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Sample records for adp-ribosyl cyclase cd38

  1. ADP ribosyl-cyclases (CD38/CD157), social skills and friendship.

    PubMed

    Chong, Anne; Malavasi, Fabio; Israel, Salomon; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Yap, Von Bing; Monakhov, Mikhail; Chew, Soo Hong; Lai, Poh San; Ebstein, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    Why some individuals seek social engagement while others shy away has profound implications for normal and pathological human behavior. Evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT), the paramount human social hormone, and CD38 that governs OT release, contribute to individual differences in social skills from intense social involvement to extreme avoidance that characterize autism. To explore the neurochemical underpinnings of sociality, CD38 expression of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) was measured in Han Chinese undergraduates. First, CD38 mRNA levels were correlated with lower Autism Quotient (AQ), indicating enhanced social skills. AQ assesses the extent of autistic-like traits including the propensity and dexterity needed for successful social engagement in the general population. Second, three CD157 eQTL SNPs in the CD38/CD157 gene region were associated with CD38 expression. CD157 is a paralogue of CD38 and is contiguous with it on chromosome 4p15. Third, association was also observed between the CD157 eQTL SNPs, CD38 expression and AQ. In the full model, CD38 expression and CD157 eQTL SNPs altogether account for a substantial 14% of the variance in sociality. Fourth, functionality of CD157 eQTL SNPs was suggested by a significant association with plasma oxytocin immunoreactivity products. Fifth, the ecological validity of these findings was demonstrated with subjects with higher PBL CD38 expression having more friends, especially for males. Furthermore, CD157 sequence variation predicts scores on the Friendship questionnaire. To summarize, this study by uniquely leveraging various measures reveals salient elements contributing to nonkin sociality and friendship, revealing a likely pathway underpinning the transition from normality to psychopathology.

  2. Overexpression of human CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase enhances acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ signalling in rodent NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Bowden, Sarah E H; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Salmina, Alla; Hashii, Minako; Hoshi, Naoto; Zhang, Jia-Sheng; Knijnik, Rimma; Noda, Mami; Zhong, Zen-Guo; Jin, Duo; Higashida, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Hisashi; Akita, Tenpei; Kuba, Kenji; Yamagishi, Sayaka; Shimizu, Noriaki; Takasawa, Shin; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Robbins, Jon

    2007-03-01

    The role of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and its synthetic enzyme, CD38, as a downstream signal of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) was examined in neuroblastoma cells expressing M1 mAChRs (NGM1). NGM1 cells were further transformed with both wild-type and mutant (C119K/C201E) human CD38. The dual transformed cells exhibited higher cADPR formation than ADPR production and elevated intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) in response to ACh. These phenotypes were analyzed in detail in a representative CD38 clone. The intracellular cADPR concentration by ACh application was significantly increased by CD38 overexpression. Digital image analysis by a confocal microscopy revealed that topographical distribution of the sites of Ca(2+) release was unchanged between control and overexpressed cells. These results indicate that cADPR is an intracellular messenger of Ca(2+) signalling, suggesting that CD38 can contribute to mAChR-cADPR signalling.

  3. Renal vasoconstriction by vasopressin V1a receptors is modulated by nitric oxide, prostanoids, and superoxide but not the ADP ribosyl cyclase CD38

    PubMed Central

    Kopple, Tayler E.; Arendshorst, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) responses to arginine vasopressin (AVP) were tested in anesthetized wild-type (WT) and CD38−/− mice that lack the major calcium-mobilizing second messenger cyclic ADP ribose. AVP (3–25 ng) injected intravenously produced dose-dependent decreases in RBF, reaching a maximum of 25 ± 2% below basal RBF in WT and 27 ± 2% in CD38−/− mice with 25 ng of AVP. Renal vascular resistance (RVR) increased 75 ± 6% and 78 ± 6% in WT and CD38−/− mice. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) increased the maximum RVR response to AVP to 308 ± 76% in WT and 388 ± 81% in CD38−/− (P < 0.001 for both). Cyclooxygenase inhibition with indomethacin increased the maximum RVR response to 125 ± 15% in WT and 120 ± 14% in CD38−/− mice (P < 0.001, <0.05). Superoxide suppression with tempol inhibited the maximum RVR response to AVP by 38% in both strains (P < 0.005) but was ineffective when administered after l-NAME. The rate of RBF recovery (relaxation) after AVP was slowed by l-NAME and indomethacin (P < 0.001, <0.005) but was unchanged by tempol. All vascular responses to AVP were abolished by an AVP V1a receptor antagonist. A V2 receptor agonist or antagonist had no effect on AVP-induced renal vasoconstriction. Taken together, the results indicate that renal vasoconstriction by AVP in the mouse is strongly buffered by vasodilatory actions of NO and prostanoids. The vasoconstriction depends on V1a receptor activation without involvement of CD38 or concomitant vasodilatation by V2 receptors. The role of superoxide is to enhance the contractile response to AVP, most likely by reducing the availability of NO rather than directly stimulating intracellular contraction signaling pathways. PMID:24623148

  4. Characterization of the active site of ADP-ribosyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Munshi, C; Thiel, D J; Mathews, I I; Aarhus, R; Walseth, T F; Lee, H C

    1999-10-22

    ADP-ribosyl cyclase synthesizes two Ca(2+) messengers by cyclizing NAD to produce cyclic ADP-ribose and exchanging nicotinic acid with the nicotinamide group of NADP to produce nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Recombinant Aplysia cyclase was expressed in yeast and co-crystallized with a substrate, nicotinamide. x-ray crystallography showed that the nicotinamide was bound in a pocket formed in part by a conserved segment and was near the central cleft of the cyclase. Glu(98), Asn(107) and Trp(140) were within 3.5 A of the bound nicotinamide and appeared to coordinate it. Substituting Glu(98) with either Gln, Gly, Leu, or Asn reduced the cyclase activity by 16-222-fold, depending on the substitution. The mutant N107G exhibited only a 2-fold decrease in activity, while the activity of W140G was essentially eliminated. The base exchange activity of all mutants followed a similar pattern of reduction, suggesting that both reactions occur at the same active site. In addition to NAD, the wild-type cyclase also cyclizes nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide to cyclic GDP-ribose. All mutant enzymes had at least half of the GDP-ribosyl cyclase activity of the wild type, some even 2-3-fold higher, indicating that the three coordinating amino acids are responsible for positioning of the substrate but not absolutely critical for catalysis. To search for the catalytic residues, other amino acids in the binding pocket were mutagenized. E179G was totally devoid of GDP-ribosyl cyclase activity, and both its ADP-ribosyl cyclase and the base exchange activities were reduced by 10,000- and 18,000-fold, respectively. Substituting Glu(179) with either Asn, Leu, Asp, or Gln produced similar inactive enzymes, and so was the conversion of Trp(77) to Gly. However, both E179G and the double mutant E179G/W77G retained NAD-binding ability as shown by photoaffinity labeling with [(32)P]8-azido-NAD. These results indicate that both Glu(179) and Trp(77) are crucial for catalysis and

  5. Porcine CD38 exhibits prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Ting, Kai Yiu; Leung, Christina F P; Graeff, Richard M; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan; Kotaka, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) stores and activates Ca(2+) influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. It is one of the products produced from the catalysis of NAD(+) by the multifunctional CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase superfamily. After elimination of the nicotinamide ring by the enzyme, the reaction intermediate of NAD(+) can either be hydrolyzed to form linear ADPR or cyclized to form cADPR. We have previously shown that human CD38 exhibits a higher preference towards the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to form linear ADPR while Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase prefers cyclizing NAD(+) to form cADPR. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of porcine CD38 and revealed that it has a prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity producing cADPR. We also determined the X-ray crystallographic structures of porcine CD38 and were able to observe conformational flexibility at the base of the active site of the enzyme which allow the NAD(+) reaction intermediate to adopt conformations resulting in both hydrolysis and cyclization forming linear ADPR and cADPR respectively.

  6. Structural studies of intermediates along the cyclization pathway of Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Kotaka, Masayo; Graeff, Richard; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Li He; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan

    2012-01-20

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a calcium messenger that can mobilize intracellular Ca²⁺ stores and activate Ca²⁺ influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. Aplysia cyclase is the first member of the ADP-ribosyl cyclases identified to catalyze the cyclization of NAD⁺ into cADPR. The catalysis involves a two-step reaction, the elimination of the nicotinamide ring and the cyclization of the intermediate resulting in the covalent attachment of the purine ring to the terminal ribose. Aplysia cyclase exhibits a high degree of leniency towards the purine base of its substrate, and the cyclization reaction takes place at either the N1- or the N7-position of the purine ring. To decipher the mechanism of cyclization in Aplysia cyclase, we used a crystallization setup with multiple Aplysia cyclase molecules present in the asymmetric unit. With the use of natural substrates and analogs, not only were we able to capture multiple snapshots during enzyme catalysis resulting in either N1 or N7 linkage of the purine ring to the terminal ribose, we were also able to observe, for the first time, the cyclized products of both N1 and N7 cyclization bound in the active site of Aplysia cyclase.

  7. Oxytocin-induced elevation of ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, cyclic ADP-ribose or Ca(2+) concentrations is involved in autoregulation of oxytocin secretion in the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary in male mice.

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Olga; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Amina, Sarwat; Hashii, Minako; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2010-01-01

    Locally released oxytocin (OT) activates OT receptors (2.1:OXY:1:OT:) in neighboring neurons in the hypothalamus and their terminals in the posterior pituitary, resulting in further OT release, best known in autoregulation occurring during labor or milk ejection in reproductive females. OT also plays a critical role in social behavior of non-reproductive females and even in males in mammals from rodents to humans. Social behavior is disrupted when elevation of free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and OT secretion are reduced in male and female CD38 knockout mice. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate whether ADP-ribosyl cyclase-dependent signaling is involved in OT-induced OT release for social recognition in males, independent from female reproduction, and to determine its molecular mechanism. Here, we report that ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity was increased by OT in crude membrane preparations of the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary in male mice, and that OT elicited an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in the isolated terminals over a period of 5 min. The increases in cyclase and [Ca(2+)](i) were partially inhibited by nonspecific protein kinase inhibitors and a protein kinase C specific inhibitor, calphostin C. Subsequently, OT-induced OT release was also inhibited by calphostin C to levels inhibited by vasotocin, an OT receptor antagonist, and 8-bromo-cADP-ribose. These results demonstrate that OT receptors are functionally coupled to membrane-bound ADP-ribosyl cyclase and/or CD38 and suggest that cADPR-mediated intracellular calcium signaling is involved in autoregulation of OT release, which is sensitive to protein kinase C, in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis in male mice.

  8. CD38 Knockout Mice Show Significant Protection Against Ischemic Brain Damage Despite High Level Poly-ADP-Ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Long, Aaron; Park, Ji H; Klimova, Nina; Fowler, Carol; Loane, David J; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Several enzymes in cellular bioenergetics metabolism require NAD(+) as an essential cofactor for their activity. NAD(+) depletion following ischemic insult can result in cell death and has been associated with over-activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PARP1 as well as an increase in NAD(+) consuming enzyme CD38. CD38 is an NAD(+) glycohydrolase that plays an important role in inflammatory responses. To determine the contribution of CD38 activity to the mechanisms of post-ischemic brain damage we subjected CD38 knockout (CD38KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice to transient forebrain ischemia. The CD38KO mice showed a significant amelioration in both histological and neurologic outcome following ischemic insult. Decrease of hippocampal NAD(+) levels detected during reperfusion in WT mice was only transient in CD38KO animals, suggesting that CD38 contributes to post-ischemic NAD(+) catabolism. Surprisingly, pre-ischemic poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) levels were dramatically higher in CD38KO animals compared to WT animals and exhibited reduction post-ischemia in contrast to the increased levels in WT animals. The high PAR levels in CD38 mice were due to reduced expression levels of poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). Thus, the absence of CD38 activity can not only directly affect inflammatory response, but also result in unpredicted alterations in the expression levels of enzymes participating in NAD(+) metabolism. Although the CD38KO mice showed significant protection against ischemic brain injury, the changes in enzyme activity related to NAD(+) metabolism makes the determination of the role of CD38 in mechanisms of ischemic brain damage more complex.

  9. Oscillation of ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity during the cell cycle and function of cyclic ADP-ribose in a unicellular organism, Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, W; Takenaka, S; Inageda, K; Nishina, H; Takahashi, K; Katada, T; Tsuyama, S; Inui, H; Miyatake, K; Nakano, Y

    1997-03-17

    In Euglena gracilis, the activity of ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which produces cyclic ADP-ribose, oscillated during the cell cycle in a synchronous culture induced by a light-dark cycle, and a marked increase in the activity was observed in the G2 phase. Similarly, the ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity rose extremely immediately before cell division started, when synchronous cell division was induced by adding cobalamin (which is an essential growth factor and participates in DNA synthesis in this organism) to its deficient culture. Further, cADPR in these cells showed a maximum level immediately before cell division started. A dose-dependent Ca2+ release was observed when microsomes were incubated with cADPR.

  10. Bradykinin activates ADP-ribosyl cyclase in neuroblastoma cells: intracellular concentration decrease in NAD and increase in cyclic ADP-ribose.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Salmina, Alla; Hashii, Minako; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Zhang, Jia-Sheng; Noda, Mami; Zhong, Zen-Guo; Jin, Duo

    2006-09-04

    ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in the crude membrane fraction of neuroblastomaxglioma NGPM1-27 hybrid cells was measured by monitoring [(3)H] cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) formation from [(3)H] NAD(+). Bradykinin (BK) at 100nM increased ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity by about 2.5-fold. Application of 300nM BK to living NGPM1-27 cells decreased NAD(+) to 78% of the prestimulation level at 30s. In contrast, intracellular cADPR concentrations were increased by 2-3-fold during the period from 30 to 120s after the same treatment. Our results suggest that cADPR is one of the second messengers downstream of B(2) BK receptors.

  11. Molecular mechanism and functional role of brefeldin A-mediated ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1/BARS.

    PubMed

    Colanzi, Antonino; Grimaldi, Giovanna; Catara, Giuliana; Valente, Carmen; Cericola, Claudia; Liberali, Prisca; Ronci, Maurizio; Lalioti, Vasiliki S; Bruno, Agostino; Beccari, Andrea R; Urbani, Andrea; De Flora, Antonio; Nardini, Marco; Bolognesi, Martino; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela

    2013-06-11

    ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification that modulates the functions of many target proteins. We previously showed that the fungal toxin brefeldin A (BFA) induces the ADP-ribosylation of C-terminal-binding protein-1 short-form/BFA-ADP-ribosylation substrate (CtBP1-S/BARS), a bifunctional protein with roles in the nucleus as a transcription factor and in the cytosol as a regulator of membrane fission during intracellular trafficking and mitotic partitioning of the Golgi complex. Here, we report that ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1-S/BARS by BFA occurs via a nonconventional mechanism that comprises two steps: (i) synthesis of a BFA-ADP-ribose conjugate by the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 and (ii) covalent binding of the BFA-ADP-ribose conjugate into the CtBP1-S/BARS NAD(+)-binding pocket. This results in the locking of CtBP1-S/BARS in a dimeric conformation, which prevents its binding to interactors known to be involved in membrane fission and, hence, in the inhibition of the fission machinery involved in mitotic Golgi partitioning. As this inhibition may lead to arrest of the cell cycle in G2, these findings provide a strategy for the design of pharmacological blockers of cell cycle in tumor cells that express high levels of CD38.

  12. Diadenosine Homodinucleotide Products of ADP-ribosyl Cyclases Behave as Modulators of the Purinergic Receptor P2X7*

    PubMed Central

    Bruzzone, Santina; Basile, Giovanna; Chothi, Madhu Parakkottil; Nobbio, Lucilla; Usai, Cesare; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Schenone, Angelo; Guse, Andreas H.; Di Virgilio, Francesco; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2010-01-01

    ADP-ribosyl cyclases from both vertebrates and invertebrates were previously shown to produce two isomers of P1,P2 diadenosine 5′,5′"-P1, P2-diphosphate, P18 and P24, from cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and adenine. P18 and P24 are characterized by an unusual N-glycosidic linkage in one of the adenylic mononucleotides (Basile, G., Taglialatela-Scafati, O., Damonte, G., Armirotti, A., Bruzzone, S., Guida, L., Franco, L., Usai, C., Fattorusso, E., De Flora, A., and Zocchi, E. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14509–14514). P24, but not P18, proved to increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in HeLa cells and to negatively affect mitochondrial function. Here we show that micromolar P24, but not P18, triggers a slow and sustained influx of extracellular Ca2+ through the opening of the purinergic receptor/channel P2X7. On the other hand, P18 inhibits the Ca2+ influx induced by 0.6 mm ATP in HEK293 cells stably transfected with P2X7, with an IC50 of ∼1 μm. Thus, P18 is devoid of intrinsic P2X7 stimulatory activity and behaves as an ATP antagonist. A P2X7-mediated increase of the basal [Ca2+]i has been demonstrated to negatively affect Schwann cell (SC) function in rats with the inherited, peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) (Nobbio, L., Sturla, L., Fiorese, F., Usai, C., Basile, G., Moreschi, I., Benvenuto, F., Zocchi, E., De Flora, A., Schenone, A., and Bruzzone S. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 23146–23158). Preincubation of CMT1A SC with 200 nm P18 restored the basal [Ca2+]i to values similar to those recorded in wild-type SC. These results identify P18 as a new P2X7 antagonist, potentially useful in the treatment of CMT1A. PMID:20439466

  13. CD38 is critical for social behaviour by regulating oxytocin secretion.

    PubMed

    Jin, Duo; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Hirai, Hirokazu; Torashima, Takashi; Nagai, Taku; Lopatina, Olga; Shnayder, Natalia A; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Noda, Mami; Seike, Toshihiro; Fujita, Kyota; Takasawa, Shin; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Koizumi, Keita; Shiraishi, Yoshitake; Tanaka, Shigenori; Hashii, Minako; Yoshihara, Toru; Higashida, Kazuhiro; Islam, Mohammad Saharul; Yamada, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Kenshi; Noguchi, Naoya; Kato, Ichiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Akihiro; Salmina, Alla; Munesue, Toshio; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Mochida, Sumiko; Asano, Masahide; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2007-03-01

    CD38, a transmembrane glycoprotein with ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, catalyses the formation of Ca2+ signalling molecules, but its role in the neuroendocrine system is unknown. Here we show that adult CD38 knockout (CD38-/-) female and male mice show marked defects in maternal nurturing and social behaviour, respectively, with higher locomotor activity. Consistently, the plasma level of oxytocin (OT), but not vasopressin, was strongly decreased in CD38-/- mice. Replacement of OT by subcutaneous injection or lentiviral-vector-mediated delivery of human CD38 in the hypothalamus rescued social memory and maternal care in CD38-/- mice. Depolarization-induced OT secretion and Ca2+ elevation in oxytocinergic neurohypophysial axon terminals were disrupted in CD38-/- mice; this was mimicked by CD38 metabolite antagonists in CD38+/+ mice. These results reveal that CD38 has a key role in neuropeptide release, thereby critically regulating maternal and social behaviours, and may be an element in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  14. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Masutani, Mitsuko; Fujimori, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    Cancer develops through diverse genetic, epigenetic and other changes, so-called 'multi-step carcinogenesis', and each cancer harbors different alterations and properties. Here in this article we review how poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is involved in multi-step and diverse pathways of carcinogenesis. Involvement of poly- and mono-ADP-ribosylation in carcinogenesis has been studied at molecular and cellular levels, and further by animal models and human genetic approaches. PolyADP-ribosylation acts in DNA damage repair response and maintenance mechanisms of genomic stability. Several DNA repair pathways, including base-excision repair and double strand break repair pathways, involve PARP and PARG functions. These care-taker functions of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation suggest that polyADP-ribosyation may mainly act in a tumor suppressive manner because genomic instability caused by defective DNA repair response could serve as a driving force for tumor progression, leading to invasion, metastasis and relapse of cancer. On the other hand, the new concept of 'synthetic lethality by PARP inhibition' suggests the significance of PARP activities for survival of cancer cells that harbor defects in DNA repair. Accumulating evidence has revealed that some PARP family molecules are involved in various signaling cascades other than DNA repair, including epigenetic and transcriptional regulations, inflammation/immune response and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, suggesting that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation both promotes and suppresses carcinogenic processes depending on the conditions. Expanding understanding of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation suggests that strategies to achieve cancer prevention targeting poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation for genome protection against life-long exposure to environmental carcinogens and endogenous carcinogenic stimuli.

  15. ADP-ribosylation of membrane components by pertussis and cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro-Neto, F.A.P.; Mattera, F.; Hildebrandt, J.D.; Codina, J.; Field, J.B.; Birnbaumer, L.; Sekura, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Pertussis and cholera toxins are important tools to investigate functional and structural aspects of the stimulatory (N/sub s/) and inhibitory (N/sub i/) regulatory components of adenylyl cyclase. Cholera toxin acts on N/sub s/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha../sub s/ subunit; pertussis toxin acts on N/sub i/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha..; subunit. By using (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and determining the transfer of its (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribose moiety to membrane components, it is possible to obtain information on N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A set of protocols is presented that can be used to study simultaneously and comparatively the susceptibility of N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ to be ADP-ribosylated by cholera and pertussis toxin.

  16. Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.; Bourne, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins.

  17. NADP/sup +/ enhances cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Y.; Whitsel, C.; Arinze, I.J.

    1986-05-01

    Cholera or pertussis toxin-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation is frequently used to estimate the concentration of the stimulatory (Ns) or inhibitory (Ni) guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins which modulate the activity of adenylate cyclase. With this assay, however, the degradation of the substrate, NAD/sup +/, by endogenous enzymes such as NAD/sup +/-glycohydrolase (NADase) present in the test membranes can influence the results. In this study the authors show that both cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation of liver membrane proteins is markedly enhanced by NADP/sup +/. The effect is concentration dependent; with 20 ..mu..M (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ as substrate maximal enhancement is obtained at 0.5-1.0 mM NADP/sup +/. The enhancement of (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation by NADP/sup +/ was much greater than that by other known effectors such as Mg/sup 2 +/, phosphate or isoniazid. The effect of NADP/sup +/ on ADP-ribosylation may occur by inhibition of the degradation of NAD/sup +/ probably by acting as an alternate substrate for NADase. Among inhibitors tested (NADP/sup +/, isoniazid, imidazole, nicotinamide, L-Arg-methyl-ester and HgCl/sub 2/) to suppress NADase activity, NADP/sup +/ was the most effective and, 10 mM, inhibited activity of the enzyme by about 90%. In membranes which contain substantial activities of NADase the inclusion of NADP/sup +/ in the assay is necessary to obtain maximal ADP-ribosylation.

  18. Progress in the function and regulation of ADP-Ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Hottiger, Michael O; Boothby, Mark; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Lüscher, Bernhard; Martin, Niall M B; Plummer, Ruth; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Ziegler, Mathias

    2011-05-24

    Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a protein posttranslational modification that is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs), using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as a substrate. Mono-ribosylation can be extended into polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR). Poly(ADP-ribosyl)polymerase (PARP) 1, the best-characterized cellular enzyme catalyzing this process, is the prototypical member of a family of mono- and poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases. The physiological consequences of ADP-ribosylation are inadequately understood. PARP2010, the 18th International Conference on ADP-Ribosylation, attracted scientists from all over the world to Zurich, Switzerland. Highlights from this meeting include promising clinical trials with PARP inhibitors and new insights into cell, structural, and developmental biology of ARTs and the (glyco)hydrolase proteins that catalyze de-ADP-ribosylation of mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylated proteins. Moreover, potential links to the NAD-dependent sirtuin family were explored on the basis of a shared dependence on cellular NAD(+) concentrations and the relationship of ADP-ribosylation with intermediary metabolism and cellular energetics.

  19. Locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalization and oxytocin levels in infant CD38 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Kato, Ichiro; Takasawa, Shin; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2008-12-19

    Oxytocin (OT), a neurohormone involved in reproduction, plays a critical role in social behavior in a wide range of mammalian species from rodents to humans. The role of CD38 in regulating OT secretion for social behavior has been demonstrated in adult mice, but has not been examined in pups or during development. Separation from the dam induces stress in 7-day-old mouse pups. During such isolation, locomotor activity was higher in CD38 knockout (CD38(-/-)) pups than in wild-type (CD38(+/+)) or heterozygous (CD38(+/-)) controls. The number of ultrasonic vocalizations was lower in CD38(-/-) pups than in CD38(+/+) pups. However, the difference between the two genotypes was less severe than that in OT knockout or OT receptor knockout mice. To explain this, we measured plasma OT levels. The level was not lower in CD38(-/-) pups during the period 1-3 weeks after birth, but was significantly reduced after weaning (>3 weeks). ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities in the hypothalamus and pituitary were markedly lower from 1 week after birth in CD38(-/-) mice and were consistently lower thereafter to the adult stage (2 months old). These results showed that the reduced severity of behavioral abnormalities in CD38(-/-) pups was due to partial compensation by the high level of plasma OT.

  20. [CD38 and autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Munesue, Toshio

    2013-11-01

    We have demonstrated that CD38, a transmembrane protein with ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, plays a critical role in mouse social behavior by regulating the release of oxytocin (OXT), which is essential for mutual recognition. When CD38 was disrupted, social amnesia was observed in Cd38 knockout mice. We investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CD38 gene in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. The SNP rs3796863 (A>C) was associated with high-functioning autism (HFA) in American samples. Although this finding was partially confirmed in low-functioning autism subjects in Israel, it has not been replicated in Japanese HFA subjects. The second SNP of interest, rs1800561 (4693C>T), leads to the substitution of an arginine (R) at codon 140 by tryptophan (W;R140W) in CD38. This mutation was found in 4 probands of ASD and in family members of 3 pedigrees with variable levels of ASD or ASD traits. The plasma levels of OXT in ASD subjects with the R140W allele were lower than those in ASD subjects lacking this allele. One proband with the R140W allele receiving intranasal OXT for approximately 3 years showed improvement in areas of social approach, eye contact and communication behaviors, emotion, irritability, and aggression. Five other ASD subjects with mental deficits received nasal OXT for various periods;three subjects showed improved symptoms, while 2 showed little or no effect. These results suggest that SNPs in CD38 may be risk factors for ASD by abrogating the OXT function, and that some ASD subjects can be treated with OXT in preliminary clinical trials.

  1. CD38 gene knockout juvenile mice: a model of oxytocin signal defects in autism.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Munesue, Toshio; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Minabe, Yoshio; Lopatina, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) in the hypothalamus is the biological basis of social recognition, trust, and bonding. We showed that CD38, a leukaemia cell marker, plays an important role in the hypothalamus in the process of OXT release in adult mice. Disruption of Cd38 (Cd38(-/-)) produced impairment of maternal behavior and male social recognition in mice, similar to the behavior observed in Oxt and OXT receptor (Oxtr) gene knockout (Oxt(-/-) and Oxtr(-/-), respectively) mice. Locomotor activity induced by separation from the dam was higher and the number of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) calls was lower in Cd38(-/-) than Cd38(+/+) pups. These phenotypes seemed to be caused by the high plasma OXT levels during development from neonates to 3-week-old juvenile mice. ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity was markedly lower in the knockout mice from birth, suggesting that weaning for mice is a critical time window of differentiating plasma OXT. Contribution by breastfeeding was an important exogenous source for regulating plasma OXT before weaning by the presence of OXT in milk and the dam's mammary glands. The dissimilarity of Cd38(-/-) infant behaviour to Oxt(-/-) or Oxtr(-/-) mice can be explained partly by this exogenous source of OXT. These results suggest that secretion of OXT into the brain in a CD38-dependent manner may play an important role in the development of social behavior, and mice with OXT signalling deficiency, including Cd38(-/-), Oxt(-/-) and Oxtr(-/-) mice are good animal models for developmental disorders, such as autism.

  2. CD38 and its role in oxytocin secretion and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Munesue, Toshio

    2012-03-01

    Here, we review the functional roles of cyclic ADP-ribose and CD38, a transmembrane protein with ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, in mouse social behavior via the regulation of oxytocin (OXT) release, an essential component of social cognition. Herein we describe data detailing the molecular mechanism of CD38-dependent OXT secretion in CD38 knockout mice. We also review studies that used OXT, OXT receptor (OXTR), or CD38 knockout mice. Additionally, we compare the behavioral impairments that occur in these knockout mice in relation to the OXT system and CD38. This review also examines autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is characterized by social and communication impairments, in relation to defects in the OXT system. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CD38 gene are possible risk factors for ASD via inhibition of OXT function. Further analysis of CD38 in relation to the OXT system may provide a better understanding of the neuroendocrinological roles of OXT and CD38 in the hypothalamus and of the pathophysiology of ASD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior.

  3. Chromosomal protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in pancreatic nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Aubin, R J; Dam, V T; Miclette, J; Brousseau, Y; Poirier, G G

    1982-03-01

    When pancreatic chromatin fragments were prepared and resolved in the presence of 80 mM NaCl, endogenous poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity was found to be maximal in nucleosome periodicities of four to five units and did not respond to any further increases in nucleosomal architecture. Furthermore, in nucleosome complexities spanning 1 through 14 and over unit lengths, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on acid-urea and acid-urea-Triton gels has shown pancreatic histone H1 to be the only actively ADP-ribosylated histone species. The extent of ADP-ribosylation of histone H1 was also demonstrated to retard the protein's mobility in acid-urea, acid-urea-Triton, and lithium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels and to consist of at least 12 distinct ADP-ribosylated species extractable in all nucleosome complexities studied. Finally, extraction and subsequent electrophoresis of total chromosomal proteins in the presence of lithium dodecyl sulfate also evidenced heavy ADP-ribosylation at the level of nonhistone chromosomal proteins of the high mobility group comigrating in the core histone region, as well as in the topmost region of the gels where poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase was found to form a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated aggregate.

  4. Structure-based Mechanism of ADP-ribosylation by Sirtuins

    SciTech Connect

    Hawse, William F.; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2009-12-01

    Sirtuins comprise a family of enzymes found in all organisms, where they play a role in diverse processes including transcriptional silencing, aging, regulation of transcription, and metabolism. The predominant reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is NAD{sup +}-dependent lysine deacetylation, although some sirtuins exhibit a weaker ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Although the Sir2 deacetylation mechanism is well established, much less is known about the Sir2 ADP-ribosylation reaction. We have studied the ADP-ribosylation activity of a bacterial sirtuin, Sir2Tm, and show that acetylated peptides containing arginine or lysine 2 residues C-terminal to the acetyl lysine, the +2 position, are preferentially ADP-ribosylated at the +2 residue. A structure of Sir2Tm bound to the acetylated +2 arginine peptide shows how this arginine could enter the active site and react with a deacetylation reaction intermediate to yield an ADP-ribosylated peptide. The new biochemical and structural studies presented here provide mechanistic insights into the Sir2 ADP-ribosylation reaction and will aid in identifying substrates of this reaction.

  5. Arginine-Specific Mono ADP-Ribosylation In Vitro of Antimicrobial Peptides by ADP-Ribosylating Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Castagnini, Marta; Picchianti, Monica; Talluri, Eleonora; Biagini, Massimiliano; Del Vecchio, Mariangela; Di Procolo, Paolo; Norais, Nathalie; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Balducci, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Among the several toxins used by pathogenic bacteria to target eukaryotic host cells, proteins that exert ADP-ribosylation activity represent a large and studied family of dangerous and potentially lethal toxins. These proteins alter cell physiology catalyzing the transfer of the ADP-ribose unit from NAD to cellular proteins involved in key metabolic pathways. In the present study, we tested the capability of four of these toxins, to ADP-ribosylate α- and β- defensins. Cholera toxin (CT) from Vibrio cholerae and heat labile enterotoxin (LT) from Escherichia coli both modified the human α-defensin (HNP-1) and β- defensin-1 (HBD1), as efficiently as the mammalian mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase-1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S was inactive on both HNP-1 and HBD1. Neisseria meningitidis NarE poorly recognized HNP-1 as a substrate but it was completely inactive on HBD1. On the other hand, HNP-1 strongly influenced NarE inhibiting its transferase activity while enhancing auto-ADP-ribosylation. We conclude that only some arginine-specific ADP-ribosylating toxins recognize defensins as substrates in vitro. Modifications that alter the biological activities of antimicrobial peptides may be relevant for the innate immune response. In particular, ADP-ribosylation of antimicrobial peptides may represent a novel escape mechanism adopted by pathogens to facilitate colonization of host tissues. PMID:22879887

  6. Arginine-specific mono ADP-ribosylation in vitro of antimicrobial peptides by ADP-ribosylating toxins.

    PubMed

    Castagnini, Marta; Picchianti, Monica; Talluri, Eleonora; Biagini, Massimiliano; Del Vecchio, Mariangela; Di Procolo, Paolo; Norais, Nathalie; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Balducci, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Among the several toxins used by pathogenic bacteria to target eukaryotic host cells, proteins that exert ADP-ribosylation activity represent a large and studied family of dangerous and potentially lethal toxins. These proteins alter cell physiology catalyzing the transfer of the ADP-ribose unit from NAD to cellular proteins involved in key metabolic pathways. In the present study, we tested the capability of four of these toxins, to ADP-ribosylate α- and β- defensins. Cholera toxin (CT) from Vibrio cholerae and heat labile enterotoxin (LT) from Escherichia coli both modified the human α-defensin (HNP-1) and β- defensin-1 (HBD1), as efficiently as the mammalian mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase-1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S was inactive on both HNP-1 and HBD1. Neisseria meningitidis NarE poorly recognized HNP-1 as a substrate but it was completely inactive on HBD1. On the other hand, HNP-1 strongly influenced NarE inhibiting its transferase activity while enhancing auto-ADP-ribosylation. We conclude that only some arginine-specific ADP-ribosylating toxins recognize defensins as substrates in vitro. Modifications that alter the biological activities of antimicrobial peptides may be relevant for the innate immune response. In particular, ADP-ribosylation of antimicrobial peptides may represent a novel escape mechanism adopted by pathogens to facilitate colonization of host tissues.

  7. ADP-ribosylation of proteins: Enzymology and biological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Althaus, F.R.; Richter, C.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the molecular and biological consequences of the posttranslational modification of proteins with ADP-ribose monomers and polymers. Part one focuses on chromatin-associated poly ADP-ribosylation reactions which have evolved in higher eukaryotes as modulators of chromatin functions. The significance of poly ADP-ribosylation in DNA repair, carcinogenesis, and gene expression during terminal differentiation is discussed. Part two reviews mono ADP-ribosylation reactions which are catalyzed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes. Consideration is given to the action of bacterial toxins, such as cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and diphtheria toxin. These toxins have emerged as tools for the molecular probing of proteins involved in signal transduction and protein biosynthesis.

  8. Intracellular Mono-ADP-Ribosylation in Signaling and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bütepage, Mareike; Eckei, Laura; Verheugd, Patricia; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A key process in the regulation of protein activities and thus cellular signaling pathways is the modification of proteins by post-translational mechanisms. Knowledge about the enzymes (writers and erasers) that attach and remove post-translational modifications, the targets that are modified and the functional consequences elicited by specific modifications, is crucial for understanding cell biological processes. Moreover detailed knowledge about these mechanisms and pathways helps to elucidate the molecular causes of various diseases and in defining potential targets for therapeutic approaches. Intracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation refers to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent modification of proteins with ADP-ribose and is catalyzed by enzymes of the ARTD (ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin like, also known as PARP) family as well as some members of the Sirtuin family. Poly-ADP-ribosylation is relatively well understood with inhibitors being used as anti-cancer agents. However, the majority of ARTD enzymes and the ADP-ribosylating Sirtuins are restricted to catalyzing mono-ADP-ribosylation. Although writers, readers and erasers of intracellular mono-ADP-ribosylation have been identified only recently, it is becoming more and more evident that this reversible post-translational modification is capable of modulating key intracellular processes and signaling pathways. These include signal transduction mechanisms, stress pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and stress granules, and chromatin-associated processes such as transcription and DNA repair. We hypothesize that mono-ADP-ribosylation controls, through these different pathways, the development of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26426055

  9. Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by ADP-ribosylation*

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yukihide; Papoutsoglou, Panagiotis; Maturi, Varun; Tsubakihara, Yutaro; Hottiger, Michael O.; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    We previously established a mechanism of negative regulation of transforming growth factor β signaling mediated by the nuclear ADP-ribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and the deribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), which dynamically regulate ADP-ribosylation of Smad3 and Smad4, two central signaling proteins of the pathway. Here we demonstrate that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway can also be regulated by the opposing actions of PARP1 and PARG. PARG positively contributes to BMP signaling and forms physical complexes with Smad5 and Smad4. The positive role PARG plays during BMP signaling can be neutralized by PARP1, as demonstrated by experiments where PARG and PARP1 are simultaneously silenced. In contrast to PARG, ectopic expression of PARP1 suppresses BMP signaling, whereas silencing of endogenous PARP1 enhances signaling and BMP-induced differentiation. The two major Smad proteins of the BMP pathway, Smad1 and Smad5, interact with PARP1 and can be ADP-ribosylated in vitro, whereas PARG causes deribosylation. The overall outcome of this mode of regulation of BMP signal transduction provides a fine-tuning mechanism based on the two major enzymes that control cellular ADP-ribosylation. PMID:27129221

  10. Viral Macro Domains Reverse Protein ADP-Ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changqing; Debing, Yannick; Jankevicius, Gytis; Neyts, Johan; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational protein modification in which ADP-ribose is transferred from NAD+ to specific acceptors to regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. The macro domain is an ancient and highly evolutionarily conserved protein domain widely distributed throughout all kingdoms of life, including viruses. The human TARG1/C6orf130, MacroD1, and MacroD2 proteins can reverse ADP-ribosylation by acting on ADP-ribosylated substrates through the hydrolytic activity of their macro domains. Here, we report that the macro domain from hepatitis E virus (HEV) serves as an ADP-ribose-protein hydrolase for mono-ADP-ribose (MAR) and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chain removal (de-MARylation and de-PARylation, respectively) from mono- and poly(ADP)-ribosylated proteins, respectively. The presence of the HEV helicase in cis dramatically increases the binding of the macro domain to poly(ADP-ribose) and stimulates the de-PARylation activity. Abrogation of the latter dramatically decreases replication of an HEV subgenomic replicon. The de-MARylation activity is present in all three pathogenic positive-sense, single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] virus families which carry a macro domain: Coronaviridae (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E), Togaviridae (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), and Hepeviridae (HEV), indicating that it might be a significant tropism and/or pathogenic determinant. IMPORTANCE Protein ADP-ribosylation is a covalent posttranslational modification regulating cellular protein activities in a dynamic fashion to modulate and coordinate a variety of cellular processes. Three viral families, Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae, possess macro domains embedded in their polyproteins. Here, we show that viral macro domains reverse cellular ADP-ribosylation, potentially cutting the signal of a viral infection in the cell. Various poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases which are notorious guardians of cellular

  11. The roles of oxytocin and CD38 in social or parental behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Olga; Inzhutova, Alena; Salmina, Alla B; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2012-01-01

    The nine amino acid peptide oxytocin (OXT) has been directly associated with different types of behavioral reactions. The formation and maintenance of social relationships in youth and middle age are important components of human mental health. A deficit in healthy behavioral formation leads to social isolation and limitation of well-being. Mice are social animals and are therefore useful for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive process control, including the development of social relationships and social skills. Studies in mice may broaden our understanding of the human condition. The multifunctional protein CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase is highly expressed in the brain, plays an important role in central OXT release, and regulates social memory. In this review article, we discuss the mechanisms of social behavior affected by the dysregulation of brain OXT function as a consequence of a lack of CD38. OXT bound to OXT receptors initiates autoregulatory positive feedback of OXT release in the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary. OXT bio-behavioral positive feedback is usually implicated in female reproductive systems, but can also be observed in social behavior. Exogenous stimuli (OXT treatment in vitro, OXT intravenous or intraventricular administration, and nasal OXT delivery) initiate activation of OXT neurons via PKC-CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase cascades and result in the modulation of social behavior in humans and mice. Based on these findings, we reviewed the functions of OXT and its properties with respect to the development of therapies for human social behavior impairments in psychological diseases. In addition, preliminary studies of continuous nasal OXT administration on subjects with autism spectrum disorders are described.

  12. The family of bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, K M; Barbieri, J T

    1995-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria utilize a variety of virulence factors that contribute to the clinical manifestation of their pathogenesis. Bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins (bAREs) represent one family of virulence factors that exert their toxic effects by transferring the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD onto specific eucaryotic target proteins. The observations that some bAREs ADP-ribosylate eucaryotic proteins that regulate signal transduction, like the heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins and the low-molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins, has extended interest in bAREs beyond the bacteriology laboratory. Molecular studies have shown that bAREs possess little primary amino acid homology and have diverse quaternary structure-function organization. Underlying this apparent diversity, biochemical and crystallographic studies have shown that several bAREs have conserved active-site structures and possess a conserved glutamic acid within their active sites. PMID:7704894

  13. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2011-09-26

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.

  14. Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent endonuclease and ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, K; Tanaka, Y; Kamiya, T

    1983-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of the inhibition of Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent endonuclease by ADP-ribosylation was studied by using purified bull seminal plasma Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent endonuclease, endonuclease-stimulating proteins, and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The activity of an essentially homogeneous preparation of the endonuclease was markedly suppressed by its preincubation with NAD+, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase, DNA, and Mg2+. These four components of the incubation mixture were all essential for the suppression of the activity. Analyses of the initial and the chased reaction product by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent endonuclease was ADP-ribosylated during the incubation and its activity was markedly inhibited by the elongation of the ADP-ribose polymer covalently attached to the endonuclease. When the suppressed enzymes were mildly treated with an alkaline pH of 10.0, the activity was restored almost to the level of the unmodified control sample. These facts indicate that the linkage between the enzyme and poly(ADP-ribose) is hydrolyzed at this pH, and that the liberated polymer itself does not appreciably affect the endonuclease activity. These results also suggest that an electric repulsion between negative charges on DNA and poly(ADP-ribose) attached to Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent endonuclease is the basis for the observed suppression of the enzyme by ADP-ribosylation. Though histone H2B and H1 are shown to be as good endonuclease-stimulators (1) as they are good acceptors of ADP-ribose in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase reaction (2), ADP-ribosylation of these two proteins did not affect their endonuclease-stimulating ability appreciably, at least under the conditions used.

  15. ADP-ribosylation of transducin by pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, P.A.; Burns, D.L.; Kanaho, Y.; Liu, T.Y.; Hewlett, E.L.; Moss, J.

    1985-11-05

    Transducin, the guanyl nucleotide-binding regulatory protein of retinal rod outer segments that couples the photon receptor, rhodopsin, with the light-activated cGMP phosphodiesterase, can be resolved into two functional components, T alpha and T beta gamma. T alpha (39 kDa), which is (TSP)ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin and (TSP)NAD in rod outer segments and in purified transducin, was also labeled by the toxin after separation from T beta gamma (36 kDa and approximately 10 kDa); neither component of T beta gamma was a pertussis toxin substrate. Labeling of T alpha was enhanced by T beta gamma and was maximal at approximately 1:1 molar ratio of T alpha : T beta gamma. Limited proteolysis by trypsin of T alpha in the presence of guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) resulted in the sequential appearance of proteins of 38 and TS kDa. The amino terminus of both 38- and TS-kDa proteins was leucine, whereas that of T alpha could not be identified and was assumed to be blocked. The TS-kDa peptide was not a pertussis toxin substrate. Labeling of the 38-kDa protein was poor and was not enhanced by T beta gamma. Trypsin treatment of (TSP)ADP-ribosyl-T alpha produced a labeled 37-38-kDa doublet followed by appearance of radioactivity at the dye front. It appears, therefore, that, although the 38-kDa protein was poor toxin substrate, it contained the ADP-ribosylation site. Without rhodopsin, labeling of T alpha (in the presence of T beta gamma) was unaffected by Gpp(NH)p, guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S), GTP, GDP, and guanosine 5'-O-(thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S) but was increased by ATP. When photolyzed rhodopsin and T beta gamma were present, Gpp(NH)p and GTP gamma S decreased (TSP)ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin. Thus, pertussis toxin-catalyzed (TSP)ADP-ribosylation of T alpha was affected by nucleotides, rhodopsin and light in addition to T beta gamma.

  16. ADP-ribosylation of histones by ARTD1: an additional module of the histone code?

    PubMed

    Hottiger, Michael O

    2011-06-06

    ADP-ribosylation is a covalent post-translational protein modification catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases and is involved in important processes such as cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, replication or transcription. Histones are ADP-ribosylated by ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1 at specific amino acid residues, in particular lysines, of the histones tails. Specific ADP-ribosyl hydrolases and poly-ADP-ribose glucohydrolases degrade the ADP-ribose polymers. The ADP-ribose modification is read by zinc finger motifs or macrodomains, which then regulate chromatin structure and transcription. Thus, histone ADP-ribosylation may be considered an additional component of the histone code.

  17. The actin-ADP-ribosylating Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin.

    PubMed

    Aktories, Klaus; Barth, Holger

    2004-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin is the prototype of actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins. The toxin consists of the enzyme component C2I and the separated binding/translocation component C2II. C2II is proteolytically activated to form heptamers, which bind the enzyme component. After endocytosis of the receptor-toxin complex, the enzyme component enters the cytosol from an acidic endosomal compartment to modify G-actin at arginine177. Recent data indicate that chaperons are involved in the translocation process of the toxin.

  18. Immunoaffinity fractionation of the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated domains of chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Malik, N; Miwa, M; Sugimura, T; Thraves, P; Smulson, M

    1983-01-01

    Antibody to poly(ADP-ribose) has been covalently coupled to Sepharose and utilized to isolate selectively oligonucleosomes undergoing the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction from the bulk of chromatin. Approximately 12% of the unfractionated oligonucleosomes were bound to the immunoaffinity column and these represented essentially 100% of the original poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated nucleosomal species in the unfractionated chromatin. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated chromatin was not bound by preimmune IgG columns. KSCN eluted the modified nucleosomes in the form of nucleoprotein complexes. The eluted chromatin components were shown to contain poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated histones as well as automodified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. By using [3H]lysine- and [3H]arginine-labeled chromatin, it was shown that the poly-(ADP-ribosyl)ated histones, attached to stretches of oligonucleosomes bound to the column, had a 6-fold enrichment of the modification compared to histones of the unfractionated chromatin. This indicated that non-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated nucleosomes, connected and proximal to the modified regions, were copurified by this procedure. This allowed characterization of the oligonucleosomal DNA around poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated chromatin domains to be compared with the unbound bulk chromatin. The data indicated that immunofractionated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated oligonucleosomal DNA contained significant amounts of internal single-strand breaks compared with bulk chromatin. The bound nucleo-protein complexes were found to be enzymatically active for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase after elution from the antibody column. In contrast, the unbound nucleosomes, representing 90% of the unfractionated chromatin, were totally inactive in the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. Images PMID:6573670

  19. Poly(ADP-ribosylation) and neoplastic transformation: effect of PARP inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Donà, Francesca; Chiodi, Ilaria; Belgiovine, Cristina; Raineri, Tatiana; Ricotti, Roberta; Mondello, Chiara; Scovassi, Anna Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and poly(ADP-ribosylation) play essential roles in several biological processes, among which neoplastic transformation and telomere maintenance. In this paper, we review the poly(ADP-ribosylation) process together with the highly appealing use of PARP inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. In addition, we report our results concerning poly(ADP-ribosylation) in a cellular model system for neoplastic transformation developed in our laboratory. Here we show that PARP-1 and PARP-2 expression increases during neoplastic transformation, together with the basal levels of poly(ADP-ribosylation). Furthermore, we demonstrate a greater effect of the PARP inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) on cellular viability in neoplastically transformed cells compared to normal fibroblasts and we show that prolonged 3AB administration to tumorigenic cells causes a decrease in telomere length. Taken together, our data support an active involvement of poly(ADP-ribosylation) in neoplastic transformation and telomere length maintenance and confirm the relevant role of poly(ADP-ribosylation) inhibition for the treatment of cancer.

  20. Structure and function of the ARH family of ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Masato; Kato, Jiro; Moss, Joel

    2014-11-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational protein modification, in which ADP-ribose is transferred from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to specific acceptors, thereby altering their activities. The ADP-ribose transfer reactions are divided into mono- and poly-(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Cellular ADP-ribosylation levels are tightly regulated by enzymes that transfer ADP-ribose to acceptor proteins (e.g., ADP-ribosyltransferases, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP)) and those that cleave the linkage between ADP-ribose and acceptor (e.g., ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolases (ARH), poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolases (PARG)), thereby constituting an ADP-ribosylation cycle. This review summarizes current findings related to the ARH family of proteins. This family comprises three members (ARH1-3) with similar size (39kDa) and amino acid sequence. ARH1 catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of mono-(ADP-ribosyl)ated arginine. ARH3 hydrolyzes poly-(ADP-ribose) (PAR) and O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. The different substrate specificities of ARH1 and ARH3 contribute to their unique roles in the cell. Based on a phenotype analysis of ARH1(-/-) and ARH3(-/-) mice, ARH1 is involved in the action by bacterial toxins as well as in tumorigenesis. ARH3 participates in the degradation of PAR that is synthesized by PARP1 in response to oxidative stress-induced DNA damage; this hydrolytic reaction suppresses PAR-mediated cell death, a pathway termed parthanatos.

  1. ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jouanneau, Y.; Roby, C.; Meyer, C.M.; Vignais, P.M. )

    1989-07-25

    In the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, nitrogenase is regulated by a reversible covalent modification of Fe protein or dinitrogenase reductase (Rc2). The linkage of the modifying group to inactive Rc2 was found to be sensitive to alkali and to neutral hydroxylamine. Complete release of the modifying group was achieved by incubation of inactive Rc2 in 0.4 or 1 M hydroxylamine. After hydroxylamine treatment of the Rc2 preparation, the modifying group could be isolated and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The modifying group comigrated with ADP-ribose on both ion-exchange HPLC and thin-layer chromatography. Analyses by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry provided further evidence that the modifying group was ADP-ribose. The NMR spectrum of inactive Rc2 exhibited signals characteristic of ADP-ribose; integration of these signals allowed calculation of a molar ration ADP-ribose/Rc2 of 0.63. A hexapeptide carrying the ADP-ribose moiety was purified from a subtilisin digest of inactive Rc2. The structure of this peptide, determined by amino acid analysis and sequencing, is Gly-Arg(ADP-ribose)-Gly-Val-Ile-Thr. This structure allows identification of the binding site for ADP-ribose as Arg 101 of the polypeptide chain of Rc2. It is concluded that nitrogenase activity in R. capsulatus is regulated by reversible ADP-ribosylation of a specific arginyl residue of dinitrogenase reductase.

  2. Serine ADP-Ribosylation Depends on HPF1.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Juan José; Fontana, Pietro; Zhang, Qi; Colby, Thomas; Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Atanassov, Ilian; Bartlett, Edward; Zaja, Roko; Ahel, Ivan; Matic, Ivan

    2017-03-02

    ADP-ribosylation (ADPr) regulates important patho-physiological processes through its attachment to different amino acids in proteins. Recently, by precision mapping on all possible amino acid residues, we identified histone serine ADPr marks in the DNA damage response. However, the biochemical basis underlying this serine modification remained unknown. Here we report that serine ADPr is strictly dependent on histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1), a recently identified regulator of PARP-1. Quantitative proteomics revealed that serine ADPr does not occur in cells lacking HPF1. Moreover, adding HPF1 to in vitro PARP-1/PARP-2 reactions is necessary and sufficient for serine-specific ADPr of histones and PARP-1 itself. Three endogenous serine ADPr sites are located on the PARP-1 automodification domain. Further identification of serine ADPr on HMG proteins and hundreds of other targets indicates that serine ADPr is a widespread modification. We propose that O-linked protein ADPr is the key signal in PARP-1/PARP-2-dependent processes that govern genome stability.

  3. Nuclear ADP-Ribosylation Reactions in Mammalian Cells: Where Are We Today and Where Are We Going?

    PubMed Central

    Hassa, Paul O.; Haenni, Sandra S.; Elser, Michael; Hottiger, Michael O.

    2006-01-01

    Since poly-ADP ribose was discovered over 40 years ago, there has been significant progress in research into the biology of mono- and poly-ADP-ribosylation reactions. During the last decade, it became clear that ADP-ribosylation reactions play important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inter- and intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, DNA repair pathways and maintenance of genomic stability, telomere dynamics, cell differentiation and proliferation, and necrosis and apoptosis. ADP-ribosylation reactions are phylogenetically ancient and can be classified into four major groups: mono-ADP-ribosylation, poly-ADP-ribosylation, ADP-ribose cyclization, and formation of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. In the human genome, more than 30 different genes coding for enzymes associated with distinct ADP-ribosylation activities have been identified. This review highlights the recent advances in the rapidly growing field of nuclear mono-ADP-ribosylation and poly-ADP-ribosylation reactions and the distinct ADP-ribosylating enzyme families involved in these processes, including the proposed family of novel poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-like mono-ADP-ribose transferases and the potential mono-ADP-ribosylation activities of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases. A special focus is placed on the known roles of distinct mono- and poly-ADP-ribosylation reactions in physiological processes, such as mitosis, cellular differentiation and proliferation, telomere dynamics, and aging, as well as “programmed necrosis” (i.e., high-mobility-group protein B1 release) and apoptosis (i.e., apoptosis-inducing factor shuttling). The proposed molecular mechanisms involved in these processes, such as signaling, chromatin modification (i.e., “histone code”), and remodeling of chromatin structure (i.e., DNA damage response, transcriptional regulation, and insulator function), are described. A potential cross talk between nuclear

  4. The role of ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Alasdair R.; Banos-Pinero, Benito; Paschke, Peggy; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Ariza, Antonio; Day, Joseph; Emrich, Mehera; Leys, David; Ponting, Chris P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADP-ribosylation by ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) has a well-established role in DNA strand break repair by promoting enrichment of repair factors at damage sites through ADP-ribose interaction domains. Here, we exploit the simple eukaryote Dictyostelium to uncover a role for ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair and redundancy of this pathway with non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). In silico searches were used to identify a protein that contains a permutated macrodomain (which we call aprataxin/APLF-and-PNKP-like protein; APL). Structural analysis reveals that this permutated macrodomain retains features associated with ADP-ribose interactions and that APL is capable of binding poly(ADP-ribose) through this macrodomain. APL is enriched in chromatin in response to cisplatin treatment, an agent that induces DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). This is dependent on the macrodomain of APL and the ART Adprt2, indicating a role for ADP-ribosylation in the cellular response to cisplatin. Although adprt2− cells are sensitive to cisplatin, ADP-ribosylation is evident in these cells owing to redundant signalling by the double-strand break (DSB)-responsive ART Adprt1a, promoting NHEJ-mediated repair. These data implicate ADP-ribosylation in DNA ICL repair and identify that NHEJ can function to resolve this form of DNA damage in the absence of Adprt2. PMID:27587838

  5. Identification of a Class of Protein ADP-Ribosylating Sirtuins in Microbial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Morra, Rosa; Barkauskaite, Eva; Kraehenbuehl, Rolf; Ariza, Antonio; Qu, Yue; Ortmayer, Mary; Leidecker, Orsolya; Cameron, David R.; Matic, Ivan; Peleg, Anton Y.; Leys, David; Traven, Ana; Ahel, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sirtuins are an ancient family of NAD+-dependent deacylases connected with the regulation of fundamental cellular processes including metabolic homeostasis and genome integrity. We show the existence of a hitherto unrecognized class of sirtuins, found predominantly in microbial pathogens. In contrast to earlier described classes, these sirtuins exhibit robust protein ADP-ribosylation activity. In our model organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, the activity is dependent on prior lipoylation of the target protein and can be reversed by a sirtuin-associated macrodomain protein. Together, our data describe a sirtuin-dependent reversible protein ADP-ribosylation system and establish a crosstalk between lipoylation and mono-ADP-ribosylation. We propose that these posttranslational modifications modulate microbial virulence by regulating the response to host-derived reactive oxygen species. PMID:26166706

  6. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in the regulation of nuclear functions.

    PubMed Central

    D'Amours, D; Desnoyers, S; D'Silva, I; Poirier, G G

    1999-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins. During this process, molecules of ADP-ribose are added successively on to acceptor proteins to form branched polymers. This modification is transient but very extensive in vivo, as polymer chains can reach more than 200 units on protein acceptors. The existence of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymer was first reported nearly 40 years ago. Since then, the importance of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis has been established in many cellular processes. However, a clear and unified picture of the physiological role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation still remains to be established. The total dependence of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis on DNA strand breaks strongly suggests that this post-translational modification is involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids. This view is also supported by the identification of direct protein-protein interactions involving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (113 kDa PARP), an enzyme catalysing the formation of poly(ADP-ribose), and key effectors of DNA repair, replication and transcription reactions. The presence of PARP in these multiprotein complexes, in addition to the actual poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of some components of these complexes, clearly supports an important role for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in DNA transactions. Accordingly, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis by any of several approaches and the analysis of PARP-deficient cells has revealed that the absence of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation strongly affects DNA metabolism, most notably DNA repair. The recent identification of new poly(ADP-ribosyl)ating enzymes with distinct (non-standard) structures in eukaryotes and archaea has revealed a novel level of complexity in the regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism. PMID:10455009

  7. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of a 46 kDa protein is decreased in brains of ethanol-fed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nhamburo, P.T.; Hoffman, P.L.; Tabakoff, B.

    1988-01-01

    The acute in vitro effects of ethanol on cerebral cortical adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenergic receptor characteristics suggested a site of action of ethanol at Gs, the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein. After chronic ethanol ingestion, the beta-adrenergic receptor appeared to be uncoupled (i.e., the form of the receptor with high affinity for agonist was undetectable), and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by isoproterenol or guanine nucleotides was reduced, suggesting an alteration in the properties of Gs. To further characterize this change, cholera and pertussis toxin-mediated /sup 32/P-ADP-ribosylation of mouse cortical membranes was assessed in mice that had chronically ingested ethanol in a liquid diet. /sup 32/P-labeled proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantitated by autoradiography. There was a selective 30-50% decrease in cholera toxin-induced labeling of 46 kDa protein band in membranes of ethanol-fed mice, with no apparent change in pertussis toxin-induced labeling. The 46 kDa protein has a molecular weight similar to that of the alpha subunit of Gs, suggesting a reduced amount of this protein or a change in its characteristics as a substrate for cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation in cortical membranes of ethanol-fed mice.

  8. Histone ADP-Ribosylation Facilitates Gene Transcription by Directly Remodeling Nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Zamudio, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The packaging of DNA into nucleosomes imposes obstacles on gene transcription, and histone-modifying and nucleosome-remodeling complexes work in concert to alleviate these obstacles so as to facilitate transcription. Emerging evidence shows that chromatin-associated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and its enzymatic activity facilitate inflammatory gene transcription and modulate the inflammatory response in animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PARP-1 enzymatic activity facilitates transcription are not well understood. Here we show that through an intracellular signaling pathway, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induces PARP-1 enzymatic activity and the ADP-ribosylation of histones at transcriptionally active and accessible chromatin regions in macrophages. In vitro DNase I footprinting and restriction endonuclease accessibility assays reveal that histone ADP-ribosylation directly destabilizes histone-DNA interactions in the nucleosome and increases the site accessibility of the nucleosomal DNA to nucleases. Consistent with this, LPS stimulation-induced ADP-ribosylation at the nucleosome-occupied promoters of il-1β, mip-2, and csf2 facilitates NF-κB recruitment and the transcription of these genes in macrophages. Therefore, our data suggest that PARP-1 enzymatic activity facilitates gene transcription through increasing promoter accessibility by histone ADP-ribosylation. PMID:22547677

  9. Microtubule protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro leads to assembly inhibition and rapid depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Scaife, R.M. ); Wilson, L. ); Purich, D.L. )

    1992-01-14

    Bovine brain microtubule protein, containing both tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, undergoes ADP-ribosylation in the presence of ({sup 14}C)NAD{sup +} and a turkey erythrocyte mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase in vitro. The modification reaction could be demonstrated in crude brain tissue extracts where selective ADP-ribosylation of both the {alpha} and {beta} chains of tubulin and of the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 occurred. In experiments with purified microtubule protein, tubulin dimer, the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2, and another high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein which may be a MAP-1 species were heavily labeled. Tubulin and MAP-2 incorporated ({sup 14}C)ADP-ribose to an average extent of approximately 2.4 and 30 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of protein, respectively. Assembly of microtubule protein into microtubules in vitro was inhibited by ADP-ribosylation, and incubation of assembled steady-state microtubules with ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD{sup +} resulted in rapid depolymerization of the microtubules. Thus, the eukaryotic enzyme can ADP-ribosylate tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins to much greater extents than previously observed with cholera and pertussis toxins, and the modification can significantly modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

  10. Evidence that mono-ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1/BARS regulates lipid storage.

    PubMed

    Bartz, René; Seemann, Joachim; Zehmer, John K; Serrero, Ginette; Chapman, Kent D; Anderson, Richard G W; Liu, Pingsheng

    2007-08-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is emerging as an important posttranslational modification that modulates a variety of cell signaling pathways. Here, we present evidence that mono-ADP-ribosylation of the transcriptional corepressor C terminal binding protein, brefeldin A (BFA)-induced ADP-ribosylated substrate (CtBP1/BARS) regulates neutral lipid storage in droplets that are surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipid and associated proteins. CtBP1/BARS is an NAD-binding protein that becomes ribosylated when cells are exposed to BFA. Both endogenous lipid droplets and droplets enlarged by oleate treatment are lost after 12-h exposure to BFA. Lipid loss requires new protein synthesis, and it is blocked by multiple ribosylation inhibitors, but it is not stimulated by disruption of the Golgi apparatus or the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. Small interfering RNA knockdown of CtBP1/BARS mimics the effect of BFA, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from embryos that are deficient in CtBP1/BARS seem to be defective in lipid accumulation. We conclude that mono-ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1/BARS inactivates its repressor function, which leads to the activation of genes that regulate neutral lipid storage.

  11. Molecular cloning and functional expression of bovine spleen ecto-NAD+ glycohydrolase: structural identity with human CD38.

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, A; Muller-Steffner, H; Schuber, F

    2000-01-01

    Bovine spleen ecto-NAD(+) glycohydrolase, an archetypal member of the mammalian membrane-associated NAD(P)(+) glycohydrolase enzyme family (EC 3.2.2.6), displays catalytic features similar to those of CD38, i.e. a protein originally described as a lymphocyte differentiation marker involved in the metabolism of cyclic ADP-ribose and signal transduction. Using amino acid sequence information obtained from NAD(+) glycohydrolase and from a truncated and hydrosoluble form of the enzyme (hNADase) purified to homogeneity, a full-length cDNA clone was obtained. The deduced sequence indicates a protein of 278 residues with a molecular mass of 31.5 kDa. It predicts that bovine ecto-NAD(+) glycohydrolase is a type II transmembrane protein, with a very short intracellular tail. The bulk of the enzyme, which is extracellular and contains two potential N-glycosylation sites, yields the fully catalytically active hNADase which is truncated by 71 residues. Transfection of HeLa cells with the full-length cDNA resulted in the expression of the expected NAD(+) glycohydrolase, ADP-ribosyl cyclase and GDP-ribosyl cyclase activities at the surface of the cells. The bovine enzyme, which is the first 'classical' NAD(P)(+) glycohydrolase whose structure has been established, presents a particularly high sequence identity with CD38, including the presence of 10 strictly conserved cysteine residues in the ectodomain and putative catalytic residues. However, it lacks two otherwise conserved cysteine residues near its C-terminus. Thus hNADase, the truncated protein of 207 amino acids, represents the smallest functional domain endowed with all the catalytic activities of CD38/NAD(+) glycohydrolases so far identified. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that the cloned bovine spleen ecto-NAD(+) glycohydrolase is the bovine equivalent of CD38. PMID:10600637

  12. Site-specific ADP-ribosylation of histone H2B in response to DNA double strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Rakhimova, Alina; Ura, Seiji; Hsu, Duen-Wei; Wang, Hong-Yu; Pears, Catherine J.; Lakin, Nicholas D.

    2017-01-01

    ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) modify proteins with single units or polymers of ADP-ribose to regulate DNA repair. However, the substrates for these enzymes are ill-defined. For example, although histones are modified by ARTs, the sites on these proteins ADP-ribosylated following DNA damage and the ARTs that catalyse these events are unknown. This, in part, is due to the lack of a eukaryotic model that contains ARTs, in addition to histone genes that can be manipulated to assess ADP-ribosylation events in vivo. Here we exploit the model Dictyostelium to identify site-specific histone ADP-ribosylation events in vivo and define the ARTs that mediate these modifications. Dictyostelium histones are modified in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in vivo by the ARTs Adprt1a and Adprt2. Adprt1a is a mono-ART that modifies H2BE18 in vitro, although disruption of this site allows ADP-ribosylation at H2BE19. Although redundancy between H2BE18 and H2BE19 ADP-ribosylation is also apparent following DSBs in vivo, by generating a strain with mutations at E18/E19 in the h2b locus we demonstrate these are the principal sites modified by Adprt1a/Adprt2. This identifies DNA damage induced histone mono-ADP-ribosylation sites by specific ARTs in vivo, providing a unique platform to assess how histone ADP-ribosylation regulates DNA repair. PMID:28252050

  13. Quantitative site-specific ADP-ribosylation profiling of DNA-dependent PARPs.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Ethier, Chantal; Defoy, Daniel; Bourassa, Sylvie; Langelier, Marie-France; Riccio, Amanda A; Pascal, John M; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Foster, Leonard J; Ning, Zhibin; Figeys, Daniel; Droit, Arnaud; Poirier, Guy G

    2015-06-01

    An important feature of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) is their ability to readily undergo automodification upon activation. Although a growing number of substrates were found to be poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated, including histones and several DNA damage response factors, PARPs themselves are still considered as the main acceptors of poly(ADP-ribose). By monitoring spectral counts of specific hydroxamic acid signatures generated after the conversion of the ADP-ribose modification onto peptides by hydroxylamine hydrolysis, we undertook a thorough mass spectrometry mapping of the glutamate and aspartate ADP-ribosylation sites onto automodified PARP-1, PARP-2 and PARP-3. Thousands of hydroxamic acid-conjugated peptides were identified with high confidence and ranked based on their spectral count. This semi-quantitative approach allowed us to locate the preferentially targeted residues in DNA-dependent PARPs. In contrast to what has been reported in the literature, automodification of PARP-1 is not predominantly targeted towards its BRCT domain. Our results show that interdomain linker regions that connect the BRCT to the WGR module and the WGR to the PRD domain undergo prominent ADP-ribosylation during PARP-1 automodification. We also found that PARP-1 efficiently automodifies the D-loop structure within its own catalytic fold. Interestingly, additional major ADP-ribosylation sites were identified in functional domains of PARP-1, including all three zinc fingers. Similar to PARP-1, specific residues located within the catalytic sites of PARP-2 and PARP-3 are major targets of automodification following their DNA-dependent activation. Together our results suggest that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation hot spots make a dominant contribution to the overall automodification process.

