/approximate dynamic programming (ADP) and discusses their closed-loop stability. Different versions of NN structures in the literature, which embed mathematical mappings related to solutions of the ADP-formulated problems called "adaptive critics" or "action-critic" networks, are discussed. Distinction between the two classes of ADP applications is pointed out. Furthermore, papers in "model-free" development and model-based neurocontrollers are reviewed in terms of their contributions to stability issues. Recent literature suggests that work in ADP-based feedback controllers with assured stability is growing in diverse forms. PMID:18632377

  14. 42 CFR 457.230 - FFP for State ADP expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information retrieval systems and for the operation of certain systems. Additional HHS regulations and CMS procedures regarding the availability of FFP for ADP expenditures are in 45 CFR part 74, 45 CFR part...

  15. 42 CFR 457.230 - FFP for State ADP expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information retrieval systems and for the operation of certain systems. Additional HHS regulations and CMS procedures regarding the availability of FFP for ADP expenditures are in 45 CFR part 74, 45 CFR part...

  16. 42 CFR 457.230 - FFP for State ADP expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information retrieval systems and for the operation of certain systems. Additional HHS regulations and CMS procedures regarding the availability of FFP for ADP expenditures are in 45 CFR part 74, 45 CFR part...

  17. ADP study of the structure of the IUE halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck

    1992-01-01

    Results of a two year ADP study of gas in the Galactic halo are presented. This is partly a summary of 2 papers which were published in referred journals and partly a discussion of work currently underway.

  18. Trapping Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuqiao; Aoyagi-Scharber, Mika; Wang, Bing

    2015-06-01

    Recent findings indicate that a major mechanism by which poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors kill cancer cells is by trapping PARP1 and PARP2 to the sites of DNA damage. The PARP enzyme-inhibitor complex "locks" onto damaged DNA and prevents DNA repair, replication, and transcription, leading to cell death. Several clinical-stage PARP inhibitors, including veliparib, rucaparib, olaparib, niraparib, and talazoparib, have been evaluated for their PARP-trapping activity. Although they display similar capacity to inhibit PARP catalytic activity, their relative abilities to trap PARP differ by several orders of magnitude, with the ability to trap PARP closely correlating with each drug's ability to kill cancer cells. In this article, we review the available data on molecular interactions between these clinical-stage PARP inhibitors and PARP proteins, and discuss how their biologic differences might be explained by the trapping mechanism. We also discuss how to use the PARP-trapping mechanism to guide the development of PARP inhibitors as a new class of cancer therapy, both for single-agent and combination treatments. PMID:25758918

  19. Hydrogen sulfide is a novel potential virulence factor of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: characterization of the unusual cysteine desulfurase/desulfhydrase HapE.

    PubMed

    Großhennig, Stephanie; Ischebeck, Till; Gibhardt, Johannes; Busse, Julia; Feussner, Ivo; Stülke, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human pathogen causing atypical pneumonia with a minimalized and highly streamlined genome. So far, hydrogen peroxide production, cytadherence, and the ADP-ribosylating CARDS toxin have been identified as pathogenicity determinants. We have studied haemolysis caused by M. pneumoniae, and discovered that hydrogen peroxide is responsible for the oxidation of heme, but not for lysis of erythrocytes. This feature could be attributed to hydrogen sulfide, a compound that has previously not been identified as virulence factor in lung pathogens. Indeed, we observed hydrogen sulfide production by M. pneumoniae. The search for a hydrogen sulfide-producing enzyme identified HapE, a protein with similarity to cysteine desulfurases. In contrast to typical cysteine desulfurases, HapE is a bifunctional enzyme: it has both the cysteine desulfurase activity to produce alanine and the cysteine desulfhydrase activity to produce pyruvate and hydrogen sulfide. Experiments with purified HapE showed that the enzymatic activity of the protein is responsible for haemolysis, demonstrating that HapE is a novel potential virulence factor of M. pneumoniae. PMID:26711628

  20. Pertussis toxin treatment does not block inhibition by atrial natriuretic factor of aldosterone secretion in cultured bovine zona glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    De Lean, A.; Cantin, M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) potently inhibits PGE or forskolin-stimulation aldosterone secretion in bovine zona glomerulosa (ZG) by acting through specific high affinity receptors. In order to evaluate the functional role of the regulatory protein N/sub i/ and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in ZG, the authors have studied the effect of treatment with PT on inhibition by ANF of aldosterone production. Primary cultures of ZG were treated for 18 hours in serum-free F12 medium with (0-100 ng/ml PT). No effect of PT pretreatment was observed either on basal, PGE-stimulated or ANF-inhibited levels of steroidogenesis. When membranes prepared from control ZG were ADP-ribosylated with (/sup 32/P) NAD in the presence of PT, two toxin-specific bands with 39 Kd and 41 Kd were documented on SDS gel. Cell pretreatment with as low as 1 ng/ml drastically reduced further labelling of these two bands while higher doses completely abolished them. Since PT treatment covalently modifies completely the toxin substrate without altering ANF inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis, the authors conclude that N/sub i/ is not involved in the mode of action of ANF on aldosterone production.

  1. Structural basis for lack of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13/zinc finger antiviral protein.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Tobias; Klepsch, Mirjam; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Andersson, C David; Linusson, Anna; Schüler, Herwig

    2015-03-20

    The mammalian poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family includes ADP-ribosyltransferases with diphtheria toxin homology (ARTD). Most members have mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PARP13/ARTD13, also called zinc finger antiviral protein, has roles in viral immunity and microRNA-mediated stress responses. PARP13 features a divergent PARP homology domain missing a PARP consensus sequence motif; the domain has enigmatic functions and apparently lacks catalytic activity. We used x-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical analyses to investigate the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in human PARP13 and two of its functional partners in stress granules: PARP12/ARTD12, and PARP15/BAL3/ARTD7. The crystal structure of the PARP homology domain of PARP13 shows obstruction of the canonical active site, precluding NAD(+) binding. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this closed cleft conformation is maintained in solution. Introducing consensus side chains in PARP13 did not result in 3-aminobenzamide binding, but in further closure of the site. Three-dimensional alignment of the PARP homology domains of PARP13, PARP12, and PARP15 illustrates placement of PARP13 residues that deviate from the PARP family consensus. Introducing either one of two of these side chains into the corresponding positions in PARP15 abolished PARP15 ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Taken together, our results show that PARP13 lacks the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PMID:25635049

  2. Poly (ADP-ribose) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunjong; Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Yun-Il; Kim, Young Pil; Shin, Joo-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The defining feature of Parkinson’s disease is a progressive and selective demise of dopaminergic neurons. A recent report on Parkinson’s disease animal model demonstrates that poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) dependent cell death, also named parthanatos, is accountable for selective dopaminergic neuronal loss. Parthanatos is a programmed necrotic cell death, characterized by PARP1 activation, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation, and large scale DNA fragmentation. Besides cell death regulation via interaction with AIF, PAR molecule mediates diverse cellular processes including genomic stability, cell division, transcription, epigenetic regulation, and stress granule formation. In this review, we will discuss the roles of PARP1 activation and PAR molecules in the pathological processes of Parkinson’s disease. Potential interaction between PAR molecule and Parkinson’s disease protein interactome are briefly introduced. Finally, we suggest promising points of therapeutic intervention in the pathological PAR signaling cascade to halt progression in Parkinson’s disease. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(8): 424-432] PMID:24874851

  3. Latonduine Analogs Restore F508del-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Trafficking through the Modulation of Poly-ADP Ribose Polymerase 3 and Poly-ADP Ribose Polymerase 16 Activity.

    PubMed

    Carlile, Graeme W; Robert, Renaud; Matthes, Elizabeth; Yang, Qi; Solari, Roberto; Hatley, Richard; Edge, Colin M; Hanrahan, John W; Andersen, Raymond; Thomas, David Y; Birault, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a major lethal genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). This encodes a chloride ion channel on the apical surface of epithelial cells. The most common mutation in CFTR (F508del-CFTR) generates a protein that is misfolded and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. Identifying small molecules that correct this CFTR trafficking defect is a promising approach in CF therapy. However, to date only modest efficacy has been reported for correctors in clinical trials. We identified the marine sponge metabolite latonduine as a corrector. We have now developed a series of latonduine derivatives that are more potent F508del-CFTR correctors with one (MCG315 [2,3-dihydro-1H-2-benzazepin-1-one]) having 10-fold increased corrector activity and an EC50 of 72.25 nM. We show that the latonduine analogs inhibit poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) isozymes 1, 3, and 16. Further our molecular modeling studies point to the latonduine analogs binding to the PARP nicotinamide-binding domain. We established the relationship between the ability of the latonduine analogs to inhibit PARP-16 and their ability to correct F508del-CFTR trafficking. We show that latonduine can inhibit both PARP-3 and -16 and that this is necessary for CFTR correction. We demonstrate that latonduine triggers correction by regulating the activity of the unfolded protein response activator inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE-1) via modulation of the level of its ribosylation by PARP-16. These results establish latonduines novel site of action as well as its proteostatic mechanism of action. PMID:27193581

  4. Cluster of Differentiation 38 (CD38) Mediates Bile Acid-induced Acinar Cell Injury and Pancreatitis through Cyclic ADP-ribose and Intracellular Calcium Release*

    PubMed Central

    Orabi, Abrahim I.; Muili, Kamaldeen A.; Javed, Tanveer A.; Jin, Shunqian; Jayaraman, Thottala; Lund, Frances E.; Husain, Sohail Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant Ca2+ signals within pancreatic acinar cells are an early and critical feature in acute pancreatitis, yet it is unclear how these signals are generated. An important mediator of the aberrant Ca2+ signals due to bile acid exposure is the intracellular Ca2+ channel ryanodine receptor. One putative activator of the ryanodine receptor is the nucleotide second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), which is generated by an ectoenzyme ADP-ribosyl cyclase, CD38. In this study, we examined the role of CD38 and cADPR in acinar cell Ca2+ signals and acinar injury due to bile acids using pharmacologic inhibitors of CD38 and cADPR as well as mice deficient in Cd38 (Cd38−/−). Cytosolic Ca2+ signals were imaged using live time-lapse confocal microscopy in freshly isolated mouse acinar cells during perifusion with the bile acid taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLCS; 500 μm). To focus on intracellular Ca2+ release and to specifically exclude Ca2+ influx, cells were perifused in Ca2+-free medium. Cell injury was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase leakage and propidium iodide uptake. Pretreatment with either nicotinamide (20 mm) or the cADPR antagonist 8-Br-cADPR (30 μm) abrogated TLCS-induced Ca2+ signals and cell injury. TLCS-induced Ca2+ release and cell injury were reduced by 30 and 95%, respectively, in Cd38-deficient acinar cells compared with wild-type cells (p < 0.05). Cd38-deficient mice were protected against a model of bile acid infusion pancreatitis. In summary, these data indicate that CD38-cADPR mediates bile acid-induced pancreatitis and acinar cell injury through aberrant intracellular Ca2+ signaling. PMID:23940051

  5. Resolvin E1 Regulates ADP Activation of Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Fredman, Gabrielle; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived specialized pro-resolving mediator generated during resolution of acute inflammation. RvE1 exhibits potent organ-protective actions in vivo and acts on specific cell types including platelets. Here, we investigated the ability of RvE1 to regulate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) activation of platelets via specific receptors because RvE1 reduces platelet aggregation with certain agonists including ADP. Methods and Results RvE1 (0.1nM–100nM) incubated with platelets gave reduced ADP-stimulated P-selectin mobilization (IC50 ~1.6×10−12 M) and polymerized actin content compared to control platelets. RvE1 (1–100nM) did not stimulate or block intracellular calcium mobilization. Using a new P2Y12-β-arrestin-coupled cell system, ADP-activated P2Y12 with an EC50 of 5×10−6 M and RvE1 did not directly stimulate P2Y12 or block ADP-P2Y12 signals. In this system, another eicosanoid LTE4 (EC50 1.3×10−11 M) dose dependently activated P2Y12. When recombinant P2Y12-expressing cells were transiently transfected with an RvE1 receptor, human ChemR23 (present on human platelets), addition of RvE1 (0.1nM-10.0nM) blocked ADP signals (IC50 ~1.6×10−11 M) in P2Y12-ChemR23-expressing cells compared to mock transfections. Conclusions These results demonstrate that RvE1’s regulatory actions (i.e reducing ADP-stimulated P-selectin mobilization and actin polymerization) are hChemR23-dependent. Moreover, they document specific platelet actions of RvE1 selectively engaged with ADP-activated platelets that illuminate a new cellular mechanism and impact of omega-3 EPA that may contribute to both resolution of vascular inflammation and ADP-dependent platelet activation relevant in pathologic cardiovascular events. PMID:20702811

  6. Force-producing ADP state of myosin bound to actin

    PubMed Central

    Wulf, Sarah F.; Ropars, Virginie; Fujita-Becker, Setsuko; Oster, Marco; Hofhaus, Goetz; Trabuco, Leonardo G.; Pylypenko, Olena; Sweeney, H. Lee; Houdusse, Anne M.; Schröder, Rasmus R.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motors produce force when they interact with their cellular tracks. For myosin motors, the primary force-generating state has MgADP tightly bound, whereas myosin is strongly bound to actin. We have generated an 8-Å cryoEM reconstruction of this state for myosin V and used molecular dynamics flexed fitting for model building. We compare this state to the subsequent state on actin (Rigor). The ADP-bound structure reveals that the actin-binding cleft is closed, even though MgADP is tightly bound. This state is accomplished by a previously unseen conformation of the β-sheet underlying the nucleotide pocket. The transition from the force-generating ADP state to Rigor requires a 9.5° rotation of the myosin lever arm, coupled to a β-sheet rearrangement. Thus, the structure reveals the detailed rearrangements underlying myosin force generation as well as the basis of strain-dependent ADP release that is essential for processive myosins, such as myosin V. PMID:26976594

  7. Force-producing ADP state of myosin bound to actin.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Sarah F; Ropars, Virginie; Fujita-Becker, Setsuko; Oster, Marco; Hofhaus, Goetz; Trabuco, Leonardo G; Pylypenko, Olena; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne M; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2016-03-29

    Molecular motors produce force when they interact with their cellular tracks. For myosin motors, the primary force-generating state has MgADP tightly bound, whereas myosin is strongly bound to actin. We have generated an 8-Å cryoEM reconstruction of this state for myosin V and used molecular dynamics flexed fitting for model building. We compare this state to the subsequent state on actin (Rigor). The ADP-bound structure reveals that the actin-binding cleft is closed, even though MgADP is tightly bound. This state is accomplished by a previously unseen conformation of the β-sheet underlying the nucleotide pocket. The transition from the force-generating ADP state to Rigor requires a 9.5° rotation of the myosin lever arm, coupled to a β-sheet rearrangement. Thus, the structure reveals the detailed rearrangements underlying myosin force generation as well as the basis of strain-dependent ADP release that is essential for processive myosins, such as myosin V. PMID:26976594

  8. Molecular cloning of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) elongation factor 2 (EF-2): sequence analysis and its expression on the ovarian maturation stage.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lihua; Jiang, Shigui; Zhou, Falin; Zhang, Dianchang; Huang, Jianhua; Guo, Yihui

    2008-09-01

    The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the elongation factor 2 (EF-2) gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The full length cDNA of black tiger shrimp EF-2 (btsEF-2) contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 73 bp, an ORF of 2541 bp encoding a polypeptide of 846 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 95 kDa, and a 3( UTR of 112 bp. The searches for protein sequence similarities with BLAST analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of btsEF-2 was homological to the EF-2 of other species and even the mammalians. The conserved signature sequence of EF-2 gene family, GTPase effector domain and ADP-ribosylation domain were found in the btsEF-2 deduced amino acid sequence. The temporal expressions of gene in the different ovarian stages were measured by real time PCR. The mRNA expressions of the gene were constitutively expressed in ovary and different during the maturation stages. The result indicated that EF-2 gene was constitutively expressed and could play a critical role in the ovarian maturation stage. PMID:17629788

  9. Novel method of synthesis of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosyl-ribonucleosides and their 3'-phosphoramidites.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Marcin K; Markiewicz, Wojciech T

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosylribonucleosides [Nr(p)] of four common ribonucleosides, and 3'-phosphoramidites of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosyladenosine and 2'-O-ribosylguanosine using the H-phosphonate chemistry is described. An additional ring protected by benzoyl groups was incorporated into the main ribosyl ring in the reaction with 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-ribofuranose in the presence of SnCl4. The obtained 2'-O-ribosylribonucleosides (Nr) were applied in the subsequent transformations with selective deprotection. Ethanolamine was applied as a very convenient reagent for selective removal of benzoyl groups. Additionally, the tetraisopropyldisiloxane-1,3-diyl (TIPDSi) group was found to be stable under these deprotection conditions. Thus, the selectively deprotected 5''-hydroxyl group of Nr was transformed into an H-phosphonate monoester which was found to be stable under the following conditions: the removal of the TIPDSi group with triethylammonium fluoride and the dimethoxytritylation of the 5''-hydroxyl function. The 5''-H-phosphonate of Nr precursors was easily transformed to the corresponding dicyanoethyl 5''-O-phosphotriesters before phosphitylation, which gave 3'-phosphoramidite units of Nr(p) in high yield. The derived phosphoramidite units were used in an automated oligonucleotide synthesizer to produce dimer Ar(p)T via the phosphoramidite approach. The obtained products were fully deprotected under standard deprotection conditions giving dimers with a 5''-phosphate monoester function. Application of an alkaline phosphatase to prove the presence of an additional phosphate group was described. PMID:24352053

  10. Optical, dielectric and microhardness studies on (100) directed ADP crystal.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P; Ramasamy, P

    2009-09-15

    (100) directed ammonium dihydrogen phosphate single crystal has been grown using the uniaxially solution-crystallization method of Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR). The size of the grown crystal is 40 mm in diameter and 50mm in thickness. The grown crystals were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Vickers hardness and dielectric studies. Comparing the (100) plane of the conventional method grown ADP crystal with (100) directed SR method grown ADP crystal, optical transparency, dielectric constant and Vickers hardness number are increased and dielectric loss is decreased in SR method grown crystal. PMID:19592298

  11. CryoEM reveals different coronin binding modes for ADP- and ADP-BeFx- actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Peng; Oztug Durer, Zeynep A.; Kudryashov, Dmitri; Zhou, Z. Hong; Reisler, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Essential cellular processes involving the actin cytoskeleton are regulated by auxiliary proteins which can sense the nucleotide state of actin. Here we report cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) structures at 8.6 Å resolution for ADP- and ADP-BeFx- (mimicking ADP-Pi) bound actin filaments in complex with the β-propeller domain (residues 1–600) of yeast coronin 1 (crn1). Our structures identify the main differences in the interaction of coronin with the two nucleotide states of F-actin. We derived pseudo-atomic models by fitting the atomic structures of actin and coronin into these structures. The identified binding interfaces on actin were confirmed by chemical crosslinking, fluorescence spectroscopy and actin mutagenesis. Importantly, the structures of actin and coronin mapped in this study offer a structural explanation for the nucleotide-dependent effects of coronin on cofilin-assisted remodeling of F-actin. PMID:25362487

  12. Bookmarking promoters in mitotic chromatin: poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 as an epigenetic mark

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Niraj; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Tulin, Alexei V.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics are the heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. After mitosis, it is thought that bookmarking transcription factors remain at promoters, regulating which genes become active and which remain silent. Herein, we demonstrate that poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a genome-wide epigenetic memory mark in mitotic chromatin, and we further show that the presence of PARP-1 is absolutely crucial for reactivation of transcription after mitosis. Based on these findings, a novel molecular model of epigenetic memory transmission through the cell cycle is proposed. PMID:24861619

  13. Plant extracts inhibit ADP-induced platelet activation in humans: their potential therapeutic role as ADP antagonists.

    PubMed

    Jagroop, Indera Anita

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) plays a pivotal role in platelet activation. Platelet hyperactivity is associated with vascular disease and also has a key role in haemostasis and thrombosis. ADP activates platelets through three purinoceptor subtypes, the G(q)-coupled P2Y(1) receptor, G(i)-coupled P2Y(12) receptor and P2X(1) ligand-gated cation channel. Platelet ADP purinergic receptors are therefore suitable targets for antiplatelet drugs. Thienopyridines such as clopidogrel and ticlopidine, as well as other ADP receptor antagonists like prasugrel, ticagrelor, cangrelor and elinogrel have demonstrated clinical benefits via the inhibition of the selective purinergic ADP receptor, P2Y(12). However, they still have limitations in their mode of action and efficacy, like increased risk of bleeding. Thus, the ongoing pursuit to develop newer and more effective antiplatelet agents continues. There is a growing interest in the purinergic antiplatelet properties exhibited by plant extracts. This article considers the following: pomolic acid isolated from Licania pittieri, brazilin isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L, phylligenin isolated from the twigs of Muraltia vulpina, bark oil of Gonystylus velutinus, seed and bark extracts from Aesculus hippocastanum L. and red wine phenolics and catechins isolated from green tea. Moreover, the method used to investigate platelet purinergic receptors should be considered, since using a more sensitive, high-resolution platelet sizer can sometimes detect platelet variations when the light transmission method was not able to do so. The exact mechanisms by which these plant extracts work need further investigation. They all however inhibit ADP-induced activation in human platelets. This could explain, at least in part, the protective effect of plant extracts as antiplatelet agents. PMID:24190032

  14. 7 CFR 272.10 - ADP/CIS Model Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false ADP/CIS Model Plan. 272.10 Section 272.10 Agriculture... Model Plan. (a) General purpose and content—(1) Purpose. All State agencies are required to sufficiently.... (ii) State agencies that plan to automate operations using any method other than transfers will...

  15. 7 CFR 272.10 - ADP/CIS Model Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false ADP/CIS Model Plan. 272.10 Section 272.10 Agriculture... Model Plan. (a) General purpose and content—(1) Purpose. All State agencies are required to sufficiently.... (ii) State agencies that plan to automate operations using any method other than transfers will...

  16. 7 CFR 272.10 - ADP/CIS Model Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false ADP/CIS Model Plan. 272.10 Section 272.10 Agriculture... Model Plan. (a) General purpose and content—(1) Purpose. All State agencies are required to sufficiently.... (ii) State agencies that plan to automate operations using any method other than transfers will...

  17. Abiogenic photophosphorylation of ADP to ATP sensitized by flavoproteinoid microspheres.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, Michael P; Telegina, Taisiya A; Lyudnikova, Tamara A; Kritsky, Mikhail S

    2008-06-01

    A model for abiogenic photophosphorylation of ADP by orthophosphate to yield ATP was studied. The model is based on the photochemical activity of flavoproteinoid microspheres that are formed by aggregation in an aqueous medium of products of thermal condensation of a glutamic acid, glycine and lysine mixture (8:3:1) and contain, along with amino acid polymers (proteinoids), abiogenic isoalloxazine (flavin) pigments. Irradiation of aqueous suspensions of microspheres with blue visible light or ultraviolet in the presence of ADP and orthophosphate resulted in ATP formation. The yield of ATP in aerated suspensions was 10-20% per one mol of starting ADP. Deaeration reduced the photophosphorylating activity of microspheres five to 10 times. Treatment of aerated microsphere suspensions with superoxide dismutase during irradiation partially suppressed ATP formation. Deaerated microspheres restored completely their photophosphorylating activity after addition of hydrogen peroxide to the suspension. The photophosphorylating activity of deaerated suspensions of flavoproteinoid microspheres was also recovered by introduction of Fe3+-cytochrome c, an electron acceptor alternative to oxygen. On the basis of the results obtained, a chemical mechanism of phosphorylation is proposed in which the free radical form of reduced flavin sensitizer (F1H*) and ADP are involved. PMID:18386156

  18. 45 CFR 95.619 - Use of ADP systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of ADP systems. 95.619 Section 95.619 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Automatic Data Processing Equipment...

  19. 45 CFR 95.619 - Use of ADP systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of ADP systems. 95.619 Section 95.619 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Automatic Data Processing Equipment...

  20. ADP correspondence system: Unsolicited proposal evaluation tracking application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. A.; Goodwin, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A complete description of a correspondence control system, designed to be used by non-ADP clerical personnel is provided. In addition to operating instructions, sufficient design and conceptual information is provided to allow use or adaption of the system in related applications. The complete COBOL program and documentation are available.

  1. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property...

  2. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property...

  3. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property...

  4. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property...

  5. 41 CFR 109-43.307-53 - Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....307-53 Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). All ADPE shall be sanitized before being... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). 109-43.307-53 Section 109-43.307-53 Public Contracts and Property...

  6. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property...

  7. Phosphate and ADP differently inhibit coordinated smooth muscle myosin groups.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Lennart; Balassy, Zsombor; Zitouni, Nedjma B; Mackey, Michael C; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Actin filaments propelled in vitro by groups of skeletal muscle myosin motors exhibit distinct phases of active sliding or arrest, whose occurrence depends on actin length (L) within a range of up to 1.0 μm. Smooth muscle myosin filaments are exponentially distributed with ≈150 nm average length in vivo--suggesting relevance of the L-dependence of myosin group kinetics. Here, we found L-dependent actin arrest and sliding in in vitro motility assays of smooth muscle myosin. We perturbed individual myosin kinetics with varying, physiological concentrations of phosphate (Pi, release associated with main power stroke) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, release associated with minor mechanical step). Adenosine triphosphate was kept constant at physiological concentration. Increasing [Pi] lowered the fraction of time for which actin was actively sliding, reflected in reduced average sliding velocity (ν) and motile fraction (fmot, fraction of time that filaments are moving); increasing [ADP] increased the fraction of time actively sliding and reduced the velocity while sliding, reflected in reduced ν and increased fmot. We introduced specific Pi and ADP effects on individual myosin kinetics into our recently developed mathematical model of actin propulsion by myosin groups. Simulations matched our experimental observations and described the inhibition of myosin group kinetics. At low [Pi] and [ADP], actin arrest and sliding were reflected by two distinct chemical states of the myosin group. Upon [Pi] increase, the probability of the active state decreased; upon [ADP] increase, the probability of the active state increased, but the active state became increasingly similar to the arrested state. PMID:25650929

  8. Characterization of Vis Toxin, a Novel ADP-Ribosyltransferase from Vibrio splendidus.

    PubMed

    Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Lugo, Miguel R; Pfoh, Roland; Visschedyk, Danielle; Poole, Amanda; Fieldhouse, Robert J; Pai, Emil F; Merrill, A Rod

    2015-09-29

    Vis toxin was identified by a bioinformatics strategy as a putative virulence factor produced by Vibrio splendidus with mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Vis was purified to homogeneity as a 28 kDa single-domain enzyme and was shown to possess NAD(+)-glycohydrolase [KM(NAD(+)) = 276 ± 12 μM] activity and with an R-S-E-X-E motif; it targets arginine-related compounds [KM(agmatine) = 272 ± 18 mM]. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that Vis labels l-arginine with ADP-ribose from the NAD(+) substrate at the amino nitrogen of the guanidinium side chain. Vis is toxic to yeast when expressed in the cytoplasm under control of the CUP1 promotor, and catalytic variants lost the ability to kill the yeast host, indicating that the toxin exerts its lethality through its enzyme activity. Several small molecule inhibitors were identified from a virtual screen, and the most potent compounds were found to inhibit the transferase activity of the enzyme with Ki values ranging from 25 to 134 μM. Inhibitor compound M6 bears the necessary attributes of a solid candidate as a lead compound for therapeutic development. Vis toxin was crystallized, and the structures of the apoenzyme (1.4 Å) and the enzyme bound with NAD(+) (1.8 Å) and with the M6 inhibitor (1.5 Å) were determined. The structures revealed that Vis represents a new subgroup within the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin family. PMID:26352925

  9. Effects of botulinum toxin type D on secretion of tumor necrosis factor from human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, K.; Spriggs, D.; Ohno, T.; Kufe, D.