  14. Arginine-specific mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity on the surface of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, L E; Rendell, N B; Murray, S; Allport, J R; Lo, G; Kefalas, P; Taylor, G W; MacDermot, J

    1996-01-01

    An Arg-specific mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity on the surface of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes (PMNs) was confirmed by the use of diethylamino-(benzylidineamino)guanidine (DEA-BAG) as an ADP-ribose acceptor. Two separate HPLC systems were used to separate ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG from reaction mixtures, and its presence was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry. ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG was produced in the presence of PMNs, but not in their absence. Incubation of DEA-BAG with ADP-ribose (0.1-10 mM) did not yield ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG, which indicates that ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG formed in the presence of PMNs was not simply a product of a reaction between DEA-BAG and free ADP-ribose, due possibly to the hydrolysis of NAD+ by an NAD+ glycohydrolase. The assay of mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase with agmatine as a substrate was modified for intact PMNs, and the activity was found to be approx. 50-fold lower than that in rabbit cardiac membranes. The Km of the enzyme for NAD+ was 100.1 30.4 microM and the Vmax 1.4 0.2 pmol of ADP-ribosylagmatine/h per 10(6) cells. The enzyme is likely to be linked to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, since incubation of intact PMNs with phosphoinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) led to a 98% decrease in mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity in the cells. Cell surface proteins were labelled after exposure of intact PMNs to [32P]NAD+. Their molecular masses were 79, 67, 46, 36 and 26 kDa. The time course for labelling was non-linear under these conditions over a period of 4 h. The labelled products were identified as mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins by hydrolysis with snake venom phosphodiesterase to yield 5'-AMP. PMID:8615841

  15. Ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins are high affinity targets for ADP-ribosylation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS.

    PubMed

    Maresso, Anthony W; Baldwin, Michael R; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2004-09-10

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS is a bifunctional type III-secreted cytotoxin. The N terminus (amino acids 96-233) encodes a GTPase-activating protein activity, whereas the C terminus (amino acids 234-453) encodes a factor-activating ExoS-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The GTPase-activating protein activity inactivates the Rho GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 in cultured cells and in vitro, whereas the ADP-ribosylation by ExoS is poly-substrate-specific and includes Ras as an early target for ADP-ribosylation. Infection of HeLa cells with P. aeruginosa producing a GTPase-activating protein-deficient form of ExoS rounded cells, indicating the ADP-ribosyltransferase domain alone is sufficient to elicit cytoskeletal changes. Examination of substrates modified by type III-delivered ExoS identified a 70-kDa protein as an early and predominant target for ADP-ribosylation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy identified this protein as moesin, a member of the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family of proteins. ExoS ADP-ribosylated recombinant moesin at a linear velocity that was 5-fold faster and with a K(m) that was 2 orders of magnitude lower than Ras. Moesin homologs ezrin and radixin were also ADP-ribosylated, indicating the ERMs collectively represent high affinity targets of ExoS. Type III delivered ExoS ADP-ribosylated moesin and ezrin (and/or radixin) in cultured HeLa cells. The ERM proteins contribute to cytoskeleton dynamics, and the ability of ExoS to ADP-ribosylate the ERM proteins links ADP-ribosylation with the cytoskeletal changes associated with ExoS intoxication.

  16. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation as a new posttranslational modification of YB-1.

    PubMed

    Alemasova, Elizaveta E; Pestryakov, Pavel E; Sukhanova, Maria V; Kretov, Dmitry A; Moor, Nina A; Curmi, Patrick A; Ovchinnikov, Lev P; Lavrik, Olga I

    2015-12-01

    Multifunctional Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is actively studied as one of the components of cellular response to genotoxic stress. However, the precise role of YB-1 in the process of DNA repair is still obscure. In the present work we report for the first time new posttranslational modification of YB-1 - poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, catalyzed by one of the main regulatory enzymes of DNA repair - poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1) in the presence of model DNA substrate carrying multiple DNA lesions. Therefore, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of YB-1 catalyzed with PARP1, can be stimulated by damaged DNA. The observed property of YB-1 underlines its ability to participate in the DNA repair by its involvement in the regulatory cascades of DNA repair.

  17. Production of an antiserum specific to the ADP-ribosylated form of elongation factor 2 from archaebacteria and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, K D; Klink, F

    1992-11-09

    An antiserum to ADP-ribosylated elongation factor 2 (ADPR-EF-2) from S. acidocaldarius was raised in rabbits using stained, homogenized, ADPR-EF-2-containing slices from SDS-gels as a source of antigen. Elongation factor 2 (EF-2) from S. acidocaldarius was cloned in E. coli and the expressed gene product was used in order to adsorb all anti-EF-2 antibodies which do not contain the ADP-ribosyl group within their epitopes, as E. coli is unable to synthesize the ADP-ribosyl acceptor diphthamide. The remaining antibodies were specific to ADP-ribosylated EF-2 from Thermoplasma acidophilum, S. acidocaldarius and Desulfurococcus mucosus. ADP-ribosylated EF-2 from eukaryotic sources also reacted with the adsorbed antiserum as shown for EF-2 isolated from the killi-fish Cynolebias whitei, the mouse species BALB/c and Han/Wistar rats. The adsorbed antiserum did not cross-react with ADP-ribosylated actin or rho protein or with FAD-containing D-amino acid oxidase.

  18. Serine is a new target residue for endogenous ADP-ribosylation on histones

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Thomas; Zhang, Qi; Atanassov, Ilian; Zaja, Roko; Palazzo, Luca; Stockum, Anna; Ahel, Ivan; Matic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation (ADPr) is a biologically and clinically important post-translational modification, but little is known about the amino acids it targets on cellular proteins. Here we present a proteomic approach for direct in vivo identification and quantification of ADPr sites on histones. We have identified 12 unique ADPr sites in human osteosarcoma cells and report serine ADPr as a new type of histone mark that responds to DNA damage. PMID:27723750

  19. Detection and Quantification of ADP-Ribosylated RhoA/B by Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry. PMID:27043630

  20. Detection and Quantification of ADP-Ribosylated RhoA/B by Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry.

  1. Serine is a new target residue for endogenous ADP-ribosylation on histones.

    PubMed

    Leidecker, Orsolya; Bonfiglio, Juan José; Colby, Thomas; Zhang, Qi; Atanassov, Ilian; Zaja, Roko; Palazzo, Luca; Stockum, Anna; Ahel, Ivan; Matic, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    ADP-ribosylation (ADPr) is a biologically and clinically important post-translational modification, but little is known about the amino acids it targets on cellular proteins. Here we present a proteomic approach for direct in vivo identification and quantification of ADPr sites on histones. We have identified 12 unique ADPr sites in human osteosarcoma cells and report serine ADPr as a new type of histone mark that responds to DNA damage.

  2. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a herpes simplex virus immediate early polypeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, C.M.; Notarianni, E.L.

    1983-12-01

    In vitro poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) immediate early polypeptide Vmw175 is reported. The phenomenon was most clearly observed by use of the temperature-sensitive mutant tsK, which overproduces Vmw175 at the nonpermissive temperature (NPT) and has a mutation in the coding sequences for this polypeptide. Nuclei prepared from cells which were infected with tsK at NPT and subsequently downshifted to the permissive temperature incorporated (/sup 32/P)NAD into Vmw175. This reaction did not occur when nuclei were prepared from cells constantly maintained at NPT, showing that only functional Vmw175 can be radiolabeled with (/sup 32/P)NAD. The identity of the acceptor protein was confirmed by demonstrating the expected electrophoretic mobility differences between the HSV-1 and HSV-2 counterparts of Vmw175. The use of suitable inhibitors demonstrated that the reaction represented mono- or poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and further analysis showed the presence of long poly(ADP-ribose) chains attached to Vmw175. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation may be important as a cause or result of the regulation of viral transcription by Vmw175. Radiolabeling of another virus-specified polypeptide (approximate molecular weight 38,000), thought to be a structural component of the input virus, is also reported.

  3. ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin: functional analysis of a cellular system that stimulates the enzymic activity of cholera toxin fragment A/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.M.; Coburn, J.

    1987-10-06

    The authors have clarified relationships between cholera toxin, cholera toxin substrates, a membrane protein S that is required for toxin activity, and a soluble protein CF that is needed for the function of S. The toxin has little intrinsic ability to catalyze ADP-ribosylations unless it encounters the active form of the S protein, which is S liganded to GTP or to a GTP analogue. In the presence of CF, S x GTP forms readily, though reversibly, but a more permanent active species, S-guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (S x GTP..gamma..S), forms over a period of 10-15 min at 37/sup 0/C. Both guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) and GTP block this quasi-permanent activation. Some S x GTP..gamma..S forms in membranes that are exposed to CF alone and then to GTP..gamma..S, with a wash in between, and it is possible that CF facilitates a G nucleotide exchange. S x GTP..gamma..S dissolved by nonionic detergents persists in solution and can be used to support the ADP-ribosylation of nucleotide-free substrates. In this circumstance, added guanyl nucleotides have no further effect. This active form of S is unstable, especially when heated, but the thermal inactivation above 45/sup 0/C is decreased by GTP..gamma..S. Active S is required equally for the ADP-ribosylation of all of cholera toxin's protein substrates, regardless of whether they bind GTP or not. They suggest that active S interacts directly with the enzymic A/sub 1/ fragments of cholera toxin and not with any toxin substrate. The activation and activity of S are independent of the state, or even the presence, of adenylate cyclase and seem to be involved with the cyclase system only via cholera toxin. S is apparently not related by function to certain other GTP binding proteins, including p21/sup ras/, and appears to be a new GTP binding protein whose physiologic role remains to be identified.

  4. ADP-ribosylating bacterial enzymes for the targeted control of mucosal tolerance and immunity.

    PubMed

    Lycke, Nils

    2004-12-01

    The questions of whether mucosal tolerance and IgA immunity are mutually exclusive or can coexist and whether they represent priming of the local immune system through the same or different activation pathways are addressed. Two strategies were attempted: the first using cholera toxin (CT) or the enzymatically inactive receptor-binding B subunit of CT (CTB), and the second using CTA1-DD or an enzymatically inactive mutant thereof, CTA1R7K-DD. The CTA1-DD adjuvant is a fusion protein composed of the ADP-ribosylating part of CT, CTA1, and DD, which is derived from Staphylococcus areus protein A and targets the molecule to B cells. Here, we provide compelling evidence that delivery of antigen in the absence of ADP ribosylation can promote tolerance, whereas ADP-ribosyltransferase activity induces IgA immunity and prevents tolerance. By linking antigen to the ADP-ribosylating enzymes we could show that CT, although potentially binding to all nucleated cells, in fact, bound preferentially to dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo. On the other hand, DD-bound antigen was distinctly targeted to B cells and probably also to follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in vivo. Interestingly, the CT and CTA1-DD adjuvants gave equally enhancing effects on mucosal and systemic responses, but appeared to target different APCs in vivo. CT- or CTB-conjugated antigen accumulated in mucosal and systemic DCs. Whereas only CT promoted an active IgA response, CTB induced tolerance to the conjugated antigen. Following intravenous injection of CT-conjugated antigen, DCs in the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen were selectively targeted. Interestingly, CTB delivered antigen to the same MZ DCs, but failed to induce maturation and upregulation of costimulatory molecules in these cells. Thus, ADP-ribosylation was necessary for a strong enhancing effect of immune responses following CT/CTB-dependent delivery of antigen to the MZ DCs. Moreover, using CTA1-DD, antigen was targeted to the B cell follicle and FDC

  5. Distribution of cytotoxic and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in crude extracts from butterflies among the family Pieridae

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yasuko; Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Odagiri, Ken-Ichi; Yata, Osamu; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae, contain strong cytotoxic proteins, designated as pierisin-1 and -2, against cancer cell lines. These proteins exhibit DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. To determine the distribution of substances with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity among other species, crude extracts from 20 species of the family Pieridae were examined for cytotoxicity in HeLa cells and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. Both activities were detected in extracts from 13 species: subtribes Pierina (Pieris rapae, Pieris canidia, Pieris napi, Pieris melete, Pieris brassicae, Pontia daplidice, and Talbotia naganum), Aporiina (Aporia gigantea, Aporia crataegi, Aporia hippia, and Delias pasithoe), and Appiadina (Appias nero and Appias paulina). All of these extracts contained substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies, with a molecular mass of ≈100 kDa established earlier for pierisin-1. Moreover, sequences containing NAD-binding sites, conserved in ADP-ribosyltransferases, were amplified from genomic DNA from 13 species of butterflies with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity by PCR. Extracts from seven species, Appias lyncida, Leptosia nina, Anthocharis scolymus, Eurema hecabe, Catopsilia pomona, Catopsilia scylla, and Colias erate, showed neither cytotoxicity nor DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, and did not contain substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies. Sequences containing NAD-binding sites were not amplified from genomic DNA from these seven species. Thus, pierisin-like proteins, showing cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, are suggested to be present in the extracts from butterflies not only among the subtribe Pierina, but also among the subtribes Aporiina and Appiadina. These findings offer insight to understanding the nature of DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in the butterfly. PMID:18256183

  6. In vivo vizualisation of mono-ADP-ribosylation by dPARP16 upon amino-acid starvation

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera-Gomez, Angelica; van Oorschot, Marinke M; Veenendaal, Tineke; Rabouille, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    PARP catalysed ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification involved in several physiological and pathological processes, including cellular stress. In order to visualise both Poly-, and Mono-, ADP-ribosylation in vivo, we engineered specific fluorescent probes. Using them, we show that amino-acid starvation triggers an unprecedented display of mono-ADP-ribosylation that governs the formation of Sec body, a recently identified stress assembly that forms in Drosophila cells. We show that dPARP16 catalytic activity is necessary and sufficient for both amino-acid starvation induced mono-ADP-ribosylation and subsequent Sec body formation and cell survival. Importantly, dPARP16 catalyses the modification of Sec16, a key Sec body component, and we show that it is a critical event for the formation of this stress assembly. Taken together our findings establish a novel example for the role of mono-ADP-ribosylation in the formation of stress assemblies, and link this modification to a metabolic stress. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21475.001 PMID:27874829

  7. Endogenous ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 in polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fendrick, J.L.; Iglewski, W.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney (pyBHK) cells were cultured in medium containing ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and 105 (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum. A {sup 32}P-labeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 97 kDa was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with antiserum to ADP-ribosylated elongation factor 2 (EF-2). The {sup 32}P labeling of the protein was enhanced by culturing cells in medium containing 2% serum instead of 10% serum. The {sup 32}P label was completely removed from the protein by treatment with snake venom phosphodiesterase and the digestion product was identified as ({sup 32}P)AMP, indicating the protein was mono-ADP-ribosylated. HPLC analysis of tryptic peptides of the {sup 32}P-labeled 97-kDa protein and purified EF-2, which was ADP-ribosylated in vitro with diphtheria toxin fragment A and ({sup 32}P)NAD, demonstrated an identical labeled peptide in the two proteins. The data strongly suggest that EF-2 was endogenously ADP-ribosylated in pyBHK cells. Maximum incorporation of radioactivity in EF-2 occurred by 12 hr and remained constant over the subsequent 12 hr. It was estimated that 30-35% of the EF-2 was ADP-ribosylated in cells cultured in medium containing 2% serum. When {sup 32}P-labeled cultures were incubated in medium containing unlabeled phosphate, the {sup 32}P label was lost from the EF-2 within 30 min.

  8. Roles of Asp179 and Glu270 in ADP-Ribosylation of Actin by Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Belyy, Alexander; Tabakova, Irina; Lang, Alexander E.; Jank, Thomas; Belyi, Yury; Aktories, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens iota toxin is a binary toxin composed of the enzymatically active component Ia and receptor binding component Ib. Ia is an ADP-ribosyltransferase, which modifies Arg177 of actin. The previously determined crystal structure of the actin-Ia complex suggested involvement of Asp179 of actin in the ADP-ribosylation reaction. To gain more insights into the structural requirements of actin to serve as a substrate for toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation, we engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, in which wild type actin was replaced by actin variants with substitutions in residues located on the Ia-actin interface. Expression of the actin mutant Arg177Lys resulted in complete resistance towards Ia. Actin mutation of Asp179 did not change Ia-induced ADP-ribosylation and growth inhibition of S. cerevisiae. By contrast, substitution of Glu270 of actin inhibited the toxic action of Ia and the ADP-ribosylation of actin. In vitro transcribed/translated human β-actin confirmed the crucial role of Glu270 in ADP-ribosylation of actin by Ia. PMID:26713879

  9. HPF1/C4orf27 Is a PARP-1-Interacting Protein that Regulates PARP-1 ADP-Ribosylation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Fontana, Pietro; Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Summary We report the identification of histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1; also known as C4orf27) as a regulator of ADP-ribosylation signaling in the DNA damage response. HPF1/C4orf27 forms a robust protein complex with PARP-1 in cells and is recruited to DNA lesions in a PARP-1-dependent manner, but independently of PARP-1 catalytic ADP-ribosylation activity. Functionally, HPF1 promotes PARP-1-dependent in trans ADP-ribosylation of histones and limits DNA damage-induced hyper-automodification of PARP-1. Human cells lacking HPF1 exhibit sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and PARP inhibition, thereby suggesting an important role for HPF1 in genome maintenance and regulating the efficacy of PARP inhibitors. Collectively, our results demonstrate how a fundamental step in PARP-1-dependent ADP-ribosylation signaling is regulated and suggest that HPF1 functions at the crossroads of histone ADP-ribosylation and PARP-1 automodification. PMID:27067600

  10. Distribution of protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation systems across all domains of life

    PubMed Central

    Perina, Dragutin; Mikoč, Andreja; Ahel, Josip; Ćetković, Helena; Žaja, Roko; Ahel, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in regulation of many cellular pathways. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) consists of chains of repeating ADP-ribose nucleotide units and is synthesized by the family of enzymes called poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). This modification can be removed by the hydrolytic action of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3). Hydrolytic activity of macrodomain proteins (MacroD1, MacroD2 and TARG1) is responsible for the removal of terminal ADP-ribose unit and for complete reversion of protein ADP-ribosylation. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is widely utilized in eukaryotes and PARPs are present in representatives from all six major eukaryotic supergroups, with only a small number of eukaryotic species that do not possess PARP genes. The last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed at least five types of PARP proteins that include both mono and poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases. Distribution of PARGs strictly follows the distribution of PARP proteins in eukaryotic species. At least one of the macrodomain proteins that hydrolyse terminal ADP-ribose is also always present. Therefore, we can presume that the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed a fully functional and reversible PAR metabolism and that PAR signalling provided the conditions essential for survival of the ancestral eukaryote in its ancient environment. PARP proteins are far less prevalent in bacteria and were probably gained through horizontal gene transfer. Only eleven bacterial species possess all proteins essential for a functional PAR metabolism, although it is not known whether PAR metabolism is truly functional in bacteria. Several dsDNA viruses also possess PARP homologues, while no PARP proteins have been identified in any archaeal genome. Our analysis of the distribution of enzymes involved in PAR metabolism provides insight into the evolution of these important signalling systems, as well as

  11. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is recognized by ECT2 during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an unique posttranslational modification and required for spindle assembly and function during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show the evidence that PAR is recognized by ECT2, a key guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mitosis. The BRCT domain of ECT2 directly binds to PAR both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that α-tubulin is PARylated during mitosis. PARylation of α-tubulin is recognized by ECT2 and recruits ECT2 to mitotic spindle for completing mitosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which PAR regulates mitosis.

  12. ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 4C (ARL4C) interacts with galectin-3 during oocyte development and embryogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 4 (ARL4) is a GTP-binding protein which belongs to the ADP-ribosylation factor protein (ARF) superfamily of small GTPases. ARL4 has been shown to be mainly related to the development of male germ cells and embryogenesis in mouse. To investigate the role of ARL4 i...

  13. Effect of growth factors on nuclear and mitochondrial ADP-ribosylation processes during astroglial cell development and aging in culture.

    PubMed

    Spina Purrello, Vittoria; Cormaci, Gianfrancesco; Denaro, Luca; Reale, Salvatore; Costa, Antonino; Lalicata, Calogera; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Marchetti, Bianca; Avola, Roberto

    2002-03-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin (INS) are powerful mitogens and may regulate gene expression in cultured astrocytes by ADP-ribosylation process. Nuclear poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and mitochondrial monoADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) are the key enzymes involved in poly-ADP-ribosylation and mono ADP-ribosylation, respectively. In this investigation the effect of EGF, bFGF, IGF-I or INS on nuclear PARP and mitochondrial ADPRT activities were assessed in nuclei and mitochondria purified from developing (30 DIV) or aging (90 and 190 DIV) primary rat astrocyte cultures. A marked increase of PARP activity in bFGF or IGF-I treated astroglial cell cultures at 30 DIV was found. Nuclear PARP and mitochondrial ADPRT activities were greatly stimulated by treatment with EGF or INS alone or together in astrocyte cultures at 30 DIV. Nuclear PARP and mitochondrial ADPRT activities showed a more remarkable increase in control untreated astrocyte cultures at 190 DIV than at 90 DIV. These findings suggest that ADP-ribosylation process is involved in DNA damage and repair during cell differentiation and aging in culture. Twelve hours treatment with EGF, INS or bFGF significantly stimulated nuclear PARP and mitochondrial ADPRT activities in 190 DIV aging astrocyte cultures. The above results indicate that EGF, INS and bFGF may play a crucial role in the post-translational modification of chromosomal proteins including ADP-ribosylation process in in vitro models. This suggests that growth factors regulate genomic stability in glial cells during development and maturation, stimulating nuclear and mitochondrial ADP-ribosylation processes in developing or aging astrocyte cultures.

  14. Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in butterflies and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed.

  15. PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation via STAT1 ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroshi; Goettsch, Claudia; Sharma, Amitabh; Ricchiuto, Piero; Goh, Wilson Wen Bin; Halu, Arda; Yamada, Iwao; Yoshida, Hideo; Hara, Takuya; Wei, Mei; Inoue, Noriyuki; Fukuda, Daiju; Mojcher, Alexander; Mattson, Peter C.; Barabási, Albert-László; Boothby, Mark; Aikawa, Elena; Singh, Sasha A.; Aikawa, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Despite the global impact of macrophage activation in vascular disease, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show, with global proteomic analysis of macrophage cell lines treated with either IFNγ or IL-4, that PARP9 and PARP14 regulate macrophage activation. In primary macrophages, PARP9 and PARP14 have opposing roles in macrophage activation. PARP14 silencing induces pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFNγ) cells, whereas it suppresses anti-inflammatory gene expression and STAT6 phosphorylation in M(IL-4) cells. PARP9 silencing suppresses pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFNγ) cells. PARP14 induces ADP-ribosylation of STAT1, which is suppressed by PARP9. Mutations at these ADP-ribosylation sites lead to increased phosphorylation. Network analysis links PARP9–PARP14 with human coronary artery disease. PARP14 deficiency in haematopoietic cells accelerates the development and inflammatory burden of acute and chronic arterial lesions in mice. These findings suggest that PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation. PMID:27796300

  16. ADP ribosylation adapts an ER chaperone response to short-term fluctuations in unfolded protein load

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Kseniya; Tomba, Giulia; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression programs that regulate the abundance of the chaperone BiP adapt the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to unfolded protein load. However, such programs are slow compared with physiological fluctuations in secreted protein synthesis. While searching for mechanisms that fill this temporal gap in coping with ER stress, we found elevated levels of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)–ribosylated BiP in the inactive pancreas of fasted mice and a rapid decline in this modification in the active fed state. ADP ribosylation mapped to Arg470 and Arg492 in the substrate-binding domain of hamster BiP. Mutations that mimic the negative charge of ADP-ribose destabilized substrate binding and interfered with interdomain allosteric coupling, marking ADP ribosylation as a rapid posttranslational mechanism for reversible inactivation of BiP. A kinetic model showed that buffering fluctuations in unfolded protein load with a recruitable pool of inactive chaperone is an efficient strategy to minimize both aggregation and costly degradation of unfolded proteins. PMID:22869598

  17. Further evidence for poly-ADP-ribosylated histones as DNA suppressors

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, F.L.; Geronimo, I.H.; Bender, W.; Meginniss, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    For many years histones have been considered to be the gene suppressors in eukaryotic cells. Recently, the authors have found strong evidence indicating that poly-ADP-ribosylated histones, rather than histones, are the potent inhibitors of DNA-dependent RNA synthesis. They now report additional evidence for this concept: 1) using histone inhibitor isolated directly from nuclei, the authors are able to confirm their earlier findings that the inhibitor substances are sensitive to pronase, snake venom phosphodiesterase digestion and 0.1N KOH hydrolysis, and are resistant to DNase I and RNase A digestion, 2) the O.D. 260/O.D.280 ratio of the histone inhibitor is between pure protein and nuclei acid, suggesting the inhibitor substance is a nucleoprotein hybrid. This result directly supports the fact that the isolated histone inhibitor is radioactive poly (ADP-ribose) labeled, 3) commercial histones show big differences in inhibitor activity. The authors believe this reflects the variation in poly-ADP-ribosylation among commercial histones, and 4) 0.1N KOH hydrolysis eliminates the poly (ADP-ribose) radioactivity from the acceptor proteins as well as histone inhibitor activity. Yet, on gel, the inhibitor shows identical histone bands and stain intensity before and after hydrolysis, indicating the histones per se are qualitatively and quantitatively unaffected by alkaline treatment. This result strongly suggests that histones themselves are not capable of inhibiting DNA-dependent RNA synthesis.

  18. Crystal structure of the ADP-ribosylating component of BEC, the binary enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Yonogi, Shinya; Munetomo, Ryota; Oki, Hiroya; Yoshida, Takuya; Kumeda, Yuko; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Kodama, Toshio; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Iida, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Shota

    2016-11-11

    Binary enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens (BEC), consisting of the components BECa and BECb, was recently identified as a novel enterotoxin produced by C. perfringens that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. Although the detailed mechanism of cell intoxication by BEC remains to be defined, BECa shows both NAD(+)-glycohydrolase and actin ADP-ribosyltransferase activities in the presence of NAD(+). In this study, we determined the first crystal structure of BECa in its apo-state and in complex with NADH. The structure of BECa shows striking resemblance with other binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins (ADPRTs), especially in terms of its overall protein fold and mechanisms of substrate recognition. We present a detailed picture of interactions between BECa and NADH, including bound water molecules located near the C1'-N glycosidic bond of NADH and the catalytically important ADP-ribosylating turn-turn (ARTT) loop. We observed that the conformational rearrangement of the ARTT loop, possibly triggered by a conformational change involving a conserved tyrosine residue coupled with substrate binding, plays a crucial role in catalysis by properly positioning a catalytic glutamate residue in the E-X-E motif of the ARTT loop in contact with the nucleophile. Our results for BECa provide insight into the common catalytic mechanism of the family of binary actin ADPRTs.

  19. Social memory, amnesia, and autism: brain oxytocin secretion is regulated by NAD+ metabolites and single nucleotide polymorphisms of CD38.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Huang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Li; Ma, Wen-Jie; Akther, Shirin; Higashida, Chiharu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Minabe, Yoshio; Munesue, Toshio

    2012-11-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that CD38, a transmembrane protein with ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, plays a critical role in mouse social behavior by regulating the release of oxytocin (OXT), which is essential for mutual recognition. When CD38 was disrupted, social amnesia was observed in Cd38 knockout mice. The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), characterized by defects in reciprocal social interaction and communication, occur either sporadically or in a familial pattern. However, the etiology of ASDs remains largely unknown. Therefore, the theoretical basis for pharmacological treatments has not been established. Hence, there is a rationale for investigating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CD38 gene in ASD subjects. We found several SNPs in this gene. The SNP rs3796863 (C>A) was associated with high-functioning autism (HFA) in American samples from the Autism Gene Resource Exchange. Although this finding was partially confirmed in low-functioning autism subjects in Israel, it has not been replicated in Japanese HFA subjects. The second SNP of interest, rs1800561 (4693C>T), leads to the substitution of an arginine (R) at codon 140 by tryptophan (W; R140W) in CD38. This mutation was found in four probands of ASD and in family members of three pedigrees with variable levels of ASD or ASD traits. The plasma levels of OXT in ASD subjects with the R140W allele were lower than those in ASD subjects lacking this allele. The OXT levels were unchanged in healthy subjects with or without this mutation. One proband with the R140W allele receiving intranasal OXT for approximately 3years showed improvement in areas of social approach, eye contact and communication behaviors, emotion, irritability, and aggression. Five other ASD subjects with mental deficits received nasal OXT for various periods; three subjects showed improved symptoms, while two showed little or no effect. These results suggest that SNPs in CD38 may be possible risk factors for ASD by

  20. Poly(ADP-ribosylation) regulates chromatin organization through histone H3 modification and DNA methylation of the first cell cycle of mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Osada, Tomoharu; Rydén, Anna-Margareta; Masutani, Mitsuko

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Histone modification of the mouse pronuclei is regulated by poly(ADP-ribosylation). •Hypermethylation of the mouse female pronuclei is maintained by poly(ADP-ribosylation). •Parp1 is physically interacted with Suz12, which may function in the pronuclei. •Poly(ADP-ribosylation) affects ultrastructure of chromatin of the mouse pronucleus. -- Abstract: We examined the roles of poly(ADP-ribosylation) in chromatin remodeling during the first cell cycle of mouse embryos. Drug-based inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosylation) by a PARP inhibitor, PJ-34, revealed up-regulation of dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 in male pronuclei and down-regulation of dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9) and lysine 27 (H3K27). Association of poly(ADP-ribosylation) with histone modification was suggested to be supported by the interaction of Suz12, a histone methyltransferase in the polycomb complex, with Parp1. PARP activity was suggested to be required for a proper localization and maintenance of Suz12 on chromosomes. Notably, DNA methylation level of female pronuclei in one-cell embryos was robustly decreased by PJ-34. Electron microscopic analysis showed a frequent appearance of unusual electron-dense areas within the female pronuclei, implying the disorganized and hypercondensed chromatin ultrastructure. These results show that poly(ADP-ribosylation) is important for the integrity of non-equivalent epigenetic dynamics of pronuclei during the first cell cycle of mouse embryos.

  1. Synaptic functions of the IQSEC family of ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    PubMed

    Um, Ji Won

    2016-06-28

    Postsynaptic scaffolding proteins interact with numerous synaptic proteins to ensure the organization and specialization of functional excitatory and inhibitory synapses. IQSECs (IQ motif and SEC7 domain-containing proteins) are a class of ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs), whose functions are beginning to be understood as both scaffolding and signaling proteins. Specifically, IQSEC1 binds to PSD-95, and IQSEC2 functions as a regulator of AMPA receptor trafficking at excitatory synapses, whereas IQSEC3 interacts with gephyrin to promote inhibitory synapse development. Here, I review the currently known findings on IQSECs and discuss the possible relations between dysfunctions of IQSECs and the pathophysiology of brain disorders.

  2. CTCF participates in DNA damage response via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Deqiang; Chen, Qian; Shi, Jiazhong; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) plays an essential role in regulating the structure of chromatin by binding DNA strands for defining the boundary between active and heterochromatic DNA. However, the role of CTCF in DNA damage response remains elusive. Here, we show that CTCF is quickly recruited to the sites of DNA damage. The fast recruitment is mediated by the zinc finger domain and poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR). Further analyses show that only three zinc finger motifs are essential for PAR recognition. Moreover, CTCF-deficient cells are hypersensitive to genotoxic stress such as ionizing radiation (IR). Taken together, these results suggest that CTCF participate in DNA damage response via poly(ADP-ribosylation). PMID:28262757

  3. Localization and characterization of the human ADP-ribosylation factor 5 (ARF5) gene

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.E. |; Daiger, S.P.; Green, E.D.

    1997-05-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor 5 (ARF5) is a member of the ARF gene family. The ARF proteins stimulate the in vitro ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and appear to play a role in vesicular trafficking in vivo. We have mapped ARF5, one of the six known mammalian ARF genes, to a well-defined yeast artificial chromosome contig on human chromosome 7q31.3. In addition, we have isolated and sequenced an {approximately}3.2-kb genomic segment that contains the entire ARF5 coding region, revealing the complete intron-exon structure of the gene. With six coding exons and five introns, the genomic structure of ARF5 is unique among the mammalian ARF genes and provides insight about the evolutionary history of this ancient gene family. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of brefeldin A-ADP ribosylated substrate (BARS).

    PubMed

    Nardini, Marco; Spanò, Stefania; Cericola, Claudia; Pesce, Alessandra; Damonte, Gianluca; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela; Bolognesi, Martino

    2002-06-01

    Brefeldin A-ADP ribosylated substrate (BARS) is a newly discovered enzyme involved in membrane fission, catalyzing the formation of phosphatidic acid by transfer of an acyl group from acyl-CoA to lysophosphatidic acid. A truncated form of BARS, lacking the C-terminal segment expected to interact with the Golgi membrane, has been expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. BARS crystals diffract up to 2.5 A resolution using synchrotron radiation and belong to space group P6(2)22/P6(4)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 89.2, c = 162.6 A, alpha = beta = 90, gamma = 120 degrees and one molecule (39.5 kDa) per asymmetric unit. SeMet-substituted BARS has been crystallized under growth conditions very similar to those of the native protein.

  5. Poly ADP ribosylation as a possible mechanism of microwave--biointeraction.

    PubMed

    Singh, N; Rudra, N; Bansal, P; Mathur, R; Behari, J; Nayar, U

    1994-07-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) affect the metabolism of the body including the nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, hematological as well as the reproductive system. EMFs are environmental pollutants, thus posing a health hazard which can cause steric changes in the molecule located at the cell surface. Microwaves are known to cause chromosomal abberations and act as tumor promoters. The process involves a stream of signals from cell membrane to nucleus and other organelles. The present investigations aim to understand the mechanism of biological effects of microwaves (2.45 GHz). The effect was studied on poly ADP-ribosylation, which is a post translational modification of chromatin protein catalysed by the enzyme poly ADPR polymerase using NAD+ as the substrate. Poly ADP-ribosylation has been shown to be involved in several aspects of chromatin structure and function. Twenty-three days old rats weighing 42-48 gms were exposed at a microwave dose level of 1.0 mW/cm2. After exposure for sixty days the animals were sacrificed and an estimation of poly ADPR polymerase activity was undertaken in different organs of these animals. There was an increase of 20% in its activity in liver, 35% in testis, whereas brain showed a 53% decrease in diencephalon and 20% decrease in the cortex in the exposed animals as compared to their respective controls. There was no change in enzyme activity in spleen and kidney. This was accompanied by concomitant changes in NAD+ levels. The above results may be cited as important events in carcinogenesis and tumor promotion related to microwave exposure and the signal transduction mechanism involved. The goal is to shed light on complex ecogenetic interactions leading to cancer modulation of gene expression by epigenetic mechanism.

  6. Synthesis of adenosine-imprinted microspheres for the recognition of ADP-ribosylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xia; Tang, Biao; Liu, Jing Jing; You, Xiang Yu; Gu, Jing; Deng, Jiao Yu; Xie, Wei-Hong

    2017-01-15

    Core-shell structural adenosine-imprinted microspheres were prepared via a two-step procedure. Polystyrene core particles (CP) were firstly prepared via a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization leaving the iniferter on the surface of the cores, then a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) shell was synthesized on the surface of the cores by using acrylamide (AAm) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker. The formation and growth of the MIP layer were seen dependent on the initiator (AIBN), AAm and the polymerization time used within the polymerization. SEM/TEM images showed that the dimensions of the cores and shells were 2μM and 44nm, respectively. The MIP microspheres exhibited a fast rebinding rate within 2h and a maximum adsorption capacity of 177μg per gram for adenosine. The adsorption fitted a Langmuir-Freundlich (LF) isotherm model with a KLF value of 41mL/μg and a qm value of 177μg/g for the MIP microspheres. The values were larger than those for a non-molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP) particles (5mL/μg and 88μg/g) indicating a better adsorption ability towards adenosine. The MIP microspheres showed a good selectivity for adenosine with a higher adsorption (683nmol/g) for adenosine than that (91nmol/g, 24nmol/g and 54nmol/g) for guanosine, cytidine and uridine respectively. Further experiment proved that the adenosine-imprinted polymer microspheres also had a good selectivity for ADP-ribosylated proteins that the MIP could extract the ADP-ribosylated proteins from the cell extract samples.

  7. Regulation of growth factor receptor degradation by ADP-ribosylation factor domain protein (ARD) 1.

    PubMed

    Meza-Carmen, Victor; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Kang, Gi Soo; Kato, Jiro; Donati, Chiara; Zhang, Chun-Yi; Vichi, Alessandro; Payne, D Michael; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Stylianou, Mario; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2011-06-28

    ADP-ribosylation factor domain protein 1 (ARD1) is a 64-kDa protein containing a functional ADP-ribosylation factor (GTP hydrolase, GTPase), GTPase-activating protein, and E3 ubiquitin ligase domains. ARD1 activation by the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor cytohesin-1 was known. GTPase and E3 ligase activities of ARD1 suggest roles in protein transport and turnover. To explore this hypothesis, we used mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) from ARD1-/- mice stably transfected with plasmids for inducible expression of wild-type ARD1 protein (KO-WT), or ARD1 protein with inactivating mutations in E3 ligase domain (KO-E3), or containing persistently active GTP-bound (KO-GTP), or inactive GDP-bound (KO-GDP) GTPase domains. Inhibition of proteasomal proteases in mifepristone-induced KO-WT, KO-GDP, or KO-GTP MEFs resulted in accumulation of these ARD1 proteins, whereas KO-E3 accumulated without inhibitors. All data were consistent with the conclusion that ARD1 regulates its own steady-state levels in cells by autoubiquitination. Based on reported growth factor receptor-cytohesin interactions, EGF receptor (EGFR) was investigated in induced MEFs. Amounts of cell-surface and total EGFR were higher in KO-GDP and lower in KO-GTP than in KO-WT MEFs, with levels in both mutants greater (p = 0.001) after proteasomal inhibition. Significant differences among MEF lines in content of TGF-β receptor III were similar to those in EGFR, albeit not as large. Differences in amounts of insulin receptor mirrored those in EGFR, but did not reach statistical significance. Overall, the capacity of ARD1 GTPase to cycle between active and inactive forms and its autoubiquitination both appear to be necessary for the appropriate turnover of EGFR and perhaps additional growth factor receptors.

  8. Changes in patterns of ADP-ribosylated proteins during differentiation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and its development mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Shima, J; Penyige, A; Ochi, K

    1996-01-01

    Mutants resistant to 3-aminobenzamide, a known inhibitor of ADP-ribosyltransferase, were obtained from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). One (strain 27) was analyzed in detail. Mutant 27 had a reduced ADP-ribosyl-transferase activity, exhibited substantial changes from the wild type in ADP-ribosylated protein profile during cell aging, and was defective in producing aerial mycelium and antibiotics. A 92-kDa ADP-ribosylated protein disappeared at the onset of differentiation in the parent strain but was present in mutant 27. Four ADP-ribosylated proteins (39, 41, 43, and 46 kDa) appeared at the onset of differentiation in the parent strain but were missing in mutant 27. Failure to ADP-ribosylate these four proteins was detected when the parent strain was grown in the presence of subinhibitory amounts of 3-aminobenzamide. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation, named brgA, conferring resistance to 3-aminobenzamide, cosegregated with the altered phenotypes (i.e., defects in ADP-ribosylation and aerial mycelium formation) and was mapped to a new locus near uraA. The brgA mutants were nonconditionally deficient in producing aerial mycelium and antibiotics, as determined by using various media, and had a morphological and physiological phenotype quite different from that of a bldG mutant carrying a mutation which was previously mapped near uraA. Among the known bld mutants, bldA, bldD, and bldG mutants exhibited a ADP-ribosylated protein profile similar to that of the wild type, while like mutant 27, bldB, bldC, and bldH mutants failed to ADP-ribosylate certain proteins. PMID:8682781

  9. Changes in patterns of ADP-ribosylated proteins during differentiation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and its development mutants.

    PubMed

    Shima, J; Penyige, A; Ochi, K

    1996-07-01

    Mutants resistant to 3-aminobenzamide, a known inhibitor of ADP-ribosyltransferase, were obtained from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). One (strain 27) was analyzed in detail. Mutant 27 had a reduced ADP-ribosyl-transferase activity, exhibited substantial changes from the wild type in ADP-ribosylated protein profile during cell aging, and was defective in producing aerial mycelium and antibiotics. A 92-kDa ADP-ribosylated protein disappeared at the onset of differentiation in the parent strain but was present in mutant 27. Four ADP-ribosylated proteins (39, 41, 43, and 46 kDa) appeared at the onset of differentiation in the parent strain but were missing in mutant 27. Failure to ADP-ribosylate these four proteins was detected when the parent strain was grown in the presence of subinhibitory amounts of 3-aminobenzamide. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation, named brgA, conferring resistance to 3-aminobenzamide, cosegregated with the altered phenotypes (i.e., defects in ADP-ribosylation and aerial mycelium formation) and was mapped to a new locus near uraA. The brgA mutants were nonconditionally deficient in producing aerial mycelium and antibiotics, as determined by using various media, and had a morphological and physiological phenotype quite different from that of a bldG mutant carrying a mutation which was previously mapped near uraA. Among the known bld mutants, bldA, bldD, and bldG mutants exhibited a ADP-ribosylated protein profile similar to that of the wild type, while like mutant 27, bldB, bldC, and bldH mutants failed to ADP-ribosylate certain proteins.

  10. Rapid Evolution of PARP Genes Suggests a Broad Role for ADP-Ribosylation in Host-Virus Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Matthew D.; Young, Janet M.; Kerns, Julie A.; Malik, Harmit S.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitinylation are common molecular targets of conflict between viruses and their hosts. However, the role of other post-translational modifications, such as ADP-ribosylation, in host-virus interactions is less well characterized. ADP-ribosylation is carried out by proteins encoded by the PARP (also called ARTD) gene family. The majority of the 17 human PARP genes are poorly characterized. However, one PARP protein, PARP13/ZAP, has broad antiviral activity and has evolved under positive (diversifying) selection in primates. Such evolution is typical of domains that are locked in antagonistic ‘arms races’ with viral factors. To identify additional PARP genes that may be involved in host-virus interactions, we performed evolutionary analyses on all primate PARP genes to search for signatures of rapid evolution. Contrary to expectations that most PARP genes are involved in ‘housekeeping’ functions, we found that nearly one-third of PARP genes are evolving under strong recurrent positive selection. We identified a >300 amino acid disordered region of PARP4, a component of cytoplasmic vault structures, to be rapidly evolving in several mammalian lineages, suggesting this region serves as an important host-pathogen specificity interface. We also found positive selection of PARP9, 14 and 15, the only three human genes that contain both PARP domains and macrodomains. Macrodomains uniquely recognize, and in some cases can reverse, protein mono-ADP-ribosylation, and we observed strong signatures of recurrent positive selection throughout the macro-PARP macrodomains. Furthermore, PARP14 and PARP15 have undergone repeated rounds of gene birth and loss during vertebrate evolution, consistent with recurrent gene innovation. Together with previous studies that implicated several PARPs in immunity, as well as those that demonstrated a role for virally encoded macrodomains in host immune evasion, our

  11. Molecular recognition of an ADP-ribosylating Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme by RalA GTPase

    PubMed Central

    Holbourn, Kenneth P.; Sutton, J. Mark; Evans, Hazel R.; Shone, Clifford C.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2005-01-01

    C3 exoenzymes (members of the ADP-ribosyltranferase family) are produced by Clostridium botulinum (C3bot1 and -2), Clostridium limosum (C3lim), Bacillus cereus (C3cer), and Staphylococcus aureus (C3stau1–3). These exoenzymes lack a translocation domain but are known to specifically inactivate Rho GTPases in host target cells. Here, we report the crystal structure of C3bot1 in complex with RalA (a GTPase of the Ras subfamily) and GDP at a resolution of 2.66 Å. RalA is not ADP-ribosylated by C3 exoenzymes but inhibits ADP-ribosylation of RhoA by C3bot1, C3lim, and C3cer to different extents. The structure provides an insight into the molecular interactions between C3bot1 and RalA involving the catalytic ADP-ribosylating turn–turn (ARTT) loop from C3bot1 and helix α4 and strand β6 (which are not part of the GDP-binding pocket) from RalA. The structure also suggests a molecular explanation for the different levels of C3-exoenzyme inhibition by RalA and why RhoA does not bind C3bot1 in this manner. PMID:15809419

  12. Molecular recognition of an ADP-ribosylating Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme by RalA GTPase.

    PubMed

    Holbourn, Kenneth P; Sutton, J Mark; Evans, Hazel R; Shone, Clifford C; Acharya, K Ravi

    2005-04-12

    C3 exoenzymes (members of the ADP-ribosyltranferase family) are produced by Clostridium botulinum (C3bot1 and -2), Clostridium limosum (C3lim), Bacillus cereus (C3cer), and Staphylococcus aureus (C3stau1-3). These exoenzymes lack a translocation domain but are known to specifically inactivate Rho GTPases in host target cells. Here, we report the crystal structure of C3bot1 in complex with RalA (a GTPase of the Ras subfamily) and GDP at a resolution of 2.66 A. RalA is not ADP-ribosylated by C3 exoenzymes but inhibits ADP-ribosylation of RhoA by C3bot1, C3lim, and C3cer to different extents. The structure provides an insight into the molecular interactions between C3bot1 and RalA involving the catalytic ADP-ribosylating turn-turn (ARTT) loop from C3bot1 and helix alpha4 and strand beta6 (which are not part of the GDP-binding pocket) from RalA. The structure also suggests a molecular explanation for the different levels of C3-exoenzyme inhibition by RalA and why RhoA does not bind C3bot1 in this manner.

  13. Diversity and distribution of cholix toxin, a novel ADP-ribosylating factor from Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Alexandra E; Balch, Deborah; Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Islam, Mohammad Sirajul; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2010-02-01

    Non-toxigenic non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from both environmental and clinical settings carry a suite of virulence factors aside from cholera toxin. Among V. cholerae strains isolated from coastal waters of southern California, this includes cholix toxin, an ADP-ribosylating factor that is capable of halting protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. The prevalence of the gene encoding cholix toxin, chxA, was assessed among a collection of 155 diverse V. cholerae strains originating from both clinical and environmental settings in Bangladesh and Mexico and other countries around the globe. The chxA gene was present in 47% of 83 non-O1, non-O139 strains and 16% of 72 O1/O139 strains screened as part of this study. A total of 86 chxA gene sequences were obtained, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that they fall into two distinct clades. These two clades were also observed in the phylogenies of several housekeeping genes, suggesting that the divergence observed in chxA extends to other regions of the V. cholerae genome, and most likely has arisen from vertical descent rather than horizontal transfer. Our results clearly indicate that ChxA is a major toxin of V. cholerae with a worldwide distribution that is preferentially associated with non-pandemic strains.

  14. Autophagy requires poly(adp-ribosyl)ation-dependent AMPK nuclear export

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vargas, José M; Rodríguez, María I; Majuelos-Melguizo, Jara; García-Diaz, Ángel; González-Flores, Ariannys; López-Rivas, Abelardo; Virág, László; Illuzzi, Giuditta; Schreiber, Valerie; Dantzer, Françoise; Oliver, F Javier

    2016-01-01

    AMPK is a central energy sensor linking extracellular milieu fluctuations with the autophagic machinery. In the current study we uncover that Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, accounts for the spatial and temporal regulation of autophagy by modulating AMPK subcellular localisation and activation. More particularly, we show that the minority AMPK pool needs to be exported to the cytosol in a PARylation-dependent manner for optimal induction of autophagy, including ULK1 phosphorylation and mTORC1 inactivation. PARP-1 forms a molecular complex with AMPK in the nucleus in non-starved cells. In response to nutrient deprivation, PARP-1 catalysed PARylation, induced the dissociation of the PARP-1/AMPK complex and the export of free PARylated nuclear AMPK to the cytoplasm to activate autophagy. PARP inhibition, its silencing or the expression of PARylation-deficient AMPK mutants prevented not only the AMPK nuclear-cytosolic export but also affected the activation of the cytosolic AMPK pool and autophagosome formation. These results demonstrate that PARylation of AMPK is a key early signal to efficiently convey extracellular nutrient perturbations with downstream events needed for the cell to optimize autophagic commitment before autophagosome formation. PMID:27689873

  15. Evidence that phospholipase D mediates ADP ribosylation factor- dependent formation of Golgi coated vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Formation of coatomer-coated vesicles from Golgi-enriched membranes requires the activation of a small GTP-binding protein, ADP ribosylation factor (ARF). ARF is also an efficacious activator of phospholipase D (PLD), an activity that is relatively abundant on Golgi- enriched membranes. It has been proposed that ARF, which is recruited onto membranes from cytosolic pools, acts directly to promote coatomer binding and is in a 3:1 stoichiometry with coatomer on coated vesicles. We present evidence that cytosolic ARF is not necessary for initiating coat assembly on Golgi membranes from cell lines with high constitutive PLD activity. Conditions are also described under which ARF is at most a minor component relative to coatomer in coated vesicles from all cell lines tested, including Chinese hamster ovary cells. Formation of coated vesicles was sensitive to ethanol at concentrations that inhibit the production of phosphatidic acid (PA) by PLD. When PA was produced in Golgi membranes by an exogenous bacterial PLD, rather than with ARF and endogenous PLD, coatomer bound to Golgi membranes. Purified coatomer also bound selectively to artificial lipid vesicles that contained PA and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2). We propose that activation of PLD and the subsequent production of PA are key early events for the formation of coatomer-coated vesicles. PMID:8707816

  16. Rifamycin Antibiotic Resistance by ADP-Ribosylation: Structure and Diversity of Arr

    SciTech Connect

    Baysarowich, J.; Koteva, K; Hughes, D; Ejim, L; Griffiths, E; Zhang, K; Junop, M; Wright, G

    2008-01-01

    The rifamycin antibiotic rifampin is important for the treatment of tuberculosis and infections caused by multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Recent iterations of the rifampin core structure have resulted in new drugs and drug candidates for the treatment of a much broader range of infectious diseases. This expanded use of rifamycin antibiotics has the potential to select for increased resistance. One poorly characterized mechanism of resistance is through Arr enzymes that catalyze ADP-ribosylation of rifamycins. We find that genes encoding predicted Arr enzymes are widely distributed in the genomes of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Biochemical analysis of three representative Arr enzymes from environmental and pathogenic bacterial sources shows that these have equally efficient drug resistance capacity in vitro and in vivo. The 3D structure of one of these orthologues from Mycobacterium smegmatis was determined and reveals structural homology with ADP-ribosyltransferases important in eukaryotic biology, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and bacterial toxins, despite no significant amino acid sequence homology with these proteins. This work highlights the extent of the rifamycin resistome in microbial genera with the potential to negatively impact the expanded use of this class of antibiotic.

  17. Autophagy requires poly(adp-ribosyl)ation-dependent AMPK nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vargas, José M; Rodríguez, María I; Majuelos-Melguizo, Jara; García-Diaz, Ángel; González-Flores, Ariannys; López-Rivas, Abelardo; Virág, László; Illuzzi, Giuditta; Schreiber, Valerie; Dantzer, Françoise; Oliver, F Javier

    2016-12-01

    AMPK is a central energy sensor linking extracellular milieu fluctuations with the autophagic machinery. In the current study we uncover that Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, accounts for the spatial and temporal regulation of autophagy by modulating AMPK subcellular localisation and activation. More particularly, we show that the minority AMPK pool needs to be exported to the cytosol in a PARylation-dependent manner for optimal induction of autophagy, including ULK1 phosphorylation and mTORC1 inactivation. PARP-1 forms a molecular complex with AMPK in the nucleus in non-starved cells. In response to nutrient deprivation, PARP-1 catalysed PARylation, induced the dissociation of the PARP-1/AMPK complex and the export of free PARylated nuclear AMPK to the cytoplasm to activate autophagy. PARP inhibition, its silencing or the expression of PARylation-deficient AMPK mutants prevented not only the AMPK nuclear-cytosolic export but also affected the activation of the cytosolic AMPK pool and autophagosome formation. These results demonstrate that PARylation of AMPK is a key early signal to efficiently convey extracellular nutrient perturbations with downstream events needed for the cell to optimize autophagic commitment before autophagosome formation.

  18. Protein Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation Regulates Arabidopsis Immune Gene Expression and Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Baomin; Liu, Chenglong; de Oliveira, Marcos V. V.; Intorne, Aline C.; Li, Bo; Babilonia, Kevin; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo A.; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) elicits transcriptional reprogramming in hosts and activates defense to pathogen attacks. The molecular mechanisms underlying plant pattern-triggered immunity remain elusive. A genetic screen identified Arabidopsis poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase 1 (atparg1) mutant with elevated immune gene expression upon multiple MAMP and pathogen treatments. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is predicted to remove poly(ADP-ribose) polymers on acceptor proteins modified by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) with three PARPs and two PARGs in Arabidopsis genome. AtPARP1 and AtPARP2 possess poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, and the activity of AtPARP2 was enhanced by MAMP treatment. AtPARG1, but not AtPARG2, carries glycohydrolase activity in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, mutation (G450R) in atparg1 blocks its activity and the corresponding residue is highly conserved and essential for human HsPARG activity. Consistently, mutant atparp1atparp2 plants exhibited compromised immune gene activation and enhanced susceptibility to pathogen infections. Our study indicates that protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays critical roles in plant immune gene expression and defense to pathogen attacks. PMID:25569773

  19. Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates arabidopsis immune gene expression and defense responses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Baomin; Liu, Chenglong; de Oliveira, Marcos V V; Intorne, Aline C; Li, Bo; Babilonia, Kevin; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo A; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) elicits transcriptional reprogramming in hosts and activates defense to pathogen attacks. The molecular mechanisms underlying plant pattern-triggered immunity remain elusive. A genetic screen identified Arabidopsis poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase 1 (atparg1) mutant with elevated immune gene expression upon multiple MAMP and pathogen treatments. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is predicted to remove poly(ADP-ribose) polymers on acceptor proteins modified by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) with three PARPs and two PARGs in Arabidopsis genome. AtPARP1 and AtPARP2 possess poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, and the activity of AtPARP2 was enhanced by MAMP treatment. AtPARG1, but not AtPARG2, carries glycohydrolase activity in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, mutation (G450R) in atparg1 blocks its activity and the corresponding residue is highly conserved and essential for human HsPARG activity. Consistently, mutant atparp1atparp2 plants exhibited compromised immune gene activation and enhanced susceptibility to pathogen infections. Our study indicates that protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays critical roles in plant immune gene expression and defense to pathogen attacks.

  20. Poly-ADP ribosylation of PTEN by tankyrases promotes PTEN degradation and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Zhang, Yajie; Han, Xin; Liang, Ke; Wang, Jiadong; Feng, Lin; Wang, Wenqi; Songyang, Zhou; Lin, Chunru; Yang, Liuqing; Yu, Yonghao

    2015-01-01

    PTEN [phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10], a phosphatase and critical tumor suppressor, is regulated by numerous post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, and SUMOylation, which affect PTEN localization and protein stability. Here we report ADP-ribosylation as a new post-translational modification of PTEN. We identified PTEN as a novel substrate of tankyrases, which are members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). We showed that tankyrases interact with and ribosylate PTEN, which promotes the recognition of PTEN by a PAR-binding E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF146, leading to PTEN ubiquitination and degradation. Double knockdown of tankyrase1/2 stabilized PTEN, resulting in the subsequent down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation and thus suppressed cell proliferation and glycolysis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, tankyrases were up-regulated and negatively correlated with PTEN expression in human colon carcinomas. Together, our study revealed a new regulation of PTEN and highlighted a role for tankyrases in the PTEN–AKT pathway that can be explored further for cancer treatment. PMID:25547115

  1. Structure of CARDS toxin, a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin from Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    DOE PAGES

    Becker, Argentina; Kannan, T. R.; Taylor, Alexander B.; ...

    2015-04-06

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infections cause tracheobronchitis and “walking” pneumonia, and are linked to asthma and other reactive airway diseases. As part of the infectious process, the bacterium expresses a 591-aa virulence factor with both mono-ADP ribosyltransferase (mART) and vacuolating activities known as Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome Toxin (CARDS TX). CARDS TX binds to human surfactant protein A and annexin A2 on airway epithelial cells and is internalized, leading to a range of pathogenetic events. In this paper, we present the structure of CARDS TX, a triangular molecule in which N-terminal mART and C-terminal tandem β-trefoil domains associate to form anmore » overall architecture distinct from other well-recognized ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins. We demonstrate that CARDS TX binds phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin specifically over other membrane lipids, and that cell surface binding and internalization activities are housed within the C-terminal β-trefoil domain. Finally, the results enhance our understanding of Mp pathogenicity and suggest a novel avenue for the development of therapies to treat Mp-associated asthma and other acute and chronic airway diseases.« less

  2. Suppression of breast cancer metastasis through the inactivation of ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiayang; Tang, Shou-Ching; Cai, Yafei; Pi, Wenhu; Deng, Libin; Wu, Guangyu; Chavanieu, Alain; Teng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death in breast cancer patients, which is controlled by specific sets of genes. Targeting these genes may provide a means to delay cancer progression and allow local treatment to be more effective. We report for the first time that ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is the most amplified gene in ARF gene family in breast cancer, and high-level amplification of ARF1 is associated with increased mRNA expression and poor outcomes of patients with breast cancer. Knockdown of ARF1 leads to significant suppression of migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. Using the orthotopic xenograft model in NSG mice, we demonstrate that loss of ARF1 expression in breast cancer cells inhibits pulmonary metastasis. The zebrafish-metastasis model confirms that the ARF1 gene depletion suppresses breast cancer cells to metastatic disseminate throughout fish body, indicating that ARF1 is a very compelling target to limit metastasis. ARF1 function largely dependents on its activation and LM11, a cell-active inhibitor that specifically inhibits ARF1 activation through targeting the ARF1-GDP/ARNO complex at the Golgi, significantly impairs metastatic capability of breast cancer cell in zebrafish. These findings underline the importance of ARF1 in promoting metastasis and suggest that LM11 that inhibits ARF1 activation may represent a potential therapeutic approach to prevent or treat breast cancer metastasis. PMID:27517156

  3. Dissection of Arabidopsis ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 Function in Epidermal Cell PolarityW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Scheres, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Vesicle trafficking is essential for the generation of asymmetries, which are central to multicellular development. Core components of the vesicle transport machinery, such as ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases, have been studied primarily at the single-cell level. Here, we analyze developmental functions of the ARF1 subclass of the Arabidopsis thaliana multigene ARF family. Six virtually identical ARF1 genes are ubiquitously expressed, and single loss-of-function mutants in these genes reveal no obvious developmental phenotypes. Fluorescence colocalization studies reveal that ARF1 is localized to the Golgi apparatus and endocytic organelles in both onion (Allium cepa) and Arabidopsis cells. Apical-basal polarity of epidermal cells, reflected by the position of root hair outgrowth, is affected when ARF1 mutants are expressed at early stages of cell differentiation but after they exit mitosis. Genetic interactions during root hair tip growth and localization suggest that the ROP2 protein is a target of ARF1 action, but its localization is slowly affected upon ARF1 manipulation when compared with that of Golgi and endocytic markers. Localization of a second potential target of ARF1 action, PIN2, is also affected with slow kinetics. Although extreme redundancy precludes conventional genetic dissection of ARF1 functions, our approach separates different ARF1 downstream networks involved in local and specific aspects of cell polarity. PMID:15659621

  4. ADP ribosylation factor 1 is required for synaptic vesicle budding in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Faúndez, V; Horng, J T; Kelly, R B

    1997-08-11

    Carrier vesicle generation from donor membranes typically progresses through a GTP-dependent recruitment of coats to membranes. Here we explore the role of ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) 1, one of the GTP-binding proteins that recruit coats, in the production of neuroendocrine synaptic vesicles (SVs) from PC12 cell membranes. Brefeldin A (BFA) strongly and reversibly inhibited SV formation in vivo in three different PC12 cell lines expressing vesicle-associated membrane protein-T Antigen derivatives. Other membrane traffic events remained unaffected by the drug, and the BFA effects were not mimicked by drugs known to interfere with formation of other classes of vesicles. The involvement of ARF proteins in the budding of SVs was addressed in a cell-free reconstitution system (Desnos, C., L. Clift-O'Grady, and R.B. Kelly. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 130:1041-1049). A peptide spanning the effector domain of human ARF1 (2-17) and recombinant ARF1 mutated in its GTPase activity, both inhibited the formation of SVs of the correct size. During in vitro incubation in the presence of the mutant ARFs, the labeled precursor membranes acquired different densities, suggesting that the two ARF mutations block at different biosynthetic steps. Cell-free SV formation in the presence of a high molecular weight, ARF-depleted fraction from brain cytosol was significantly enhanced by the addition of recombinant myristoylated native ARF1. Thus, the generation of SVs from PC12 cell membranes requires ARF and uses its GTPase activity, probably to regulate coating phenomena.

  5. Mutations in the draT and draG genes of Rhodospirillum rubrum result in loss of regulation of nitrogenase by reversible ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, J H; Nielsen, G M; Lies, D P; Burris, R H; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1991-01-01

    Reversible ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase forms the basis of posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity in Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report describes the physiological effects of mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes that add and remove the ADP-ribosyl moiety. Mutants lacking a functional draT gene had no dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DRAT, the draT gene product) activity in vitro and were incapable of modifying dinitrogenase reductase with ADP-ribose in vivo. Mutants lacking a functional draG gene had no dinitrogenase reductase-activating glycohydrolase (DRAG, the draG gene product) activity in vitro and were unable to remove ADP-ribose from the modified dinitrogenase reductase in vivo. Strains containing polar mutations in draT had no detectable DRAG activity in vitro, suggesting likely cotranscription of draT and draG. In strains containing draT and lacking a functional draG, dinitrogenase reductase accumulated in the active form under derepressing conditions but was rapidly ADP-ribosylated in response to conditions that cause inactivation. Detection of DRAT in these cells in vitro demonstrated that DRAT is itself subject to posttranslational regulation in vivo. Mutants affected in an open reading frame immediately downstream of draTG showed regulation of dinitrogenase reductase by ADP-ribosylation, although differences in the rates of ADP-ribosylation were apparent. Images FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1938894

  6. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Methyl CpG Binding Domain Protein 2 Regulates Chromatin Structure*

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Annette; Zhang, Peng; Allmann, Lena; Meilinger, Daniela; Bertulat, Bianca; Eck, Daniel; Hofstaetter, Maria; Bartolomei, Giody; Hottiger, Michael O.; Schreiber, Valérie; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M. Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic information encoded in the genomic DNA methylation pattern is translated by methylcytosine binding proteins like MeCP2 into chromatin topology and structure and gene activity states. We have shown previously that the MeCP2 level increases during differentiation and that it causes large-scale chromatin reorganization, which is disturbed by MeCP2 Rett syndrome mutations. Phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications of MeCP2 have been described recently to modulate its function. Here we show poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of endogenous MeCP2 in mouse brain tissue. Consequently, we found that MeCP2 induced aggregation of pericentric heterochromatin and that its chromatin accumulation was enhanced in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1−/− compared with wild-type cells. We mapped the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation domains and engineered MeCP2 mutation constructs to further analyze potential effects on DNA binding affinity and large-scale chromatin remodeling. Single or double deletion of the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated regions and PARP inhibition increased the heterochromatin clustering ability of MeCP2. Increased chromatin clustering may reflect increased binding affinity. In agreement with this hypothesis, we found that PARP-1 deficiency significantly increased the chromatin binding affinity of MeCP2 in vivo. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of MeCP2-mediated, higher-order chromatin architecture and suggest therapeutic opportunities to manipulate MeCP2 function. PMID:26772194

  7. The ARTT motif and a unified structural understanding of substraterecognition in ADP ribosylating bacterial toxins and eukaryotic ADPribosyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.; Tainer, J.A.

    2001-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a widely occurring and biologically critical covalent chemical modification process in pathogenic mechanisms, intracellular signaling systems, DNA repair, and cell division. The reaction is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases, which transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to a target protein with nicotinamide release. A family of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic enzymes has been termed the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases, in distinction to the poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases, which catalyze the addition of multiple ADP-ribose groups to the carboxyl terminus of eukaryotic nucleoproteins. Despite the limited primary sequence homology among the different ADP-ribosyltransferases, a central cleft bearing NAD-binding pocket formed by the two perpendicular b-sheet core has been remarkably conserved between bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono- and poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases. The majority of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved His and catalytic Glu residues. In contrast, Diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and eukaryotic poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. The NAD-binding core of a binary toxin and a C3-like toxin family identified an ARTT motif (ADP-ribosylating turn-turn motif) that is implicated in substrate specificity and recognition by structural and mutagenic studies. Here we apply structure-based sequence alignment and comparative structural analyses of all known structures of ADP-ribosyltransfeases to suggest that this ARTT motif is functionally important in many ADP-ribosylating enzymes that bear a NAD binding cleft as characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. Overall, structure-based sequence analysis reveals common core structures and conserved active sites of ADP-ribosyltransferases to support similar NAD binding mechanisms but differing mechanisms of target protein binding via sequence variations within the ARTT

  8. The mammalian G protein rhoC is ADP-ribosylated by Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 and affects actin microfilaments in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Chardin, P; Boquet, P; Madaule, P; Popoff, M R; Rubin, E J; Gill, D M

    1989-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum C3 is a recently discovered exoenzyme that ADP-ribosylates a eukaryotic GTP-binding protein of the ras superfamily. We show now that the bacterially-expressed product of the human rhoC gene is ADP-ribosylated by C3 and corresponds in size, charge and behavior to the dominant C3 substrate of eukaryotic cells. C3 treatment of Vero cells results in the disappearance of microfilaments and in actinomorphic shape changes without any apparent direct effect upon actin. Thus the ADP-ribosylation of a rho protein seems to be responsible for microfilament disassembly and we infer that the unmodified form of a rho protein may be involved in cytoskeletal control.