    1989-05-01

    Botulinum toxins are potent neurotoxins which block the release of neurotransmitters. The effects of these toxins on hematopoietic cells, however, are unknown. Monocytes secrete a variety of polypeptide growth factors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In the study reported here, the effects of botulinum toxin type D on the secretion of TNF from human monocytes were examined. The results demonstrate that biotulinum toxin type D inhibits the release of TNF from monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Botulinum toxin type D had no detectable effect on intracellular TNF levels in LPS-treated monocytes, indicating that the effects of this toxin involve the secretory process. This inhibitory effect of botulinum toxin type D on TNF secretion from LPS-treated monocytes was partially reversed by treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or introduction of guanosine 5'-(/gamma/-thio)t-riphosphate into these cells. The results demonstrate that TNF secretion is regulated by at least two distinct guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, one responsible for the activation of phospholiphase C and another which acts as a substrate for botulinum toxin type D. ADP-ribosylation of monocyte membranes by botulinum toxin type D demonstrated the presence of three substrates with M/sub r/s of 45,000, 21,000, and 17,000. While the role of these substrates in exocytosis is unknown, the results suggest that the M/sub r/ 21,000 substrate is involved in a process other than TNF secretion.

  10. Filamin A regulates neuronal migration through brefeldin A-inhibited guanine exchange factor 2-dependent Arf1 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingping; Neal, Jason; Lian, Gewei; Hu, Jianjun; Lu, Jie; Sheen, Volney

    2013-10-01

    Periventricular heterotopias is a malformation of cortical development, characterized by ectopic neuronal nodules around ventricle lining and caused by an initial migration defect during early brain development. Human mutations in the Filamin A (FLNA) and ADP-ribosylation factor guanine exchange factor 2 [ARFGEF2; encoding brefeldin-A-inhibited guanine exchange factor-2 (BIG2)] genes give rise to this disorder. Previously, we have reported that Big2 inhibition impairs neuronal migration and binds to FlnA, and its loss promotes FlnA phosphorylation. FlnA phosphorylation dictates FlnA-actin binding affinity and consequently alters focal adhesion size and number to effect neuronal migration. Here we show that FlnA loss similarly impairs migration, reciprocally enhances Big2 expression, but also alters Big2 subcellular localization in both null and conditional FlnA mice. FlnA phosphorylation promotes relocalization of Big2 from the Golgi toward the lipid ruffles, thereby activating Big2-dependent Arf1 at the cell membrane. Loss of FlnA phosphorylation or Big2 function impairs Arf1-dependent vesicle trafficking at the periphery, and Arf1 is required for maintenance of cell-cell junction connectivity and focal adhesion assembly. Loss of Arf1 activity disrupts neuronal migration and cell adhesion. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a potential mechanism whereby coordinated interactions between actin (through FlnA) and vesicle trafficking (through Big2-Arf) direct the assembly and disassembly of membrane protein complexes required for neuronal migration and neuroependymal integrity. PMID:24089482

  11. Revised Methods for Purification of Ribosyl-trans-zeatin from Vinca rosea L. Crown Gall Tumor Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Carlos O.

    1975-01-01

    Ribosyl-trans-zeatin has been purified from Vinca rosea L. crown gall tumor tissue by using two new sequences of isolation procedures. Identification of the compound has been established by mass spectrometry, ultraviolet absorbancy spectra, chromatographic values, and growth activity. The isolation sequences eliminate the exposures to pH extremes and the strong cation-exchange resin used in the purification reported earlier. The initial extraction procedures have been designed so as to avoid enzymatic alteration or production of active material and to prevent the inclusion in the extracts of nucleic acids which might serve as soures of the small active compounds. The production of ribosylzeatin by the tumor tissue is confirmed and the validity of isolation steps such as the use of cation exchangers is supported. PMID:16659099

  12. Presence of phosphorylated O-ribosyl-adenosine in T-psi-stem of yeast methionine initiator tRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Desgrès, J; Keith, G; Kuo, K C; Gehrke, C W

    1989-01-01

    We report in this paper on isolation and characterization of two unknown nucleosides G* and [A*] located in the T-psi-stem of yeast methionine initiator tRNA, using the combined means of HPLC protocols, real time UV-absorption spectrum, and post-run mass spectrometry by electron impact or fast atom bombardment. The G* nucleoside in position 65 was identified as unmodified guanosine. The structure of the unknown [A*] in position 64 was characterized as an isomeric form of O-ribosyl-adenosine by comparison of its chromatographic, UV-spectral and mass spectrometric properties with those of authentic O-alpha-ribofuranosyl-(1"----2')-adenosine isolated from biosynthetic poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose). Our studies also brought evidence for the presence of a phosphorylmonoester group located on this new modified nucleoside [A*], when isolated by ion exchange chromatography from enzymic hydrolysis of yeast initiator tRNAMet without phosphatase treatment. PMID:2646591

  13. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  14. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  15. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  16. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  17. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)(2)(iv) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR part 1). (v) Distribution. Within 12... determined under § 1.401(k)-2(b)(2)(vi) (as it appeared in the April 1, 2007, edition of 26 CFR Part 1). (C... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2...

  18. The 1994 NASA/USRA/ADP Design Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, Thomas; Richardson, Joseph; Tryon, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/USRA/ADP Design Projects from Vanderbilt University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (1994) are enclosed in this final report. Design projects include: (1) Protein Crystal Growth, both facilities and methodology; (2) ACES Deployable Space Boom; (3) Hybrid Launch System designs for both manned and unmanned systems; (4) LH2 Fuel Tank design (SSTO); (5) SSTO design; and (6) Pressure Tank Feed System design.

  19. [Suggested mitochondrial ancestry of non-mitochondrial ATP/ADP].

    PubMed

    Emel'ianov, V V

    2007-01-01

    One of the major evolutionary events that transformed endosymbiotic bacterium into mitochondrion was an acquisition of ATP/ADP carrier in order to supply the host with respiration-derived ATP. Along with mitochondrial carrier, unrelated carrier is known which is characteristic of intracellular chlamydiae, plastids, parasitic intracellular eukaryote Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and the genus Rickettsia of obligate endosymbiotic alpha-Proteobacteria. This non-mitochondrial ATP/ADP carrier was recently described in rickettsia-like endosymbionts - a group of obligate intracellular bacteria, classified with the order Rickettsiales, which have diverged after free-living alpha-Proteobacteria but before sister groups of the Rickettsiaceae assemblage (true rickettsiae) and mitochondria. Published controversial phylogenetic data on the non-mitochondrial carrier were reanalysed in the present work using both DNA and protein sequences, and various methods including Bayesian analysis. The data presented are consistent with classic endosymbiont theory for the origin of mitochondria and also suggest that even last but one common ancestor of rickettsiae and organelles may have been an endosymbiotic bacterium in which ATP/ADP carrier has first originated. PMID:17380892

  20. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer is a death signal

    PubMed Central

    Andrabi, Shaida A.; Kim, No Soo; Yu, Seong-Woon; Wang, Hongmin; Koh, David W.; Sasaki, Masayuki; Klaus, Judith A.; Otsuka, Takashi; Zhang, Zhizheng; Koehler, Raymond C.; Hurn, Patricia D.; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2006-01-01

    Excessive activation of the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays a prominent role in various of models of cellular injury. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer, a product of PARP-1 activity, as a previously uncharacterized cell death signal. PAR polymer is directly toxic to neurons, and degradation of PAR polymer by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) or phosphodiesterase 1 prevents PAR polymer-induced cell death. PARP-1-dependent, NMDA excitotoxicity of cortical neurons is reduced by neutralizing antibodies to PAR and by overexpression of PARG. Neuronal cultures with reduced levels of PARG are more sensitive to NMDA excitotoxicity than WT cultures. Transgenic mice overexpressing PARG have significantly reduced infarct volumes after focal ischemia. Conversely, mice with reduced levels of PARG have significantly increased infarct volumes after focal ischemia compared with WT littermate controls. These results reveal PAR polymer as a signaling molecule that induces cell death and suggests that interference with PAR polymer signaling may offer innovative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cellular injury. PMID:17116882

  1. C3larvin Toxin, an ADP-ribosyltransferase from Paenibacillus larvae*

    PubMed Central

    Krska, Daniel; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Lugo, Miguel R.; Merrill, A. Rod

    2015-01-01

    C3larvin toxin was identified by a bioinformatic strategy as a putative mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase and a possible virulence factor from Paenibacillus larvae, which is the causative agent of American Foulbrood in honey bees. C3larvin targets RhoA as a substrate for its transferase reaction, and kinetics for both the NAD+ (Km = 34 ± 12 μm) and RhoA (Km = 17 ± 3 μm) substrates were characterized for this enzyme from the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 toxin subgroup. C3larvin is toxic to yeast when expressed in the cytoplasm, and catalytic variants of the enzyme lost the ability to kill the yeast host, indicating that the toxin exerts its lethality through its enzyme activity. A small molecule inhibitor of C3larvin enzymatic activity was discovered called M3 (Ki = 11 ± 2 μm), and to our knowledge, is the first inhibitor of transferase activity of the C3 toxin family. C3larvin was crystallized, and its crystal structure (apoenzyme) was solved to 2.3 Å resolution. C3larvin was also shown to have a different mechanism of cell entry from other C3 toxins. PMID:25477523

  2. C3larvin toxin, an ADP-ribosyltransferase from Paenibacillus larvae.

    PubMed

    Krska, Daniel; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Fieldhouse, Robert J; Lugo, Miguel R; Merrill, A Rod

    2015-01-16

    C3larvin toxin was identified by a bioinformatic strategy as a putative mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase and a possible virulence factor from Paenibacillus larvae, which is the causative agent of American Foulbrood in honey bees. C3larvin targets RhoA as a substrate for its transferase reaction, and kinetics for both the NAD(+) (Km = 34 ± 12 μm) and RhoA (Km = 17 ± 3 μm) substrates were characterized for this enzyme from the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 toxin subgroup. C3larvin is toxic to yeast when expressed in the cytoplasm, and catalytic variants of the enzyme lost the ability to kill the yeast host, indicating that the toxin exerts its lethality through its enzyme activity. A small molecule inhibitor of C3larvin enzymatic activity was discovered called M3 (Ki = 11 ± 2 μm), and to our knowledge, is the first inhibitor of transferase activity of the C3 toxin family. C3larvin was crystallized, and its crystal structure (apoenzyme) was solved to 2.3 Å resolution. C3larvin was also shown to have a different mechanism of cell entry from other C3 toxins. PMID:25477523

  3. Genome-wide Distribution of AdpA, a Global Regulator for Secondary Metabolism and Morphological Differentiation in Streptomyces, Revealed the Extent and Complexity of the AdpA Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Higo, Akiyoshi; Hara, Hirofumi; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    AdpA is a global transcriptional activator triggering morphological differentiation and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces griseus. AdpA influences the expression of >1000 genes; however, the overall picture of the AdpA regulon remains obscure. Here, we took snapshots of the distribution of AdpA across the chromosome in living S. griseus cells using chromatin immunoprecipitation/chromatin affinity precipitation-seq analysis. In both liquid and solid cultures, AdpA bound to >1200 similar sites, which were located on not only in putative regulatory regions (65%), but also in regions (35%) that appeared not to affect transcription. Transcriptome analysis indicated that ∼40% of the AdpA-binding sites in putative regulatory regions were involved in gene regulation. AdpA was indicated to act as a transcriptional repressor as well as an activator. Expression profiles of AdpA-target genes were very different between liquid and solid cultures, despite their similar AdpA-binding profiles. We concluded that AdpA directly controls >500 genes in cooperation with other regulatory proteins. A comprehensive competitive gel mobility shift assay of AdpA with 304 selected AdpA-binding sites revealed several unique characteristics of the DNA-binding property of AdpA. This study provides the first experimental insight into the extent of the AdpA regulon, indicating that many genes are under the direct control of AdpA. PMID:22449632

  4. Practical Experience of Discharge Measurement in Flood Conditions with ADP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate discharge estimation is important for an efficient river basin management and especially for flood forecasting. The traditional way of estimating the discharge in hydrological practice is to measure the water stage and to convert the recorded water stage values into discharge by using the single-valued rating curve .Relationship between the stage and discharge values of the rating curve for the extreme events are usually extrapolated by using different mathematical methods and are not directly measured. Our practice shows that by using the Accoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP) instrument we can record the actual relation between the water stage and the flow velocity at the occurrence of flood waves very successfully. Measurement in flood conditions it is not easy task, because of high water surface velocity and large amounts of sediments in the water and floating objects on the surface like branches, bushes, trees, piles and others which can also easily damage ADP instrument. We made several measurements in such extreme events on the Sava River down to the nuclear power plant Kr\\vsko where we have install fixed cable way. During the several measurement with traditional "moving-boat" measurement technique a mowing bed phenomenon was clearly seen. Measuring flow accurately using ADP that uses the "moving-boat" technique, the system needs a reference against which to relate water velocities to. This reference is river bed and must not move. During flood events we detected difficulty finding a static bed surface to which to relate water velocities. This is caused by motion of the surface layer of bed material or also sediments suspended in the water near bed very densely. So these traditional »moving-boat« measurement techniques that we normally use completely fail. Using stationary measurement method to making individual velocity profile measurements, using an Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP), at certain time at fixed locations across the width of a stream gave

  5. Mechanism of cholera toxin activation by a guanine nucleotide-dependent 19 kDa protein.

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1990-05-16

    Cholera toxin causes the devastating diarrheal syndrome characteristic of cholera by catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha, a GTP-binding regulatory protein, resulting in activation of adenylyl cyclase. ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha is enhanced by 19 kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins known as ADP-ribosylation factors or ARFs. We investigated the effects of agents known to alter toxin-catalyzed activation of adenylyl cyclase on the stimulation of toxin- and toxin subunit-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha and other substrates by an ADP-ribosylation factor purified from a soluble fraction of bovine brain (sARF II). In the presence of GTP, sARF II enhanced activity of both the toxin catalytic unit and a reduced and alkylated fragment ('A1'), as a result of an increase in substrate affinity with no significant effects on Vmax. Activation of toxin was independent of Gs alpha and was stimulated 4-fold by sodium dodecyl sulfate, but abolished by Triton X-100. sARF II therefore serves as a direct allosteric activator of the A1 protein and may thus amplify the pathological effects of cholera toxin. PMID:2112955

  6. Seasonal cycles of mitochondrial ADP sensitivity and oxidative capacities in trout oxidative muscle.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; St Pierre, J

    1999-10-01

    Mitochondria from red myotomal muscle of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, showed seasonal cycles of their maximal rates of substrate oxidation (nmol.min-1 mg-1 mitochondrial protein) and their apparent ADP affinity (Kmapp), as well as in the thermal sensitivity of these properties. Increases in the maximal capacity of pyruvate oxidation were sufficient to compensate for seasonal changes in temperature, except during the winter months when rates at habitat temperature were depressed relative to other periods. The ADP affinity of isolated mitochondria was highest during cold months. Thus, the Kmapp for ADP at habitat temperature showed less seasonal variation than the ADP Kmapp at a given temperature. A loss in ADP affinity with decreasing temperature occurred through much of the year, and only was definitively suppressed in December and July. Both the ADP affinity and the maximal oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria seem to be regulated parameters. PMID:10595316

  7. The cytohesin guanosine exchange factors (GEFs) are required to promote HGF-mediated renal recovery after acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice

    PubMed Central

    Reviriego-Mendoza, Marta M; Santy, Lorraine C

    2015-01-01

    The lack of current treatment and preventable measures for acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients results in an increased mortality rate of up to 80% and elevated health costs. Additionally, if not properly repaired, those who survive AKI may develop fibrosis and long-term kidney damage. The molecular aspects of kidney injury and repair are still uncertain. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes recovery of the injured kidney by inducing survival and migration of tubular epithelial cells to repopulate bare tubule areas. HGF-stimulated kidney epithelial cell migration requires the activation of ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) and Rac1 via the cytohesin family of Arf-guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), in vitro. We used an ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) mouse model to analyze the effects of modulating this signaling pathway on kidney recovery. We treated IRI mice with either HGF, the cytohesin inhibitor SecinH3, or a combination of both. As previously reported, HGF treatment promoted rapid improvement of kidney function as evidenced by creatinine (Cre) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. In contrast, simultaneous treatment with SecinH3 and HGF blocks the ability of HGF to promote kidney recovery. Immunohistochemistry showed that HGF treatment promoted recovery of tubule structure, and had enhanced levels of active, GTP-bound Arf6 and GTP-Rac1. SecinH3 treatment, however, caused a dramatic decrease in GTP-Arf6 and GTP-Rac1 levels when compared to kidney sections from HGF-treated IRI mice. Additionally, SecinH3 counteracted the renal reparative effects of HGF. Our results support the conclusion that cytohesin function is required for HGF-stimulated renal IRI repair. PMID:26116550

  8. Structures of the Human Poly (ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase Catalytic Domain Confirm Catalytic Mechanism and Explain Inhibition by ADP-HPD Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Julie A.; Bennett, Neil; Brassington, Claire; Durant, Stephen T.; Hassall, Giles; Holdgate, Geoff; McAlister, Mark; Nissink, J. Willem M.; Truman, Caroline; Watson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is the only enzyme known to catalyse hydrolysis of the O-glycosidic linkages of ADP-ribose polymers, thereby reversing the effects of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. PARG deficiency leads to cell death whilst PARG depletion causes sensitisation to certain DNA damaging agents, implicating PARG as a potential therapeutic target in several disease areas. Efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors of PARG activity have until recently been hampered by a lack of structural information on PARG. We have used a combination of bio-informatic and experimental approaches to engineer a crystallisable, catalytically active fragment of human PARG (hPARG). Here, we present high-resolution structures of the catalytic domain of hPARG in unliganded form and in complex with three inhibitors: ADP-ribose (ADPR), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidinediol (ADP-HPD) and 8-n-octyl-amino-ADP-HPD. Our structures confirm conservation of overall fold amongst mammalian PARG glycohydrolase domains, whilst revealing additional flexible regions in the catalytic site. These new structures rationalise a body of published mutational data and the reported structure-activity relationship for ADP-HPD based PARG inhibitors. In addition, we have developed and used biochemical, isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance assays to characterise the binding of inhibitors to our PARG protein, thus providing a starting point for the design of new inhibitors. PMID:23251397

  9. Bovine spermatozoa incorporate 32Pi into ADP by an unknown pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, J A; Lardy, H A

    1992-03-15

    Intact ejaculated bovine sperm incorporate 32Pi into ADP to a specific activity two to three times higher than into ATP. This contrasts with other cell types where ATP specific activity is higher than that of ADP. Predominant labeling of ADP may be partially due to compartmentation of ATP, but removal of cytosolic ATP does not change the relative labeling of ADP and ATP. Dilution of extracellular 32Pi following labeling resulted in loss of 70% of label from ADP but only 50% loss from gamma-ATP at 26 min. ADP was labeled in the absence of detectable ATP in the presence of rotenone plus antimycin. Fractionation of ejaculated sperm yielded midpieces that are depleted of adenylate kinase and have coupled respiration. ATP was labeled with 32Pi, but ADP was not in midpieces. Evidence for mitochondrial substrate level phosphorylation-supported incorporation of 32Pi into nucleotides was observed for intact sperm incubated with pyruvate and inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, but this activity did not occur in midpieces and does not appear to explain disproportionate labeling of ADP. We conclude that labeling of ADP in intact and permeabilized cells occurs by two pathways; one involves adenylate kinase, and the other is an unknown pathway which may be independent of ATP. PMID:1544901

  10. Molecular insights into plant cell proliferation disturbance by Agrobacterium protein 6b

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meimei; Soyano, Takashi; Machida, Satoru; Yang, Jun-Yi; Jung, Choonkyun; Chua, Nam-Hai; Yuan, Y. Adam

    2011-01-01

    The Agrobacterium Ti plasmid (T-DNA) 6b proteins interact with many different host proteins implicated in plant cell proliferation. Here, we show that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing 6b display microRNA (miRNA) deficiency by directly targeting SERRATE and AGO1 via a specific loop fragment (residues 40–55). In addition, we report the crystal structures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens AK6b at 2.1 Å, Agrobacterium vitis AB6b at 1.65 Å, and Arabidopsis ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) at 1.8 Å. The 6b structure adopts an ADP-ribosylating toxin fold closely related to cholera toxin. In vitro ADP ribosylation analysis demonstrates that 6b represents a new toxin family, with Tyr 66, Thr 93, and Tyr 153 as the ADP ribosylation catalytic residues in the presence of Arabidopsis ARF and GTP. Our work provides molecular insights, suggesting that 6b regulates plant cell growth by the disturbance of the miRNA pathway through its ADP ribosylation activity. PMID:21156810

  11. The transport mechanism of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier.

    PubMed

    Kunji, Edmund R S; Aleksandrova, Antoniya; King, Martin S; Majd, Homa; Ashton, Valerie L; Cerson, Elizabeth; Springett, Roger; Kibalchenko, Mikhail; Tavoulari, Sotiria; Crichton, Paul G; Ruprecht, Jonathan J

    2016-10-01

    The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier imports ADP from the cytosol and exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix, which are key transport steps for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotic organisms. The transport protein belongs to the mitochondrial carrier family, a large transporter family in the inner membrane of mitochondria. It is one of the best studied members of the family and serves as a paradigm for the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial carriers. Structurally, the carrier consists of three homologous domains, each composed of two transmembrane α-helices linked with a loop and short α-helix on the matrix side. The transporter cycles between a cytoplasmic and matrix state in which a central substrate binding site is alternately accessible to these compartments for binding of ADP or ATP. On both the cytoplasmic and matrix side of the carrier are networks consisting of three salt bridges each. In the cytoplasmic state, the matrix salt bridge network is formed and the cytoplasmic network is disrupted, opening the central substrate binding site to the intermembrane space and cytosol, whereas the converse occurs in the matrix state. In the transport cycle, tighter substrate binding in the intermediate states allows the interconversion of conformations by lowering the energy barrier for disruption and formation of these networks, opening and closing the carrier to either side of the membrane in an alternating way. Conversion between cytoplasmic and matrix states might require the simultaneous rotation of three domains around a central translocation pathway, constituting a unique mechanism among transport proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou. PMID:27001633

  12. Molecular Bases of Catalysis and ADP-Ribose Preference of Human Mn2+-Dependent ADP-Ribose/CDP-Alcohol Diphosphatase and Conversion by Mutagenesis to a Preferential Cyclic ADP-Ribose Phosphohydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas, Alicia; Ribeiro, João Meireles; Rodrigues, Joaquim Rui; López-Villamizar, Iralis; Fernández, Ascensión; Canales, José; Pinto, Rosa María; Costas, María Jesús; Cameselle, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Among metallo-dependent phosphatases, ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatases form a protein family (ADPRibase-Mn-like) mainly restricted, in eukaryotes, to vertebrates and plants, with preferential expression, at least in rodents, in immune cells. Rat and zebrafish ADPRibase-Mn, the only biochemically studied, are phosphohydrolases of ADP-ribose and, somewhat less efficiently, of CDP-alcohols and 2´,3´-cAMP. Furthermore, the rat but not the zebrafish enzyme displays a unique phosphohydrolytic activity on cyclic ADP-ribose. The molecular basis of such specificity is unknown. Human ADPRibase-Mn showed similar activities, including cyclic ADP-ribose phosphohydrolase, which seems thus common to mammalian ADPRibase-Mn. Substrate docking on a homology model of human ADPRibase-Mn suggested possible interactions of ADP-ribose with seven residues located, with one exception (Cys253), either within the metallo-dependent phosphatases signature (Gln27, Asn110, His111), or in unique structural regions of the ADPRibase-Mn family: s2s3 (Phe37 and Arg43) and h7h8 (Phe210), around the active site entrance. Mutants were constructed, and kinetic parameters for ADP-ribose, CDP-choline, 2´,3´-cAMP and cyclic ADP-ribose were determined. Phe37 was needed for ADP-ribose preference without catalytic effect, as indicated by the increased ADP-ribose Km and unchanged kcat of F37A-ADPRibase-Mn, while the Km values for the other substrates were little affected. Arg43 was essential for catalysis as indicated by the drastic efficiency loss shown by R43A-ADPRibase-Mn. Unexpectedly, Cys253 was hindering for cADPR phosphohydrolase, as indicated by the specific tenfold gain of efficiency of C253A-ADPRibase-Mn with cyclic ADP-ribose. This allowed the design of a triple mutant (F37A+L196F+C253A) for which cyclic ADP-ribose was the best substrate, with a catalytic efficiency of 3.5´104 M-1s-1 versus 4´103 M-1s-1 of the wild type. PMID:25692488

  13. Abscisic acid signaling through cyclic ADP-ribose in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yan; Kuzma, J.; Marechal, E.

    1997-12-19

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the primary hormone that mediates plant responses to stresses such as cold, drought, and salinity. Single-cell microinjection experiments in tomato were used to identify possible intermediates involved in ABA signal transduction. Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) was identified as a signaling molecule in the ABA response and was shown to exert its effects by way of calcium. Bioassay experiments showed that the amounts of cADPR in Arabidopsis thaliana plants increased in response to ABA treatment and before ABA-induced gene expression.