  9. Mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation of 2′-deoxyguanosine residue in DNA by an apoptosis-inducing protein, pierisin-1, from cabbage butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Totsuka, Yukari; Kanazawa, Takashi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2001-01-01

    Pierisin-1 is a potent apoptosis-inducing protein derived from the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae. It has been shown that pierisin-1 has an A⋅B structure–function organization like cholera or diphtheria toxin, where the “A” domain (N-terminal) exhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The present studies were designed to identify the target molecule for ADP-ribosylation by pierisin-1 in the presence of β-[adenylate-32P]NAD, and we found DNA as the acceptor, but not protein as is the case with other bacteria-derived ADP-ribosylating toxins. ADP-ribosylation of tRNAs from yeast was also catalyzed by pierisin-1, but the efficiency was around \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}\\frac{1}{10}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} of that for calf thymus DNA. Pierisin-1 efficiently catalyzed the ADP-ribosylation of double-stranded DNA containing dG⋅dC, but not dA⋅dT pairs. The ADP-ribose moiety of NAD was transferred to the amino group at N2 of 2′-deoxyguanosine to yield N2-(α-ADP-ribos-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine and its β form, which were determined by several spectral analyses including 1H- and 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. The chemical structures were also ascertained by the independent synthesis of N2-(D-ribos-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine, which is the characteristic moiety of ADP-ribosylated dG. Using the 32P-postlabeling method, ADP-ribosylated dG could be detected in DNA from pierisin-1-treated HeLa cells, in which apoptosis was easily induced. Thus, the targets for ADP-ribosylation by pierisin-1 were concluded to be 2′-deoxyguanosine residues in DNA. This finding may open a new field regarding the biological significance of ADP-ribosylation. PMID:11592983

  10. In silico characterization of the family of PARP-like poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (pARTs)

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Helge; Reche, Pedro A; Bazan, Fernando; Dittmar, Katharina; Haag, Friedrich; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2005-01-01

    Background ADP-ribosylation is an enzyme-catalyzed posttranslational protein modification in which mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (mARTs) and poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (pARTs) transfer the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD onto specific amino acid side chains and/or ADP-ribose units on target proteins. Results Using a combination of database search tools we identified the genes encoding recognizable pART domains in the public genome databases. In humans, the pART family encompasses 17 members. For 16 of these genes, an orthologue exists also in the mouse, rat, and pufferfish. Based on the degree of amino acid sequence similarity in the catalytic domain, conserved intron positions, and fused protein domains, pARTs can be divided into five major subgroups. All six members of groups 1 and 2 contain the H-Y-E trias of amino acid residues found also in the active sites of Diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A, while the eleven members of groups 3 – 5 carry variations of this motif. The pART catalytic domain is found associated in Lego-like fashion with a variety of domains, including nucleic acid-binding, protein-protein interaction, and ubiquitylation domains. Some of these domain associations appear to be very ancient since they are observed also in insects, fungi, amoebae, and plants. The recently completed genome of the pufferfish T. nigroviridis contains recognizable orthologues for all pARTs except for pART7. The nearly completed albeit still fragmentary chicken genome contains recognizable orthologues for twelve pARTs. Simpler eucaryotes generally contain fewer pARTs: two in the fly D. melanogaster, three each in the mosquito A. gambiae, the nematode C. elegans, and the ascomycete microfungus G. zeae, six in the amoeba E. histolytica, nine in the slime mold D. discoideum, and ten in the cress plant A. thaliana. GenBank contains two pART homologues from the large double stranded DNA viruses Chilo iridescent virus and Bacteriophage Aeh1 and only a single entry

  11. Dicumarol, an inhibitor of ADP-ribosylation of CtBP3/BARS, fragments golgi non-compact tubular zones and inhibits intra-golgi transport.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Alexander A; Colanzi, Antonino; Polishchuk, Roman S; Beznoussenko, Galina V; Mironov, Alexander A; Fusella, Aurora; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Corda, Daniela; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Luini, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    Dicumarol (3,3'-methylenebis[4-hydroxycoumarin]) is an inhibitor of brefeldin-A-dependent ADP-ribosylation that antagonises brefeldin-A-dependent Golgi tubulation and redistribution to the endoplasmic reticulum. We have investigated whether dicumarol can directly affect the morphology of the Golgi apparatus. Here we show that dicumarol induces the breakdown of the tubular reticular networks that interconnect adjacent Golgi stacks and that contain either soluble or membrane-associated cargo proteins. This results in the formation of 65-120-nm vesicles that are sometimes invaginated. In contrast, smaller vesicles (45-65 nm in diameter, a size consistent with that of coat-protein-I-dependent vesicles) that excluded cargo proteins from their lumen are not affected by dicumarol. All other endomembranes are largely unaffected by dicumarol, including Golgi stacks, the ER, multivesicular bodies and the trans-Golgi network. In permeabilized cells, dicumarol activity depends on the function of CtBP3/BARS protein and pre-ADP-ribosylation of cytosol inhibits the breakdown of Golgi tubules by dicumarol. In functional experiments, dicumarol markedly slows down intra-Golgi traffic of VSV-G transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the medial Golgi, and inhibits the diffusional mobility of both galactosyl transferase and VSV-G tagged with green fluorescent protein. However, it does not affect: transport from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface; Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum traffic of ERGIC58; coat-protein-I-dependent Golgi vesiculation by AlF4 or ADP-ribosylation factor; or ADP-ribosylation factor and beta-coat protein binding to Golgi membranes. Thus the ADP-ribosylation inhibitor dicumarol induces the selective breakdown of the tubular components of the Golgi complex and inhibition of intra-Golgi transport. This suggests that lateral diffusion between adjacent stacks has a role in protein transport through the Golgi complex.

  12. Structure of an ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF1, from Entamoeba histolytica bound to Mg(2+)-GDP.

    PubMed

    Serbzhinskiy, Dmitry A; Clifton, Matthew C; Sankaran, Banumathi; Staker, Bart L; Edwards, Thomas E; Myler, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amebiasis, a diarrheal disease which causes amoebic liver abscesses and amoebic colitis. Approximately 50 million people are infected worldwide with E. histolytica. With only 10% of infected people developing symptomatic amebiasis, there are still an estimated 100,000 deaths each year. Because of the emergence of resistant strains of the parasite, it is necessary to find a treatment which would be a proper response to this challenge. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is a member of the ARF family of GTP-binding proteins. These proteins are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells; they generally associate with cell membranes and regulate vesicular traffic and intracellular signalling. The crystal structure of ARF1 from E. histolytica has been determined bound to magnesium and GDP at 1.8 Å resolution. Comparison with other structures of eukaryotic ARF proteins shows a highly conserved structure and supports the interswitch toggle mechanism of communicating the conformational state to partner proteins.

  13. Characterization of transducin from bovine retinal rod outer segments: mechanism and effects of cholera toxin-catalyzed adp-ribosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Navon, S.E.; Fung, B.K.K.

    1984-05-25

    Transducin, a guanine nucleotide-binding protein consisting of two subunits (T/sub ..cap alpha../ and T/sub ..beta gamma../), mediates the signal coupling between rhodopsin and a membrane-bound cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase in retinal rod outer segments. The T/sub ..cap alpha../ subunit is an activator of the phosphodiesterase, and the function of the T/sub ..beta gamma../ subunit is to physically link T/sub ..cap alpha../ with photolyzed rhodopsin. In this study, the mechanism of cholera toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of T/sub ..cap alpha../ has been examined in a reconstituted system consisting of purified transducin and stripped rod outer segment membranes. Limited proteolysis of the labeled T/sub ..cap alpha../ with trypsin indicated that the inserted ADP-ribose is located exclusively on a single proteolytic fragment with an apparent molecular weight of 23,000. Maximal incorporation of ADP-ribose was achieved when guanosine 5'-(..beta..,..gamma..-im ido)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) and T/sub ..beta gamma../ were present at concentrations equal to that of T/sub ..cap alpha../ and when rhodopsin was continuously irradiated with visible light in the 400-500 nm region. The stimulating effect of illumination was related to the direct interaction of the retinal chromophore with opsin. These findings strongly suggest that a transient protein complex consisting of T/sub ..cap alpha../xGpp(NH)p, T/sub ..beta gamma../, and a photointermediate of rhodopsin is the required substrate for cholera toxin. Single turnover kinetic measurements demonstrated that the ADP-ribosylation of T/sub ..cap alpha../ coincided with the appearance of a population of transducin molecules having a very slow rate of GTP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis rate of the bound GTP for this population was 1.1 x 10/sup -3//s, which was 22-fold slower than the rate for the unmodified transducin. 30 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  14. Pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of a G protein in mouse oocytes, eggs, and preimplantation embryos: Developmental changes and possible functional roles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.; Schultz, R.M. )

    1990-06-01

    G proteins, which in many somatic cells serve as mediators of signal transduction, were identified in preimplantation mouse embryos by their capacity to undergo pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Two pertussis toxin (PT) substrates with Mr = 38,000 and 39,000 (alpha 38 and alpha 39) are present in approximately equal amounts. Relative to the amount in freshly isolated germinal vesicle (GV)-intact oocytes, the amount of PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 falls during oocyte maturation, rises between the one- and two-cell stages, falls by the eight-cell and morula stages, and increases again by the blastocyst stage. The decrease in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 that occurs during oocyte maturation, however, does not require germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), since inhibiting GVBD with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX) does not prevent the decrease in the extent of PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. A biologically active phorbol diester (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate), but not an inactive one (4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, 4 alpha-PDD), totally inhibits the increase in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 that occurs between the one- and two-cell stage; TPA inhibits cleavage, but not transcriptional activation, which occurs in the two-cell embryo. In contrast, cytochalasin D, genistein, or aphidicolin, each of which inhibits cleavage of one-cell embryos, or alpha-amanitin or H8, each of which inhibits transcriptional activation but not cleavage of one-cell embryos, have little or inhibitory effects on the increase in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39. Results of immunoblotting experiments using an antibody that is highly specific for alpha il-3 reveal the presence of a cross-reactive species of Mr = 38,000 (alpha 38) in the GV-intact oocyte, metaphase II-arrested egg, and one-, two-cell embryos.

  15. Crystal structure and novel recognition motif of rho ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme from Clostridium botulinum: structural insights for recognition specificity and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Han, S; Arvai, A S; Clancy, S B; Tainer, J A

    2001-01-05

    Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme inactivates the small GTP-binding protein family Rho by ADP-ribosylating asparagine 41, which depolymerizes the actin cytoskeleton. C3 thus represents a major family of the bacterial toxins that transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to specific amino acids in acceptor proteins to modify key biological activities in eukaryotic cells, including protein synthesis, differentiation, transformation, and intracellular signaling. The 1.7 A resolution C3 exoenzyme structure establishes the conserved features of the core NAD-binding beta-sandwich fold with other ADP-ribosylating toxins despite little sequence conservation. Importantly, the central core of the C3 exoenzyme structure is distinguished by the absence of an active site loop observed in many other ADP-ribosylating toxins. Unlike the ADP-ribosylating toxins that possess the active site loop near the central core, the C3 exoenzyme replaces the active site loop with an alpha-helix, alpha3. Moreover, structural and sequence similarities with the catalytic domain of vegetative insecticidal protein 2 (VIP2), an actin ADP-ribosyltransferase, unexpectedly implicates two adjacent, protruding turns, which join beta5 and beta6 of the toxin core fold, as a novel recognition specificity motif for this newly defined toxin family. Turn 1 evidently positions the solvent-exposed, aromatic side-chain of Phe209 to interact with the hydrophobic region of Rho adjacent to its GTP-binding site. Turn 2 evidently both places the Gln212 side-chain for hydrogen bonding to recognize Rho Asn41 for nucleophilic attack on the anomeric carbon of NAD ribose and holds the key Glu214 catalytic side-chain in the adjacent catalytic pocket. This proposed bipartite ADP-ribosylating toxin turn-turn (ARTT) motif places the VIP2 and C3 toxin classes into a single ARTT family characterized by analogous target protein recognition via turn 1 aromatic and turn 2 hydrogen-bonding side-chain moieties. Turn 2 centrally anchors

  16. Detection and quantification of poly-ADP-ribosylated cellular proteins of spleen and liver tissues of mice in vivo by slot and Western blot immunoprobing using polyclonal antibody against mouse ADP-ribose polymer.

    PubMed

    Sharan, R N; Devi, B Jaylata; Humtsoe, J O; Saikia, Jyoti R; Kma, L

    2005-10-01

    Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) of cellular proteins has been shown to have decisive roles in diverse cellular functions including carcinogenesis. There are indications that metabolic level of poly-ADP-ribosylated cellular proteins might indicate carcinogenesis and, therefore, could be potentially used in cancer screening program. Keeping in mind the limitations of currently available assays of cellular PAR, a new assay is being reported that measures the metabolic level of poly-ADP-ribosylated cellular proteins. The ELISA based slot and Western blot immunoassay used polyclonal antibody against natural, heterogeneous ADP-ribose polymers. It could be successfully employed to qualitatively and quantitatively assay metabolic levels of poly-ADP-ribosylated proteins of spleen and liver tissues of normal mice or mice exposed to dimethylnitrosamine for up to 8 weeks; potentially PAR of cellular proteins could be assayed in any tissue or biopsy. Implications of the results in cancer screening program have been discussed.

  17. The uptake machinery of clostridial actin ADP-ribosylating toxins--a cell delivery system for fusion proteins and polypeptide drugs.

    PubMed

    Barth, Holger; Blöcker, Dagmar; Aktories, Klaus

    2002-12-01

    Several bacterial protein toxins, including Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, Clostridum perfringens iota toxin, Clostridium difficile ADP-ribosyltransferase, and the Bacillus-produced vegetative insecticidal proteins, target the cytoskeleton by ADP-ribosylation of actin. All these toxins are binary in structure and consist of an enzyme component, possessing ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and a separated binding and translocation component, which is involved in the delivery of the enzyme component into the cell. The toxins are not only important virulence factors but also cell biological tools to study the function of the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, the binary toxins turned out to be effective transporter systems for the delivery of specific fusion toxins (e.g., Rho-ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme) into cells. The present review describes the biological functions of the toxins, focuses on recent studies on the uptake and delivery mechanism and discusses the usage as a drug delivery system.

  18. Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin--new insights into the cellular up-take of the actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin.

    PubMed

    Aktories, Klaus; Barth, Holger

    2004-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin is a member of the family of binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins. It consists of the enzyme component C2I, and the separated binding/translocation component C2II. Proteolytically activated C2II forms heptamers and binds to a carbohydrate cell surface receptor. After attachment of C2I, the toxin complex is endocytosed to reach early endosomes. At low pH of endosomes, C2II-heptamers insert into the membrane, form pores and deliver C2I into the cytosol. Here, C2I ADP-ribosylates actin at Arg177 to block actin polymerization and to induce depolymerization of actin filaments. The mini-review describes main properties of C2 toxin and discusses new findings on the involvement of chaperones in the up-take process of the toxin.

  19. Molecular cloning of an apoptosis-inducing protein, pierisin, from cabbage butterfly: Possible involvement of ADP-ribosylation in its activity

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masahiko; Kono, Takuo; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Kanazawa, Takashi; Nishisaka, Nobuyasu; Kishimoto, Taketoshi; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    1999-01-01

    We have previously reported that the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, contains a 98-kDa protein, named pierisin, that induces apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cell lines. In the present study, sequencing and cloning of a cDNA encoding pierisin was accomplished. PCR-direct sequencing showed that the gene encodes an 850-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 98,081. An intact clone at the amino acid level encompassing the entire coding region was obtained by recombination of two independent clones, and the molecular mass of its in vitro expressed protein was about 100 kDa on SDS/PAGE, the same as that of purified native pierisin. The expressed protein induced apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma TMK-1 and cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, like the native protein, indicating functional activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of pierisin showed 32% homology with a 100-kDa mosquitocidal toxin from Bacillus sphaericus SSII-1. In addition, pierisin showed regional sequence similarities with ADP-ribosylating toxins, such as the A subunit of cholera toxin. A glutamic acid residue at the putative NAD-binding site, conserved in all ADP-ribosylating toxins, was also found in pierisin. Substitution of another amino acid for glutamic acid 165 resulted in a great decrease in cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, inhibitors of ADP-ribosylating enzymes reduced pierisin-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that the apoptosis-inducing protein pierisin might possess ADP-ribosylation activity that leads to apoptosis of the cells. PMID:10485873

  20. S100B impairs glycolysis via enhanced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in rodent muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Kaori; Hamada, Yoji; Fujiya, Atsushi; Murase, Masatoshi; Maekawa, Ryuya; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Izumoto, Takako; Seino, Yusuke; Tsunekawa, Shin; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-02-07

    S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), a multifunctional macromolecule mainly expressed in nerve tissues and adipocytes, has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. To clarify the role of S100B in insulin action and glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues, we investigated the effect of S100B on glycolysis in myoblast and myotube cells. Rat myoblast L6 cells were treated with recombinant mouse S100B to examine glucose consumption, lactate production, glycogen accumulation, glycolytic metabolites and enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Glycolytic metabolites were investigated by enzyme assays or metabolome analysis, and insulin signaling was assessed by western blot analysis. Enzyme activity and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of GAPDH was evaluated by an enzyme assay and immunoprecipitation followed by dot blot with an anti-poly(ADP-ribose) antibody, respectively. S100B significantly decreased glucose consumption, glucose analog uptake, and lactate production in L6 cells, in either the presence or absence of insulin. In contrast, S100B had no effect on glycogen accumulation and insulin signaling. Metabolome analysis revealed that S100B increased the concentration of glycolytic intermediates upstream of GAPDH. S100B impaired GAPDH activity and increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated GAPDH proteins. The effects of S100B on glucose metabolism were mostly canceled by a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. Similar results were obtained in C2C12 myotube cells. We conclude that S100B as a humoral factor may impair glycolysis in muscle cells independently of insulin action, and the effect may be attributed to the inhibition of GAPDH activity from enhanced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the enzyme.

  1. NAD-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the human antimicrobial and immune-modulatory peptide LL-37 by ADP-ribosyltransferase-1.

    PubMed

    Picchianti, Monica; Russo, Carla; Castagnini, Marta; Biagini, Massimiliano; Soldaini, Elisabetta; Balducci, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    LL-37 is a cationic peptide belonging to the cathelicidin family that has antimicrobial and immune-modulatory properties. Here we show that the mammalian mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase-1 (ART1), which selectively transfers the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD to arginine residues, ADP-ribosylates LL-37 in vitro. The incorporation of ADP-ribose was first observed by Western blot analysis and then confirmed by MALDI-TOF. Mass-spectrometry showed that up to four of the five arginine residues present in LL-37 could be ADP-ribosylated on the same peptide when incubated at a high NAD concentration in the presence of ART1. The attachment of negatively charged ADP-ribose moieties considerably alters the positive charge of the arginine residues thus reducing the cationicity of LL-37. The cationic nature of LL-37 is key for its ability to interact with cell membranes or negatively charged biomolecules, such as DNA, RNA, F-actin and glycosaminoglycans. Thus, the ADP-ribosylation of LL-37 is expected to have the potential to modulate LL-37 biological activities in several physiological and pathological settings.

  2. The NarE protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of several ADP-ribose acceptors despite an N-terminal deletion.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Paula I; Álamos-Musre, A Said; Álvarez, Francisca P; Escobar, Alejandro; Tapia, Cecilia V; Osorio, Eduardo; Otero, Carolina; Calderón, Iván L; Fuentes, Juan A; Gil, Fernando; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-09-01

    The ADP-ribosylating enzymes are encoded in many pathogenic bacteria in order to affect essential functions of the host. In this study, we show that Neisseria gonorrhoeae possess a locus that corresponds to the ADP-ribosyltransferase NarE, a previously characterized enzyme in N. meningitidis The 291 bp coding sequence of gonococcal narE shares 100% identity with part of the coding sequence of the meningococcal narE gene due to a frameshift previously described, thus leading to a 49-amino-acid deletion at the N-terminus of gonococcal NarE protein. However, we found a promoter region and a GTG start codon, which allowed expression of the protein as demonstrated by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Using a gonococcal NarE-6xHis fusion protein, we demonstrated that the gonococcal enzyme underwent auto-ADP-ribosylation but to a lower extent than meningococcal NarE. We also observed that gonoccocal NarE exhibited ADP-ribosyltransferase activity using agmatine and cell-free host proteins as ADP-ribose acceptors, but its activity was inhibited by human β-defensins. Taken together, our results showed that NarE of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a functional enzyme that possesses key features of bacterial ADP-ribosylating enzymes.

  3. PARP-2 regulates cell cycle-related genes through histone deacetylation and methylation independently of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Ya-Chen; Hsu, Chiao-Yu; Yao, Ya-Li; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► PARP-2 acts as a transcription co-repressor independently of PARylation activity. ► PARP-2 recruits HDAC5, 7, and G9a and generates repressive chromatin. ► PARP-2 is recruited to the c-MYC promoter by DNA-binding factor YY1. ► PARP-2 represses cell cycle-related genes and alters cell cycle progression. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and regulates numerous nuclear processes, including transcription. Depletion of PARP-2 alters the activity of transcription factors and global gene expression. However, the molecular action of how PARP-2 controls the transcription of target promoters remains unclear. Here we report that PARP-2 possesses transcriptional repression activity independently of its enzymatic activity. PARP-2 interacts and recruits histone deacetylases HDAC5 and HDAC7, and histone methyltransferase G9a to the promoters of cell cycle-related genes, generating repressive chromatin signatures. Our findings propose a novel mechanism of PARP-2 in transcriptional regulation involving specific protein–protein interactions and highlight the importance of PARP-2 in the regulation of cell cycle progression.

  4. [The structural characteristics, alternative splicing and genetic experession analysis of ADP-ribosylation-factor 1 (arf1) in cotton].

    PubMed

    Ren, Mao-Zhi; Chen, Quan-Jia; Zhang, Rui; Guo, San-Dui

    2004-08-01

    The full-length cDNA,DNA and promoter of ADP-ribosylation-factor 1 (arf1) was isolated from Gossypium hirsutum Y18 by means of isocaudarner inverse PCR (II-PCR) and rapid isolating cDNA 5' unknown sequence and promoter (RICUP) established in our lab. Results indicated that the gene is 4 360 bp in size, including seven exons and six introns. Interestingly, alterative splicing occurs at intron I. Differential processing of intron 1 yields three different transcripts with 1 026 bp, 1103 bp and 1 544 bp in sizes, respectively. Arf1 encodes 181 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that sequence upstream transcription initiation site of arf1 includes typical initiator, TATA box, CCAAT box, GC box and several forward and reverse repeat sequences. And typical promoter structures, such as AT-rich sequence and palindrome structure have been detected in the sequence downstream transcription initiation site. Southern blot analysis indicated that the gene has two copies in the genome of cotton. Northern blot confirmed the predominate expression of arf1 in reproductive organs of cotton, including bud, flower, fiber and boll. Also, the feature and character of arf1 and its promoter have been studied. This study will lay foundation for the other research on function of arf1 in the development of reproductive organs in cotton.

  5. ADP-ribosylation of translation elongation factor 2 by diphtheria toxin in yeast inhibits translation and cell separation.

    PubMed

    Mateyak, Maria K; Kinzy, Terri Goss

    2013-08-23

    Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) facilitates the movement of the peptidyl tRNA-mRNA complex from the A site of the ribosome to the P site during protein synthesis. ADP-ribosylation (ADP(R)) of eEF2 by bacterial toxins on a unique diphthamide residue inhibits its translocation activity, but the mechanism is unclear. We have employed a hormone-inducible diphtheria toxin (DT) expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which allows for the rapid induction of ADP(R)-eEF2 to examine the effects of DT in vivo. ADP(R) of eEF2 resulted in a decrease in total protein synthesis consistent with a defect in translation elongation. Association of eEF2 with polyribosomes, however, was unchanged upon expression of DT. Upon prolonged exposure to DT, cells with an abnormal morphology and increased DNA content accumulated. This observation was specific to DT expression and was not observed when translation elongation was inhibited by other methods. Examination of these cells by electron microscopy indicated a defect in cell separation following mitosis. These results suggest that expression of proteins late in the cell cycle is particularly sensitive to inhibition by ADP(R)-eEF2.

  6. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm.

  7. Structure of CARDS toxin, a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin from Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Argentina; Kannan, T. R.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Pakhomova, Olga N.; Zhang, Yanfeng; Somarajan, Sudha R.; Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Holloway, Stephen P.; Baseman, Joel B.; Hart, P. John

    2015-04-06

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infections cause tracheobronchitis and “walking” pneumonia, and are linked to asthma and other reactive airway diseases. As part of the infectious process, the bacterium expresses a 591-aa virulence factor with both mono-ADP ribosyltransferase (mART) and vacuolating activities known as Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome Toxin (CARDS TX). CARDS TX binds to human surfactant protein A and annexin A2 on airway epithelial cells and is internalized, leading to a range of pathogenetic events. In this paper, we present the structure of CARDS TX, a triangular molecule in which N-terminal mART and C-terminal tandem β-trefoil domains associate to form an overall architecture distinct from other well-recognized ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins. We demonstrate that CARDS TX binds phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin specifically over other membrane lipids, and that cell surface binding and internalization activities are housed within the C-terminal β-trefoil domain. Finally, the results enhance our understanding of Mp pathogenicity and suggest a novel avenue for the development of therapies to treat Mp-associated asthma and other acute and chronic airway diseases.

  8. Inhibition of Poly-ADP-Ribosylation Fails to Increase Axonal Regeneration or Improve Functional Recovery after Adult Mammalian CNS Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingxing; Byrne, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After traumatic damage of the brain or spinal cord, many surviving neurons are disconnected, and recovery of function is limited by poor axon regeneration. Recent data have suggested that poly ADP-ribosylation plays a role in limiting axonal regrowth such that inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) may have therapeutic efficacy for neurological recovery after trauma. Here, we tested systemic administration of the PARP inhibitor, veliparib, and showed effective suppression of PARylation in the mouse CNS. After optic nerve crush injury or dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord in mice, treatment with veliparib at doses with pharmacodynamic action had no benefit for axonal regeneration or functional recovery. We considered whether PARP gene family specificity might play a role. In vitro mouse cerebral cortex axon regeneration experiments revealed that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated suppression of PARP1 promoted axonal regeneration, whereas suppression of other PARP isoforms either had no effect or decreased regeneration. Therefore, we examined recovery from neurological trauma in mice lacking PARP1. No increase of axonal regeneration was observed in Parp1–/– mice after optic nerve crush injury or dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord, and there was no improvement in motor function recovery. Thus, comprehensive in vivo analysis reveals no indication that clinical PARP inhibitors will on their own provide benefit for recovery from CNS trauma. PMID:28032120

  9. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of human ADP-ribosylation factors: Two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Bobak, D.A.; Nightingale, M.S.; Murtagh, J.J.; Price, S.R.; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M. )

    1989-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance the enzymatic activities of cholera toxin. Two ARF cDNAs, ARF1 and ARF3, were cloned from a human cerebellum library. Based on deduced amino acid sequences and patterns of hybridization of cDNA and oligonucleotide probes with mammalian brain poly(A){sup +} RNA, human ARF1 is the homologue of bovine ARF1. Human ARF3, which differs from bovine ARF1 and bovine ARF2, appears to represent a newly identified third type of ARF. Hybridization patterns of human ARF cDNA and clone-specific oligonucleotides with poly(A){sup +} RNA are consistent with the presence of at least two, and perhaps four, separate ARF messages in human brain. In vitro translation of ARF1, ARF2, and ARF3 produced proteins that behaved, by SDS/PAGE, similar to a purified soluble brain ARF. Deduced amino acid sequences of human ARF1 and ARF3 contain regions, similar to those in other G proteins, that are believed to be involved in GTP binding and hydrolysis. ARFS also exhibit a modest degree of homology with a bovine phospholipase C. The observations reported here support the conclusion that the ARFs are members of a multigene family of small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Definition of the regulation of ARF mRNAs and of function(s) of recombinant ARF proteins will aid in the elucidation of the physiologic role(s) of ARFs.

  10. Role of CTCF poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation in the regulation of apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Venkatraman, Bhooma; Klenova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: CTCF is a candidate tumor suppressor gene encoding a multifunctional transcription factor. CTCF function is controlled by posttranslational modification and interaction with other proteins. Research findings suggested that CTCF function can be regulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARlation) and has specific anti-apoptotic function in breast cancer cells. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of CTCF-wild type (WT) and CTCF complete mutant, which is deficient of PARlation in regulating apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The effect of CTCF-WT and CTCF complete mutant was expressed in breast cancer cell-lines by DNA-mediated transfection technique monitored by enhanced green fluorescent protein fluorescence. Evaluation of apoptotic cell death was carried out with immunohistochemical staining using 4’-6’-diamino-2 phenylindole and scoring by fluorescent microscopy. Results: CTCF-WT supports survival of breast cancer cells and was observed that CTCF complete mutant interferes with the functions of the CTCF-WT and there was a considerable apoptotic cell death in the breast cancer cell lines such as MDA-MB-435, CAMA-1 and MCF-7. Conclusion: The study enlighten CTCF as a Biological Marker for breast cancer and the role of CTCF PARlation may be involved in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:25810575

  11. Early life stage trimethyltin exposure induces ADP-ribosylation factor expression and perturbs the vascular system in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangfei; Huang, Changjiang; Truong, Lisa; La Du, Jane; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lin, Kuanfei; Tanguay, Robert L; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is an organotin contaminant, widely detected in aqueous environments, posing potential human and environmental risks. In this study, we utilized the zebrafish model to investigate the impact of transient TMT exposure on developmental progression, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular development. Embryos were waterborne exposed to a wide TMT concentration range from 8 to 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). The TMT concentration that led to mortality in 50% of the embryos (LC50) at 96 hpf was 8.2 μM; malformations in 50% of the embryos (EC50) was 2.8 μM. The predominant response observed in surviving embryos was pericardial edema. Additionally, using the Tg (fli1a: EGFP) y1 transgenic zebrafish line to non-invasively monitor vascular development, TMT exposure led to distinct disarrangements in the vascular system. The most susceptible developmental stage to TMT exposure was between 48–72 hpf. High density whole genome microarrays were used to identify the early transcriptional changes following TMT exposure from 48 to 60 hpf or 72 hpf. In total, 459 transcripts were differentially expressed at least 2-fold (P < 0.05) by TMT compared to control. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tools, it was revealed that the transcripts misregulated by TMT exposure were clustered in numerous categories including metabolic and cardiovascular disease, cellular function, cell death, molecular transport, and physiological development. In situ localization of highly elevated transcripts revealed intense staining of ADP-ribosylation factors arf3 and arf5 in the head, trunk, and tail regions. When arf5 expression was blocked by morpholinos, the zebrafish did not display the prototypical TMT-induced vascular deficits, indicating that the induction of arf5 was necessary for TMT-induced vascular toxicity. PMID:23000284

  12. The myristoylated amino terminus of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 is a phospholipid- and GTP-sensitive switch.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, P A; Terui, T; Sturch, S; Fales, H M; Ferrige, A G; Kahn, R A

    1995-06-16

    ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) is an essential N-myristoylated 21-kDa GTP-binding protein with activities that include the regulation of membrane traffic and phospholipase D activity. Both the N terminus of the protein and the N-myristate bound to glycine 2 have previously been shown to be essential to the function of Arf in cells. We show that the bound nucleotide affects the conformation of either the N terminus or residues of Arf1 that are in direct contact with the N terminus. This was demonstrated by examining the effects of mutations in this N-terminal domain on guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) and GDP binding and dissociation kinetics. Arf1 mutants, lacking 13 or 17 residues from the N terminus or mutated at residues 3-7, had a greater affinity for GTP gamma S and a lower affinity for GDP than did the wild-type protein. As the N terminus is required for interactions with target proteins, we conclude that the N terminus of Arf1 is a GTP-sensitive effector domain. When Arf1 was acylated, the GTP-dependent conformational changes were codependent on added phospholipids. In the absence of phospholipids, myristoylated Arf1 has a lower affinity for GTP gamma S than for GDP, and in the presence of phospholipids, the myristoylated protein has a greater affinity for GTP gamma S than for GDP. Thus, N-myristoylation is a critical component in the construction of this phospholipid- and GTP-dependent switch.

  13. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 (ARF6) Promotes Acrosomal Exocytosis by Modulating Lipid Turnover and Rab3A Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Pelletán, Leonardo E.; Suhaiman, Laila; Vaquer, Cintia C.; Bustos, Matías A.; De Blas, Gerardo A.; Vitale, Nicolas; Mayorga, Luis S.; Belmonte, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Regulated secretion is a central issue for the specific function of many cells; for instance, mammalian sperm acrosomal exocytosis is essential for egg fertilization. ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) is a small GTPase implicated in exocytosis, but its downstream effectors remain elusive in this process. We combined biochemical, functional, and microscopy-based methods to show that ARF6 is present in human sperm, localizes to the acrosomal region, and is required for calcium and diacylglycerol-induced exocytosis. Results from pulldown assays show that ARF6 exchanges GDP for GTP in sperm challenged with different exocytic stimuli. Myristoylated and guanosine 5′-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPγS)-loaded ARF6 (active form) added to permeabilized sperm induces acrosome exocytosis even in the absence of extracellular calcium. We explore the ARF6 signaling cascade that promotes secretion. We demonstrate that ARF6 stimulates a sperm phospholipase D activity to produce phosphatidic acid and boosts the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. We present direct evidence showing that active ARF6 increases phospholipase C activity, causing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent intra-acrosomal calcium release. We show that active ARF6 increases the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rab3A, a prerequisite for secretion. We propose that exocytic stimuli activate ARF6, which is required for acrosomal calcium efflux and the assembly of the membrane fusion machinery. This report highlights the physiological importance of ARF6 as a key factor for human sperm exocytosis and fertilization. PMID:25713146

  14. Crystal structure and structure-based mutagenesis of actin-specific ADP-ribosylating toxin CPILE-a as novel enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Toniti, Waraphan; Yoshida, Toru; Tsurumura, Toshiharu; Irikura, Daisuke; Monma, Chie; Kamata, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Unusual outbreaks of food poisoning in Japan were reported in which Clostridium perfringens was strongly suspected to be the cause based on epidemiological information and fingerprinting of isolates. The isolated strains lack the typical C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) but secrete a new enterotoxin consisting of two components: C. perfringens iota-like enterotoxin-a (CPILE-a), which acts as an enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase, and CPILE-b, a membrane binding component. Here we present the crystal structures of apo-CPILE-a, NAD+-CPILE-a and NADH-CPILE-a. Though CPILE-a structure has high similarity with known iota toxin-a (Ia) with NAD+, it possesses two extra-long protruding loops from G262-S269 and E402-K408 that are distinct from Ia. Based on the Ia–actin complex structure, we focused on actin-binding interface regions (I-V) including two protruding loops (PT) and examined how mutations in these regions affect the ADP-ribosylation activity of CPILE-a. Though some site-directed mutagenesis studies have already been conducted on the actin binding site of Ia, in the present study, mutagenesis studies were conducted against both α- and β/γ-actin in CPILE-a and Ia. Interestingly, CPILE-a ADP-ribosylates both α- and β/γ-actin, but its sensitivity towards β/γ-actin is 36% compared with α-actin. Our results contrast to that only C2-I ADP-ribosylates β/γ-actin. We also showed that PT-I and two convex-concave interactions in CPILE-a are important for actin binding. The current study is the first detailed analysis of site-directed mutagenesis in the actin binding region of Ia and CPILE-a against both α- and β/γ-actin. PMID:28199340

  15. The ARTT motif and a unified structural understanding of substrate recognition in ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins and eukaryotic ADP-ribosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungil; Tainer, John A

    2002-02-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a widely occurring and biologically critical covalent chemical modification process in pathogenic mechanisms, intracellular signaling systems, DNA repair, and cell division. The reaction is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases, which transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to a target protein with nicotinamide release. A family of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic enzymes has been termed the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases, in distinction to the poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases, which catalyze the addition of multiple ADP-ribose groups to the carboxyl terminus of eukaryotic nucleoproteins. Despite the limited primary sequence homology among the different ADP-ribosyltransferases, a central cleft bearing the NAD-binding pocket formed by the two perpendicular beta-sheet cores has been remarkably conserved between bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono- and poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases. The majority of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved His and catalytic Glu residues. In contrast, diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and eukaryotic poly-ADP-ribosytransferases are characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. Structural and mutagenic studies of the NAD-binding core of a binary toxin and a C3-like toxin identified an ARTT motif (ADP-ribosylating turn-turn motif) that is implicated in substrate specificity and recognition. Here we apply structure-based sequence alignment and comparative structural analyses of all known structures of ADP-ribosyltransfeases to suggest that this ARTT motif is functionally important in many ADP-ribosylating enzymes that bear a NAD-binding cleft as characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. Overall, structure-based sequence analysis reveals common core structures and conserved active sites of ADP-ribosyltransferases to support similar NAD-binding mechanisms but differing mechanisms of target protein binding via sequence variations within the ARTT

  16. Cell cycle-dependent intervention by benzamide of carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation and in vitro poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Kun, E; Kirsten, E; Milo, G E; Kurian, P; Kumari, H L

    1983-01-01

    Human fibroblasts were subjected to nutritionally induced G1 block, followed by release and subsequent entry into S phase, and exposed to nontoxic concentrations of carcinogens in early S phase. Cell transformation occurred as determined by early morphologic cell alterations, anchorage-independent colony formation, cell invasiveness, and augmentation of Ab 376 human malignancy-specific cell-surface antigenic determinant. Methylazoxymethanol acetate was the most potent transforming agent at doses that were negative in toxicity tests. Benzamide (10 microM intracellular concentration), a specific inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, prevented transformation in a cell cycle-specific manner, maximal prevention coinciding with early S phase, also characteristic of maximal susceptibility to transformation. Neither an interference of carcinogen deoxyguanosine nucleoside adduct formation nor a chemical reaction between benzamide and carcinogens was detected. Methylazoxymethanol acetate at transforming but nontoxic dose partially inhibited poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation to about the same extent as benzamide. However, simultaneous exposure of cells to both agents in early S phase, resulting in the prevention of transformation, augmented poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation above the controls. Enzymatic activities ran parallel with the formation of DNA-associating polymer-nonhistone protein adducts that are assumed to regulate the physiological function of chromatin at the structural level. Images PMID:6196785

  17. Platelet cytosolic 44-kDa protein is a substrate of cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation and is not recognized by antisera against the. alpha. subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Molina Y Vedia, L.M.; Reep, B.R.; Lapetina, E.G. )

    1988-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation induced by cholera toxin and pertussis toxin was studied in particulate and cytosolic fractions of human platelets. Platelets were disrupted by a cycle of freezing and thawing in the presence of a hyposmotic buffer containing protease inhibitors. In both fractions, the A subunit of cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates two proteins with molecular masses of 42 and 44 kDa, whereas pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylates a 41-kDa polypeptide. Two antisera against the {alpha} subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein recognize only the 42-kDa polypeptide. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of the 42- and 44-kDa proteins is reduced by pretreatment of platelets with iloprost, a prostacyclin analog. The 44-kDa protein, which is substrate of cholera toxin, could be extracted completely from the membrane and recovered in the cytosolic fraction when the cells were disrupted by Dounce homogenization and the pellet was extensively washed. A 44-kDa protein can also be labeled with 8-azidoguanosine 5{prime}-({alpha}-{sup 32}P)triphosphate in the cytosol and membranes. These finding indicate that cholera and pertussis toxins produced covalent modifications of proteins present in particulate and cytosolic platelet fractions. Moreover, the 44-kDa protein might be an {alpha} subunit of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein that is not recognized by available antisera.

  18. Purification and properties of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase from Crithidia fasciculata. Automodification and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DNA topoisomerase I.

    PubMed

    Podestá, Dolores; García-Herreros, María I; Cannata, Joaquín J B; Stoppani, Andrés O M; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H

    2004-06-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase has been purified more than 160000-fold from Crithidia fasciculata. This is the first PARP isolated to apparent homogeneity from trypanosomatids. The purified enzyme absolutely required DNA for catalytic activity and histones enhanced it 2.5-fold, when the DNA:histone ratio was 1:1.3. The enzyme required no magnesium or any other metal ion cofactor. The apparent molecular mass of 111 kDa, determined by gel filtration would correspond to a dimer of two identical 55-kDa subunits. Activity was inhibited by nicotinamide, 3-aminobenzamide, theophylline, thymidine, xanthine and hypoxanthine but not by adenosine. The enzyme was localized to the cell nucleus. Our findings suggest that covalent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP itself or DNA topoisomerase I resulted in the inhibition of their activities and provide an initial biochemical characterization of this covalent post-translational modification in trypanosomatids.

  19. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation enhances H-RAS protein stability and causes abnormal cell cycle progression in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells treated with hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linhua; Ling, Xiaoxuan; Tang, Huanwen; Chen, Jialong; Wen, Qiaosheng; Zou, Fei

    2015-08-05

    Hydroquinone (HQ), one of the most important benzene-derived metabolites, can induce aberrant cell cycle progression; however, the mechanism of this induction remains unclear. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), which is catalysed primarily by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), participates in various biological processes, including cell cycle control. The results of the present study show an accumulation in G1 phase versus S phase of TK6 human lymphoblast cells treated with HQ for 48h compared with PBS-treated cells; after 72h of HQ treatment, the cells transitioned from G1 arrest to S phase arrest. We examined the expression of six genes related to the cell cycle or leukaemia to further explore the reason for this phenomenon. Among these genes, H-RAS was found to be associated with this phenomenon because its mRNA and protein expression decreased at 48h and increased at 72h. Experiments for PARP activity induction and inhibition revealed that the observed PARylation was positively associated with H-RAS expression. Moreover, in cells treated with HQ in conjunction with PARP-1 knockdown, expression of the H-RAS protein decreased and the number of cells in G1 phase increased. The degree of poly(ADP-ribosyl) modification of the H-RAS protein increased in cells treated with HQ for 72h, further supporting that changes in PARylation contributed to the rapid alteration of H-RAS protein expression, followed by abnormal progression of the cell cycle. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays were employed to determine whether protein complexes were formed by PARP-1 and H-RAS proteins, and the direct interaction between these proteins indicated that PARylation regulated H-RAS expression. As detected by confocal microscopy, the H-RAS protein was found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal that H-RAS protein can be modified by PARylation.

  20. The Type III Secretion System Effector SeoC of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and S. enterica subsp. arizonae ADP-Ribosylates Src and Inhibits Opsonophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Dominic J; Young, Joanna C; Covarelli, Valentina; Herrera-León, Silvia; Connor, Thomas R; Fookes, Maria; Walker, Danielle; Echeita, Aurora; Thomson, Nicholas R; Berger, Cedric N; Frankel, Gad

    2016-12-01

    Salmonella species utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study, we compared a draft genome assembly of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and Salmonella bongori strain 12419. S. enterica subsp. salamae encodes the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), SPI-2, and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs. Though several key S Typhimurium effector genes are missing (e.g., avrA, sopB, and sseL), S. enterica subsp. salamae invades HeLa cells and contains homologues of S. bongori sboK and sboC, which we named seoC SboC and SeoC are homologues of EspJ from enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively), which inhibit Src kinase-dependent phagocytosis by ADP-ribosylation. By screening 73 clinical and environmental Salmonella isolates, we identified EspJ homologues in S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae The β-lactamase TEM-1 reporter system showed that SeoC is translocated by the SPI-1 T3SS. All the Salmonella SeoC/SboC homologues ADP-ribosylate Src E310 in vitro Ectopic expression of SeoC/SboC inhibited phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized beads into Cos-7 cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FcγRIIa. Concurrently, S. enterica subsp. salamae infection of J774.A1 macrophages inhibited phagocytosis of beads, in a seoC-dependent manner. These results show that S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and S. enterica subsp. arizonae share features of the infection strategy of extracellular pathogens EPEC and EHEC and shed light on the complexities of the T3SS effector repertoires of Enterobacteriaceae.

  1. A quantitative analysis for the ADP-ribosylation activity of pertussis toxin: an enzymatic-HPLC coupled assay applicable to formulated whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccine products.

    PubMed

    Cyr, T; Menzies, A J; Calver, J; Whitehouse, L W

    2001-06-01

    The majority of the biological effects of pertussis toxin (PT) are the result of a toxin-catalyzed transfer of an adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADP-ribose) moiety from NAD(+)to the alpha-subunits of a subset of signal-transducing guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins). This generally leads to an uncoupling of the modified G-protein from the corresponding receptor and the loss of effector regulation. This assay is based on the PT S1 subunit enzymatic transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to the cysteine moiety of a fluorescent tagged synthetic peptide homologous to the 20 amino acid residue carboxyl-terminal sequence of the alpha-subunit of the G(i3)protein. The tagged peptide and the ADP-ribosylated product were characterized by HPLC/MS and MS/MS for structure confirmation. Quantitation of this characterized ADP-ribosylated fluorescently tagged peptide was by HPLC fluorescence using Standard Addition methodology. The assay was linear over a five hr incubation period at 20 degrees C at PT concentrations between 0.0625 and 4.0 microg/ml and the sensitivity of the assay could be increased several fold by increasing the incubation time to 24 h. Purified S1 subunit of PT exhibited 68.1+/-10.1% of the activity of the intact toxin on a molar basis, whereas the pertussis toxin B oligomer, the genetically engineered toxoid, (PT-9K/129G), and several of the other components of the Bordetella pertussis organism possessed little (<0.6%) or no detectable ribosylation activity. Commonly used pertussis vaccine reference materials, US PV Lot #11, BRP PV 66/303, and BRP PV 88/522, were assayed by this method against Bordetella pertussis Toxin Standard 90/518 and demonstrated to contain, respectively, 0.323+/-0.007, 0.682+/-0.045, and 0.757+/-0.006 microg PT/ml (Mean+/-SEM) or in terms of microg/vial: 3.63, 4.09 and 4.54, respectively. A survey of several multivalent pertussis vaccine products formulated with both whole cell as well as acellular components indicated that

  2. Assignment of functional domains involved in ADP-ribosylation and B-oligomer binding within the carboxyl terminus of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, K M; Barbieri, J T

    1994-01-01

    The roles of the carboxyl terminus of the S1 subunit (composed of 235 amino acids) of pertussis toxin in the ADP-ribosylation of transducin (Gt) and in B-oligomer binding were defined by analysis of two carboxyl-terminal deletion mutants of the recombinant S1 (rS1) subunit: C204, which is composed of amino acids 1 through 204 of S1, and C219, which is composed of amino acids 1 through 219 of S1. C204 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a stable, soluble peptide that had an apparent molecular mass of 23.4 kDa. In a linear velocity assay, the specific activity of C180 was 2% and that of C204 was 80% of the activity displayed by rS1 in catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of Gt. In addition, C204 possessed catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) that were 110% at variable Gt concentrations and 40% at variable NAD concentrations of those reported for rS1. These data showed that the catalytic activity of C204 approached the activity of S1. C204 and C219 were unable to associate with the B oligomer under conditions which promoted association of rS1 with the B oligomer. Consistent with these results, mixtures of C204 or C219 with the B oligomer did not elicit a clustering phenotype in CHO cells, whereas rS1 which had associated with the B oligomer was as cytotoxic as native pertussis toxin. These data indicate that residues between 219 and 235 are important in the association of the S1 subunit with the B oligomer. These data allow the assignment of functional regions to the carboxyl terminus of S1. Residues 195 to 204 are required for optimal ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, residues 205 to 219 link the catalytic region of S1 and a B-oligomer-binding region of S1, and residues 220 to 235 are required for association of S1 with the B oligomer. Images PMID:8168972

  3. The Type III Secretion System Effector SeoC of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae and S. enterica subsp. arizonae ADP-Ribosylates Src and Inhibits Opsonophagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Dominic J.; Young, Joanna C.; Covarelli, Valentina; Herrera-León, Silvia; Connor, Thomas R.; Fookes, Maria; Walker, Danielle; Echeita, Aurora; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Berger, Cedric N.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella species utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study, we compared a draft genome assembly of Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and Salmonella bongori strain 12419. S. enterica subsp. salamae encodes the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), SPI-2, and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs. Though several key S. Typhimurium effector genes are missing (e.g., avrA, sopB, and sseL), S. enterica subsp. salamae invades HeLa cells and contains homologues of S. bongori sboK and sboC, which we named seoC. SboC and SeoC are homologues of EspJ from enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively), which inhibit Src kinase-dependent phagocytosis by ADP-ribosylation. By screening 73 clinical and environmental Salmonella isolates, we identified EspJ homologues in S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae. The β-lactamase TEM-1 reporter system showed that SeoC is translocated by the SPI-1 T3SS. All the Salmonella SeoC/SboC homologues ADP-ribosylate Src E310 in vitro. Ectopic expression of SeoC/SboC inhibited phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized beads into Cos-7 cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FcγRIIa. Concurrently, S. enterica subsp. salamae infection of J774.A1 macrophages inhibited phagocytosis of beads, in a seoC-dependent manner. These results show that S. bongori, S. enterica subsp. salamae, and S. enterica subsp. arizonae share features of the infection strategy of extracellular pathogens EPEC and EHEC and shed light on the complexities of the T3SS effector repertoires of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27736780

  4. Influence of DPH1 and DPH5 Protein Variants on the Synthesis of Diphthamide, the Target of ADP-Ribosylating Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Klaus; Schröder, Anna; Schnitger, Jerome; Stahl, Sebastian; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The diphthamide on eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is the target of ADP-ribosylating toxins and -derivatives that serve as payloads in targeted tumor therapy. Diphthamide is generated by seven DPH proteins; cells deficient in these (DPHko) lack diphthamide and are toxin-resistant. We have established assays to address the functionality of DPH1 (OVCA1) and DPH5 variants listed in dbSNP and cosmic databases: plasmids encoding wildtype and mutant DPHs were transfected into DPHko cells. Supplementation of DPH1 and DPH5 restores diphthamide synthesis and toxin sensitivity in DPH1ko and DPH5ko cells, respectively. Consequently, the determination of the diphthamide status of cells expressing DPH variants differentiates active and compromised proteins. The DPH1 frameshift variant L96fs* (with N-terminal 96 amino acids, truncated thereafter) and two splice isoforms lacking 80 or 140 amino acids at their N-termini failed to restore DPH1ko deficiency. The DPH1 frameshift variant R312fs* retained some residual activity even though it lacks a large C-terminal portion. DPH1 missense variants R27W and S56F retained activity while S221P had reduced activity, indicated by a decreased capability to restore diphthamide synthesis. The DPH5 nonsense or frameshift variants E60*, W136fs* and R207* (containing intact N-termini with truncations after 60, 136 or 207 amino acids, respectively) were inactive: none compensated the deficiency of DPH5ko cells. In contrast, missense variants D57G, G87R, S123C and Q170H as well as the frequently occurring DPH5 isoform delA212 retained activity. Sensitivity to ADP-ribosylating toxins and tumor-targeted immunotoxins depends on diphthamide which, in turn, requires DPH functionality. Because of that, DPH variants (in particular those that are functionally compromised) may serve as a biomarker and correlate with the efficacy of immunotoxin-based therapies. PMID:28245596

  5. ADP-ribosylation factor, a small GTP-binding protein, is required for binding of the coatomer protein beta-COP to Golgi membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, J G; Cassel, D; Kahn, R A; Klausner, R D

    1992-01-01

    The coatomer is a cytosolic protein complex that reversibly associates with Golgi membranes and is implicated in modulating Golgi membrane transport. The association of beta-COP, a component of coatomer, with Golgi membranes is enhanced by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[gamma S]), a nonhydrolyzable analogue of GTP, and by a mixture of aluminum and fluoride ions (Al/F). Here we show that the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is required for the binding of beta-COP. Thus, beta-COP contained in a coatomer fraction that has been resolved from ARF does not bind to Golgi membranes, whereas binding can be reconstituted by the addition of recombinant ARF. Furthermore, an N-terminal peptide of ARF, which blocks ARF binding to Golgi membranes, inhibits GTP[gamma S]- as well as the Al/F-enhanced binding of beta-COP. We show that Golgi coat protein binding involves a sequential reaction where an initial interaction of ARF and GTP[gamma S] with the membrane allows subsequent binding of beta-COP to take place in the absence of free ARF and GTP[gamma S]. The fungal metabolite brefeldin A, which is known to prevent the association of coat proteins with Golgi membrane, is shown to exert this effect by interfering with the initial ARF-membrane interaction step. Images PMID:1631136

  6. In vivo exposure of swiss albino mice to chronic low dose of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) lowers poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) of bone marrow cell and blood lymphocyte proteins.

    PubMed

    Kma, L; Sharan, R N

    2006-08-01

    Efforts to identify an easy and convenient biomarker of carcinogenesis with potentials of application in mass screening program continue. In a series of investigations on mice exposed to different carcinogens, poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) of cellular proteins of different tissues has been shown to be a potential biomarker of carcinogenesis. Because blood based biomarker of carcinogenesis offers significant advantage in its use in a cancer screening program, this investigation was undertaken to find correlations between initiation of carcinogenesis and PAR of bone marrow cell (BMC) and blood lymphocyte (BL) proteins in mice chronically exposed to low dose of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) for up to four weeks in vivo. The exposure was either alone or in combination with 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), an inhibitor of PAR. Total PAR of cellular proteins and of histone H1 protein were monitored by slot and Western blot immunoprobe assays, respectively. The PAR of total cellular proteins as well as of histone H1 was down-regulated in duration of exposure dependent manners. The results suggest that BMC and BL mirrored status of PAR in other tissues. This finding opens up the possibility of using PAR as a biomarker of carcinogenesis in a blood based test utilizing immunoprobe assay of cellular PAR.

  7. ADP-ribosylation factor 1 expression regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and predicts poor clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schlienger, Sabrina; Campbell, Shirley; Pasquin, Sarah; Gaboury, Louis; Claing, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic capacities are fundamental features of tumor malignancy. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 1 has emerged as a key regulator of invasion in breast cancer cells. However, the importance of this GTPase, in vivo, remains to be demonstrated. We report that ARF1 is highly expressed in breast tumors of the most aggressive and advanced subtypes. Furthermore, we show that lowered expression of ARF1 impairs growth of primary tumors and inhibits lung metastasis in a murine xenograft model. To understand how ARF1 contributes to invasiveness, we used a poorly invasive breast cancer cell line, MCF7 (ER+), and examined the effects of overexpressing ARF1 to levels similar to that found in invasive cell lines. We demonstrate that ARF1 overexpression leads to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanistically, ARF1 controls cell–cell adhesion through ß-catenin and E-cadherin, oncogenic Ras activation and expression of EMT inducers. We further show that ARF1 overexpression enhances invasion, proliferation and resistance to a chemotherapeutic agent. In vivo, ARF1 overexpressing MCF7 cells are able to form more metastases to the lung. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ARF1 is a molecular switch for cancer progression and thus suggest that limiting the expression/activation of this GTPase could help improve outcome for breast cancer patients. PMID:26908458

  8. Discolored1 (DSC1) is an ADP-Ribosylation Factor-GTPase Activating Protein Required to Maintain Differentiation of Maize Kernel Structures

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Elizabeth M.; Suzuki, Masaharu; Scanlon, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The embryo and endosperm are the products of double fertilization and comprise the clonally distinct products of angiosperm seed development. Recessive mutations in the maize gene discolored1 (dsc1) condition inviable seed that are defective in both embryo and endosperm development. Here, detailed phenotypic analyses illustrate that discolored mutant kernels are able to establish, but fail to maintain, differentiated embryo, and endosperm structures. Development of the discolored mutant embryo and endosperm is normal albeit delayed, prior to the abortion and subsequent degeneration of all differentiated kernel structures. Using a genomic fragment that was previously isolated by transposon tagging, the full length dsc1 transcript is identified and shown to encode an ADP-ribosylation factor-GTPase activating protein (ARF-GAP) that co-localizes with the trans-Golgi network/early endosomes and the plasma membrane during transient expression assays in N. benthamiana leaves. DSC1 function during endomembrane trafficking and the maintenance of maize kernel differentiation is discussed. PMID:22666226

  9. Iron starvation causes release from the group A streptococcus of the ADP-ribosylating protein called plasmin receptor or surface glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, Z; Green, B D; Scott, J R

    1996-01-01

    In many pathogenic bacteria, iron starvation serves as an environmental signal that triggers the expression of virulence factors, many of which are found on the cell surface or secreted into the culture supernatant. Using the chelating agent nitrilotriacetic acid, we have established conditions for iron starvation of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus) and determined that iron limitation results in the specific appearance of several new proteins in the culture supernatant. One of these supernatant proteins is the ADP-ribosylating protein known as streptococcal plasmin receptor (Plr) or as the streptococcal surface glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase because of its other activities. Upon iron starvation, Plr is specifically released into the culture supernatant in a time-dependent manner, and its appearance in the supernatant is not accompanied by induction of plr mRNA synthesis. Release of Plr from the bacteria may be important for the virulence of group A streptococci and the manifestation of diseases. PMID:8675293

  10. ADP ribosylation factor 6 binding to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-containing vesicles creates defects in the bilayer structure: an electron spin resonance study.

    PubMed Central

    Ge, M; Cohen, J S; Brown, H A; Freed, J H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of binding of myristoylated ADP ribosylation factor 6 (myr-ARF6), an activator of phospholipase D (PLD), to a model membrane were investigated using an electron spin resonance (ESR) labeling technique. Initial studies were conducted in vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP(2)), and cholesterol. Recombinant ARF6 binding significantly enhances defects in both the headgroup and acyl-chain regions of the membrane, which are revealed by the emergence of sharp components in the spectra from a headgroup label, 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy-choline (DPPTC), and a chain label, 10PC, after myr-ARF6 binding. Binding of non-myristoylated ARF6 (non-ARF6) shows markedly reduced effects. Interestingly, no change in spectra from DPPTC was observed upon myr-ARF6 binding when PIP(2) in the vesicles was replaced by other negatively charged lipids, including phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol, even when normalized for charge. The production of the sharp peak appears to be a specific event, because another GTP binding protein, CDC42, which binds PIP(2) and activates PLD, fails to induce changes in vesicle structure. These results suggest a previously unappreciated role for ARF in mediating a protein/lipid interaction that produces defects in lipid bilayers. This function may serve as an initial event in destabilizing membrane structure for subsequent membrane fusion or biogenesis of vesicles. PMID:11463641

  11. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Mammalian Myoblast Fusion through Phospholipase D1 and Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Anne-Sophie; Enjalbert, Sandrine; Comunale, Franck; Bodin, Stéphane; Vitale, Nicolas; Charrasse, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Myoblast fusion is an essential step during myoblast differentiation that remains poorly understood. M-cadherin–dependent pathways that signal through Rac1 GTPase activation via the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Trio are important for myoblast fusion. The ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)6 GTPase has been shown to bind to Trio and to regulate Rac1 activity. Moreover, Loner/GEP100/BRAG2, a GEF of ARF6, has been involved in mammalian and Drosophila myoblast fusion, but the specific role of ARF6 has been not fully analyzed. Here, we show that ARF6 activity is increased at the time of myoblast fusion and is required for its implementation in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Specifically, at the onset of myoblast fusion, ARF6 is associated with the multiproteic complex that contains M-cadherin, Trio, and Rac1 and accumulates at sites of myoblast fusion. ARF6 silencing inhibits the association of Trio and Rac1 with M-cadherin. Moreover, we demonstrate that ARF6 regulates myoblast fusion through phospholipase D (PLD) activation and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate production. Together, these data indicate that ARF6 is a critical regulator of C2C12 myoblast fusion and participates in the regulation of PLD activities that trigger both phospholipids production and actin cytoskeleton reorganization at fusion sites. PMID:20505075

  12. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex through FIP3/Arfophilin-1-dependent Endosomal Trafficking of N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yoshinobu; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 family-interacting protein 3 (FIP3)/Arfophilin-1, a dual effector for Arf6 and Rab11, as a downstream effector of Arf6 in migrating neurons. The knockdown of FIP3 led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin in migrating neurons, similar to that of Arf6, which could be rescued by the coexpression of wild-type FIP3 but not FIP3 mutants lacking the binding site for Arf6 or Rab11. These results suggest that Arf6 regulates cortical neuronal migration in the intermediate zone through the FIP3-dependent endosomal trafficking. PMID:27622210

  13. Identification of a GTP-binding protein. cap alpha. subunit that lacks an apparent ADP-ribosylation site for pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, H.K.W.; Yoshimoto, K.K.; Eversole-Cire, P.; Simon, M.I.

    1988-05-01

    Recent molecular cloning of cDNA for the ..cap alpha.. subunit of bovine transducin (a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein, or G protein) has revealed the presence of two retinal-specific transducins, called T/sub r/ and T/sub c/, which are expressed in rod or cone photoreceptor cells. In a further study of G-protein diversity and signal transduction in the retina, the authors have identified a G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunit, which they refer to as G/sub z/..cap alpha.., by isolating a human retinal cDNA clone that cross-hybridizes at reduced stringency with bovine T/sub r/ ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence of G/sub z/..cap alpha.. is 41-67% identical with those of other known G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunits. However, the 355-residue G/sub z/..cap alpha.. lacks a consensus site for ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin, and its amino acid sequence varies within a number of regions that are strongly conserved among all of the other G-protein ..cap alpha.. subunits. They suggest that G/sub z/..cap alpha.., which appears to be highly expressed in neural tissues, represents a member of a subfamily of G proteins that mediate signal transduction in pertussis toxin-insensitive systems.

  14. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 6 Acts as an Allosteric Activator for the Folded but not Disordered Cholera Toxin A1 Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Taylor, Michael; Jobling, Michael G.; Burress, Helen; Yang, ZhiJie; Serrano, Albert; Holmes, Randall K.; Tatulian, Suren A.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Summary The catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CTA1) has a disordered structure at 37°C. An interaction with host factors must therefore place CTA1 in a folded conformation for the modification of its Gsα target which resides in a lipid raft environment. Host ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) act as in vitro allosteric activators of CTA1, but the molecular events of this process are not fully characterized. Isotope-edited Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy monitored ARF6-induced structural changes to CTA1, which were correlated to changes in CTA1 activity. We found ARF6 prevents the thermal disordering of structured CTA1 and stimulates the activity of stabilized CTA1 over a range of temperatures. Yet ARF6 alone did not promote the refolding of disordered CTA1 to an active state. Instead, lipid rafts shifted disordered CTA1 to a folded conformation with a basal level of activity that could be further stimulated by ARF6. Thus, ARF alone is unable to activate disordered CTA1 at physiological temperature: additional host factors such as lipid rafts place CTA1 in the folded conformation required for its ARF-mediated activation. Interaction with ARF is required for in vivo toxin activity, as enzymatically active CTA1 mutants that cannot be further stimulated by ARF6 fail to intoxicate cultured cells. PMID:25257027

  15. Inhibition of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 1 suppresses proliferation and reduces tumor cell invasion in CaSki human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fengjie; Liu, Yan; Li, Yalin; Li, Guancheng

    2010-12-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 1 (ARL6IP1) is an apoptotic regulator. To investigate the role of ARL6IP1 in human cervical cancer progression, we designed and used short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to inhibit ARL6IP1 expression in CaSki cells and validated its effect on cell proliferation and invasion. Changes in gene expression were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or western blot. Down-regulation of ARL6IP1 expression by infection with ARL6IP1-specific RNAi-expressing vector inhibited CaSki cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, down-regulation of ARL6IP1 expression arrested CaSki cell cycling at the G0/G1 phase and mitigated CaSki cell migration, determined by wound healing assays. ARL6IP1 was involved in cervical cancer cell growth, cell cycle progression, and invasion through regulation of gene expression, such as Caspase-3, Caspase-9, p53, TAp63, NF-κB, MAPK, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL, suggesting that ARL6IP1 could have important implications in cervical cancer biology. Our findings illustrate the biological significance of ARL6IP1 in cervical cancer progression, and provide novel evidence that ARL6IP1 may serve as a therapeutic target in the prevention of human cervical cancer.

  16. Arabidopsis PARG1 is the key factor promoting cell survival among the enzymes regulating post-translational poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hailei; Gu, Zongying; Wu, Qiao; Yang, Lifeng; Liu, Caifeng; Ma, Hong; Xia, Yiji; Ge, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a reversible post-translational modification of proteins, characterized by the addition of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) to proteins by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and removal of PAR by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). Three PARPs and two PARGs have been found in Arabidopsis, but their respective roles are not fully understood. In this study, the functions of each PARP and PARG in DNA repair were analyzed based on their mutant phenotypes under genotoxic stresses. Double or triple mutant analysis revealed that PARP1 and PARP2, but not PARP3, play a similar but not critical role in DNA repair in Arabidopsis seedlings. PARG1 and PARG2 play an essential and a minor role, respectively under the same conditions. Mutation of PARG1 results in increased DNA damage level and enhanced cell death in plants after bleomycin treatment. PARG1 expression is induced primarily in root and shoot meristems by bleomycin and induction of PARG1 is dependent on ATM and ATR kinases. PARG1 also antagonistically modulates the DNA repair process by preventing the over-induction of DNA repair genes. Our study determined the contribution of each PARP and PARG member in DNA repair and indicated that PARG1 plays a critical role in this process. PMID:26516022

  17. ADP-ribosylation factor 1 protein regulates trypsinogen activation via organellar trafficking of procathepsin B protein and autophagic maturation in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Orlichenko, Lidiya; Stolz, Donna B; Noel, Pawan; Behari, Jaideep; Liu, Shiguang; Singh, Vijay P

    2012-07-13

    Several studies have suggested that autophagy might play a deleterious role in acute pancreatitis via intra-acinar activation of digestive enzymes. The prototype for this phenomenon is cathepsin B-mediated trypsin generation. To determine the organellar basis of this process, we investigated the subcellular distribution of the cathepsin B precursor, procathepsin B. We found that procathepsin B is enriched in Golgi-containing microsomes, suggesting a role for the ADP-ribosylation (ARF)-dependent trafficking of cathepsin B. Indeed, caerulein treatment increased processing of procathepsin B, whereas a known ARF inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA) prevented this. Similar treatment did not affect processing of procathepsin L. BFA-mediated ARF1 inhibition resulted in reduced cathepsin B activity and consequently reduced trypsinogen activation. However, formation of light chain 3 (LC3-II) was not affected, suggesting that BFA did not prevent autophagy induction. Instead, sucrose density gradient centrifugation and electron microscopy showed that BFA arrested caerulein-induced autophagosomal maturation. Therefore, ARF1-dependent trafficking of procathepsin B and the maturation of autophagosomes results in cathepsin B-mediated trypsinogen activation induced by caerulein.

  18. ADP-ribosylation factor arf6p may function as a molecular switch of new end take off in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    Small GTPases act as molecular switches in a wide variety of cellular processes. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the directions of cell growth change from a monopolar manner to a bipolar manner, which is known as 'New End Take Off' (NETO). Here I report the identification of a gene, arf6{sup +}, encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPase, that may be essential for NETO. arf6{delta} cells completely fail to undergo NETO. arf6p localizes at both cell ends and presumptive septa in a cell-cycle dependent manner. And its polarized localization is not dependent on microtubules, actin cytoskeletons and some NETO factors (bud6p, for3p, tea1p, tea3p, and tea4p). Notably, overexpression of a fast GDP/GTP-cycling mutant of arf6p can advance the timing of NETO. These findings suggest that arf6p functions as a molecular switch for the activation of NETO in fission yeast.

  19. The effect of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation inhibition on the porcine cumulus-oocyte complex during in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk Hyoun; Lee, Hye Ran; Kim, Min Gyeong; Lee, Jun Sung; Jin, Su Jin; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2017-01-29

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) plays important roles in DNA repair, apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, and cell death, and occurs via the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Previous studies have shown that PARylation affects mouse and porcine pre-implantation development and participates in mechanisms of autophagy. However, there have not yet been reported the role of PARylation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes. Thus, we investigated the effect of PARylation inhibition on this process; cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured with 3-aminobenzamide (3-ABA, PARP inhibitor) during porcine IVM. Full cumulus expansion was significantly reduced (10.34 ± 1.23 [3-ABA] vs. 48.17 ± 2.03% [control]), but nuclear maturation rates were not changed in the 3-ABA treatment group. Especially, we observed that cumulus cells were little expanded after 22 h in 3-ABA treated COCs. The mRNA expression levels of oocyte maturation- and cumulus expansion-related genes were evaluated at 22 and 44 h. GDF9, BMP15, COX-2, and PTX3 expression were upregulated at 44 h, whereas the levels of HAS2 and TNFAIP6 were downregulated in the 3-ABA treated group. Furthermore, 3-ABA treatment significantly decreased the developmental rate (28.24 ± 1.06 vs. 40.24 ± 3.03%) and total cell number (41.12 ± 2.10 vs. 50.38 ± 2.27), but increased the total apoptotic index (6.44 ± 0.81 vs. 3.08 ± 0.51) in parthenogenetically activated embryos. In conclusion, these results showed that PARylation regulates cumulus expansion through the regulation of gene expression and affects developmental competence and quality in parthenogenetic embryos.