  14. Poly(ADP-ribose): From chemical synthesis to drug design.

    PubMed

    Drenichev, Mikhail S; Mikhailov, Sergey N

    2016-08-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an important biopolymer, which is involved in various life processes such as DNA repair and replication, modulation of chromatin structure, transcription, cell differentiation, and in pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, ischemia and inflammations. PAR is the most electronegative biopolymer and this property is essential for its binding with a wide range of proteins. Understanding of PAR functions in cell on molecular level requires chemical synthesis of regular PAR oligomers. Recently developed methodologies for chemical synthesis of PAR oligomers, will facilitate the study of various cellular processes, involving PAR. PMID:27318540

  15. Identification of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Receptor (IGF-IR) Gene Promoter-Binding Proteins in Estrogen Receptor (ER)-Positive and ER-Depleted Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarfstein, Rive; Belfiore, Antonino; Werner, Haim

    2010-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) has been implicated in the etiology of breast cancer. Overexpression of the IGF-IR gene is a typical feature of most primary breast cancers, whereas low IGF-IR levels are seen at advanced stages. Hence, evaluation of IGF-IR levels might be important for assessing prognosis. In the present study, we employed a proteomic approach based on DNA affinity chromatography followed either by mass spectroscopy (MS) or Western blot analysis to identify transcription factors that may associate with the IGF-IR promoter in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-depleted breast cancer cells. A biotinylated IGF-IR promoter fragment was bound to streptavidin magnetic beads and incubated with nuclear extracts of breast cancer cells. IGF-IR promoter-binding proteins were eluted with high salt and analyzed by MS and Western blots. Among the proteins that were found to bind to the IGF-IR promoter we identified zinc finger transcription factors Sp1 and KLF6, ER-α, p53, c-jun, and poly (ADP-ribosylation) polymerase. Furthermore, chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) analysis confirmed the direct in vivo binding of some of these transcription factors to IGF-IR promoter DNA. The functional relevance of binding data was assessed by cotransfection experiments with specific expression vectors along with an IGF-IR promoter reporter. In summary, we identified nuclear proteins that are potentially responsible for the differential expression of the IGF-IR gene in ER-positive and ER-depleted breast cancer cells. PMID:24281069

  16. Regulation of force development studied by photolysis of caged ADP in rabbit skinned psoas fibers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z; Swartz, D R; Metzger, J M; Moss, R L; Walker, J W

    2001-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of Ca(2+) and strongly bound cross-bridges on tension development induced by changes in the concentration of MgADP. Addition of MgADP to the bath increased isometric tension over a wide range of [Ca(2+)] in skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle. Tension-pCa (pCa is -log [Ca(2+)]) relationships and stiffness measurements indicated that MgADP increased mean force per cross-bridge at maximal Ca(2+) and increased recruitment of cross-bridges at submaximal Ca(2+). Photolysis of caged ADP to cause a 0.5 mM MgADP jump initiated an increase in isometric tension under all conditions examined, even at pCa 6.4 where there was no active tension before ADP release. Tension increased monophasically with an observed rate constant, k(ADP), which was similar in rate and Ca(2+) sensitivity to the rate constant of tension re-development, k(tr), measured in the same fibers by a release-re-stretch protocol. The amplitude of the caged ADP tension transient had a bell-shaped dependence on Ca(2+), reaching a maximum at intermediate Ca(2+) (pCa 6). The role of strong binding cross-bridges in the ADP response was tested by treatment of fibers with a strong binding derivative of myosin subfragment 1 (NEM-S1). In the presence of NEM-S1, the rate and amplitude of the caged ADP response were no longer sensitive to variations in the level of activator Ca(2+). The results are consistent with a model in which ADP-bound cross-bridges cooperatively activate the thin filament regulatory system at submaximal Ca(2+). This cooperative interaction influences both the magnitude and kinetics of force generation in skeletal muscle. PMID:11423418

  17. A specific isoform of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix by a N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Whatcott, Clifford J.; Meyer-Ficca, Mirella L.; Meyer, Ralph G.; Jacobson, Myron K.

    2009-12-10

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) convert NAD to polymers of ADP-ribose that are converted to free ADP-ribose by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). The activation of the nuclear enzyme PARP-1 following genotoxic stress has been linked to release of apoptosis inducing factor from the mitochondria, but the mechanisms by which signals are transmitted between nuclear and mitochondrial compartments are not well understood. The study reported here has examined the relationship between PARG and mitochondria in HeLa cells. Endogenous PARG associated with the mitochondrial fraction migrated in the range of 60 kDa. Transient transfection of cells with PARG expression constructs with amino acids encoded by exon 4 at the N-terminus was targeted to the mitochondria as demonstrated by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy of whole cells. Deletion and missense mutants allowed identification of a canonical N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence consisting of the first 16 amino acids encoded by PARG exon 4. Sub-mitochondrial localization experiments indicate that this mitochondrial PARG isoform is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. The identification of a PARG isoform as a component of the mitochondrial matrix raises several interesting possibilities concerning mechanisms of nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk involved in regulation of cell death pathways.

  18. Both subunits of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase are regulatory.

    PubMed

    Cross, Joanna M; Clancy, Maureen; Shaw, Janine R; Greene, Thomas W; Schmidt, Robert R; Okita, Thomas W; Hannah, L Curtis

    2004-05-01

    The allosteric enzyme ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyzes the synthesis of ADP-Glc, a rate-limiting step in starch synthesis. Plant AGPases are heterotetramers, most of which are activated by 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3-PGA) and inhibited by phosphate. The objectives of these studies were to test a hypothesis concerning the relative roles of the two subunits and to identify regions in the subunits important in allosteric regulation. We exploited an Escherichia coli expression system and mosaic AGPases composed of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber and maize (Zea mays) endosperm subunit fragments to pursue this objective. Whereas potato and maize subunits have long been separated by speciation and evolution, they are sufficiently similar to form active mosaic enzymes. Potato tuber and maize endosperm AGPases exhibit radically different allosteric properties. Hence, comparing the kinetic properties of the mosaics to those of the maize endosperm and potato tuber AGPases has enabled us to identify regions important in regulation. The data herein conclusively show that both subunits are involved in the allosteric regulation of AGPase. Alterations in the small subunit condition drastically different allosteric properties. In addition, extent of 3-PGA activation and extent of 3-PGA affinity were found to be separate entities, mapping to different regions in both subunits. PMID:15122037

  19. Frequency doubling of copper lasers using temperature-tuned ADP

    SciTech Connect

    Molander, W.A.

    1994-03-01

    The ability to generate high average power uv at 255 nm by frequency doubling the green line (510.6 nm) of copper lasers would greatly extend the utility of copper lasers. Material processing and microlithography are two areas of interest. The frequency-doubled copper laser could replace the KrF excimer laser, which has a similar wavelength (248 nm), in some applications. The frequency-doubled copper laser has a narrow linewidth and excellent beam quality at a competitive cost. Other attractive features are high reliability, low operating costs, and the absence of toxic gases. This paper will report recent progress in high-efficiency, high-average-power harmonic generation of the copper laser green line using noncritical phase matching in ADP. Frequency doubling of the yellow line (578.2 nm) and sum-frequency mixing of the two lines are also of interest. These processes, however, cannot be phase-matched in ADP and, therefore, will not be discussed here. The results reported and the issues identified here would be important in these other processes and also in many other frequency conversion schemes in the uv such as 4{omega} conversion of Nd{sup 3+}:YAG lasers.

  20. Effect of ADP on binding of skeletal S1 to F-actin.

    PubMed

    Andreev, O A; Ushakov, D S; Borejdo, J

    1998-12-22

    The proximity of skeletal myosin subfragment-1 (S1) to actin, and its orientation with respect to thin filaments of single muscle fibers, were compared in the presence and in the absence of ADP. The proximity was assessed by the efficiency of carbodiimide-induced cross-linking and the orientation by polarization of fluorescence of probes attached to the essential light chains. ADP made no difference in proximity or orientation when the molar ratio of S1 to actin was low or high. However, at the intermediate ratios, ADP made a significant difference. Strong dissociating agents, AMP-PNP and PPi, made significant differences at all ratios. To explain this behavior, it is unnecessary to invoke the ADP-induced "swinging" of the tail of S1. Rather, it is simply explained by the "two-state" model which we proposed earlier, in which S1 binds to one or to two actin protomers, depending on the saturation of the filaments with S1s. The dissociation induced by the ADP shifts the equilibrium between the two bound states. At high and low degrees of saturation, ADP is unable to significantly decrease the amount of S1 bound to F-actin. However, at intermediate saturation levels, ADP causes significantly more S1s to bind to two actins. These results suggest that the ADP-induced changes seen at the intermediate molar ratios are due to the dissociation-induced reorientation of S1. PMID:9922150

  1. ADP modifies the function of the glucose transporter: studies with reconstituted liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Sofue, M; Yoshimura, Y; Nishida, M; Kawada, J

    1993-01-01

    Modification of function of the glucose transporter by nucleotides was studied by using liposomes reconstituted with the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. ADP enclosed in the liposomes inhibited the uptake of D-glucose and nicotinamide in a dose-dependent manner, but other enclosed nucleotides (ATP, AMP, CDP, GDP, UDP) showed no effect on the uptake of both. Only intraliposomal ADP was effective, and extra-liposomal ADP was not, under our experimental conditions. Intraliposomal ADP did not change Km, but decreased Vmax to approximately one-third of control for uptake of both D-glucose and nicotinamide. However, the binding and the affinity of cytochalasin B to the reconstituted liposomes were not affected by intraliposomal ADP. The uptake of uridine was not changed in the presence of ADP, indicating that the nucleoside transporter co-existing in the liposomal membranes is not regulated by ADP. Human erythrocytes whose intracellular ATP was decreased by Ca2+ ionophore A23187 also showed decreased uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and nicotinamide. This phenomenon was very similar to that found in the liposomes. These findings suggest the possibility that the function of the glucose transporter is directly and negatively modified by an increased concentration of intracellular ADP. PMID:8318016

  2. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... automatic data processing (ADP) systems. Classified data or information may not be processed or produced...

  3. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.49 Security of automatic data processing (ADP)...

  4. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... automatic data processing (ADP) systems. Classified data or information may not be processed or produced...

  5. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... automatic data processing (ADP) systems. Classified data or information may not be processed or produced...

  6. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... automatic data processing (ADP) systems. Classified data or information may not be processed or produced...

  7. Effect of heat shock on poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase and DNA repair in Drosophila cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, N.L.; Kidwell, W.R.

    1982-04-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, a chromatin-bound enzyme which attaches polyanionic chains of ADP-ribose to nuclear proteins, was found to be temperature sensitive in intact Drosophila melanogaster cells. The synthetase was completely inactivated by heat-shocking the cells at 37/sup 0/C for 5 min, a condition which had no appreciable effect on the subsequent growth of Drosophila cells at their physiological temperature. The heat-shock effect on synthetase was reversible; enzyme activity began to reappear about 2 hr post heat shock. During the 2-hr interval when poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase was absent, the cells were competent in repair of ..gamma..-ray-induced DNA strand breaks as shown by DNA sedimentation studies on alkaline sucrose gradients. It is thus concluded that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis is unnecessary for repair of DNA strand breaks introduced by irradiation. The same conclusion was reached from the fact that two inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase 3-aminobenzamide and 5-methylnicotinamide, failed to block repair of ..gamma..-ray-induced DNA chain breaks even though both inhibitors reduced the amount of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized in cells by 50-75%. Although it was found that the repair of DNA strand breaks is independent of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis, irradiation does activate the synthetase in control cells, as shown by radioimmunoassay of poly(ADP-ribose) levels.

  8. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions J Appendix J to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 154, App. J Appendix J to Part 154—ADP Position Categories...

  9. A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ASSAY TO MEASURE RUBISCO ACTIVASE ACTIVATION ACTIVITY UNDER VARYING ATP:ADP RATIOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ratio of ATP to ADP in the stroma is an important regulatory mechanism for controlling the activation state of Rubisco via Rubisco activase (activase). Understanding the response of activase to a varying ATP:ADP ratio should reveal insights into the regulation of photosynthesis. However, the cur...

  10. AdpA, key regulator for morphological differentiation regulates bacterial chromosome replication

    PubMed Central

    Wolański, Marcin; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    AdpA, one of the most pleiotropic transcription regulators in bacteria, controls expression of several dozen genes during Streptomyces differentiation. Here, we report a novel function for the AdpA protein: inhibitor of chromosome replication at the initiation stage. AdpA specifically recognizes the 5′ region of the Streptomyces coelicolor replication origin (oriC). Our in vitro results show that binding of AdpA protein decreased access of initiator protein (DnaA) to the oriC region. We also found that mutation of AdpA-binding sequences increased the accessibility of oriC to DnaA, which led to more frequent replication and acceleration of Streptomyces differentiation (at the stage of aerial hyphae formation). Moreover, we also provide evidence that AdpA and DnaA proteins compete for oriC binding in an ATP-dependent manner, with low ATP levels causing preferential binding of AdpA, and high ATP levels causing dissociation of AdpA and association of DnaA. This would be consistent with a role for ATP levels in determining when aerial hyphae emerge. PMID:22870392

  11. Structural Analysis of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase From the Bacterium Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Cupp-Vickery, J.R.; Igarashi, R.Y.; Perez, M.; Poland, M.; Meyer, C.R.

    2009-05-14

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGlc PPase) catalyzes the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate and ATP to ADP-glucose and pyrophosphate. As a key step in glucan synthesis, the ADPGlc PPases are highly regulated by allosteric activators and inhibitors in accord with the carbon metabolism pathways of the organism. Crystals of Agrobacterium tumefaciens ADPGlc PPase were obtained using lithium sulfate as a precipitant. A complete anomalous selenomethionyl derivative X-ray diffraction data set was collected with unit cell dimensions a = 85.38 {angstrom}, b = 93.79 {angstrom}, and c = 140.29 {angstrom} ({alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90{sup o}) and space group I{sub 222}. The A. tumefaciens ADPGlc PPase model was refined to 2.1 {angstrom} with an R{sub factor} = 22% and R{sub free} = 26.6%. The model consists of two domains: an N-terminal {alpha}{beta}{alpha} sandwich and a C-terminal parallel {beta}-helix. ATP and glucose 1-phosphate were successfully modeled in the proposed active site, and site-directed mutagenesis of conserved glycines in this region (G20, G21, and G23) resulted in substantial loss of activity. The interface between the N- and the C-terminal domains harbors a strong sulfate-binding site, and kinetic studies revealed that sulfate is a competitive inhibitor for the allosteric activator fructose 6-phosphate. These results suggest that the interface between the N- and C-terminal domains binds the allosteric regulator, and fructose 6-phosphate was modeled into this region. The A. tumefaciens ADPGlc PPase/fructose 6-phosphate structural model along with sequence alignment analysis was used to design mutagenesis experiments to expand the activator specificity to include fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The H379R and H379K enzymes were found to be activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.

  12. Purification of recombinant poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases.

    PubMed

    Amé, Jean-Christophe; Kalisch, Thomas; Dantzer, Françoise; Schreiber, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    The purification of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases from overexpressing cells (Sf9 insect cells, Escherichia coli) has been updated to a fast and reproducible three chromatographic steps protocol. After cell lysis, proteins from the crude extract are separated on a Heparine Sepharose™ column. The PARP-containing fractions are then affinity purified on a 3-aminobenzamide Sepharose™ chromatographic step. The last contaminants and the 3-methoxybenzamide used to elute the PARP from the previous affinity column are removed on the high-performance strong cations exchanger Source™ 15S matrix. The columns connected to an ÄKTA™ purifier system allow the purification of PARPs in 3 days with a high-yield recovery. As described in the protocol, more than 11 mg of pure and highly active mouse PARP-2 can be obtained from 1 L of Sf9 insect cell culture. PMID:21870259

  13. Crosstalk between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and sirtuin enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, Carles; Sauve, Anthony A.; Bai, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are NAD+ dependent enzymes that were identified as DNA repair proteins, however, today it seems clear that PARPs are responsible for a plethora of biological functions. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD+-dependent deacetylase enzymes involved in the same biological processes as PARPs raising the question whether PARP and SIRT enzymes may interact with each other in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Hereby we review the current understanding of the SIRT-PARP interplay in regard to the biochemical nature of the interaction (competition for the common NAD+ substrate, mutual posttranslational modifications and direct transcriptional effects) and the physiological, or pathophysiological consequences of the interactions (metabolic events, oxidative stress response, genomic stability and ageing). Finally, we give an overview of the possibilities of pharmacological intervention to modulate PARP and SIRT enzymes either directly, or through modulating NAD+ homeostasis. PMID:23357756

  14. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Tuininga, J E; Verhees, C H; van der Oost, J; Kengen, S W; Stams, A J; de Vos, W M

    1999-07-23

    Pyrococcus furiosus uses a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway involving two ADP-dependent kinases. Using the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the previously purified ADP-dependent glucokinase, the corresponding gene as well as a related open reading frame were detected in the genome of P. furiosus. Both genes were successfully cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, yielding highly thermoactive ADP-dependent glucokinase and phosphofructokinase. The deduced amino acid sequences of both kinases were 21.1% identical but did not reveal significant homology with those of other known sugar kinases. The ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase was purified and characterized. The oxygen-stable protein had a native molecular mass of approximately 180 kDa and was composed of four identical 52-kDa subunits. It had a specific activity of 88 units/mg at 50 degrees C and a pH optimum of 6.5. As phosphoryl group donor, ADP could be replaced by GDP, ATP, and GTP to a limited extent. The K(m) values for fructose 6-phosphate and ADP were 2.3 and 0.11 mM, respectively. The phosphofructokinase did not catalyze the reverse reaction, nor was it regulated by any of the known allosteric modulators of ATP-dependent phosphofructokinases. ATP and AMP were identified as competitive inhibitors of the phosphofructokinase, raising the K(m) for ADP to 0.34 and 0.41 mM, respectively. PMID:10409652

  15. Subunit-selective N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Signaling through Brefeldin A-resistant Arf Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors BRAG1 and BRAG2 during Synapse Maturation.

    PubMed

    Elagabani, Mohammad Nael; Briševac, Dušica; Kintscher, Michael; Pohle, Jörg; Köhr, Georg; Schmitz, Dietmar; Kornau, Hans-Christian

    2016-04-22

    The maturation of glutamatergic synapses in the CNS is regulated by NMDA receptors (NMDARs) that gradually change from a GluN2B- to a GluN2A-dominated subunit composition during postnatal development. Here we show that NMDARs control the activity of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) by consecutively recruiting two related brefeldin A-resistant Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors, BRAG1 and BRAG2, in a GluN2 subunit-dependent manner. In young cortical cultures, GluN2B and BRAG1 tonically activated Arf6. In mature cultures, Arf6 was activated through GluN2A and BRAG2 upon NMDA treatment, whereas the tonic Arf6 activation was not detectable any longer. This shift in Arf6 regulation and the associated drop in Arf6 activity were reversed by a knockdown of BRAG2. Given their sequential recruitment during development, we examined whether BRAG1 and BRAG2 influence synaptic currents in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons using patch clamp recordings in acute slices from mice at different ages. The number of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) miniature events was reduced by depletion of BRAG1 but not by depletion of BRAG2 during the first 2 weeks after birth. In contrast, depletion of BRAG2 during postnatal weeks 4 and 5 reduced the number of AMPAR miniature events and compromised the quantal sizes of both AMPAR and NMDAR currents evoked at Schaffer collateral synapses. We conclude that both Arf6 activation through GluN2B-BRAG1 during early development and the transition from BRAG1- to BRAG2-dependent Arf6 signaling induced by the GluN2 subunit switch are critical for the development of mature glutamatergic synapses. PMID:26884337

  16. Profiling of cis-diol-containing nucleosides and ribosylated metabolites by boronate-affinity organic-silica hybrid monolithic capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Han-Peng; Qi, Chu-Bo; Chu, Jie-Mei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-01-01

    RNA contains a large number of modified nucleosides. In the metabolic re-exchange of RNA, modified nucleosides cannot be recycled and are thus excreted from cells into biological fluids. Determination of endogenous modified nucleosides in biological fluids may serve as non-invasive cancers diagnostic methods. Here we prepared boronate-affinity organic-silica hybrid capillary monolithic column (BOHCMC) that exhibited excellent selectivity toward the cis-diol-containing compounds. We then used the prepared BOHCMC as the on-line solid-phase microextraction (SPME) column and developed an on-line SPME-LC-MS/MS method to comprehensively profile cis-diol-containing nucleosides and ribosylated metabolites in human urine. Forty-five cis-diol-containing nucleosides and ribosylated metabolites were successfully identified in human urine. And five ribose conjugates, for the first time, were identified existence in human urine in the current study. Furthermore, the relative quantification suggested 4 cis-diol-containing compounds (5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadensine, N(4)-acetylcytidine, 1-ribosyl-N-propionylhistamine and N(2),N(2),7-trimethylguanosine) increased more than 1.5 folds in all the 3 types of examined cancers (lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and nasopharyngeal cancer) compared to healthy controls. The on-line SPME-LC-MS/MS method demonstrates a promising method for the comprehensive profiling of cis-diol-containing ribose conjugates in human urines, which provides an efficient strategy for the identification and discovery of biomarkers and may be used for the screening of cancers. PMID:25585609

  17. Profiling of cis-Diol-containing Nucleosides and Ribosylated Metabolites by Boronate-affinity Organic-silica Hybrid Monolithic Capillary Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Han-Peng; Qi, Chu-Bo; Chu, Jie-Mei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-01-01

    RNA contains a large number of modified nucleosides. In the metabolic re-exchange of RNA, modified nucleosides cannot be recycled and are thus excreted from cells into biological fluids. Determination of endogenous modified nucleosides in biological fluids may serve as non-invasive cancers diagnostic methods. Here we prepared boronate-affinity organic-silica hybrid capillary monolithic column (BOHCMC) that exhibited excellent selectivity toward the cis-diol-containing compounds. We then used the prepared BOHCMC as the on-line solid-phase microextraction (SPME) column and developed an on-line SPME-LC-MS/MS method to comprehensively profile cis-diol-containing nucleosides and ribosylated metabolites in human urine. Forty-five cis-diol-containing nucleosides and ribosylated metabolites were successfully identified in human urine. And five ribose conjugates, for the first time, were identified existence in human urine in the current study. Furthermore, the relative quantification suggested 4 cis-diol-containing compounds (5′-deoxy-5′-methylthioadensine, N4-acetylcytidine, 1-ribosyl-N-propionylhistamine and N2,N2,7-trimethylguanosine) increased more than 1.5 folds in all the 3 types of examined cancers (lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and nasopharyngeal cancer) compared to healthy controls. The on-line SPME-LC-MS/MS method demonstrates a promising method for the comprehensive profiling of cis-diol-containing ribose conjugates in human urines, which provides an efficient strategy for the identification and discovery of biomarkers and may be used for the screening of cancers. PMID:25585609

  18. Methodological considerations for the assessment of ADP induced platelet aggregation using the Multiplate® analyser.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa R; Larsen, Peter D; La Flamme, Anne C; Harding, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting the Multiplate® assay's analytical precision have not been well defined. We investigated the effect of methodological factors on the measurement of ADP-induced platelet aggregation using the Multiplate® assay. ADP-induced platelet aggregation was analysed in whole blood using the Multiplate® assay. We tested the reproducibility of measurement, the effect of different anticoagulants (hirudin, citrate and heparin) and the effect of time delay (15, 30, 45, 60, 120 and 180 minutes) between sampling and analysis in patients. The use of a manual calibrated pipette with the Multiplate® analyser was also tested. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) using the manufacturers recommended methods was 10.8 ± 8.7% (n = 30). When compared to hirudin (359.5 ± 309 AU*min) the use of heparin (521.0 ± 316 AU*min, p = 0.0015) increased platelet aggregation, while the use of sodium citrate (245.0 ± 209 AU*min, p = 0.003) decreased the platelet aggregation (n = 20). The addition of CaCl2 to the citrate-anticoagulated blood resulted in platelet aggregation levels similar to hirudin. Platelet aggregation varied with time delay (n = 20). When compared to platelet aggregation at 30 minutes (391.1 ± 283 AU*min), platelet aggregation was reduced at 60 minutes (335.2 ± 251.6 AU*min, p < 0.05), 120 minutes (198.8 ± 122.9 AU*min, p < 0.001) and 180 minutes (160.7 ± 92 AU*min, p < 0.001). The use of a manual calibrated pipette did not significantly reduce the mean CV in the assay (n = 20). Methodological factors such as the anticoagulant used and the time delay should be standardised where possible to reduce variability, and allow thresholds derived from one study to be comparable across multiple studies. PMID:22686487

  19. The Level of AdpA Directly Affects Expression of Developmental Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wolański, Marcin; Donczew, Rafał; Kois-Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Masiewicz, Paweł; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    AdpA is a key regulator of morphological differentiation in Streptomyces. In contrast to Streptomyces griseus, relatively little is known about AdpA protein functions in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, we report for the first time the translation accumulation profile of the S. coelicolor adpA (adpASc) gene; the level of S. coelicolor AdpA (AdpASc) increased, reaching a maximum in the early stage of aerial mycelium formation (after 36 h), and remained relatively stable for the next several hours (48 to 60 h), and then the signal intensity decreased considerably. AdpASc specifically binds the adpASc promoter region in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that its expression is autoregulated; surprisingly, in contrast to S. griseus, the protein presumably acts as a transcriptional activator. We also demonstrate a direct influence of AdpASc on the expression of several genes whose products play key roles in the differentiation of S. coelicolor: STI, a protease inhibitor; RamR, an atypical response regulator that itself activates expression of the genes for a small modified peptide that is required for aerial growth; and ClpP1, an ATP-dependent protease. The diverse influence of AdpASc protein on the expression of the analyzed genes presumably results mainly from different affinities of AdpASc protein to individual promoters. PMID:21926228

  20. ADP inhibits function of the ABC transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator via its adenylate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph O; Welsh, Michael J

    2005-02-01

    ADP interacts with the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to inhibit its Cl- channel activity. Because CFTR NBD2 has reversible adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP<==> ADP + ADP) that gates the channel, we asked whether ADP might inhibit current through this enzymatic activity. In adenylate kinases, binding of the two ADP molecules is cooperative. Consistent with this hypothesis, CFTR current inhibition showed positive cooperativity for ADP. We also found that ADP inhibition of current was attenuated when we prevented adenylate kinase activity with P1,P5-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate. Additional studies suggested that adenylate kinase-dependent inhibition involved phosphotransfer between two nucleotide diphosphates. These data indicate that the adenylate kinase reaction at NBD2 contributed to the inhibitory effect of ADP. Finding that ADP inhibits function via an adenylate kinase activity also helps explain the earlier observation that mutations that disrupt adenylate kinase activity also disrupt ADP inhibition. Thus, the results reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism by which ADP inhibits an ABC transporter. PMID:15684079

  1. ADP inhibits function of the ABC transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator via its adenylate kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Randak, Christoph O.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    ADP interacts with the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to inhibit its Cl- channel activity. Because CFTR NBD2 has reversible adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP ⇆ ADP + ADP) that gates the channel, we asked whether ADP might inhibit current through this enzymatic activity. In adenylate kinases, binding of the two ADP molecules is cooperative. Consistent with this hypothesis, CFTR current inhibition showed positive cooperativity for ADP. We also found that ADP inhibition of current was attenuated when we prevented adenylate kinase activity with P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate. Additional studies suggested that adenylate kinase-dependent inhibition involved phosphotransfer between two nucleotide diphosphates. These data indicate that the adenylate kinase reaction at NBD2 contributed to the inhibitory effect of ADP. Finding that ADP inhibits function via an adenylate kinase activity also helps explain the earlier observation that mutations that disrupt adenylate kinase activity also disrupt ADP inhibition. Thus, the results reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism by which ADP inhibits an ABC transporter. PMID:15684079

  2. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban do not affect AA- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in patients receiving concomitant platelet inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Christoph B; Weik, Patrick; Meyer, Melanie; Weber, Susanne; Diehl, Philipp; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin; Zhou, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are novel, vitamin K-independent oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and act via antagonism of the coagulation factor (F) IIa (dabigatran) or FXa (rivaroxaban), respectively. Compared to vitamin-K-antagonists, NOACs have shown non-inferiority of risk and benefit in patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). In clinical practice there is increasing use of NOACs combined with platelet inhibitors in patients with AF and coronary artery disease. However, whether NOACs affect the function of platelet inhibitors remains incompletely known. This observational study aimed to assess the platelet function in patients receiving dabigatran or rivaroxaban and concomitant platelet inhibitors. A single centre observational study was performed analysing the platelet aggregation of patients treated with dabigatran or rivaroxaban with or without concomitant platelet inhibitors. Measurements before the initiation of NOAC therapy served as the respective control group. Platelet aggregation was measured by multiple electrode aggregometry and was induced with adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 6.5 µM) and arachidonic acid (AA, 0.5 mM), respectively. In order to evaluate whether NOACs interact with platelet inhibition by ASA or the P2Y12-antagonist clopidogrel, 87 patients were grouped according to their concomitant antiplatelet medication. Comparing the ADP- and AA-induced platelet aggregation in patients without concomitant platelet inhibitors (n = 45) no significant differences under therapy with dabigatran (d) or rivaroxaban (r) compared to the control group (c) were observed. In patients taking clopidogrel as a concomitant platelet inhibitor (n = 21), neither dabigatran nor rivaroxaban affected the ADP-induced platelet aggregation (c 20 ± 11, d 21 ± 14, r 18 ± 8 AU*min, p = 0.200). Patients receiving dabigatran or rivaroxaban in combination with ASA (n = 42; 21 ASA only, 21 ASA + clopidogrel) showed no significant differences of the AA

  3. Morin, a dietary bioflavonol suppresses monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in an animal model of acute gouty arthritis with reference to NLRP3 inflammasome, hypo-xanthine phospho-ribosyl transferase, and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekar, Chitra; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2016-09-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of morin, a dietary bioflavanol was explored on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in rats, an experimental model for acute gouty arthritis. Morin treatment (30mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated the ankle swelling and the levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and articular elastase along with an increased anti-oxidant status (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in the joint homogenate of MSU crystal-induced rats. Histological assessment revealed that morin limited the diffusion of joint space, synovial hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltrations. The mRNA expression of NLRP3 (nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome, caspase-1, pro-inflammatory cytokines, MCP-1, inflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 was found downregulated and HPRT (hypo-xanthine phospho-ribosyl transferase) mRNA expression was upregulated in morin treated MSU crystal-induced rats. In addition, morin treatment reduced the protein expression of NF-κB p65, p-NF-κB p65, iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α. The results clearly demonstrated that morin exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect on MSU crystal-induced inflammation in rats. PMID:27268719

  4. Effect of ADP on Na+-Na+ Exchange Reaction Kinetics of Na,K-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Peluffo, R. Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used in rat cardiac myocytes to investigate the kinetics of ADP binding to phosphorylated states of Na,K-ATPase and its effects on presteady-state Na+-dependent charge movements by this enzyme. Ouabain-sensitive transient currents generated by Na,K-ATPase functioning in electroneutral Na+-Na+ exchange mode were measured at 23°C with pipette ADP concentrations ([ADP]) of up to 4.3 mM and extracellular Na+ concentrations ([Na]o) between 36 and 145 mM at membrane potentials (VM) from −160 to +80 mV. Analysis of charge-VM curves showed that the midpoint potential of charge distribution was shifted toward more positive VM both by increasing [ADP] at constant Na+o and by increasing [Na]o at constant ADP. The total quantity of mobile charge, on the other hand, was found to be independent of changes in [ADP] or [Na]o. The presence of ADP increased the apparent rate constant for current relaxation at hyperpolarizing VM but decreased it at depolarizing VM as compared to control (no added ADP), an indication that ADP binding facilitates backward reaction steps during Na+-Na+ exchange while slowing forward reactions. Data analysis using a pseudo three-state model yielded an apparent Kd of ∼6 mM for ADP binding to and release from the Na,K-ATPase phosphoenzyme; a value of 130 s−1 for k2, a rate constant that groups Na+ deocclusion/release and the enzyme conformational transition E1∼P → E2-P; a value of 162 s−1M−1 for k−2, a lumped second-order VM-independent rate constant describing the reverse reactions; and a Hill coefficient of ∼1 for Na+o binding to E2-P. The results are consistent with electroneutral release of ADP before Na+ is deoccluded and released through an ion well. The same approach can be used to study additional charge-moving reactions and associated electrically silent steps of the Na,K-pump and other transporters. PMID:15298896

  5. The energetics of allosteric regulation of ADP release from myosin heads.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Del R; Baker, Josh E

    2009-06-28

    Myosin molecules are involved in a wide range of transport and contractile activities in cells. A single myosin head functions through its ATPase reaction as a force generator and as a mechanosensor, and when two or more myosin heads work together in moving along an actin filament, the interplay between these mechanisms contributes to collective myosin behaviors. For example, the interplay between force-generating and force-sensing mechanisms coordinates the two heads of a myosin V molecule in its hand-over-hand processive stepping along an actin filament. In muscle, it contributes to the Fenn effect and smooth muscle latch. In both examples, a key force-sensing mechanism is the regulation of ADP release via interhead forces that are generated upon actin-myosin binding. Here we present a model describing the mechanism of allosteric regulation of ADP release from myosin heads as a change, DeltaDeltaG(-D), in the standard free energy for ADP release that results from the work, Deltamicro(mech), performed by that myosin head upon ADP release, or DeltaDeltaG(-D) = Deltamicro(mech). We show that this model is consistent with previous measurements for strain-dependent kinetics of ADP release in both myosin V and muscle myosin II. The model makes explicit the energetic cost of accelerating ADP release, showing that acceleration of ADP release during myosin V processivity requires approximately 4 kT of energy whereas the energetic cost for accelerating ADP release in a myosin II-based actin motility assay is only approximately 0.4 kT. The model also predicts that the acceleration of ADP release involves a dissipation of interhead forces. To test this prediction, we use an in vitro motility assay to show that the acceleration of ADP release from both smooth and skeletal muscle myosin II correlates with a decrease in interhead force. Our analyses provide clear energetic constraints for models of the allosteric regulation of ADP release and provide novel, testable insights

  6. ADP-stimulated contraction: A predictor of thin-filament activation in cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Vasco; Najafi, Aref; Wijnker, Paul J M; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Michels, Michelle; Kuster, Diederik W D; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2015-12-15

    Diastolic dysfunction is general to all idiopathic dilated (IDCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients. Relaxation deficits may result from increased actin-myosin formation during diastole due to altered tropomyosin position, which blocks myosin binding to actin in the absence of Ca(2+). We investigated whether ADP-stimulated force development (without Ca(2+)) can be used to reveal changes in actin-myosin blockade in human cardiomyopathy cardiomyocytes. Cardiac samples from HCM patients, harboring thick-filament (MYH7mut, MYBPC3mut) and thin-filament (TNNT2mut, TNNI3mut) mutations, and IDCM were compared with sarcomere mutation-negative HCM (HCMsmn) and nonfailing donors. Myofilament ADP sensitivity was higher in IDCM and HCM compared with donors, whereas it was lower for MYBPC3. Increased ADP sensitivity in IDCM, HCMsmn, and MYH7mut was caused by low phosphorylation of myofilament proteins, as it was normalized to donors by protein kinase A (PKA) treatment. Troponin exchange experiments in a TNNT2mut sample corrected the abnormal actin-myosin blockade. In MYBPC3trunc samples, ADP sensitivity highly correlated with cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) protein level. Incubation of cardiomyocytes with cMyBP-C antibody against the actin-binding N-terminal region reduced ADP sensitivity, indicative of cMyBP-C's role in actin-myosin regulation. In the presence of Ca(2+), ADP increased myofilament force development and sarcomere stiffness. Enhanced sarcomere stiffness in sarcomere mutation-positive HCM samples was irrespective of the phosphorylation background. In conclusion, ADP-stimulated contraction can be used as a tool to study how protein phosphorylation and mutant proteins alter accessibility of myosin binding on actin. In the presence of Ca(2+), pathologic [ADP] and low PKA-phosphorylation, high actin-myosin formation could contribute to the impaired myocardial relaxation observed in cardiomyopathies. PMID:26621701

  7. ADP-stimulated contraction: A predictor of thin-filament activation in cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Vasco; Najafi, Aref; Wijnker, Paul J. M.; Michels, Michelle; Kuster, Diederik W. D.; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is general to all idiopathic dilated (IDCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients. Relaxation deficits may result from increased actin–myosin formation during diastole due to altered tropomyosin position, which blocks myosin binding to actin in the absence of Ca2+. We investigated whether ADP-stimulated force development (without Ca2+) can be used to reveal changes in actin–myosin blockade in human cardiomyopathy cardiomyocytes. Cardiac samples from HCM patients, harboring thick-filament (MYH7mut, MYBPC3mut) and thin-filament (TNNT2mut, TNNI3mut) mutations, and IDCM were compared with sarcomere mutation-negative HCM (HCMsmn) and nonfailing donors. Myofilament ADP sensitivity was higher in IDCM and HCM compared with donors, whereas it was lower for MYBPC3. Increased ADP sensitivity in IDCM, HCMsmn, and MYH7mut was caused by low phosphorylation of myofilament proteins, as it was normalized to donors by protein kinase A (PKA) treatment. Troponin exchange experiments in a TNNT2mut sample corrected the abnormal actin–myosin blockade. In MYBPC3trunc samples, ADP sensitivity highly correlated with cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) protein level. Incubation of cardiomyocytes with cMyBP-C antibody against the actin-binding N-terminal region reduced ADP sensitivity, indicative of cMyBP-C’s role in actin–myosin regulation. In the presence of Ca2+, ADP increased myofilament force development and sarcomere stiffness. Enhanced sarcomere stiffness in sarcomere mutation-positive HCM samples was irrespective of the phosphorylation background. In conclusion, ADP-stimulated contraction can be used as a tool to study how protein phosphorylation and mutant proteins alter accessibility of myosin binding on actin. In the presence of Ca2+, pathologic [ADP] and low PKA-phosphorylation, high actin–myosin formation could contribute to the impaired myocardial relaxation observed in cardiomyopathies. PMID:26621701

  8. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  9. Multiple forms of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from tomato fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. Y.; Janes, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) was purified from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit to apparent homogeneity. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the enzyme migrated as two close bands with molecular weights of 50,000 and 51,000. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the purified enzyme, however, revealed at least five major protein spots that could be distinguished by their slight differences in net charge and molecular weight. Whereas all of the spots were recognized by the antiserum raised against tomato fruit AGP holoenzyme, only three of them reacted strongly with antiserum raised against the potato tuber AGP large subunit, and the other two spots (with lower molecular weights) reacted specifically with antisera raised against spinach leaf AGP holoenzyme and the potato tuber AGP small subunit. The results suggest the existence of at least three isoforms of the AGP large subunit and two isoforms of the small subunit in tomato fruit in vivo. The native molecular mass of the enzyme determined by gel filtration was 220 +/- 10 kD, indicating a tetrameric structure for AGP from tomato fruit. The purified enzyme is very sensitive to 3-phosphoglycerate/inorganic phosphate regulation.

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exopolyphosphatase Is Also a Polyphosphate: ADP Phosphotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Beassoni, Paola R.; Gallarato, Lucas A.; Boetsch, Cristhian; Garrido, Mónica N.; Lisa, Angela T.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa exopolyphosphatase (paPpx; EC 3.6.1.11) catalyzes the hydrolysis of polyphosphates (polyP), producing polyPn−1 plus inorganic phosphate (Pi). In a recent work we have shown that paPpx is involved in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa. The present study was aimed at performing the biochemical characterization of this enzyme. We found some properties that were already described for E. coli Ppx (ecPpx) but we also discovered new and original characteristics of paPpx: (i) the peptide that connects subdomains II and III is essential for enzyme activity; (ii) NH4+ is an activator of the enzyme and may function at concentrations lower than those of K+; (iii) Zn2+ is also an activator of paPpx and may substitute Mg2+ in the catalytic site; and (iv) paPpx also has phosphotransferase activity, dependent on Mg2+ and capable of producing ATP regardless of the presence or absence of K+ or NH4+ ions. In addition, we detected that the active site responsible for the phosphatase activity is also responsible for the phosphotransferase activity. Through the combination of molecular modeling and docking techniques, we propose a model of the paPpx N-terminal domain in complex with a polyP chain of 7 residues long and a molecule of ADP to explain the phosphotransferase activity. PMID:26576296

  11. Increased poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activity in cells infected by human immunodeficiency virus type-1.

    PubMed

    Furlini, G; Re, M C; La Placa, M

    1991-04-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase is a chromatin-bound enzyme which is activated by free DNA ends and is therefore stimulated by a variety of DNA-damaging agents. The enzyme transfers the ADP moiety of NAD to nuclear proteins to create protein-bound ADP-ribose polymers. Under conditions favouring an accelerated poly(ADP-ribose) polymer formation, the enzyme may exhaust cellular NAD pools. At the same time, or shortly thereafter ATP levels drop and cell viability eventually declines. As a series of chemical and physical agents which may play a role in activating latent HIV-1 infection or favouring HIV-1 replication, have a DNA-damaging activity, we investigated the behaviour of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activity in various types of HIV-1-infected cells. The results obtained show that HIV-1-infected cells to possess an increased poly(ADP-ribosol)ating activity together with an accentuated fragmentation of cellular DNA which are associated with the time course of HIV-1 replication. These data give circumstantial support to the hypothesis that a NAD-depdendent cellular suicide response to DNA damage, could play a role in the death of HIV-1 infected cells. In this respect, the impared immunocompetence of HIV-1-infected patients could bear some resemblance to immune attribution that sometimes accompanies some inborn errors affecting DNA precursor metabolism and DNA integrity. PMID:1906973

  12. Modulation of the chloroplast ATPase by tight ADP binding. Effect of uncouplers and ATP.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zvi, D; Shavit, N

    1982-12-01

    Inactivation of the membrane-bound ATPase by tight ADP binding was studied under nonenergized conditions. The energy state of the system was controlled either by omitting MgCl2, preventing ATP hydrolysis, or by addition of an uncoupler which dissipates the delta mu H+. In the absence of Mg2+, ATP prevents the inactivation of the enzyme by ADP, in a competitive manner. This effect of ATP resembles that of GDP with Mg2+ present. In the presence of nigericin, Mg2+, and ATP, inactivation occurs after a 10-15-sec interval, during which the enzyme is able to hydrolyze ATP at a relatively rapid rate. The degree of inactivation is proportional to the level of bound ADP detected. This behavior is different from that of the coupled ATPase (no uncoupler added), where inactivation is attained only upon exhaustion of the ATP by its hydrolysis, despite the finding that ADP binds tightly to the active ATPase at all stages of the reaction. Higher levels of tightly bound ADP were detected in the presence of an uncoupler. We suggest that the interval during which the enzyme becomes inactive is that required for the enzyme to generate and bind ADP, and to change from the active to the inactive conformation. These results support the mechanism suggested previously for the modulation of the ATPase by tight nucleotide binding. PMID:6219104

  13. Heterogeneity of ADP Diffusion and Regulation of Respiration in Cardiac Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saks, Valdur; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Andrienko, Tatiana; Usson, Yves; Appaix, Florence; Guerrero, Karen; Kaambre, Tuuli; Sikk, Peeter; Lemba, Maris; Vendelin, Marko

    2003-01-01

    Heterogeneity of ADP diffusion and regulation of respiration were studied in permeabilized cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibers in situ and in silico. Regular arrangement of mitochondria in cells was altered by short-time treatment with trypsin and visualized by confocal microscopy. Manipulation of matrix volumes by changing K+ and sucrose concentrations did not affect the affinity for ADP either in isolated heart mitochondria or in skinned fibers. Pyruvate kinase (PK)-phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) were used to trap ADP generated in Ca,MgATPase reactions. Inhibition of respiration by PK-PEP increased 2–3 times after disorganization of regular mitochondrial arrangement in cells. ADP produced locally in the mitochondrial creatine kinase reaction was not accessible to PK-PEP in intact permeabilized fibers, but some part of it was released from mitochondria after short proteolysis due to increased permeability of outer mitochondrial membrane. In in silico studies we show by mathematical modeling that these results can be explained by heterogeneity of ADP diffusion due to its restrictions at the outer mitochondrial membrane and in close areas, which is changed after proteolysis. Localized restrictions and heterogeneity of ADP diffusion demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial functional complexes with sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrillar structures and creatine kinase in regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:12719270

  14. Isoflurane Prevents Acute Lung Injury Through ADP-Mediated Platelet Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Harr, Jeffrey N.; Moore, Ernest E.; Stringham, John; Wohlauer, Max V.; Fragoso, Miguel; Jones, Wilbert L.; Gamboni, Fabia; Silliman, Christopher C.; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests platelets are essential in post-traumatic acute lung injury (ALI). Halogenated ethers interfere with platelet-granulocyte aggregate formation. The potential benefit of halogenated ethers has not been investigated in trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) models. Therefore, we hypothesized that isoflurane decreases T/HS-mediated ALI through platelet inhibition. Methods Sprauge-Dawley rats (n=47) were anesthetized by either pentobarbital or inhaled isoflurane, and placed into groups: control, trauma (laparotomy) sham shock, T/HS (MAP of 30 mmHg × 45 min), pre-treatment with an ADP receptor antagonist, or T/HS with isoflurane initiated during resuscitation. ALI was determined by BALF protein and pulmonary immunofluorescence. PlateletMapping™ specifically evaluated thrombin-independent inhibition of the ADP and AA pathways of platelet activation. Results Pre-treatment with isoflurane abrogated ALI as measured by both BAL fluid protein and pulmonary immunofluorescence (p<0.001). PlateletMapping™, revealed specific platelet ADP-pathway inhibition with isoflurane (p<0.001). Pre-treatment with an ADP receptor antagonist decreased ALI to sham levels, confirming that specific platelet ADP inhibition decreases ALI. Isoflurane initiated during resuscitation also decreased ALI (p<0.001). Conclusion Isoflurane attenuates ALI through an anti-platelet mechanism, in part, through inhibition of the platelet ADP pathway. Isoflurane given post-injury also protects against ALI, and highlights the potential applications of this therapy in various ischemia/reperfusion clinical scenarios. PMID:22828148

  15. Two Arabidopsis ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Large Subunits (APL1 and APL2) Are Catalytic1

    PubMed Central

    Ventriglia, Tiziana; Kuhn, Misty L.; Ruiz, Ma Teresa; Ribeiro-Pedro, Marina; Valverde, Federico; Ballicora, Miguel A.; Preiss, Jack; Romero, José M.

    2008-01-01

    ADP-glucose (Glc) pyrophosphorylase (ADP-Glc PPase) catalyzes the first committed step in starch biosynthesis. Higher plant ADP-Glc PPase is a heterotetramer (α2β2) consisting of two small and two large subunits. There is increasing evidence that suggests that catalytic and regulatory properties of the enzyme from higher plants result from the synergy of both types of subunits. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), two genes encode small subunits (APS1 and APS2) and four large subunits (APL1–APL4). Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, APL1 and APL2, besides their regulatory role, have catalytic activity. Heterotetramers formed by combinations of a noncatalytic APS1 and the four large subunits showed that APL1 and APL2 exhibited ADP-Glc PPase activity with distinctive sensitivities to the allosteric activator (3-phosphoglycerate). Mutation of the Glc-1-P binding site of Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum) isoforms confirmed these observations. To determine the relevance of these activities in planta, a T-DNA mutant of APS1 (aps1) was characterized. aps1 is starchless, lacks ADP-Glc PPase activity, APS1 mRNA, and APS1 protein, and is late flowering in long days. Transgenic lines of the aps1 mutant, expressing an inactivated form of APS1, recovered the wild-type phenotype, indicating that APL1 and APL2 have catalytic activity and may contribute to ADP-Glc synthesis in planta. PMID:18614708

  16. Two Arabidopsis ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunits (APL1 and APL2) are catalytic.

    PubMed

    Ventriglia, Tiziana; Kuhn, Misty L; Ruiz, Ma Teresa; Ribeiro-Pedro, Marina; Valverde, Federico; Ballicora, Miguel A; Preiss, Jack; Romero, José M

    2008-09-01

    ADP-glucose (Glc) pyrophosphorylase (ADP-Glc PPase) catalyzes the first committed step in starch biosynthesis. Higher plant ADP-Glc PPase is a heterotetramer (alpha(2)beta(2)) consisting of two small and two large subunits. There is increasing evidence that suggests that catalytic and regulatory properties of the enzyme from higher plants result from the synergy of both types of subunits. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), two genes encode small subunits (APS1 and APS2) and four large subunits (APL1-APL4). Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, APL1 and APL2, besides their regulatory role, have catalytic activity. Heterotetramers formed by combinations of a noncatalytic APS1 and the four large subunits showed that APL1 and APL2 exhibited ADP-Glc PPase activity with distinctive sensitivities to the allosteric activator (3-phosphoglycerate). Mutation of the Glc-1-P binding site of Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum) isoforms confirmed these observations. To determine the relevance of these activities in planta, a T-DNA mutant of APS1 (aps1) was characterized. aps1 is starchless, lacks ADP-Glc PPase activity, APS1 mRNA, and APS1 protein, and is late flowering in long days. Transgenic lines of the aps1 mutant, expressing an inactivated form of APS1, recovered the wild-type phenotype, indicating that APL1 and APL2 have catalytic activity and may contribute to ADP-Glc synthesis in planta. PMID:18614708

  17. ADP-dependent 6-Phosphofructokinase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3: STRUCTURE DETERMINATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PH1645

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Mark A.; Merino, Felipe; Skarina, Tatiana; Wong, Andrew H.Y.; Singer, Alexander; Brown, Greg; Savchenko, Alexei; Caniuguir, Andrés; Guixé, Victoria; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Jia, Zongchao

    2009-12-01

    Some hyperthermophilic archaea use a modified glycolytic pathway that employs an ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADP-GK) and an ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase (ADP-PFK) or, in the case of Methanococcus jannaschii, a bifunctional ADP-dependent glucophosphofructokinase (ADP-GK/PFK). The crystal structures of three ADP-GKs have been determined. However, there is no structural information available for ADP-PFKs or the ADP-GK/PFK. Here, we present the first crystal structure of an ADP-PFK from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PhPFK) in both apo- and AMP-bound forms determined to 2.0-{angstrom} and 1.9-{angstrom} resolution, respectively, along with biochemical characterization of the enzyme. The overall structure of PhPFK maintains a similar large and small {alpha}/{beta} domain structure seen in the ADP-GK structures. A large conformational change accompanies binding of phosphoryl donor, acceptor, or both, in all members of the ribokinase superfamily characterized thus far, which is believed to be critical to enzyme function. Surprisingly, no such conformational change was observed in the AMP-bound PhPFK structure compared with the apo structure. Through comprehensive site-directed mutagenesis of the substrate binding pocket we identified residues that were critical for both substrate recognition and the phosphotransfer reaction. The catalytic residues and many of the substrate binding residues are conserved between PhPFK and ADP-GKs; however, four key residues differ in the sugar-binding pocket, which we have shown determine the sugar-binding specificity. Using these results we were able to engineer a mutant PhPFK that mimics the ADP-GK/PFK and is able to phosphorylate both fructose 6-phosphate and glucose.

  18. Thermodynamics of nucleotide binding to actomyosin V and VI: a positive heat capacity change accompanies strong ADP binding.

    PubMed

    Robblee, James P; Cao, Wenxiang; Henn, Arnon; Hannemann, Diane E; De La Cruz, Enrique M

    2005-08-01

    We have measured the energetics of ATP and ADP binding to single-headed actomyosin V and VI from the temperature dependence of the rate and equilibrium binding constants. Nucleotide binding to actomyosin V and VI can be modeled as two-step binding mechanisms involving the formation of collision complexes followed by isomerization to states with high nucleotide affinity. Formation of the actomyosin VI-ATP collision complex is much weaker and slower than for actomyosin V. A three-step binding mechanism where actomyosin VI isomerizes between two conformations, one competent to bind ATP and one not, followed by rapid ATP binding best accounts for the data. ADP binds to actomyosin V more tightly than actomyosin VI. At 25 degrees C, the strong ADP-binding equilibria are comparable for actomyosin V and VI, and the different overall ADP affinities arise from differences in the ADP collision complex affinity. The actomyosin-ADP isomerization leading to strong ADP binding is entropy driven at >15 degrees C and occurs with a large, positive change in heat capacity (DeltaC(P) degrees ) for both actomyosin V and VI. Sucrose slows ADP binding and dissociation from actomyosin V and VI but not the overall equilibrium constants for strong ADP binding, indicating that solvent viscosity dampens ADP-dependent kinetic transitions, presumably a tail swing that occurs with ADP binding and release. We favor a mechanism where strong ADP binding increases the dynamics and flexibility of the actomyosin complex. The heat capacity (DeltaC(P) degrees ) and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) changes are greater for actomyosin VI than actomyosin V, suggesting different extents of ADP-induced structural rearrangement. PMID:16042401

  19. The use of a PC-ADP in Shallow Rivers: Potential and Limitations for Turbulence Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassista, A.; Roy, A. G.