  20. Selective amplification of an mRNA and related pseudogene for a human ADP-ribosylation factor, a guanine nucleotide-dependent protein activator of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Monaco, L.; Murtagh, J.J.; Newman, K.B.; Tsai, Su-Chen; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M. )

    1990-03-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are {approx}20-kDa proteins that act as GTP-dependent allosteric activators of cholera toxin. With deoxyinosine-containing degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to conserved GTP-binding domains in ARFs, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify simultaneously from human DNA portions of three ARF genes that include codons for 102 amino acids, with intervening sequences. Amplification products that differed in size because of differences in intron sizes were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. One amplified DNA contained no introns and had a sequence different from those of known AFRs. Based on this sequence, selective oligonucleotide probes were prepared and used to isolate clone {Psi}ARF 4, a putative ARF pseudogene, from a human genomic library in {lambda} phage EMBL3. Reverse transcription-PCR was then used to clone from human poly(A){sup +} RNA the cDNA corresponding to the expressed homolog of {Psi}ARF 4, referred to as human ARF 4. It appears that {Psi}ARF 4 arose during human evolution by integration of processed ARF 4 mRNA into the genome. Human ARF 4 differs from previously identified mammalian ARFs 1, 2, and 3. Hybridization of ARF 4-specific oligonucleotide probes with human, bovine, and rat RNA revealed a single 1.8-kilobase mRNA, which was clearly distinguished from the 1.9-kilobase mRNA for ARF 1 in these tissues. The PCR provides a powerful tool for investigating diversity in this and other multigene families, especially with primers targeted at domains believed to have functional significance.

  1. 2-Azido-( sup 32 P)NAD+, a photoactivatable probe for G-protein structure: Evidence for holotransducin oligomers in which the ADP-ribosylated carboxyl terminus of alpha interacts with both alpha and gamma subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Vaillancourt, R.R.; Dhanasekaran, N.; Johnson, G.L.; Ruoho, A.E. )

    1990-05-01

    A radioactive and photoactivatable derivative of NAD+, 2-azido-(adenylate-32P)NAD+, has been synthesized and used with pertussis toxin to ADP-ribosylate Cys347 of the alpha subunit (alpha T) of GT, the retinal guanine nucleotide-binding protein. ADP-ribosylation of alpha T followed by light activation of the azide moiety of 2-azido-(adenylate-32P)ADP-ribose produced four crosslinked species involving the alpha and gamma subunits of the GT heterotrimer: an alpha trimer (alpha-alpha-alpha), and alpha-alpha-gamma crosslink, an alpha dimer (alpha-alpha), and an alpha-gamma crosslink. The alpha trimer, alpha-alpha-gamma complex, alpha dimer, and alpha-gamma complexes were immunoreactive with alpha T antibodies. The alpha-alpha-gamma and the alpha-gamma complexes were immunoreactive with antisera recognizing gamma subunits. No evidence was found for crosslinking of alpha T to beta T subunits. Hydrolysis of the thioglycosidic bond between Cys347 and 2-azido-(adenylate-32P)ADP-ribose using mercuric acetate resulted in the transfer of radiolabel from Cys347 of alpha T in the crosslinked oligomers to alpha monomers, indicative of intermolecular photocrosslinking, and to gamma monomers, indicative of either intermolecular crosslinked complexes (between heterotrimers) or intramolecular crosslinked complexes (within the heterotrimer). These results demonstrate that GT exists as an oligomer and that ADP-ribosylated Cys347, which is four residues from the alpha T-carboxyl terminus, is oriented toward and in close proximity to the gamma subunit.

  2. Characterization of ADP ribosylation factor 1 gene from Exopalaemon carinicauda and its immune response to pathogens challenge and ammonia-N stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jitao; Liu, Ping

    2016-08-01

    ADP ribosylation factors (Arf), as highly conserved small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins, participates in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. In this study, a full-length cDNA of Arf1 (designated EcArf1) was cloned from Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EcArf1 was 1428 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 549 bp, encoding a 182 amino-acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 20.69 kDa and estimated isoelectric point was 7.24. Sequence analysis revealed that the conserved Arf protein family signatures were identified in EcArf1. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcArf1 shared high identity (95%-98%) with that of other species and clustered together with Arf1 of other shrimp in the NJ phylogenetic tree, indicating that EcArf1 should be a member of the Arf1 family. Quantitative real-time RT-qPCR analysis indicated that EcArf1 was expressed in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, muscle, ovary, intestine, stomach and heart, and the most abundant level was in hemocytes and gills, which were also the two main target tissues of pathogen infection and environmental stress. After Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge, EcArf1 transcripts level significantly increased in hemocytes and hepatopancreas at 3 h and 6 h, respectively. The expression of EcArf1 in hemocytes and hepatopancreas significantly up-regulated at 12 h and 6 h respectively, and down-regulated at 72 h and 48 h, respectively. EcArf1 expression in hepatopancreas and gills both significantly increased at 6 h and decreased at 24 h under ammonia-N stress. The results suggested that EcArf1 might be involved in immune responses to pathogens (V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV) challenge and ammonia-N stress in E. carinicauda.

  3. Interaction of the GTP-binding and GTPase-activating domains of ARD1 involves the effector region of the ADP-ribosylation factor domain.

    PubMed

    Vitale, N; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1997-02-14

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and members of the Ras superfamily, originally identified and purified by their ability to enhance the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and more recently recognized as critical participants in vesicular trafficking pathways and phospholipase D activation. ARD1 is a 64-kDa protein with an 18-kDa carboxyl-terminal ARF domain (p3) and a 46-kDa amino-terminal extension (p5) that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. Using recombinant proteins, we showed that p5, the amino-terminal domain of ARD1, stimulates the GTPase activity of p3, the ARF domain, and appears to be the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) component of this bifunctional protein, whereas in other members of the Ras superfamily a separate GAP molecule interacts with the effector region of the GTP-binding protein. p5 stimulated the GTPase activity of p3 but not of ARF1, which differs from p3 in several amino acids in the effector domain. After substitution of 7 amino acids from p3 in the appropriate position in ARF1, the chimeric protein ARF1(39-45p3) bound to p5, which increased its GTPase activity. Specifically, after Gly40 and Thr45 in the putative effector domain of ARF1 were replaced with the equivalent Asp and Pro, respectively, from p3, functional interaction of the chimeric ARF1 with p5 was increased. Thus, Asp25 and Pro30 of the ARF domain (p3) of ARD1 are involved in its functional and physical interaction with the GTPase-activating (p5) domain of ARD1. After deletion of the amino-terminal 15 amino acids from ARF1(39-45p3), its interaction with p5 was essentially equivalent to that of p3, suggesting that the amino terminus of ARF1(39-45p3) may interfere with binding to p5. These results are consistent with the conclusion that the GAP domain of ARD1 interacts with the effector region of the ARF domain and thereby stimulates GTP hydrolysis.

  4. Sulfur and nitrogen mustards induce characteristic poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation responses in HaCaT keratinocytes with distinctive cellular consequences.

    PubMed

    Mangerich, Aswin; Debiak, Malgorzata; Birtel, Matthias; Ponath, Viviane; Balszuweit, Frank; Lex, Kirsten; Martello, Rita; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Strobelt, Romano; Siegert, Markus; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Mustard agents are potent DNA alkylating agents with mutagenic, cytotoxic and vesicant properties. They include bi-functional agents, such as sulfur mustard (SM) or nitrogen mustard (mustine, HN2), as well as mono-functional agents, such as "half mustard" (CEES). Whereas SM has been used as a chemical warfare agent, several nitrogen mustard derivatives, such as chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide, are being used as established chemotherapeutics. Upon induction of specific forms of genotoxic stimuli, several poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize the nucleic acid-like biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by using NAD(+) as a substrate. Previously, it was shown that SM triggers cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl) ation (PARylation), but so far this phenomenon is poorly characterized. In view of the protective effects of PARP inhibitors, the latter have been proposed as a treatment option of SM-exposed victims. In an accompanying article (Debiak et al., 2016), we have provided an optimized protocol for the analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to further analyze mustard-induced PARylation and its functional consequences, in general. Thus, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the PARylation response in HaCaT cells after treatment with four different mustard agents, i.e., SM, CEES, HN2, and chlorambucil, on a qualitative, quantitative and functional level. In particular, we recorded substance-specific as well as dose- and time-dependent PARylation responses using independent bioanalytical methods based on single-cell immuno-fluorescence microscopy and quantitative isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we analyzed if and how PARylation contributes to mustard-induced toxicity by treating HaCaT cells with CEES, SM, and HN2 in combination with the clinically relevant PARP inhibitor ABT888. As evaluated by a novel immunofluorescence-based protocol for the detection of

  5. Negative correlation between poly-ADP-ribosylation of spleen cell histone proteins and initial duration of dimethylnitrosamine exposure to mice in vivo measured by Western blot immunoprobe assay: a possible biomarker for cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Devi, Brahmacharimayum J; Schneeweiss, Frank H A; Sharan, Rajeshwar N

    2005-01-01

    Improved cancer detection involving suitable biomarkers with easy applicability is a challenge to our fight against cancer. Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) of proteins is a likely candidate biomarker for this purpose because it meets the criterion well. This report is a step towards testing suitability of PAR as a biomarker for cancer detection. Swiss albino mice were exposed to hepatocarcinogen, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), at a chronic dose, which is known to induce carcinogenesis in liver. PAR was monitored by a Western blot immunoprobe assay in spleen, a lymphoid organ, to find a correlation between PAR of spleen histone proteins and duration of DMN exposure. A negative, non-linear correlation was found for most histone proteins. The inhibition of PAR of histones was significant from 4 weeks onwards until the end of the observation. The inhibition was potentiated when 3-aminobenzamide was simultaneously administered. The results open up the possibility of PAR of cellular proteins being used as biomarker for cancer detection.

  6. Guanine nucleotide binding regulatory proteins and adenylate cyclase in livers of streptozotocin- and BB/Wor-diabetic rats. Immunodetection of Gs and Gi with antisera prepared against synthetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, C J; Blackmore, P F; Johnson, E H; Wange, R L; Krone, P K; Exton, J H

    1989-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase in liver plasma membranes from streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ) or BB/Wor spontaneously diabetic rats showed increased responsiveness to GTP, glucagon, fluoroaluminate, and cholera toxin. Basal or forskolin-stimulated activity was unchanged in STZ rats, but increased in BB/Wor rats. No change in the alpha-subunit of Gi (alpha i) was observed in STZ or BB/Wor rats using pertussis toxin-stimulated [32P]ADP-ribosylation. Immunodetection using antibodies against the COOH-terminal decapeptides of alpha T and alpha i-3 showed no change in alpha i in STZ rats and a slight decrease in BB/Wor rats. Angiotensin II inhibition of hepatic adenylate cyclase was not altered in either diabetic rat. In both models of diabetes, Gs alpha-subunits were increased as measured by cholera toxin-stimulated [32P]-ADP-ribosylation of 43-47.5-kD peptides, reconstitution with membranes from S49 cyc- cells or immunoreactivity using antibodies against the COOH-terminal decapeptide of alpha s. These data indicate that STZ-diabetes increases hepatic Gs but does not change Gi or adenylate cyclase catalytic activity. In contrast, BB/Wor rats show increased hepatic Gs and adenylate cyclase. These changes could explain the increase in hepatic cAMP and related dysfunctions observed in diabetes. Images PMID:2498395

  7. Dimethylnitrosamine-induced reduction in the level of poly-ADP-ribosylation of histone proteins of blood lymphocytes--a sensitive and reliable biomarker for early detection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kma, Lakhan; Sharan, Rajeshwar Nath

    2014-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) is a post-translational modification of mainly chromosomal proteins. It is known to be strongly involved in several molecular events, including nucleosome-remodelling and carcinogenesis. In this investigation, it was attempted to evaluate PAR level as a reliable biomarker for early detection of cancer in blood lymphocyte histones. PAR of isolated histone proteins was monitored in normal and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-exposed mice tissues using a novel ELISA-based immuno-probe assay developed in our laboratory. An inverse relationship was found between the level of PAR and period of DMN exposure in various histone proteins of blood lymphocytes and spleen cells. With the increase in the DMN exposure period, there was reduction in the PAR level of individual histones in both cases. It was also observed that the decrease in the level of PAR of histones resulted in progressive relaxation of genomic DNA, perhaps triggering activation of genes that are involved in initiation of transformation. The observed effect of carcinogen on the PAR of blood lymphocyte histones provided us with a handy tool for monitoring biochemical or physiological status of individuals exposed to carcinogens without obtaining biopsies of cancerous tissues, which involves several medical and ethical issues. Obtaining blood from any patient and separating blood lymphocytes are routine medical practices involving virtually no medical intervention, post-procedure medical care or trauma to a patient. Moreover, the immuno-probe assay is very simple, sensitive, reliable and cost-effective. Therefore, combined with the ease of preparation of blood lymphocytes and the simplicity of the technique, immuno-probe assay of PAR has the potential to be applied for mass screening of cancer. It appears to be a promising step in the ultimate goal of making cancer detection simple, sensitive and reliable in the near future.

  8. Exploring the role of host cell chaperones/PPIases during cellular up-take of bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxins as basis for novel pharmacological strategies to protect mammalian cells against these virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Barth, Holger

    2011-03-01

    Bacterial exotoxins exploit protein transport pathways of their mammalian target cells to deliver their enzymatic active moieties into the cytosol. There, they modify their specific substrate molecules resulting in cell damage and the clinical symptoms characteristic for each individual toxin. We have investigated the cellular uptake of the binary actin ADP-ribosylating C2 toxin from Clostridium botulinum and the binary lethal toxin from Bacillus anthracis, a metalloprotease. Both toxins are composed of a binding/translocation component and a separate enzyme component. During cellular uptake, the binding/translocation components form pores in membranes of acidified endosomes, and the enzyme components translocate as unfolded proteins through the pores into the cytosol. We found by using specific pharmacological inhibitors that the host cell chaperone Hsp90 and the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase cyclophilin A are crucial for membrane translocation of the enzyme component of the C2 toxin but not of the lethal toxin, although the structures of the binding/translocation components and the overall uptake mechanisms of both toxins are widely comparable. In conclusion, the new findings imply that Hsp90 and cyclophilin function selectively in promoting translocation of certain bacterial toxins depending on the enzyme domains of the individual toxins. The targeted pharmacological inhibition of individual host cell chaperones/PPIases prevents uptake of certain bacterial exotoxins into the cytosol of mammalian cells and thus protects cells from intoxication. Such substances could represent attractive lead substances for development of novel therapeutics to prevent toxic effects during infection with toxin-producing bacteria.

  9. Cell-permeable ceramides preferentially inhibit coated vesicle formation and exocytosis in Chinese hamster ovary compared with Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by preventing the membrane association of ADP-ribosylation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Hobman, Tom C; Dewald, Jay; Garbutt, Michael; Brindley, David N

    2002-01-01

    Differential effects of acetyl(C2-) ceramide (N-acetylsphingosine) were studied on coated vesicle formation from Golgi-enriched membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. C2-ceramide blocked the translocation of ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF-1) and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) to the membranes from CHO cells, but not those of MDCK cells. Consequently, C2-ceramide blocked the stimulation of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) by the cytosol and guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) in membranes from CHO cells. Basal specific activity of PLD1 and the concentration of ARF-1 were 3-4 times higher in Golgi-enriched membranes from MDCK cells compared with CHO cells. Moreover, PLD1 activity in MDCK cells was stimulated less by cytosol and GTP[S]. PLD2 was not detectable in the Golgi-enriched membranes. Incubation of intact CHO cells or their Golgi-enriched membranes with C2-ceramide also inhibited COP1 vesicle formation by membranes from CHO, but not MDCK, cells. Specificity was demonstrated, since dihydro-C2-ceramide had no significant effect on ARF-1 translocation, PLD1 activation or vesicle formation in membranes from both cell types. C2-ceramide also decreased the secretion of virus-like particles to a greater extent in CHO compared with MDCK cells, whereas dihydro-C2-ceramide had no significant effect. The results demonstrate a biological effect of C2-ceramide in CHO cells by decreasing ARF-1 and PKC-alpha binding to Golgi-enriched membranes, thereby preventing COP1 vesicle formation. PMID:11802796

  10. Activation of Telomerase by Ionizing Radiation: Differential Response to the Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Abrogation of Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, by LY294002, or by Wortmannin

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhof, Dirk Zwicker, Felix; Kuepper, Jan-Heiner; Debus, Juergen; Weber, Klaus-Josef

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: Telomerase activity represents a radiation-inducible function, which may be targeted by a double-strand break (DSB)-activated signal transduction pathway. Therefore, the effects of DNA-PK inhibitors (Wortmannin and LY294002) on telomerase upregulation after irradiation were studied. In addition, the role of trans-dominant inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which strongly reduces DSB rejoining, was assessed in comparison with 3-aminobenzamide. Methods and Materials: COM3 rodent cells carry a construct for the dexamethasone-inducible overexpression of the DNA-binding domain of PARP1 and exhibit greatly impaired DSB rejoining after irradiation. Telomerase activity was measured using polymerase chain reaction ELISA 1 h after irradiation with doses up to 10 Gy. Phosphorylation status of PKB/Akt and of PKC{alpha}/{beta}{sub II} was assessed by western blotting. Results: No telomerase upregulation was detectable for irradiated cells with undisturbed DSB rejoining. In contrast, incubation with LY294002 or dexamethasone yielded pronounced radiation induction of telomerase activity that could be suppressed by Wortmannin. 3-Aminobenzamide not only was unable to induce telomerase activity but also suppressed telomerase upregulation upon incubation with LY294002 or dexamethasone. Phospho-PKB was detectable independent of irradiation or dexamethasone pretreatment, but was undetectable upon incubations with LY294002 or Wortmannin, whereas phospho-PKC rested detectable. Conclusions: Telomerase activation postirradiation was triggered by different treatments that interfere with DNA DSB processing. This telomerase upregulation, however, was not reflected by the phosporylation status of the putative mediators of TERT activation, PKB and PKC. Although an involvement of PKB in TERT activation is not supported by the present findings, a respective role of PKC isoforms other than {alpha}/{beta}{sub II} cannot be ruled out.

  11. Human myeloma cells express the CD38 ligand CD31.

    PubMed

    Vallario, A; Chilosi, M; Adami, F; Montagna, L; Deaglio, S; Malavasi, F; Caligaris-Cappio, F

    1999-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) plasma cells (PC) are CD38+. A ligand for CD38 is the adhesion molecule CD31. By flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry we have investigated whether malignant PC co-express CD38 and CD31. All 68 patients studied were CD38+. 14/14 monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) and 39/39 plasmacytic MM patients co-expressed CD38 and CD31 at high density. Only 1/11 plasmablastic MM and 1/4 plasma cell leukaemias (PCL) expressed CD31. These data indicated that PC malignancies co-expressed high levels of both CD38 and its ligand CD31, with the exception of plasmablastic MM and PCL.

  12. Immunochemical analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by the mono-alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES): Impact of experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Debiak, Malgorzata; Lex, Kirsten; Ponath, Viviane; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent with a long history of use as a chemical weapon. Although its last military use is dated for the eighties of the last century, a potential use in terroristic attacks against civilians remains a significant threat. Thus, improving medical therapy of mustard exposed individuals is still of particular interest. PARP inhibitors were recently brought into the focus as a potential countermeasure for mustard-induced pathologies, supported by the availability of efficient compounds successfully tested in cancer therapy. PARP activation after SM treatment was reported in several cell types and tissues under various conditions; however, a detailed characterization of this phenomenon is still missing. This study provides the basis for such studies by developing and optimizing experimental conditions to investigate poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) in HaCaT keratinocytes upon treatment with the monofunctional alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide ("half mustard", CEES). By using an immunofluorescence-based approach, we show that optimization of experimental conditions with regards to the type of solvent, dilution factors and treatment procedure is essential to obtain a homogenous PAR staining in HaCaT cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different CEES treatment protocols significantly influence the cytotoxicity profiles of treated cells. Using an optimized treatment protocol, our data reveals that CEES induces a dose- and time-dependent dynamic PARylation response in HaCaT cells that could be completely blocked by treating cells with the clinically relevant pharmacological PARP inhibitor ABT888 (also known as veliparib). Finally, siRNA experiments show that CEES-induced PAR formation is predominantly due to the activation of PARP1. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to study the

  13. CD38 promotes angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiao-Hui; Hong, Xuan; Zhao, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Yun-Fei; Chen, Ting-Tao; Deng, Li-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Jian-Bin; Ji, Guang-Ju; Fu, Mingui; Deng, Ke-Yu; Xin, Hong-Bo

    2017-03-12

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an early hallmark during the clinical course of heart failure and regulated by various signalling pathways. Recently, we observed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts from CD38 knockout mice were significantly resistant to oxidative stress such as H2 O2 -induced injury and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury. In addition, we also found that CD38 knockout mice protected heart from ischaemia reperfusion injury through activating SIRT1/FOXOs-mediated antioxidative stress pathway. However, the role of CD38 in cardiac hypertrophy is not explored. Here, we investigated the roles and mechanisms of CD38 in angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Following 14 days of Ang-II infusion with osmotic mini-pumps, a comparable hypertension was generated in both of CD38 knockout and wild-type mice. However, the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were much more severe in wild-type mice compared with CD38 knockout mice. Consistently, RNAi-induced knockdown of CD38 decreased the gene expressions of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and reactive oxygen species generation in Ang-II-stimulated H9c2 cells. In addition, the expression of SIRT3 was elevated in CD38 knockdown H9c2 cells, in which SIRT3 may further activate the FOXO3 antioxidant pathway. The intracellular Ca(2+) release induced by Ang-II markedly decreased in CD38 knockdown H9c2 cells, which might be associated with the decrease of nuclear translocation of NFATc4 and inhibition of ERK/AKT phosphorylation. We concluded that CD38 plays an essential role in cardiac hypertrophy probably via inhibition of SIRT3 expression and activation of Ca(2+) -NFAT signalling pathway. Thus, CD38 may be a novel target for treating cardiac hypertrophy.

  14. Immuno-targeting the multifunctional CD38 using nanobody

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Qi, Shali; Unger, Mandy; Hou, Yun Nan; Deng, Qi Wen; Liu, Jun; Lam, Connie M. C.; Wang, Xian Wang; Xin, Du; Zhang, Peng; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Hao, Quan; Zhang, Hongmin; Lee, Hon Cheung; Zhao, Yong Juan

    2016-01-01

    CD38, as a cell surface antigen is highly expressed in several hematologic malignancies including multiple myeloma (MM) and has been proven to be a good target for immunotherapy of the disease. CD38 is also a signaling enzyme responsible for the metabolism of two novel calcium messenger molecules. To be able to target this multifunctional protein, we generated a series of nanobodies against CD38 with high affinities. Crystal structures of the complexes of CD38 with the nanobodies were solved, identifying three separate epitopes on the carboxyl domain. Chromobodies, engineered by tagging the nanobody with fluorescence proteins, provide fast, simple and versatile tools for quantifying CD38 expression. Results confirmed that CD38 was highly expressed in malignant MM cells compared with normal white blood cells. The immunotoxin constructed by splicing the nanobody with a bacterial toxin, PE38 shows highly selective cytotoxicity against patient-derived MM cells as well as the cell lines, with half maximal effective concentration reaching as low as 10−11 molar. The effectiveness of the immunotoxin can be further increased by stimulating CD38 expression using retinoid acid. These results set the stage for the development of clinical therapeutics as well as diagnostic screening for myeloma. PMID:27251573

  15. Monoclonal antibodies targeting CD38 in hematological malignancies and beyond.

    PubMed

    van de Donk, Niels W C J; Janmaat, Maarten L; Mutis, Tuna; Lammerts van Bueren, Jeroen J; Ahmadi, Tahamtan; Sasser, A Kate; Lokhorst, Henk M; Parren, Paul W H I

    2016-03-01

    CD38 is a multifunctional cell surface protein that has receptor as well as enzyme functions. The protein is generally expressed at low levels on various hematological and solid tissues, while plasma cells express particularly high levels of CD38. The protein is also expressed in a subset of hematological tumors, and shows especially broad and high expression levels in plasma cell tumors such as multiple myeloma (MM). Together, this triggered the development of various therapeutic CD38 antibodies, including daratumumab, isatuximab, and MOR202. Daratumumab binds a unique CD38 epitope and showed strong anti-tumor activity in preclinical models. The antibody engages diverse mechanisms of action, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, programmed cell death, modulation of enzymatic activity, and immunomodulatory activity. CD38-targeting antibodies have a favorable toxicity profile in patients, and early clinical data show a marked activity in MM, while studies in other hematological malignancies are ongoing. Daratumumab has single agent activity and a limited toxicity profile, allowing favorable combination therapies with existing as well as emerging therapies, which are currently evaluated in the clinic. Finally, CD38 antibodies may have a role in the treatment of diseases beyond hematological malignancies, including solid tumors and antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  16. Cyclic ADP-ribose as a universal calcium signal molecule in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Salmina, Alla B; Olovyannikova, Raissa Ya; Hashii, Minako; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Koizumi, Keita; Jin, Duo; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Amina, Sarwat; Islam, Mohammad Saharul; Huang, Jian-Jun; Noda, Mami

    2007-01-01

    beta-NAD(+) is as abundant as ATP in neuronal cells. beta-NAD(+) functions not only as a coenzyme but also as a substrate. beta-NAD(+)-utilizing enzymes are involved in signal transduction. We focus on ADP-ribosyl cyclase/CD38 which synthesizes cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a universal Ca(2+) mobilizer from intracellular stores, from beta-NAD(+). cADPR acts through activation/modulation of ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) releasing Ca(2+) channels. cADPR synthesis in neuronal cells is stimulated or modulated via different pathways and various factors. Subtype-specific coupling of various neurotransmitter receptors with ADP-ribosyl cyclase confirms the involvement of the enzyme in signal transduction in neurons and glial cells. Moreover, cADPR/CD38 is critical in oxytocin release from the hypothalamic cell dendrites and nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Therefore, it is possible that pharmacological manipulation of intracellular cADPR levels through ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity or synthetic cADPR analogues may provide new therapeutic opportunities for treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  17. Distribution of adenylate cyclase and GTP-binding proteins in hepatic plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B S; Sutherland, E; Alexander, A; Nibel, D; Simon, F R

    1993-10-01

    Hepatic membrane subfractions prepared from control rats demonstrated forskolin (FSK)-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the basolateral (sinusoidal) but not apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. After bile duct ligation (BDL) for 12 or 24 h, there was an increase in FSK-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the apical membrane (54.2 +/- 3.9 pmol.mg-1 x min-1). The mechanism for this increase was explored further. ATP hydrolysis was found to be much higher in the apical than the basolateral membrane. Increasing the ATP levels in the assay enhanced apical membrane adenylate cyclase activity (10.5 +/- 0.2 pmol.mg-l.min-1); however, total adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity was not altered after BDL. Extraction of the apical membrane with bile acids or other detergents resulted in a two- to threefold increase in adenylate cyclase activity (30.6 +/- 3.6 pmol.mg-1 x min-1; detergent C12E8) This suggested that bile duct ligation was acting via the detergent-like action of bile acids to uncover latent adenylate cyclase activity on apical membranes. Further studies demonstrated that both BDL and detergent extraction also enhanced toxin-directed ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha (cholera toxin) and Gi alpha (pertussis toxin) in the apical but not the basolateral membrane. After BDL, Gi alpha was found to be twofold greater in the apical membrane than the basolateral membrane. Immunoblotting using specific G protein antibodies further confirmed that apical membranes from control rats had a higher concentration of Gi1, 2 alpha and beta and slightly elevated levels of Gi3 alpha and Gs alpha compared with the basolateral membrane. The results demonstrate that adenylate cyclase and heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins are present on the apical membrane, but measurement of their functional activity requires detergent permeabilization of apical membrane vesicles and is limited by the presence of high ATPase activity.

  18. Structure and functional regulation of the CD38 promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Li; Iqbal, Jameel; Zaidi, Samir; Zhu Linglng; Zhang Xuefeng; Peng Yuanzheng; Moonga, Baljit S.; Zaidi, Mone . E-mail: mone.zaidi@mssm.edu

    2006-03-17

    CD38 has multiple roles in biology, including T lymphocyte signaling, neutrophil migration, neurotransmission, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and bone remodeling. To study the transcriptional control of the CD38 gene, we cloned a putative 1.8 kb promoter fragment from a rabbit genomic DNA library. Primer extension analysis indicated two transcription start sites consistent with the absence of a TATA box. Sequence analysis revealed several AP-1, AP-4, myo-D, GATA, and SP-1 sequences. MC3T3.E1 (osteoblast) or RAW-C3 (osteoclast precursor macrophage) cells were then transfected with the CD38 promoter or its deletion fragments ligated to the luciferase reporter gene. Except for the shortest 41 bp fragment, all fragments showed significant luciferase activity. There was a marked stimulation of basal activity in the 93 bp fragment that contained a GC box and SP-1 site. Furthermore, there were significant differences in the activity of the fragments in MC3T3.E1 and RAW-C3 cells. Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevations by ionomycin (10 {mu}M) in MC3T3.E1 cells inhibited promoter activity, except in the short 41 bp. In contrast, cAMP elevation by exposure to forskolin (100 {mu}M) inhibited activation of all fragments, except the 0.6 and 1.2 kb fragments. Finally, TNF-{alpha} stimulated promoter activity in RAW-C3 cells transfected with the 93 bp and 1.0 kb fragments, consistent with the stimulation of CD38 mRNA by TNF-{alpha}. Physiologically, therefore, modulation of the expression of the NAD{sup +}-sensing enzyme, CD38, by Ca{sup 2+}, cAMP, and cytokines, such as TNF-{alpha} may contribute to coupling the intense metabolic activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts to their respective bone-resorbing and bone-forming functions.

  19. E2A is a transcriptional regulator of CD38 expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Saborit-Villarroya, I; Vaisitti, T; Rossi, D; D'Arena, G; Gaidano, G; Malavasi, F; Deaglio, S

    2011-03-01

    CD38, a nucleotide-metabolizing ectoenzyme and a receptor, is a negative prognostic marker for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. CD38 has a genetic polymorphism, with a C → G variation in a putative E-box located in a regulatory region. E2A, the predominant E-box factor in B lymphocytes, was found to be highly expressed by CD38(+) CLL patients. The highest CD38 levels scored by E2A(+)/G carrier patients suggested that E2A is (i) directly associated with CD38 expression, and that (ii) the binding of the transcription factor is influenced by the CD38 genotype. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that E2A directly interacts with the CD38 regulatory region. Furthermore, E2A binding was stronger in the presence of the G allele. Experiments of E2A silencing led to a significant reduction of surface levels of CD38, confirming the working hypothesis. A direct functional interplay between E2A and CD38 was shown by exposing CLL cells to interleukin-2 and TLR-9 ligands, both inducers of CD38 expression. Under these conditions, CD38 upregulation was primarily conditioned by the presence of E2A and then by the G allele. The results of this study link E2A and CD38 expression within a common pathway, in which E-protein activity is required for the efficient induction of CD38 transcription.

  20. Ectocellular in vitro and in vivo metabolism of cADP-ribose in cerebellum.

    PubMed Central

    De Flora, A; Guida, L; Franco, L; Zocchi, E; Pestarino, M; Usai, C; Marchetti, C; Fedele, E; Fontana, G; Raiteri, M

    1996-01-01

    CD38, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein predominantly expressed in blood cells, is a bifunctional ectoenzyme directly involved in the metabolism of cADP-ribose (cADPR). This is a potent Ca2+ mobilizer in several types of cells. The relationship between the ectocellular site of cADPR production and its intracellular calcium-related functions is poorly understood. Cultured rat cerebellar granule cells showed both enzymic activities of CD38, ADP-ribosyl cyclase and cADPR hydrolase, at a ratio of 16 to 1 respectively, and were immunostained by the anti-(human CD38) monoclonal antibody IB4. In these cells externally added cADPR and beta-NAD+ (the precursor of cADPR), but not alpha-NAD+ or ADP-ribose, enhanced the peak of the depolarization-induced rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. This effect was inhibited by 1 microM ryanodine, suggesting a potentiation of calcium-induced calcium release by cADPR. CD38 ectoenzyme activities, ADP-ribosyl cyclase and cADPR hydrolase, were also demonstrated in vivo by microdialysis of adult rat cerebellum, where IB4 bound to granule neurons selectively. Trace amounts (11.5 +/- 3.8 nM) of NAD+ were detected by microdialysis sampling and sensitive assays in the basal interstitial fluid of the cerebellum. These results provide a link between ectocellular cADPR turnover and intracellular calcium mobilization in cerebellum. PMID:8973582

  1. CD38 Is Expressed on Inflammatory Cells of the Intestine and Promotes Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Michael; Schumacher, Valéa; Lischke, Timo; Lücke, Karsten; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Velden, Joachim; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme CD38 is expressed on a variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and is involved in diverse processes such as generation of calcium-mobilizing metabolites, cell activation, and chemotaxis. Here, we show that under homeostatic conditions CD38 is highly expressed on immune cells of the colon mucosa of C57BL/6 mice. Myeloid cells recruited to this tissue upon inflammation also express enhanced levels of CD38. To determine the role of CD38 in intestinal inflammation, we applied the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model. Whereas wild-type mice developed severe colitis, CD38-/- mice had only mild disease following DSS-treatment. Histologic examination of the colon mucosa revealed pronounced inflammatory damage with dense infiltrates containing numerous granulocytes and macrophages in wild-type animals, while these findings were significantly attenuated in CD38-/- mice. Despite attenuated histological findings, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was only marginally lower in the colons of CD38-/- mice as compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, our results identify a function for CD38 in the control of inflammatory processes in the colon. PMID:25938500

  2. Mice Deficient in CD38 Develop an Attenuated Form of Collagen Type II-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Postigo, Jorge; Iglesias, Marcos; Cerezo-Wallis, Daniela; Rosal-Vela, Antonio; García-Rodríguez, Sonia; Zubiaur, Mercedes; Sancho, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    CD38, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in many cells of the immune system, is involved in cell signaling, migration and differentiation. Studies in CD38 deficient mice (CD38 KO mice) indicate that this molecule controls inflammatory immune responses, although its involvement in these responses depends on the disease model analyzed. Here, we explored the role of CD38 in the control of autoimmune responses using chicken collagen type II (col II) immunized C57BL/6-CD38 KO mice as a model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We demonstrate that CD38 KO mice develop an attenuated CIA that is accompanied by a limited joint induction of IL-1β and IL-6 expression, by the lack of induction of IFNγ expression in the joints and by a reduction in the percentages of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in the spleen. Immunized CD38 KO mice produce high levels of circulating IgG1 and low of IgG2a anti-col II antibodies in association with reduced percentages of Th1 cells in the draining lymph nodes. Altogether, our results show that CD38 participates in the pathogenesis of CIA controlling the number of iNKT cells and promoting Th1 inflammatory responses. PMID:22438945

  3. Role of CD38, a cyclic ADP-ribosylcyclase, in morphine antinociception and tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hull, Lynn C; Rabender, Christopher; Gabra, Bichoy H; Zhang, Fan; Li, Pin-Lan; Dewey, William L

    2010-09-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that an increase in intracellular levels of Ca(2+) in neurons is an important component of both the antinociception produced by morphine and morphine's tolerance. The present study tested the hypothesis that the Ca(2+) signaling second messenger, cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), derived from CD38 activation participates in morphine antinociception and tolerance. We first showed that morphine's antinociceptive potency was increased by the intracerebroventricular injection of CD38 substrate beta-NAD(+) in mice. Furthermore, morphine tolerance was reversed by intracerebroventricular administration of each of three different inhibitors of the CD38-cADPR-ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) signaling pathway. These inhibitors were the ADP-ribosylcyclase inhibitor nicotinamide, cADPR analog 8-bromo-cADPR, and a large dose of ryanodine (>50 muM) that blocks the ryanodine receptor. In CD38 gene knockout [CD38(-/-)] mice, the antinociceptive action of morphine was found to be less potent compared with wild-type (WT) mice, as measured by tail-flick response, hypothermia assay, and observations of straub tail. However, there was no difference in locomotor activation between CD38(-/-) and WT animals. It was also found that less tolerance to morphine developed in CD38(-/-) mice compared with WT animals. These results indicate that cADRP-ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) signaling associated with CD38 plays an important role in morphine tolerance.

  4. Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Is Involved in the CD38 Signal Transduction Pathway in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Benkisser-Petersen, Marco; Buchner, Maike; Dörffel, Arlette; Dühren-von-Minden, Marcus; Claus, Rainer; Kläsener, Kathrin; Leberecht, Kerstin; Burger, Meike; Dierks, Christine; Jumaa, Hassan; Malavasi, Fabio; Reth, Michael; Veelken, Hendrik; Duyster, Justus

    2016-01-01

    The survival and proliferation of CLL cells depends on microenvironmental contacts in lymphoid organs. CD38 is a cell surface receptor that plays an important role in survival and proliferation signaling in CLL. In this study we demonstrate SYK's direct involvement in the CD38 signaling pathway in primary CLL samples. CD38 stimulation of CLL cells revealed SYK activation. SYK downstream target AKT was subsequently induced and MCL-1 expression was increased. Concomitant inhibition of SYK by the SYK inhibitor R406 resulted in reduced activation of AKT and prevented upregulation of MCL-1. Moreover, short-term CD38 stimulation enhanced BCR-signaling, as indicated by increased ERK phosphorylation. CXCL12-dependent migration was increased after CD38 stimulation. Treating CLL cells with R406 inhibited CD38-mediated migration. In addition, we observed marked downregulation of CD38 expression for CLL cells treated with R406 compared to vehicle control. Finally, we observed a clear correlation between CD38 expression on CLL cells and SYK-inhibitor efficacy. In conclusion, our study provides deeper mechanistic insight into the effect of SYK inhibition in CLL. PMID:28036404

  5. Anti-CD38 autoimmunity in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves' disease

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, A; Fallahi, P; Nesti, C; Pupilli, C; Marchetti, P; Takasawa, S; Okamoto, H; Ferrannini, E

    2001-01-01

    Autoantibodies directed against human CD38 (an enzyme catalysing the interconversion of NAD+ and cyclic ADP-ribose) have been demonstrated recently in patients with type 2 diabetes. We tested 220 consecutive Caucasian patients with autoimmune chronic thyroiditis, 104 patients with Graves' disease, 220 subjects from the general population (control I) and 78 healthy control subjects not affected by thyroid autoimmune disorders (control II) for the presence of anti-CD38 autoimmunity. Using Western blot analysis and optical densitometry, a specific band corresponding to human recombinant CD38 was identified in the serum of several subjects. By defining anti-CD38 positivity as a standardized optical reading >3 s.d. higher than the mean value of control I, 10·4% of patients with thyroiditis and 7·7% of Graves' patients were anti-CD38 positive (P = 0·0009 versus 1·8% of control I). Similarly, 13·1% of patients with thyroiditis and 10·5% of Graves' patients had a standardized optical reading >3 s.d. higher than the mean value of the subjects not affected by thyroid autoimmune disorders (P = 0·002 versus 1·2% of control II). Anti-CD38 autoimmunity did not differ between euthyroid, hyperthyroid or hypothyroid patients or between patients with or without thyroid hypoechogenicity. Anti-CD38 autoantibodies were associated with higher levels of circulating antithyroid-peroxidase antibodies (P = 0·03) and they were more frequent in Graves' patients with ophthalmopathy (P < 0·05). Anti-CD38 autoantibodies are a new autoimmune marker in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves' disease. The specific role of CD38 and its autoantibodies in the modulation of thyroid cell function or growth remains to be investigated. PMID:11737057

  6. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrer, Joerg; Wagner, Silvia; Buerkle, Alexander; Koenigsrainer, Alfred

    2009-08-14

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  7. Two genetic variants of CD38 in subjects with autism spectrum disorder and controls.

    PubMed

    Munesue, Toshio; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Anitha, Ayyappan; Yamada, Kazuo; Hayashi, Kenshi; Asaka, Tomoya; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Jin, Duo; Koizumi, Keita; Islam, Mohammad Saharul; Huang, Jian-Jun; Ma, Wen-Jie; Kim, Uh-Hyun; Kim, Sun-Jun; Park, Keunwan; Kim, Dongsup; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Ono, Yasuki; Nakatani, Hideo; Suda, Shiro; Miyachi, Taishi; Hirai, Hirokazu; Salmina, Alla; Pichugina, Yu A; Soumarokov, Andrei A; Takei, Nori; Mori, Norio; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Yagi, Kunimasa; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryota; Taniike, Masako; Hayashi, Yutaka; Hamada, Junichiro; Suzuki, Shioto; Ooi, Akishi; Noda, Mami; Kamiyama, Yuko; Kido, Mizuho A; Lopatina, Olga; Hashii, Minako; Amina, Sarwat; Malavasi, Fabio; Huang, Eric J; Zhang, Jiasheng; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Matsushima, Akihiro; Minabe, Yoshio; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2010-06-01

    The neurobiological basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains poorly understood. Given the role of CD38 in social recognition through oxytocin (OT) release, we hypothesized that CD38 may play a role in the etiology of ASD. Here, we first examined the immunohistochemical expression of CD38 in the hypothalamus of post-mortem brains of non-ASD subjects and found that CD38 was colocalized with OT in secretory neurons. In studies of the association between CD38 and autism, we analyzed 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations of CD38 by re-sequencing DNAs mainly from a case-control study in Japan, and Caucasian cases mainly recruited to the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE). The SNPs of CD38, rs6449197 (p<0.040) and rs3796863 (p<0.005) showed significant associations with a subset of ASD (IQ>70; designated as high-functioning autism (HFA)) in the U.S. 104 AGRE family trios, but not with Japanese 188 HFA subjects. A mutation that caused tryptophan to replace arginine at amino acid residue 140 (R140W; (rs1800561, 4693C>T)) was found in 0.6-4.6% of the Japanese population and was associated with ASD in the smaller case-control study. The SNP was clustered in pedigrees in which the fathers and brothers of T-allele-carrier probands had ASD or ASD traits. In this cohort OT plasma levels were lower in subjects with the T allele than in those without. One proband with the T allele who was taking nasal OT spray showed relief of symptoms. The two variant CD38 poloymorphysms tested may be of interest with regard of the pathophysiology of ASD.

  8. Receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of arachidonic acid release in 3T3 fibroblasts. Selective susceptibility to islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, T.; Ui, M.

    1985-06-25

    Thrombin exhibited diverse effects on mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. It (a) decreased cAMP in the cell suspension, (b) inhibited adenylate cyclase in the Lubrol-permeabilized cell suspension in a GTP-dependent manner, increased releases of (c) arachidonic acid and (d) inositol from the cell monolayer prelabeled with these labeled compounds, (e) increased /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake into the cell monolayer, and (f) increased /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake into the cell monolayer in a ouabain-sensitive manner. Most of the effects were reproduced by bradykinin, platelet-activating factor, and angiotensin II. The receptors for these agonists are thus likely to be linked to three separate effector systems: the adenylate cyclase inhibition, the phosphoinositide breakdown leading to Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization and phospholipase A2 activation, and the Na,K-ATPase activation. Among the effects of these agonists, (a), (b), (c), and (e) were abolished, but (d) and (f) were not, by prior treatment of the cells with islet-activating protein (IAP), pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylates the Mr = 41,000 protein, the alpha-subunit of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (Ni), thereby abolishing receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase. The effects (a), (c), (d), and (e) of thrombin, but not (b), were mimicked by A23187, a calcium ionophore. The effects of A23187, in contrast to those of receptor agonists, were not affected by the treatment of cells with IAP. Thus, the IAP substrate, the alpha-subunit of Ni, or the protein alike, may play an additional role in signal transduction arising from the Ca/sup 2 +/-mobilizing receptors, probably mediating process(es) distal to phosphoinositide breakdown and proximal to Ca/sup 2 +/ gating.

  9. Regulation of follitropin-sensitive adenylate cyclase by stimulatory and inhibitory forms of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in immature rat Sertoli cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    Studies have been designed to examine the role of guanine nucleotides in mediating FSH-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in Sertoli cell plasma membranes. Analysis of ({sup 3}H)GDP binding to plasma membranes suggested a single high affinity site with a K{sub d} = 0.24 uM. Competition studies indicated that GTP{sub {gamma}}S was 7-fold more potent than GDP{sub {beta}}S. Bound GDP could be released by FSH in the presence of GTP{sub {gamma}}S, but not by FSH alone. Adenylate cyclase activity was enhanced 5-fold by FSH in the presence of GTP. Addition of GDP{sub {beta}}S to the activated enzyme (FSH plus GTP) resulted in a time-dependent decay to basal activity within 20 sec. GDP{sub {beta}}S competitively inhibited GTP{sub {gamma}}S-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a K{sub i} = 0.18 uM. Adenylate cyclase activity was also demonstrated to be sensitive to the nucleotide bound state. In the presence of FSH, only the GTP{sub {gamma}}S-bound form persisted even if GDP{sub {beta}}S previously occupied all available binding sites. Two membrane proteins, M{sub r} = 43,000 and 48,000, were ADP{centered dot}ribosylated using cholera toxin and labeling was enhanced 2 to 4-fold by GTP{sub {gamma}}S but not by GDP{sub {beta}}S. The M{sub r} = 43,000 and 48,000 proteins represented variant forms of G{sub S}. A single protein of M{sub r} = 40,000 (G{sub i}) was ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin in vitro. GTP inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with an IC{sub 50} = 0.1 uM. The adenosine analog, N{sup 6}{centered dot}phenylisopropyl adenosine enhanced GTP inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by an additional 15%. GTP-dependent inhibition of forskolin-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity was abolished in membranes prepared from Sertoli cells treated in culture with pertussis toxin.

  10. Regulation of SIRT 1 mediated NAD dependent deacetylation: a novel role for the multifunctional enzyme CD38.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Pinar; Escande, Carlos; White, Thomas A; Thompson, Michael; Soares, Sandra; Benech, Juan Claudio; Chini, Eduardo N

    2006-10-13

    The SIRT 1 enzyme is a NAD dependent deacetylase implicated in ageing, cell protection, and energy metabolism in mammalian cells. How the endogenous activity of SIRT 1 is modulated is not known. The enzyme CD38 is a multifunctional enzyme capable of synthesis of the second messenger, cADPR, NAADP, and ADPR. However, the major enzymatic activity of CD38 is the hydrolysis of NAD. Of particular interest is the fact that CD38 is present on the inner nuclear membrane. Here, we investigate the modulation of the SIRT 1 activity by CD38. We propose that by modulating availability of NAD to the SIRT1 enzyme, CD38 may regulate SIRT1 enzymatic activity. We observed that in CD38 knockout mice, tissue levels of NAD are significantly increased. We also observed that incubation of purified recombinant SIRT1 enzyme with CD38 or nuclear extracts of wild-type mice led to a significant inhibition of its activity. In contrast, incubation of SIRT1 with cellular extract from CD38 knockout mice was without effect. Furthermore, the endogenous activity of SIRT1 was several time higher in nuclear extracts from CD38 knockout mice when compared to wild-type nuclear extracts. Finally, the in vivo deacetylation of the SIRT1 substrate P53 is increased in CD38 knockout mice tissue. Our data support the novel concept that nuclear CD38 is a major regulator of cellular/nuclear NAD level, and SIRT1 activity. These findings have strong implications for understanding the basic mechanisms that modulate intracellular NAD levels, energy homeostasis, as well as ageing and cellular protection modulated by the SIRT enzymes.

  11. Regulation of SIRT 1 mediated NAD dependent deacetylation: A novel role for the multifunctional enzyme CD38

    SciTech Connect

    Aksoy, Pinar; Escande, Carlos; White, Thomas A.; Thompson, Michael; Soares, Sandra; Benech, Juan Claudio; Chini, Eduardo N. . E-mail: chini.eduardo@mayo.edu

    2006-10-13

    The SIRT 1 enzyme is a NAD dependent deacetylase implicated in ageing, cell protection, and energy metabolism in mammalian cells. How the endogenous activity of SIRT 1 is modulated is not known. The enzyme CD38 is a multifunctional enzyme capable of synthesis of the second messenger, cADPR, NAADP, and ADPR. However, the major enzymatic activity of CD38 is the hydrolysis of NAD. Of particular interest is the fact that CD38 is present on the inner nuclear membrane. Here, we investigate the modulation of the SIRT 1 activity by CD38. We propose that by modulating availability of NAD to the SIRT1 enzyme, CD38 may regulate SIRT1 enzymatic activity. We observed that in CD38 knockout mice, tissue levels of NAD are significantly increased. We also observed that incubation of purified recombinant SIRT1 enzyme with CD38 or nuclear extracts of wild-type mice led to a significant inhibition of its activity. In contrast, incubation of SIRT1 with cellular extract from CD38 knockout mice was without effect. Furthermore, the endogenous activity of SIRT1 was several time higher in nuclear extracts from CD38 knockout mice when compared to wild-type nuclear extracts. Finally, the in vivo deacetylation of the SIRT1 substrate P53 is increased in CD38 knockout mice tissue. Our data support the novel concept that nuclear CD38 is a major regulator of cellular/nuclear NAD level, and SIRT1 activity. These findings have strong implications for understanding the basic mechanisms that modulate intracellular NAD levels, energy homeostasis, as well as ageing and cellular protection modulated by the SIRT enzymes.

  12. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) modulates CD38 expression, absorbs retinoic acid and may perturb retinoid signalling.

    PubMed

    Futrega, Kathryn; Yu, Jianshi; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen A; Lott, William B; Atkinson, Kerry; Doran, Michael R

    2016-04-21

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most commonly used material in the manufacture of customized cell culture devices. While there is concern that uncured PDMS oligomers may leach into culture medium and/or hydrophobic molecules may be absorbed into PDMS structures, there is no consensus on how or if PDMS influences cell behaviour. We observed that human umbilical cord blood (CB)-derived CD34(+) cells expanded in standard culture medium on PDMS exhibit reduced CD38 surface expression, relative to cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP). All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces CD38 expression, and we reasoned that this hydrophobic molecule might be absorbed by PDMS. Through a series of experiments we demonstrated that ATRA-mediated CD38 expression was attenuated when cultures were maintained on PDMS. Medium pre-incubated on PDMS for extended durations resulted in a time-dependant reduction of ATRA in the medium and increasingly attenuated CD38 expression. This indicated a time-dependent absorption of ATRA into the PDMS. To better understand how PDMS might generally influence cell behaviour, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to identify potential upstream regulators. This analysis was performed for differentially expressed genes in primary cells including CD34(+) haematopoietic progenitor cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), and keratinocytes, and cell lines including prostate cancer epithelial cells (LNCaP), breast cancer epithelial cells (MCF-7), and myeloid leukaemia cells (KG1a). IPA predicted that the most likely common upstream regulator of perturbed pathways was ATRA. We demonstrate here that ATRA is absorbed by PDMS in a time-dependent manner and results in the concomitant reduced expression of CD38 on the cell surface of CB-derived CD34(+) cells.

  13. Bacterial effector binds host cell adenylyl cyclase to potentiate Gαs-dependent cAMP production.

    PubMed

    Pulliainen, Arto T; Pieles, Kathrin; Brand, Cameron S; Hauert, Barbara; Böhm, Alex; Quebatte, Maxime; Wepf, Alexander; Gstaiger, Matthias; Aebersold, Ruedi; Dessauer, Carmen W; Dehio, Christoph

    2012-06-12

    Subversion of host organism cAMP signaling is an efficient and widespread mechanism of microbial pathogenesis. Bartonella effector protein A (BepA) of vasculotumorigenic Bartonella henselae protects the infected human endothelial cells against apoptotic stimuli by elevation of cellular cAMP levels by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, adenylyl cyclase (AC) and the α-subunit of the AC-stimulating G protein (Gαs) were identified as potential cellular target proteins for BepA by gel-free proteomics. Results of the proteomics screen were evaluated for physical and functional interaction by: (i) a heterologous in vivo coexpression system, where human AC activity was reconstituted under the regulation of Gαs and BepA in Escherichia coli; (ii) in vitro AC assays with membrane-anchored full-length human AC and recombinant BepA and Gαs; (iii) surface plasmon resonance experiments; and (iv) an in vivo fluorescence bimolecular complementation-analysis. The data demonstrate that BepA directly binds host cell AC to potentiate the Gαs-dependent cAMP production. As opposed to the known microbial mechanisms, such as ADP ribosylation of G protein α-subunits by cholera and pertussis toxins, the fundamentally different BepA-mediated elevation of host cell cAMP concentration appears subtle and is dependent on the stimulus of a G protein-coupled receptor-released Gαs. We propose that this mechanism contributes to the persistence of Bartonella henselae in the chronically infected vascular endothelium.

  14. Bacterial effector binds host cell adenylyl cyclase to potentiate Gαs-dependent cAMP production

    PubMed Central

    Pulliainen, Arto T.; Pieles, Kathrin; Brand, Cameron S.; Hauert, Barbara; Böhm, Alex; Quebatte, Maxime; Wepf, Alexander; Gstaiger, Matthias; Aebersold, Ruedi; Dessauer, Carmen W.; Dehio, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Subversion of host organism cAMP signaling is an efficient and widespread mechanism of microbial pathogenesis. Bartonella effector protein A (BepA) of vasculotumorigenic Bartonella henselae protects the infected human endothelial cells against apoptotic stimuli by elevation of cellular cAMP levels by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, adenylyl cyclase (AC) and the α-subunit of the AC-stimulating G protein (Gαs) were identified as potential cellular target proteins for BepA by gel-free proteomics. Results of the proteomics screen were evaluated for physical and functional interaction by: (i) a heterologous in vivo coexpression system, where human AC activity was reconstituted under the regulation of Gαs and BepA in Escherichia coli; (ii) in vitro AC assays with membrane-anchored full-length human AC and recombinant BepA and Gαs; (iii) surface plasmon resonance experiments; and (iv) an in vivo fluorescence bimolecular complementation-analysis. The data demonstrate that BepA directly binds host cell AC to potentiate the Gαs-dependent cAMP production. As opposed to the known microbial mechanisms, such as ADP ribosylation of G protein α-subunits by cholera and pertussis toxins, the fundamentally different BepA-mediated elevation of host cell cAMP concentration appears subtle and is dependent on the stimulus of a G protein-coupled receptor-released Gαs. We propose that this mechanism contributes to the persistence of Bartonella henselae in the chronically infected vascular endothelium. PMID:22635269

  15. Cyclic ADP-ribose as an endogenous inhibitor of the mTOR pathway downstream of dopamine receptors in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Kamimura, Shin-Ya; Inoue, Takeshi; Hori, Osamu; Islam, Mohammad Saharul; Lopatina, Olga; Tsuji, Chiharu

    2016-12-26

    The role of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) as a second messenger and modulator of the mTOR pathway downstream of dopamine (DA) receptors and/or CD38 was re-examined in the mouse. ADP-ribosyl activity was low in the membranes of neonates, but DA stimulated it via both D1- and D2-like receptors. ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity increased significantly during development in association with increased expression of CD38. The cADPR binding proteins, FKBP12 and FKBP12.6, were expressed in the adult mouse striatum. The ratio of phosphorylated to non-phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K) in whole mouse striatum homogenates decreased after incubation of adult mouse striatum with extracellular cADPR for 5 min. This effect of cADPR was much weaker in MPTP-treated Parkinson's disease model mice. The inhibitory effects of cADPR and rapamycin were identical. These data suggest that cADPR is an endogenous inhibitor of the mTOR signaling pathway downstream of DA receptors in the mouse striatum and that cADPR plays a certain role in the brain in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. CD34⁺/CD38⁻ acute myelogenous leukemia cells aberrantly express Aurora kinase A.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Nishioka, Chie; Nobumoto, Atsuya; Udaka, Keiko; Yokoyama, Akihito

    2013-12-01

    We previously showed that Aurora kinase A (AURKA) is aberrantly expressed in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells when compared to bone marrow mononuclear cells isolated from healthy volunteers. We have also shown that CD34(+) /CD38(-) AML cells, one of compartments enriched for leukemia stem cells in most leukemia subgroups, were relatively resistant to cytarabine-mediated growth inhibition when compared to their CD34(+) /CD38(+) counterparts. Our study attempted to identify therapeutic targets in CD34(+) /CD38(-) AML cells and found that CD34(+) /CD38(-) AML cells isolated from patients (n = 26) expressed larger amounts of AURKA than their CD34(+) /CD38(+) counterparts and CD34(+) normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells isolated from healthy volunteers (n = 6), as measured by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Blockade of AURKA by the specific inhibitor MLN8237 or a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against AURKA significantly inhibited proliferation, impaired self-renewal capability and induced apoptosis of CD34(+) /CD38(-) AML cells, in association with modulation of levels of Bcl-2 family member proteins. Importantly, inhibition of AURKA in CD34(+) /CD38(-) AML cells by MLN8237 or an shRNA significantly impaired engraftment of these cells in severely immunocompromised mice and appeared to prolong their survival. These results suggest that AURKA is a promising molecular target to eliminate chemotherapy-resistant CD34(+) /CD38(-) AML cells.

  17. CD38 and airway hyper-responsiveness: studies on human airway smooth muscle cells and mouse models.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Alonso G P; Deshpande, Deepak A; Dileepan, Mythili; Walseth, Timothy F; Panettieri, Reynold A; Subramanian, Subbaya; Kannan, Mathur S

    2015-02-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease in which altered calcium regulation, contractility, and airway smooth muscle (ASM) proliferation contribute to airway hyper-responsiveness and airway wall remodeling. The enzymatic activity of CD38, a cell-surface protein expressed in human ASM cells, generates calcium mobilizing second messenger molecules such as cyclic ADP-ribose. CD38 expression in human ASM cells is augmented by cytokines (e.g., TNF-α) that requires the activation of MAP kinases and the transcription factors, NF-κB and AP-1, and is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR-140-3p and miR-708 by binding to 3' Untranslated Region of CD38 as well as by modulating the activation of signaling mechanisms involved in its regulation. Mice deficient in Cd38 exhibit reduced airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine relative to the response in wild-type mice. Intranasal challenge of Cd38-deficient mice with TNF-α or IL-13, or the environmental fungus Alternaria alternata, causes significantly attenuated methacholine responsiveness compared with wild-type mice, with comparable airway inflammation. Reciprocal bone marrow transfer studies revealed partial restoration of airway hyper-responsiveness to inhaled methacholine in the Cd38-deficient mice. These studies provide evidence for CD38 involvement in the development of airway hyper-responsiveness; a hallmark feature of asthma. Future studies aimed at drug discovery and delivery targeting CD38 expression and (or) activity are warranted.

  18. Integrative neurochemistry and neurobiology of social recognition and behavior analyzed with respect to CD38-dependent brain oxytocin secretion.

    PubMed

    Salmina, Alla B; Lopatina, Olga; Kuvacheva, Natalia V; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the literature and our own data regarding the role of NAD⁺-glycohydrolase/CD38-controlled molecular mechanisms of hypothalamic and pituitary oxytocin secretion in social behavior regulation. Current approaches to the modulation of both CD38 expression and brain cell activity that represent prospective treatments for disorders associated with altered social behavior are discussed.

  19. Clinical efficacy and management of monoclonal antibodies targeting CD38 and SLAMF7 in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    van de Donk, Niels W C J; Moreau, Philippe; Plesner, Torben; Palumbo, Antonio; Gay, Francesca; Laubach, Jacob P; Malavasi, Fabio; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Sonneveld, Pieter; Lokhorst, Henk M; Richardson, Paul G

    2016-02-11

    Immunotherapeutic strategies are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in multiple myeloma (MM), with several monoclonal antibodies in advanced stages of clinical development. Of these agents, CD38-targeting antibodies have marked single agent activity in extensively pretreated MM, and preliminary results from studies with relapsed/refractory patients have shown enhanced therapeutic efficacy when daratumumab and isatuximab are combined with other agents. Furthermore, although elotuzumab (anti-SLAMF7) has no single agent activity in advanced MM, randomized trials in relapsed/refractory MM have demonstrated significantly improved progression-free survival when elotuzumab is added to lenalidomide-dexamethasone or bortezomib-dexamethasone. Importantly, there has been no significant additive toxicity when these monoclonal antibodies are combined with other anti-MM agents, other than infusion-related reactions specific to the therapeutic antibody. Prevention and management of infusion reactions is important to avoid drug discontinuation, which may in turn lead to reduced efficacy of anti-MM therapy. Therapeutic antibodies interfere with several laboratory tests. First, interference of therapeutic antibodies with immunofixation and serum protein electrophoresis assays may lead to underestimation of complete response. Strategies to mitigate interference, based on shifting the therapeutic antibody band, are in development. Furthermore, daratumumab, and probably also other CD38-targeting antibodies, interfere with blood compatibility testing and thereby complicate the safe release of blood products. Neutralization of the therapeutic CD38 antibody or CD38 denaturation on reagent red blood cells mitigates daratumumab interference with transfusion laboratory serologic tests. Finally, therapeutic antibodies may complicate flow cytometric evaluation of normal and neoplastic plasma cells, since the therapeutic antibody can affect the availability of the epitope for binding

  20. Daratumumab: a first-in-class CD38 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Larysa; Wang, Yucai; Siegel, David S; Wang, Michael L

    2016-06-30

    Daratumumab is a human monoclonal antibody that targets CD38, a cell surface protein that is overexpressed on multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Preclinical studies have shown that daratumumab induces MM cell death through several mechanisms, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and apoptosis. Given the encouraging efficacy and acceptable safety profile of daratumumab demonstrated in clinical trials, daratumumab has emerged as a novel treatment option for myeloma and became the first monoclonal antibody approved by the FDA for the treatment of MM.

  1. Regulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts by sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Stadel, J.M.; Poksay, K.S.; Nakada, M.T.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts contain beta-adrenergic receptors (BAR), predominantly of the B/sub 1/ subtype. Incubation of these cells with 2-10 mM sodium butyrate (SB) for 24-48 hr results in a switch in the BAR subtype from B/sub 1/ to B/sub 2/ and promotes a 1.5 to 2.5 fold increase in total BAR number. Other short chain acids were not as effective as SB in promoting changes in BAR. BAR were assayed in membranes prepared from the 3T3-L1 cells using the radiolabeled antagonist (/sup 125/I)-cyanopindolol and the B/sub 2/ selective antagonist ICI 118.551. BAR subtype switch was confirmed functionally by measuring cellular cAMP accumulation in response to agonists. The structure and amount of the alpha subunits of the guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ were determined by ADP-ribosylation using /sup 32/P-NAD and either cholera toxin or pertussis toxin for labeling of the respective subunits. Preincubation of cells with 5 mM SB for 48 hr resulted in a 2-3 fold increase in the labeling of the alpha subunits of both N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A protein of M/sub r/ = 44,000 showed enhanced labeling by cholera toxin following SB treatment of the cells. These data indicate SB concomitantly regulates expression of BAR subtype and components of the adenylate cyclase in 3T3-L1 cells.

  2. Dominant enrichment of phenotypically activated CD38(+) HLA-DR(+) CD8(+) T cells, rather than CD38(+) HLA-DR(+) CD4(+) T cells, in HIV/HCV coinfected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Serafino, Sara; Giustini, Noemi; Cavallari, Eugenio Nelson; Bianchi, Luigi; Pavone, Paolo; Bellelli, Valeria; Turriziani, Ombretta; Antonelli, Guido; Stroffolini, Tommaso; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    HIV infection may enhance immune-activation, while little is known regarding the role of HCV infection. This study investigates the impact of HCV in HIV coinfected patients with undetectable viraemia under HAART on the levels of peripheral T cell's immune-activation. We determined T lymphocytes subsets to characterize immune-activation defined as CD38 and/or HLA-DR expression in chronic monoinfected HCV, HIV, and HIV/HCV coinfected subjects. One hundred and fifty six patients were divided into three groups: (i) 77 HIV+ patients; (ii) 50 HCV+ patients; and (iii) 29 coinfected HIV/HCV patients. The level of CD4(+) was significantly higher in HCV+ than in HIV+ or in coinfected HIV/HCV subjects. The frequencies of CD4(+) CD38(+) /HLA-DR(-) , CD4(+) CD38(-) /HLA-DR(+) and CD4(+) CD38(+) /HLA-DR(+) in HIV+ patients were comparable to those measured in coinfected patients, but statistically higher than those observed in HCV+ subjects. The percentage of CD8(+) was comparable in HIV-1+ patients and coinfected HIV/HCV but the results obtained in both groups were significantly higher compared to the results obtained in HCV patients. The level of CD8(+) CD38(+) /HLA-DR(-) showed values lower in HIV+ patients than in that monoinfected HCV and coinfected HIV/HCV patients. The frequencies of CD8(+) CD38(-) /HLA-DR(+) were higher in HIV+ patients compared to HCV+ and coinfected HIV/HCV patients. HIV/HCV coinfected group showed highest levels of CD8(+) CD38(+) /HLA-DR(+) . HIV plays a pivotal role to determine the immune activation in the host. The role of HCV needs of further investigations but our data show that HCV mainly influences the immune-activation of the pool of CD8, but also probably plays a supporting additive effect on CD4 immune-activation. J. Med. Virol. 88:1347-1356, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Deletion Involving CD38 and BST1 Results in a Fusion Transcript in a Patient With Autism and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ceroni, Fabiola; Sagar, Angela; Simpson, Nuala H.; Gawthrope, Alex J.T.; Newbury, Dianne F.; Pinto, Dalila; Francis, Sunday M.; Tessman, Dorothy C.; Cook, Edwin H.; Monaco, Anthony P.; Maestrini, Elena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Jacob, Suma

    2015-01-01

    CD38 encodes a ligand in the oxytocin signaling pathway. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with low serum oxytocin levels in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. Oxytocin disruption has been hypothesized to account for features of ASD, including impaired communication and social behavior, based on animal studies. Recent human studies have shown administration of oxytocin improving emotion recognition, promoting social behavior, and improving auditory processing of social stimuli in ASD patients. In addition to its role in oxytocin signaling, CD38 is involved in the regulation of calcium concentration in airway smooth muscle with impairment of CD38 being implicated in airway diseases like asthma. While a number of studies have implicated rare chromosomal deletions and duplications in helping determine genetic risk for autism, there are to our knowledge no reports describing rearrangements involving CD38 or deletions in patients with ASD. Here, we present two sisters diagnosed with autism and with features of regression—previously acquired speech lost in the second year of life. The younger sister, who also had asthma, inherited a maternal deletion of 4p15.32 that results in a BST1-CD38 fusion transcript. Their mother's deletion was mosaic and she was not affected. Although further work is required to assess functional consequences of the fusion transcript, we hypothesize that the proband's deletion may have served as a risk factor for autism that, when combined with other susceptibility variants, resulted in a more severe presentation than her sister. PMID:24634087

  4. Characterization of the adenosine receptor in cultured embryonic chick atrial myocytes: Coupling to modulation of contractility and adenylate cyclase activity and identification by direct radioligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, B.T.