    2005-12-01

    Turbulence plays an important role for processes such as mixing, sediment transport, scour and energy dissipation in rivers. Information in both space and time is essential to characterize flow turbulence in rivers, which would lead to a better understanding of sediment transport processes and bedform dynamics. Characterization of turbulent structures and their dynamics from conventionnal single point velocity measurements is time- and labor-intensive. Acoustic Doppler Profilers (ADP) have the ability to measure instantaneous velocity profiles in three dimensions and have shown a potential to measure turbulence characteristics. New Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (PC-ADP) technology provides a higher spatial resolution than conventional ADP and allows their use in shallow rivers. However, the measurement noise, the spreading of the instrument beams and the temporal and spatial averaging from this device may limit its application in rivers. The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential and the limitations of turbulence measurement using PC-ADP in shallow rivers. Field measurements were undertaken on the Rouge River (Quebec, Canada) during summer 2005 using a 1.5 MHz PC-ADP. The downward-looking PC-ADP was used to measure velocities at fixed river locations in ten 8-cm cells at a frequency of 1 Hz for long sampling duration. PC-ADP data were compared to a reference instrument, a 10 MHz Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), that can measure flow velocities in three dimensions in a small sampling volume. Comparison with single point measurements were conducted to evaluate the effects of temporal and spatial averaging, Doppler noise and beam spreading in PC-ADP data. An algorithm for correcting ambiguity errors was developed to measure velocities up to 70 cms-1. Autocorrelation, power spectra and profiles of turbulence characteristics such as Reynolds stresses and TKE estimated from PC-ADP velocities were compared to those obtained from ADV data. Results show

  20. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-dependent energy depletion occurs through inhibition of glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Andrabi, Shaida A.; Umanah, George K. E.; Chang, Calvin; Stevens, Daniel A.; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation kills cells via a cell-death process designated “parthanatos” in which PAR induces the mitochondrial release and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor to initiate chromatinolysis and cell death. Accompanying the formation of PAR are the reduction of cellular NAD+ and energetic collapse, which have been thought to be caused by the consumption of cellular NAD+ by PARP-1. Here we show that the bioenergetic collapse following PARP-1 activation is not dependent on NAD+ depletion. Instead PARP-1 activation initiates glycolytic defects via PAR-dependent inhibition of hexokinase, which precedes the NAD+ depletion in N-methyl-N-nitroso-N-nitroguanidine (MNNG)-treated cortical neurons. Mitochondrial defects are observed shortly after PARP-1 activation and are mediated largely through defective glycolysis, because supplementation of the mitochondrial substrates pyruvate and glutamine reverse the PARP-1–mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Depleting neurons of NAD+ with FK866, a highly specific noncompetitive inhibitor of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, does not alter glycolysis or mitochondrial function. Hexokinase, the first regulatory enzyme to initiate glycolysis by converting glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, contains a strong PAR-binding motif. PAR binds to hexokinase and inhibits hexokinase activity in MNNG-treated cortical neurons. Preventing PAR formation with PAR glycohydrolase prevents the PAR-dependent inhibition of hexokinase. These results indicate that bioenergetic collapse induced by overactivation of PARP-1 is caused by PAR-dependent inhibition of glycolysis through inhibition of hexokinase. PMID:24987120

  1. The PIN domain of EXO1 recognizes poly(ADP-ribose) in DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Shi, Jiazhong; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2015-12-15

    Following DNA double-strand breaks, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is quickly and heavily synthesized to mediate fast and early recruitment of a number of DNA damage response factors to the sites of DNA lesions and facilitates DNA damage repair. Here, we found that EXO1, an exonuclease for DNA damage repair, is quickly recruited to the sites of DNA damage via PAR-binding. With further dissection of the functional domains of EXO1, we report that the PIN domain of EXO1 recognizes PAR both in vitro and in vivo and the interaction between the PIN domain and PAR is sufficient for the recruitment. We also found that the R93G variant of EXO1, generated by a single nucleotide polymorphism, abolishes the interaction and the early recruitment. Moreover, our study suggests that the PAR-mediated fast recruitment of EXO1 facilities early DNA end resection, the first step of homologous recombination repair. We observed that other PIN domains could also recognize DNA damage-induced PAR. Taken together, our study demonstrates a novel class of PAR-binding module that plays an important role in DNA damage response. PMID:26400172

  2. Involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in paraptotic cell death of D. discoideum.

    PubMed

    Rajawat, Jyotika; Mir, Hina; Alex, Tina; Bakshi, Sonal; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2014-01-01

    Paraptosis is mediated by several proteins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase being one of them. D. discoideum lacks caspases thus providing a better system to dissect out the role of PARP in paraptosis. The cell death phenotype in unicellular eukaryote, D. discoideum is similar to the programmed cell death phenotype of multicellular animals. However, the events downstream to the death signal of PCD in D. discoideum are yet to be understood. Our results emphasize that oxidative stress in D. discoideum lacking caspases leads to PARP activation, mitochondrial membrane potential changes, followed by the release of apoptosis inducing factor from mitochondria. AIF causes large scale DNA fragmentation, a hallmark feature of paraptosis. The role of PARP in paraptosis is reiterated via PARP inhibition by benzamide, PARG inhibition by gallotannin and PARP down-regulation, which delays paraptosis. PARP, PARG and AIF interplay is quintessential in paraptosis of D. discoideum. This is the first report to establish the involvement of PARP in the absence of caspase activity in D. discoideum which could be of evolutionary significance and gives a lead to understand the caspase independent paraptotic mechanism in higher organisms. PMID:24129923

  3. The PIN domain of EXO1 recognizes poly(ADP-ribose) in DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Shi, Jiazhong; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    Following DNA double-strand breaks, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is quickly and heavily synthesized to mediate fast and early recruitment of a number of DNA damage response factors to the sites of DNA lesions and facilitates DNA damage repair. Here, we found that EXO1, an exonuclease for DNA damage repair, is quickly recruited to the sites of DNA damage via PAR-binding. With further dissection of the functional domains of EXO1, we report that the PIN domain of EXO1 recognizes PAR both in vitro and in vivo and the interaction between the PIN domain and PAR is sufficient for the recruitment. We also found that the R93G variant of EXO1, generated by a single nucleotide polymorphism, abolishes the interaction and the early recruitment. Moreover, our study suggests that the PAR-mediated fast recruitment of EXO1 facilities early DNA end resection, the first step of homologous recombination repair. We observed that other PIN domains could also recognize DNA damage-induced PAR. Taken together, our study demonstrates a novel class of PAR-binding module that plays an important role in DNA damage response. PMID:26400172

  4. Characterization of an autonomously activated plant ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Boehlein, Susan K; Shaw, Janine R; Stewart, Jon D; Hannah, L Curtis

    2009-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in starch biosynthesis in plants and changes in its catalytic and/or allosteric properties can lead to increased starch production. Recently, a maize (Zea mays)/potato (Solanum tuberosum) small subunit mosaic, MP [Mos(1-198)], containing the first 198 amino acids of the small subunit of the maize endosperm enzyme and the last 277 amino acids from the potato tuber enzyme, was expressed with the maize endosperm large subunit and was reported to have favorable kinetic and allosteric properties. Here, we show that this mosaic, in the absence of activator, performs like a wild-type AGPase that is partially activated with 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3-PGA). In the presence of 3-PGA, enzyme properties of Mos(1-198)/SH2 are quite similar to those of the wild-type maize enzyme. In the absence of 3-PGA, however, the mosaic enzyme exhibits greater activity, higher affinity for the substrates, and partial inactivation by inorganic phosphate. The Mos(1-198)/SH2 enzyme is also more stable to heat inactivation. The different properties of this protein were mapped using various mosaics containing smaller portions of the potato small subunit. Enhanced heat stability of Mos(1-198) was shown to originate from five potato-derived amino acids between 322 and 377. These amino acids were shown previously to be important in small subunit/large subunit interactions. These five potato-derived amino acids plus other potato-derived amino acids distributed throughout the carboxyl-terminal portion of the protein are required for the enhanced catalytic and allosteric properties exhibited by Mos(1-198)/SH2. PMID:18715954

  5. Solution growth kinetics and mechanism: Prismatic face of ADP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, A. A.; Rashkovich, L. N.; Mkrtchan, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Laser Michelson interferometry has been applied to in situ study the (001) ADP growth kinetics in aqueous solution in the kinetic regime. The technique allows one to simultaneously measure the slope p of a growth hillock and normal growth rate R provided by this hillock. From these data, the average step growth rate v=R/p has been determined as a function of relative supersaturation σ. The dependencev(σ) is found to be linear, demonstrating the unimportance of surface and bulk diffusion. The direct incorporation at steps is characterized by the step kinetic coefficient βl=(5.1-6.4)X10-3 cm/s. The specific step free energy αl=(1.2-1.9) X10-6 erg/cm was determined from the measured linear dependence of the hillock slope on supersaturation for the hillock around presumably single elementary dislocation. For complex dislocation sources with large total Burgers vectors, the tendency to saturationin the hillock slope-supersaturation curves has been found. The curve perfectly fits the BCF expression which takes into account the perimeter 2L of the region occupied by the points in which the dislocation of the complex step source cross the growing face. For two dislocation sources,L=0.92 μm andL=0.31 μm and total Burgers vectors ⋍12h and 6h (h=7.53Å) have been found. The supersaturation dependence of activities for various complex dislocation sources have been directly demonstrated.

  6. Differential regulation by AMP and ADP of AMPK complexes containing different γ subunit isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Fiona A.; Jensen, Thomas E.; Hardie, D. Grahame

    2015-01-01

    The γ subunits of heterotrimeric AMPK complexes contain the binding sites for the regulatory adenine nucleotides AMP, ADP and ATP. We addressed whether complexes containing different γ isoforms display different responses to adenine nucleotides by generating cells stably expressing FLAG-tagged versions of the γ1, γ2 or γ3 isoform. When assayed at a physiological ATP concentration (5 mM), γ1- and γ2-containing complexes were allosterically activated almost 10-fold by AMP, with EC50 values one to two orders of magnitude lower than the ATP concentration. By contrast, γ3 complexes were barely activated by AMP under these conditions, although we did observe some activation at lower ATP concentrations. Despite this, all three complexes were activated, due to increased Thr172 phosphorylation, when cells were incubated with mitochondrial inhibitors that increase cellular AMP. With γ1 complexes, activation and Thr172 phosphorylation induced by the upstream kinase LKB1 [liver kinase B1; but not calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKKβ)] in cell-free assays was markedly promoted by AMP and, to a smaller extent and less potently, by ADP. However, effects of AMP or ADP on activation and phosphorylation of the γ2 and γ3 complexes were small or insignificant. Binding of AMP or ADP protected all three γ subunit complexes against inactivation by Thr172 dephosphorylation; with γ2 complexes, ADP had similar potency to AMP, but with γ1 and γ3 complexes, ADP was less potent than AMP. Thus, AMPK complexes containing different γ subunit isoforms respond differently to changes in AMP, ADP or ATP. These differences may tune the responses of the isoforms to fit their differing physiological roles. PMID:26542978

  7. Overview on poly(ADP-ribose) immuno-biomedicine and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose), identified in 1966 independently by three groups Strassbourg, Kyoto and Tokyo, is synthesized by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) from NAD(+) as a substrate in the presence of Mg(2+). The structure was unique in that it has ribose-ribose linkage. In the early-1970s, however, its function in vivo/in vitro was still controversial and the antibody against it was desired to help clear its significance. Thereupon, the author tried to produce antibody against poly(ADP-ribose) in rabbits and succeeded in it for the first time in the world. Eventually, this success has led to the following two groundbreaking papers in Nature: "Naturally-occurring antibody against poly(ADP-ribose) in patients with autoimmune disease SLE", and "Induction of anti-poly(ADP-ribose) antibody by immunization with synthetic double-stranded RNA, poly(A)·poly(U)".On the way to the publication of the first paper, a reviewer gave me a friendly comment that there is "heteroclitic" fashion as a mechanism of the production of natural antibody. This comment was really a God-send for me, and became a train of power for publication of another paper, as described above. Accordingly, I thought this, I would say, episode is worth describing herein. Because of its importance in biomedical phenomena, a certain number of articles related to "heteroclitic" have become to be introduced in this review, although they were not always directly related to immuno-biological works on poly(ADP-ribose). Also, I tried to speculate on the future prospects of poly(ADP-ribose), product of PARP, as an immuno-regulatory molecule, including either induced or naturally-occurring antibodies, in view of "heteroclitic". PMID:27477457

  8. Structural Basis and Target-specific Modulation of ADP Sensing by the Synechococcus elongatus PII Signaling Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Zeth, Kornelius; Fokina, Oleksandra; Forchhammer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    PII signaling proteins comprise one of the most versatile signaling devices in nature and have a highly conserved structure. In cyanobacteria, PipX and N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase are receptors of PII signaling, and these interactions are modulated by ADP, ATP, and 2-oxoglutarate. These effector molecules bind interdependently to three anti-cooperative binding sites on the trimeric PII protein and thereby affect its structure. Here we used the PII protein from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to reveal the structural basis of anti-cooperative ADP binding. Furthermore, we clarified the mutual influence of PII-receptor interaction and sensing of the ATP/ADP ratio. The crystal structures of two forms of trimeric PII, one with one ADP bound and the other with all three ADP-binding sites occupied, revealed significant differences in the ADP binding mode: at one site (S1) ADP is tightly bound through side-chain and main-chain interactions, whereas at the other two sites (S2 and S3) the ADP molecules are only bound by main-chain interactions. In the presence of the PII-receptor PipX, the affinity of ADP to the first binding site S1 strongly increases, whereas the affinity for ATP decreases due to PipX favoring the S1 conformation of PII-ADP. In consequence, the PII-PipX interaction is highly sensitive to subtle fluctuations in the ATP/ADP ratio. By contrast, the PII-N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase interaction, which is negatively affected by ADP, is insensitive to these fluctuations. Modulation of the metabolite-sensing properties of PII by its receptors allows PII to differentially perceive signals in a target-specific manner and to perform multitasking signal transduction. PMID:24519945

  9. Poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism in young and old cells: response to cellular stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Gracy, R.W.; Sims, J.L.; Cini, J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have examined the effect of several cellular stresses on poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism in human fibroblasts of low passage number derived from young and old donors. Poly(ADP-ribose) was synthesized in response to alkylation of DNA caused by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroguanidine and by hyperthermic treatment at 43 /sup 0/C or 45 /sup 0/C. Ethanol is able to potentiate poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation following these treatments. There was little if any difference in the response of young and old cells to these stresses. Amino acid analogs are thought to induce a response in mammalian cells similar to that caused by hyperthermia and ethanol. However, amino acid analogs such as L-azetidine did not produce effects on poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism like those produced by ethanol or hyperthermia. The authors have also examined the poly(ADP-ribose) content of bovine eye lens. Each eye lens contains populations of young and old cells that are distributed in a fixed graduated manner. Thus, the eye lens allows the study of aging cells with identical genetic backgrounds without the complications of serial passage of young cultures in in vitro aging systems.

  10. Genetic evidence of a high-affinity cyanuric acid transport system in Pseudomonas sp. ADP.

    PubMed

    Platero, Ana I; Santero, Eduardo; Govantes, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. ADP plasmid pADP-1 encodes the activities involved in the hydrolytic degradation of the s-triazine herbicide atrazine. Here, we explore the presence of a specific transport system for the central intermediate of the atrazine utilization pathway, cyanuric acid, in Pseudomonas sp. ADP. Growth in fed-batch cultures containing limiting cyanuric acid concentrations is consistent with high-affinity transport of this substrate. Acquisition of the ability to grow at low cyanuric acid concentrations upon conjugal transfer of pADP1 to the nondegrading host Pseudomonas putida KT2442 suggests that all activities required for this phenotype are encoded in this plasmid. Co-expression of the pADP1-borne atzDEF and atzTUVW genes, encoding the cyanuric acid utilization pathway and the subunits of an ABC-type solute transport system, in P. putida KT2442 was sufficient to promote growth at cyanuric acid concentrations as low as 50 μM in batch culture. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the atzTUVW gene products are involved in high-affinity transport of cyanuric acid. PMID:24484197

  11. Catalytic signal amplification for the discrimination of ATP and ADP using functionalised gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pezzato, Cristian; Chen, Jack L-Y; Galzerano, Patrizia; Salvi, Michela; Prins, Leonard J

    2016-07-12

    Diagnostic assays that incorporate a signal amplification mechanism permit the detection of analytes with enhanced selectivity. Herein, we report a gold nanoparticle-based chemical system able to differentiate ATP from ADP by means of catalytic signal amplification. The discrimination between ATP and ADP is of relevance for the development of universal assays for the detection of enzymes which consume ATP. For example, protein kinases are a class of enzymes critical for the regulation of cellular functions, and act to modulate the activity of other proteins by transphosphorylation, transferring a phosphate group from ATP to give ADP as a byproduct. The system described here exploits the ability of cooperative catalytic head groups on gold nanoparticles to very efficiently catalyze chromogenic reactions such as the transphosphorylation of 2-hydroxypropyl-4-nitrophenyl phosphate (HPNPP). A series of chromogenic substrates have been synthesized and evaluated by means of Michaelis-Menten kinetics (compounds 2, 4-6). 2-Hydroxypropyl-(3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitro)phenyl phosphate (5) was found to display higher reactivity (kcat) and higher binding affinity (KM) when compared to HPNPP. This higher binding affinity allows phosphate 5 to compete with ATP and ADP to different extents for binding on the monolayer surface, thus enabling a catalytically amplified signal only when ATP is absent. Overall, this represents a viable new approach for monitoring the conversion of ATP into ADP with high sensitivity. PMID:27336846

  12. A fluorometric assay for measurement of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Klebl, B M; Pette, D

    1996-08-01

    Using 1,N6-etheno NAD, a fluorescent analog of NAD, we extended an existing assay for NAD glycohydrolase to the measurement of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mADP-RT) activity using agmatine as acceptor for ADP-ribose. The reaction products were analyzed by reversed-phase chromatography. In the presence of agmatine two newly formed fluorescent products were tentatively identified as ADP-ribosylagmatine anomers. Fluorescence intensity increased upon splitting the N-glycoside bondage of 1,N6-etheno NAD. Therefore, 1, N6-etheno AMP could be used for calibration. The nonradioactive assay yielded values nearly identical to those obtained with the [carbonyl-14C]NAD method. It proved to be highly reproducible, rapid, and suitable for an improved purification protocol yielding a 76,000-fold enriched mADP-RT preparation from rabbit skeletal muscle. The identity and high purity of the enzyme were confirmed immunochemically. The assay served to determine the pH optimum of the enzyme (pH 9.0) and its KM for 1,N6-etheno NAD (287 microM). PMID:8811894

  13. Interaction of ADP with skeletal and cardiac myosin and their active fragments observed by proton release.

    PubMed

    Kardami, E; De Bruin, S; Gratzer, W

    1979-07-01

    The technique of proton release measurement has been used to explore the binding of ADP to skeletal and cardiac myosins and their active fragments in a variety of conditions. It has proved possible to obtain binding profiles on intact myosin in the filamentous, undissolved form in physiological solvent conditions. Binding constants are given. At higher ionic strength (0.5 M potassium chloride) the binding profile of magnesium-ADP. is compatible with the presence of two types of site, differing from one another both in respect of affinity and the number of protons released per site. Studies with cardiac myosin reveal no such indications of heterogeneity, and are consistent with the presence of a single population of thermodynamically indistinguishable sites. In the absence of divalent cations, in solutions containing potassium ions and EDTA, ADP binds with absorption rather than liberation of protons. The pH profile of proton absorption at saturation can be fitted in terms of an ionising group with an unperturbed pK of 9.4, and at least one of lower pK(5.9). The dissociation constant (pH8 at 5 degrees C) is about 8 microM, and the affinity for uncomplexed ADP is thus only slightly weaker than that for magnesium-ADP PMID:38115

  14. Study on A.C. electrical properties of pure and L-serine doped ADP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, J. H.; Dixit, K. P.; Joshi, M. J.; Parikh, K. D.

    2016-05-01

    Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADP) crystals have a wide range of applications in integrated and nonlinear optics. Amino acids having significant properties like molecular chirality, zwitter ionic nature, etc. attracted many researchers to dope them in various NLO crystals. In the present study, pure and different weight percentage L-serine doped ADP crystals were grown by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature. The A.C. electrical study was carried out for palletized samples at room temperature. The Nyquist plot showed two semi circles for pure ADP indicated the effect of grain and grain boundary, whereas the doped ADP samples exhibited the single semi circle suggesting the effect of grain. The values resistance and capacitance for grain and grain boundary were calculated. The effect of doping was clearly seen in the grain capacitance and resistance values. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss decreased with increase in frequency for all samples. The Jonscher power law was applied for A.C. conductivity for pure and doped ADP samples. The imaginary part of modulus and impedance versus frequency were drawn and the value of stretch exponent (β) was calculated for all the samples.

  15. Regulation by phosphorylation of Xenopus laevis poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme activity during oocyte maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Aoufouchi, S; Shall, S

    1997-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is an abundant nuclear enzyme that is dependent on DNA breaks and nicks for its enzyme activity. These DNA nicks and breaks function as allosteric effectors of the enzyme activity. This reaction is important for efficient DNA base excision repair, although it is not a component of the elementary repair pathway itself. The physiological relevance of this reaction might be to ensure correct and efficient DNA repair. We have examined the enzyme activity of PARP in oocytes and eggs of Xenopus laevis. Although both oocytes and eggs contain approximately the same amounts of enzyme protein, there is no detectable enzyme activity in the oocytes, whereas in the eggs the enzyme is active. Enzyme activity appears during oocyte maturation, approx. 4 h after induction by progesterone. This enzyme activation coincides with the appearance of active maturation-promoting factor. Enzyme activation is accompanied by a shift in the electrophoretic mobility of the polypeptide, from an apparent molecular mass of 116 kDa to 125 kDa. Treatment with either bacterial or potato phosphatase reverses the mobility shift and abolishes enzyme activity. Incubation of maturing X. laevis eggs with radioactive inorganic phosphate and subsequent immunoprecipitation demonstrate that the PARP protein is phosphorylated in vivo. We show that maturation-promoting factor (Cyclin B/cdc2) cannot itself be responsible for the phosphorylation and activation of PARP in maturing X. laevis eggs. Together, these results demonstrate that the enzyme activity of PARP in X. laevis oocytes and eggs is regulated by post-translational, covalent phosphorylation. PMID:9230139

  16. Growth of cerium(III)-doped ADP crystals and characterization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanchinathan, K.; Muthu, K.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Meenakshisundaram, SP.

    2012-09-01

    Single crystals of Ce(III)-doped ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) are grown by conventional slow evaporation of aqueous solution and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) technique. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) studies reveal that the crystalline perfection is substantially better in the case of SR-grown crystal. Morphological changes are observed in the doped specimen. Doping has some influence on the DRS spectra and the band gap energy is estimated by Kubelka-Munk algorithm. Lattice parameters are determined by single crystal XRD analysis. The powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR analyses indicate that the crystal undergoes considerable stress as a result of doping. The incorporation of Ce(III) into the crystalline matrix of ADP is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Thermal studies reveal no decomposition up to the melting point and no significant changes are observed as a result of foreign ion incorporation in ADP crystalline matrix.

  17. ADP-ribose-derived nuclear ATP synthesis by NUDIX5 is required for chromatin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wright, Roni H G; Lioutas, Antonios; Le Dily, Francois; Soronellas, Daniel; Pohl, Andy; Bonet, Jaume; Nacht, A S; Samino, Sara; Font-Mateu, Jofre; Vicent, Guillermo P; Wierer, Michael; Trabado, Miriam A; Schelhorn, Constanze; Carolis, Carlo; Macias, Maria J; Yanes, Oscar; Oliva, Baldo; Beato, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    Key nuclear processes in eukaryotes, including DNA replication, repair, and gene regulation, require extensive chromatin remodeling catalyzed by energy-consuming enzymes. It remains unclear how the ATP demands of such processes are met in response to rapid stimuli. We analyzed this question in the context of the massive gene regulation changes induced by progestins in breast cancer cells and found that ATP is generated in the cell nucleus via the hydrolysis of poly(ADP-ribose) to ADP-ribose. In the presence of pyrophosphate, ADP-ribose is used by the pyrophosphatase NUDIX5 to generate nuclear ATP. The nuclear source of ATP is essential for hormone-induced chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation, and cell proliferation. PMID:27257257

  18. Office of Inspector General report on audit of controls over the ADP support services contract

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-15

    In March 1995, the Department awarded a cost-plus-award-fee contract to DynCorp valued at approximately $246 million over 5 years for ADP support services at Headquarters. The performance period for the contract was a 3-year base period with two 1-year options. The contract statement of work identified 24 information management functional areas that required technical support services, including Automated Office Systems Support and Local Area Network support. The purpose of the audit was to evaluate the cost-plus-award-fee contract for ADP support services at Headquarters. The objective was to determine whether the Department`s program offices at Headquarters were managing their ADP support services contract costs.

  19. Bioorthogonally Functionalized NAD(+) Analogues for In-Cell Visualization of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Formation.

    PubMed

    Wallrodt, Sarah; Buntz, Annette; Wang, Yan; Zumbusch, Andreas; Marx, Andreas

    2016-06-27

    Poly(ADP-ribos)ylation (PARylation) is a major posttranslational modification and signaling event in most eukaryotes. Fundamental processes like DNA repair and transcription are coordinated by this transient polymer and its binding to proteins. ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) build complex ADP-ribose chains from NAD(+) onto various acceptor proteins. Molecular studies of PARylation thus remain challenging. Herein, we present the development of bioorthogonally functionalized NAD(+) analogues for the imaging of PARylation in vitro and in cells. Our results show that 2-modified NAD(+) analogues perform remarkably well and can be applied to the in-cell visualization of PARylation simultaneously in two colors. This tool gives insight into the substrate scope of ARTs and will help to further elucidate the biological role of PARylation by offering fast optical, multichannel read-outs. PMID:27080423

  20. ADP-2Ho as a Phasing Tool for Nucleotide-Containing Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Smith, G.; Howell, P.

    2007-01-01

    Trivalent holmium ions were shown to isomorphously replace magnesium ions to form an ADP-2Ho complex in the nucleotide-binding domain of Bacillus subtilis 5-methylthioribose (MTR) kinase. This nucleotide-holmium complex provided sufficient phasing power to allow SAD and SIRAS phasing of this previously unknown structure using the L{sub III} absorption edge of holmium. The structure of ADP-2Ho reveals that the two Ho ions are approximately 4 {angstrom} apart and are likely to share their ligands: the phosphoryl O atoms of ADP and a water molecule. The structure determination of MTR kinase using data collected using Cu K X-radiation was also attempted. Although the heavy-atom substructure determination was successful, interpretation of the map was more challenging. The isomorphous substitution of holmium for magnesium in the MTR kinase-nucleotide complex suggests that this could be a useful phasing tool for other metal-dependent nucleotide-containing proteins.

  1. Substrate Modulated Dynamics of the ADP/ATP Transporter Revealed by NMR Relaxation Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Brüschweiler, Sven; Yang, Qin; Run, Changqing; Chou, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) transports ADP and ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Unlike most transporters that have 2-fold direct or inverted quasi-symmetry, AAC has the apparent 3-fold rotational symmetry. Further, its transport rate is fast for transporters that carry large solutes. Here, we perform comprehensive NMR relaxation dispersion measurements for the yeast AAC carrier 3, which provide residue-specific information on the protein conformational exchange. Our data indicate that AAC is predominantly in the cytosol-facing open state and converts to a lowly populated state in an asymmetric manner despite its three-fold structural symmetry. Binding of the substrate ADP significantly increases the rate of conformational exchange, whereas the inhibitor CATR slows the exchange. These results suggest that while the transporter catalyzes the translocation of substrate, the substrate also facilitates interconversion between alternating states that may be relevant to the transport function. PMID:26167881

  2. Pistacia chinensis Methanolic Extract Attenuated MAPK and Akt Phosphorylations in ADP Stimulated Rat Platelets In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Young; Hong, Mei; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Yayeh, Taddesse; Hyun, Eujin; Kwak, Dong-Mi; Cho, Jae Youl; Rhee, Man Hee

    2012-01-01

    Pistacia chinensis (Chinese pistache) is a widely grown plant in southern China where the galls extract is a common practice in folk medicine. However, extracts from this plant have never been attempted for their cardiovascular protective effects in experimental setting. Here therefore we aimed to investigate the antiplatelet activity of Pistacia chinensis methanolic extract (PCME) in ADP stimulated rat platelets in vitro. PCME (2.5-20 μg/mL) inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. While PCME diminished [Ca(2+)]i, ATP, and TXA2 release in ADP-activated platelets, it enhanced cAMP production in resting platelets. Likewise, PCME inhibited fibrinogen binding to αIIbβ3 and downregulated JNK, ERK, and Akt phosphorylations. Thus, PCME contains potential antiplatelet compounds that could be deployed for their therapeutic values in cardiovascular pathology. PMID:22899962

  3. Pistacia chinensis Methanolic Extract Attenuated MAPK and Akt Phosphorylations in ADP Stimulated Rat Platelets In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Young; Hong, Mei; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Yayeh, Taddesse; Hyun, Eujin; Kwak, Dong-Mi; Cho, Jae Youl; Rhee, Man Hee

    2012-01-01

    Pistacia chinensis (Chinese pistache) is a widely grown plant in southern China where the galls extract is a common practice in folk medicine. However, extracts from this plant have never been attempted for their cardiovascular protective effects in experimental setting. Here therefore we aimed to investigate the antiplatelet activity of Pistacia chinensis methanolic extract (PCME) in ADP stimulated rat platelets in vitro. PCME (2.5–20 μg/mL) inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. While PCME diminished [Ca2+]i, ATP, and TXA2 release in ADP-activated platelets, it enhanced cAMP production in resting platelets. Likewise, PCME inhibited fibrinogen binding to αIIbβ3 and downregulated JNK, ERK, and Akt phosphorylations. Thus, PCME contains potential antiplatelet compounds that could be deployed for their therapeutic values in cardiovascular pathology. PMID:22899962

  4. Extracellular poly(ADP-ribose) is a pro-inflammatory signal for macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Kim, Sujeong; Tan, Edwin S.; Maliga, Zoltan; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) synthesizes poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), an essential post-translational modification whose function is important in many cellular processes including DNA damage signalling, cell death, and inflammation. All known PAR biology is intracellular, but we suspected it might also play a role in cell-to-cell communication during inflammation. We found that PAR activated cytokine release in human and mouse macrophages, a hallmark of innate immune activation, and determined structure-activity relationships. PAR was rapidly internalized by murine macrophages, while the monomer, ADP-ribose, was not. Inhibitors of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling blocked macrophage responses to PAR, and PAR induced TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in reporter cell lines suggesting it was recognized by these TLRs, much like bacterial pathogens. We propose that PAR acts as an extracellular “Damage Associated Molecular Pattern” (DAMP) that drives inflammatory signaling. PMID:25865309

  5. Effect of Co2+ doping on solubility, crystal growth and properties of ADP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd.; AlFaify, S.; Yahia, I. S.

    2016-09-01

    Bulk size crystal growth of ADP with different concentrations doping of cobalt (Co2+) has been done by low cost slow evaporation technique at ambient conditions. The solubility measurement was carried out on pure and doped crystals and found that the solubility is decreasing with doping concentrations. The presence of Co2+ ion in crystalline matrix of ADP has been confirmed by structural, vibrational and elemental analyses. Scanning electron microscopic study reveals that the doping has strong effect on the quality of the crystals. The optical absorbance and transmission confirms the enhancement of quality of ADP crystals due to Co2+ doping and so the optical band gap. Further the dislocation, photoluminescence, dielectric and mechanical studies confirms that the properties of grown crystals with Co2+ doping has been enriched and propose it as a better candidate for optoelectronic applications.

  6. Thiol reagents are substrates for the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of pertussis toxin.

    PubMed

    Lobban, M D; van Heyningen, S

    1988-06-20

    Thiols such as cysteine and dithiothreitol are substrates for the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of pertussis toxin. When cysteine was incubated with NAD+ and toxin at pH 7.5, a product containing ADP-ribose and cysteine (presumably ADP-ribosylcysteine) was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized by its composition and release of AMP with phosphodiesterase. Cysteine has a Km of 105 mM at saturating NAD+ concentration. The ability of thiols to act as a substrate is one explanation for the very high concentrations (250 mM or greater) that have been observed to enhance the apparent NAD glycohydrolase activity of the toxin. PMID:3133246

  7. Host Cell Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase Is Crucial for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C.; Schlesinger, Mariana; Kevorkian, María L.; Flawiá, Mirtha M.; Alonso, Guillermo D.; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H.

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas’ disease, has a complex life cycle which involves the invasion of mammalian host cells, differentiation and intracellular replication. Here we report the first insights into the biological role of a poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in a trypanosomatid (TcPARG). In silico analysis of the TcPARG gene pointed out the conservation of key residues involved in the catalytic process and, by Western blot, we demonstrated that it is expressed in a life stage-dependant manner. Indirect immunofluorescence assays and electron microscopy using an anti-TcPARG antibody showed that this enzyme is localized in the nucleus independently of the presence of DNA damage or cell cycle stage. The addition of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors ADP-HPD (adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol) or DEA (6,9-diamino-2-ethoxyacridine lactate monohydrate) to the culture media, both at a 1 µM concentration, reduced in vitro epimastigote growth by 35% and 37% respectively, when compared to control cultures. We also showed that ADP-HPD 1 µM can lead to an alteration in the progression of the cell cycle in hydroxyurea synchronized cultures of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Outstandingly, here we demonstrate that the lack of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity in Vero and A549 host cells, achieved by chemical inhibition or iRNA, produces the reduction of the percentage of infected cells as well as the number of amastigotes per cell and trypomastigotes released, leading to a nearly complete abrogation of the infection process. We conclude that both, T. cruzi and the host, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activities are important players in the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, emerging as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of Chagas’ disease. PMID:23776710

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Chemical and Biological Properties of Cyclic ADP-4-Thioribose as a Stable Equivalent of Cyclic ADP-Ribose

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzuki, Takayoshi; Takano, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Natsumi; Kudoh, Takashi; Murayama, Takashi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hashii, Minako; Higashida, Haruhiro; Weber, Karin; Guse, Andreas H.; Kameda, Tomoshi; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Kumaki, Yasuhiro; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Potter, Barry V. L.; Shuto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the successful synthesis of cyclic ADP-4-thioribose (cADPtR, 3), designed as a stable mimic of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR, 1), a Ca2+-mobilizing second messenger, in which the key N1-β-thioribosyladenosine structure was stereoselectively constructed by condensation between the imidazole nucleoside derivative 8 and the 4-thioribosylamine 7 via equilibrium in 7 between the α-anomer (7α) and the β-anomer (7β) during the reaction course. cADPtR is, unlike cADPR, chemically and biologically stable, while it effectively mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ like cADPR in various biological systems, such as sea urchin homogenate, NG108-15 neuronal cells, and Jurkat T-lymphocytes. Thus, cADPtR is a stable equivalent of cADPR, which can be useful as a biological tool for investigating cADPR-mediated Ca2+-mobilizing pathways. PMID:27200225

  9. Relationship of tightly bound ADP and ATP to control and catalysis by chloroplast ATP synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; Xue, Z.; Du, Z.; Melese, T.; Boyer, P.D.

    1988-07-12

    Whether the tightly bound ADP that can cause a pronounced inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by the chloroplast ATP synthase and F/sub 1/ ATPase (CF/sub 1/) is bound at catalytic sites or at noncatalytic regulatory sites or both has been uncertain. The authors have used photolabeling by 2-azido-ATP and 2-azido-ADP to ascertain the location, with Mg/sup 2 +/ activation, of tightly bound ADP (a) that inhibits the hydrolysis of ATP by chloroplast ATP synthase, (b) that can result in an inhibited form of CF/sub 1/ that slowly regains activity during ATP hydrolysis, and (c) that arises when low concentrations of ADP markedly inhibit the hydrolysis of GTP by CF/sub 1/. The data show that in all instances the inhibition is associated with ADP binding without inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) at catalytic sites. After photophosphorylation of ADP or 2-azido-ADP with (/sup 32/P)P/sub i/, similar amounts of the corresponding triphosphates are present on washed thylakoid membranes. Trials with appropriately labeled substrates show that a small portion of the tightly bound 2-azido-ATP gives rise to covalent labeling with an ATP moiety at noncatalytic sites but that most of the bound 2-azido-ATP gives rise to covalent labeling with an ATP moiety at noncatalytic sites but that most of the bound 2-azido-ATP gives rise to covalent labeling by an ADP moiety at a catalytic site. They also report the occurrence of a 1-2-min delay in the onset of the Mg/sup 2 +/-induced inhibition after addition of CF/sub 1/ to solutions containing Mg/sup 2 +/ and ATP, and that this delay is not associated with the filling of noncatalytic sites. A rapid burst of P/sub i/ formation is followed by a much lower, constant steady-state rate. The burst is not observed with GTP as a substrate or with Ca/sup 2 +/ as the activating cation.

  10. Optical, dielectric and microhardness studies on <1 0 0> directed ADP crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2009-09-01

    <1 0 0> directed ammonium dihydrogen phosphate single crystal has been grown using the uniaxially solution-crystallization method of Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR). The size of the grown crystal is 40 mm in diameter and 50 mm in thickness. The grown crystals were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Vickers hardness and dielectric studies. Comparing the <1 0 0> plane of the conventional method grown ADP crystal with <1 0 0> directed SR method grown ADP crystal, optical transparency, dielectric constant and Vickers hardness number are increased and dielectric loss is decreased in SR method grown crystal.

  11. Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter Zell (left) and Dr Clifton Horne (right) are shown preparing a laser light sheet for a flow visualization test. Shown standing in the nacelle of the ADP is John Girvin, senior test engineer for Pratt & Whitney.

  12. Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter Zell (left) and Dr Clifton Horne (right) are shown preparing for a laser light sheet for a flow visualization test. Shown standing in the nacelle of the ADP is John Girvin, senior test engineer for Pratt & Whitney.

  13. Increase in the ADP/ATP exchange in rat liver mitochondria irradiated in vitro by helium-neon laser

    SciTech Connect

    Passarella, S.; Ostuni, A.; Atlante, A.; Quagliariello, E.

    1988-10-31

    To gain some insight into the mechanism of cell photostimulation by laser light, measurements were made of the rate of ADP/ATP exchange in mitochondria irradiated with the low power continuous wave Helium Neon laser (energy dose 5 Joules/cm2). To do this a method has been developed to continuously monitor ATP efflux from phosphorylating mitochondria caused by externally added ADP, by photometrically following the NADP+ reduction which occurs in the presence of glucose, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and effluxed ATP. The NADP+ reduction rate shows hyperbolic dependence on ADP concentration (Km and Vmax values 8.5 +/- 0.87 microM and 20.7 +/- 0.49 nmoles NADP+ reduced/min x mg mitochondrial protein, respectively), and proves to measure the activity of the ADP/ATP translocator as shown by inhibition experiments using atracyloside, powerful inhibitor of this carrier. Irradiation was found to enhance the rate of ADP/ATP antiport, with externally added ADP ranging between 5 and 100 microM. As a result of experiments carried out with mitochondria loaded with either ATP or ADP, the increase in the activity of the ADP/ATP translocator is here proposed to depend on the increase in the electrochemical proton gradient which occurs owing to irradiation of mitochondria.

  14. A novel crosstalk between BRCA1 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Da; Bi, Fang-Fang; Chen, Na-Na; Cao, Ji-Min; Sun, Wu-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Li, Chun-Yan; Yang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    BRCA mutations are the main known hereditary factor for breast cancer. Notably, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) expression status plays a critical role in breast cancer progression and the clinical development of PARP1 inhibitors to treat BRCA-mutated breast cancer has advanced rapidly. However, dynamic crosstalk between BRCA1 and PARP1 remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that: (i) BRCA1 inactivation events (mutation, promoter methylation, or knockdown) were accompanied by increased PARP1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels, and a subsequent increase in NAD-dependent PARP1 activity in MDA-MB-231 and primary breast cancer cells; (ii) the overexpression of BRCA1 resulted in decreased PARP1 and NAD levels, and a subsequent impairment in NAD-dependent PARP1 activity in MDA-MB-231 and primary breast cancer cells; and (iii) intracellular NAD levels were largely responsible for regulating PARP1 activity in breast cancer cells, and NAD levels were positively correlated with PARP1 activity in human breast cancer specimens (R = 0.647, P < 0.001). Interestingly, the high efficiency of PARP1 triggered by BRCA1 inactivation may further inhibit BRCA1 transcription by NAD depletion. These results highlight a novel interaction between BRCA1 and PARP1, which may be beneficial for the dynamic balance between BRCA1 and PARP1-related biologic processes, especially for maintaining stable DNA repair ability. All of this may improve our understanding of the basic molecular mechanism underlying BRCA1- and PARP1-related breast cancer progression. PMID:25485588

  15. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C.; Kun, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG). Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair). Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt). In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO). PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications. PMID:25332845

  16. 41 CFR 109-43.307-53 - Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). 109-43.307-53 Section 109-43.307-53 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL...

  17. ATP/ADP Ratio, the Missed Connection between Mitochondria and the Warburg Effect

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Eduardo N.; Lemasters, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-proliferating cells generate the bulk of cellular ATP by fully oxidizing respiratory substrates in mitochondria. Respiratory substrates cross the mitochondrial outer membrane through only one channel, the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC). Once in the matrix, respiratory substrates are oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid cycle to generate mostly NADH that is further oxidized in the respiratory chain to generate a proton motive force comprised mainly of membrane potential (ΔΨ) to synthesize ATP. Mitochondrial ΔΨ then drives release of ATP−4 from the matrix in exchange for ADP−3 in the cytosol via the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Thus, mitochondrial function in non-proliferating cells drives a high cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio, essential to inhibit glycolysis. By contrast, the bioenergetics of the Warburg phenotype of proliferating cells is characterized by enhanced aerobic glycolysis and suppression of mitochondrial metabolism. Suppressed mitochondrial function leads to lower production of mitochondrial ATP and hence lower cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios that favor enhanced glycolysis. Thus, cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio is a key feature that determines if cell metabolism is predominantly oxidative or glycolytic. Here, we describe two novel mechanisms to explain the suppression of mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells: the relative closure of VDAC by free tubulin and inactivation of ANT. Both mechanisms contribute to low ATP/ADP ratios that activate glycolysis. PMID:25229666

  18. 7 CFR 277.18 - Establishment of an Automated Data Processing (ADP) and Information Retrieval System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....g., system conversion, computer capacity planning, supplies, training, and miscellaneous ADP...; (5) Include assurances that information in the computer system as well as access, use and disposal of... property purchased with Food Stamp Program funds, which appear at 7 CFR 277.13 are applicable to...

  19. 7 CFR 277.18 - Establishment of an Automated Data Processing (ADP) and Information Retrieval System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....g., system conversion, computer capacity planning, supplies, training, and miscellaneous ADP...; (5) Include assurances that information in the computer system as well as access, use and disposal of... property purchased with Food Stamp Program funds, which appear at 7 CFR 277.13 are applicable to...

  20. Extremely Conserved ATP- or ADP-dependent Enzymatic System for Nicotinamide Nucleotide Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Marbaix, Alexandre Y.; Noël, Gaëtane; Detroux, Aline M.; Vertommen, Didier; Van Schaftingen, Emile; Linster, Carole L.

    2011-01-01

    The reduced forms of NAD and NADP, two major nucleotides playing a central role in metabolism, are continuously damaged by enzymatic or heat-dependent hydration. We report the molecular identification of the eukaryotic dehydratase that repairs these nucleotides and show that this enzyme (Carkd in mammals, YKL151C in yeast) catalyzes the dehydration of the S form of NADHX and NADPHX, at the expense of ATP, which is converted to ADP. Surprisingly, the Escherichia coli homolog, YjeF, a bidomain protein, catalyzes a similar reaction, but using ADP instead of ATP. The latter reaction is ascribable to the C-terminal domain of YjeF. This represents an unprecedented example of orthologous enzymes using either ADP or ATP as phosphoryl donor. We also show that eukaryotic proteins homologous to the N-terminal domain of YjeF (apolipoprotein A-1-binding protein (AIBP) in mammals, YNL200C in yeast) catalyze the epimerization of the S and R forms of NAD(P)HX, thereby allowing, in conjunction with the energy-dependent dehydratase, the repair of both epimers of NAD(P)HX. Both enzymes are very widespread in eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and archaea, which together with the ADP dependence of the dehydratase in some species indicates the ancient origin of this repair system. PMID:21994945

  1. 45 CFR 95.625 - Increased FFP for certain ADP systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-D program are contained in 45 CFR Part 307. The applicable regulations for the Title IV-E program are contained in 45 CFR 1355.55. The applicable regulations for the Title XIX program are contained in 42 CFR Part 433, Subpart C. Federal Financial Participation in Costs of ADP Acquisitions...

  2. Inhibition of Primary ADP-Induced Platelet Aggregation in Normal Subjects after Administration of Nitrofurantoin (Furadantin)

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ennio C.; Levin, Nathan W.

    1973-01-01

    The evidence indicating that platelets may play a role in the occurrence of certain thromboembolic phenomena has stimulated a search for inhibitors of platelet function. This report presents data to indicate that nitrofurantoin is a potent inhibitor of primary ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The addition of 10 μM nitrofurantoin to citrated platelet-rich plasma obtained from 12 normal subjects produced a 29±6% (2 SD) inhibition of the velocity of platelet aggregation induced by 2 μM ADP. The inhibitory effect of nitrofurantoin demonstrated competitive kinetics in respect to ADP. The intravenous (180 mg) or oral (200 mg) administration of nitrofurantoin produced a serum nitrofurantoin concentration ranging from 2.7 to 23 μM in 28 normal subjects. Platelet-rich plasma obtained from these subjects demonstrated inhibition of the velocity of ADP-induced platelet aggregation that correlated with the log of the serum nitrofurantoin concentration (P < 0.001). Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was also inhibited in a dose-related manner, and the bleeding time was significantly prolonged in the two subjects with the highest serum nitrofurantoin concentration. These studies indicate that nitrofurantoin in vivo inhibits platelet function to a degree that is proportional to the serum nitrofurantoin concentration. PMID:4729043

  3. 48 CFR 245.608-72 - Screening excess automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening excess automatic... Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.608-72 Screening excess automatic data... screening, including General Services Administration screening, for ADPE. (See the Defense...

  4. Aero-Propulsion Technology (APT) Task V Low Noise ADP Engine Definition Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcombe, V.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify and evaluate noise reduction technologies for advanced ducted prop propulsion systems that would allow increased capacity operation and result in an economically competitive commercial transport. The study investigated the aero/acoustic/structural advancements in fan and nacelle technology required to match or exceed the fuel burned and economic benefits of a constrained diameter large Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) compared to an unconstrained ADP propulsion system with a noise goal of 5 to 10 EPNDB reduction relative to FAR 36 Stage 3 at each of the three measuring stations namely, takeoff (cutback), approach and sideline. A second generation ADP was selected to operate within the maximum nacelle diameter constrain of 160 deg to allow installation under the wing. The impact of fan and nacelle technologies of the second generation ADP on fuel burn and direct operating costs for a typical 3000 nm mission was evaluated through use of a large, twin engine commercial airplane simulation model. The major emphasis of this study focused on fan blade aero/acoustic and structural technology evaluations and advanced nacelle designs. Results of this study have identified the testing required to verify the interactive performance of these components, along with noise characteristics, by wind tunnel testing utilizing and advanced interaction rig.

  5. Three-Dimensional Structures Reveal Multiple ADP/ATP Binding Modes

    SciTech Connect

    C Simmons; C Magee; D Smith; L Lauman; J Chaput; J Allen

    2011-12-31

    The creation of synthetic enzymes with predefined functions represents a major challenge in future synthetic biology applications. Here, we describe six structures of de novo proteins that have been determined using protein crystallography to address how simple enzymes perform catalysis. Three structures are of a protein, DX, selected for its stability and ability to tightly bind ATP. Despite the addition of ATP to the crystallization conditions, the presence of a bound but distorted ATP was found only under excess ATP conditions, with ADP being present under equimolar conditions or when crystallized for a prolonged period of time. A bound ADP cofactor was evident when Asp was substituted for Val at residue 65, but ATP in a linear configuration is present when Phe was substituted for Tyr at residue 43. These new structures complement previously determined structures of DX and the protein with the Phe 43 to Tyr substitution [Simmons, C. R., et al. (2009) ACS Chem. Biol. 4, 649-658] and together demonstrate the multiple ADP/ATP binding modes from which a model emerges in which the DX protein binds ATP in a configuration that represents a transitional state for the catalysis of ATP to ADP through a slow, metal-free reaction capable of multiple turnovers. This unusual observation suggests that design-free methods can be used to generate novel protein scaffolds that are tailor-made for catalysis.

  6. Guidelines for developing NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) ADP security risk management plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents guidance to NASA Computer security officials for developing ADP security risk management plans. The six components of the risk management process are identified and discussed. Guidance is presented on how to manage security risks that have been identified during a risk analysis performed at a data processing facility or during the security evaluation of an application system.

  7. Impaired ADP channeling to mitochondria and elevated reactive oxygen species in hypertensive hearts.

    PubMed

    Power, Amelia S C; Pham, Toan; Loiselle, Denis S; Crossman, David H; Ward, Marie-Louise; Hickey, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Systemic hypertension initially promotes a compensatory cardiac hypertrophy, yet it progresses to heart failure (HF), and energetic deficits appear to be central to this failure. However, the transfer of energy between the mitochondria and the myofibrils is not often considered as part of the energetic equation. We compared hearts from old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar controls. SHR hearts showed a 35% depression in mitochondrial function, yet produced at least double the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in all respiration states in left ventricular (LV) homogenates. To test the connectivity between mitochondria and myofibrils, respiration was further tested in situ with LV permeabilized fibers by addition of multiple substrates and ATP, which requires hydrolysis to mediate oxidative phosphorylation. By trapping ADP using a pyruvate kinase enzyme system, we tested ADP channeling towards mitochondria, and this suppressed respiration and elevated ROS production more in the SHR fibers. The ADP-trapped state was also less relieved on creatine addition, likely reflecting the 30% depression in total CK activity in the SHR heart fibers. Confocal imaging identified a 34% longer distance between the centers of myofibril to mitochondria in the SHR hearts, which increases transverse metabolite diffusion distances (e.g., for ATP, ADP, and creatine phosphate). We propose that impaired connectivity between mitochondria and myofibrils may contribute to elevated ROS production. Impaired energy exchange could be the result of ultrastructural changes that occur with hypertrophy in this model of hypertension. PMID:27084386

  8. 7 CFR 277.18 - Establishment of an Automated Data Processing (ADP) and Information Retrieval System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of an Automated Data Processing (ADP) and Information Retrieval System. 277.18 Section 277.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF...

  9. Genome Instability Mediates the Loss of Key Traits by Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 during Laboratory Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Renda, Brian A.; Dasgupta, Aurko; Leon, Dacia

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 has the potential to be a versatile bacterial host for synthetic biology because it is naturally transformable. To examine the genetic reliability of this desirable trait and to understand the potential stability of other engineered capabilities, we propagated ADP1 for 1,000 generations of growth in rich nutrient broth and analyzed the genetic changes that evolved by whole-genome sequencing. Substantially reduced transformability and increased cellular aggregation evolved during the experiment. New insertions of IS1236 transposable elements and IS1236-mediated deletions led to these phenotypes in most cases and were common overall among the selected mutations. We also observed a 49-kb deletion of a prophage region that removed an integration site, which has been used for genome engineering, from every evolved genome. The comparatively low rates of these three classes of mutations in lineages that were propagated with reduced selection for 7,500 generations indicate that they increase ADP1 fitness under common laboratory growth conditions. Our results suggest that eliminating transposable elements and other genetic failure modes that affect key organismal traits is essential for improving the reliability of metabolic engineering and genome editing in undomesticated microbial hosts, such as Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. PMID:25512307

  10. The NASA/USRA ADP at the University of Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. A.; Armitage, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    An approach to learning engineering design is discussed with particular attention given to the impact of the NASA/Universities Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) on that process. Attention is also given to a teaching method stressing science discipline and creativity and various selected space related designs.