    1989-06-01

    Adenosine receptors in a spontaneously contracting atrial myocyte culture from 14-day chick embryos were characterized by radioligand binding studies and by examining the involvement of G-protein in coupling these receptors to a high-affinity state and to the adenylate cyclase and the myocyte contractility. Binding of the antagonist radioligand (3H)-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-diproylxanthine ((3H)CPX) was rapid, reversible and saturable and was to a homogeneous population of sites with a Kd value of 2.1 +/- 0.2 nM and an apparent maximum binding of 26.2 +/- 3 fmol/mg of protein (n = 10, +/- S.E.). Guanyl-5-yl-(beta, gamma-imido)diphosphate had no effect on either the Kd or the maximum binding and CPX reversed the N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and contractility, indicating that (3H) CPX is an antagonist radioligand. Competition curves for (3H) CPX binding by a series of reference adenosine agonists were consistent with labeling of an A1 adenosine receptor and were better fit by a two-site model than by a one-site model. ADP-ribosylation of the G-protein by the endogenous NAD+ in the presence of pertussis toxin shifted the competition curves from bi to monophasic with Ki values similar to those of the KL observed in the absence of prior pertussis intoxication. The adenosine agonists were capable of inhibiting both the adenylate cyclase activity and myocyte contractility in either the absence or the presence of isoproterenol. The A1 adenosine receptor-selective antagonist CPX reversed these agonist effects. The order of ability of the reference adenosine receptor agonists in causing these inhibitory effects was similar to the order of potency of the same agonists in inhibiting the specific (3H)CPX binding (N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine greater than N6-S-phenyl-2-propyladenosine or N-ethyladenosine-5'-uronic acid).

  5. Discovery of 4-Amino-8-quinoline Carboxamides as Novel, Submicromolar Inhibitors of NAD-Hydrolyzing Enzyme CD38.

    PubMed

    Becherer, J David; Boros, Eric E; Carpenter, Tiffany Y; Cowan, David J; Deaton, David N; Haffner, Curt D; Jeune, Michael R; Kaldor, Istvan W; Poole, J Chuck; Preugschat, Frank; Rheault, Tara R; Schulte, Christie A; Shearer, Barry G; Shearer, Todd W; Shewchuk, Lisa M; Smalley, Terrence L; Stewart, Eugene L; Stuart, J Darren; Ulrich, John C

    2015-09-10

    Starting from the micromolar 8-quinoline carboxamide high-throughput screening hit 1a, a systematic exploration of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the 4-, 6-, and 8-substituents of the quinoline ring resulted in the identification of approximately 10-100-fold more potent human CD38 inhibitors. Several of these molecules also exhibited pharmacokinetic parameters suitable for in vivo animal studies, including low clearances and decent oral bioavailability. Two of these CD38 inhibitors, 1ah and 1ai, were shown to elevate NAD tissue levels in liver and muscle in a diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mouse model. These inhibitor tool compounds will enable further biological studies of the CD38 enzyme as well as the investigation of the therapeutic implications of NAD enhancement in disease models of abnormally low NAD.

  6. Targeting of CD34+CD38- cells using Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) in combination with tipifarnib (Zarnestra) in acute Myeloid Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The CD34+CD38- subset of AML cells is enriched for resistance to current chemotherapeutic agents and considered to contribute to disease progression and relapse in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) patients following initial treatment. Methods Chemosensitivity in phenotypically defined subsets from 34 primary AML samples was measured by flow cytometry following 48 hr in vitro treatment with gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO, Mylotarg) and the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib/zarnestra. The DNA damage response was measured using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Results Using a previously validated in vitro minimal residual disease model, we now show that the combination of GO (10 ng/ml) and tipifarnib (5 μM) targets the CD34+CD38- subset resulting in 65% median cell loss compared to 28% and 13% CD34+CD38- cell loss in GO-treated and tipifarnib-treated cells, respectively. Using phosphokinome profiling and immunofluorescence in the TF-1a cell line, we demonstrate that the drug combination is characterised by the activation of a DNA damage response (induction of γH2A.X and thr68 phosphorylation of chk2). Higher induction of γH2AX was found in CD34+CD38- than in CD34+CD38+ patient cells. In a model system, we show that dormancy impairs damage resolution, allowing accumulation of γH2AX foci. Conclusions The chemosensitivity of the CD34+CD38- subset, combined with enhanced damage indicators, suggest that this subset is primed to favour programmed cell death as opposed to repairing damage. This interaction between tipifarnib and GO suggests a potential role in the treatment of AML. PMID:23013471

  7. CD38 and interleukin 6 gene polymorphism in egyptians with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).

    PubMed

    Talaat, Roba M; Abdel-Aziz, Amal M; El-Maadawy, Eman A; Abdel-Bary, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of understanding the genetic variations involved in the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), this pilot study was designed to investigate the impact of CD38 (184C/G; rs6449182) and IL-6 (-174 G/C; rs1800795) gene polymorphism on susceptibility of Egyptians to diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL); major types of NHL. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one that examines CD38 polymorphism in the NHL. Genotyping polymorphism is performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) for CD38 and Mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR) for IL-6 in 100 Egyptian NHL patients with DLBCL subtype and 119 normal controls. The serum level of IL-6 was measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD38 (184C/G) genotype is significantly increased in NHL patients (p < 0.01), while the GG genotype is significantly increased in controls (p < 0.05). Only two genotypes were found (GG and GC) in IL-6 (-174), no CC in our NHL patients and only one case in the controls. Insignificant change in IL-6 (-174 G/C) genotypes was recorded. Significantly increased serum IL-6 (p < 0.05) was positively correlated (r = 0.17; p < 0.05) with the disease. Taken together, our data stressed the importance of CD38 gene polymorphism in developing DLBCL. Our pilot study indicates that CD38 (184) CG genotype might play a role in DLBCL susceptibility in Egyptians. Additional prospective studies on larger population are needed to confirm our findings.

  8. α-Radioimmunotherapy with 213Bi-anti-CD38 immunoconjugates is effective in a mouse model of human multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Blechert, Birgit; Gaertner, Florian C.; Gilbertz, Klaus-Peter; Fernandez, Vanesa; Bassermann, Florian; Endell, Jan; Boxhammer, Rainer; Leclair, Stephane; Vallon, Mario; Aichler, Michaela; Feuchtinger, Annette; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Essler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In spite of development of molecular therapeutics, multiple myeloma (MM) is fatal in most cases. CD38 is a promising target for selective treatment of MM. We tested radioimmunoconjugates consisting of the α-emitter 213Bi coupled to an anti-CD38 MAb in preclinical treatment of MM. Efficacy of 213Bi-anti-CD38-MAb was assayed towards different MM cell lines with regard to induction of DNA double-strand breaks, induction of apoptosis and initiation of cell cycle arrest. Moreover, mice bearing luciferase-expressing MM xenografts were treated with 213Bi-anti-CD38-MAb. Therapeutic efficacy was monitored by bioluminescence imaging, overall survival and histology. 213Bi-anti-CD38-MAb treatment induced DNA damage which did not result in activation of the G2 DNA-damage-response checkpoint, but instead in mitotic arrest and subsequent mitotic catastrophe. The anti-tumor effect of 213Bi-anti-CD38-MAb correlated with the expression level of CD38 in each MM cell line. In myeloma xenografts, treatment with 213Bi-anti-CD38-MAb suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptosis in tumor tissue and significantly prolonged survival compared to controls. The major organ systems did not show any signs of 213Bi-induced toxicity. Preclinical treatment of MM with 213Bi-anti-CD38-MAb turned out as an effective therapeutic option. PMID:25576914

  9. Genetic variation in CD38 and breastfeeding experience interact to impact infants’ attention to social eye cues

    PubMed Central

    Krol, Kathleen M.; Monakhov, Mikhail; Lai, Poh San; Ebstein, Richard P.; Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Attending to emotional information conveyed by the eyes is an important social skill in humans. The current study examined this skill in early development by measuring attention to eyes while viewing emotional faces in 7-mo-old infants. In particular, we investigated individual differences in infant attention to eyes in the context of genetic variation (CD38 rs3796863 polymorphism) and experiential variation (exclusive breastfeeding duration) related to the oxytocin system. Our results revealed that, whereas infants at this age show a robust fear bias (increased attention to fearful eyes), their attention to angry and happy eyes varies as a function of exclusive breastfeeding experience and genetic variation in CD38. Specifically, extended exclusive breastfeeding duration selectively enhanced looking preference to happy eyes and decreased looking to angry eyes. Importantly, however, this interaction was impacted by CD38 variation, such that only the looking preferences of infants homozygous for the C allele of rs3796863 were affected by breastfeeding experience. This genotype has been associated with reduced release of oxytocin and higher rates of autism. In contrast, infants with the CA/AA genotype showed similar looking preferences regardless of breastfeeding exposure. Thus, differences in the sensitivity to emotional eyes may be linked to an interaction between the endogenous (CD38) and exogenous (breastfeeding) availability of oxytocin. These findings underline the importance of maternal care and the oxytocin system in contributing to the early development of responding to social eye cues. PMID:26371313

  10. CD38 is required for the peripheral survival of immunotolerogenic CD4+ invariant NK T cells in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Chen, Jing; Osborne, Melissa A; Chapman, Harold D; Besra, Gurdyal S; Porcelli, Steven A; Leiter, Edward H; Wilson, S Brian; Serreze, David V

    2006-09-01

    T cell-mediated autoimmune type-1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice partly results from this strain's numerical and functional defects in invariant NK T (iNKT) cells. T1D is inhibited in NOD mice treated with the iNKT cell superagonist alpha-galactosylceramide through a process involving enhanced accumulation of immunotolerogenic dendritic cells in pancreatic lymph nodes. Conversely, T1D is accelerated in NOD mice lacking CD38 molecules that play a role in dendritic cell migration to inflamed tissues. Unlike in standard NOD mice, alpha-galactosylceramide pretreatment did not protect the CD38-deficient stock from T1D induced by an adoptively transferred pancreatic beta cell-autoreactive CD8 T cell clone (AI4). We found that in the absence of CD38, ADP-ribosyltransferase 2 preferentially activates apoptotic deletion of peripheral iNKT cells, especially the CD4+ subset. Therefore, this study documents a previously unrecognized role for CD38 in maintaining survival of an iNKT cell subset that preferentially contributes to the maintenance of immunological tolerance.

  11. Structural basis for the mechanistic understanding of human CD38-controlled multiple catalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qun; Kriksunov, Irina A; Graeff, Richard; Munshi, Cyrus; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan

    2006-10-27

    The enzymatic cleavage of the nicotinamide-glycosidic bond on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) has been proposed to go through an oxocarbenium ion-like transition state. Because of the instability of the ionic intermediate, there has been no structural report on such a transient reactive species. Human CD38 is an ectoenzyme that can use NAD(+) to synthesize two calcium-mobilizing molecules. By using NAD(+) and a surrogate substrate, NGD(+), we captured and determined crystal structures of the enzyme complexed with an intermediate, a substrate, and a product along the reaction pathway. Our results showed that the intermediate is stabilized by polar interactions with the catalytic residue Glu(226) rather than by a covalent linkage. The polar interactions between Glu(226) and the substrate 2',3'-OH groups are essential for initiating catalysis. Ser(193) was demonstrated to have a regulative role during catalysis and is likely to be involved in intermediate stabilization. In addition, a product inhibition effect by ADP-ribose (through the reorientation of the product) or GDP-ribose (through the formation of a covalently linked GDP-ribose dimer) was observed. These structural data provide insights into the understanding of multiple catalysis and clues for drug design.

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies for the Treatment of Myeloma: Targeting SLAMF7 and CD38.

    PubMed

    Lonial, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    The recent explosion of immune-based treatments for cancer has significantly impacted remission durations and overall survival for many diseases. Multiple myeloma is no exception to this trend, with several immune-based treatments including checkpoint blockade, cellular therapy, and most advanced now antibody-based treatment coming to fruition. While the use of monoclonal antibodies has been a significant interest in myeloma for some time, identifying the ideal target has been an issue. Given the dependence of plasma cells on interleukin 6 signaling for survival and proliferation, there were several trials testing both single agent and combination therapy effects of anti-interleukin 6 antibodies, which did not demonstrate significant clinical activity; however, more recent antibodies targeting receptors such as CD38 and SLAMF7 (previously known as CS1) are demonstrating significant clinical benefit. In this article, we briefly review the preclinical and clinical data surrounding these 2 important targets and the antibodies that clinically will be used as therapeutic agents in the context of multiple myeloma.

  13. Quantitative proteomic analysis of exosomes from HIV-1 infected lymphocytic cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Aliotta, Jason M.; Asara, John M.; Tucker, Lynne; Quesenberry, Peter; Lally, Michelle; Ramratnam, Bharat

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 infection causes profound effects both inside and outside of cells through multiple mechanisms, including those mediated by exosomes. Using the technique of Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC), we compared protein expression patterns in the exosomal compartment of HIV-1 infected and uninfected lymphocytic H9 cells. Of 770 proteins identified in two independent sets of exosomal samples, 14 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the exosomal fraction of HIV-1 infected cells vs. uninfected controls. Gene Ontology survey and DAVID analysis revealed that identified proteins were enriched for functional categories such as binding. Of these 14 proteins, three immunomodulatory molecules were reproducibly identified in both replicates and included ADP-ribosyl cyclase 1 (CD38), L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain (LDHB) and Annexin A5 (ANXA5). In addition to previously reported HIV-1 associations with CD38 and LDHB, new interactions were identified and validated for ANXA5, CD38 and LDHB, which were found to bind to HIV-1 p24 and Tat. In summary, our studies reveal that exosomes released from HIV-1 infected cells are composed of a unique and quantitatively different protein signature and harbor regulatory molecules that impact the processes of cellular apoptosis (ANXA5 and LDHB) and proliferation (CD38). PMID:22807456

  14. The CD19/CD81 complex physically interacts with CD38 but is not required to induce proliferation in mouse B lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Vences-Catalán, Felipe; Rajapaksa, Ranjani; Levy, Shoshana; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo

    2012-01-01

    In B lymphocytes, the cell surface receptor CD38 is involved in apoptosis of immature B cells, proliferation and differentiation of mature B cells. Although CD38 has been establish as a receptor, its signaling has been only partially characterized. As a result of the lack of signaling motifs in the cytoplasmic domain, CD38 must use a co-receptor to induce signaling within the cell. Accordingly, CD38 has been associated with different receptors such as the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex on T cells, CD16 on natural killer cells and MHC class II molecules on monocytes. The CD19/CD81 complex has been proposed as a co-receptor for CD38 in human B lymphocytes, but little or no characterization has been performed in mice. In this study the contribution of the CD19/CD81 complex in murine CD38 signaling was evaluated. Proliferation assays were performed using CD19−/− or CD81−/− deficient mice; CFSE-labeled B lymphocytes from wild-type mice and CD19−/−, CD81−/− and CD38−/− deficient mice were stimulated with agonistic antibodies against CD38. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence were also performed to detect protein–protein interactions. Our results indicate that the CD19/CD81 complex interacts with CD38 but this interaction is not required to induce proliferation in mouse B lymphocytes, suggesting that other receptors may contribute to the proliferation induced by CD38 in B lymphocytes. PMID:22564057

  15. CD34+CD38dim cells in the human thymus can differentiate into T, natural killer, and dendritic cells but are distinct from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Res, P; Martínez-Cáceres, E; Cristina Jaleco, A; Staal, F; Noteboom, E; Weijer, K; Spits, H

    1996-06-15

    Recently we reported that the human thymus contains a minute population of CD34+CD38dim cells that do not express the T-cell lineage markers CD2 and CD5. The phenotype of this population resembled that of CD34+CD38dim cells present in fetal liver, umbilical cord blood, and bone marrow known to be highly enriched for pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this report we tested the hypothesis that the CD34+CD38dim thymocytes constitute the most primitive hematopoietic cells in the thymus using a combination of phenotypic and functional analyses. It was found that in contrast to CD34+CD38dim cells from fetal liver and bone marrow, CD34+CD38dim cells from the thymus express high levels of CD45RA and are negative for Thy-1. These data indicate that the CD34+CD38dim thymocytes are distinct from pluripotent stem cells. CD34+CD38dim thymocytes differentiate into T cells when cocultured with mouse fetal thymic organs. In addition, individual cells in this population can differentiate either to natural killer cells in the presence of stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin-7 (IL-7), and IL-2 or to dendritic cells in the presence of SCF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNFalpha), indicating that CD34+CD38dim thymocytes contain multi-potential hematopoietic progenitors. To establish which CD34+ fetal liver subpopulation contains the cells that migrate to the thymus, we investigated the T-cell-developing potential of CD34+CD38dim and CD34+CD38+ fetal liver cells and found that the capacity of CD34+ fetal liver cells to differentiate into T cells is restricted to those cells that are CD38dim. Collectively, these findings indicate that cells from the CD34+CD38dim fetal liver cell population migrate to the thymus before upregulating CD38 and committing to the T-cell lineage.

  16. Delivery of the ribosome-inactivating protein, gelonin, to lymphoma cells via CD22 and CD38 using bispecific antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    French, R. R.; Penney, C. A.; Browning, A. C.; Stirpe, F.; George, A. J.; Glennie, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) can be used effectively in targeting the ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), saporin, against neoplastic B cells. We have now extended this delivery system for use with gelonin. By measuring antigen-binding characteristics and epitope mapping a panel of anti-gelonin MAbs using the IAsys resonant mirror bisensor, we were able to rapidly select the most suitable for making BaAbs. The Fab' fragments from these MAbs were chemically conjugated with Fab' from either anti-CD22 or anti-CD38. Cytotoxicity assays showed that BsAbs were highly efficient at delivering gelonin to cultured Daudi cells and achieved levels of toxicity which correlated closely with the affinity of the BsAbs. Using pairs of anti-CD22 BsAbs we were able to generate bivalent BsAb-gelonin complexes which achieved IC50 values of 2 x 10(-11) M gelonin, a potency which is equivalent to that reached by saporin in this targeting system. However, because gelonin is 5-10 times less toxic than saporin, the therapeutic ratio for gelonin is superior, making it potentially a more useful agent for human treatment. Cytotoxicity assays and kinetic analysis showed that targeting gelonin via CD38 was 2-5 times less effective than delivery through CD22. However, with a pair of BsAbs designed to co-target gelonin via CD22 and CD38, the cytotoxicity achieved equalled that obtained with a pair of anti-CD22 BsAbs (IC50 = 1 x 10(-11) M). This important result suggests that the anti-CD38 helps bind the gelonin to the cell and is then 'dragged' or 'piggy-backed' into the cell by the anti-CD22 BsAb. The implication of these findings for cancer therapy is discussed. PMID:7734325

  17. Depletion of NADP(H) due to CD38 activation triggers endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Levy A.; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; De Pascali, Francesco; Hemann, Craig; Druhan, Lawrence J.; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; El-Mahdy, Mohamed; Zweier, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    In the postischemic heart, coronary vasodilation is impaired due to loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Although the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is depleted, its repletion only partially restores eNOS-mediated coronary vasodilation, indicating that other critical factors trigger endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, studies were performed to characterize the unidentified factor(s) that trigger endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart. We observed that depletion of the eNOS substrate NADPH occurs in the postischemic heart with near total depletion from the endothelium, triggering impaired eNOS function and limiting BH4 rescue through NADPH-dependent salvage pathways. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), depletion of the NADP(H) pool occurred and was most marked in the endothelium, with >85% depletion. Repletion of NADPH after I/R increased NOS-dependent coronary flow well above that with BH4 alone. With combined NADPH and BH4 repletion, full restoration of NOS-dependent coronary flow occurred. Profound endothelial NADPH depletion was identified to be due to marked activation of the NAD(P)ase-activity of CD38 and could be prevented by inhibition or specific knockdown of this protein. Depletion of the NADPH precursor, NADP+, coincided with formation of 2’-phospho-ADP ribose, a CD38-derived signaling molecule. Inhibition of CD38 prevented NADP(H) depletion and preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO generation with increased recovery of contractile function and decreased infarction in the postischemic heart. Thus, CD38 activation is an important cause of postischemic endothelial dysfunction and presents a novel therapeutic target for prevention of this dysfunction in unstable coronary syndromes. PMID:26297248

  18. Probing the catalytic mechanism of bovine CD38/NAD+ glycohydrolase by site directed mutagenesis of key active site residues.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Isabelle; Kellenberger, Esther; Cakir-Kiefer, Céline; Muller-Steffner, Hélène; Schuber, Francis

    2014-07-01

    Bovine CD38/NAD(+) glycohydrolase catalyzes the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to nicotinamide and ADP-ribose and the formation of cyclic ADP-ribose via a stepwise reaction mechanism. Our recent crystallographic study of its Michaelis complex and covalently-trapped intermediates provided insights into the modalities of substrate binding and the molecular mechanism of bCD38. The aim of the present work was to determine the precise role of key conserved active site residues (Trp118, Glu138, Asp147, Trp181 and Glu218) by focusing mainly on the cleavage of the nicotinamide-ribosyl bond. We analyzed the kinetic parameters of mutants of these residues which reside within the bCD38 subdomain in the vicinity of the scissile bond of bound NAD(+). To address the reaction mechanism we also performed chemical rescue experiments with neutral (methanol) and ionic (azide, formate) nucleophiles. The crucial role of Glu218, which orients the substrate for cleavage by interacting with the N-ribosyl 2'-OH group of NAD(+), was highlighted. This contribution to catalysis accounts for almost half of the reaction energy barrier. Other contributions can be ascribed notably to Glu138 and Asp147 via ground-state destabilization and desolvation in the vicinity of the scissile bond. Key interactions with Trp118 and Trp181 were also proven to stabilize the ribooxocarbenium ion-like transition state. Altogether we propose that, as an alternative to a covalent acylal reaction intermediate with Glu218, catalysis by bCD38 proceeds through the formation of a discrete and transient ribooxocarbenium intermediate which is stabilized within the active site mostly by electrostatic interactions.

  19. Adenosine Generated in the Bone Marrow Niche Through a CD38-Mediated Pathway Correlates With Progression of Human Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Horenstein, Alberto L; Quarona, Valeria; Toscani, Denise; Costa, Federica; Chillemi, Antonella; Pistoia, Vito; Giuliani, Nicola; Malavasi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Human myeloma cells express CD38 at high levels and grow in hypoxic niches inside the bone marrow. Myeloma cells respond to hypoxia with metabolic changes leading to aerobic glycolysis, thus reducing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and increasing NAD+. Our hypothesis is that these conditions favor the enzymatic pathways involved in the production of adenosine in the niche. Within the niche, NAD+ is able to activate a discontinuous adenosinergic pathway that relies upon CD38, CD203a and CD73 or TRACP, according to the environmental pH. The observed variability in adenosine concentrations in bone marrow aspirates is a result of the interactions taking place among myeloma and other cells in the bone marrow niche. A pilot study showed that adenosine profiles differ during disease progression. Adenosine levels were significantly higher in the bone marrow plasma of patients with symptomatic myeloma and correlated with ISS staging, suggesting that adenosine is produced in the myeloma niche at micromolar levels by an ectoenzymatic network centered on CD38. Adenosine levels increase with disease aggressiveness, a finding that supports adenosine as a potential marker of myeloma progression. PMID:27761584

  20. Targeting Attenuated Interferon-α to Myeloma Cells with a CD38 Antibody Induces Potent Tumor Regression with Reduced Off-Target Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pogue, Sarah L.; Taura, Tetsuya; Bi, Mingying; Yun, Yong; Sho, Angela; Mikesell, Glen; Behrens, Collette; Sokolovsky, Maya; Hallak, Hussein; Rosenstock, Moti; Sanchez, Eric; Chen, Haiming; Berenson, James; Doyle, Anthony; Nock, Steffen; Wilson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-α (IFNα) has been prescribed to effectively treat multiple myeloma (MM) and other malignancies for decades. Its use has waned in recent years, however, due to significant toxicity and a narrow therapeutic index (TI). We sought to improve IFNα’s TI by, first, attaching it to an anti-CD38 antibody, thereby directly targeting it to MM cells, and, second, by introducing an attenuating mutation into the IFNα portion of the fusion protein rendering it relatively inactive on normal, CD38 negative cells. This anti-CD38-IFNα(attenuated) immunocytokine, or CD38-Attenukine™, exhibits 10,000-fold increased specificity for CD38 positive cells in vitro compared to native IFNα and, significantly, is ~6,000-fold less toxic to normal bone marrow cells in vitro than native IFNα. Moreover, the attenuating mutation significantly decreases IFNα biomarker activity in cynomolgus macaques indicating that this approach may yield a better safety profile in humans than native IFNα or a non-attenuated IFNα immunocytokine. In human xenograft MM tumor models, anti-CD38-IFNα(attenuated) exerts potent anti-tumor activity in mice, inducing complete tumor regression in most cases. Furthermore, anti-CD38-IFNα(attenuated) is more efficacious than standard MM treatments (lenalidomide, bortezomib, dexamethasone) and exhibits strong synergy with lenalidomide and with bortezomib in xenograft models. Our findings suggest that tumor-targeted attenuated cytokines such as IFNα can promote robust tumor killing while minimizing systemic toxicity. PMID:27611189

  1. The effect of tetraethylenepentamine, a synthetic copper chelating polyamine, on expression of CD34 and CD38 antigens on normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Prus, Eugenia; Peled, Tony; Fibach, Eitan

    2004-03-01

    We have previously found that the synthetic polyamine tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) significantly delayed differentiation and prolonged expansion of cord-blood derived HPC in cytokine-supplemented cultures. Most HPC have the CD34+CD38+ phenotype, but the minority CD34+38- cells are primitive subset of HPC that have the potential for long-term repopulation in vivo. We investigated the effect of TEPA on the CD34/CD38 surface antigen expression of human myeloid leukemia cell lines as well as normal cord blood derived hematopoietic cells. Confirming previous results, our data showed that both the leukemic and normal cells increased their CD38 expression when grown in serum-containing medium or when treated with retinoic acid. In the present study, we found that TEPA inhibited CD38 under these conditions in both normal and leukemic cells. As for CD34, TEPA increased the proportion of CD34 cells in short- and long-term normal cultures but not in the leukemic cell lines. These results suggest that ex vivo expansion of HPC depends on the presence of CD34+CD38- cells and that TEPA prolongs HPC expansion by inhibiting the CD38- to CD38+ transition.

  2. CD38 Deficiency Protects the Heart from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Activating SIRT1/FOXOs-Mediated Antioxidative Stress Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Hong, Xuan; Zhao, Ning; Xiao, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ling-Fang; Qian, Yi-Song; Deng, Ke-Yu; Ji, Guangju; Fu, Mingui

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induces irreversible oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle. We previously observed that CD38 deficiency remarkably protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from oxidative stress-induced injury. However, whether CD38 deficiency protects from I/R injury in the heart is not explored. Here, we showed that the hearts of CD38 deficient mice or wild type mice supplied with exogenous NAD were significantly protected from ischemia/reperfusion injury, seen as reduction of the myocardial infarct sizes when the mice were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Consistently, the protection of CD38 deficiency on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury was confirmed with a CD38 knockdown H9c2 stable cell line. Furthermore, we observed that knockdown of CD38 remarkably inhibited ROS generation and intracellular Ca2+ overloading induced by H/R in H9c2 cells. The FOXO1 and FOXO3 expressions were significantly elevated by H/R injury in CD38 knockdown cells compared with normal H9c2 cells. The cell immunofluorescence assay showed that FOXO1 nuclear translocation was significantly increased in CD38 knockdown H9c2 cells. In addition, we demonstrated that the increase of FOXO1 nuclear translocation was associated with the increased expressions of antioxidant catalase and SOD2 and the attenuated expression of the ROS generation enzyme NOX4. In conclusion, our results provide new evidence that CD38 deficiency protects the heart from I/R injury through activating SIRT1/FOXOs-mediated antioxidative stress pathway. PMID:27547294

  3. Identification of bacterial guanylate cyclases.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Min-Hyung; Youn, Hwan; Kang, In-Hye; Gomelsky, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The ability of bacteria to use cGMP as a second messenger has been controversial for decades. Recently, nucleotide cyclases from Rhodospirillum centenum, GcyA, and Xanthomonas campestris, GuaX, have been shown to possess guanylate cyclase activities. Enzymatic activities of these guanylate cyclases measured in vitro were low, which makes interpretation of the assays ambiguous. Protein sequence analysis at present is insufficient to distinguish between bacterial adenylate and guanylate cyclases, both of which belong to nucleotide cyclases of type III. We developed a simple method for discriminating between guanylate and adenylate cyclase activities in a physiologically relevant bacterial system. The method relies on the use of a mutant cAMP receptor protein, CRPG , constructed here. While wild-type CRP is activated exclusively by cAMP, CRPG can be activated by either cAMP or cGMP. Using CRP- and CRPG -dependent lacZ expression in two E. coli strains, we verified that R. centenum GcyA and X. campestris GuaX have primarily guanylate cyclase activities. Among two other bacterial nucleotide cyclases tested, one, GuaA from Azospillrillum sp. B510, proved to have guanylate cyclase activity, while the other one, Bradyrhizobium japonicum CyaA, turned out to function as an adenylate cyclase. The results obtained with this reporter system were in excellent agreement with direct measurements of cyclic nucleotides secreted by E. coli expressing nucleotide cyclase genes. The simple genetic screen developed here is expected to facilitate identification of bacterial guanylate cyclases and engineering of guanylate cyclases with desired properties.

  4. An age-related numerical and functional deficit in CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cells is associated with an increase in systemic autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Niharika A; Upton, Jane; Phillips, Anna C; Sapey, Elizabeth; Lord, Janet M

    2013-10-01

    Autoimmunity increases with aging indicative of reduced immune tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are poorly defined. In recent years, subsets of B cells with immunoregulatory properties have been identified in murine models of autoimmune disorders, and these cells downregulate immune responses via secretion of IL10. In humans, immature transitional B cells with a CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) phenotype have been reported to regulate immune responses via IL10 production. We found the frequency and numbers of CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) cells were reduced in the PBMC pool with age. IL10 expression and secretion following activation via either CD40, or Toll-like receptors was also impaired in CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cells from healthy older donors. When investigating the mechanisms involved, we found that CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B-cell function was compromised by age-related effects on both T cells and B cells: specifically, CD40 ligand expression was lower in CD4 T cells from older donors following CD3 stimulation, and signalling through CD40 was impaired in CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cells from elders as evidenced by reduced phosphorylation (Y705) and activation of STAT3. However, there was no age-associated change in expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 on CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) cells, suggesting IL10-dependent immune suppression is impaired, but contact-dependent suppressive capacity is intact with age. Finally, we found a negative correlation between CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B-cell IL10 production and autoantibody (Rheumatoid factor) levels in older adults. We therefore propose that an age-related decline in CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cell number and function may contribute towards the increased autoimmunity and reduced immune tolerance seen with aging.

  5. Excessive stimulation of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation contributes to endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Ian P; Kenny, Louise C; Thornton, Wayne A; Szabo, Csaba; Baker, Philip N

    2004-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a serious pregnancy disorder associated with widespread activation of the maternal vascular endothelium. Recent evidence implicates a role for oxidative stress in the aetiology of this condition. Reactive oxygen species, particularly superoxide anions, invokes endothelial cell activation through many pathways. Oxidant-induced cell injury triggers the activation of nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) leading to endothelial dysfunction in various pathophysiological conditions (reperfusion, shock, diabetes). We have studied whether the loss of endothelial function in pre-eclampsia is dependent on PARP activity. Endothelium-dependent responses of myometrial arteries were tested following exposure to either plasma from women with pre-eclampsia or normal pregnant women in the presence and absence of a novel potent inhibitor of PARP, PJ34. Additional effects of plasma and PJ34 inhibition were identified in microvascular endothelial cell cultures. In myometrial arteries, PARP inhibition blocked the attenuation of endothelium-dependent responses following exposure to plasma from women with pre-eclampsia. In endothelial cell cultures, plasma from pre-eclamptics induced measurable oxidative stress and a concomitant increase in PARP activity and reduction in cellular ATP. Again, these biochemical changes were reversed by PJ34. These results suggest that PARP activity plays a pathogenic role in the development of endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclampsia and promotes PARP inhibition as a potential therapy in this condition. PMID:15778700

  6. Sam68 Is Required for DNA Damage Responses via Regulating Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Andrea; Wier, Eric M.; Wen, Matthew G.; Kamenyeva, Olena; Xia, Xue; Koo, Lily Y.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid and robust synthesis of polymers of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (PAR) chains, primarily catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), is crucial for cellular responses to DNA damage. However, the precise mechanisms through which PARP1 is activated and PAR is robustly synthesized are not fully understood. Here, we identified Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) as a novel signaling molecule in DNA damage responses (DDRs). In the absence of Sam68, DNA damage-triggered PAR production and PAR-dependent DNA repair signaling were dramatically diminished. With serial cellular and biochemical assays, we demonstrated that Sam68 is recruited to and significantly overlaps with PARP1 at DNA lesions and that the interaction between Sam68 and PARP1 is crucial for DNA damage-initiated and PARP1-conferred PAR production. Utilizing cell lines and knockout mice, we illustrated that Sam68-deleted cells and animals are hypersensitive to genotoxicity caused by DNA-damaging agents. Together, our findings suggest that Sam68 plays a crucial role in DDR via regulating DNA damage-initiated PAR production. PMID:27635653

  7. The Key Involvement of Poly(ADP-Ribosylation) in Defense Against Toxic Agents: Molecular Biology Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-29

    Jacobson, M.K., Janzon, L., SeidegArd, J., Smulson, M.E., and Troll, W. The Malmt5 Diet and Cancer Study: The Biomarker Program. Submitted for publication in...ribosylate proteins which bind to the regulatory regions of glucocorticoid responsive genes. (2). TCDD, dioxin , a potent environmental contaminant...like glucocorticoid is mediated by an aromatic hydrocarbon rereptor which a!’c binds to specific DNA sequences (i.e. dioxin -responsive elements

  8. Expanding functions of ADP-ribosylation in the maintenance of genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Martin-Hernandez, K; Rodriguez-Vargas, J-M; Schreiber, V; Dantzer, F

    2017-03-01

    Cell response to genotoxic stress requires a complex network of sensors and effectors from numerous signaling and repair pathways, among them the nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) plays a central role. PARP1 is catalytically activated in the setting of DNA breaks. It uses NAD(+) as a donor and catalyses the synthesis and subsequent covalent attachment of branched ADP-ribose polymers onto itself and various acceptor proteins to promote repair. Its inhibition is now considered as an efficient therapeutic strategy to potentiate the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy and radiation or to exploit synthetic lethality in tumours with defective homologous recombination mediated repair. Still, efforts made on understanding the role of PARylation in DNA repair continues to yield novel discoveries. Over the last years, our knowledge in this field has been particularly advanced by the discovery of novel biochemical and functional properties featuring PARP1, by the characterization of the other PARP family members and by the identification of a panel of enzymes capable of erasing poly(ADP-ribose). The aim of this review is to provide an overview of these newest findings and their relevance in genome surveillance.

  9. Phylogenetic approach for inferring the origin and functional evolution of bacterial ADP-ribosylation superfamily.

    PubMed

    Chellapandi, P; Sakthishree, S; Bharathi, M

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferases (BADPRTs) are extensively contributed to determine the strain-specific virulence state and pathogenesis in human hosts. Understanding molecular evolution and functional diversity of the BADPRTs is an important standpoint to describe the fundamental behind in the vaccine designing for bacterial infections. In the present study, we have evaluated the origin and functional evolution of conserved domains within the BADPRTs by analyzing their sequence-function relationship. To represent the evolution history of BADPRTs, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on their protein sequence, structure and conserved domains using different evolutionary programs. Sequence divergence and genetic diversity were studied herein to deduce the functional evolution of conserved domains across the family and superfamily. The results of sequence similarity search have shown that three hypothetical proteins (above 90%) were identical to the members of BADPRTs and their functions were annotated by phylogenetic approach. Phylogenetic analysis of this study has revealed the family members of BADPRTs were phylogenetically related to one another, functionally diverged within the same family, and dispersed into closely related bacteria. The presence of core substitution pattern in the conserved domains would determine the family-specific function of BADPRTs. Functional diversity of the BADPRTs was exclusively distinguished by Darwinian positive selection (diphtheria toxin C and pertussis toxin S) and neutral selection (arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase, enterotoxin A and binary toxin A) acting on the existing domains. Many of the family members were sharing their sequence-specific features from members in the arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase family. Conservative functions of members in the BADPRTs have shown to be expanded only within closely related families, and retained as such in pathogenic bacteria by evolutionary process (domain duplication or recombination events). Hence, we conclude that evolutionary significance of the members in the BADPRTs would provide an insight for experimental set-up on site-directed mutagenesis and vaccine engineering.

  10. Targeted delivery of an ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxin into cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zahaf , N.-I.; Lang, A. E.; Kaiser, L.; Fichter, C. D.; Lassmann, S.; McCluskey, A.; Augspach, A.; Aktories, K.; Schmidt, G.

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is an attractive target for bacterial toxins. The ADP-ribosyltransferase TccC3 from the insect bacterial pathogen Photorhabdus luminescence modifies actin to force its aggregation. We intended to transport the catalytic part of this toxin preferentially into cancer cells using a toxin transporter (Protective antigen, PA) which was redirected to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFR) or to human EGF receptors 2 (HER2), which are overexpressed in several cancer cells. Protective antigen of anthrax toxin forms a pore through which the two catalytic parts (lethal factor and edema factor) or other proteins can be transported into mammalian cells. Here, we used PA as a double mutant (N682A, D683A; mPA) which cannot bind to the two natural anthrax receptors. Each mutated monomer is fused either to EGF or to an affibody directed against the human EGF receptor 2 (HER2). We established a cellular model system composed of two cell lines representing HER2 overexpressing esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) and EGFR overexpressing esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). We studied the specificity and efficiency of the re-directed anthrax pore for transport of TccC3 toxin and established Photorhabdus luminescence TccC3 as a toxin suitable for the development of a targeted toxin selectively killing cancer cells. PMID:28128281

  11. Cholix Toxin, a Novel ADP-ribosylating Factor from Vibrio cholerae

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Rene; Purdy, Alexandra E.; Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Kimber, Matthew S.; Bartlett, Douglas H.; Merrill, A. Rod

    2008-07-15

    The ADP-ribosyltransferases are a class of enzymes that display activity in a variety of bacterial pathogens responsible for causing diseases in plants and animals, including those affecting mankind, such as diphtheria, cholera, and whooping cough. We report the characterization of a novel toxin from Vibrio cholerae, which we call cholix toxin. The toxin is active against mammalian cells (IC50 = 4.6 {+-} 0.4 ng/ml) and crustaceans (Artemia nauplii LD50 = 10 {+-} 2 {mu}g/ml). Here we show that this toxin is the third member of the diphthamide-specific class of ADP-ribose transferases and that it possesses specific ADP-ribose transferase activity against ribosomal eukaryotic elongation factor 2. We also describe the high resolution crystal structures of the multidomain toxin and its catalytic domain at 2.1- and 1.25-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The new structural data show that cholix toxin possesses the necessary molecular features required for infection of eukaryotes by receptor-mediated endocytosis, translocation to the host cytoplasm, and inhibition of protein synthesis by specific modification of elongation factor 2. The crystal structures also provide important insight into the structural basis for activation of toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. These results indicate that cholix toxin may be an important virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae that likely plays a significant role in the survival of the organism in an aquatic environment.

  12. Reduced Plasmodium Parasite Burden Associates with CD38+ CD4+ T Cells Displaying Cytolytic Potential and Impaired IFN-γ Production

    PubMed Central

    Burel, Julie G.; Apte, Simon H.; Groves, Penny L.; Klein, Kerenaftali; McCarthy, James S.; Doolan, Denise L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a unique resource of samples from a controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) study, we identified a novel population of CD4+ T cells whose frequency in the peripheral blood was inversely correlated with parasite burden following P. falciparum infection. These CD4+ T cells expressed the multifunctional ectoenzyme CD38 and had unique features that distinguished them from other CD4+ T cells. Specifically, their phenotype was associated with proliferation, activation and cytotoxic potential as well as significantly impaired production of IFN-γ and other cytokines and reduced basal levels of activated STAT1. A CD38+ CD4+ T cell population with similar features was identified in healthy uninfected individuals, at lower frequency. CD38+ CD4+ T cells could be generated in vitro from CD38- CD4+ T cells after antigenic or mitogenic stimulation. This is the first report of a population of CD38+ CD4+ T cells with a cytotoxic phenotype and markedly impaired IFN-γ capacity in humans. The expansion of this CD38+ CD4+ T population following infection and its significant association with reduced blood-stage parasite burden is consistent with an important functional role for these cells in protective immunity to malaria in humans. Their ubiquitous presence in humans suggests that they may have a broad role in host-pathogen defense. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov clinical trial numbers ACTRN12612000814875, ACTRN12613000565741 and ACTRN12613001040752 PMID:27662621

  13. Interaction of CD38 Variant and Chronic Interpersonal Stress Prospectively Predicts Social Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Over Six Years.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Zinbarg, Richard E; Prenoveau, Jason M; Mineka, Susan; Redei, Eva E; Adam, Emma K; Craske, Michelle G

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the CD38 gene, which regulates secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin, has been associated with several social phenotypes. Specifically, rs3796863 A allele carriers have demonstrated increased social sensitivity. In 400 older adolescents, we used trait-state-occasion modeling to investigate how rs3796863 genotype, baseline ratings of chronic interpersonal stress, and their gene-environment (GxE) interaction predicted trait social anxiety and depression symptoms over six years. We found significant GxE effects for CD38 A-carrier genotypes and chronic interpersonal stress at baseline predicting greater social anxiety and depression symptoms. A significant GxE effect of smaller magnitude was also found for C/C genotype and chronic interpersonal stress predicting greater depression; however, this effect was small compared to the main effect of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, in the context of chronic interpersonal stress, heightened social sensitivity associated with the rs3796863 A allele may prospectively predict risk for social anxiety and (to a lesser extent) depression.

  14. Interaction of CD38 Variant and Chronic Interpersonal Stress Prospectively Predicts Social Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Over Six Years

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Benjamin A.; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Prenoveau, Jason M.; Mineka, Susan; Redei, Eva E.; Adam, Emma K.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the CD38 gene, which regulates secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin, has been associated with several social phenotypes. Specifically, rs3796863 A allele carriers have demonstrated increased social sensitivity. In 400 older adolescents, we used trait-state-occasion modeling to investigate how rs3796863 genotype, baseline ratings of chronic interpersonal stress, and their gene-environment (GxE) interaction predicted trait social anxiety and depression symptoms over six years. We found significant GxE effects for CD38 A-carrier genotypes and chronic interpersonal stress at baseline predicting greater social anxiety and depression symptoms. A significant GxE effect of smaller magnitude was also found for C/C genotype and chronic interpersonal stress predicting greater depression; however, this effect was small compared to the main effect of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, in the context of chronic interpersonal stress, heightened social sensitivity associated with the rs3796863 A allele may prospectively predict risk for social anxiety and (to a lesser extent) depression. PMID:26958455

  15. Concentrative uptake of cyclic ADP-ribose generated by BST-1+ stroma stimulates proliferation of human hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Podestà, Marina; Benvenuto, Federica; Pitto, Anna; Figari, Osvaldo; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Bruzzone, Santina; Guida, Lucrezia; Franco, Luisa; Paleari, Laura; Bodrato, Nicoletta; Usai, Cesare; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2005-02-18

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is an intracellular calcium mobilizer generated from NAD(+) by the ADP-ribosyl cyclases CD38 and BST-1. cADPR, both exogenously added and paracrinally produced by a CD38(+) feeder layer, has recently been demonstrated to stimulate the in vitro proliferation of human hemopoietic progenitors (HP) and also the in vivo expansion of hemopoietic stem cells. The low density of BST-1 expression on bone marrow (BM) stromal cells and the low specific activity of the enzyme made it unclear whether cADPR generation by a BST-1(+) stroma could stimulate HP proliferation in the BM microenvironment. We developed and characterized two BST-1(+) stromal cell lines, expressing an ectocellular cyclase activity similar to that of BST-1(+) human mesenchymal stem cells, the precursors of BM stromal cells. Long term co-culture of cord blood-derived HP over these BST-1(+) feeders determined their expansion. Influx of paracrinally generated cADPR into clonogenic HP was mediated by a concentrative, nitrobenzylthioinosine- and dipyridamole-inhibitable nucleoside transporter, this providing a possible explanation to the effectiveness of the hormone-like concentrations of the cyclic nucleotide measured in the medium conditioned by BST-1(+) feeders. These results suggest that the BST-1-catalyzed generation of extracellular cADPR, followed by the concentrative uptake of the cyclic nucleotide by HP, may be physiologically relevant in normal hemopoiesis.

  16. Daratumumab depletes CD38+ immune regulatory cells, promotes T-cell expansion, and skews T-cell repertoire in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Krejcik, Jakub; Casneuf, Tineke; Nijhof, Inger S.; Verbist, Bie; Bald, Jaime; Plesner, Torben; Syed, Khaja; Liu, Kevin; van de Donk, Niels W. C. J.; Weiss, Brendan M.; Ahmadi, Tahamtan; Lokhorst, Henk M.; Mutis, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Daratumumab targets CD38-expressing myeloma cells through a variety of immune-mediated mechanisms (complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis) and direct apoptosis with crosslinking. These mechanisms may also target nonplasma cells that express CD38, which prompted evaluation of daratumumab’s effects on CD38-positive immune subpopulations. Peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) from patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma from 2 daratumumab monotherapy studies were analyzed before and during therapy and at relapse. Regulatory B cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, previously shown to express CD38, were evaluated for immunosuppressive activity and daratumumab sensitivity in the myeloma setting. A novel subpopulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing CD38 was identified. These Tregs were more immunosuppressive in vitro than CD38-negative Tregs and were reduced in daratumumab-treated patients. In parallel, daratumumab induced robust increases in helper and cytotoxic T-cell absolute counts. In PB and BM, daratumumab induced significant increases in CD8+:CD4+ and CD8+:Treg ratios, and increased memory T cells while decreasing naïve T cells. The majority of patients demonstrated these broad T-cell changes, although patients with a partial response or better showed greater maximum effector and helper T-cell increases, elevated antiviral and alloreactive functional responses, and significantly greater increases in T-cell clonality as measured by T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing. Increased TCR clonality positively correlated with increased CD8+ PB T-cell counts. Depletion of CD38+ immunosuppressive cells, which is associated with an increase in T-helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, T-cell functional response, and TCR clonality, represents possible additional mechanisms of action for daratumumab and deserves further exploration. PMID:27222480

  17. CD38+ CD58- is an independent adverse prognostic factor in paediatric Philadelphia chromosome negative B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Mian; Zhang, Le-Ping; Wang, Ya-Zhe; Lu, Ai-Dong; Chang, Yan; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Qin, Ya-Zhen; Lai, Yue-Yun; Kong, Yuan; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Yan-Rong

    2016-04-01

    To explore new risk predictors for a high risk of relapse in Philadelphia chromosome negative (Ph-) B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) patients, 196 paediatric Ph- B-ALL patients (≤ 18 years) were retrospectively analysed. We mainly focus on investigating the prognostic value of CD38 and CD58 expression in leukemic blasts in these patients by four colour flow cytometry. The CD38+ CD58- group (n=16) had a higher relapse rate, a shorter 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) than the CD38+ CD58+ group (n=157; 31.3% vs 10.2%, P=0.04; 52.4% vs 92.3%, P<0.01; 32.5% vs 91.0%, P=0.01); CD38+ CD58- was an independent adverse prognostic predictor for relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.203; 95%CI, 0.063-0.656; P=0.01), 3-year EFS (HR, 0.091; 95%CI, 0.023-0.355; P<0.01) and OS (HR, 0.102; 95%CI, 0.026-0.3971; P<0.01) in this cohort, as determined by Cox multivariate analysis. We identified, for the first time, a higher risk population of paediatric Ph- B-ALL patients with CD38+ CD58- who had a higher relapse risk and a shorter survival. Our results may allow better risk stratification and individualized treatment.

  18. Addition of interferon-alpha to a standard maturation cocktail induces CD38 up-regulation and increases dendritic cell function.

    PubMed

    Trepiakas, Redas; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Met, Ozcan; Svane, Inge Marie

    2009-04-06

    Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are used as adjuvant cells in cancer immunotherapy and have shown promising results. In order to obtain full functional capacity, these DCs need to be maturated, and the current "gold standard" for this process is maturation with TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and PGE(2) used for generating standard DCs (sDC). Several studies indicate that IFN-alpha might also be important for DC differentiation and maturation. In this study, we tested the effect of IFN-alpha alone or as addition to the gold standard sDC cocktail. We observed that maturation by IFN-alpha differs from sDC maturation: The major phenotypic change after IFN-alpha maturation was dose-dependent up-regulation of CD38 but not CD83, while sDCs expressed the opposite profile with low CD38 and high CD83 expression. Similarly, maturation by Poly I:C leads to CD38high, CD83low DCs indicating a functional relationship between CD38, IFN-alpha and TLR3. Thus, CD38 appear to be a relevant marker for activation by TLR3 or IFN-alpha. Addition of IFN-alpha to the sDC cocktail results in up-regulation of both CD38 and CD83 and improved capacity for induction of autologous T-cell responses despite few other changes in DC phenotype and cytokine secretion. Our observations suggest that IFN-alpha could be included in maturation protocols for clinical grade DCs used for immunotherapy against cancer and should be included if DCs are used for CD8+ T-cell stimulation in vitro.

  19. An age-related numerical and functional deficit in CD19+CD24hiCD38hi B cells is associated with an increase in systemic autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Niharika A; Upton, Jane; Phillips, Anna C; Sapey, Elizabeth; Lord, Janet M

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmunity increases with aging indicative of reduced immune tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are poorly defined. In recent years, subsets of B cells with immunoregulatory properties have been identified in murine models of autoimmune disorders, and these cells downregulate immune responses via secretion of IL10. In humans, immature transitional B cells with a CD19+CD24hiCD38hi phenotype have been reported to regulate immune responses via IL10 production. We found the frequency and numbers of CD19+CD24hiCD38hi cells were reduced in the PBMC pool with age. IL10 expression and secretion following activation via either CD40, or Toll-like receptors was also impaired in CD19+CD24hiCD38hi B cells from healthy older donors. When investigating the mechanisms involved, we found that CD19+CD24hiCD38hi B-cell function was compromised by age-related effects on both T cells and B cells: specifically, CD40 ligand expression was lower in CD4 T cells from older donors following CD3 stimulation, and signalling through CD40 was impaired in CD19+CD24hiCD38hi B cells from elders as evidenced by reduced phosphorylation (Y705) and activation of STAT3. However, there was no age-associated change in expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 on CD19+CD24hiCD38hi cells, suggesting IL10-dependent immune suppression is impaired, but contact-dependent suppressive capacity is intact with age. Finally, we found a negative correlation between CD19+CD24hiCD38hi B-cell IL10 production and autoantibody (Rheumatoid factor) levels in older adults. We therefore propose that an age-related decline in CD19+CD24hiCD38hi B cell number and function may contribute towards the increased autoimmunity and reduced immune tolerance seen with aging. PMID:23755918

  20. Inhibition of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin by MDL 12330A and chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Bitonti, A J

    1984-04-30

    ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin of the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein (Gs) of rat liver membrane adenylate cyclase was inhibited by 0.1-1 mM MDL 12330A or 0.1-1 mM chlorpromazine. Basal as well as cholera toxin activated adenylate cyclase activity in liver membranes was also inhibited by the two drugs. NAD glycohydrolase activity and self-ADP-ribosylation of cholera toxin were also inhibited by MDL 12330A and chlorpromazine. These effects of MDL 12330A and chlorpromazine may be related to their effects on cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion in vivo.

  1. Long-lived Plasma Cells Are Contained Within the CD19−CD38hiCD138+ Subset in Human Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Halliley, Jessica L.; Tipton, Christopher; Liesveld, Jane; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Darce, Jaime; Gregoretti, Ivan V.; Popova, Lana; Kaminiski, Denise; Fucile, Christopher F.; Albizua-Santin, Igor; Kyu, Shuya; Chiang, Kuang-Yueh; Bradley, Kyle T.; Burack, Richard; Slifka, Mark; Hammarlund, Erika; Wu, Hao; Zhao, Liping; Walsh, Edward E.; Falsey, Ann R.; Randall, Troy D.; Cheung, Wan Cheung; Sanz, Iñaki; Lee, F. Eun-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Antibody responses to viral infections are sustained for decades by long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). However, LLPCs have yet to be characterized in humans. Here we used CD19, CD38, and CD138 to identify four PC subsets in human bone marrow (BM). We found that the CD19−CD38hiCD138+ subset was morphologically distinct, differentially expressed PC-associated genes and exclusively contained PCs specific for viral antigens to which the subjects had not been exposed for over 40 years. Protein sequences of measles- and mumps-specific circulating antibodies were encoded for by CD19−CD38hiCD138+ PCs in the BM. Finally, we found that CD19−CD38hiCD138+ PCs had a distinct RNA transcriptome signature and human immunoglobulin heavy chain (VH) repertoire that was relatively uncoupled from other BM PC subsets and likely represents the B cell response’s “historical record” of antigenic exposure. Thus, our studies define human LLPCs and provide a mechanism for the life-long maintenance of anti-viral antibodies in the serum. PMID:26187412

  2. Monoclonal antibody 1.6.1 against human MPL receptor allows HSC enrichment of CB and BM CD34(+)CD38(-) populations.

    PubMed

    Petit Cocault, Laurence; Fleury, Maud; Clay, Denis; Larghero, Jérôme; Vanneaux, Valérie; Souyri, Michèle

    2016-04-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) and its receptor Mpl (CD110) play a crucial role in the regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Functional study of Mpl-expressing HSCs has, however, been hampered by the lack of efficient monoclonal antibodies, explaining the very few data available on Mpl(+) HSCs during human embryonic development and after birth. Investigating the main monoclonal antibodies used so far to sort CD110(+) cells from cord blood (CB) and adult bone marrow (BM), we found that only the recent monoclonal antibody 1.6.1 engineered by Immunex Corporation was specific. Using in vitro functional assays, we found that this antibody can be used to sort a CD34(+)CD38(-)CD110(+) population enriched in hematopoietic progenitor stem cells, both in CB and in adult BM. In vivo injection into NSG mice further indicated that the CB CD34(+)CD38(-)CD110(+) population is highly enriched in HSCs compared with both CD34(+)CD38(-)CD110(-) and CD34(+)CD38(-) populations. Together our results validate MAb1.6.1 as an important tool, which has so far been lacking, in the HSC field.

  3. Percentage of Peripheral CD19+CD24hiCD38hi Regulatory B Cells in Neonatal Sepsis Patients and Its Functional Implication.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Ji, Zuoquan; Xue, Jiang

    2016-07-07

    BACKGROUND As a major cause of mortality in neonates, neonatal sepsis is often accompanied by immune dysfunctions, which are frequently caused by dysregulated T cell sub-populations. The role of regulatory B cells in neonatal sepsis, however, remains unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the percentage and functional variation of CD19+CD24hiCD38hi regulatory B cells in peripheral blood of neonatal sepsis patients in an attempt to elucidate the role of these regulatory B cells in pathogenesis of sepsis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Flow cytometry was used to quantify the percentage of CD19+CD24hiCD38hi regulatory B cells from peripheral blood samples. The correlation between B cell percentage and C reactive protein (CRP) level was analyzed. Secretion level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and effects on the proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells were further analyzed. RESULTS The percentage of CD19+CD24hiCD38hi regulatory B cells in neonatal sepsis patients was significantly higher compared to healthy controls (p<0.05), and was positively correlated with serum CRP level. The percentage of IL-10+ CD19+CD24hiCD38hi regulatory B cells was also higher in sepsis patients, and also had more potent inhibition on naïve CD4+ T cells (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS The elevation of CD19+CD24hiCD38hi regulatory B cells in neonatal sepsis can inhibit body immune function and thus may participate in the pathogenesis of sepsis.

  4. Intermittent and graded exercise effects on NK cell degranulation markers LAMP-1/LAMP-2 and CD8(+)CD38(+) in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Suzanne; Coutts, Rosanne

    2017-03-01

    There is substantial evidence of immune system dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) but little is understood of exercise training effects on lymphocyte function in this illness. This study investigated whether graded and intermittent exercise improved CD8(+) lymphocyte activation and natural killer cell degranulation markers compared to no exercise. Twenty-four chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients (50.2 ± 10 year) were randomized to graded exercise (GE), intermittent exercise (IE) or usual care (UC) groups; a control group (CTL) of 18 matched sedentary non-CFS/ME participants were included for immunological variable comparisons. Main outcome measures were pre- and postintervention expression of CD3(+)CD8(+)CD38(+) and CD3(-)CD16(+)56(+)CD107a(+) (LAMP-1) CD107b(+) (LAMP-2) and aerobic exercise capacity. The postintervention percentage of NK cells expressing LAMP-1 and -2 was significantly higher in IE compared to UC, and higher in GE compared to UC and CTL LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 expression (absolute numbers and percent positive) increased significantly pre-to-postintervention for both GE and IE Preintervention, the absolute number of CD8(+)CD38(+) cells was significantly lower in CTL compared to UC and IE There were no significant pre- to postintervention changes in CD8(+)CD38(+) expression for any group. Aerobic exercise capacity was significantly improved by GE and IE Twelve weeks of GE and IE increased the expression of NK cell activation and degranulation markers, suggesting enhanced immunosurveillance. Low-intensity exercise may also reduce CD8(+)CD38(+) expression, a marker of inflammation. Both GE and IE improved exercise capacity without worsening CFS/ME symptoms, and more robust trials of these exercise modalities are warranted.

  5. Cyclic ADP-Ribose and Heat Regulate Oxytocin Release via CD38 and TRPM2 in the Hypothalamus during Social or Psychological Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jing; Amina, Sarwat; Liang, Mingkun; Akther, Shirin; Yuhi, Teruko; Nishimura, Tomoko; Tsuji, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Hashii, Minako; Furuhara, Kazumi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Zhao, Yong Juan; Lee, Hon Cheung; Tominaga, Makoto; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic oxytocin (OT) is released into the brain by cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) with or without depolarizing stimulation. Previously, we showed that the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) that seems to trigger OT release can be elevated by β-NAD+, cADPR, and ADP in mouse oxytocinergic neurons. As these β-NAD+ metabolites activate warm-sensitive TRPM2 cation channels, when the incubation temperature is increased, the [Ca2+]i in hypothalamic neurons is elevated. However, it has not been determined whether OT release is facilitated by heat in vitro or hyperthermia in vivo in combination with cADPR. Furthermore, it has not been examined whether CD38 and TRPM2 exert their functions on OT release during stress or stress-induced hyperthermia in relation to the anxiolytic roles and social behaviors of OT under stress conditions. Here, we report that OT release from the isolated hypothalami of male mice in culture was enhanced by extracellular application of cADPR or increasing the incubation temperature from 35°C to 38.5°C, and simultaneous stimulation showed a greater effect. This release was inhibited by a cADPR-dependent ryanodine receptor inhibitor and a nonspecific TRPM2 inhibitor. The facilitated release by heat and cADPR was suppressed in the hypothalamus isolated from CD38 knockout mice and CD38- or TRPM2-knockdown mice. In the course of these experiments, we noted that OT release differed markedly between individual mice under stress with group housing. That is, when male mice received cage-switch stress and eliminated due to their social subclass, significantly higher levels of OT release were found in subordinates compared with ordinates. In mice exposed to anxiety stress in an open field, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) OT level increased transiently at 5 min after exposure, and the rectal temperature also increased from 36.6°C to 37.8°C. OT levels in the CSF of mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced fever (+0.8°C) were higher than those

  6. Cyclic ADP-Ribose and Heat Regulate Oxytocin Release via CD38 and TRPM2 in the Hypothalamus during Social or Psychological Stress in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jing; Amina, Sarwat; Liang, Mingkun; Akther, Shirin; Yuhi, Teruko; Nishimura, Tomoko; Tsuji, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Hashii, Minako; Furuhara, Kazumi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Zhao, Yong Juan; Lee, Hon Cheung; Tominaga, Makoto; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic oxytocin (OT) is released into the brain by cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) with or without depolarizing stimulation. Previously, we showed that the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) that seems to trigger OT release can be elevated by β-NAD(+), cADPR, and ADP in mouse oxytocinergic neurons. As these β-NAD(+) metabolites activate warm-sensitive TRPM2 cation channels, when the incubation temperature is increased, the [Ca(2+)]i in hypothalamic neurons is elevated. However, it has not been determined whether OT release is facilitated by heat in vitro or hyperthermia in vivo in combination with cADPR. Furthermore, it has not been examined whether CD38 and TRPM2 exert their functions on OT release during stress or stress-induced hyperthermia in relation to the anxiolytic roles and social behaviors of OT under stress conditions. Here, we report that OT release from the isolated hypothalami of male mice in culture was enhanced by extracellular application of cADPR or increasing the incubation temperature from 35°C to 38.5°C, and simultaneous stimulation showed a greater effect. This release was inhibited by a cADPR-dependent ryanodine receptor inhibitor and a nonspecific TRPM2 inhibitor. The facilitated release by heat and cADPR was suppressed in the hypothalamus isolated from CD38 knockout mice and CD38- or TRPM2-knockdown mice. In the course of these experiments, we noted that OT release differed markedly between individual mice under stress with group housing. That is, when male mice received cage-switch stress and eliminated due to their social subclass, significantly higher levels of OT release were found in subordinates compared with ordinates. In mice exposed to anxiety stress in an open field, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) OT level increased transiently at 5 min after exposure, and the rectal temperature also increased from 36.6°C to 37.8°C. OT levels in the CSF of mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced fever (+0.8°C) were higher than

  7. Characterization of the Highly Prevalent Regulatory CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B-Cell Population in Human Cord Blood.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Solé, Ana; Teixidó, Irene; Deyà-Martínez, Angela; Yagüe, Jordi; Plaza-Martín, Ana M; Juan, Manel; Alsina, Laia

    2017-01-01

    The newborn's immune system must transition from a sterile haploidentical uterus to the world full of antigens. Regulatory B-cells (Breg; broadly defined as CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi)) are tolerance promoters in the adult immune system. They can inhibit IFN-γ and IL-17 production by T-cells and are essential in different conditions, including pregnancy. Breg have still not been well characterized in umbilical cord blood, where we hypothesize that they are pivotal in the achievement of tolerance. We studied CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) Breg in healthy umbilical cord blood (hUCB) compared to healthy peripheral adult blood (hAPB). Total numbers of Breg were increased in hUCB compared to hAPB (34.39 vs. 9.49%; p = 0.0002), especially in the marginal zone-like B-cell subset, in which the most marked difference could be observed between hUCB and hAPB (60.80 vs. 4.94%; p = 0.1). CD24(hi)CD38(hi) subset in hUCB produced IL-10 and inhibited T-cell IFN-γ [1.63 vs. 0.95 stimulation ratio (SR); p = 0.004] and IL-4 (1.63 vs. 1.44 SR; p = 0.39) production. Phenotypically, hUCB Breg cells presented IgM(hi)IgD(hi)CD5(+)CD10(+)CD27(-) markers, similar to those described in hAPB Breg cells, but they showed increased IgM concentration and decreased expression of CD22 and CD73 markers. Our work characterized the frequency, phenotype, and function of Breg in hUCB, which may contribute to understanding of immune tolerance during pregnancy, paving the way to a new approach to immune-related diseases in the fetus and the newborn.

  8. High proportion of CD95(+) and CD38(+) in cultured CD8(+) T cells predicts acute rejection and infection, respectively, in kidney recipients.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, Esther; Castro, María José; Allende, Luís M; Talayero, Paloma; Brunet, Mercè; Millán, Olga; Guirado, Luís; López-Hoyos, Marcos; San Segundo, David; Rodrigo, Emilio; Muñoz, Pedro; Boix Giner, Francisco; Llorente Viñas, Santiago; Muro-Amador, Manuel; Paz-Artal, Estela

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find noninvasive T-cell markers able to predict rejection or infection risk after kidney transplantation. We prospectively examined T-lymphocyte subsets after cell culture stimulation (according to CD38, CD69, CD95, CD40L, and CD25 expression) in 79 first graft recipients from four centers, before and after transplantation. Patients were followed up for one year. Patients who rejected within month-1 (n=10) showed high pre-transplantation and week-1 post-transplantation percentages of CD95(+), in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells (P<0.001 for all comparisons). These biomarkers conferred independent risk for early rejection (HR:5.05, P=0.061 and HR:75.31, P=0.004; respectively). The cut-off values were able to accurately discriminate between rejectors and non-rejectors and Kaplan-Meier curves showed significantly different free-of-rejection time rates (P<0.005). Patients who rejected after the month-1 (n=4) had a higher percentage of post-transplantation CD69(+) in CD8(+) T-cells than non-rejectors (P=0.002). Finally, patients with infection (n=41) previously showed higher percentage of CD38(+) in CD8(+) T-cells at all post-transplantation times evaluated, being this increase more marked in viral infections. A cut-off of 59% CD38(+) in CD8(+) T-cells at week-1, week-2 and month-2 reached 100% sensitivity for the detection of subsequent viral infections. In conclusion, predictive biomarkers of rejection and infection risk after transplantation were detected that could be useful for the personalized care of kidney recipients.

  9. CD56brightCD16- NK Cells Produce Adenosine through a CD38-Mediated Pathway and Act as Regulatory Cells Inhibiting Autologous CD4+ T Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Fabio; Horenstein, Alberto L; Chillemi, Antonella; Quarona, Valeria; Chiesa, Sabrina; Imperatori, Andrea; Zanellato, Silvia; Mortara, Lorenzo; Gattorno, Marco; Pistoia, Vito; Malavasi, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies suggested that human CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells may play a role in the regulation of the immune response. Since the mechanism(s) involved have not yet been elucidated, in the present study we have investigated the role of nucleotide-metabolizing enzymes that regulate the extracellular balance of nucleotides/nucleosides and produce the immunosuppressive molecule adenosine (ADO). Peripheral blood CD56(dim)CD16(+) and CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells expressed similar levels of CD38. CD39, CD73, and CD157 expression was higher in CD56(bright)CD16(-) than in CD56(dim)CD16(+) NK cells. CD57 was mostly expressed by CD56(dim)CD16(+) NK cells. CD203a/PC-1 expression was restricted to CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells. CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells produce ADO and inhibit autologous CD4(+) T cell proliferation. Such inhibition was 1) reverted pretreating CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells with a CD38 inhibitor and 2) increased pretreating CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells with a nucleoside transporter inhibitor, which increase extracellular ADO concentration. CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells isolated from the synovial fluid of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients failed to inhibit autologous CD4(+) T cell proliferation. Such functional impairment could be related to 1) the observed reduced CD38/CD73 expression, 2) a peculiar ADO production kinetics, and 3) a different expression of ADO receptors. In contrast, CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells isolated from inflammatory pleural effusions display a potent regulatory activity. In conclusion, CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells act as "regulatory cells" through ADO produced by an ectoenzymes network, with a pivotal role of CD38. This function may be relevant for the modulation of the immune response in physiological and pathological conditions, and it could be impaired during autoimmune/inflammatory diseases.

  10. [NVP-BEZ235 inhibits proliferation and colony-forming capability of CD34(+)CD38(-) human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying-Ying; Hu, Liang-Shan; Han, Hui-Juan; Song, Chao-Yang; Huang, Yu-Xian; Guo, Kun-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of NVP-BEZ235, a dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, on proliferation, cell cycle and colony forming capability of CD34(+)CD38(-) human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) KG1a cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect expression of CD34 and CD38 on the surface of human AML KG1a cells; Trypan blue assay was used to analyze the effect of NVP-BEZ235 at various concentrations on proliferation of KG1a cells; flow cytometry was performed to examine the cell cycle of KG1a cells after NVP-BEZ235 treatment; Soft agar colony-forming experiment was used to detect the colony forming ability of KG1a cells treated with NVP-BEZ235 at various concentrations. The results indicated that the percentage of CD34(+)CD38(-) AML KG1a cells was (98.02 ± 0.72)%. NVP-BEZ235 (0.125 - 1 µmol/L) inhibited the proliferation of KG1a cells in a time-and dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05) and the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) at 24 h and 48 h were 0.597 µmol/L and 0.102 µmol/L, respectively. KG1a cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase after treating with 0.5 µmol/L NVP-BEZ235 for 24 h, it was significantly higher than that of control group (83.2 ± 3.80)% vs (43.47 ± 9.60)% (P < 0.05). KG1a cells treated with NVP-BEZ235 (0 - 1 µmol/L) for 14 d and 21 d, the number of colony decreased respectively from (375.67 ± 21.46) per 2500 KG1a cells and (706.33 ± 87.31) per 2500 KG1a cells to 0, with statistical significance (P < 0.05). It is concluded that NVP-BEZ235 can inhibit proliferation and colony-forming capability of CD34(+)CD38(-) human AML KG1a cells.