  11. The ADP/ATP Carrier and Its Relationship to Oxidative Phosphorylation in Ancestral Protist Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Gnipová, Anna; Šubrtová, Karolína; Panicucci, Brian; Horváth, Anton; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    The highly conserved ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) is a key energetic link between the mitochondrial (mt) and cytosolic compartments of all aerobic eukaryotic cells, as it exchanges the ATP generated inside the organelle for the cytosolic ADP. Trypanosoma brucei, a parasitic protist of medical and veterinary importance, possesses a single functional AAC protein (TbAAC) that is related to the human and yeast ADP/ATP carriers. However, unlike previous studies performed with these model organisms, this study showed that TbAAC is most likely not a stable component of either the respiratory supercomplex III+IV or the ATP synthasome but rather functions as a physically separate entity in this highly diverged eukaryote. Therefore, TbAAC RNA interference (RNAi) ablation in the insect stage of T. brucei does not impair the activity or arrangement of the respiratory chain complexes. Nevertheless, RNAi silencing of TbAAC caused a severe growth defect that coincides with a significant reduction of mt ATP synthesis by both substrate and oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, TbAAC downregulation resulted in a decreased level of cytosolic ATP, a higher mt membrane potential, an elevated amount of reactive oxygen species, and a reduced consumption of oxygen in the mitochondria. Interestingly, while TbAAC has previously been demonstrated to serve as the sole ADP/ATP carrier for ADP influx into the mitochondria, our data suggest that a second carrier for ATP influx may be present and active in the T. brucei mitochondrion. Overall, this study provides more insight into the delicate balance of the functional relationship between TbAAC and the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway in an early diverged eukaryote. PMID:25616281

  12. The ancestral activation promiscuity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases from oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-Glc PPase) catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and starch in algae and plants. In oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, ADP-Glc PPase is mainly activated by 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) and to a lesser extent by other metabolites. In this work, we analyzed the activation promiscuity of ADP-Glc PPase subunits from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120, the green alga Ostreococcus tauri, and potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber by comparing a specificity constant for 3-PGA, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), fructose-6-phosphate, and glucose-6-phosphate. Results The 3-PGA specificity constant for the enzymes from Anabaena (homotetramer), O. tauri, and potato tuber was considerably higher than for other activators. O. tauri and potato tuber enzymes were heterotetramers comprising homologous small and large subunits. Conversely, the O. tauri small subunit (OtaS) homotetramer was more promiscuous because its FBP specificity constant was similar to that for 3-PGA. To explore the role of both OtaS and OtaL (O. tauri large subunit) in determining the specificity of the heterotetramer, we knocked out the catalytic activity of each subunit individually by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, the mutants OtaSD148A/OtaL and OtaS/OtaLD171A had higher specificity constants for 3-PGA than for FBP. Conclusions After gene duplication, OtaS seemed to have lost specificity for 3-PGA compared to FBP. This was physiologically and evolutionarily feasible because co-expression of both subunits restored the specificity for 3-PGA of the resulting heterotetrameric wild type enzyme. This widespread promiscuity seems to be ancestral and intrinsic to the enzyme family. Its presence could constitute an efficient evolutionary mechanism to accommodate the ADP-Glc PPase regulation to different metabolic needs. PMID:23433303

  13. High K(m) of oxidative phosphorylation for ADP in skinned muscle fibers: where does it stem from?

    PubMed

    Kongas, Olav; Yuen, Tai L; Wagner, Marijke J; Van Beek, Johannes H G M; Krab, Klaas

    2002-09-01

    Mitochondria in saponin-skinned cardiac fiber bundles were reported to have an order of magnitude lower apparent affinity to ADP than isolated mitochondria. Although ADP was measured outside the bundles, it was thought that the low affinity was not caused by diffusion gradients because of relatively short diffusion distances. Here we test the hypothesis that considerable ADP diffusion gradients exist and can be diminished by increasing the intrafiber ADP production rate. We increased the ADP-producing activity in rat heart skinned fiber bundles by incubating with 100 IU/ml yeast hexokinase and glucose. Consequently, we observed a significant decrease of the apparent Michaelis constant (K(m)) to ADP of the respiration rate of bundles from 216 +/- 59 to 50 +/- 9 microM. Fitting the results with a mathematical model, we estimated the K(m) of mitochondria in the bundles to be 25 microM. We conclude that the affinity to ADP of in situ mitochondria in heart is of the same order of magnitude as that of isolated mitochondria. PMID:12176731

  14. Modulated anharmonic ADPs are intrinsic to aperiodic crystals: a case study on incommensurate Rb2ZnCl4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Wölfel, Alexander; Schönleber, Andreas; Mondal, Swastik; Schreurs, Antoine M. M.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J.; van Smaalen, Sander

    2011-01-01

    A combination of structure refinements, analysis of the superspace MEM density and interpretation of difference-Fourier maps has been used to characterize the incommensurate modulation of rubidium tetrachlorozincate, Rb2ZnCl4, at a temperature of T = 196 K, close to the lock-in transition at T lock-in = 192 K. The modulation is found to consist of a combination of displacement modulation functions, modulated atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and modulated third-order anharmonic ADPs. Up to fifth-order Fourier coefficients could be refined against diffraction data containing up to fifth-order satellite reflections. The center-of-charge of the atomic basins of the MEM density and the displacive modulation functions of the structure model provide equivalent descriptions of the displacive modulation. Modulations of the ADPs and anharmonic ADPs are visible in the MEM density, but extracting quantitative information about these modulations appears to be difficult. In the structure refinements the modulation parameters of the ADPs form a dependent set, and ad hoc restrictions had to be introduced in the refinements. It is suggested that modulated harmonic ADPs and modulated third-order anharmonic ADPs form an intrinsic part, however small, of incommensurately modulated structures in general. Refinements of alternate models with and without parameters for modulated ADPs lead to significant differences between the parameters of the displacement modulation in these two types of models, thus showing the modulation of ADPs to be important for a correct description of the displacive modulation. The resulting functions do not provide evidence for an interpretation of the modulation by a soliton model. PMID:21586828

  15. Roles of glia limitans astrocytes and CO in ADP-induced pial arteriolar dilation in newborn pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kanu, Alie; Leffler, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Astrocytes, neurons, and microvessels together form a neurovascular unit allowing blood flow to match neuronal activity. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is an important signaling molecule in the brain, and dilation in response to ADP is astrocyte-dependent in rats and newborn pigs. Carbon monoxide (CO), produced endogenously by catabolism of heme to CO, iron, and biliverdin via heme oxygenase (HO), is an important cell signaling molecule in the neonatal cerebral circulation. We hypothesize ADP stimulates CO production by glia limitans astrocytes and that this CO causes pial arteriolar dilation. Methods Experiments were performed using anesthetized piglet with closed cranial windows, and freshly isolated piglet astrocytes and microvessels. Astrocyte injury was caused by topical application of L-2-alpha aminoadipic acid (2 mM, 5 h). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected from under the cranial windows for measurement of ADP-stimulated CO production. CO was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. Results Before, but not after, astrocyte injury in vivo, topical ADP stimulated both CO production and dilation of pial arterioles. Astrocyte injury did not block dilation to isoproterenol or bradykinin. Chromium mesoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO, also prevented the ADP-induced increase in CSF CO and pial arteriolar dilation caused by ADP but not dilation to sodium nitroprusside. ADP also increased CO production by freshly isolated piglet astrocytes and cerebral microvessels, although the increase was smaller in the microvessels. Conclusions These data suggest that glia limitans astrocytes employ CO as a gasotransmitter to cause pial arteriolar dilation in response to ADP. PMID:19164779

  16. Altered poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism impairs cellular responses to genotoxic stress in a hypomorphic mutant of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Hong; Coyle, Donna L.; Meyer-Ficca, Mirella L.; Meyer, Ralph G.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Jacobson, Myron K. . E-mail: mjacobson@pharmacy.arizona.edu

    2007-03-10

    Genotoxic stress activates nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism leading to PAR synthesis catalyzed by DNA damage activated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and rapid PAR turnover by action of nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). The involvement of PARP-1 and PARP-2 in responses to DNA damage has been well studied but the involvement of nuclear PARG is less well understood. To gain insights into the function of nuclear PARG in DNA damage responses, we have quantitatively studied PAR metabolism in cells derived from a hypomorphic mutant mouse model in which exons 2 and 3 of the PARG gene have been deleted (PARG-{delta}2,3 cells), resulting in a nuclear PARG containing a catalytic domain but lacking the N-terminal region (A domain) of the protein. Following DNA damage induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), we found that the activity of both PARG and PARPs in intact cells is increased in PARG-{delta}2,3 cells. The increased PARG activity leads to decreased PARP-1 automodification with resulting increased PARP activity. The degree of PARG activation is greater than PARP, resulting in decreased PAR accumulation. Following MNNG treatment, PARG-{delta}2,3 cells show reduced formation of XRCC1 foci, delayed H2AX phosphorylation, decreased DNA break intermediates during repair, and increased cell death. Our results show that a precise coordination of PARPs and PARG activities is important for normal cellular responses to DNA damage and that this coordination is defective in the absence of the PARG A domain.

  17. Molecular dynamics study on the free energy profile for dissociation of ADP from N-terminal domain of Hsp90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Kazutomo; Saito, Hiroaki; Okazaki, Susumu; Nagao, Hidemi

    2013-11-01

    The free energy profile for dissociation of ADP from Hsp90 was calculated as a function of the distance r between the centers of mass of Hsp90 and ADP by using molecular dynamics simulations and the thermodynamic integration method. The free energy profile is defined as the difference from a reference state. We found that the free energy reaches a minimum at r = 0.8 nm and that the mean force at r = 1.0 nm was considerably difference-dependent on the trajectories. Our results suggest that Met98 blocks the dissociation pathway of ADP at r = 1.0 nm.

  18. Combined blockade of ADP receptors and PI3-kinase p110β fully prevents platelet and leukocyte activation during hypothermic extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Stefanie; Kurz, Julia; Geisler, Tobias; Peter, Karlheinz; Wendel, Hans Peter; Straub, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) and hypothermia are used to maintain stable circulatory parameters and improve the ischemia tolerance of patients in cardiac surgery. However, ECC and hypothermia induce activation mechanisms in platelets and leukocytes, which are mediated by the platelet agonist ADP and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) p110β. Under clinical conditions these processes are associated with life-threatening complications including thromboembolism and inflammation. This study analyzes effects of ADP receptor P(2)Y(12) and P(2)Y(1) blockade and PI3K p110β inhibition on platelets and granulocytes during hypothermic ECC. Human blood was treated with the P(2)Y(12) antagonist 2-MeSAMP, the P(2)Y(1) antagonist MRS2179, the PI3K p110β inhibitor TGX-221, combinations thereof, or PBS and propylene glycol (controls). Under static in vitro conditions a concentration-dependent effect regarding the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation was found using 2-MeSAMP or TGX-221. Further inhibition of ADP-mediated effects was achieved with MRS2179. Next, blood was circulated in an ex vivo ECC model at 28°C for 30 minutes and various platelet and granulocyte markers were investigated using flow cytometry, ELISA and platelet count analysis. GPIIb/IIIa activation induced by hypothermic ECC was inhibited using TGX-221 alone or in combination with P(2)Y blockers (p<0.05), while no effect of hypothermic ECC or antiplatelet agents on GPIIb/IIIa and GPIbα expression and von Willebrand factor binding was observed. Sole P(2)Y and PI3K blockade or a combination thereof inhibited P-selectin expression on platelets and platelet-derived microparticles during hypothermic ECC (p<0.05). P(2)Y blockade alone or combined with TGX-221 prevented ECC-induced platelet-granulocyte aggregate formation (p<0.05). Platelet adhesion to the ECC surface, platelet loss and Mac-1 expression on granulocytes were inhibited by combined P(2)Y and PI3K blockade (p<0.05). Combined blockade of P

  19. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation through the epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by phospholipid metabolites derived by activation of phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Malik, Kafait U

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), phospholipase D (PLD), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Akt activation by Ang II and other signaling molecules in rat VSMC. Ang II-induced Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced by the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol, but not by its inactive analog 2-butanol, and by brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the PLD cofactor ADP-ribosylation factor, and in cells infected with retrovirus containing PLD(2) siRNA or transfected with PLD(2) antisense but not control LacZ or sense oligonucleotide. Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor II diminished Ang II-induced and diC8-phosphatidic acid (PA)-increased Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that PLD-dependent Akt activation is mediated by PA. Ang II-induced EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by 1-butanol and PLD(2) siRNA and also by cPLA(2) siRNA. In addition, the inhibitor of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) reduced both Ang II- and AA-induced EGFR transactivation. Furthermore, ETYA, cPLA(2) antisense, and cPLA(2) siRNA attenuated Ang II-elicited PLD activation. p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 [4-(4-flurophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole] reduced PLD activity and EGFR and Akt phosphorylation elicited by Ang II. Pyrrolidine-1, a cPLA(2) inhibitor, and cPLA(2) siRNA decreased p38 MAPK activity. These data indicate that Ang II-stimulated Akt activity is mediated by cPLA(2)-dependent, p38 MAPK regulated PLD(2) activation and EGFR transactivation. We propose the following scheme of the sequence of events leading to activation of Akt in VSMC by Ang II: Ang II-->cPLA(2)-->AA-->p38 MAPK-->PLD(2)-->PA-->EGFR-->Akt. PMID:15525798

  20. Distinct subcellular localization of alternative splicing variants of EFA6D, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6, in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Fukaya, Masahiro; Ohta, Shingo; Hara, Yoshinobu; Tamaki, Hideaki; Sakagami, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    EFA6D (guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP-ribosylation factor 6 [Arf6]D) is also known as EFA6R, Psd3, and HCA67. It is the fourth member of the EFA6 family with guanine nucleotide exchange activity for Arf6, a small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that regulates endosomal trafficking and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. We propose a classification and nomenclature of 10 EFA6D variants deposited in the GenBank database as EFA6D1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1s, 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, and 2s based on the combination of N-terminal and C-terminal insertions. Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the expression of all EFA6D variants except for variants a and d in the adult mouse brain. Immunoblotting analysis with novel variant-specific antibodies showed the endogenous expression of EFA6D1b, EFA6D1c, and EFA6D1s at the protein level, with the highest expression being EFA6D1s, in the brain. Immunoblotting analysis of forebrain subcellular fractions showed the distinct subcellular distribution of EFA6D1b/c and EFA6D1s. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed distinct but overlapping immunoreactive patterns between EFA6D1b/c and EFA6D1s in the mouse brain. In immunoelectron microscopic analyses of the hippocampal CA3 region, EFA6D1b/c was present predominantly in the mossy fiber axons of dentate granule cells, whereas EFA6D1s was present abundantly in the cell bodies, dendritic shafts, and spines of hippocampal pyramidal cells. These results provide the first anatomical evidence suggesting the functional diversity of EFA6D variants, particularly EFA6D1b/c and EFA6D1s, in neurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2531-2552, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27241101

  1. Influence of inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase on DNA repair, chromosomal alterations, and mutations.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, A T; van Zeeland, A A; Zwanenburg, T S

    1983-01-01

    The influence of inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase such as 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and benzamide (B) on the spontaneously occurring as well as mutagen induced chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and point mutations has been studied. In addition, we have measured the influence of 3AB on DNA repair following treatment with physical and chemical mutagens. Post treatment of X-irradiated mammalian cells with 3AB increases the frequencies of induced chromosomal aberrations by a factor of 2 to 3. Both acentric fragments and exchanges increase indicating that the presence of 3AB slows down the repair of DNA strand breaks (probably DNA double strand breaks), thus making breaks available for interaction with each other to give rise to exchanges. 3AB, when present in the medium containing bromodeoxyuridine(BrdUrd) during two cell cycles, increases the frequencies of SCEs in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) in a concentration dependent manner leading to about a 10-fold increase at 10 mM concentration. Most 3AB induced SCEs occur during the second cell cycle, in which DNA containing bromouridine (BU) is used as template for replication. BU containing DNA appears to be prone to errors during replication. The extent of increase in the frequencies of SCEs by 3AB is correlated with the amount of BU incorporated in the DNA of the cells. The frequencies of spontaneously occurring DNA single strand breaks in cells grown in BrdUrd containing medium are higher than in the cells grown in normal medium and this increase depends on the amount of BU incorporated in the DNA of these cells. We have studied the extent of increase in the frequencies of SCEs due to 1 mM 3AB in several human cell lines, including those derived from patients suffering from genetic diseases such as ataxia telangiectasia (A-T), Fanconi's anemia (FA), and Huntington's chorea. None of these syndromes showed any increased response when compared to normal cells. 3AB, however, increased the

  2. Calmodulin interacts with the platelet ADP receptor P2Y1

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Jane F.; Shen, Yang; Mu, Fi-Tjen; Leon, Catherine; Gachet, Christian; Berndt, Michael C.; Andrews, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    P2Y1 [P2 (purinergic type-2)-receptor 1] is a G-protein-coupled ADP receptor that regulates platelet activation and ADP-induced Ca2+ signalling. Studies using P2Y1-knockout mice, Gq-deficient mice or P2Y1-selective inhibitors have previously identified a key role for P2Y1 in pathophysiological thrombus formation at high shear stress. We provide evidence that a positively charged juxtamembrane sequence within the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of P2Y1 can bind directly to the cytosolic regulatory protein calmodulin. Deletion by mutagenesis of the calmodulin-binding domain of P2Y1 inhibits intracellular Ca2+ flux in transfected cells. These results suggest that the interaction of calmodulin with the P2Y1 C-terminal tail may regulate P2Y1-dependent platelet aggregation. PMID:16848759

  3. Molecular dynamics studies of Hsp90 with ADP: Protein-ligand binding dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Kazutomo; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Takasu, Masako; Saito, Hiroaki; Nagao, Hidemi

    2013-02-01

    Ligand binding to a protein molecule plays a key role in the function of many proteins. We performed all-atom model molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the N-terminal domain of human Hsp90 in complex with ADP, and calculated a free energy profile for ligand binding with thermodynamic integration method. The free energy profile as a function of the distance between the centers of mass of the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 and ADP was calculated using the results of the binding-distance constrained MD simulations. The free energy profile was fit to a harmonic oscillator. We obtained spring constant k = 3.84kJ/molṡnm2 = 9.17×10-1kcal/molṡÅ2. This result indicates that the dynamics of the ligand binding to the protein molecule is about 1,000 times slower than that of the covalent bond.

  4. Dual inhibitory effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase.

    PubMed

    Banasik, M; Ueda, K

    1999-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a solvent popularly used for dissolving water-insoluble compounds, is a weak inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, that is a nuclear enzyme producing (ADP-ribose)n from NAD+. The inhibitory mode and potency depend on the concentration of substrate, NAD+, as well as the temperature of the reaction; at micromolar concentrations of NAD+, the inhibition by DMSO is biphasic at 37 degrees C, but is monophasic and apparently competitive with NAD+ at 25 degrees C. DMSO, on the other hand, diminishes dose-dependently and markedly the inhibitory potency of benzamide and other inhibitors. Other organic solvents, ethanol and methanol, also show a biphasic effect on the synthetase activity at different concentrations. PMID:10445046

  5. Inhibition of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase by Nucleic Acid Metabolite 7-Methylguanine

    PubMed Central

    Nilov, D. K.; Tararov, V. I.; Kulikov, A. V.; Zakharenko, A. L.; Gushchina, I. V.; Mikhailov, S. N.; Lavrik, O. I.; Švedas, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of 7-methylguanine, a nucleic acid metabolite, to inhibit poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-2 (PARP-2) has been identified in silico and studied experimentally. The amino group at position 2 and the methyl group at position 7 were shown to be important substituents for the efficient binding of purine derivatives to PARPs. The activity of both tested enzymes, PARP-1 and PARP-2, was suppressed by 7-methylguanine with IC50 values of 150 and 50 μM, respectively. At the PARP inhibitory concentration, 7-methylguanine itself was not cytotoxic, but it was able to accelerate apoptotic death of BRCA1-deficient breast cancer cells induced by cisplatin and doxorubicin, the widely used DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents. 7-Methylguanine possesses attractive predictable pharmacokinetics and an adverse-effect profile and may be considered as a new additive to chemotherapeutic treatment. PMID:27437145

  6. The mitochondrial outer membrane is not a major diffusion barrier for ADP in mouse heart skinned fibre bundles.

    PubMed

    Kongas, Olav; Wagner, Marijke J; ter Veld, Frank; Nicolay, Klaas; van Beek, Johannes H G M; Krab, Klaas

    2004-03-01

    The response of mitochondrial oxygen consumption to ADP in saponin-skinned cardiac fibre bundles has an apparent Km an order of magnitude higher than that in isolated mitochondria. Here we report that incubating skinned cardiac fibre bundles from wild-type mice or double-knockout mice lacking both cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK) with CK and creatine or with yeast hexokinase and glucose as extramitochondrial ADP-producing systems decreases the apparent Km of the bundles for ADP severalfold. We conclude that the affinity of mitochondria for ADP in mouse heart is of the same order of magnitude as that of isolated mitochondria, while the high apparent Km of the bundles is caused by diffusion gradients outside the mitochondria. PMID:14722773

  7. Effect of L-cysteine on optical, thermal and mechanical properties of ADP crystal for NLO application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, R. N.; Shirsat, M. D.; Koinkar, P. M.; Hussaini, S. S.

    2015-06-01

    The ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) crystal doped with amino acid L-cysteine (LC) was grown by a slow evaporation technique. The grown crystal was transparent in the entire visible region, which is an essential requirement for a nonlinear crystal. The LC doping enhances the optical band gap of ADP (5.35 eV). The TG/DTA analysis of LC doped ADP crystal confirms the optimum thermal stability of grown crystal. The enhancement in the mechanical stability after LC doping was confirmed by Vicker's microhardness test. The LC doping showed significant impact on dielectric properties (dielectric constant and dielectric loss) of grown crystal. The third order nonlinear behavior of LC doped ADP crystal was investigated using a Z-scan technique at 632.8 nm and effective nonlinear optical parameters were evaluated.

  8. Molecular Physiological Analysis of the Two Plastidic ATP/ADP Transporters from Arabidopsis12

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, Jens; Linka, Nicole; Lemke, Lilia; Jeblick, Wolfgang; Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) possesses two isoforms of plastidic ATP/ADP transporters (AtNTT1 and AtNTT2) exhibiting similar biochemical properties. To analyze the function of both isoforms on the molecular level, we examined the expression pattern of both genes by northern-blot analysis and promoter-β-glucuronidase fusions. AtNTT1 represents a sugar-induced gene mainly expressed in stem and roots, whereas AtNTT2 is expressed in several Arabidopsis tissues with highest accumulation in developing roots and young cotyledons. Developing lipid-storing seeds hardly contained AtNTT1 or -2 transcripts. The absence of a functional AtNTT1 gene affected plant development only slightly, whereas AtNTT2∷T-DNA, AtNTT1-2∷T-DNA, and RNA interference (RNAi) plants showed retarded plant development, mainly characterized by a reduced ability to generate primary roots and a delayed chlorophyll accumulation in seedlings. Electron microscopic examination of chloroplast substructure also revealed an impaired formation of thylakoids in RNAi seedlings. Moreover, RNAi- and AtNTT1-2∷T-DNA plants showed reduced accumulation of the nuclear-encoded protein CP24 during deetiolation. Under short-day conditions reduced plastidic ATP import capacity correlates with a substantially reduced plant growth rate. This effect is absent under long-day conditions, strikingly indicating that nocturnal ATP import into chloroplasts is important. Plastidic ATP/ADP transport activity exerts significant control on lipid synthesis in developing Arabidopsis seeds. In total we made the surprising observation that plastidic ATP/ADP transport activity is not required to pass through the complete plant life cycle. However, plastidic ATP/ADP-transporter activity is required for both an undisturbed development of young tissues and a controlled cellular metabolism in mature leaves. PMID:15516503

  9. ADP-ribosyltransferase in isolated nuclei during the cell cycle of Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed Central

    Gröbner, P; Loidl, P

    1985-01-01

    ADP-ribosyltransferase was measured in isolated nuclei of Physarum polycephalum. Activity was determined with and without exogenous DNA and histones. During the synchronous cell cycle the activity measured with exogenous substrates exhibited a typical peak enzyme pattern with a maximum of activity in S-phase, whereas activity measured without exogenous substrates displayed a step enzyme pattern. Both activities doubled in each cell cycle. PMID:3002325

  10. Scabin, a Novel DNA-acting ADP-ribosyltransferase from Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Bronwyn; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Lanoue, Jason; Lugo, Miguel R; Dutta, Debajyoti; Carlin, Stephanie; Merrill, A Rod

    2016-05-20

    A bioinformatics strategy was used to identify Scabin, a novel DNA-targeting enzyme from the plant pathogen 87.22 strain of Streptomyces scabies Scabin shares nearly 40% sequence identity with the Pierisin family of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase toxins. Scabin was purified to homogeneity as a 22-kDa single-domain enzyme and was shown to possess high NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (Km (NAD) = 68 ± 3 μm; kcat = 94 ± 2 min(-1)) activity with an RSQXE motif; it was also shown to target deoxyguanosine and showed sigmoidal enzyme kinetics (K0.5(deoxyguanosine) = 302 ± 12 μm; kcat = 14 min(-1)). Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that Scabin labels the exocyclic amino group on guanine bases in either single-stranded or double-stranded DNA. Several small molecule inhibitors were identified, and the most potent compounds were found to inhibit the enzyme activity with Ki values ranging from 3 to 24 μm PJ34, a well known inhibitor of poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases, was shown to be the most potent inhibitor of Scabin. Scabin was crystallized, representing the first structure of a DNA-targeting mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase enzyme; the structures of the apo-form (1.45 Å) and with two inhibitors (P6-E, 1.4 Å; PJ34, 1.6 Å) were solved. These x-ray structures are also the first high resolution structures of the Pierisin subgroup of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin family. A model of Scabin with its DNA substrate is also proposed. PMID:27002155

  11. Guidelines for contingency planning NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) ADP security risk reduction decision studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Guidance is presented to NASA Computer Security Officials for determining the acceptability or unacceptability of ADP security risks based on the technical, operational and economic feasibility of potential safeguards. The risk management process is reviewed as a specialized application of the systems approach to problem solving and information systems analysis and design. Reporting the results of the risk reduction analysis to management is considered. Report formats for the risk reduction study are provided.