  11. Guanylyl cyclase structure, function and regulation.

    PubMed

    Potter, Lincoln R

    2011-12-01

    Nitric oxide, bicarbonate, natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), guanylins, uroguanylins and guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs) activate a family of enzymes variously called guanyl, guanylyl or guanylate cyclases that catalyze the conversion of guanosine triphosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and pyrophosphate. Intracellular cyclic GMP is a second messenger that modulates: platelet aggregation, neurotransmission, sexual arousal, gut peristalsis, blood pressure, long bone growth, intestinal fluid secretion, lipolysis, phototransduction, cardiac hypertrophy and oocyte maturation. This review briefly discusses the discovery of cGMP and guanylyl cyclases, then nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylyl cyclase are described in slightly greater detail. Finally, the structure, function, and regulation of the individual mammalian single membrane-spanning guanylyl cyclases GC-A, GC-B, GC-C, GC-D, GC-E, GC-F and GC-G are described in greatest detail as determined by biochemical, cell biological and gene-deletion studies.

  12. The Key Involvement of Poly (ADP-Ribosylation) in Defense against Toxic Agents in Molecular Biology Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-15

    polymerase increased very early and remained high for up to 48 after which it decreased to pre-induced levels. Polymerase transcript levels did not change...the Ub- PADPRP junction. HUMAN POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASE IS FUNCTIONAL IN SCHr2OSACCHAROMYCES POMBE (MS IN PREP.) The full length cDNA for human...PADPRP has been introduced into the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe under the transcriptional control of the SV40 early promoter. A number of haploid

  13. The Key Involvement of Poly(ADP-Ribosylation) in Defense Against Toxic Agents in Molecular Biology Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-17

    for the polymerase increased very early and remained high for up to 48 after which it decreased to pre-induced levels. Polymerase transcript levels...cleave the Ub-PADPRP Junction. HUMAN POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASE IS FUNCTIONAL IN SC.=OSACCHAROMYCES POMBE (MS IN PREP.) The full length cDNA for human...PADPRP has been introduced into the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe under the transcriptional control of the SV40 early promoter. A number of haploid

  14. Mutations in ARL2BP, Encoding ADP-Ribosylation-Factor-Like 2 Binding Protein, Cause Autosomal-Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alice E.; Schwarz, Nele; Zelinger, Lina; Stern-Schneider, Gabriele; Shoemark, Amelia; Spitzbarth, Benjamin; Gross, Menachem; Laxer, Uri; Sosna, Jacob; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I.; Waseem, Naushin H.; Wilson, Robert; Kahn, Richard A.; Plagnol, Vincent; Wolfrum, Uwe; Banin, Eyal; Hardcastle, Alison J.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Sharon, Dror; Webster, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous retinal degeneration characterized by photoreceptor death, which results in visual failure. Here, we used a combination of homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing to identify mutations in ARL2BP, which encodes an effector protein of the small GTPases ARL2 and ARL3, as causative for autosomal-recessive RP (RP66). In a family affected by RP and situs inversus, a homozygous, splice-acceptor mutation, c.101−1G>C, which alters pre-mRNA splicing of ARLBP2 in blood RNA, was identified. In another family, a homozygous c.134T>G (p.Met45Arg) mutation was identified. In the mouse retina, ARL2BP localized to the basal body and cilium-associated centriole of photoreceptors and the periciliary extension of the inner segment. Depletion of ARL2BP caused cilia shortening. Moreover, depletion of ARL2, but not ARL3, caused displacement of ARL2BP from the basal body, suggesting that ARL2 is vital for recruiting or anchoring ARL2BP at the base of the cilium. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that the p.Met45Arg amino acid substitution reduced binding to ARL2 and caused the loss of ARL2BP localization at the basal body in ciliated nasal epithelial cells. These data demonstrate a role for ARL2BP and ARL2 in primary cilia function and that this role is essential for normal photoreceptor maintenance and function. PMID:23849777

  15. Development of an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of an ADP-ribosylating toxin, exo A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enríquez, Y.; Negrón, Y.; Navarreto, M.; Guadalupe, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    A free radical copolymerization of Styrene (Sty) and acrylic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (NAS) has been done in a range of 10:90 to 90:10 (Sty:NAS) molar ratios. The FT-IR spectra for all seven copolymers showed the absorption peaks for the carbonyl signals of the ester and the amide in NAS (1773 cm-1 and 1727 cm-1 respectively), the styrene aromatic signal (1494 cm-1) and the disappearance of the absorption peak for the vinyl group in both monomers (1629 cm-1). HPLC-UV results showed an increment in the average molecular weight with an increase in the molar ratio of the styrene monomer, from 1528.51 g/mol for 10:90 Sty:NAS to 7141.67 g/mol for 90:10 Sty:NAS. These copolymers will be used to generate films on carbon surfaces to anchor a β-NAD+ electroactive analog. Also, a Ferrocene-labeled NAAD (Fc-NAAD) was prepared by attaching Ferrocene Succinimide (Fc-NHS) to the primary amine in the adenine moiety of the cofactor. Osteryoung Squatre Wave Voltammetry (OSWV) of the new Fc-NAAD showed an anodic peak in 320 mV and the cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed chemical reversibility and electrochemical quasi-reversibility.

  16. The Key Involvement of Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation in Defense Against Toxic Agents: Molecular Biology Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-19

    in all species of phloem sap-feeding insects , was reported to contain only 182 open reading frames (Nakabachi, el al, 2006). Even though this gene...including treatment with ethidium bromide (EtBr) (King, and Attardi, 1989) and silencing of the mt-DNA polymerase by RNAi (Khan, and Bennett, 2004

  17. The pioneering spirit of Takashi Sugimura: his studies of the biochemistry of poly(ADP-ribosylation) and of cancer.

    PubMed

    Masutani, Mitsuko

    2012-03-01

    Takashi Sugimura has accomplished many scientific achievements in the field of biochemistry and in cancer research. Sugimura's group identified the novel polymer poly(ADP-ribose) in parallel to P. Mandel's and O. Hayaishi's groups and demonstrated the presence of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). He also discovered the cognate catabolic enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and further elucidated the biology of poly(ADP-ribose). The astonishing discovery of pierisin, an apoptogenic peptide that ADP-ribosyaltes DNA, profoundly illuminates his scientific character and curiosity as well. Sugimura's work in cancer research shows an extraordinarily wide range, which includes the establishment of new methods in chemical carcinogenesis, the identification of various environmental mutagens/carcinogens and new tumour promoters. He also established the concept that cancer is a disease of DNA and contributed to the development of the concept of the multi-step model of carcinogenesis.

  18. Intracellular calcium elevation induced by extracellular application of cyclic-ADP-ribose or oxytocin is temperature-sensitive in rodent NG108-15 neuronal cells with or without exogenous expression of human oxytocin receptors.

    PubMed

    Amina, S; Hashii, M; Ma, W-J; Yokoyama, S; Lopatina, O; Liu, H-X; Islam, M S; Higashida, H

    2010-05-01

    ADP-ribosyl cyclase and/or CD38 are activated after oxytocin receptor stimulation in the hypothalamus and pituitary in adult mice, leading to facilitation of oxytocin secretion. Although cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR) primarily acts as an intracellular second messenger, it has been suggested that extracellular cADPR stimulates intracellular ryanodine receptors after internalisation via the nucleotide-transporting capacity of CD38 in fibroblasts and astrocytes. However, little is known about whether extracellular cADPR activates neurones. To address this question, we used a model neuronal cell line, NG108-15 mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid cells possessing CD38 but not oxytocin receptors, and measured cytosolic free calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)). Extracellular application of cADPR to NG108-15 cells elevated [Ca(2+)](i) at 35 degrees C. The elevation was significantly enhanced when measured at 40 degrees C. The cADPR and heat-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase were blocked under extracellular Ca(2+)-free conditions and by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, an antagonist of melastatin-related transient receptor potential channel 2 (TRPM2) cation channels. Reverse transcriptation-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that TRPM2 channels were expressed in NG108-15 cells. Application of oxytocin elevated [Ca(2+)](i) in NG108-15 cells transformed to transiently express cloned human oxytocin receptors. The oxytocin-induced [Ca(2+)](i) response was also enhanced by heat. These results indicate that the extracellular application of cADPR, together with heat, activates cation influx downstream of oxytocin receptor signalling in NG108-15 neuronal cells, and suggest the possible involvement of TRPM2 channels in oxytocin release in the mammalian brain.

  19. Effects of a common variant in the CD38 gene on social processing in an oxytocin challenge study: possible links to autism.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Carina; Montag, Christian; Wörner, Christiane; Kirsch, Peter; Reuter, Martin

    2012-05-01

    The intranasal application of oxytocin (OT) has been shown to influence behavioral and neural correlates of social processing. These effects are probably mediated by genetic variations within the OT system. One potential candidate could be the CD38 gene, which codes for a transmembrane protein engaged in OT secretion processes. A common variation in this gene (rs3796863) was recently found to be associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using an imaging genetics approach, we studied differential effects of an intranasal OT application on neural processing of social stimuli in 55 healthy young men depending on their CD38 gene variant in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Genotype had a significant influence on both behavioral and neuronal measures of social processing. Homozygotic risk allele carriers showed slower reaction times (RT) and higher activation of left fusiform gyrus during visual processing of social stimuli. Under OT activation differences between genotypes were more evident (though not statistically significantly increased) and RT were accelerated in homozygotic risk allele carriers. According to our data, rs3796863 mainly influences fusiform gyrus activation, an area which has been widely discussed in ASD research. OT seems to modulate this effect by enhancing activation differences between allele groups, which suggests an interaction between genetic makeup and OT availability on fusiform gyrus activation. These results support recent approaches to apply OT as a pharmacological treatment of ASD symptoms.

  20. Immunohistological analysis in diagnosis of plasma cell myeloma based on cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio of CD38-positive plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shoko; Yokote, Taiji; Hirata, Yuji; Iwaki, Kazuki; Akioka, Toshikazu; Miyoshi, Takuji; Nishiwaki, Uta; Masuda, Yuki; Hiraoka, Nobuya; Takayama, Ayami; Nishimura, Yasuichiro; Tsuji, Motomu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2012-11-01

    The accurate determination of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) light chain (LC) expression is important to differentiate reactive plasmacytosis from a clonal plasma cell neoplasm such as plasma cell myeloma (PCM). Through retrospective analysis, we studied the cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio of CD38-positive plasma cells in the bone marrow from 19 PCM patients and 19 controls. To demonstrate cIg LC expression, the bone marrow was immunostained for IgA, IgG, IgM, kappa, and lambda. The kappa/lambda ratio was defined as the ratio of the kappa-positive cell to the lambda-positive cell in plasma cells. PCM cells were distinguished from normal plasma cells by cut-off levels between 0.59 and 4.0, a sensitivity of 94.7%, and a specificity of 94.7%. The detection of the cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio of CD38-positive plasma cells may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of PCM and the correct diagnosis of PCM may be achieved more simply.

  1. Low oxygen tension favored expansion and hematopoietic reconstitution of CD34(+) CD38(-) cells expanded from human cord blood-derived CD34(+) Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyan; Du, Zheng; Cai, Haibo; Ye, Zhaoyang; Fan, Jinli; Tan, Wen-Song

    2016-07-01

    Oxygen tension is an important factor that regulates hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in both in vivo hematopoietic microenvironment and ex vivo culture system. Although the effect of oxygen tension on ex vivo expansion of HSCs was extensively studied, there were no clear descriptions on physiological function and gene expression analysis of HSCs under different oxygen tensions. In this study, the effects of oxygen tension on ex vivo expansion characteristics of human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived CD34(+) cells are evaluated. Moreover, the physiological function of expanded CD34(+) cells was assessed by secondary expansion ability ex vivo and hematopoietic reconstitution ability in vivo. Also, genetic profiling was applied to analyze the expression of genes related to cell function. It was found that low oxygen tension favored expansion of CD34(+) CD38(-) cells. Additionally, CD34(+) cells expanded under low oxygen tension showed better secondary expansion ability and reconstitution ability than those under atmospheric oxygen concentration. Finally, the genetic profiling of CD34(+) CD38(-) cells cultured under low oxygen tension was more akin to freshly isolated cells. These results collectively demonstrate that low oxygen tension was able to better maintain both self-renewal and hematopoietic reconstitution potential and may lay an experimental basis for clinical transplantation of HSCs.

  2. Regulation of brain adenylate cyclase by calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis examined the interaction between the Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein, calmodulin (CaM), and the cAMP synthesizing enzyme, adenylate cyclase. The regulation of guanyl nucleotide-dependent adenylate cyclase by CaM was examined in a particulate fraction from bovine striatum. CaM stimulated basal adenylate cyclase activity and enhanced the stimulation of the enzyme by GTP and dopamine (DA). The potentiation of GTP- and DA-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities by CaM was more sensitive to the concentration of CaM than was the stimulation of basal activity. A photoreactive CaM derivative was developed in order to probe the interactions between CaM and the adenylate cyclase components of bovine brain. Iodo-({sup 125}I)-CaM-diazopyruvamide ({sup 125}I-CAM-DAP) behaved like native CaM with respect to Ca{sup 2+}-enhanced mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent stimulation of adenylate cyclase. {sup 125}I-CaM-DAP cross-linked to CaM-binding proteins in a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent, concentration-dependent, and CaM-specific manner. Photolysis of {sup 125}I-CaM-DAP and forskolin-agarose purified CaM-sensitive adenylate cyclase produced an adduct with a molecular weight of 140,000.

  3. Calmodulin independence of human duodenal adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J A; Griffin, M; Mireylees, S E; Long, R G

    1991-01-01

    The calmodulin and calcium dependence of human adenylate cyclase from the second part of the duodenum was assessed in washed particulate preparations of biopsy specimens by investigating (a) the concentration dependent effects of free [Ca2+] on enzyme activity, (b) the effects of exogenous calmodulin on enzyme activity in ethylene glycol bis (b-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) washed particulate preparations, and (c) the effects of calmodulin antagonists on enzyme activity. Both basal (IC50 = 193.75 (57.5) nmol/l (mean (SEM)) and NaF stimulated (IC50 = 188.0 (44.0) nmol/l) adenylate cyclase activity was strongly inhibited by free [Ca2+] greater than 90 nmol/l. Free [Ca2+] less than 90 nmol/l had no effect on adenylate cyclase activity. NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by 50% at 2.5 mmol/l EGTA. This inhibition could not be reversed by free Ca2+. The addition of exogenous calmodulin to EGTA (5 mmol/l) washed particulate preparations failed to stimulate adenylate cyclase activity. Trifluoperazine and N-(8-aminohexyl)-5-IODO-1-naphthalene-sulphonamide (IODO 8) did not significantly inhibit basal and NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity when measured at concentrations of up to 100 mumol/l. These results suggest that human duodenal adenylate cyclase activity is calmodulin independent but is affected by changes in free [Ca2+]. PMID:1752461

  4. The contributions of oxytocin and vasopressin pathway genes to human behavior.

    PubMed

    Ebstein, Richard P; Knafo, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Chew, Soo Hong; Lai, Poh San

    2012-03-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) are social hormones and mediate affiliative behaviors in mammals and as recently demonstrated, also in humans. There is intense interest in how these simple nonapeptides mediate normal and abnormal behavior, especially regarding disorders of the social brain such as autism that are characterized by deficits in social communication and social skills. The current review examines in detail the behavioral genetics of the first level of human AVP-OXT pathway genes including arginine vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a), oxytocin receptor (OXTR), AVP (AVP-neurophysin II [NPII]) and OXT (OXT neurophysin I [NPI]), oxytocinase/vasopressinase (LNPEP), ADP-ribosyl cyclase (CD38) and arginine vasopressin 1b receptor (AVPR1b). Wherever possible we discuss evidence from a variety of research tracks including molecular genetics, imaging genomics, pharmacology and endocrinology that support the conclusions drawn from association studies of social phenotypes and detail how common polymorphisms in AVP-OXT pathway genes contribute to the behavioral hard wiring that enables individual Homo sapiens to interact successfully with conspecifics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior.

  5. Characterization of the Highly Prevalent Regulatory CD24hiCD38hi B-Cell Population in Human Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Solé, Ana; Teixidó, Irene; Deyà-Martínez, Angela; Yagüe, Jordi; Plaza-Martín, Ana M.; Juan, Manel; Alsina, Laia

    2017-01-01

    The newborn’s immune system must transition from a sterile haploidentical uterus to the world full of antigens. Regulatory B-cells (Breg; broadly defined as CD19+CD24hiCD38hi) are tolerance promoters in the adult immune system. They can inhibit IFN-γ and IL-17 production by T-cells and are essential in different conditions, including pregnancy. Breg have still not been well characterized in umbilical cord blood, where we hypothesize that they are pivotal in the achievement of tolerance. We studied CD19+CD24hiCD38hi Breg in healthy umbilical cord blood (hUCB) compared to healthy peripheral adult blood (hAPB). Total numbers of Breg were increased in hUCB compared to hAPB (34.39 vs. 9.49%; p = 0.0002), especially in the marginal zone-like B-cell subset, in which the most marked difference could be observed between hUCB and hAPB (60.80 vs. 4.94%; p = 0.1). CD24hiCD38hi subset in hUCB produced IL-10 and inhibited T-cell IFN-γ [1.63 vs. 0.95 stimulation ratio (SR); p = 0.004] and IL-4 (1.63 vs. 1.44 SR; p = 0.39) production. Phenotypically, hUCB Breg cells presented IgMhiIgDhiCD5+CD10+CD27− markers, similar to those described in hAPB Breg cells, but they showed increased IgM concentration and decreased expression of CD22 and CD73 markers. Our work characterized the frequency, phenotype, and function of Breg in hUCB, which may contribute to understanding of immune tolerance during pregnancy, paving the way to a new approach to immune-related diseases in the fetus and the newborn. PMID:28326080

  6. Mechanistic investigations on six bacterial terpene cyclases

    PubMed Central

    Rabe, Patrick; Schmitz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Summary The products obtained by incubation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) with six purified bacterial terpene cyclases were characterised by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods, allowing for a full structure elucidation. The absolute configurations of four terpenes were determined based on their optical rotary powers. Incubation experiments with 13C-labelled isotopomers of FPP in buffers containing water or deuterium oxide allowed for detailed insights into the cyclisation mechanisms of the bacterial terpene cyclases. PMID:27829890

  7. Imaging oxytocin × dopamine interactions: an epistasis effect of CD38 and COMT gene variants influences the impact of oxytocin on amygdala activation to social stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Carina; Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Kirsch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although oxytocin (OT) has become a major target for the investigation of positive social processes, it can be assumed that it exerts its effects in concert with other neurotransmitters. One candidate for such an interaction is dopamine (DA). For both systems, genetic variants have been identified that influence the availability of the particular substance. A variant of the gene coding for the transmembrane protein CD38 (rs3796863), which is engaged in OT secretion, has been associated with OT plasma level. The common catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism is known to influence COMT activity and therefore the degradation of DA. The present study aimed to investigate OT × DA interactions in the context of an OT challenge study. Hence, we tested the influence of the above mentioned genetic variants and their interaction on the activation of different brain regions (amygdala, VTA, ventral striatum and fusiform gyrus) during the presentation of social stimuli. In a pharmacological cross-over design 55 participants were investigated under OT and placebo (PLA) by means of fMRI. Brain imaging results revealed no significant effects for VTA or ventral striatum. Regarding the fusiform gyrus, we could not find any effects apart from those already described in Sauer et al. (2012). Analyses of amygdala activation resulted in no gene main effect, no gene × substance interaction but a significant gene × gene × substance interaction. While under PLA the effect of CD38 on bilateral amygdala activation to social stimuli was modulated by the COMT genotype, no such epistasis effect was found under OT. Our results provide evidence for an OT × DA interaction during responses to social stimuli. We postulate that the effect of central OT secretion on amygdala response is modulated by the availability of DA. Therefore, for an understanding of the effect of social hormones on social behavior, interactions of OT with other transmitter systems have to be taken into

  8. Upregulation of CD19⁺CD24(hi)CD38(hi) regulatory B cells is associated with a reduced risk of acute lung injury in elderly pneumonia patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Haihan; Xi, Jianjun; Li, Guang-Gang; Xu, Shumin; Wang, Chunmei; Cheng, Tingting; Li, Hongqiang; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiandong; Bai, Jianwen

    2016-04-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication in elderly pneumonia patients who have a rapid progression, and is accompanied by a high mortality rate. Because the treatment options of ALI are limited to supportive care, identifying pneumonia patients who are at higher risk of ALI development is the emphasis of many studies. Here, we approach this problem from an immunological perspective by examining CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells, an important participant in acute and chronic inflammation. We find that elderly pneumonia patients have elevated CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cell frequency compared to healthy individuals. This B cell population may express a higher level of IL-10, which has been was shown to suppress CD4(+) T cell-mediated proinflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFNg) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) production, through an IL-10-dependent mechanism. We also observe that the frequency of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cell is positively correlated with the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Tregs in peripheral blood. Moreover, consistent with CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cell's anti-inflammatory role, we find that pneumonia patients who later developed ALI have reduced level of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells. Together, our results demonstrated that CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells in pneumonia patients possess regulatory function in vivo, and are associated with a reduced ALI risk.

  9. WR-2721 inhibits parathyroid adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M.E.; Morrissey, J.; McConkey, C. Jr.; Goldfarb, S.; Slatopolsky, E.; Martin, K.J.

    1987-02-01

    WR-2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid) is a chemoprotective and radioprotective agent that has been shown to lower serum calcium in dogs and in humans. This is secondary both to impaired release of CaS from bone and diminished secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from parathyroid glands. Because cAMP plays a role in the regulation of PTH secretion and WR-2721 has been shown to lower cAMP levels in radiated mouse spleen, the authors investigated the effects of WR-2721 on cAMP production in dispersed bovine parathyroid cells. Additional, they studied the adenylate cyclase in plasma membranes from normal bovine parathyroid glands after exposure to WR-2721. With parathyroid cells incubated at 0.5 mM CaS , addition of Wr-2721 in concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 2.0 mM resulted in a progressive decrease in intracellular cAMP measured by radioimmunoassay. In plasma membranes of bovine parathyroid cells a dose-dependent decrease in adenylate cyclase activity was noted. Inhibition of the cyclase was seen over a wide range of MgS concentrations. WR-2721 inhibited both basal and NaF, Gpp(NH)(, forskolin, and pertussin toxin-stimulated adenylate cyclase. These data suggest that WR-2721 inhibits the activity of parathyroid adenylate cyclase.

  10. Reduced CD5(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) and interleukin-10(+) regulatory B cells in active anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis permit increased circulating autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Aybar, L T; McGregor, J G; Hogan, S L; Hu, Y; Mendoza, C E; Brant, E J; Poulton, C J; Henderson, C D; Falk, R J; Bunch, D O

    2015-05-01

    Pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is B cell-dependent, although how particular B cell subsets modulate immunopathogenesis remains unknown. Although their phenotype remains controversial, regulatory B cells (Bregs ), play a role in immunological tolerance via interleukin (IL)-10. Putative CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) and CD19(+) CD24(hi) CD27(+) Bregs were evaluated in addition to their CD5(+) subsets in 69 patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). B cell IL-10 was verified by flow cytometry following culture with CD40 ligand and cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) DNA. Patients with active disease had decreased levels of CD5(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cells and IL-10(+) B cells compared to patients in remission and healthy controls (HCs). As IL-10(+) and CD5(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cells normalized in remission within an individual, ANCA titres decreased. The CD5(+) subset of CD24(hi) CD38(hi) B cells decreases in active disease and rebounds during remission similarly to IL-10-producing B cells. Moreover, CD5(+) B cells are enriched in the ability to produce IL-10 compared to CD5(neg) B cells. Together these results suggest that CD5 may identify functional IL-10-producing Bregs . The malfunction of Bregs during active disease due to reduced IL-10 expression may thus permit ANCA production.

  11. CD62LnegCD38+ expression on circulating CD4+ T cells identifies mucosally differentiated cells in protein fed mice and in human celiac disease patients and controls

    PubMed Central

    du Pré, M. Fleur; van Berkel, Lisette A.; Ráki, Melinda; van Leeuwen, Marieke A.; de Ruiter, Lilian F.; Broere, Femke; ter Borg, Mariëtte N.D.; Lund, Frances E.; Escher, Johanna C.; Lundin, Knut E. A.; Sollid, Ludvig M.; Kraal, Georg; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Samsom, Janneke N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify new markers of mucosal T cells to monitor ongoing intestinal immune responses in peripheral blood. Design Expression of cell-surface markers was studied in mice on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cells in the gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) after OVA feed. The effect of the local mucosal mediators retinoic acid (RA) and TGF-β on the induction of a mucosal phenotype was determined in in vitro T-cell differentiation assays with murine and human T cells. Tetramer stainings were performed to study gluten-specific T cells in the circulation of patients with celiac disease, a chronic small intestinal inflammation. Results In mice, proliferating T cells in MLN were CD62LnegCD38+ during both tolerance induction and abrogation of intestinal homeostasis. This mucosal CD62LnegCD38+ T-cell phenotype was efficiently induced by RA and TGF-β in mice, whereas for human CD4+ T cells RA alone was sufficient. The CD4+CD62LnegCD38+ T-cell phenotype could be used to identify T cells with mucosal origin in human peripheral blood, as expression of the gut-homing chemokine receptor CCR9 and β7 integrin were highly enriched in this subset whereas expression of cutaneous leukocyte associated antigen was almost absent. Tetramer staining revealed that gluten-specific T cells appearing in blood of treated celiac disease patients after oral gluten challenge were predominantly CD4+CD62LnegCD38+. The total percentage of circulating CD62LnegCD38+ of CD4 T cells was not an indicator of intestinal inflammation as percentages did not differ between pediatric celiac disease patients, inflammatory bowel disease patients and respective controls. However, the phenotypic selection of mucosal T cells allowed cytokine profiling as upon restimulation of CD62LnegCD38+ cells IL-10 and IFN-γ transcripts were readily detected in circulating mucosal T-cells. Conclusions By selecting for CD62LnegCD38+ expression which comprises 5–10% of the cells within

  12. [Proportion of CD34(+)CD38(-) cell population in bone marrow of patients with de novo AML as prognostic factor of complete remission at first course of induction chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ping; Wei, Hui; Wang, Hui-Jun; Huai, Lei; He, Kan; Chen, Yi-Rui; Lin, Dong; Wang, Jian-Xiang

    2011-10-01

    This study was to investigate the relationship between the CD34(+)CD38(-) cell population and its proportion in G(0) phase of de novo AML non-M(3) at diagnosis and the clinical and experimental characteristics. The flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of the cell surface antigen CD34 and CD38 in the bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNC) of the AML non-M(3) at diagnosis and investigate the cell cycle of the subpopulations, and then the relationships between the proportion of CD34(+)CD38(-)cell population and its G(0) state and the complete remission (CR) rate after the first induction chemotherapy was analyzed. The results showed that the proportion of the CD34(+)CD38(-) cell population and its G(0) phase had no relationship with the karyotypes and WBC count at new diagnosis and the Flt3/ITD status, but correlate with the blasts in the bone marrow after the first course induction chemotherapy. The proportion of the CD34(+)CD38(-) cells in patients who have visible blasts in the bone marrow at day 7 after completion of the first course induction chemotherapy was (12.47 ± 26.26)%, but the counterparts was (2.62 ± 7.20)% in the group of patients whose bone marrow had no visible blasts (p = 0.031). The proportion of the CD34(+) cell population in patients who had visible blasts in the bone marrow at day 1 after completion of the first course induction chemotherapy was (17.40 ± 21.20)%, yet the proportion of the CD34(+) cell populations was (5.64 ± 6.96)% in the patients who had no visible blasts in the bone marrow (p = 0.001). The proportion of the CD34(+)CD38(-) cell populations in the patients who achieved CR after the first course induction chemotherapy was (2.51 ± 9.72)%, which was lower than the proportion (24.92 ± 27.04%) of the non-CR patients (p = 0.001). Furthermore, the proportion (1.60 ± 4.82%) of the CD34(+)CD38(-) cell population in the AML non-M(2b) CR patients was more obviously lower than that in the non-CR patients (p < 0.001). In

  13. Distinct serum proteome profiles associated with collagen-induced arthritis and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation in CD38⁻/⁻ mice: The discriminative power of protein species or proteoforms.

    PubMed

    Rosal-Vela, Antonio; García-Rodríguez, Sonia; Postigo, Jorge; Iglesias, Marcos; Longobardo, Victoria; Lario, Antonio; Merino, Jesús; Merino, Ramón; Zubiaur, Mercedes; Sancho, Jaime

    2015-10-01

    Collagen-type-II-induced arthritis (CIA) is an autoimmune disease, which involves a complex host systemic response including inflammatory and autoimmune reactions. CIA is milder in CD38(-/-) than in wild-type (WT) mice. ProteoMiner-equalized serum samples were subjected to 2D-DiGE and MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF analyses to identify proteins that changed in their relative abundances in CD38(-/-) versus WT mice either with arthritis (CIA(+) ), with no arthritis (CIA(-) ), or with inflammation (complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-treated mice). Multivariate analyses revealed that a multiprotein signature (n = 28) was able to discriminate CIA(+) from CIA(-) mice, and WT from CD38(-/-) mice within each condition. Likewise, a distinct multiprotein signature (n = 16) was identified which differentiated CIA(+) CD38(-/-) mice from CIA(+) WT mice, and lastly, a third multiprotein signature (n = 18) indicated that CD38(-/-) and WT mice could be segregated in response to CFA treatment. Further analyses showed that the discriminative power to distinguish these groups was reached at protein species level and not at the protein level. Hence, the need to identify and quantify proteins at protein species level to better correlate proteome changes with disease processes. It is crucial for plasma proteomics at the low-abundance protein species level to apply the ProteoMiner enrichment. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD001788, PXD001799 and PXD002071 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001788, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001799 and http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002071).

  14. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: entry of bacterial adenylate cyclase into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Confer, D L; Slungaard, A S; Graf, E; Panter, S S; Eaton, J W

    1984-01-01

    We have identified an adenylate cyclase toxin in urea extracts and culture supernatant fluids of Bordetella pertussis (2). The ability of this toxin and the lack of a strong correlation between its activity and adenylate cyclase activity found in urea extracts suggest that it is an oligomer of readily dissociable subunits. The mechanism by which Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin interacts with target cells is unknown, but polyvalent cations are necessary. Neutrophils exposed to the toxin acquire a 39,000 Mr protein that can also be photoaffinity labeled with 32P-ATP. We anticipate that this protein will prove to be a catalytic component of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin. Susceptible cells exposed to Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin are functionally aberrant. In phagocytes, decreased bactericidal capacity may be important in the pathogenesis of human whooping cough and other Bordetella infections occurring in domestic animals. The effects of the toxin on neoplastic cells may offer new insights into the factors controlling their growth and differentiation. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique bacterial product. Further purification and characterization of this toxin will add to our understanding of cell-protein interactions and pathogen-host relationships.

  15. Progesterone Levels Associate with a Novel Population of CCR5+CD38+ CD4 T Cells Resident in the Genital Mucosa with Lymphoid Trafficking Potential.

    PubMed

    Swaims-Kohlmeier, Alison; Haaland, Richard E; Haddad, Lisa B; Sheth, Anandi N; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Lupo, L Davis; Cordes, Sarah; Aguirre, Alfredo J; Lupoli, Kathryn A; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Ofotukun, Igho; Hart, Clyde E; Kohlmeier, Jacob E

    2016-07-01

    The female genital tract (FGT) provides a means of entry to pathogens, including HIV, yet immune cell populations at this barrier between host and environment are not well defined. We initiated a study of healthy women to characterize resident T cell populations in the lower FGT from lavage and patient-matched peripheral blood to investigate potential mechanisms of HIV sexual transmission. Surprisingly, we observed FGT CD4 T cell populations were primarily CCR7(hi), consistent with a central memory or recirculating memory T cell phenotype. In addition, roughly half of these CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells expressed CD69, consistent with resident memory T cells, whereas the remaining CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells lacked CD69 expression, consistent with recirculating memory CD4 T cells that traffic between peripheral tissues and lymphoid sites. HIV susceptibility markers CCR5 and CD38 were increased on FGT CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells compared with blood, yet migration to the lymphoid homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 was maintained. Infection with GFP-HIV showed that FGT CCR7(hi) memory CD4 T cells are susceptible HIV targets, and productive infection of CCR7(hi) memory T cells did not alter chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21. Variations of resident CCR7(hi) FGT CD4 T cell populations were detected during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and longitudinal analysis showed the frequency of this population positively correlated to progesterone levels. These data provide evidence women may acquire HIV through local infection of migratory CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells, and progesterone levels predict opportunities for HIV to access these novel target cells.

  16. Membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors: an update

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, David L.; Chrisman, Ted D.; Wiegn, Phi; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Albanesi, Joseph P.; Bielinski, Vincent; Barylko, Barbara; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated key roles for several membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors in the regulation of cell hyperplasia, hypertrophy, migration and extracellular matrix production, all of which having an impact on clinically relevant diseases, including tissue remodeling after injury. Additionally, cell differentiation, and even tumor progression, can be profoundly influenced by one or more of these receptors. Some of these receptors also mediate important communication between the heart and intestine, and the kidney to regulate blood volume and Na+ balance. PMID:16815030

  17. Effect of association with adenylyl cyclase-associated protein on the interaction of yeast adenylyl cyclase with Ras protein.

    PubMed

    Shima, F; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y; Yanagihara, C; Tamada, M; Okada, T; Kariya, K; Kataoka, T

    1997-03-01

    Posttranslational modification of Ras protein has been shown to be critical for interaction with its effector molecules, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase. However, the mechanism of its action was unknown. In this study, we used a reconstituted system with purified adenylyl cyclase and Ras proteins carrying various degrees of the modification to show that the posttranslational modification, especially the farnesylation step, is responsible for 5- to 10-fold increase in Ras-dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase activity even though it has no significant effect on their binding affinity. The stimulatory effect of farnesylation is found to depend on the association of adenylyl cyclase with 70-kDa adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP), which was known to be required for proper in vivo response of adenylyl cyclase to Ras protein, by comparing the levels of Ras-dependent activation of purified adenylyl cyclase with and without bound CAP. The region of CAP required for this effect is mapped to its N-terminal segment of 168 amino acid residues, which coincides with the region required for the in vivo effect. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect is successfully reconstituted by in vitro association of CAP with the purified adenylyl cyclase molecule lacking the bound CAP. These results indicate that the association of adenylyl cyclase with CAP is responsible for the stimulatory effect of posttranslational modification of Ras on its activity and that this may be the mechanism underlying its requirement for the proper in vivo cyclic AMP response.

  18. Isoform-targeted regulation of cardiac adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to develop strategies for regulating the intracellular cyclic AMP signal pharmacologically, with an intention to establish either new medical therapeutic methods or experimental tools. In the past decades, many pharmacological reagents have been identified that regulate this pathway at the level of the receptor. G protein, adenylyl cyclase, cyclic AMP, protein kinase A and phosphodiesterase. Since the cloning of adenylyl cyclase isoforms during the 1990s, investigators including ourselves have tried to find reagents that regulate the activity of this enzyme directly in an isoform-dependent manner. The ultimate goal of developing such reagents would be to regulate the cyclic AMP signal in an organ-dependent manner. Ourselves and other workers have reported that such reagents may vary from a simple cation to kinases. In a more recent study, using the results from crystallographic studies and computer-assisted drug design programs, we have identified subtype-selective regulators of adenylyl cyclase. Such regulators are mostly based upon forskolin, a diterpene compound obtained from Coleus forskolii, that acts directly on adenylyl cyclase to increase the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Similarly, novel reagents have been identified that inhibit a specific adenylyl cyclase isoform (e.g. type 5 adenylyl cyclase). Such reagents would potentially provide a new therapeutic strategy to treat hypertension, for example, as well as methods to selectively stimulate or inhibit this adenylyl cyclase isoform, which may be reminiscent of overexpression or knocking out of the cardiac adenylyl cyclase isoform by the use of a pharmacological method.

  19. Crystallization of cyclase-associated protein from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Andreas; Hess, Sonja; Noegel, Angelika A; Schleicher, Michael; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2002-10-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a conserved two-domain protein that helps to activate the catalytic activity of adenylyl cyclase in the cyclase-bound state through interaction with Ras, which binds to the cyclase in a different region. With its other domain, CAP can bind monomeric actin and therefore also carries a cytoskeletal function. The protein is thus involved in Ras/cAMP-dependent signal transduction and most likely serves as an adapter protein translocating the adenylyl cyclase complex to the actin cytoskeleton. Crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.2, b = 75.1, c = 162.9 A, have been obtained from Dictyostelium discoideum CAP carrying a C-terminal His tag. A complete native data set extending to 2.2 A resolution was collected from a single crystal using an in-house X-ray system. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of CAP.

  20. Antineoplastic effects of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Slungaard, A; Confer, D L; Jacob, H S; Eaton, J W

    1983-01-01

    Urea extracts of B. pertussis, but not B. bronchiseptica, cause large and sustained intracellular cAMP elevation in several neoplastic cell lines. These cAMP elevations are associated with growth inhibition (HL-60, Friend erythroleukemia) and a phenotypic change/differentiation (HL-60, L1210). B. pertussis extract injections prolong survival of L1210 tumor-bearing mice. Pretreatment of L1210 cells with B. pertussis extract both delays mortality and induces growth of solid tumors instead of ascites in subsequently inoculated mice. We conclude that B. pertussis adenylate cyclase is capable of invading a variety of neoplastic cells to catalyze the intracellular formation of large amounts of cAMP. These cAMP elevations are durable and promote growth arrest, differentiation, or phenotypic alterations reflected in altered biologic behavior. B. pertussis adenylate cyclase should prove to be a useful tool for manipulating cAMP levels in neoplastic cells to elucidate the role of cAMP in malignant transformation.

  1. Circulating (CD3(-)CD19(+)CD20(-)IgD(-)CD27(high)CD38(high)) Plasmablasts: A Promising Cellular Biomarker for Immune Activity for Anti-PLA2R1 Related Membranous Nephropathy?

    PubMed

    Pozdzik, Agnieszka; Beukinga, Ingrid; Gu-Trantien, Chunyan; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Nortier, Joëlle; Pradier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a kidney specific autoimmune disease mainly mediated by anti-phospholipase A2 receptor 1 autoantibody (PLA2R1 Ab). The adequate assessment of chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab (RTX), efficacy is still needed to improve clinical outcome of patient with MN. We evaluated the modification of plasmablasts (CD3(-)CD19(+)CD20(-)IgD(-)CD27(high)CD38(high)), a useful biomarker of RTX response in other autoimmune diseases, and memory (CD3(-)CD19(+)CD20(+)IgD(-)CD27(+)CD38(-)) and naive (CD3(-)CD19(+)CD20(+)IgD(+)CD27(-)CD38(low)) B cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis in PLA2R1 related MN in one patient during the 4 years of follow-up after RTX. RTX induced complete disappearance of CD19(+) B cells, plasmablasts, and memory B cells as soon as day 15. Despite severe CD19(+) lymphopenia, plasmablasts and memory B cells reemerged early before naive B cells (days 45, 90, and 120, resp.). During the follow-up, plasmablasts decreased more rapidly than memory B cells but still remained elevated as compared to day 0 of RTX. Concomitantly, anti-PLA2R1 Ab increased progressively. Our single case report suggests that, besides monitoring of serum anti-PLA2R1 Ab level, enumeration of circulating plasmablasts and memory B cells represents an attractive and complementary tool to assess immunological activity and efficacy of RTX induced B cells depletion in anti-PLA2R1 Ab related MN.

  2. Activation of fat cell adenylate cyclase by protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Naghshineh, S.; Noguchi, M.; Huang, K.P.; Londos, C.

    1986-05-01

    Purified protein kinase C (C-kinase) from guinea pig pancreas and rat brain stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in purified rat adipocyte membranes. Cyclase stimulation occurred over 100 to 1000 mU/ml of C-kinase activity, required greater than 10 ..mu..M calcium, proceeded without a lag, was not readily reversible, and required no exogenous phospholipid. Moreover, C-kinase inhibitors, such as chlorpromazine and palmitoyl carnitine, inhibited selectively adenylate cyclase which was activated by C-kinase and calcium. Depending on assay conditions, 10 nM 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) either enhanced or was required for kinase action on cyclase. Also, TPA plus calcium promoted the quantitative association of C-kinase with membranes. Adenylate cyclase activation by C-kinase was seen both in the presence and absence of exogenous GTP, indicating that the kinase effect does not result from an action on the GTP-binding, inhibitory regulatory component (N/sub i/) of the cyclase system. Moreover, the kinase effect was seen in the presence of non-phosphorylating ATP analogs, such as AppNHp and AppCH/sub 2/p, suggesting that the effects of C-kinase described herein may result from association with, rather than phosphorylation of, adenylate cyclase.

  3. Cellular interactions uncouple beta-adrenergic receptors from adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Ciment, G; de Vellis, J

    1978-11-17

    C6 glioma cells and B104 neuroblastoma cells both possess adenylate cyclase activity, but only C6 cells have beta-adrenergic receptors. However, when cocultured with B104 cells, C6 cells show a marked decrease in their ability to accumulate adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate upon stimulation with beta receptor agonists. Since both beta receptors and cholera toxin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities are present in C6/B104 cocultures, we conclude that the beta receptor/adenylate cyclase transduction mechanism in cocultured C6 cells is uncoupled.

  4. Distinct roles for the N- and C-terminal regions in the cytotoxicity of pierisin-1, a putative ADP-ribosylating toxin from cabbage butterfly, against mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Kono, Takuo; Tanaka, Noriaki; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2001-01-01

    Pierisin-1 is an 850-aa cytotoxic protein found in the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and has been suggested to consist of an N-terminal region with ADP-ribosyltransferase domain and of a C-terminal region that might have a receptor-binding domain. To elucidate the role of each region, we investigated the functions of various fragments of pierisin-1. In vitro expressed polypeptide consisting of amino acid residues 1–233 or 234–850 of pierisin-1 alone did not show cytotoxicity against human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. However, the presence of both polypeptides in the culture medium showed some of the original cytotoxic activity. Introduction of the N-terminal polypeptide alone by electroporation also induced cell death in HeLa cells, and even in the mouse melanoma MEB4 cells insensitive to pierisin-1. Thus, the N-terminal region has a principal role in the cytotoxicity of pierisin-1 inside mammalian cells. Analyses of incorporated pierisin-1 indicated that the entire protein, regardless of whether it consisted of a single polypeptide or two separate N- and C-terminal polypeptides, was incorporated into HeLa cells. However, neither of the terminal polypeptides was incorporated when each polypeptide was present separately. These findings indicate that the C-terminal region is important for the incorporation of pierisin-1. Moreover, presence of receptor for pierisin-1 in the lipid fraction of cell membrane was suggested. The cytotoxic effects of pierisin-1 were enhanced by previous treatment with trypsin, producing “nicked” pierisin-1. Generation of the N-terminal fragment in HeLa cells was detected after application of intact entire molecule of pierisin-1. From the above observations, it is suggested that after incorporation of pierisin-1 into the cell by interaction of its C-terminal region with the receptor in the cell membrane, the entire protein is cleaved into the N- and C-terminal fragments with intracellular protease, and the N-terminal fragment then exhibits cytotoxicity. PMID:11226221

  5. Single molecule detection of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with DNA strand breaks and their poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation using high-resolution AFM imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sukhanova, Maria V.; Abrakhi, Sanae; Joshi, Vandana; Pastre, David; Kutuzov, Mikhail M.; Anarbaev, Rashid O.; Curmi, Patrick A.; Hamon, Loic; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2016-01-01

    PARP1 and PARP2 are implicated in the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) after detection of DNA damage. The specificity of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with long DNA fragments containing single- and/or double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging in combination with biochemical approaches. Our data show that PARP1 localizes mainly on DNA breaks and exhibits a slight preference for nicks over DSBs, although the protein has a moderately high affinity for undamaged DNA. In contrast to PARP1, PARP2 is mainly detected at a single DNA nick site, exhibiting a low level of binding to undamaged DNA and DSBs. The enhancement of binding affinity of PARP2 for DNA containing a single nick was also observed using fluorescence titration. AFM studies reveal that activation of both PARPs leads to the synthesis of highly branched PAR whose size depends strongly on the presence of SSBs and DSBs for PARP1 and of SSBs for PARP2. The initial affinity between the PARP1, PARP2 and the DNA damaged site appears to influence both the size of the PAR synthesized and the time of residence of PARylated PARP1 and PARP2 on DNA damages. PMID:26673720

  6. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1).

    PubMed

    Harlan, Benjamin A; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2016-05-13

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) participates in redox reactions and NAD(+)-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD(+)-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD(+) as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD(+) salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD(+) from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD(+) precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1-2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD(+) content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS.

  7. Cyclic ADP-ribose is a second messenger in the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activation of murine N9 microglial cell line.

    PubMed

    Franco, Luisa; Bodrato, Nicoletta; Moreschi, Iliana; Usai, Cesare; Bruzzone, Santina; Scarf ì, Sonia; Zocchi, Elena; De Flora, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharide, the main component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, is known to activate microglial cells following its interaction with the CD14/Toll-like receptor complex (TLR-4). The activation pathway triggered by lipopolysaccharide in microglia involves enhanced basal levels of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and terminates with increased generation of cytokines/chemokines and nitric oxide. Here we demonstrate that in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine N9 microglial cells, cyclic ADP-ribose, a universal and potent Ca2+ mobiliser generated from NAD+ by ADP-ribosyl cyclases (ADPRC), behaves as a second messenger in the cell activation pathway. Lipopolysaccharide induced phosphorylation, mediated by multiple protein kinases, of the mammalian ADPRC CD38, which resulted in significantly enhanced ADPRC activity and in a 1.7-fold increase in the concentration of intracellular cyclic ADP-ribose. This event was paralleled by doubling of the basal [Ca2+]i levels, which was largely prevented by the cyclic ADP-ribose antagonists 8-Br-cyclic ADP-ribose and ryanodine (by 75% and 88%, respectively). Both antagonists inhibited, although incompletely, functional events downstream of the lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia-activating pathway, i.e. expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, overproduction and release of nitric oxide and of tumor necrosis factor alpha. The identification of cyclic ADP-ribose as a key signal metabolite in the complex cascade of events triggered by lipopolysaccharide and eventually leading to enhanced generation of pro-inflammatory molecules may suggest a new therapeutic target for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases related to microglia activation.

  8. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270

  9. Plant growth-promoting hormones activate mammalian guanylate cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Vesely, D L; Hudson, J L; Pipkin, J L; Pack, L D; Meiners, S E

    1985-05-01

    In vivo injections of plant growth-promoting hormones increase the growth of animals as well as plants. Plant growth-promoting hormones and positive plant growth regulators are known to increase RNA and protein synthesis. Since cyclic GMP also increases RNA and protein synthesis, the object of the present investigation was to determine whether physiological levels of plant growth-promoting hormones and positive plant growth regulators have part of their mechanism(s) of action through stimulation of the guanylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.2)-cyclic GMP system. Representatives of the three classes of growth-promoting hormones were investigated. Thus, auxins (indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, beta-naphthoxyacetic acid, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid), gibberellins (gibberellic acid), and cytokinins [N6-benzyl adenine, kinetin (6-furfuryl aminopurine), and beta-(2-furyl) acrylic acid] all increased rat lung, small intestine, liver, and renal cortex guanylate cyclase activity 2- to 4-fold at the 1 microM concentration. Dose response curves revealed that maximal stimulation of guanylate cyclase by these plant growth regulators was at 1 microM; there was no augmented cyclase activity at 1 nM. The guanylate cyclase cationic cofactor manganese was not essential for augmentation of guanylate cyclase by these plant growth-promoting regulators. The antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene did not block the enhancement of guanylate cyclase by these plant growth-promoting factors. These data suggest that guanylate cyclase may play a role in the mechanism of action of plant growth-promoting hormones and even of positive plant regulators at the cellular level.

  10. Ultraviolet radiation augments epidermal beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase response

    SciTech Connect

    Iizuka, H.; Kajita, S.; Ohkawara, A.

    1985-05-01

    Pig skin was irradiated in vivo with fluorescent sunlamp tubes (peak emission at 305 nm). A significant increase in epidermal beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase response was observed as early as 12 h following 1-2 minimum erythema doses (MEDs) UVB exposure, which lasted at least 48 h. The augmentation of adenylate cyclase response was relatively specific to the beta-adrenergic system and there was no significant difference in either adenosine- or histamine-adenylate cyclase response of epidermis. The increased beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase response was less marked at higher doses of UVB exposure (5 MEDs); in the latter condition, a significant reduction in adenosine- or histamine-adenylate cyclase response was observed. There was no significant difference in either low- or high-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity between control and UVB-treated skin at 1-2 MEDs. These data indicate that the epidermal adenylate cyclase responses are affected in vivo by UVB irradiation, which might be a significant regulatory mechanism of epidermal cyclic AMP systems.

  11. Immunohistochemical Localization of Guanylate Cyclase within Neurons of Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariano, Marjorie A.; Lewicki, John A.; Brandwein, Harvey J.; Murad, Ferid

    1982-02-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of guanylate cyclase [GTP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.2] has been examined in rat neocortex, caudate-putamen, and cerebellum by using specific monoclonal antibodies. Immunofluorescence could be seen within somata and proximal dendrites of neurons in these regions. A nuclear immunofluorescence reaction to guanylate cyclase was characteristically absent. The staining pattern for guanylate cyclase was coincident with previously described localizations of cyclic GMP immunofluorescence within medium spiny neurons of the caudate-putamen and pyramidal cells of the neocortex. Cerebellar guanylate cyclase immunoreactivity was primarily confined to Purkinje cells and their primary dendrites, similar to the pattern reported for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase localization. Guanylate cyclase immunofluorescence was abolished when the monoclonal antibodies were exposed to purified enzyme prior to incubation of the tissue slices or when control antibody was substituted for the primary antibody. Immunohistochemical localization of cyclic AMP in these same tissues was readily distinguished from that of guanylate cyclase or cyclic GMP, showing uniform fluorescence throughout the cell bodies of neurons and glial elements.

  12. Hydrocortisone differentially affects the ability of murine stromal cells and human marrow-derived adherent cells to promote the differentiation of CD34++/CD38- long-term culture-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Croisille, L; Auffray, I; Katz, A; Izac, B; Vainchenker, W; Coulombel, L

    1994-12-15

    Very primitive human hematopoietic progenitor cells are identified indirectly by their ability to give rise to clonogenic progenitors in the presence of either human or murine stromal cells. These long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays are usually performed in the presence of hydrocortisone based on the initial observation that hydrocortisone was required for prolonged hematopoiesis in standard long-term bone marrow cultures. In this report, we investigated the role of hydrocortisone in LTC-IC assays initiated with CD34++/CD38- cells seeded onto either human bone marrow LTC-derived adherent cells or a murine marrow-derived stromal cell line, MS-5. It was found that weekly addition of hydrocortisone to the cultures reduced the frequency of LTC-IC (from 1/5 to 1/20) calculated from limiting dilution experiments and also reduced fivefold to 10-fold the number of their progeny clonogenic cells detected after 4 to 5 weeks. In contrast, the frequency and differentiative potential of CD34++/CD38- grown in the presence of human marrow feeders was unaltered by the addition of glucocorticoids. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that hydrocortisone inhibited LTC-IC differentiation by downregulating the expression of a synergistic factor produced by MS-5 cells. (1) In the absence of hydrocortisone, the number of clonogenic progenitors generated by LTC-IC was much higher in cultures seeded on MS-5 than in cultures seeded on human marrow adherent cells, which was also true when cytokines were added to the cocultures. However, based on the phenotype of the colonies, progenitors produced in MS-5 cocultures were more mature than those generated on human marrow adherent cells. (2) Hydrocortisone counteracted the stimulatory effect of recombinant human cytokines (interleukin-3, interleukin-6, and steel factor) in assays performed on MS-5 but not on human marrow feeders. (3) Hydrocortisone led to a 50% decrease in the numbers of colony-forming units

  13. Novel hopanoid cyclases from the environment.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ann; Flood Page, Sarah R; Jorgenson, Tyler L; Fischer, Woodward W; Higgins, Meytal B

    2007-09-01

    Hopanoids are ubiquitous isoprenoid lipids found in modern biota, in recent sediments and in low-maturity sedimentary rocks. Because these lipids primarily are derived from bacteria, they are used as proxies to help decipher geobiological communities. To date, much of the information about sources of hopanoids has come from surveys of culture collections, an approach that does not address the vast fraction of prokaryotic communities that remains uncharacterized. Here we investigated the phylogeny of hopanoid producers using culture-independent methods. We obtained 79 new sequences of squalene-hopene cyclase genes (sqhC) from marine and lacustrine bacterioplankton and analysed them along with all 31 sqhC fragments available from existing metagenomics libraries. The environmental sqhCs average only 60% translated amino acid identity to their closest relatives in public databases. The data imply that the sources of these important geologic biomarkers remain largely unknown. In particular, genes affiliated with known cyanobacterial sequences were not detected in the contemporary environments analysed here, yet the geologic record contains abundant hopanoids apparently of cyanobacterial origin. The data also suggest that hopanoid biosynthesis is uncommon: < 10% of bacterial species may be capable of producing hopanoids. A better understanding of the contemporary distribution of hopanoid biosynthesis may reveal fundamental insight about the function of these compounds, the organisms in which they are found, and the environmental signals preserved in the sedimentary record.

  14. Receptor Guanylyl Cyclases in Sensory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2017-01-01

    Invertebrate models have generated many new insights into transmembrane signaling by cell-surface receptors. This review focuses on receptor guanylyl cyclases (rGCs) and describes recent advances in understanding their roles in sensory processing in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. A complete analysis of the C. elegans genome elucidated 27 rGCs, an unusually large number compared with mammalian genomes, which encode 7 rGCs. Most C. elegans rGCs are expressed in sensory neurons and play roles in sensory processing, including gustation, thermosensation, olfaction, and phototransduction, among others. Recent studies have found that by producing a second messenger, guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, some rGCs act as direct sensor molecules for ions and temperatures, while others relay signals from G protein-coupled receptors. Interestingly, genetic and biochemical analyses of rGCs provide the first example of an obligate heterodimeric rGC. Based on recent structural studies of rGCs in mammals and other organisms, molecular mechanisms underlying activation of rGCs are also discussed in this review. PMID:28123378

  15. Role of glutaminyl cyclases in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kehlen, Astrid; Haegele, Monique; Menge, Katja; Gans, Kathrin; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Klonisch, Thomas; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-02-01

    CCL2 is a chemokine known to recruit monocytes/macrophages to sites of inflammation. CCL2 is also associated with tumor progression in several cancer types. Recently, we showed that the N-terminus of CCL2 is modified to a pyroglutamate (pE)-residue by both glutaminyl cyclases (QC (QPCT)) and its isoenzyme (isoQC (QPCTL)). The pE-residue increases stability against N-terminal degradation by aminopeptidases. Here, we report an upregulation of QPCT expression in tissues of patients with thyroid carcinomas compared with goiter tissues, whereas QPCTL was not regulated. In thyroid carcinoma cell lines, QPCT gene expression correlates with the mRNA levels of its substrate CCL2. Both QPCT and CCL2 are regulated in a NF-κB-dependent pathway shown by stimulation with TNFa and IL1b as well as by inhibition with the IKK2 inhibitor and RNAi of p50. In the culture supernatant of thyroid carcinoma cells, equal amounts of pECCL2 and total CCL2 were detected by two ELISAs discriminating between total CCL2 and pECCL2, concluding that all CCL2 is secreted as pECCL2. Activation of the CCL2/CCR2 pathway by recombinant CCL2 increased tumor cell migration of FTC238 cells in scratch assays as well as thyroid carcinoma cell-derived CCL2-induced migration of monocytic THP1 cells. Suppression of CCL2 signaling by CCR2 antagonist, IKK2 inhibitor, and QPCT RNAi reduced FTC238 cell growth measured by WST8 proliferation assays. Our results reveal new evidence for a novel role of QC in thyroid carcinomas and provide an intriguing rationale for the use of QC inhibitors as a means of blocking pECCL2 formation and preventing thyroid cancer metastasis.

  16. Molecular Physiology of Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    cGMP controls many cellular functions ranging from growth, viability, and differentiation to contractility, secretion, and ion transport. The mammalian genome encodes seven transmembrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs), GC-A to GC-G, which mainly modulate submembrane cGMP microdomains. These GCs share a unique topology comprising an extracellular domain, a short transmembrane region, and an intracellular COOH-terminal catalytic (cGMP synthesizing) region. GC-A mediates the endocrine effects of atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides regulating arterial blood pressure/volume and energy balance. GC-B is activated by C-type natriuretic peptide, stimulating endochondral ossification in autocrine way. GC-C mediates the paracrine effects of guanylins on intestinal ion transport and epithelial turnover. GC-E and GC-F are expressed in photoreceptor cells of the retina, and their activation by intracellular Ca(2+)-regulated proteins is essential for vision. Finally, in the rodent system two olfactorial GCs, GC-D and GC-G, are activated by low concentrations of CO2and by peptidergic (guanylins) and nonpeptidergic odorants as well as by coolness, which has implications for social behaviors. In the past years advances in human and mouse genetics as well as the development of sensitive biosensors monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP in living cells have provided novel relevant information about this receptor family. This increased our understanding of the mechanisms of signal transduction, regulation, and (dys)function of the membrane GCs, clarified their relevance for genetic and acquired diseases and, importantly, has revealed novel targets for therapies. The present review aims to illustrate these different features of membrane GCs and the main open questions in this field.

  17. Regulation and organization of adenylyl cyclases and cAMP.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Dermot M F

    2003-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclases are a critically important family of multiply regulated signalling molecules. Their susceptibility to many modes of regulation allows them to integrate the activities of a variety of signalling pathways. However, this property brings with it the problem of imparting specificity and discrimination. Recent studies are revealing the range of strategies utilized by the cyclases to solve this problem. Microdomains are a consequence of these solutions, in which cAMP dynamics may differ from the broad cytosol. Currently evolving methodologies are beginning to reveal cAMP fluctuations in these various compartments. PMID:12940771

  18. Intracellular cAMP signaling by soluble adenylyl cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently identified source of the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. sAC is distinct from the more widely studied source of cAMP, the transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs); its activity is uniquely regulated by bicarbonate anions, and it is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and in cellular organelles. Due to its unique localization and regulation, sAC has various functions in a variety of physiological systems which are distinct from tmACs. In this review, we detail the known functions of sAC, and we reassess commonly held views of cAMP signaling inside cells. PMID:21490586

  19. Oligomeric state affects oxygen dissociation and diguanylate cyclase activity of globin coupled sensors.

    PubMed

    Burns, Justin L; Deer, D Douglas; Weinert, Emily E

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation is regulated by enzymes, such as diguanylate cyclases, that respond to environmental signals and alter c-di-GMP levels. Diguanylate cyclase activity of two globin coupled sensors is shown to be regulated by gaseous ligands, with cyclase activity and O2 dissociation affected by protein oligomeric state.

  20. Influence of bacterial toxins on the GTPase activity of transducin from bovine retinal rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Rybin, V.O.; Gureeva, A.A.

    1986-05-10

    The action of cholera toxin, capable of ADP-ribosylation of the activator N/sub s/ protein, and pertussis toxin, capable of ADP-ribosylation of the inhibitor N/sub i/ protein of the adenylate cyclase complex, on transducin, the GTP-binding protein of the rod outer segments of the retina, was investigated. It was shown that under the action of pertussis and cholera toxins, the GTPase activity of transducin is inhibited. Pertussin toxin inhibits the GTPase of native retinal rod outer segments by 30-40%, while GTPase of homogeneous transducin produces a 70-80% inhibition. The action of toxins on transducin depends on the presence and nature of the guanylic nucleotide with which incubation is performed. On the basis of the data obtained it is suggested that pertussis toxin interacts with pretransducin and with the transducin-GDP complex, while cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates the transducin-GTP complex and does not act on transducin lacking GTP.

  1. Murine stromal cells counteract the loss of long-term culture-initiating cell potential induced by cytokines in CD34(+)CD38(low/neg) human bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Bennaceur-Griscelli, A; Tourino, C; Izac, B; Vainchenker, W; Coulombel, L

    1999-07-15

    Evidence has been provided recently that shows that high concentrations of cytokines can fulfill functions previously attributed to stromal cells, such as promote the survival of, and led to a net increase in human primitive progenitors initiating long-term cultures in vitro (LTC-IC) or engrafting NOD-SCID (nonobese diabetic severe-combined immunodeficient) recipients in vivo. These data prompted us to re-evaluate whether stromal cells will further alter the properties of primitive progenitor cells exposed to cytokines. Single CD34(+)CD38(low) and CD38(neg) cells were incubated 10 days in serum-containing or serum-free medium in the presence or in the absence of murine marrow-derived stromal cells (MS-5). Recombinant human cytokines stem cell factor (SCF), pegylated-megakaryocyte growth and differentiation factor (PEG-MGDF), FLT3-L, Interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were systematically added at various concentrations (10 to 300 ng/mL). Cell proliferation and LTC-IC potential were evaluated in each clone after 10 days. A striking and consistent observation was the retention of a high LTC-IC potential in clones exposed to cytokines in the presence of stromal feeders, whereas clones exposed to cytokines alone in the absence of stromal feeders rapidly lost their LTC-IC potential as they proliferated. This was reflected both by the higher proportion of wells containing LTC-IC and by the high numbers of CFC produced after 5 weeks in clones grown with MS-5 during the first 10 days. We further showed by analyzing multiple replicates of a single clone at day 10 that MS-5 cells promoted a net increase in the LTC-IC compartment through self-renewal divisions. Interestingly, these primitive LTC-IC were equally distributed among small and large clones, as counted at day 10, indicating that active proliferation and loss of LTC-IC potential could be dissociated. These observations show that, in primitive cells, stromal cells

  2. Photoactivation mechanism of a bacterial light-regulated adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Robert; Hartmann, Elisabeth; Tarnawski, Miroslaw; Winkler, Andreas; Frey, Daniel; Reinstein, Jochen; Meinhart, Anton; Schlichting, Ilme

    2017-03-20

    Light-regulated enzymes enable organisms to quickly respond to changing light conditions. We characterize a photoactivatable adenylyl cyclase from Beggiatoa sp. (bPAC) that translates a blue light signal into production of the second messenger cyclic AMP. bPAC contains a BLUF photoreceptor domain that senses blue light using a flavin chromophore, linked to an adenylyl cyclase (AC) domain. We present a dark state crystal structure of bPAC that closely resembles the recently published structure of the homologous OaPAC from Oscillatoria acuminata. To elucidate the structural mechanism of light-dependent AC activation by the BLUF domain, we determined crystal structures of illuminated bPAC and of a pseudo-lit state variant. We use hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements of secondary structure dynamics and hypothesis-driven point mutations to trace the activation pathway from the chromophore in the BLUF domain to the active site of the cyclase. The structural changes are relayed from the residues interacting with the excited chromophore through a conserved kink of the BLUF β-sheet to a tongue-like extrusion of the AC domain that regulates active site opening and repositions catalytic residues. Our findings not only show the specific molecular pathway of photoactivation in BLUF-regulated ACs, but they also have implications for the general understanding of signaling in BLUF domains and of the activation of adenylyl cyclases.

  3. Interaction of 7-bromoacetyl-7-desacetylforskolin with adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Laurenza, A.; Morris, D.I.; Seamon, K.B.

    1986-05-01

    7-Bromoacetyl-7-desacetylforskolin (BrAcFk) and the 12-tritio derivative (/sup 3/H-BrAckFk) were synthesized as alkylating analogs of forskolin. BrAcFk stimulated adenylate cyclase in human platelet and bovine brain membranes with an EC50 of 50..mu..M and inhibited /sup 3/H-forskolin binding to these membranes with a K/sub i/ of 300 nM. /sup 3/H-forskolin binding was decreased in membranes pretreated for 20 min with 10 ..mu..M BrAcFk. The i,9-dideoxy derivative of BrAcFk did not activate adenylate cyclase or inhibit /sup 3/H-forskolin binding. Proteins labelled by BrAcFk in solubilized preparations from bovine brain and human platelets were identified by fluorography of SDS gels. The two predominant bands labelled in the low and high molecular weight regions had molecular weights of 50,000 and 135,000 daltons respectively. The 135,000 dalton band identified by fluorography coeluted with adenylate cyclase activity on a Dupont GF450 column and has a molecular weight identical to that of the catalytic subunit determined by silver staining of SDS gels. These results suggest that BrAcFk can react covalently with the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase.

  4. Virulence of Bordetella bronchiseptica: role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin.

    PubMed Central

    Gueirard, P; Guiso, N

    1993-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a pathogen of laboratory, domestic, and wild animals and sometimes of humans. In the present study some characteristics of the virulence of B. bronchiseptica isolates of different origin were studied. All isolates had similar phenotypes, similar bacteriological characters, and synthesized adenylate cyclase-hemolysin, filamentous hemagglutinin and pertactin but not pertussis toxin. These isolates, however, differed in their ability to express dermonecrotic toxin and to cause a lethal infection, but no correlation was found with the human or animal origin of the isolates. The fact that the most virulent isolate did not express dermonecrotic toxin suggests that this toxin does not play an important role in the virulence of the bacteria in the murine model. After infection with virulent B. bronchiseptica a very early synthesis and a persistence of anti-adenylate cyclase-hemolysin and anti-filamentous hemagglutinin antibodies were observed in the sera of infected mice, suggesting a persistence of the bacteria or of its antigens. B. bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase-hemolysin was purified and was shown to be a major protective antigen against B. bronchiseptica infection. Furthermore, we showed that its immunological and protective properties were different from that of B. pertussis adenylate cyclase-hemolysin, confirming that Bordetella species are immunologically different. Images PMID:8406794

  5. A Survey of Nucleotide Cyclases in Actinobacteria: Unique Domain Organization and Expansion of the Class III Cyclase Family in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, K.; Krupa, A.; Srinivasan, N.