  12. The switching mechanism of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier explored by free-energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pietropaolo, Adriana; Pierri, Ciro Leonardo; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Klingenberg, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) of mitochondria has been an early example for elucidating the transport mechanism alternating between the external (c-) and internal (m-) states (M. Klingenberg, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1778 (2008) 1978-2021). An atomic resolution crystal structure of AAC is available only for the c-state featuring a three repeat transmembrane domain structure. Modeling of transport mechanism remained hypothetical for want of an atomic structure of the m-state. Previous molecular dynamics studies simulated the binding of ADP or ATP to the AAC remaining in the c-state. Here, a full description of the AAC switching from the c- to the m-state is reported using well-tempered metadynamics simulations. Free-energy landscapes of the entire translocation from the c- to the m-state, based on the gyration radii of the c- and m-gates and of the center of mass, were generated. The simulations revealed three free-energy basins attributed to the c-, intermediate- and m-states separated by activation barriers. These simulations were performed with the empty and with the ADP- and ATP-loaded AAC as well as with the poorly transported AMP and guanine nucleotides, showing in the free energy landscapes that ADP and ATP lowered the activation free-energy barriers more than the other substrates. Upon binding AMP and guanine nucleotides a deeper free-energy level stabilized the intermediate-state of the AAC2 hampering the transition to the m-state. The structures of the substrate binding sites in the different states are described producing a full picture of the translocation events in the AAC. PMID:26874054

  13. Exchange of ATP for ADP on high-force cross-bridges of skinned rabbit muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Seow, C Y; Ford, L E

    1997-01-01

    The contractile properties of rabbit skinned muscle fibers were studied at 1-2 degrees C in different concentrations of MgATP and MgADP. Double-reciprocal plots of maximum velocity against MgATP concentration at different MgADP concentrations all extrapolated to the same value. This finding suggests that MgATP and MgADP compete for the same site on the cross-bridge, and that the exchange of MgATP for MgADP occurs without a detectable step intervening. The K(m) for ATP was 0.32 mM. The K(i) for MgADP was 0.33 mM. Control experiments suggested that the tortuosity of diffusion paths within the fibers reduced the radial diffusion coefficients for reactants about sixfold. Increasing MgADP from 0.18 to 2 mM at 5 mM ATP or lowering MgATP from 10 to 2 mM at 0.18 mM MgADP, respectively, increased isometric force by 25% and 23%, increased stiffness by 10% and 20%, and decreased maximum velocity by 35% and 31%. Two mechanisms appeared to be responsible. One detained bridges in high-force states, where they recovered from a length step with a slower time course. The other increased the fraction of attached bridges without altering the kinetics of their responses, possibly by an increased activation resulting from cooperative effects of the detained, high-force bridges. The rigor bridge was more effective than the ADP-bound bridge in increasing the number of attached bridges with unaltered kinetics. PMID:9168047

  14. Pre-steady-state studies of the adenosine triphosphatase activity of coupled submitochondrial particles. Regulation by ADP.

    PubMed

    Martins, O B; Tuena de Gómez-Puyou, M; Gómez-Puyou, A

    1988-09-20

    ATPase activities were measured in 10 mM MgCl2, 5 mM ATP, 1 mM ADP, and 1 microM FCCP with submitochondrial particles from bovine heart that had been stimulated by delta mu H+-forming substrates and with particles whose natural inhibitor protein was partially removed by heating. The activities were not linear with time. With both particles, the rate of ATP hydrolysis in the 7-fold greater than that in the steady state. Pre-steady-state and steady-state kinetic studies showed that the decrease of ATPase activity was due to the binding of ADP in a high-affinity site of the enzyme (K0.5 of 10 microM). Inhibition of ATP hydrolysis was accompanied by the binding of approximately 1 mol of ADP/mol of particulate F1; 10 microM ADP gave half-maximal binding. ADP could be replaced by IDP, but with an affinity 50-fold lower (K0.5 of 0.5 mM). Maximal inhibition by ADP and IDP was achieved in less than 5 s. Inhibition was enhanced by uncouplers. Even in the presence of pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate, the rates of hydrolysis were about 2.5-fold higher in the first seconds of reaction than in the steady state. This decrease of ATPase activity also correlated with the binding of nearly 1 mol of ADP/mol of F1. This inhibitory ADP remained bound to the enzyme after several thousand turnovers. Apparently, it is possible to observe maximal rates of hydrolysis only in the first few catalytic cycles of the enzyme. PMID:2974725

  15. Residual force depression in single sarcomeres is abolished by MgADP-induced activation.

    PubMed

    Trecarten, Neal; Minozzo, Fabio C; Leite, Felipe S; Rassier, Dilson E

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the shortening-induced force depression commonly observed in skeletal muscles remain unclear, but have been associated with sarcomere length non-uniformity and/or crossbridge inhibition. The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to evaluate if force depression is present in isolated single sarcomeres, a preparation that eliminates sarcomere length non-uniformities and (ii) to evaluate if force depression is inhibited when single sarcomeres are activated with MgADP, which biases crossbridges into a strongly-bound state. Single sarcomeres (n = 16) were isolated from rabbit psoas myofibrils using two micro-needles (one compliant, one rigid), piercing the sarcomere externally adjacent to the Z-lines. The sarcomeres were contracted isometrically and subsequently shortened, in both Ca(2+)- and MgADP-activating solutions. Shortening in Ca(2+)-activated samples resulted in a 27.44 ± 9.04% force depression when compared to isometric contractions produced at similar final sarcomere lengths (P < 0.001). There was no force depression in MgADP-activated sarcomeres (force depression = -1.79 ± 9.69%, P =  0.435). These results suggest that force depression is a sarcomeric property, and that is associated with an inhibition of myosin-actin interactions. PMID:26037312

  16. Residual force depression in single sarcomeres is abolished by MgADP-induced activation

    PubMed Central

    Trecarten, Neal; Minozzo, Fabio C.; Leite, Felipe S.; Rassier, Dilson E.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the shortening-induced force depression commonly observed in skeletal muscles remain unclear, but have been associated with sarcomere length non-uniformity and/or crossbridge inhibition. The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to evaluate if force depression is present in isolated single sarcomeres, a preparation that eliminates sarcomere length non-uniformities and (ii) to evaluate if force depression is inhibited when single sarcomeres are activated with MgADP, which biases crossbridges into a strongly-bound state. Single sarcomeres (n = 16) were isolated from rabbit psoas myofibrils using two micro-needles (one compliant, one rigid), piercing the sarcomere externally adjacent to the Z-lines. The sarcomeres were contracted isometrically and subsequently shortened, in both Ca2+- and MgADP-activating solutions. Shortening in Ca2+-activated samples resulted in a 27.44 ± 9.04% force depression when compared to isometric contractions produced at similar final sarcomere lengths (P < 0.001). There was no force depression in MgADP-activated sarcomeres (force depression = −1.79 ± 9.69%, P =  0.435). These results suggest that force depression is a sarcomeric property, and that is associated with an inhibition of myosin-actin interactions. PMID:26037312

  17. Structural analysis of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase in higher and lower eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Scovassi, A I; Izzo, R; Franchi, E; Bertazzoni, U

    1986-08-15

    A phylogenetic survey for the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase has been conducted by analyzing enzyme activity in various organisms and determining the structure of the catalytic peptides by renaturation of functional activities of the enzyme in situ after electrophoresis in denaturing conditions (activity gel). The enzyme is widely distributed in cells from all different classes of vertebrates, from arthropods, mollusks and plant cells but could not be detected in echinoderms, nematodes, platyhelminths, thallophytes (including yeast) and bacteria. The presence on activity gels of a catalytic peptide with Mr = 115,000-120,000 was demonstrated in vertebrates, arthropods and mollusks but no activity bands were recovered in many lower eukaryotes, in plant cells and bacteria. By using an immunological procedure that used an antiserum against homogeneous calf thymus poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, common immunoreactive peptides were visualized in mammals, avians, reptiles, amphibians and fishes, while lacking in non-vertebrate organisms. Our results indicate that the structure of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is conserved down to the mollusks suggesting its important role for DNA metabolism of multicellular organisms. PMID:3091369

  18. A complete collection of single-gene deletion mutants of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1

    PubMed Central

    de Berardinis, Véronique; Vallenet, David; Castelli, Vanina; Besnard, Marielle; Pinet, Agnès; Cruaud, Corinne; Samair, Sumitta; Lechaplais, Christophe; Gyapay, Gabor; Richez, Céline; Durot, Maxime; Kreimeyer, Annett; Le Fèvre, François; Schächter, Vincent; Pezo, Valérie; Döring, Volker; Scarpelli, Claude; Médigue, Claudine; Cohen, Georges N; Marlière, Philippe; Salanoubat, Marcel; Weissenbach, Jean

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a collection of single-gene deletion mutants for all dispensable genes of the soil bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. A total of 2594 deletion mutants were obtained, whereas 499 (16%) were not, and are therefore candidate essential genes for life on minimal medium. This essentiality data set is 88% consistent with the Escherichia coli data set inferred from the Keio mutant collection profiled for growth on minimal medium, while 80% of the orthologous genes described as essential in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are also essential in ADP1. Several strategies were undertaken to investigate ADP1 metabolism by (1) searching for discrepancies between our essentiality data and current metabolic knowledge, (2) comparing this essentiality data set to those from other organisms, (3) systematic phenotyping of the mutant collection on a variety of carbon sources (quinate, 2-3 butanediol, glucose, etc.). This collection provides a new resource for the study of gene function by forward and reverse genetic approaches and constitutes a robust experimental data source for systems biology approaches. PMID:18319726

  19. Failure to degrade poly(ADP-ribose) causes increased sensitivity to cytotoxicity and early embryonic lethality

    PubMed Central

    Koh, David W.; Lawler, Ann M.; Poitras, Marc F.; Sasaki, Masayuki; Wattler, Sigrid; Nehls, Michael C.; Stöger, Tobias; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2004-01-01

    The metabolism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is critical for genomic stability in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we show that the failure to degrade PAR by means of disruption of the murine poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) gene unexpectedly causes early embryonic lethality and enhanced sensitivity to genotoxic stress. This lethality results from the failure to hydrolyze PAR, because PARG null embryonic day (E) 3.5 blastocysts accumulate PAR and concurrently undergo apoptosis. Moreover, embryonic trophoblast stem cell lines established from early PARG null embryos are viable only when cultured in medium containing the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor benzamide. Cells lacking PARG also show reduced growth, accumulation of PAR, and increased sensitivity to cytotoxicity induced by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and menadione after benzamide withdrawal. These results provide compelling evidence that the failure to degrade PAR has deleterious consequences. Further, they define a role for PARG in embryonic development and a protective role in the response to genotoxic stress. PMID:15591342

  20. An assay to measure poly(ADP ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) activity in cells

    PubMed Central

    James, Dominic I.; Durant, Stephen; Eckersley, Kay; Fairweather, Emma; Griffiths, Louise A.; Hamilton, Nicola; Kelly, Paul; O'Connor, Mark; Shea, Kerry; Waddell, Ian D.; Ogilvie, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    After a DNA damage signal multiple polymers of ADP ribose attached to poly(ADP) ribose (PAR) polymerases (PARPs) are broken down by the enzyme poly(ADP) ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). Inhibition of PARG leads to a failure of DNA repair and small molecule inhibition of PARG has been a goal for many years. To determine whether biochemical inhibitors of PARG are active in cells we have designed an immunofluorescence assay to detect nuclear PAR after DNA damage. This 384-well assay is suitable for medium throughput high-content screening and can detect cell-permeable inhibitors of PARG from nM to µM potency. In addition, the assay has been shown to work in murine cells and in a variety of human cancer cells. Furthermore, the assay is suitable for detecting the DNA damage response induced by treatment with temozolomide and methylmethane sulfonate (MMS). Lastly, the assay has been shown to be robust over a period of several years.

  1. Deciphering the kinetic mechanisms controlling selected plant ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases.

    PubMed

    Boehlein, Susan K; Shaw, Janine R; Hwang, Seon K; Stewart, Jon D; Curtis Hannah, L

    2013-07-15

    ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a rate-limiting enzyme in starch biosynthesis, is controlled by thermostability and allosteric regulation. Previous studies suggested that redox affects turnover number and heat stability of AGPases. Here, we investigated how allostery and redox state affect kinetic mechanisms of the reduced, heat labile and the oxidized, heat stable potato tuber enzymes; the heat labile maize endosperm enzyme and a chimeric maize/potato heat stable enzyme that lacks the cysteine responsible for redox changes. With 3-PGA, all AGPases followed a Theorell-Chance Bi Bi mechanism with ATP binding first and ADP-Glc releasing last. 3-PGA increases the binding affinity for both substrates with little effect on velocity for the maize and MP isoforms. By contrast, 3-PGA increases the velocity and the affinity for G-1-P for the potato enzymes. Redox state does not affect kcat of the two potato isoforms. Without 3-PGA the oxidized potato enzyme exhibits a rapid equilibrium random Bi Bi mechanism with a dead end ternary complex. This fundamental change from rapid, ordered binding with little buildup of intermediates to a mechanism featuring relatively slow, random binding is unique to the oxidized potato tuber enzyme. Finally, ADP-Glc the physiologically relevant product of this enzyme has complex, isoform-specific effects on catalysis. PMID:23603314

  2. Yeast Mitochondrial Interactosome Model: Metabolon Membrane Proteins Complex Involved in the Channeling of ADP/ATP

    PubMed Central

    Clémençon, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a mitochondrial interactosome (MI) has been currently well established in mammalian cells but the exact composition of this super-complex is not precisely known, and its organization seems to be different from that in yeast. One major difference is the absence of mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) in yeast, unlike that described in the organization model of MI, especially in cardiac, skeletal muscle and brain cells. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed description of different partner proteins involved in the synergistic ADP/ATP transport across the mitochondrial membranes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to propose a new mitochondrial interactosome model. The ADP/ATP (Aacp) and inorganic phosphate (PiC) carriers as well as the VDAC (or mitochondrial porin) catalyze the import and export of ADP, ATP and Pi across the mitochondrial membranes. Aacp and PiC, which appear to be associated with the ATP synthase, consist of two nanomotors (F0, F1) under specific conditions and form ATP synthasome. Identification and characterization of such a complex were described for the first time by Pedersen and co-workers in 2003. PMID:22408429

  3. An assay to measure poly(ADP ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) activity in cells.

    PubMed

    James, Dominic I; Durant, Stephen; Eckersley, Kay; Fairweather, Emma; Griffiths, Louise A; Hamilton, Nicola; Kelly, Paul; O'Connor, Mark; Shea, Kerry; Waddell, Ian D; Ogilvie, Donald J

    2016-01-01

    After a DNA damage signal multiple polymers of ADP ribose attached to poly(ADP) ribose (PAR) polymerases (PARPs) are broken down by the enzyme poly(ADP) ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). Inhibition of PARG leads to a failure of DNA repair and small molecule inhibition of PARG has been a goal for many years. To determine whether biochemical inhibitors of PARG are active in cells we have designed an immunofluorescence assay to detect nuclear PAR after DNA damage. This 384-well assay is suitable for medium throughput high-content screening and can detect cell-permeable inhibitors of PARG from nM to µM potency. In addition, the assay has been shown to work in murine cells and in a variety of human cancer cells. Furthermore, the assay is suitable for detecting the DNA damage response induced by treatment with temozolomide and methylmethane sulfonate (MMS). Lastly, the assay has been shown to be robust over a period of several years. PMID:27610220

  4. Conformational Activation of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 upon DNA Binding Revealed by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a nuclear protein that plays key roles in several fundamental cellular processes. PARP-1 catalyzes the polymerization of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide on itself and other acceptor proteins, forming long branched poly(ADP-ribose) polymers. The catalytic activity of PARP-1 is stimulated upon binding to damaged DNA, but how this signal is transmitted from the N-terminal DNA binding domain to the C-terminal catalytic domain in the context of the full-length enzyme is unknown. In this paper, small-angle X-ray scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations were used to gain insight into the conformational changes that occur during the catalytic activation of PARP-1 by an 8-mer DNA ligand. The data are consistent with a model in which binding of the DNA ligand establishes interdomain interactions between the DNA binding and catalytic domains, which induces an allosteric change in the active site that promotes catalysis. Moreover, the PARP-1–8-mer complex is seen to adopt a conformation that is poised to recruit DNA repair factors to the site of DNA damage. This study provides the first structural information about the DNA-induced conformational activation of full-length PARP-1. PMID:24588584

  5. Halovibrin, secreted from the light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri, is a member of a new class of ADP-ribosyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, K A; Schoolnik, G K

    1996-01-01

    The purification, cloning, and deduced amino acid sequence of an ADP-ribosyltransferase secreted from the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri (V. fischeri ADP-r) is described. This enzyme was purified from culture supernatant, and partial amino acid sequence obtained from the purified protein was used to design a degenerate oligonucleotide probe that was used to clone a cross-hybridizing DNA fragment from V. fischeri genomic DNA. Recombinant Escherichia coli clones harboring this fragment possessed ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The DNA fragment was sequenced, and deletion analysis localized the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity to one of the three possible open reading frames in the fragment; the deduced amino acid sequence from this open reading frame matched the amino acid sequence obtained from the purified protein. V. fischeri ADP-r has no significant homology (DNA or amino acid) with other known ADP-ribosyltransferases. This enzyme appears to require neither proteolytic cleavage nor a reducing agent for enzymatic activity. The cloned gene is expressed but not secreted in E. coli; however, it is secreted from a heterologous marine Vibrio species. We have named this enzyme halovibrin. PMID:8550419

  6. Imaging energy status in live cells with a fluorescent biosensor of the intracellular ATP-to-ADP ratio

    PubMed Central

    Tantama, Mathew; Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Mongeon, Rebecca; Yellen, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The ATP:ADP ratio is a critical parameter of cellular energy status that regulates many metabolic activities. Here we report an optimized genetically-encoded fluorescent biosensor, PercevalHR, that senses the ATP:ADP ratio. PercevalHR is tuned to the range of intracellular ATP:ADP expected in mammalian cells, and it can be used with one- or two-photon microscopy in live samples. We use PercevalHR to visualize activity-dependent changes in ATP:ADP when neurons are exposed to multiple stimuli, demonstrating that it is a sensitive reporter of physiological changes in energy consumption and production. We also use PercevalHR to visualize intracellular ATP:ADP while simultaneously recording currents from ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in single cells, showing that PercevalHR enables the study of coordinated variation in ATP:ADP and KATP channel open probability in intact cells. With its ability to monitor changes in cellular energetics within seconds, PercevalHR should be a versatile tool for metabolic research. PMID:24096541

  7. Mechanical study of rat soleus muscle using caged ATP and X-ray diffraction: high ADP affinity of slow cross-bridges.

    PubMed Central

    Horiuti, K; Yagi, N; Takemori, S

    1997-01-01

    1. The cross-bridges in slow- and fast-twitch fibres (taken, respectively, from soleus and psoas muscles of rats) were examined in mechanical experiments using caged ATP and X-ray diffraction, to compare their binding of ATP and ADP. 2. Caged ATP was photolysed in rigor fibres. When ADP was removed from pre-photolysis fibres, the initial relaxation (+/- Ca2+) in soleus was as fast as that in psoas fibres, whereas the subsequent contraction (+Ca2+) was slower in soleus than in psoas. The ATPase rate during the steady-state contraction was also slower in soleus fibres. 3. When ADP was added to pre-photolysis fibres (+/- Ca2+), tension developed even in the initial phase, the overall tension development being biphasic. Both initial and late components of the Ca(2+)-free contraction were enhanced when ADP was added before photolysis, although pre-photolysis ADP was not a prerequisite for the late component. The effect of ADP was greater in soleus than in psoas fibres. Static experiments on rigor fibres revealed a higher ADP affinity in soleus fibres. 4. The intensity of the actin layer-line from ADP rigor soleus fibres decreased rapidly on photorelease of ATP. We conclude that, despite the tight ADP binding of the soleus cross-bridge, its isometric reaction is not rate limited by the 'off' rate of ADP. PMID:9263922

  8. ADP- and K+-sensitive phosphorylated intermediate of Na,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Yoda, S; Yoda, A

    1986-01-25

    In the phosphoenzyme (EP) of the electric eel Na,K-ATPase, the sum of the ADP-sensitive EP and the K+-sensitive EP exceeds 150% of EP in the presence of 100 mM Na+. This unusual phenomenon can be explained by the formation of three phosphoenzymes: ADP-sensitive K+-insensitive (E1P), K+-sensitive ADP-insensitive (E2P), and ADP- and K+-sensitive (E*P) phosphoenzymes, as proposed by Nørby et al. (Nørby, J. G., Klodos, I., and Christiansen, N. O. (1983) J. Gen. Physiol. 82, 725-757). By applying a simple approximation method for the assay of E1P, E*P, and E2P, it was found that the phosphorylation of the enzyme was much faster than the conversion among each EP and the phosphoenzyme changed as E1NaATP----E1P----E*P----E2P. In the fragmental eel enzyme, the step of E*P to E2P was much slower than the step of E1P to E*P. In the steady state, the E1P was predominant above 400 mM Na+, whereas E*P and E2P were predominant between 60 and 300 mM Na+ and below 60 mM Na+, respectively. The characteristic difference of the eel enzyme from the beef brain enzyme and probably from the kidney enzyme seems to be that the dissociation constant of Na+ on the E1P-E*P equilibrium is higher than that on the E*P-E2P. The E*P and E1P both interacted with ADP to form ATP without formation of inorganic phosphate in the absence of free Mg2+. In the Na,K-ATPase proteoliposomes, the vesicle membrane interfered with the conversion of E1P to E2P, especially the change of E1P to E*P, and furthermore, the E1P content increased. This barrier effect was partially counteracted by monensin or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Oligomycin reacted with E1P and probably with E*P, therefore inhibiting their conversion to E2P and interaction with K+. PMID:3003056

  9. Chemical Compositions and Abundance Anomalies in Stellar Coronae ADP99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating different statistical methods for analysing the metal abundances of sources with low S/N. A Bayesian technique has been developed that determines the most probable line-to-continuum ratio in the source, thereby leading to the metallicity. This method is a promising approach with which to mine the ASCA archive. Some of this work has now been published in conference proceedings. The flavour of the project has changed very slightly in the last year owing to the increasing availability of several good quality Chandra HETG and LETG spectra for stars for which we had reduced and analysed ASCA data. The Chandra grating spectra in principle provide a means of calibrating the results from the low resolution ASCA spectra and we have started some work toward that goal. One paper concerning abundance ratios in active stars is appearing shortly in conference proceedings and is being readied for publication in a main-stream astrophysical journal. This paper demonstrates for the first time that abundance anomalies cannot be categorized simply in terms of First Ionization Potential (FIP) or inverse-FIP based effects. Different Ne enhancements are found in different star types but a link between enhancement factors and stellar properties is not obvious. The publication noted as in preparation in an earlier report, finding strong Ne enhancements in active stars, is now published. These results will again be used to "calibrate" low resolution results for which line ratio techniques cannot be employed.

  10. 3-aminobenzamide, one of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 inhibitors, rescuesapoptosisin rat models of spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xianqing; Song, Wenqi; Deng, Bin; Xing, Ziling; Zhang, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is anubiquitous, DNA repair-associated enzyme, which participates in gene expression, cell death, central nerve system (CNS) disorders and oxidative stress. According to the previous studies, PARP-1 over-activation may lead to over-consumption of ATP and even cell apoptosis. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an inducement towards PARP-1 over-activation due to its massive damage to DNA. 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) is a kind of PARP-1 inhibitors. The relationship among PARP-1, 3-AB, SCI and apoptosis has not been fully understood. Hence, in the present study, we focused on the effects of 3-AB on cell apoptosis after SCI. Accordingly, SCI model was constructed artificially, and 3-AB was injected intrathecally into the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The results demonstrated an increase in cell apoptosis after SCI. Furthermore, PARP-1 was over-activated after SCI but inhibited by 3-AB injection. In addition, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was inhibited but B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) was up-regulated by 3-AB. Interestingly, caspase-3 was not significantly altered with or without 3-AB. In conclusion, our experiments showed that 3-AB, as a PARP-1 inhibitor, could inhibit cell apoptosis after SCI in caspase-independent way, which could provide a better therapeutic target for the treatment of SCI. PMID:26722405

  11. Production of a complete binary toxin (actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase) by Clostridium difficile CD196.

    PubMed Central

    Perelle, S; Gibert, M; Bourlioux, P; Corthier, G; Popoff, M R

    1997-01-01

    A Clostridium difficile isolate was found to produce an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase (CDT) homologous to the enzymatic components of Clostridium perfringens iota toxin and Clostridium spiroforme toxin (M. R. Popoff, E. J. Rubin, D. M. Gill, and P. Boquet, Infect. Immun. 56:2299-2306, 1988). The CDT locus from C. difficile CD196 was cloned and sequenced. It contained two genes (cdtA and cdtB) which display organizations and sequences similar to those of the iota toxin gene. The deduced enzymatic (CDTa) and binding (CDTb) components have 81 and 84% identity, respectively, with the corresponding components of iota toxin. CDTa and CDTb induced actin cytoskeleton alterations similar to those caused by other clostridial binary toxins. The lower level of production of binary toxin by CD196 than of iota toxin by C. perfringens was related to a lower transcript level, possibly due to a promoter region different from that of iota toxin genes. The cdtA and cdtB genes have been detected in 3 of 24 clinical isolates examined, and cdtB alone was found in 2 additional strains. One strain (in addition to CD196) was shown by Western blotting to produce CDTa and CDTb. These results indicate that some C. difficile strains synthesize a binary toxin that could be an additional virulence factor. PMID:9119480

  12. Assessment of the Roles of LuxS, S-Ribosyl Homocysteine, and Autoinducer 2 in Cell Attachment during Biofilm Formation by Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e

    PubMed Central

    Challan Belval, Sylvain; Gal, Laurent; Margiewes, Sylvain; Garmyn, Dominique; Piveteau, Pascal; Guzzo, Jean

    2006-01-01

    LuxS is responsible for the production of autoinducer 2 (AI-2), which is involved in the quorum-sensing response of Vibrio harveyi. AI-2 is found in several other gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and is therefore considered a good candidate for an interspecies communication signal molecule. In order to determine if this system is functional in the gastrointestinal pathogen Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e, an AI-2 bioassay was performed with culture supernatants. The results indicated that this bacterium produces AI-2 like molecules. A potential ortholog of V. harveyi luxS, lmo1288, was found by performing sequence similarity searches and complementation experiments with Escherichia coli DH5α, a luxS null strain. lmo1288 was found to be a functional luxS ortholog involved in AI-2 synthesis. Indeed, interruption of lmo1288 resulted in loss of the AI-2 signal. Although no significant differences were observed between Lux1 and EGD-e with regard to planktonic growth (at 10°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 42°C), swimming motility, and phospholipase and hemolytic activity, biofilm culture experiments showed that under batch conditions between 25% and 58% more Lux1 cells than EGD-e cells were attached to the surface depending on the incubation time. During biofilm growth in continuous conditions after 48 h of culture, Lux1 biofilms were 17 times denser than EGD-e biofilms. Finally, our results showed that Lux1 accumulates more S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) and S-