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotides are well-known second messengers involved in the regulation of important metabolic pathways or virulence factors. There are six different classes of nucleotide cyclases that can accomplish the task of generating cAMP, and four of these are restricted to the prokaryotes. The role of cAMP has been implicated in the virulence and regulation of secondary metabolites in the phylum Actinobacteria, which contains important pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, M. bovis and Corynebacterium, and industrial organisms from the genus Streptomyces. We have analysed the actinobacterial genome sequences found in current databases for the presence of different classes of nucleotide cyclases, and find that only class III cyclases are present in these organisms. Importantly, prominent members such as M. tuberculosis and M. leprae have 17 and 4 class III cyclases, respectively, encoded in their genomes, some of which display interesting domain fusions seen for the first time. In addition, a pseudogene corresponding to a cyclase from M. avium has been identified as the only cyclase pseudogene in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. The Corynebacterium and Streptomyces genomes encode only a single adenylyl cyclase each, both of which have corresponding orthologues in M. tuberculosis. A clustering of the cyclase domains in Actinobacteria reveals the presence of typical eukaryote-like, fungi-like and other bacteria-like class III cyclase sequences within this phylum, suggesting that these proteins may have significant roles to play in this important group of organisms. PMID:18629044

  6. Modification of adenylate cyclase by photoaffinity analogs of forskolin

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, L.T.; Nie, Z.M.; Mende, T.J.; Richardson, S.; Chavan, A.; Kolaczkowska, E.; Watt, D.S.; Haley, B.E.; Ho, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling analogs of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (PF) have been synthesized, purified and tested for their effect on preparations of membrane-bound, Lubrol solubilized and forskolin affinity-purified adenylate cyclase (AC). All analogs of forskolin significantly activated AC. However, in the presence of 0.1 to 0.3 microM forskolin, the less active forskolin photoaffinity probes at 100 microM caused inhibition. This inhibition was dose-dependent for PF, suggesting that PF may complete with F for the same binding site(s). After cross-linking (125I)PF-M to either membrane or Lubrol-solubilized AC preparations by photolysis, a radiolabeled 100-110 kDa protein band was observed after autoradiography following SDS-PAGE. F at 100 microM blocked the photoradiolabeling of this protein. Radioiodination of forskolin-affinity purified AC showed several protein bands on autoradiogram, however, only one band (Mr = 100-110 kDa) was specifically labeled by (125I)PF-M following photolysis. The photoaffinity-labeled protein of 100-110 kDa of AC preparation of rat adipocyte may be the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase of rat adipocyte itself as supported by the facts that (a) no other AC-regulatory proteins are known to be of this size, (b) the catalytic unit of bovine brain enzyme is in the same range and (c) this PF specifically stimulates AC activity when assayed alone, and weekly inhibits forskolin-activation of cyclase. These studies indicate that radiolabeled PF probes may be useful for photolabeling and detecting the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase.

  7. The 70-kilodalton adenylyl cyclase-associated protein is not essential for interaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase with RAS proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Suzuki, N; Kataoka, T

    1992-11-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenylyl cyclase is regulated by RAS proteins. We show here that the yeast adenylyl cyclase forms at least two high-molecular-weight complexes, one with the RAS protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activity and the other with the Mn(2+)-dependent activity, which are separable by their size difference. The 70-kDa adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) existed in the former complex but not in the latter. Missense mutations in conserved motifs of the leucine-rich repeats of the catalytic subunit of adenylyl cyclase abolished the RAS-dependent activity, which was accompanied by formation of a very high molecular weight complex having the Mn(2+)-dependent activity. Contrary to previous results, disruption of the gene encoding CAP did not alter the extent of RAS protein-dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase, while a concomitant decrease in the size of the RAS-responsive complex was observed. These results indicate that CAP is not essential for interaction of the yeast adenylyl cyclase with RAS proteins even though it is an inherent component of the RAS-responsive adenylyl cyclase complex.

  8. Coiled-coil interaction of N-terminal 36 residues of cyclase-associated protein with adenylyl cyclase is sufficient for its function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ras pathway.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Y; Shima, F; Sen, H; Tanaka, Y; Yanagihara, C; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y; Kariya, K; Kataoka, T

    1998-10-23

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, association with the 70-kDa cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is required for proper response of adenylyl cyclase to Ras proteins. We show here that a small segment comprising the N-terminal 36 amino acid residues of CAP is sufficient for association with adenylyl cyclase as well as for its function in the Ras-adenylyl cyclase pathway as assayed by the ability to confer RAS2(Val-19)-dependent heat shock sensitivity to yeast cells. The CAP-binding site of adenylyl cyclase was mapped to a segment of 119 amino acid residues near its C terminus. Both of these regions contained tandem repetitions of a heptad motif alphaXXalphaXXX (where alpha represents a hydrophobic amino acid and X represents any amino acid), suggesting a coiled-coil interaction. When mutants of CAP defective in associating with adenylyl cyclase were isolated by screening of a pool of randomly mutagenized CAP, they were found to carry substitution mutations in one of the key hydrophobic residues in the heptad repeats. Furthermore, mutations of the key hydrophobic residues in the heptad repeats of adenylyl cyclase also resulted in loss of association with CAP. These results indicate the coiled-coil mechanism as a basis of the CAP-adenylyl cyclase interaction.

  9. Adenylyl cyclase G, an osmosensor controlling germination of Dictyostelium spores.

    PubMed

    van Es, S; Virdy, K J; Pitt, G S; Meima, M; Sands, T W; Devreotes, P N; Cotter, D A; Schaap, P

    1996-09-27

    Dictyostelium cells express a G-protein-coupled adenylyl cyclase, ACA, during aggregation and an atypical adenylyl cyclase, ACG, in mature spores. The ACG gene was disrupted by homologous recombination. acg- cells developed into normal fruiting bodies with viable spores, but spore germination was no longer inhibited by high osmolarity, a fairly universal constraint for spore and seed germination. ACG activity, measured in aca-/ACG cells, was strongly stimulated by high osmolarity with optimal stimulation occurring at 200 milliosmolar. RdeC mutants, which display unrestrained protein kinase A (PKA) activity and a cell line, which overexpresses PKA under a prespore specific promoter, germinate very poorly, both at high and low osmolarity. These data indicate that ACG is an osmosensor controlling spore germination through activation of protein kinase A.

  10. Interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase with liver regulatory factors.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenschlos, C; Flawiá, M M; Torruella, M; Torres, H N

    1986-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase catalytic subunits may interact with regulatory factors from rat liver membranes, reconstituting heterologous systems which are catalytically active in assay mixtures containing MgATP. The systems show stimulatory responses to glucagon and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) or fluoride. Reconstitution was obtained by three different methods: fusion of rat liver membranes (pretreated with N-ethylmaleimide) to T. cruzi membranes; interaction of detergent extracts of rat liver membranes with T. cruzi membranes; or interaction of purified preparations of T. cruzi adenylate cyclase and of liver membrane factors in phospholipid vesicles. The liver factors responsible for the guanine nucleotide effect were characterized as the NS protein. Data also indicate that reconstitution requires the presence of a membrane substrate. PMID:2947568

  11. Intracellular cAMP signaling by soluble adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2011-06-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently identified source of the ubiquitous second messenger cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP). sAC is distinct from the more widely studied source of cAMP, the transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs); its activity is uniquely regulated by bicarbonate anions, and it is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and in cellular organelles. Due to its unique localization and regulation, sAC has various functions in a variety of physiological systems that are distinct from tmACs. In this review, we detail the known functions of sAC, and we reassess commonly held views of cAMP signaling inside cells.

  12. Engineering adenylate cyclases regulated by near-infrared window light.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Min-Hyung; Kang, In-Hye; Nelson, Mathew D; Jensen, Tricia M; Lyuksyutova, Anna I; Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica; Raizen, David M; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-07-15

    Bacteriophytochromes sense light in the near-infrared window, the spectral region where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and their chromophore, biliverdin IXα, is naturally present in animal cells. These properties make bacteriophytochromes particularly attractive for optogenetic applications. However, the lack of understanding of how light-induced conformational changes control output activities has hindered engineering of bacteriophytochrome-based optogenetic tools. Many bacteriophytochromes function as homodimeric enzymes, in which light-induced conformational changes are transferred via α-helical linkers to the rigid output domains. We hypothesized that heterologous output domains requiring homodimerization can be fused to the photosensory modules of bacteriophytochromes to generate light-activated fusions. Here, we tested this hypothesis by engineering adenylate cyclases regulated by light in the near-infrared spectral window using the photosensory module of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides bacteriophytochrome BphG1 and the adenylate cyclase domain from Nostoc sp. CyaB1. We engineered several light-activated fusion proteins that differed from each other by approximately one or two α-helical turns, suggesting that positioning of the output domains in the same phase of the helix is important for light-dependent activity. Extensive mutagenesis of one of these fusions resulted in an adenylate cyclase with a sixfold photodynamic range. Additional mutagenesis produced an enzyme with a more stable photoactivated state. When expressed in cholinergic neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, the engineered adenylate cyclase affected worm behavior in a light-dependent manner. The insights derived from this study can be applied to the engineering of other homodimeric bacteriophytochromes, which will further expand the optogenetic toolset.

  13. Potent Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activities of Oxidosqualene Cyclase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Frederick S.; Griffin, John H.; Wilson, Aaron J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2001-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan agent that causes Chagas' disease, a major health problem in Latin America. Better drugs are needed to treat infected individuals. The sterol biosynthesis pathway is a potentially excellent target for drug therapy against T. cruzi. In this study, we investigated the antitrypanosomal activities of a series of compounds designed to inhibit a key enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, oxidosqualene cyclase. This enzyme converts 2,3-oxidosqualene to the tetracyclic product, lanosterol. The lead compound, N-(4E,8E)-5,9, 13-trimethyl-4,8, 12-tetradecatrien-1-ylpyridinium, is an electron-poor aromatic mimic of a monocyclized transition state or high-energy intermediate formed from oxidosqualene. This compound and 27 related compounds were tested against mammalian-stage T. cruzi, and 12 inhibited growth by 50% at concentrations below 25 nM. The lead compound was shown to cause an accumulation of oxidosqualene and decreased production of lanosterol and ergosterol, consistent with specific inhibition of the oxidosqualene cyclase. The data demonstrate potent anti-T. cruzi activity associated with inhibition of oxidosqualene cyclase. PMID:11257036

  14. Dephosphorylation of sperm guanylate cyclase during sea urchin fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    When intact Arbacia punctulata spermatozoa are exposed to solubilized egg jelly, the electrophoretic mobility of an abundant sperm flagellar membrane protein changes from an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa to 150 kDa. A. punctulata spermatozoa can be labeled in vivo with /sup 32/P-labeled cells it was demonstrated that the mobility shift of the 160-kDa protein is due to dephosphorylation. The peptide resact (Cys-Val-Thr-Gly-Ala-Pro-Gly-Cys-Val-Gly-Gly-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH/sub 2/) is the component of egg jelly which is responsible for inducing the dephosphorylation. The 160/150-kdal sperm membrane protein has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-agarose, and identified as sperm guanylate cyclase. The enzymatic activity of the guanylate cyclase is tightly coupled to its phosphorylation state. Resact has been shown to act as a potent chemoattractant for A. punctulata spermatozoa. The chemotactic response is concentration-dependent, is abolished by pretreatment of the spermatozoa with resact, and shows an absolute requirement for external calcium. This work represents the first demonstration of animal sperm chemotaxis in response to a precisely-defined molecule of egg origin. The results established a new, biologically meaningful function for resact, and may implicate sperm guanylate cyclase and cGMP in flagellar function and the chemotactic response.

  15. [Adenylate cyclase. A possible factor in the pathogenicity of Yersinia pestis].

    PubMed

    Michankin, B N; Chevchenko, L A; Asseeva, L E

    1992-01-01

    Biological effect of homogenous preparation of Y. pestis adenylate cyclase on eucaryotic cells was studied. Adenylate cyclase, added (7.5 x 10(8) g/ml) to guinea pig macrophages lowers the level of chemiluminescence to 50-70%, has an appreciable cytotoxic effect on peritoneal macrophages and suppresses phosphorylation processes of leucocyte proteins from white mice. The experimental results obtained allow to suggest Y. pestis adenylate cyclase to be a pathogenic factor, contributing to the development of plague infection.

  16. A cyanobacterial light activated adenylyl cyclase partially restores development of a Dictyostelium discoideum, adenylyl cyclase a null mutant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Hui; Raffelberg, Sarah; Losi, Aba; Schaap, Pauline; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2014-12-10

    A light-regulated adenylyl cyclase, mPAC, was previously identified from the cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes PCC7420. MPAC consists of a flavin-based blue light-sensing LOV domain and a catalytic domain. In this work, we expressed mPAC in an adenylate cyclase A null mutant (aca-) of the eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum and tested to what extent light activation of mPAC could restore the cAMP-dependent developmental programme of this organism. Amoebas of Dictyostelium, a well-established model organism, generate and respond to cAMP pulses, which cause them to aggregate and construct fruiting bodies. mPAC was expressed under control of a constitutive actin-15 promoter in D. discoideum and displayed low basal adenylyl cyclase activity in darkness that was about five-fold stimulated by blue light. mPAC expression in aca- cells marginally restored aggregation and fruiting body formation in darkness. However, more and larger fruiting bodies were formed when mPAC expressing cells were incubated in light. Extending former applications of light-regulated AC, these results demonstrate that mPAC can be used to manipulate multicellular development in eukaryotes in a light dependent manner.

  17. Cyclic ADP ribose-mediated Ca2+ signaling in mediating endothelial nitric oxide production in bovine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo; Teggatz, Eric G; Zhang, Andrew Y; Koeberl, Matthew J; Yi, Fan; Chen, Li; Li, Pin-Lan

    2006-03-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) serves as a novel second messenger to mediate intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs) and thereby contributes to endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In isolated and perfused small bovine coronary arteries, bradykinin (BK)-induced concentration-dependent vasodilation was significantly attenuated by 8-bromo-cADPR (a cell-permeable cADPR antagonist), ryanodine (an antagonist of ryanodine receptors), or nicotinamide (an ADP-ribosyl cyclase inhibitor). By in situ simultaneously fluorescent monitoring, Ca2+ transient and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the intact coronary arterial endothelium preparation, 8-bromo-cADPR (30 microM), ryanodine (50 microM), and nicotinamide (6 mM) substantially attenuated BK (1 microM)-induced increase in intracellular [Ca2+] by 78%, 80%, and 74%, respectively, whereas these compounds significantly blocked BK-induced NO increase by about 80%, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor blockade with 2-aminethoxydiphenyl borate (50 microM) only blunted BK-induced Ca2+-NO signaling by about 30%. With the use of cADPR-cycling assay, it was found that inhibition of ADP-ribosyl cyclase by nicotinamide substantially blocked BK-induced intracellular cADPR production. Furthermore, HPLC analysis showed that the conversion rate of beta-nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide into cyclic GDP ribose dramatically increased by stimulation with BK, which was blockable by nicotinamide. However, U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, had no effect on this BK-induced increase in ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity for cADPR production. In conclusion, these results suggest that cADPR importantly contributes to BK- and A-23187-induced NO production and vasodilator response in coronary arteries through its Ca2+ signaling mechanism in CAECs.

  18. Restoration of adenylate cyclase responsiveness in murine myeloid leukemia permits inhibition of proliferation by hormone. Butyrate augments catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, L; Fleming, J W; Klingberg, D; Gabig, T G; Boswell, H S

    1988-04-01

    Mechanisms of leukemic cell clonal dominance may include aberrations of transmembrane signaling. In particular, neoplastic transformation has been associated with reduced capacity for hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. In the present study, prostaglandin E, a hormonal activator of adenylate cyclase that has antiproliferative activity in myeloid cells, and cholera toxin, an adenylate cyclase agonist that functions at a postreceptor site by activating the adenylate cyclase stimulatory GTP-binding protein (Gs), were studied for antiproliferative activity in two murine myeloid cell lines. FDC-P1, an interleukin 3 (IL 3)-dependent myeloid cell line and a tumorigenic IL 3-independent subline, FI, were resistant to these antiproliferative agents. The in vitro ability of the "differentiation" agent, sodium butyrate, to reverse their resistance to adenylate cyclase agonists was studied. The antiproliferative action of butyrate involved augmentation of transmembrane adenylate cyclase activity. Increased adenylate cyclase catalyst activity was the primary alteration of this transmembrane signaling group leading to the functional inhibitory effects on leukemia cells, although alterations in regulatory G-proteins appear to play a secondary role.

  19. Analysis of the function of the 70-kilodalton cyclase-associated protein (CAP) by using mutants of yeast adenylyl cyclase defective in CAP binding.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Suzuki, N; Nishida, Y; Kataoka, T

    1993-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenylyl cyclase forms a complex with the 70-kDa cyclase-associated protein (CAP). By in vitro mutagenesis, we assigned a CAP-binding site of adenylyl cyclase to a small segment near its C terminus and created mutants which lost the ability to bind CAP. CAP binding was assessed first by observing the ability of the overproduced C-terminal 150 residues of adenylyl cyclase to sequester CAP, thereby suppressing the heat shock sensitivity of yeast cells bearing the activated RAS2 gene (RAS2Val-19), and then by immunoprecipitability of adenylyl cyclase activity with anti-CAP antibody and by direct measurement of the amount of CAP bound. Yeast cells whose chromosomal adenylyl cyclase genes were replaced by the CAP-nonbinding mutants possessed adenylyl cyclase activity fully responsive to RAS2 protein in vitro. However, they did not exhibit sensitivity to heat shock in the RAS2Val-19 background. When glucose-induced accumulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was measured in these mutants carrying RAS2Val-19, a rapid transient rise indistinguishable from that of wild-type cells was observed and a high peak level and following persistent elevation of the cAMP concentration characteristic of RAS2Val-19 were abolished. In contrast, in the wild-type RAS2 background, similar cyclase gene replacement did not affect the glucose-induced cAMP response. These results suggest that the association with CAP, although not involved in the in vivo response to the wild-type RAS2 protein, is somehow required for the exaggerated response of adenylyl cyclase to activated RAS2.

  20. Glucose Inhibition of Adenylate Cyclase in Intact Cells of Escherichia coli B

    PubMed Central

    Peterkofsky, Alan; Gazdar, Celia

    1974-01-01

    Previous studies in E. coli B have demonstrated an inverse correlation between the presence of glucose in the medium and the accumulation of cyclic AMP in the medium. This observation could not be explained by the action of glucose as a repressor of adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) synthesis, as a stabilizer of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17) activity, or as a direct inhibitor of adenylate cyclase activity in cell-free preparations. The recent development of an in vivo assay for adenylate cyclase has provided a basis for further exploring the inhibitory action of glucose in intact cells. With this assay it has been possible to show that, while glucose does not affect adenylate cyclase in vitro, it rapidly inhibits the enzyme activity in intact cells. Extensive metabolism of glucose is not required, since α-methylglucoside also inhibits adenylate cyclase in vivo. When cells are grown on glucose as carbon source, some sugars (mannose, glucosamine) substitute for glucose as adenylate cyclase inhibitors while others (e.g., fructose) do not. Dose-response studies indicate that low concentrations of glucose lead to essentially complete inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity while only moderately decreasing intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations. The evidence presented suggests that the decreased cellular cyclic AMP levels resulting from glucose addition can be accounted for by inhibition of adenylate cyclase without any significant effect on cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase or the transport of cyclic AMP from the cells to the medium. PMID:4366761

  1. Structural analysis of an oxygen-regulated diguanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, Miroslaw; Barends, Thomas R M; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-11-01

    Cyclic di-GMP is a bacterial second messenger that is involved in switching between motile and sessile lifestyles. Given the medical importance of biofilm formation, there has been increasing interest in understanding the synthesis and degradation of cyclic di-GMPs and their regulation in various bacterial pathogens. Environmental cues are detected by sensing domains coupled to GGDEF and EAL or HD-GYP domains that have diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase activities, respectively, producing and degrading cyclic di-GMP. The Escherichia coli protein DosC (also known as YddV) consists of an oxygen-sensing domain belonging to the class of globin sensors that is coupled to a C-terminal GGDEF domain via a previously uncharacterized middle domain. DosC is one of the most strongly expressed GGDEF proteins in E. coli, but to date structural information on this and related proteins is scarce. Here, the high-resolution structural characterization of the oxygen-sensing globin domain, the middle domain and the catalytic GGDEF domain in apo and substrate-bound forms is described. The structural changes between the iron(III) and iron(II) forms of the sensor globin domain suggest a mechanism for oxygen-dependent regulation. The structural information on the individual domains is combined into a model of the dimeric DosC holoprotein. These findings have direct implications for the oxygen-dependent regulation of the activity of the cyclase domain.

  2. Nitric Oxide-Induced Conformational Changes in Soluble Guanylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Underbakke, Eric S.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Pascal, Bruce D.; Novick, Scott; Griffin, Patrick R.; Marletta, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the primary mediator of nitric oxide (NO) signaling. NO binds the sGC heme cofactor stimulating synthesis of the second messenger cyclic-GMP (cGMP). As the central hub of NO/cGMP signaling pathways, sGC is important in diverse physiological processes such as vasodilation and neurotransmission. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying NO-induced cyclase activation in sGC remain unclear. Here, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was employed to probe the NO-induced conformational changes of sGC. HDX-MS revealed NO-induced effects in several discrete regions. NO binding to the heme-NO/O2-binding (H-NOX) domain perturbs a signaling surface implicated in Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) domain interactions. Furthermore, NO elicits striking conformational changes in the junction between the PAS and helical domains that propagate as perturbations throughout the adjoining helices. Ultimately, NO-binding stimulates the catalytic domain by contracting the active site pocket. Together, these conformational changes delineate an allosteric pathway linking NO-binding to activation of the catalytic domain. PMID:24560804

  3. Forskolin activation of serotonin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    McNall, S J; Mansour, T E

    1985-05-15

    Properties of forskolin activation of adenylate cyclase in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica are described. Forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in cell-free fluke particles to levels more than 30-fold above the basal rate. This activation was not dependent on guanine nucleotides and, upon washing of the particles, was rapidly reversed. Forskolin potentiated the activation of adenylate cyclase by serotonin (5-HT) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), resulting in both an increase in the maximal level of enzyme activity and a decrease in the apparent activation constant (KA). The 5-HT antagonist 2-bromo-LSD did not inhibit enzyme activation by forskolin. Furthermore, forskolin had no effect on specific [3H]LSD binding to fluke particles. Activation of adenylate cyclase by sodium fluoride or guanine nucleotides was modified in a complex manner by forskolin with both stimulatory and inhibitory effects present. The results suggest that forskolin does not interact directly with the 5-HT receptor coupled to adenylate cyclase. Instead, it appears that forskolin effects are, at least in part, due to its ability to alter the interaction between the regulatory and catalytic components of adenylate cyclase. Incubation of intact flukes with forskolin increased their cAMP levels 2- to 3-fold. The concentration dependence of this response was similar to that for forskolin activation of adenylate cyclase in fluke particles, with 300 microM forskolin giving the maximum response. Forskolin and other agents that increased fluke cAMP levels also stimulated fluke motility.

  4. Asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases (CrtLm) from non-photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Picataggio, S; Rouvière, P E; Cheng, Q

    2004-03-01

    Carotenoids have important functions in photosynthesis, nutrition, and protection against oxidative damage. Some natural carotenoids are asymmetrical molecules that are difficult to produce chemically. Biological production of carotenoids using specific enzymes is a potential alternative to extraction from natural sources. Here we report the isolation of lycopene beta-cyclases that selectively cyclize only one end of lycopene or neurosporene. The crtLm genes encoding the asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases were isolated from non-photosynthetic bacteria that produced monocyclic carotenoids. Co-expression of these crtLm genes with the crtEIB genes from Pantoea stewartii (responsible for lycopene synthesis) resulted in the production of monocyclic gamma-carotene in Escherichia coli. The asymmetric cyclization activity of CrtLm could be inhibited by the lycopene beta-cyclase inhibitor 2-(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine (CPTA). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that bacterial CrtL-type lycopene beta-cyclases might represent an evolutionary link between the common bacterial CrtY-type of lycopene beta-cyclases and plant lycopene beta- and epsilon-cyclases. These lycopene beta-cyclases may be used for efficient production of high-value asymmetrically cyclized carotenoids.

  5. The invasive adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis. Intracellular localization and kinetics of penetration into various cells.

    PubMed Central

    Farfel, Z; Friedman, E; Hanski, E

    1987-01-01

    The penetration of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase into various mammalian cells exhibits similar kinetics; the accumulation of both intracellular cyclase activity and cyclic AMP is rapid, reaching constant levels after 15-60 min of incubation. The kinetics of enzyme penetration into turkey erythrocytes is different; cyclase activity and cyclic AMP accumulate linearly and do not reach constant levels even after 6 h of incubation. In the preceding paper [Friedman, Farfel & Hanski (1987) Biochem. J. 243, 145-151] we have suggested that the constant level of intracellular cyclase activity reflects a steady state formed by continuous penetration and intracellular inactivation of the enzyme. In contrast with other mammalian cells, no inactivation of cyclase is observed in turkey erythrocytes. These results further support the notion that there is continuous penetration and deactivation of the invasive enzyme in mammalian cells. A 5-6-fold increase in specific activity of the invasive cyclase is detected in a pellet fraction of human lymphocytes in which a similar increase in specific activity of the plasma-membrane marker 5'-nucleotidase is observed. A similar increase in the invasive-cyclase specific activity is detected in a membrane fraction of human erythrocytes. Cyclase activity in a membrane-enriched fraction of human lymphocytes reached a constant level after 20 min of cell exposure to the enzyme. Similar time courses were observed for accumulation of cyclase activity and cyclic AMP in whole lymphocytes [Friedman, Farfel & Hanski (1987) Biochem, J. 243, 145-151]. We suggest therefore that cyclic AMP generation by the invasive enzyme as well as the intracellular inactivation process occur while it is associated with a membrane fraction identical, or closely associated, with the plasma membrane. PMID:2886120

  6. Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase: Potential Role in Mineral Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Weidong; Moe, Orson W.

    2007-04-01

    The conversion of a signal of inorganic ion concentration to a second messenger is of fundamental biologic significance. The soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) serves such a purpose by transducing divalent cation concentrations and bicarbonate concentrations into intracellular cyclic AMP levels. sAC is widely expressed and may represent a generic bicarbonate sensor providing the afferent pathway to bicarbonate-regulated biologic processes. The best described action of sAC to date is in the mediation of bicarbonate-induced changes in sperm motility. Since a number of processes in mineral metabolism—such as bone formation, bone resorption, intestinal calcium absorption, and renal calcium transport in the distal convoluted tubule—are regulated by bicarbonate, sAC may play a role at multiple levels in mineral metabolism.

  7. Prokaryotic adenylate cyclase toxin stimulates anterior pituitary cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, M.J.; Evans, W.S.; Rogol, A.D.; Weiss, A.A.; Thorner, M.O.; Orth, D.N.; Nicholson, W.E.; Yasumoto, T.; Hewlett, E.L.

    1986-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis synthesis a variety of virulence factors including a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin. Treatment of anterior pituitary cells with this AC toxin resulted in an increase in cellular cAMP levels that was associated with accelerated exocytosis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The kinetics of release of these hormones, however, were markedly different; GH and prolactin were rapidly released, while LH and ACTH secretion was more gradually elevated. Neither dopamine agonists nor somatostatin changes the ability of AC toxin to generate cAMP (up to 2 h). Low concentrations of AC toxin amplified the secretory response to hypophysiotrophic hormones. The authors conclude that bacterial AC toxin can rapidly elevate cAMP levels in anterior pituitary cells and that it is the response that explains the subsequent acceleration of hormone release.

  8. Cloning, expression, and sequencing of squalene-hopene cyclase, a key enzyme in triterpenoid metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, D; Kaletta, C; Entian, K D; Beck-Sickinger, A; Poralla, K

    1992-01-01

    The pentacyclic hopanoids, a class of eubacterial lipids, are synthesized by squalene-hopene cyclase and side chain-elongating enzymes. With the aid of DNA probes based on the amino-terminal sequence of purified squalene-hopene cyclase from Bacillus acidocaldarius, clones of Escherichia coli that express this enzyme in the cytoplasmic membrane were isolated. According to the DNA sequence, the cyclase contained 627 amino acids with a molecular mass of 69,473 Da. A high percentage of the amino acids were basic. No significant similarity to existing sequenced proteins was found. Images PMID:1729216

  9. Integrative Signaling Networks of Membrane Guanylate Cyclases: Biochemistry and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rameshwar K.; Duda, Teresa; Makino, Clint L.

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a historical perspective of cornerstone developments on the biochemistry and physiology of mammalian membrane guanylate cyclases (MGCs), highlighting contributions made by the authors and their collaborators. Upon resolution of early contentious studies, cyclic GMP emerged alongside cyclic AMP, as an important intracellular second messenger for hormonal signaling. However, the two signaling pathways differ in significant ways. In the cyclic AMP pathway, hormone binding to a G protein coupled receptor leads to stimulation or inhibition of an adenylate cyclase, whereas the cyclic GMP pathway dispenses with intermediaries; hormone binds to an MGC to affect its activity. Although the cyclic GMP pathway is direct, it is by no means simple. The modular design of the molecule incorporates regulation by ATP binding and phosphorylation. MGCs can form complexes with Ca2+-sensing subunits that either increase or decrease cyclic GMP synthesis, depending on subunit identity. In some systems, co-expression of two Ca2+ sensors, GCAP1 and S100B with ROS-GC1 confers bimodal signaling marked by increases in cyclic GMP synthesis when intracellular Ca2+ concentration rises or falls. Some MGCs monitor or are modulated by carbon dioxide via its conversion to bicarbonate. One MGC even functions as a thermosensor as well as a chemosensor; activity reaches a maximum with a mild drop in temperature. The complexity afforded by these multiple limbs of operation enables MGC networks to perform transductions traditionally reserved for G protein coupled receptors and Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels and to serve a diverse array of functions, including control over cardiac vasculature, smooth muscle relaxation, blood pressure regulation, cellular growth, sensory transductions, neural plasticity and memory. PMID:27695398

  10. Dopaminergic modulation of adenylate cyclase stimulation by vasoactive intestinal peptide in anterior pituitary.

    PubMed Central

    Onali, P; Schwartz, J P; Costa, E

    1981-01-01

    The activation of adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was used as a model to investigate the molecular mechanisms triggered by the occupancy of dopamine recognition sites in rat anterior pituitary. Dopamine failed to change the basal enzyme activity, but it inhibited the stimulation of adenylate cyclase elicited by VIP. Apomorphine, 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine mimicked the effect of dopamine, whereas (-)-sulpiride and and classical neuroleptics antagonized it. Dopamine failed to modulate the activation of pituitary adenylate cyclase by prostaglandin E1, which does not increase prolactin secretion. From these results we infer that stimulation of D-2 (dopamine) receptors may affect pituitary secretion by inhibiting the activation of anterior pituitary adenylate cyclase by VIP or other secretagogues. PMID:6171819

  11. Discovery and Characterization of a New Family of Diterpene Cyclases in Bacteria and Fungi.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Long; Zhang, Shasha; Ma, Ke; Xu, Yuxing; Tao, Qiaoqiao; Chen, Yihua; Chen, Juan; Guo, Shunxing; Ren, Jinwei; Wang, Wenzhao; Tao, Yong; Yin, Wen-Bing; Liu, Hongwei

    2017-04-18

    Diterpene cyclases from bacteria and basidiomycete fungi are seldom studied. Here, we presented the identification and verification of EriG, a member of the UbiA superfamily, as the enzyme responsible for the cyclization of the cyathane skeleton in the mushroom Hericium erinaceum. Genome mining using the EriG protein sequence as a probe led to the discovery of a new family of ubiquitous UbiA-related diterpene cyclases in bacteria and fungi. We successfully characterized seven new diterpene cyclases from bacteria or basidiomycete fungi with the help of an engineered Escherichia coli strain and determined the structures of their corresponding products. A new diterpene with an unusual skeleton was generated during this process. The discovery of this new family of diterpene cyclases provides new insight into the UbiA superfamily.

  12. Terpenoid biosynthesis off the beaten track: unconventional cyclases and their impact on biomimetic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Baunach, Martin; Franke, Jakob; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-02-23

    Terpene and terpenoid cyclizations are counted among the most complex chemical reactions occurring in nature and contribute crucially to the tremendous structural diversity of this largest family of natural products. Many studies were conducted at the chemical, genetic, and biochemical levels to gain mechanistic insights into these intriguing reactions that are catalyzed by terpene and terpenoid cyclases. A myriad of these enzymes have been characterized. Classical textbook knowledge divides terpene/terpenoid cyclases into two major classes according to their structure and reaction mechanism. However, recent discoveries of novel types of terpenoid cyclases illustrate that nature's enzymatic repertoire is far more diverse than initially thought. This Review outlines novel terpenoid cyclases that are out of the ordinary.

  13. [Biosynthesis of cyclic GMP in plant cells - new insight into guanylate cyclases].

    PubMed

    Świeżawska, Brygida; Marciniak, Katarzyna; Szmidt-Jaworska, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is involved in many physiological processes in plants. Concentration of this second messenger in plant cell is determined by guanylyl cyclases (GCs) responsible for cGMP synthesis and phosphodiesterases (PDEs) involved in cGMP inactivation. First discovered plant GCs were localized in cytosol, but few years ago a new family of plasma membrane proteins with guanylyl cyclase activity was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. These proteins belong to the family of a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLK) with extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain, a transmembrane-spanning domain, and an intracellular kinase domain. A novel class of guanylyl cyclases contain the GC catalytic center encapsulated within the intracellular kinase domain. These molecules are different to animal GCs in that the GC catalytic center is nested within the kinase domain. In presented paper we summarized the most recent data concerning plant guanylyl cyclases.

  14. Choreographing the adenylyl cyclase signalosome: sorting out the partners and the steps.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Rennolds S; Bogard, Amy S; Gros, Robert; Feldman, Ross D

    2012-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclases are a ubiquitous family of enzymes and are critical regulators of metabolic and cardiovascular function. Multiple isoforms of the enzyme are expressed in a range of tissues. However, for many processes, the adenylyl cyclase isoforms have been thought of as essentially interchangeable, with their impact more dependent on their common actions to increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate content regardless of the isoform involved. It has long been appreciated that each subfamily of isoforms demonstrate a specific pattern of "upstream" regulation, i.e., specific patterns of ion dependence (e.g., calcium-dependence) and specific patterns of regulation by kinases (protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), raf). However, more recent studies have suggested that adenylyl cyclase isoform-selective patterns of signaling are a wide-spread phenomenon. The determinants of these selective signaling patterns relate to a number of factors, including: (1) selective coupling of specific adenylyl cyclase isoforms with specific G protein-coupled receptors, (2) localization of specific adenylyl cyclase isoforms in defined structural domains (AKAP complexes, caveolin/lipid rafts), and (3) selective coupling of adenylyl cyclase isoforms with specific downstream signaling cascades important in regulation of cell growth and contractility. The importance of isoform-specific regulation has now been demonstrated both in mouse models as well as in humans. Adenylyl cyclase has not been viewed as a useful target for therapeutic regulation, given the ubiquitous expression of the enzyme and the perceived high risk of off-target effects. Understanding which isoforms of adenylyl cyclase mediate distinct cellular effects would bring new significance to the development of isoform-specific ligands to regulate discrete cellular actions.

  15. [Soluble guanylate cyclase in the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic action of drugs].

    PubMed

    Piatakova, N V; Severina, I S

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ambroxol--a mucolytic drug--on the activity of human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase and activation of both enzymes by NO-donors (sodium nitroprusside and Sin-1) were investigated. Ambroxol in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 microM had no effect on the basal activity of both enzymes. Ambroxol inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the sodium nitroprusside-induced human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase and rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase with the IC50 values 3.9 and 2.1 microM, respectively. Ambroxol did not influence the stimulation of both enzymes by protoporphyrin IX. The influence of artemisinin--an antimalarial drug--on human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase activity and the enzyme activation by NO-donors were investigated. Artemisinin (0.1-100 microM) had no effect on the basal activity of the enzyme. Artemisinin inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the sodium nitroprusside-induced activation of human platelet guanylate cyclase with an IC50 value 5.6 microM. Artemisinin (10 microM) also inhibited (by 71 +/- 4.0%) the activation of the enzyme by thiol-dependent NO-donor the derivative of furoxan, 3,4-dicyano-1,2,5-oxadiazolo-2-oxide (10 microM), but did not influence the stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase by protoporphyrin IX. It was concluded that the sygnalling system NO-soluble guanylate cyclase-cGMP is involved in the molecular mechanism of the therapeutic action of ambroxol and artemisinin.

  16. Cloning, chromosomal mapping, and expression of human fetal brain type I adenylyl cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Villacres, E.C.; Xia, Z.; Bookbinder, L.H.; Edelhoff, S.; Disteche, C.M.; Storm, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    The neural-specific calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase (type I), which was first cloned from bovine brain, has been implicated in learning and memory. The objective of this study was to clone and determine the chromosomal localization of human fetal brain type I adenylyl cyclase. A 3.8-kb cDNA clone was isolated that contained sequence coinciding with the 3{prime} end 2553 nucleotides of the bovine open reading frame. This clone shows 87% nucleotide and 92% translated amino acid sequence identity to the bovine clone. The most significant sequence differences were in the carboxy-terminal 100 amino acid residues. This region contains one of several possible calmodulin binding domains and the only putative cAMP-dependent protein kinase A phosphorylation site. A chimera was constructed that contained the 5{prime} half of the bovine type I adenylyl cyclase and the 3{prime} half of the human type I adenylyl cyclase. The activity of the chimeric gene product and its sensitivity to calmodulin and calcium were indistinguishable from those of the bovine type I adenylyl cyclase. In situ hybridization was used to localize the human type I adenylyl cyclase gene to the proximal portion of the short arm of chromosome 7. 36 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Soluble Rat Lung Guanylate Cyclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandwein, Harvey; Lewicki, John; Murad, Ferid

    1981-07-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies to rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase [GTP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing) EC 4.6.1.2] have been produced by fusing spleen cells from immunized BALB/c mice with SP-2/0 myeloma cells. The antibodies were detected by their ability to bind immobilized guanylate cyclase and by immunoprecipitation of purified enzyme in the presence of second (rabbit anti-mouse) antibody. After subcloning by limiting dilution, hybridomas were injected intraperitoneally into mice to produce ascitic fluid containing 2-5 mg of antibody per ml. The four antibodies obtained had titers of between 1:1580 and 1:3160 but were detectable at dilutions greater than 1:20,000. Soluble guanylate cyclase from several rat tissues were crossreactive with the four monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that the soluble enzyme from different rat tissues is antigenically similar. The antibodies also recognized soluble lung enzyme from rat, beef, and pig, while enzyme from rabbit was not crossreactive and mouse enzyme was recognized by only one of the antibodies. Particulate guanylate cyclase from a number of tissues had only minimal crossreactivity with the antibodies. Immunoprecipitated guanylate cyclase retained catalytic activity, could be activated with sodium nitroprusside, and was inhibited by cystamine. None of the antibodies were inhibitory under the conditions examined. These antibodies will be useful probes for the study of guanylate cyclase regulation and function under a variety of physiological conditions.

  18. Developmental changes of beta-adrenergic receptor-linked adenylate cyclase of rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, M.S.; Boland, S.R.; Schmidt, S.J.

    1985-06-01

    beta-Adrenergic agonist-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity and binding of the beta-adrenergic antagonist(-)-(/sup 125/I)iodopindolol were studied in rat liver during development of male Fischer 344 rats ages 6-60 days. In liver homogenates maximum adenylate cyclase response to beta-adrenergic agonist (10(-5) M isoproterenol or epinephrine) decreased by 73% (P less than 0.01) between 6 and 60 days, with most of the decrease (56%; P less than 0.01) occurring by 20 days. beta-adrenergic receptor density (Bmax) showed a corresponding decrease of 66% (P less than 0.01) by 20 days without subsequent change. Binding characteristics of stereospecificity, pharmacological specificity, saturability with time, and reversibility were unchanged with age. GTP-, fluoride-, forskolin-, and Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities also decreased during development, suggesting a decrease of activity of the catalytic component and/or guanine nucleotide regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. These results indicate that the developmental decrease of beta-adrenergic agonist-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity may result from decreased numbers of beta-adrenergic receptors. Developmental alterations of nonreceptor components of the enzyme may also contribute to changes of catecholamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase.

  19. Microscopical localization on adenylate cyclase: a historical review of methodologies.

    PubMed

    Richards, P A; Richards, P D

    1998-03-15

    The histochemistry technique for localizing adenylate cyclase has been developed over the past two decades. Early efforts were directed at overcoming the criticism of the lead capture technique, the inhibition of the enzyme by fixation, and problems associated with the substrate. The introduction of alternative metal ions, strontium and cerium, offered solutions to the criticism of the lead capture technique. The inhibition of the enzyme by the various fixation methods used has been rarely overcome satisfactorily and the use of non-fixed material during incubation is one of the alternatives that has been suggested. The introduction of adenylate (beta-gamma-methylene) diphosphate as an alternative substrate offers a solution to the problems associated with commercially available adenylyl imidodiphosphate. Although no standard medium or method has been accepted by all researchers, the histochemical technique still has a place in the arsenal of the modern cell biologist. The technique localizes the active enzyme, as opposed to the protein, active and nonactive, by immunocytochemistry and the precursors of the protein by in situ hybridization methods.

  20. Bicarbonate Modulates Photoreceptor Guanylate Cyclase (ROS-GC) Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Duda, Teresa; Wen, Xiao-Hong; Isayama, Tomoki; Sharma, Rameshwar K; Makino, Clint L

    2015-04-24

    By generating the second messenger cGMP in retinal rods and cones, ROS-GC plays a central role in visual transduction. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) link cGMP synthesis to the light-induced fall in [Ca(2+)]i to help set absolute sensitivity and assure prompt recovery of the response to light. The present report discloses a surprising feature of this system: ROS-GC is a sensor of bicarbonate. Recombinant ROS-GCs synthesized cGMP from GTP at faster rates in the presence of bicarbonate with an ED50 of 27 mM for ROS-GC1 and 39 mM for ROS-GC2. The effect required neither Ca(2+) nor use of the GCAPs domains; however, stimulation of ROS-GC1 was more powerful in the presence of GCAP1 or GCAP2 at low [Ca(2+)]. When applied to retinal photoreceptors, bicarbonate enhanced the circulating current, decreased sensitivity to flashes, and accelerated flash response kinetics. Bicarbonate was effective when applied either to the outer or inner segment of red-sensitive cones. In contrast, bicarbonate exerted an effect when applied to the inner segment of rods but had little efficacy when applied to the outer segment. The findings define a new regulatory mechanism of the ROS-GC system that affects visual transduction and is likely to affect the course of retinal diseases caused by cGMP toxicity.

  1. Guanylyl cyclase C signaling axis and colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Amanda M; Merlino, Dante J; Blomain, Erik S; Waldman, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity worldwide. While improved treatments have enhanced overall patient outcome, disease burden encompassing quality of life, cost of care, and patient survival has seen little benefit. Consequently, additional advances in CRC treatments remain important, with an emphasis on preventative measures. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a transmembrane receptor expressed on intestinal epithelial cells, plays an important role in orchestrating intestinal homeostatic mechanisms. These effects are mediated by the endogenous hormones guanylin (GUCA2A) and uroguanylin (GUCA2B), which bind and activate GUCY2C to regulate proliferation, metabolism and barrier function in intestine. Recent studies have demonstrated a link between GUCY2C silencing and intestinal dysfunction, including tumorigenesis. Indeed, GUCY2C silencing by the near universal loss of its paracrine hormone ligands increases colon cancer susceptibility in animals and humans. GUCY2C’s role as a tumor suppressor has opened the door to a new paradigm for CRC prevention by hormone replacement therapy using synthetic hormone analogs, such as the FDA-approved oral GUCY2C ligand linaclotide (Linzess™). Here we review the known contributions of the GUCY2C signaling axis to CRC, and relate them to a novel clinical strategy targeting tumor chemoprevention. PMID:27688649

  2. Structure of RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase bound to substrate RNA.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kevin K; Bingman, Craig A; Cheng, Chin L; Phillips, George N; Raines, Ronald T

    2014-10-01

    RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) catalyzes the ATP-dependent cyclization of a 3'-phosphate to form a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate at RNA termini. Cyclization proceeds through RtcA-AMP and RNA(3')pp(5')A covalent intermediates, which are analogous to intermediates formed during catalysis by the tRNA ligase RtcB. Here we present a crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii RtcA in complex with a 3'-phosphate terminated RNA and adenosine in the AMP-binding pocket. Our data reveal that RtcA recognizes substrate RNA by ensuring that the terminal 3'-phosphate makes a large contribution to RNA binding. Furthermore, the RNA 3'-phosphate is poised for in-line attack on the P-N bond that links the phosphorous atom of AMP to N(ε) of His307. Thus, we provide the first insights into RNA 3'-phosphate termini recognition and the mechanism of 3'-phosphate activation by an Rtc enzyme.

  3. Control of Outflow Resistance by Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Suk

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the United States affecting as many as 2.2 million Americans. All current glaucoma treatment strategies aim to reduce intraocular pressure, even in patients with normal tension glaucoma. Typically, this is accomplished by reducing the rate of aqueous flow by limiting aqueous production or enhancing drainage using drugs and surgery. Whereas these strategies are effective in diminishing vision loss, some patients continue to lose vision and many discontinue use of their medications because of undesirable side effects. Drugs known to be effective in altering conventional outflow have for the most part been abandoned from modern clinical practice due to undesirable side effects. Identification of new drugs that could enhance conventional outflow, would offer additional options in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. To this end, our laboratory has recently uncovered a novel pathway for regulation of conventional outflow by the ciliary body. This pathway is dependent on soluble adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that catalyzes the generation of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′ monophosphate (cAMP) in response to bicarbonate. PMID:24320087

  4. Bicarbonate Modulates Photoreceptor Guanylate Cyclase (ROS-GC) Catalytic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Teresa; Wen, Xiao-Hong; Isayama, Tomoki; Sharma, Rameshwar K.; Makino, Clint L.

    2015-01-01

    By generating the second messenger cGMP in retinal rods and cones, ROS-GC plays a central role in visual transduction. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) link cGMP synthesis to the light-induced fall in [Ca2+]i to help set absolute sensitivity and assure prompt recovery of the response to light. The present report discloses a surprising feature of this system: ROS-GC is a sensor of bicarbonate. Recombinant ROS-GCs synthesized cGMP from GTP at faster rates in the presence of bicarbonate with an ED50 of 27 mm for ROS-GC1 and 39 mm for ROS-GC2. The effect required neither Ca2+ nor use of the GCAPs domains; however, stimulation of ROS-GC1 was more powerful in the presence of GCAP1 or GCAP2 at low [Ca2+]. When applied to retinal photoreceptors, bicarbonate enhanced the circulating current, decreased sensitivity to flashes, and accelerated flash response kinetics. Bicarbonate was effective when applied either to the outer or inner segment of red-sensitive cones. In contrast, bicarbonate exerted an effect when applied to the inner segment of rods but had little efficacy when applied to the outer segment. The findings define a new regulatory mechanism of the ROS-GC system that affects visual transduction and is likely to affect the course of retinal diseases caused by cGMP toxicity. PMID:25767116

  5. Photoreceptor IFT complexes containing chaperones, guanylyl cyclase 1 and rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Reshma; Li, Mei; Sun, Jun; Baker, Sheila A; Insinna, Christine; Besharse, Joseph C

    2009-06-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) provides a mechanism for the transport of cilium-specific proteins, but the mechanisms for linkage of cargo and IFT proteins have not been identified. Using the sensory outer segments (OS) of photoreceptors, which are derived from sensory cilia, we have identified IFT-cargo complexes containing IFT proteins, kinesin 2 family proteins, two photoreceptor-specific membrane proteins, guanylyl cyclase 1 (GC1, Gucy2e) and rhodopsin (RHO), and the chaperones, mammalian relative of DNAJ, DnajB6 (MRJ), and HSC70 (Hspa8). Analysis of these complexes leads to a model in which MRJ through its binding to IFT88 and GC1 plays a critical role in formation or stabilization of the IFT-cargo complexes. Consistent with the function of MRJ in the activation of HSC70 ATPase activity, Mg-ATP enhances the co-IP of GC1, RHO, and MRJ with IFT proteins. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of MRJ in IMCD3 cells expressing GC1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reduces cilium membrane targeting of GC1-GFP without apparent effect on cilium elongation.

  6. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: expression, purification, and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Martin, E.; Murad, F.

    2000-01-01

    The alpha1- and beta1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2, 4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein.

  7. Synthesis of arborane triterpenols by a bacterial oxidosqualene cyclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, Amy B.; Wei, Jeremy H.; Gill, Clare C. C.; Giner, José-Luis; Welander, Paula V.

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic triterpenoids are a broad class of polycyclic lipids produced by bacteria and eukaryotes. They are biologically relevant for their roles in cellular physiology, including membrane structure and function, and biochemically relevant for their exquisite enzymatic cyclization mechanism. Cyclic triterpenoids are also geobiologically significant as they are readily preserved in sediments and are used as biomarkers for ancient life throughout Earth's history. Isoarborinol is one such triterpenoid whose only known biological sources are certain angiosperms and whose diagenetic derivatives (arboranes) are often used as indicators of terrestrial input into aquatic environments. However, the occurrence of arborane biomarkers in Permian and Triassic sediments, which predates the accepted origin of angiosperms, suggests that microbial sources of these lipids may also exist. In this study, we identify two isoarborinol-like lipids, eudoraenol and adriaticol, produced by the aerobic marine heterotrophic bacterium Eudoraea adriatica. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that the E. adriatica eudoraenol synthase is an oxidosqualene cyclase homologous to bacterial lanosterol synthases and distinct from plant triterpenoid synthases. Using an Escherichia coli heterologous sterol expression system, we demonstrate that substitution of four amino acid residues in a bacterial lanosterol synthase enabled synthesis of pentacyclic arborinols in addition to tetracyclic sterols. This variant provides valuable mechanistic insight into triterpenoid synthesis and reveals diagnostic amino acid residues to differentiate between sterol and arborinol synthases in genomic and metagenomic datasets. Our data suggest that there may be additional bacterial arborinol producers in marine and freshwater environments that could expand our understanding of these geologically informative lipids.

  8. Activity of squalene-hopene cyclases in bicontinuous microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Steudle, Anne K; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard; Stubenrauch, Cosima

    2015-11-01

    The paper at hand deals with biocatalysis in bicontinuous microemulsions. The latter consist of a dynamic network of oil and water domains separated by a monolayer of surfactant molecules, i.e. the interfacial layer. A microemulsion with the composition buffer--n-octane--nonionic surfactant was tested as reaction medium for an enzyme-catalysed reaction with a focus on the conversion of hydrophobic substrates, which are difficult to convert in aqueous buffer solutions. For the study at hand, we chose to investigate the activity of the squalene-hopene cyclase from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (AacSHC) towards its natural substrate squalene in bicontinuous microemulsions. Firstly, the study revealed that the activity of AacSHC depends linearly on the enzyme concentration. Secondly, a hyperbolic curve was found for the dependence of the activity on the substrate concentration and a saturation of the AacSHC at substrate concentrations above 20mM was observed. Thirdly, the composition of the interfacial layer was found to have no significant influence on the activity or on the conformation of AacSHC. Surprisingly and unexpectedly, a distinctly enhanced selectivity towards hopene was discovered in the microemulsion. To conclude, bicontinuous microemulsions were found to be a suitable reaction medium for biocatalytic reactions with the enzyme AacSHC.

  9. Structure-based development of novel adenylyl cyclase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Schlicker, Christine; Rauch, Annika; Hess, Ken C; Kachholz, Barbara; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen; Steegborn, Clemens

    2008-08-14

    In mammals, the second messenger cAMP is synthesized by a family of transmembrane isoforms (tmACs) and one known cytoplasmic enzyme, "soluble" adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Understanding the individual contributions of these families to cAMP signaling requires tools which can distinguish them. Here, we describe the structure-based development of isoform discriminating AC inhibitors. Docking calculations using a library of small molecules with the crystal structure of a sAC homologue complexed with the noncompetitive inhibitor catechol estrogen identified two novel inhibitors, 3,20-dioxopregn-4-en-21-yl4-bromobenzenesulfonate (2) and 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,13,13,14,14-dodecachloro-1,4,4a,4b,5,8,8a,12b-octahydro-11-sulfo-1,4:5,8-dimethanotriphenylene-10-carboxylic acid (3). In vitro testing revealed that 3 defines a novel AC inhibitor scaffold with high affinity for human sAC and less inhibitory effect on mammalian tmACs. 2 also discriminates between sAC and tmACs, and it appears to simultaneously block the original binding pocket and a neighboring interaction site. Our results show that compounds exploiting the catechol estrogen binding site can produce potent, isoform discriminating AC inhibitors.

  10. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: Expression, purification, and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Martin, Emil; Murad, Ferid

    2000-01-01

    The α1- and β1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein. PMID:10995472

  11. Formycin triphosphate as a probe for the ATP binding site involved in the activation of guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Chang, C H; Yu, Z N; Song, D L

    1992-10-01

    Formycin A triphosphate (FTP), a fluorescent analog of ATP, slightly increased basal guanylate cyclase activity, but significantly potentiated guanylate cyclase activity stimulated by atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in rat lung membranes. FTP potentiated ANF-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity with an EC50 at about 90 microM and inhibited ATP-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity with an IC50 at about 100 microM. These results indicate that FTP binds more tightly than ATP for the same binding site. Therefore, FTP would be an excellent tool for studying the ATP binding site.

  12. Evidence for adenylate cyclase as a scaffold protein for Ras2-Ira interaction in Saccharomyces cerevisie.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Sonia; Paiardi, Chiara; Pardons, Katrien; Winderickx, Joris; Martegani, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    Data in literature suggest that budding yeast adenylate cyclase forms a membrane-associated complex with the upstream components of the cAMP/PKA pathway. Here we provide evidences that adenylate cyclase (Cyr1p) acts as a scaffold protein keeping Ras2 available for its regulatory factors. We show that in a strain with deletion of the CYR1 gene (cyr1Δ pde2Δ msn2Δ msn4Δ) the basal Ras2-GTP level is very high and this is independent on the lack of feedback inhibition that could result from the absence of adenylate cyclase activity. Moreover, strains effected either in the intrinsic adenylate cyclase activity (fil1 strain) or in the stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by active G-proteins (lcr1 strain) had a normal basal and glucose-induced Ras2-GTP level, indicating that adenylate cyclase activity does not influence the Ras2 activation state and suggesting that Cyr1 protein is required for the proper interaction between Ras2 and the Ira proteins. We also provide evidence that the two Ras-binding sites mapped on Cyr1p are required for the signalling complex assembly. In fact, we show that the cyr1Δ strain expressing CYR1 alleles lacking either the LRR region or the C-terminal domain still have a high basal and glucose-induced Ras2-GTP level. In contrast, a mutant expressing a Cyr1 protein only missing the N-terminal domain showed a normal Ras2 activation pattern. Likewise, the Ras2-GTP levels are comparable in the wild type strain and the srv2Δ strain, supporting the hypothesis that Cap is not essential for the Ras-adenylate cyclase interaction.

  13. A lycopene β-cyclase/lycopene ε-cyclase/light-harvesting complex-fusion protein from the green alga Ostreococcus lucimarinus can be modified to produce α-carotene and β-carotene at different ratios.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Andreas; Bauch, Matthias E; Pörschke, Yvonne; Lohr, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Biosynthesis of asymmetric carotenoids such as α-carotene and lutein in plants and green algae involves the two enzymes lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) and lycopene ε-cyclase (LCYE). The two cyclases are closely related and probably resulted from an ancient gene duplication. While in most plants investigated so far the two cyclases are encoded by separate genes, prasinophyte algae of the order Mamiellales contain a single gene encoding a fusion protein comprised of LCYB, LCYE and a C-terminal light-harvesting complex (LHC) domain. Here we show that the lycopene cyclase fusion protein from Ostreococcus lucimarinus catalyzed the simultaneous formation of α-carotene and β-carotene when heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The stoichiometry of the two products in E. coli could be altered by gradual truncation of the C-terminus, suggesting that the LHC domain may be involved in modulating the relative activities of the two cyclase domains in the algae. Partial deletions of the linker region between the cyclase domains or replacement of one or both cyclase domains with the corresponding cyclases from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resulted in pronounced shifts of the α-carotene-to-β-carotene ratio, indicating that both the relative activities of the cyclase domains and the overall structure of the fusion protein have a strong impact on the product stoichiometry. The possibility to tune the product ratio of the lycopene cyclase fusion protein from Mamiellales renders it useful for the biotechnological production of the asymmetric carotenoids α-carotene or lutein in bacteria or fungi.

  14. Genetic and biochemical analysis of the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein, cap, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Kawamukai, M; Gerst, J; Field, J; Riggs, M; Rodgers, L; Wigler, M; Young, D

    1992-01-01

    We have identified, cloned, and studied a gene, cap, encoding a protein that is associated with adenylyl cyclase in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This protein shares significant sequence homology with the adenylyl cyclase-associated CAP protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. CAP is a bifunctional protein; the N-terminal domain appears to be involved in cellular responsiveness to RAS, whereas loss of the C-terminal portion is associated with morphological and nutritional defects. S. pombe cap can suppress phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal CAP domain in S. cerevisiae but does not suppress phenotypes associated with deletion of the N-terminal domain. Analysis of cap disruptants also mapped the function of cap to two domains. The functional loss of the C-terminal region of S. pombe cap results in abnormal cellular morphology, slow growth, and failure to grow at 37 degrees C. Increases in mating and sporulation were observed when the entire gene was disrupted. Overproduction of both cap and adenylyl cyclase results in highly elongated large cells that are sterile and have measurably higher levels of adenylyl cyclase activity. Our results indicate that cap is required for the proper function of S. pombe adenylyl cyclase but that the C-terminal domain of cap has other functions that are shared with the C-terminal domain of S. cerevisiae CAP. Images PMID:1550959

  15. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Steve J; Stout, Jake M; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-07-31

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2-C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity.

  16. Characterization of the purine-reactive site of the rat testis cytosolic adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Onoda, J M; Braun, T; Wrenn, S M

    1987-06-15

    Naturally soluble rat germ cell adenylate cyclase was inhibited by adenosine and the adenosine analogs, 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl adenine (AFA) and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA), all of which inhibited hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclases at the "P" site. The IC50 values for adenosine and DDA were approximately 0.1 and for AFA, 4.0 mM. The onset of adenosine inhibition was very rapid whether adenosine was added to the enzyme reactant mixture at time zero concomitantly with the addition of substrate or after the enzyme had been activated by the addition of substrate. The adenosine analogs, N6-methyladenosine (MeA) and N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine (PIA), which interact with plasma membrane receptors ("R" receptors) for hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase, had little effect on the activity of the cytosolic adenylate cyclase. Additionally, aminophylline, which has been shown to competitively antagonize adenosine interactions with the plasma membrane "R" receptors but not "P" site interactions, had no effect upon substrate activation of the soluble enzyme and did not prevent adenosine from inhibiting the activity of the enzyme. These data provide evidence for an adenosine regulatory site on the cytosolic enzyme which resembles the "P" site described for membrane bound-adenylate cyclase.

  17. Adenylate cyclase of human articular chondrocytes. Responsiveness to prostaglandins and other hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Houston, J P; McGuire, M K; Meats, J E; Ebsworth, N M; Russell, R G; Crawford, A; Mac Neil, S

    1982-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] was shown to be present in cultured human articular chondrocytes. Optimal conditions of incubation time, protein and substrate concentrations and pH were determined in whole cell lysates. Maximal activity occurred at pH 8.5 with no decrease in activity up to pH 10.0. Adenylate cyclase activity of particulate membrane preparations was enhanced by the addition of crude cytosol preparations. The prostaglandins E1, E2, F1 alpha, F2 alpha, D2, B1, B2, A1 and A2, as well as adrenaline and isoprenaline, stimulated adenylate cyclase derived from either adult or foetal chondrocytes. No significant stimulation was observed in the presence of human calcitonin or glucagon. Bovine parathyroid hormone always significantly stimulated the adenylate cyclase derived from foetal chondrocytes, but not from adult chondrocytes. Preincubation of the chondrocytes in culture with indomethacin and with or without supernatant medium from cultured mononuclear cells increased the responsiveness of the adenylate cyclase to prostaglandin E1. PMID:7159397

  18. Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Lycopene β-Cyclase from Macrophytic Red Alga Bangia fuscopurpurea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tian-Jun; Huang, Xing-Qi; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhuang, Zhong; Deng, Yin-Yin; Lu, Shan

    2017-04-11

    Lycopene cyclases cyclize the open ends of acyclic lycopene (ψ,ψ-carotene) into β- or ε-ionone rings in the crucial bifurcation step of carotenoid biosynthesis. Among all carotenoid constituents, β-carotene (β,β-carotene) is found in all photosynthetic organisms, except for purple bacteria and heliobacteria, suggesting a ubiquitous distribution of lycopene β-cyclase activity in these organisms. In this work, we isolated a gene (BfLCYB) encoding a lycopene β-cyclase from Bangia fuscopurpurea, a red alga that is considered to be one of the primitive multicellular eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms and accumulates carotenoid constituents with both β- and ε-rings, including β-carotene, zeaxanthin, α-carotene (β,ε-carotene) and lutein. Functional complementation in Escherichia coli demonstrated that BfLCYB is able to catalyze cyclization of lycopene into monocyclic γ-carotene (β,ψ-carotene) and bicyclic β-carotene, and cyclization of the open end of monocyclic δ-carotene (ε,ψ-carotene) to produce α-carotene. No ε-cyclization activity was identified for BfLCYB. Sequence comparison showed that BfLCYB shares conserved domains with other functionally characterized lycopene cyclases from different organisms and belongs to a group of ancient lycopene cyclases. Although B. fuscopurpurea also synthesizes α-carotene and lutein, its enzyme-catalyzing ε-cyclization is still unknown.

  19. Cyclase inhibitor tripropylamine significantly enhanced lycopene accumulation in Blakeslea trispora.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Xiwen; Hong, Xiao; Du, Shipeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Gong, Wenfang; Chen, Defu

    2016-11-01

    Lycopene is a member of carotenoids that exhibits strong antioxidant activity. In this study, on the basis of screening suitable strain combination [ATCC 14271(+) and ATCC 14272(-)] and establishing the optimal inoculation proportion of mated culture (1/2, +/-, w/w) for carotenoid production, the efficiency of compounds, mainly tertiary amines, on enhancing the lycopene content of Blakeslea trispora was systematically assessed. Of these compounds, tripropylamine showed the best enhancing effect, and then sequentially followed by triethylamine, tributylamine, trimethylamine, diisopropylamine, and isopropylamine. After treated with 1.8 g/L tripropylamine for two days, the lycopene proportion was increased from 1.7% to 90.1%, while the β-carotene proportion was decreased from 91.1% to 6.4% of the total carotenoids. In this case, the lycopene and total carotenoid contents were increased to 83.2 and 92.4 mg/gDW, which were 315.8- and 5.9-fold of that of the untreated control, respectively; while the growth of mycelia was only decreased at 6.0 g/L tripropylamine. Gene expression analysis showed that all the tested genes, especially genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (hmgr) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (ipi) in mevalonate pathway, as well as phytoene desaturase (carB) in carotenoid biosynthesis process were upregulated. Therefore, tripropylamine enhanced lycopene content of B. trispora by inhibiting the cyclase activity, and by upregulating the expression of genes associated with terpenoid biosynthesis. Besides, a possible association between the structure and the lycopene-enhancing capability of these compounds was also discussed.

  20. Localization of nigrostriatal dopamine receptor subtypes and adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Filloux, F.; Dawson, T.M.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1988-04-01

    Quantitative autoradiography using (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390, (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride and (/sup 3/H)-forskolin was used to assess the effects of single and combined neurotoxin lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway in the rat brain on dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes and adenylate cyclase (AC), respectively. Ibotenic acid (IA) lesions of the caudate-putamen (CPu) resulted in near total loss of both (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 and of (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding in the ipsilateral CPu and substantia nigra reticulata (SNR). (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the CPu was only partially removed by this same lesion, and nigral (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding was virtually unchanged. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and IA lesions of the substantia nigra compacta (SNC) did not affect (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 or (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding, but largely removed (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the SNC. A 6-OHDA lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway followed by an ipsilateral IA injection of the CPu failed to further reduce (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the CPu. These results demonstrate that postsynaptic DA receptors in the CPu are of both the D1 and D2 variety; however, a portion of D2 receptors in the CPu may be presynaptic on afferent nerve terminals to this structure. D1 receptors in the SNR are presynaptic on striatonigral terminals, whereas the D2 receptors of the SNC are autoreceptors on nigral DA neurons. The existence of presynaptic D2 receptors on nigrostriatal DA-ergic terminals could not be confirmed by this study. Co-localization of D1 receptors and AC occurs in both the CPu and SNR.

  1. Activation and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase isoforms by forskolin analogs.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cibele; Papa, Dan; Hübner, Melanie; Mou, Tung-Chung; Lushington, Gerald H; Seifert, Roland

    2008-04-01

    Adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms 1 to 9 are differentially expressed in tissues and constitute an interesting drug target. ACs 1 to 8 are activated by the diterpene, forskolin (FS). It is unfortunate that there is a paucity of AC isoform-selective activators. To develop such compounds, an understanding of the structure/activity relationships of diterpenes is necessary. Therefore, we examined the effects of FS and nine FS analogs on ACs 1, 2, and 5 expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. Diterpenes showed the highest potencies at AC1 and the lowest potencies at AC2. We identified full agonists, partial agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists, i.e., diterpenes that reduced basal AC activity. Each AC isoform exhibited a distinct pharmacological profile. AC2 showed the highest basal activity of all AC isoforms and highest sensitivity to inverse agonistic effects of 1-deoxy-forskolin, 7-deacetyl-1,9-dideoxy-forskolin, and, particularly, BODIPY-forskolin. In contrast, BODIPY-forskolin acted as partial agonist at the other ACs. 1-Deoxy-forskolin analogs were devoid of agonistic activity at ACs but antagonized the effects of FS in a mixed competitive/noncompetitive manner. At purified catalytic AC subunits, BODIPY-forskolin acted as weak partial agonist/strong partial antagonist. Molecular modeling revealed that the BODIPY group rotates promiscuously outside of the FS-binding site. Collectively, ACs are not uniformly activated and inhibited by FS and FS analogs, demonstrating the feasibility to design isoform-selective FS analogs. The two- and multiple-state models, originally developed to conceptualize ligand effects at G-protein-coupled receptors, can be applied to ACs to explain certain experimental data.

  2. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; Hoorn, Frans A. van der

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  3. Modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase activity by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Karnam S

    2004-11-01

    The levels of the cGMP in smooth muscle of the gut reflect continued synthesis by soluble guanylate cyclase (GC) and breakdown by phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). Soluble GC is a haem-containing, heterodimeric protein consisting alpha- and beta-subunits: each subunit has N-terminal regulatory domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The haem moiety acts as an intracellular receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and determines the ability of NO to activate the enzyme and generate cGMP. In the present study the mechanism by which protein kinases regulate soluble GC in gastric smooth muscle was examined. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) acting as a NO donor stimulated soluble GC activity and increased cGMP levels. SNP induced soluble GC phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent fashion. SNP-induced soluble GC phosphorylation was abolished by the selective cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors, Rp-cGMPS and KT-5823. In contrast, SNP-stimulated soluble GC activity and cGMP levels were significantly enhanced by Rp-cGMPS and KT-5823. Phosphorylation and inhibition of soluble GC were PKG specific, as selective activator of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, Sp-5, 6-DCl-cBiMPS had no effect on SNP-induced soluble GC phosphorylation and activity. The ability of PKG to stimulate soluble GC phosphorylation was demonstrated in vitro by back phosphorylation technique. Addition of purified phosphatase 1 inhibited soluble GC phosphorylation in vitro, and inhibition was reversed by a high concentration (10 microM) of okadaic acid. In gastric smooth muscle cells, inhibition of phosphatase activity by okadaic acid increased soluble GC phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent fashion. The increase in soluble GC phosphorylation inhibited SNP-stimulated soluble GC activity and cGMP formation. The results implied the feedback inhibition of soluble GC activity by PKG-dependent phosphorylation impeded further formation of cGMP.

  4. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krumenacker, J. S.; Hyder, S. M.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E2) regulates the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC alpha(1) 10% and sGC beta(1) 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression.

  5. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    PubMed Central

    Krumenacker, Joshua S.; Hyder, Salman M.; Murad, Ferid

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17β-estradiol (E2) regulates the α1 and β1 subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC α1 10% and sGC β1 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression. PMID:11209068

  6. The invasive adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis. Properties and penetration kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, E; Farfel, Z; Hanski, E

    1987-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative organism of whooping cough, produces a calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase. Confer & Eaton [(1982) Science 217, 948-950] have shown that an extract from B. pertussis increases intracellular cyclic AMP levels in neutrophils and suggested that this increase is caused by the bacterial adenylate cyclase which penetrates these cells. We demonstrate in the present study that adenylate cyclase activity in lysates from lymphocytes exposed to a partially purified preparation of the bacterial enzyme has properties completely different from those of the intrinsic membrane-bound enzyme. Adenylate cyclase activity in lysates from lymphocytes exposed to the invasive enzyme is insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide, readily inactivated by acetic anhydride and relatively stable to SDS. Similar properties are exhibited by the bacterial enzyme itself. By contrast, the intrinsic membrane-bound enzyme activated by forskolin and guanosine 5'-gamma-thiotriphosphate is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide and SDS and relatively stable to acetic anhydride. This strongly supports the notion that B. pertussis adenylate cyclase penetrates cells. Using the partially purified preparation of the invasive enzyme, we have studied the kinetics of its penetration. The intracellular catalytic activity reaches a steady state within 20 min, irrespective of enzyme or cell concentration. Steady-state levels are maintained for at least 2 h provided that the invasive enzyme is present in the incubation medium. Upon its removal, a rapid decrease (t1/2 approximately equal to 15 min) in the intracellular cyclase level is observed. This decrease reflects intracellular inactivation of the bacterial enzyme and is not caused by the release of the enzyme to the cell medium. PMID:2886119

  7. [The aspects of adenylate cyclase activity regulation in myocardium cell membranes during hypokinesia].

    PubMed

    Bulanova, K Ia; Komar, E S; Lobanok, L M

    1999-01-01

    Nonstimulated and isoproterenol, GTF, GITF, NaF stimulated activities of the adenylate cyclase in sarcolemma in white rats' myocardium was studied after two weeks of hypokinesia. As was established, in restrained animals the sensitivity of adenylate cyclase to the specified agents was increased and transition to the bimodal GTF regulation took place. It is hypothesised that involvement of membrane-bound Gi-proteins in the adrenergic effects on cardiomyocytes is one of mechanisms of the cardiotropic effects of restraint and heart distresses.

  8. [Characteristics of interaction of adenylate cyclase modulators and phosphoinositide cell signaling systems with lipid langmuir monolayers].

    PubMed

    Liakhov, O M; Prokopenko, V V; Prokopenko, R A; Mohylevych, S Ie

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of two groups of bioregulators, which oppositely affect activity of adenylate cyclase and phosphoinositide cellular signaling systems, with the Langmuir monolayer films made of natural lecithin was studied. Most significant influence on the structural and energy characteristics of lipid monolayers was revealed for the group of bioregulators, which inhibit polyphosphoinositide signaling system or/and activate adenylate cyclase signaling system. It is shown, that using the cluster analysis the bioregulators can be divided into two groups according to general orientation of their action on the considered systems of transduction of a signal.

  9. Iodide-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity in horse and dog thyroid.

    PubMed

    Cochaux, P; Van Sande, J; Swillens, S; Dumont, J E

    1987-12-30

    The characteristics of the iodide-induced inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation in dog thyroid slices have been previously described [Van Sande, J., Cochaux, P. and Dumont, J. E. (1985) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 40, 181-192]. In the present study we investigated the characteristics of the iodide-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity in dog and horse thyroid. The inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation by iodide in stimulated horse thyroid slices was similar to that observed in dog thyroid slices. The inhibition was observed in slices stimulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone, cholera toxin and forskolin. Increasing the concentration of the stimulators did not overcome the iodide-induced inhibition. Adenylate cyclase activity, assayed in crude homogenates or in plasma-membrane-containing particulates (100,000 x g pellets), was lower in homogenates or in particulates prepared from iodide-treated slices than from control slices. This inhibition was observed on the cyclase activity stimulated by forskolin, fluoride or guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imino]triphosphate, but also on the basal activity. It was relieved when the homogenate was prepared from slices incubated with iodide and methimazole. Similar results were obtained with dog thyroid. The inhibition persisted when the particulate fraction was washed three times during 1 h at 100,000 x g, in the presence of bovine serum albumin or increasing concentration of KCl. It was similar whatever the duration of the cyclase assay, in a large range of protein concentration. These results indicate that a stable modification of adenylate cyclase activity, closely related to the plasma membrane, was induced when slices were incubated with iodide. Iodide inhibition did not modify the affinity of adenylate cyclase for its substrate (MgATP), but induced a decrease of the maximal velocity of the enzyme. The percentage inhibition was slightly decreased when Mg2+ concentration increased, and markedly decreased when Mn2

  10. A Novel Mechanism for Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibition from the Crystal Structure of its Complex with Catechol Estrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Steegborn,C.; Litvin, T.; Hess, K.; Capper, A.; Taussig, R.; Buck, J.; Levin, L.; Wu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Catechol estrogens are steroid metabolites that elicit physiological responses through binding to a variety of cellular targets. We show here that catechol estrogens directly inhibit soluble adenylyl cyclases and the abundant trans-membrane adenylyl cyclases. Catechol estrogen inhibition is non-competitive with respect to the substrate ATP, and we solved the crystal structure of a catechol estrogen bound to a soluble adenylyl cyclase from Spirulina platensis in complex with a substrate analog. The catechol estrogen is bound to a newly identified, conserved hydrophobic patch near the active center but distinct from the ATP-binding cleft. Inhibitor binding leads to a chelating interaction between the catechol estrogen hydroxyl groups and the catalytic magnesium ion, distorting the active site and trapping the enzyme substrate complex in a non-productive conformation. This novel inhibition mechanism likely applies to other adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, and the identified ligand-binding site has important implications for the development of specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitors.

  11. Structural Basis for Inhibition of Mammalian Adenylyl Cyclase by Calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Mou, Tung-Chung; Masada, Nanako; Cooper, Dermot M.F.; Sprang, Stephen R.

    2009-09-11

    Type V and VI mammalian adenylyl cyclases (AC5, AC6) are inhibited by Ca{sup 2+} at both sub- and supramicromolar concentration. This inhibition may provide feedback in situations where cAMP promotes opening of Ca{sup 2+} channels, allowing fine control of cardiac contraction and rhythmicity in cardiac tissue where AC5 and AC6 predominate. Ca{sup 2+} inhibits the soluble AC core composed of the C1 domain of AC5 (VC1) and the C2 domain of AC2 (IIC2). As observed for holo-AC5, inhibition is biphasic, showing 'high-affinity' (K{sub i} = {approx}0.4 {mu}M) and 'low-affinity' (K{sub i} = {approx}100 {mu}M) modes of inhibition. At micromolar concentration, Ca{sup 2+} inhibition is nonexclusive with respect to pyrophosphate (PP{sub i}), a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to ATP, but at >100 {mu}M Ca{sup 2+}, inhibition appears to be exclusive with respect to PP{sub i}. The 3.0 {angstrom} resolution structure of G{alpha}s{center_dot}GTP{gamma}S/forskolin-activated VC1:IIC2 crystals soaked in the presence of ATP{alpha}S and 8 {mu}M free Ca{sup 2+} contains a single, loosely coordinated metal ion. ATP soaked into VC1:IIC2 crystals in the presence of 1.5 mM Ca{sup 2+} is not cyclized, and two calcium ions are observed in the 2.9 {angstrom} resolution structure of the complex. In both of the latter complexes VC1:IIC2 adopts the 'open', catalytically inactive conformation characteristic of the apoenzyme, in contrast to the 'closed', active conformation seen in the presence of ATP analogues and Mg{sup 2+} or Mn{sup 2+}. Structures of the pyrophosphate (PP{sub i}) complex with 10 mM Mg{sup 2+} (2.8 {angstrom}) or 2 mM Ca{sup 2+} (2.7 {angstrom}) also adopt the open conformation, indicating that the closed to open transition occurs after cAMP release. In the latter complexes, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} bind only to the high-affinity 'B' metal site associated with substrate/product stabilization. Ca{sup 2+} thus stabilizes the inactive conformation in both ATP- and PP{sub i

  12. Purification and assay of cell-invasive form of calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis

    SciTech Connect

    Masure, H.R.; Donovan, M.G.; Storm, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    An invasive form of the CaM-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis can be isolated from bacterial culture supernatants. This isolation is achieved through the use of QAE-Sephadex anion-exchange chromatography. It has been demonstrated that the addition of exogenous Ca{sup 2}{sup +} to the anion-exchange gradient buffers will affect elution from the column and will thereby affect the isolation of invasive adenylyl cyclase. This is probably due to a Ca2(+)-dependent interaction of the catalytic subunit with another component in the culture supernatant. Two peaks of adenylyl cyclase activity are obtained. The Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation is able to cause significant increases in intracellular cAMP levels in animal cells. This increase occurs rapidly and in a dose-dependent manner in both N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells and human erythrocytes. The Pk2 adenylyl cyclase has catalytic activity but is not cell invasive. This material can serve, therefore, as a control to ensure that the cAMP which is measured is, indeed, intracellular. A second control is to add exogenous CaM to the Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation. The 45-kDa catalytic subunit-CaM complex is not cell invasive. Although the mechanism for membrane translocation of the adenylyl cyclase is unknown, there is evidence that the adenylyl cyclase enters animal cells by a mechanism distinct from receptor-mediated endocytosis. Calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase activity can be removed from preparations of the adenylyl cyclase that have been subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This property of the enzyme has enabled purification of the catalytic subunit to apparent homogeneity. The purified catalytic subunit from culture supernatants has a predicted molecular weight of 45,000. This polypeptide interacts directly with Ca{sup 2}{sup +} and this interaction may be important for its invasion into animal cells.

  13. Differences in type II, IV, V and VI adenylyl cyclase isoform expression between rat preadipocytes and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Serazin-Leroy, V; Morot, M; de Mazancourt, P; Giudicelli, Y

    2001-11-26

    Adenylyl cyclase catalytic activity is low in preadipocyte membranes when compared to adipocytes. Under conditions promoting inhibition of adipocyte adenylyl cyclase activity by Gpp(NH)p, a stable GTP analog, a paradoxical increase in preadipocyte adenylyl cyclase activity was obtained. In order to explain this contradiction, expression of types II, IV, V and VI adenylyl cyclase isoforms was compared in adipocytes and undifferentiated preadipocytes both by western blots and by a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Type II, IV, V and VI mRNAs and proteins were present in both adipocytes and preadipocytes. However, in undifferentiated preadipocytes, expression of type II mRNA and protein were significantly higher whereas expression of type IV, V and VI adenylyl cyclase mRNAs and proteins were significantly weaker than in adipocytes. In late differentiated preadipocytes, the adenylyl cyclase subtype mRNA expression pattern was intermediary between the undifferentiated and the full differentiation states except for type IV which remained weakly expressed. Moreover, one of the representative regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS protein), RGS4, was less expressed in undifferentiated preadipocyte membranes and cytosol extracts, which contrasts with adipocytes where RGS4 is clearly expressed. Thus, the preferential expression of type II adenylyl cyclase (G(betagamma) subunit-stimulated) in preadipocytes might explain why Gpp(NH)p elicits stimulation of adenylyl cyclase under conditions designed to promote inhibition. Conversely, the preferential expression of type V and VI adenylyl cyclases and the slightly higher expression of type IV adenylyl cyclase in adipocytes could contribute to explain the elevated total catalytic activity observed in mature fat cells compared to their precursor cells.

  14. G/sub o/ protein of fat cells: role in hormonal regulation of agonist-stimulated phosphatidyl inositol breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Rapiejko, P.J.; Northup, J.K.; Malbon, C.C.

    1986-05-01

    Incubating rat fat cell membranes in the presence of (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and pertussis toxin (PT) results in the ADP-ribosylation of two peptides (M/sub r/ = 41,000 and 40,000). The 41,000-M/sub r/ peptide is the inhibitory G-protein of adenylate cyclase (G/sub i/). The 40,000-M/sub r/ peptide radiolabeled in the presence of (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and PT has been purified from rabbit heart and bovine brain, but has not been identified uniformly in membranes of fat cells. Two rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against the alpha-subunit of bovine brain G/sub o/ were used to probe the nature of the 40,000-M/sub r/ peptide in rat fat cell membranes that had been separated by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and transferred electrophoretically to nitrocellulose. Both antisera specific for the alpha-subunit of G/sub o/ recognized the M/sub r/ = 40,000 peptide of fat cells that is ADP-ribosylated in the presence of PT. PT treatment of rat fat cells blocks epinephrine-stimulated inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) generation. The inhibition of IP/sub 3/ generation by PT suggests a role for either G/sub i/ or G/sub o/ in receptor-mediated phosphatidyl inositol breakdown in the rat fat cell.

  15. [Potentiation of nitric oxide-dependent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by levomycetin, tetracycline, and oxolin].

    PubMed

    Shchegolev, A Iu; Sidorova, T A; Severina, I S

    2009-01-01

    The influence of antibiotics laevomycetin and tetracycline and the antivirus agent oxolin on the activity of human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase, the stimulation of the enzyme by NO-donors (sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and spermine nanoate (spermine NONO)) and the combination of spermine NONO and YC-1 was investigated. All preparations used in the concentration range 0,1-10 mM had no effect on the basal activity of guanylate cyclase but potentiated the SNP-induced activation of this enzyme. All preparations used synergistically increased (similar to YC-1) spermine NONO-induced activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. At the same time these compounds did not produce the leftward shift of spermine NONO concentration response curve characteristic for YC-1. Moreover, all compounds used did not influence the leftward shift of spermine NONO concentration response curve obtained in the presence of YC-1. This demonstrated that there was no competition between YC-1 and the drugs for interaction with the enzyme. The revealed regulatory phenomen of laevomycetin, tetracycline and oxolin to increase synergistically NO-dependent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase may cause additional pharmacological effects during prolong treatment by these drugs. This fact is necessary taking into account.

  16. Hyaluronic acid as capacitation inductor: metabolic changes and membrane-associated adenylate cyclase regulation.

    PubMed

    Fernández, S; Córdoba, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of hyaluronic acid on bovine cryopreserved spermatozoa compared with heparin as regards the variation of capacitation induction, cellular oxidative metabolism and intracellular signal induced by membrane-associated adenylate cyclase to propose hyaluronic acid as a capacitation inductor. Heparin or hyaluronic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine were used to induce sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction, respectively. 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine was used as a membrane-associated adenylate cyclase inhibitor. The highest percentages of capacitated spermatozoa and live spermatozoa with acrosome integrity were obtained by incubating sperm for 60 min using 1000 μg/ml hyaluronic acid. In these conditions, capacitation induced by hyaluronic acid was lower compared with heparin; nonetheless both glycosaminoglycans promote intracellular changes that allow true acrosome reaction in vitro induced by lysophosphatidylcholine in bovine spermatozoa. Oxygen consumption in heparin-capacitated spermatozoa was significantly higher than in hyaluronic acid-treated spermatozoa. With all treatments, mitochondrial coupling was observed when a specific uncoupler of the respiratory chain was added. The inhibition of membrane-associated adenylate cyclase significantly blocked capacitation induction produced by hyaluronic acid, maintaining a basal sperm oxygen uptake in contrast to heparin effect in which both sperm parameters were inhibited, suggesting that the membrane-associated adenylate cyclase activation is involved in the intracellular signal mechanisms induced by both capacitation inductors, but only regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in heparin-capacitated spermatozoa.

  17. Functional consequences of single amino acid substitutions in calmodulin-activated adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, P; Munier, H; Gilles, A M; Krin, E; Porumb, T; Bârzu, O; Sarfati, R; Pellecuer, C; Danchin, A

    1991-01-01

    Calmodulin-activated adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis and Bacillus anthracis are two cognate bacterial toxins. Three short regions of 13-24 amino acid residues in these proteins exhibit between 66 and 80% identity. Site-directed mutagenesis of four residues in B. pertussis adenylate cyclase situated in the second (Asp188, Asp190) and third (His298, Glu301) segments of identity were accompanied by important decrease, or total loss, of enzyme activity. The calmodulin-binding properties of mutated proteins showed no important differences when compared to the wild-type enzyme. Apart from the loss of enzymatic activity, the most important change accompanying replacement of Asp188 by other amino acids was a dramatic decrease in binding of 3'-anthraniloyl-2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate, a fluorescent analogue of ATP. From these results we concluded that the two neighbouring aspartic acid residues in B. pertussis adenylate cyclase, conserved in many other ATP-utilizing enzymes, are essential for binding the Mg(2+)-nucleotide complex, and for subsequent catalysis. Replacement of His298 and Glu301 by other amino acid residues affected the nucleotide-binding properties of adenylate cyclase to a lesser degree suggesting that they might be important in the mechanism of enzyme activation by calmodulin, rather than being involved directly in catalysis. PMID:2050107

  18. Topographic separation of adenylate cyclase and hormone receptors in the plasma membrane of toad erythrocyte ghosts

    PubMed Central

    Sahyoun, N.; Hollenberg, M. D.; Bennett, V.; Cuatrecasas, P.

    1977-01-01

    Brief sonication of whole erythrocyte plasma membranes (ghosts) from toads at 4° does not inactivate adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing); EC 4.6.1.1] or destroy the receptor binding properties of hydroxybenzylpindolol or insulin. The hormonal (but not the fluoride-induced) stimulation of this enzyme is, however, lost. Fractionation of the small, resealed membrane fragments (vesicles) on discontinuous sucrose gradients results in the separation of vesicle populations differing grossly in size and protein composition. In addition, the distribution of the β-adrenergic receptor, an insulin binding site, and adenylate cyclase among these vesicles fractions differs. The pattern of distribution of these functional structures can be altered differentially by manipulations of the ghosts before sonication. For example, brief preincubation with isoproterenol leads to a change in the relative distribution of β-receptor (but not adenylate cyclase) among the various vesicle fractions; this effect is not obtained with β-receptor antagonists, which block the isoproterenol effect. Exposure of the ghosts to different temperatures, changes in the divalent cation composition of the medium, or the addition of ATP also leads to changes in the distribution of surface markers of the subsequently formed vesicles. The results indicate gross asymmetries in the distribution of protein components within the plane of the membrane and raise important questions regarding the manner whereby functionally related and coupled components, such as hormone receptors and adenylate cyclase, interact. Images PMID:197522

  19. Comparison of human CAP and CAP2, homologs of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, G; Swiston, J; Young, D

    1994-06-01

    We previously reported the identification of human CAP, a protein that is related to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe adenylyl cyclase-associated CAP proteins. The two yeast CAP proteins have similar functions: the N-terminal domains are required for the normal function of adenylyl cyclase, while loss of the C-terminal domains result in morphological and nutritional defects that are unrelated to the cAMP pathways. We have amplified and cloned cDNAs from a human glioblastoma library that encode a second CAP-related protein, CAP2. The human CAP and CAP2 proteins are 64% identical. Expression of either human CAP or CAP2 in S. cerevisiae cap- strains suppresses phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal domain of CAP, but does not restore hyper-activation of adenylyl cyclase by RAS2val19. Similarly, expression of either human CAP or CAP2 in S. pombe cap- strains suppresses the morphological and temperature-sensitive phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal domain of CAP in this yeast. In addition, expression of human CAP, but not CAP2, suppresses the propensity to sporulate due to deletion of the N-terminal domain of CAP in S. pombe. This latter observation suggests that human CAP restores normal adenylyl cyclase activity in S. pombe cap- cells. Thus, functional properties of both N-terminal and C-terminal domains are conserved between the human and S. pombe CAP proteins.

  20. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E. Univ. of California, Los Angeles )

    1987-12-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the {beta}-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and {beta}-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. {beta}-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in {beta}-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic subtype. This BAT {beta}-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial {beta}-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability.

  1. Soluble guanylyl cyclase is involved in PDT-induced injury of crayfish glial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, V. D.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a potential tool for selective destruction of malignant brain tumors. However, not only malignant but also healthy neurons and glial cells may be damaged during PDT. Nitric oxide is an important modulator of cell viability and intercellular neuroglial communications. NO have been already shown to participate in PDT-induced injury of neurons and glial cells. As soluble guanylyl cyclase is the only known receptor for NO, we have studied the possible role of soluble guanylyl cyclase in the regulation of survival and death of neurons and surrounding glial cells under photo-oxidative stress induced by photodynamic treatment (PDT). The crayfish stretch receptor consisting of a single identified sensory neuron enveloped by glial cells is a simple but informative model object. It was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine photosens (10 nM) and irradiated with a laser diode (670 nm, 0.4 W/cm2). Using inhibitory analysis we have shown that during PDT soluble guanylyl cyclase, probably, has proapoptotic and antinecrotic effect on the glial cells of the isolated crayfish stretch receptor. Proapoptotic effect of soluble guanylyl cyclase could be mediated by protein kinase G (PKG). Thus, the involvement of NO/sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway in PDT-induced apoptosis of glial cells was indirectly demonstrated.

  2. A Short History of cGMP, Guanylyl Cyclases, and cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Kots, Alexander Y.; Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we review the early studies on cGMP, guanylyl cyclases, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases to facilitate understanding of development of this exciting but complex field of research encompassing pharmacology, biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology of these important regulatory molecules. PMID:19089322

  3. Identification of a Hippeastrum hybridum guanylyl cyclase responsive to wounding and pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Świeżawska, Brygida; Jaworski, Krzysztof; Szewczuk, Piotr; Pawełek, Agnieszka; Szmidt-Jaworska, Adriana

    2015-09-15

    Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) is a critical component of many (patho)physiological processes in plants whilst guanylyl cyclases (GCs) which catalyse the formation of cGMP from GTP have remained somewhat elusive. Consequently, the two major aims are the discovery of novel guanylyl cyclases and the identification of GC/cGMP mediated processes. To identify a novel GC from Hippeastrum hybridum plant and facilitate the preparation of guanylyl cyclase in an amount sufficient for further crystallographic studies, we have constructed an overproduction system for this enzyme. This gene encodes a protein of 256 amino acids, with a calculated molecular mass of 28kD. The predicted amino acid sequence contains all the typical features and shows a high identity to other plant GCs. The GST-HpGC1 was catalytically active in Escherichia coli cells and the purified, recombinant HpGC1 was able to convert GTP to cGMP in the presence of divalent cations. The used overexpression system yields a guanylyl cyclase as 6% of the bacterial cytosolic protein. Besides the identification of HpGC1 as a guanylyl cyclase, the study has shown that the level of HpCG1 mRNA changed during stress conditions. Both mechanical damage and a Peyronellaea curtisii (=Phoma narcissi) fungi infection led to an initial decrease in the HpGC1 transcript level, followed by a substantial increase during the remainder of the 48-h test cycle. Moreover, significant changes in cyclic GMP level were observed, taking the form of oscillations. In conclusion, our data unequivocally identified the product of the HpGC1 gene as a guanylyl cyclase and demonstrates that such an overproduction system can be successfully used in enzyme synthesis. Furthermore, they indicate a link between the causing stimulus (wounding, infection) and guanylyl cyclase expression and the increase in cGMP amplitude. Therefore, it is concluded that appearance of cyclic GMP as a mediator in defense and wound-healing mechanisms provides a

  4. Identification of a mammalian glutaminyl cyclase converting glutaminyl into pyroglutamyl peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, W H; Spiess, J

    1987-01-01

    Extracts from bovine pituitary were found to contain an activity catalyzing the conversion of glutaminyl peptides such as [Gln1]gonadotropin-releasing hormone, [Gln1, Gly4]thyrotropin-releasing hormone (H-Gln-His-Pro-Gly-OH), and H-Gln-Tyr-Ala-OH to the respective pyroglutamyl peptides. The TRH precursor fragment H-Lys-Arg-Gln-His-Pro-Gly-Lys-Arg-OH and the D-glutaminyl stereoisomer of H-Gln-Tyr-Ala-OH did not react under the same conditions. The conversion products were identified by Edman degradation, amino acid analysis, and reversed-phase HPLC. That this activity was exhibited by an enzyme, glutaminyl cyclase, was concluded from the protein character of the activity (revealed by its abolition with trypsin and heat), the Michaelis-Menten relationship between substrate concentration and conversion rate, and the substrate specificity. It was determined that glutaminyl cyclase had a molecular weight of 43,000-50,000, a pH optimum at pH 8, and Km and Vmax values in the range of 60-130 microM and 390-690 pmol/microgram per hr, respectively. Glutaminyl cyclase was not observed to require ATP and could be inhibited with 1.0 M ammonium chloride, which increased the Km and decreased the Vmax value. The subcellular distribution of glutaminyl cyclase corresponded to the one of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase believed to catalyze C-terminal amidations during posttranslational precursor processing. It was also observed that the formation of pyroglutamyl from glutaminyl peptides occurred nonenzymatically; however, the enzymatic reaction carried out with crude extract was found to be approximately 70 times faster than the nonenzymatic reaction enhanced by phosphate. It is speculated that glutaminyl cyclase may participate in the posttranslational processing of hormonal precursors to pyroglutamyl peptides. PMID:3473473

  5. Mechanisms of nonhormonal activation of adenylate cyclase based on target analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Verkman, A.S.; Ausiello, D.A.; Jung, C.Y.; Skorecki, K.L.

    1986-08-12

    Radiation inactivation was used to examine the mechanism of activation of adenylate cyclase in the cultured renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 with hormonal (vasopressin) and nonhormonal (GTP, forskolin, fluoride, and chloride) activating ligands. Intact cells were frozen, irradiated at -70 degrees C (0-14 Mrad), thawed, and assayed for adenylate cyclase activity in the presence of activating ligands. The ln (adenylate cyclase activity) vs. radiation dose relation was linear (target size 162 kDa) for vasopressin- (2 microM) stimulated activity and concave downward for unstimulated (10 mM Mn/sup 2 +/), NaF- (10 mM) stimulated, and NaCl- (100 mM) stimulated activities. Addition of 2 microM vasopressin did not alter the ln activity vs. dose relation for NaF- (10 mM) stimulated activity. The dose-response relations for adenylate cyclase activation and for transition in the ln activity vs. dose curve shape were measured for vasopressin and NaF. On the basis of our model for adenylate cyclase subunit interactions reported previously (Verkman, A. S., Skorecki, K. L., and Ausiello, D. A. (1986) Am. J. Physiol. 260, C103-C123) and of new mathematical analyses, activation mechanisms for each ligand are proposed. In the unstimulated state, equilibrium between alpha beta and alpha + beta favors alpha beta; dissociated alpha binds to GTP (rate-limiting step), which then combines with the catalytic (C) subunit to form active enzyme. Vasopressin binding to receptor provides a rapid pathway for GTP binding to alpha. GTP and its analogues accelerate the rate of alpha GTP formation. Forskolin inhibits the spontaneous deactivation of activated C. Activation by fluoride may occur without alpha beta dissociation or GTP addition through activation of C by an alpha beta-F complex.

  6. Regulation of intestinal guanylate cyclase by the heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (STa) and protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Crane, J K; Wehner, M S; Bolen, E J; Sando, J J; Linden, J; Guerrant, R L; Sears, C L

    1992-01-01

    The heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (STa) stimulates membrane-bound guanylate cyclase in intestinal epithelium and induces fluid and ion secretion. Using the T84 human colon carcinoma cell line as a model, we observed that phorbol esters markedly enhanced STa-stimulated cyclic GMP accumulation in T84 cells (C. S. Weikel, C. L. Spann, C. P. Chambers, J. K. Crane, J. Linden, and E. L. Hewlett, Infect. Immun. 58:1402-1407, 1990). In this study we document that the phorbol ester treatment increases 125I-STa-binding sites as well as membrane-bound guanylate cyclase activity in T84 cells and provide evidence that both effects are mediated by phosphorylation. Guanylate cyclase activity was increased approximately 50% in membranes prepared from intact T84 cells treated with phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (beta-PDB) and after treatment of homogenates with beta-PDB in a manner dependent on ATP, MgCl2, and cytosol. Similarly, treatment of membranes with purified bovine brain protein kinase C in the presence of appropriate cofactors and beta-PDB resulted in an increase in STa-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity of about 70%. Likewise, the number of 125I-STa-binding sites was increased by about 25 to 40% in membranes prepared from intact cells or homogenates treated with beta-PDB; no effect on binding affinity (Kd = 0.15 nM) was noted. These experiments suggest that protein kinase C may phosphorylate the STa receptor-guanylate cyclase or a closely related protein and increase guanylate cyclase activity. The stimulatory effects of protein kinase C on STa-sensitive guanylate cyclase are opposite in direction to the profound inhibitory effects of the kinase on atrial natriuretic peptide-stimulated guanylate cyclase, demonstrating differential regulation by protein kinases within the guanylate cyclase-receptor family. PMID:1360449

  7. Relaxin adenylyl cyclase system of pregnant women with diabetes: functional defects in insulin and relaxin adenylyl cyclase signaling systems in myometrium of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Ludmila; Plesneva, Svetlana; Shpakov, Alexander; Pertseva, Marianna

    2005-05-01

    The study was conducted to reveal the functional disturbances in two novel insulin and relaxin adenylyl cyclase signaling mechanisms (ACSMs). It was shown for the first time that in myometrium of pregnant women with insulin insufficiency the functional defects of Gs-protein-AC coupling in insulin- and relaxin H2-regulated AC systems were developed. As a result, the sensitivity of the signaling systems to both hormones and potentiation of their AC effects by guanine nucleotides were markedly decreased compared with that in control group. These functional defects in ACSM may lead to violation of the process of insulin and relaxin signal transduction.

  8. p19 detected in the rat retina and pineal gland is a guanylyl cyclase-activating protein (GCAP).

    PubMed

    Dejda, Agnieszka; Matczak, Izabela; Gorczyca, Wojciech A

    2002-01-01

    The Ca(2+)-dependent activation of retina-specific guanylyl cyclase (retGC) is mediated by guanylyl cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). Here we report for the first time detection of a 19 kDa protein (p19) with GCAP properties in extracts of rat retina and pineal gland. Both extracts stimulate synthesis of cGMP in rod outer segment (ROS) membranes at low (30 nM) but not at high (1 microM) concentrations of Ca(2+). At low Ca(2+), immunoaffinity purified p19 activates guanylyl cyclase(s) in bovine ROS and rat retinal membranes. Moreover, p19 is recognized by antibodies against bovine GCAP1 and, similarly to other GCAPs, exhibits a Ca(2+)-dependent electrophoretic mobility shift.

  9. Identification of the chlE gene encoding oxygen-independent Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Kaori; Minamizaki, Kei; Fujita, Yuichi

    2015-08-07

    The fifth ring (E-ring) of chlorophyll (Chl) a is produced by Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MPE) cyclase. There are two evolutionarily unrelated MPE cyclases: oxygen-independent (BchE) and oxygen-dependent (ChlA/AcsF) MPE cyclases. Although ChlA is the sole MPE cyclase in Synechocystis PCC 6803, it is yet unclear whether BchE exists in cyanobacteria. A BLAST search suggests that only few cyanobacteria possess bchE. Here, we report that two bchE candidate genes from Cyanothece strains PCC 7425 and PCC 7822 restore the photosynthetic growth and bacteriochlorophyll production in a bchE-lacking mutant of Rhodobacter capsulatus. We termed these cyanobacterial bchE orthologs "chlE."

  10. Structure-based inhibitor discovery against adenylyl cyclase toxins from pathogenic bacteria that cause anthrax and whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Soelaiman, Sandriyana; Wei, Binqing Q; Bergson, Pamela; Lee, Young-Sam; Shen, Yuequan; Mrksich, Milan; Shoichet, Brian K; Tang, Wei-Jen

    2003-07-11

    Edema factor (EF) and CyaA are adenylyl cyclase toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria that cause anthrax and whooping cough, respectively. Using the structure of the catalytic site of EF, we screened a data base of commercially available, small molecular weight chemicals for those that could specifically inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity of EF. From 24 compounds tested, we have identified one quinazoline compound, ethyl 5-aminopyrazolo[1,5-a]quinazoline-3-carboxylate, that specifically inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity of EF and CyaA with approximately 20 microm Ki. This compound neither affects the activity of host resident adenylyl cyclases type I, II, and V nor exhibits promiscuous inhibition. The compound is a competitive inhibitor, consistent with the prediction that it binds to the adenine portion of the ATP binding site on EF. EF is activated by the host calcium sensor, calmodulin. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic analysis shows that this compound does not affect the binding of calmodulin to EF. This compound is dissimilar from a previously described, non-nucleoside inhibitor of host adenylyl cyclase. It may serve as a lead to design antitoxins to address the role of adenylyl cyclase toxins in bacterial pathogenesis and to fight against anthrax and whooping cough.

  11. Alkaline phosphatase relieves desensitization of adenylate cyclase-coupled beta-adrenergic receptors in avian erythrocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Stadel, J.M.; Rebar, R.; Crooke, S.T.

    1987-05-01

    Desensitization of adenylate cyclase-coupled ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in avian erythrocytes results in 40-65% decrease in agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and correlates with increased phosphorylation of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors. To assess the role of phosphorylation in desensitization, membranes from isoproterenol- and cAMP-desensitized turkey erythrocytes were incubated with alkaline phosphatase for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C, pH = 8.0. In both cases alkaline phosphatase treatment significantly reduced desensitization of agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by 40-60%. Similar results were obtained following alkaline phosphatase treatment of membranes from isoproterenol- and cAMP-desensitized duck erythrocytes. In addition, alkaline phosphatase treatment of membranes from duck erythrocytes desensitized with phorbol 12-mystrate 13-acetate returned adenylate cyclase activity to near control values. In all experiments inclusion of 20 mM NaPO/sub 4/ to inhibit alkaline phosphatase during treatment of membranes blocked the enzyme's effect on agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. These results demonstrate a role for phosphorylation in desensitization of adenylate cyclase-coupled ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in avian erythrocytes.

  12. Leucine-rich repeats and carboxyl terminus are required for interaction of yeast adenylate cyclase with RAS proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, N; Choe, H R; Nishida, Y; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y; Ohnishi, S; Tamaoki, T; Kataoka, T

    1990-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding adenylate cyclase has been analyzed by deletion and insertion mutagenesis to localize regions required for activation by the Sa. cerevisiae RAS2 protein. The NH2-terminal 657 amino acids were found to be dispensable for the activation. However, almost all 2-amino acid insertions in the middle 600 residues comprising leucine-rich repeats and deletions in the COOH-terminal 66 residues completely abolished activation by the RAS2 protein, whereas insertion mutations in the other regions generally had no effect. Chimeric adenylate cyclases were constructed by swapping the upstream and downstream portions surrounding the catalytic domains between the Sa. cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe adenylate cyclases and examined for activation by the RAS2 protein. We found that the fusion containing both the NH2-terminal 1600 residues and the COOH-terminal 66 residues of the Sa. cerevisiae cyclase rendered the catalytic domain of the Sc. pombe cyclase, which otherwise did not respond to RAS proteins, activatable by the RAS2 protein. Thus the leucine-rich repeats and the COOH terminus of the Sa. cerevisiae adenylate cyclase appear to be required for interaction with RAS proteins. Images PMID:2247439

  13. Fusion-type lycopene beta-cyclase from a thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Hemmi, Hisashi; Ikejiri, Satoru; Nakayama, Toru; Nishino, Tokuzo

    2003-06-06

    Examination of the sequence of a hypothetical gene with an unknown function included in the carotenogenic gene cluster in the genome of a thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus led to the prediction that the gene encodes a novel-type lycopene beta-cyclase, whose N- and C-terminal halves are homologous to the subunits of the bacterial heterodimeric enzymes. The recombinant expression of the gene in lycopene-producing Escherichia coli resulted in the accumulation of beta-carotene in the cells, which verifies the function of the gene. Homologues of the archaeal lycopene beta-cyclase from various organisms such as bacteria, archaea, and fungi have been reported. Although their primary structures are clearly specific to the biological taxa, a phylogenetic analysis revealed the unexpected complicity of the evolutional route of these enzymes.

  14. Influence of volatile anesthetics on muscarinic receptor adenylate cyclase coupling in brain and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, the influence of four volatile anesthetics (enflurane, isoflurane, diethyl ether, and chloroform) on (1) muscarinic receptor binding parameters and (2) muscarnic regulation of adenylate cyclase activity was examined using membranes isolated from rat brain and heart. Membranes were equilibrated with each of the four anesthetics for 30 minutes and then during the binding assay. The data obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) volatile anesthetics increased receptor affinity for a radiolabeled antagonists, ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)MS), by decreasing its rate of dissociation in brain stem, but not in cardiac, membranes, (2) volatile anesthetics decreased high affinity ({sup 3}H)Oxotremorine-M binding, (3) volatile anesthetics depressed or eliminated the guanine nucleotide sensitivity of agonist binding. The influence of volatile anesthetics on muscarinic regulation of adenylate cyclase enzyme activity was studied using {alpha}({sup 32}P)ATP as the substrate.

  15. Hypothesis: glutaminyl cyclase inhibitors decrease risks of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

    PubMed

    Hennekens, Charles H; Bensadon, Benjamin A; Zivin, Robert; Gaziano, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) comprise several progressive and incurable neurodegenerative disorders that some have classified as amyloidosis. With increased aging of the world's population, the prevalence of the sporadic form of ADRD, which comprises over 99% of cases, continues to rise at an alarming rate. The enormous societal burdens of ADRD already rival those of the many other major chronic diseases causing premature morbidity and mortality in the USA and worldwide such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. At present, there is an insufficient totality of evidence concerning the efficacy and safety of any pharmacologic agents to delay slow progression or reduce complications of ADRD. In this context, glutaminyl cyclase (QC) inhibitors have shown some early possible evidence of efficacy with a reassuring safety profile. To reliably test the glutaminyl cyclase (QC) and any other promising hypotheses will require cogent data from large-scale randomized trials of sufficient size and duration.

  16. Clinical potential of nitric oxide-independent soluble guanylate cyclase activators.

    PubMed

    Doggrell, Sheila A

    2005-09-01

    A major problem with using nitrates in the treatment of ischemic heart disease is that tolerance develops to their vasodilatory actions. YC-1 was used as the lead compound to synthesize further nitric oxide-independent soluble guanylate cyclase activators, including BAY-41-2272 and BAY-41-8543. A nitric oxide and heme-independent activator of soluble guanylate cyclase, BAY-58-2667, was subsequently discovered by high-throughput screening. Tolerance to the vasodilatory actions of BAY-41-8543 and BAY-58-2667 does not develop. Results from animal studies have suggested that these compounds may have potential in the treatment of ischemic heart disease, essential and pulmonary hypertension, congestive heart failure, glomerulonephritis and erectile dysfunction.

  17. The metabolic/pH sensor soluble adenylyl cyclase is a tumor suppressor protein

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Espiritu, Lavoisier; Diaz, Ana; Nardin, Charlee; Saviola, Anthony J.; Shaw, Fiona; Plitt, Tamar; Yang, Xia; Wolchok, Jedd; Pirog, Edyta C.; Desman, Garrett; Sboner, Andrea; Zhang, Tuo; Xiang, Jenny; Merghoub, Taha; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; Zippin, Jonathan H.

    2016-01-01

    cAMP signaling pathways can both stimulate and inhibit the development of cancer; however, the sources of cAMP important for tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a non-canonical, evolutionarily conserved, nutrient- and pH-sensing source of cAMP. sAC has been implicated in the metastatic potential of certain cancers, and it is differentially localized in human cancers as compared to benign tissues. We now show that sAC expression is reduced in many human cancers. Loss of sAC increases cellular transformation in vitro and malignant progression in vivo. These data identify the metabolic/pH sensor soluble adenylyl cyclase as a previously unappreciated tumor suppressor protein. PMID:27323809

  18. Adenylate cyclase and the search for new compounds with the clinical profile of lithium.

    PubMed

    Belmaker, R H

    1984-01-01

    It is possible to evaluate the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex in the human periphery by measuring the plasma cyclic AMP rise after adrenergic agonists. A clinical trial of the beta 2 adrenergic agonist salbutamol in depression provided an opportunity to test whether adrenergic receptor subsensitivity does occur during clinical antidepressant treatment. After 1 and 3 weeks of oral salbutamol treatment, depression scores declined significantly in 11 depressed patients, while the plasma cyclic AMP response to i.v. salbutamol declined over 60%. The results support the concept that receptor sensitivity changes occur during human antidepressant therapy. Data are presented that Li, too, markedly reduces activity of beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase in humans. The effect was evaluated by studying the effect of Li at therapeutic serum concentrations on the plasma cyclic AMP response to subcutaneous epinephrine. The Li effect is specific, since the plasma cyclic AMP response to glucagon is not inhibited. In rat cortical slices Li inhibition of noradrenaline-induced cyclic AMP accumulation is clearly demonstrable only at concentrations close to 2 mM Li. However, fresh human brain slices from edges of surgically-removed tumors show Li inhibition at 1 mM Li concentrations. These results imply that in brain as well as periphery, human noradrenergic adenylate cyclase is inhibited by therapeutic concentrations of Li. Demeclocyclin, a tetracycline-derived antibiotic, was found to inhibit noradrenaline-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat cortical slices and to inhibit amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats in an open field. Clinical trials should search for new compounds with the clinical profile of Li.

  19. Determinants for the activation and autoinhibition of the diguanylate cyclase response regulator WspR.

    PubMed

    De, Nabanita; Navarro, Marcos V A S; Raghavan, Rahul V; Sondermann, Holger

    2009-10-30

    The bacterial second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) controls secretion, cell adhesion, and motility, leading to biofilm formation and increased cytotoxicity. Diguanylate cyclases containing GGDEF and phosphodiesterases containing EAL or HD-GYP domains have been identified as the enzymes controlling cellular c-di-GMP levels, yet less is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing regulation and signaling specificity. We recently determined a product-inhibition pathway for the diguanylate cyclase response regulator WspR from Pseudomonas, a potent molecular switch that controls biofilm formation. In WspR, catalytic activity is modulated by a helical stalk motif that connects its phospho-receiver and GGDEF domains. The stalks facilitate the formation of distinct oligomeric states that contribute to both activation and autoinhibition. Here, we provide novel insights into the regulation of diguanylate cyclase activity in WspR based on the crystal structures of full-length WspR, the isolated GGDEF domain, and an artificially dimerized catalytic domain. The structures highlight that inhibition is achieved by restricting the mobility of rigid GGDEF domains, mediated by c-di-GMP binding to an inhibitory site at the GGDEF domain. Kinetic measurements and biochemical characterization corroborate a model in which the activation of WspR requires the formation of a tetrameric species. Tetramerization occurs spontaneously at high protein concentration or upon addition of the phosphomimetic compound beryllium fluoride. Our analyses elucidate common and WspR-specific mechanisms for the fine-tuning of diguanylate cyclase activity.

  20. Bioelectrochemical monitoring of soluble guanylate cyclase inhibition by the natural β-carboline canthin-6-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Rodrigo, Regina; Maréchal, Jean-Didier; Poupon, Erwan; Fournet, Alain; Figadère, Bruno; Cebrián-Torrejón, Gerardo

    2017-04-01

    The inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by canthin-6-one alkaloid (L1) is presented and the mechanism of deactivation is studied using solution phase and voltammetry of microparticles methodologies. Possible inhibition pathways: oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ coupled to reduction of the naphthyridone motif present by the canthin-6-one and coordinating or reacting of L1 with cysteine units of sGC, are balanced.

  1. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of forskolin on adenylate cyclase in rat normal hepatocytes and hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R; Matsunaga, T; Takagi, K; Satake, T; Hasegawa, T

    1989-02-01

    Forskolin synergistically potentiated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate formation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in rat normal hepatocytes freshly prepared by collagenase digestion and rat ascites hepatoma AH66 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation by PGE1 in AH66F cells. Forskolin activated adenylate cyclase in a dose-dependent manner in homogenates of all cell lines. In normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, simultaneous addition of forskolin and other adenylate cyclase activators [isoproterenol (IPN), PGE1, guanosine 5'-triphosphate sodium salt (GTP), 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate sodium salt (Gpp (NH)p), NaF, cholera toxin, islet activating protein and MnCl2] gave greater than additive responses. On the other hand, in AH66F cells, the effect of forskolin on adenylate cyclase was hardly influenced by GTP, but forskolin diminished the activities induced by high concentrations of GTP to that by the diterpene alone. Forskolin also significantly inhibited the PGE1-stimulated and the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein-stimulated activities. Because AH66F cells were insensitive to IPN, the combination with forskolin and IPN gave similar activity to that obtained with the diterpene alone. The effect of forskolin on the activation by manganese ion was neither synergistic nor inhibitory but was additive in AH66F cells. These results suggest that forskolin promotes the interaction between the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein and the catalytic unit in normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, but in AH66F cells forskolin interferes with the coupling of the two components of adenylate cyclase.

  2. Muscarinic receptor binding and muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in rat brain myelin

    SciTech Connect

    Larocca, J.N.; Ledeen, R.W.; Dvorkin, B.; Makman, M.H.

    1987-12-01

    High-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors were detected in myelin purified from rat brain stem with use of the radioligands /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine (/sup 3/H-NMS), /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 3/H-QNB), and /sup 3/H-pirenzepine. /sup 3/H-NMS binding was also present in myelin isolated from corpus callosum. In contrast, several other receptor types, including alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, present in the starting brain stem, were not detected in myelin. Based on Bmax values from Scatchard analyses, /sup 3/H-pirenzepine, a putative M1 selective ligand, bound to about 25% of the sites in myelin labeled by /sup 3/H-NMS, a nonselective ligand that binds to both M1 and M2 receptor subtypes. Agonist affinity for /sup 3/H-NMS binding sites in myelin was markedly decreased by Gpp(NH)p, indicating that a major portion of these receptors may be linked to a second messenger system via a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein. Purified myelin also contained adenylate cyclase activity; this activity was stimulated several fold by forskolin and to small but significant extents by prostaglandin E1 and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Myelin adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by carbachol and other muscarinic agonists; this inhibition was blocked by the antagonist atropine. Levels in myelin of muscarinic receptors were 20-25% and those of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase 10% of the values for total particulate fraction of whole brain stem. These levels in myelin are appreciably greater than would be predicted on the basis of contamination. Also, additional receptors and adenylate cyclase, added by mixing nonmyelin tissue with whole brain stem, were quantitatively removed during the purification procedure.

  3. Elevation of lutein content in tomato: a biochemical tug-of-war between lycopene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Giorio, Giovanni; Yildirim, Arzu; Stigliani, Adriana Lucia; D'Ambrosio, Caterina

    2013-11-01

    Lutein is becoming increasingly important in preventive medicine due to its possible role in maintaining good vision and in preventing age-related maculopathy. Average daily lutein intake in developed countries is often below suggested daily consumption levels, and lutein supplementation could be beneficial. Lutein is also valuable in the food and feed industries and is emerging in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical markets. Currently, lutein is obtained at high cost from marigold petals, and synthesis alternatives are thus desirable. Tomato constitutes a promising starting system for production as it naturally accumulates high levels of lycopene. To develop tomato for lutein synthesis, the tomato Red Setter cultivar was transformed with the tomato lycopene ε-cyclase-encoding gene under the control of a constitutive promoter, and the HighDelta (HD) line, characterised by elevated lutein and δ-carotene content in ripe fruits, was selected. HD was crossed to the transgenic HC line and to RS(B) with the aim of converting all residual fruit δ-carotene to lutein. Fruits of both crosses were enriched in lutein and presented unusual carotenoid profiles. The unique genetic background of the crosses used in this study permitted an unprecedented analysis of the role and regulation of the lycopene cyclase enzymes in tomato. A new defined biochemical index, the relative cyclase activity ratio, was used to discern post-transcriptional regulation of cyclases, and will help in the study of carotenoid biosynthesis in photosynthetic plant species and particularly in those, like tomato, that have been domesticated for the production of food, feed or useful by-products.

  4. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a unique combination of a pore-forming moiety with a cell-invading adenylate cyclase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Masin, Jiri; Osicka, Radim; Bumba, Ladislav; Sebo, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT or AC-Hly) is a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis. CyaA targets myeloid phagocytes expressing the complement receptor 3 (CR3, known as αMβ2 integrin CD11b/CD18 or Mac-1) and translocates by a poorly understood mechanism directly across the cytoplasmic membrane into cell cytosol of phagocytes an adenylyl cyclase(AC) enzyme. This binds intracellular calmodulin and catalyzes unregulated conversion of cytosolic ATP into cAMP. Among other effects, this yields activation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, BimEL accumulation and phagocyte apoptosis induction. In parallel, CyaA acts as a cytolysin that forms cation-selective pores in target membranes. Direct penetration of CyaA into the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells allows the use of an enzymatically inactive CyaA toxoid as a tool for delivery of passenger antigens into the cytosolic pathway of processing and MHC class I-restricted presentation, which can be exploited for induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune responses.

  5. Functional analysis of the two interacting cyclase domains in ent-kaurene synthase from the fungus Phaeosphaeria sp. L487 and a comparison with cyclases from higher plants.

    PubMed

    Kawaide, H; Sassa, T; Kamiya, Y

    2000-01-28

    We report here kinetic analysis and identification of the two cyclase domains in a bifunctional diterpene cyclase, Phaeosphaeria ent-kaurene synthase (FCPS/KS). Kinetics of a recombinant FCPS/KS protein indicated that the affinity for copalyl diphosphate is higher than that for geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP). ent-Kaurene production from GGDP by FCPS/KS was enhanced by the addition of a plant ent-kaurene synthase (KS) but not by plant CDP synthase (CPS), suggesting that the rate of ent-kaurene production of FCPS/KS may be limited by the KS activity. Site-directed mutagenesis of aspartate-rich motifs in FCPS/KS indicated that the (318)DVDD motif near the N terminus and the (656)DEFFE motif near the C terminus may be part of the active site for the CPS and KS reactions, respectively. The other aspartate-rich (132)DDVLD motif near the N terminus is thought to be involved in both reactions. Functional analysis of the N- and C-terminal truncated mutants revealed that a N-terminal 59-kDa polypeptide catalyzed the CPS reaction and a C-terminal 66-kDa polypeptide showed KS activity. A 101-kDa polypeptide lacking the first 43 amino acids of the N terminus reduced KS activity severely without CPS activity. These results indicate that there are two separate interacting domains in the 106-kDa polypeptide of FCPS/KS.

  6. Adenylate Cyclase Activity Not Found in Soybean Hypocotyl and Onion Meristem 1

    PubMed Central

    Yunghans, Wayne N.; Morré, D. James

    1977-01-01

    Tissue, homogenates, and purified cell fractions prepared from hypocotyls of a dicot, soybean (Glycine max), and meristematic tissue of a monocot, onion (Allium cepa), were examined critically for evidence of adenylate cyclase activity. Three assay methods were used: chemical analysis, isotope dilution analysis, and enzyme cytochemistry. In both crude extracts or whole tissue, as well as purified membranes, with or without auxin, no adenylate cyclase was detected by any of the three methods. For plasma membranes, the specific activity was less than 1/40 or 1/25,000 that of rat liver plasma membranes, depending on the assay procedure, i.e. below the limits of detection. Using comparable methods, we could detect neither cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate nor the phosphodiesterase responsible for its degradation in either purified membranes or homogenates. The results suggest that hormone responses in plants are not generally mediated by a mechanism involving the obligate production of cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate by a plasma membrane associated adenylate cyclase. Images PMID:16660026

  7. A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Israeli, Ma’ayan; Rotem, Shahar; Elia, Uri; Bar-Haim, Erez; Cohen, Ofer; Chitlaru, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Edema Factor (EF), the toxic sub-unit of the Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET) is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase whose detrimental activity in the infected host results in severe edema. EF is therefore a major virulence factor of B. anthracis. We describe a simple, rapid and reliable functional adenylate-cyclase assay based on inhibition of a luciferase-mediated luminescence reaction. The assay exploits the efficient adenylate cyclase-mediated depletion of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), and the strict dependence on ATP of the light-emitting luciferase-catalyzed luciferin-conversion to oxyluciferin, which can be easily visualized. The assay exhibits a robust EF-dose response decrease in luminescence, which may be specifically reverted by anti-EF antibodies. The application of the assay is exemplified in: (a) determining the presence of EF in B. anthracis cultures, or its absence in cultures of EF-defective strains; (b) evaluating the anti-EF humoral response in experimental animals infected/vaccinated with B. anthracis; and (c) rapid discrimination between EF producing and non-producing bacterial colonies. Furthermore, the assay may be amenable with high-throughput screening for EF inhibitory molecules. PMID:27548219

  8. Central role of soluble adenylyl cyclase and cAMP in sperm physiology

    PubMed Central

    Buffone, Mariano G.; Wertheimer, Eva V.; Visconti, Pablo E.; Krapf, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP), the first second messenger to be described, plays a central role in cell signaling in a wide variety of cell types. Over the last decades, a wide body of literature addressed the different roles of cAMP in cell physiology, mainly in response to neurotransmitters and hormones. cAMP is synthesized by a wide variety of adenylyl cylases that can generally be grouped in two types: transmembrane adenylyl cyclase and soluble adenylyl cyclases. In particular, several aspects of sperm physiology are regulated by cAMP produced by a single atypical adenylyl cyclase (Adcy10, aka sAC, SACY). The signature that identifies sAC among other ACs, is their direct stimulation by bicarbonate. The essential nature of cAMP in sperm function has been demonstrated using gain of function as well as loss of function approaches. This review unifies state of the art knowledge of the role of cAMP and those enzymes involved in cAMP signaling pathways required for the acquisition of fertilizing capacity of mammalian sperm. PMID:25066614

  9. The first structure of a bacterial diterpene cyclase: CotB2.

    PubMed

    Janke, Ronja; Görner, Christian; Hirte, Max; Brück, Thomas; Loll, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Sesquiterpenes and diterpenes are a diverse class of secondary metabolites that are predominantly derived from plants and some prokaryotes. The properties of these natural products encompass antitumor, antibiotic and even insecticidal activities. Therefore, they are interesting commercial targets for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Owing to their structural complexity, these compounds are more efficiently accessed by metabolic engineering of microbial systems than by chemical synthesis. This work presents the first crystal structure of a bacterial diterpene cyclase, CotB2 from the soil bacterium Streptomyces melanosporofaciens, at 1.64 Å resolution. CotB2 is a diterpene cyclase that catalyzes the cyclization of the linear geranylgeranyl diphosphate to the tricyclic cyclooctat-9-en-7-ol. The subsequent oxidation of cyclooctat-9-en-7-ol by two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases leads to bioactive cyclooctatin. Plasticity residues that decorate the active site of CotB2 have been mutated, resulting in alternative monocyclic, dicyclic and tricyclic compounds that show bioactivity. These new compounds shed new light on diterpene cyclase reaction mechanisms. Furthermore, the product of mutant CotB2(W288G) produced the new antibiotic compound (1R,3E,7E,11S,12S)-3,7,18-dolabellatriene, which acts specifically against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This opens a sustainable route for the industrial-scale production of this bioactive compound.

  10. Relationship between muscarinic receptor occupancy and adenylate cyclase inhibition in the rabbit myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlert, F.J.

    1985-11-01

    The muscarinic receptor-binding properties of a series of muscarinic drugs were compared with their effects on adenylate cyclase in membranes of the rabbit myocardium. When measured by competitive inhibition of (TH)-N-methylscopolamine binding, the competition curves of the various agonists were adequately described by the ternary complex model. This model assumes that the receptor can bind reversibly with a guanine nucleotide binding protein in the membrane and that the affinity of the agonist for the receptor-guanine nucleotide-binding protein complex is higher than that for the free receptor. A satisfactory fit of the ternary complex model to the data could only be achieved assuming that very little receptor is precoupled with the guanine nucleotide-binding protein in the absence of agonist. There was good agreement between the efficacy of each agonist as measured by inhibition of adenylate cyclase and the estimate of the positive cooperativity between the binding of the agonist receptor complex and the guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Guanosine 5'-triphosphate (0.1 mM) had no significant effect on the binding of (TH)N-methylscopolamine but caused an increase in the concentration of the various agonists required for half-maximal receptor occupancy. There was good correlation between efficacy as measured by inhibition of adenylate cyclase and the influence of guanosine 5'-triphosphate on binding properties.

  11. Cloned M1 muscarinic receptors mediate both adenylate cyclase inhibition and phosphoinositide turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, R; Pinkas-Kramarski, R; Sokolovsky, M

    1988-01-01

    The rat M1 muscarinic receptor gene was cloned and expressed in a rat cell line lacking endogenous muscarinic receptors. Assignment of the cloned receptors to the M1 class was pharmacologically confirmed by their high affinity for the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine and low affinity for the M2-selective antagonist AF-DX-116. Guanylyl imidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] converted agonist binding sites on the receptor, from high-affinity to the low-affinity state, thus indicating that the cloned receptors couple to endogenous G-proteins. The cloned receptors mediated both adenylate cyclase inhibition and phosphoinositide hydrolysis, but by different mechanisms. Pertussis toxin blocked the inhibition of adenylate cyclase (indicating coupling of the receptor to inhibitory G-protein), but did not affect phosphoinositide turnover. Furthermore, the stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis was less efficient than the inhibition of adenylate cyclase. These findings demonstrate that cloned M1 receptors are capable of mediating multiple responses in the cell by coupling to different effectors, possibly to different G-proteins. Images PMID:2846274

  12. The isoenzyme of glutaminyl cyclase is an important regulator of monocyte infiltration under inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Cynis, Holger; Hoffmann, Torsten; Friedrich, Daniel; Kehlen, Astrid; Gans, Kathrin; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Wolf, Raik; Wermann, Michael; Stephan, Anett; Haegele, Monique; Sedlmeier, Reinhard; Graubner, Sigrid; Jagla, Wolfgang; Müller, Anke; Eichentopf, Rico; Heiser, Ulrich; Seifert, Franziska; Quax, Paul H A; de Vries, Margreet R; Hesse, Isabel; Trautwein, Daniela; Wollert, Ulrich; Berg, Sabine; Freyse, Ernst-Joachim; Schilling, Stephan; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-09-01

    Acute and chronic inflammatory disorders are characterized by detrimental cytokine and chemokine expression. Frequently, the chemotactic activity of cytokines depends on a modified N-terminus of the polypeptide. Among those, the N-terminus of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2 and MCP-1) is modified to a pyroglutamate (pE-) residue protecting against degradation in vivo. Here, we show that the N-terminal pE-formation depends on glutaminyl cyclase activity. The pE-residue increases stability against N-terminal degradation by aminopeptidases and improves receptor activation and signal transduction in vitro. Genetic ablation of the glutaminyl cyclase iso-enzymes QC (QPCT) or isoQC (QPCTL) revealed a major role of isoQC for pE(1) -CCL2 formation and monocyte infiltration. Consistently, administration of QC-inhibitors in inflammatory models, such as thioglycollate-induced peritonitis reduced monocyte infiltration. The pharmacologic efficacy of QC/isoQC-inhibition was assessed in accelerated atherosclerosis in ApoE3*Leiden mice, showing attenuated atherosclerotic pathology following chronic oral treatment. Current strategies targeting CCL2 are mainly based on antibodies or spiegelmers. The application of small, orally available inhibitors of glutaminyl cyclases represents an alternative therapeutic strategy to treat CCL2-driven disorders such as atherosclerosis/restenosis and fibrosis.

  13. The isoenzyme of glutaminyl cyclase is an important regulator of monocyte infiltration under inflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cynis, Holger; Hoffmann, Torsten; Friedrich, Daniel; Kehlen, Astrid; Gans, Kathrin; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Wolf, Raik; Wermann, Michael; Stephan, Anett; Haegele, Monique; Sedlmeier, Reinhard; Graubner, Sigrid; Jagla, Wolfgang; Müller, Anke; Eichentopf, Rico; Heiser, Ulrich; Seifert, Franziska; Quax, Paul H A; de Vries, Margreet R; Hesse, Isabel; Trautwein, Daniela; Wollert, Ulrich; Berg, Sabine; Freyse, Ernst-Joachim; Schilling, Stephan; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Acute and chronic inflammatory disorders are characterized by detrimental cytokine and chemokine expression. Frequently, the chemotactic activity of cytokines depends on a modified N-terminus of the polypeptide. Among those, the N-terminus of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2 and MCP-1) is modified to a pyroglutamate (pE-) residue protecting against degradation in vivo. Here, we show that the N-terminal pE-formation depends on glutaminyl cyclase activity. The pE-residue increases stability against N-terminal degradation by aminopeptidases and improves receptor activation and signal transduction in vitro. Genetic ablation of the glutaminyl cyclase iso-enzymes QC (QPCT) or isoQC (QPCTL) revealed a major role of isoQC for pE1-CCL2 formation and monocyte infiltration. Consistently, administration of QC-inhibitors in inflammatory models, such as thioglycollate-induced peritonitis reduced monocyte infiltration. The pharmacologic efficacy of QC/isoQC-inhibition was assessed in accelerated atherosclerosis in ApoE3*Leiden mice, showing attenuated atherosclerotic pathology following chronic oral treatment. Current strategies targeting CCL2 are mainly based on antibodies or spiegelmers. The application of small, orally available inhibitors of glutaminyl cyclases represents an alternative therapeutic strategy to treat CCL2-driven disorders such as atherosclerosis/restenosis and fibrosis. PMID:21774078

  14. Cyclase-associated proteins: CAPacity for linking signal transduction and actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hubberstey, Andrew V; Mottillo, Emilio P

    2002-04-01

    Many extracellular signals elicit changes in the actin cytoskeleton, which are mediated through an array of signaling proteins and pathways. One family of proteins that plays a role in regulating actin remodeling in response to cellular signals are the cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs). CAPs are highly conserved monomeric actin binding proteins present in a wide range of organisms including yeast, fly, plants, and mammals. The original CAP was isolated as a component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase complex that serves as an effector of Ras during nutritional signaling. CAPs are multifunctional molecules that contain domains involved in actin binding, adenylyl cyclase association in yeast, SH3 binding, and oligomerization. Genetic studies in yeast have implicated CAPs in vesicle trafficking and endocytosis. CAPs play a developmental role in multicellular organisms, and studies of Drosophila have illuminated the importance of the actin cytoskeleton during eye development and in establishing oocyte polarity. This review will highlight the critical structural and functional domains of CAPs, describe recent studies that have implied important roles for these proteins in linking cell signaling with actin polymerization, and highlight their roles in vesicle trafficking and development.

  15. Persistent stimulation of adenylate cyclase and urea transport by an AVP photolabel

    SciTech Connect

    Eggena, P.; Ma, C.L.; Fahrenholz, F.; Schwartz, I.L.

    1985-07-01

    The effects of a photoaffinity label for arginine vasopressin receptors, (Phe2, Phe(p-N3)3)AVP (N3-AVP), on urea permeability and adenylate cyclase activity have been investigated in the toad urinary bladder. This compound, when activated by ultraviolet light, induced a maximal and persistent increase in the urea permeability of the intact bladder and a persistent increase in the adenylate cyclase activity of toad bladder epithelial cell homogenates. Covalent attachment of the analogue to target tissue during photolysis was equivalent at 4 and 20 degrees C. Bladders exposed to N3-AVP in the presence of AVP during photolysis were substantially less permeable to urea than controls that had been exposed to N3-AVP alone. These findings constitute further evidence in support of the previous suggestion that N3-AVP binds covalently to AVP receptors and, in addition, demonstrates that N3-AVP evokes a persistent increase in adenylate cyclase activity which, in turn, triggers a persistent increase in bladder permeability to urea.

  16. Identification of photoactivated adenylyl cyclases in Naegleria australiensis and BLUF-containing protein in Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Hiro; Sato, Aya; Kita, Ayaka; Kodaira, Ken-Ichi; Iseki, Mineo; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Shibusawa, Mami; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Yagita, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Complete genome sequencing of Naegleria gruberi has revealed that the organism encodes polypeptides similar to photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PACs). Screening in the N. australiensis genome showed that the organism also encodes polypeptides similar to PACs. Each of the Naegleria proteins consists of a "sensors of blue-light using FAD" domain (BLUF domain) and an adenylyl cyclase domain (AC domain). PAC activity of the Naegleria proteins was assayed by comparing sensitivities of Escherichia coli cells heterologously expressing the proteins to antibiotics in a dark condition and a blue light-irradiated condition. Antibiotics used in the assays were fosfomycin and fosmidomycin. E. coli cells expressing the Naegleria proteins showed increased fosfomycin sensitivity and fosmidomycin sensitivity when incubated under blue light, indicating that the proteins functioned as PACs in the bacterial cells. Analysis of the N. fowleri genome revealed that the organism encodes a protein bearing an amino acid sequence similar to that of BLUF. A plasmid expressing a chimeric protein consisting of the BLUF-like sequence found in N. fowleri and the adenylyl cyclase domain of N. gruberi PAC was constructed to determine whether the BLUF-like sequence functioned as a sensor of blue light. E. coli cells expressing a chimeric protein showed increased fosfomycin sensitivity and fosmidomycin sensitivity when incubated under blue light. These experimental results indicated that the sequence similar to the BLUF domain found in N. fowleri functioned as a sensor of blue light.

  17. Picomolar-affinity binding and inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by melatonin in Syrian hamster hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Niles, L.P.; Hashemi, F. )

    1990-12-01

    1. The effect of melatonin on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was measured in homogenates of Syrian hamster hypothalamus. In addition, the saturation binding characteristics of the melatonin receptor ligand, ({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin, was examined using an incubation temperature (30{degree}C) similar to that used in enzyme assays. 2. At concentrations ranging from 10 pM to 1 nM, melatonin caused a significant decrease in stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a maximum inhibition of approximately 22%. 3. Binding experiments utilizing ({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin in a range of approximately 5-80 pM indicated a single class of high-affinity sites: Kd = 55 +/- 9 pM, Bmax = 1.1 +/- 0.3 fmol/mg protein. 4. The ability of picomolar concentrations of melatonin to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity suggests that this affect is mediated by picomolar-affinity receptor binding sites for this hormone in the hypothalamus.

  18. The PI3K-mediated activation of CRAC independently regulates adenylyl cyclase activation and chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Comer, Frank I; Lippincott, Christopher K; Masbad, Joseph J; Parent, Carole A

    2005-01-26

    The ability of a cell to detect an external chemical signal and initiate a program of directed migration along a gradient comprises the fundamental process called chemotaxis. Investigations in Dictyostelium discoideum and neutrophils have established that pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins that bind to the PI3K products PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3, such as CRAC (cytosolic regulator of adenylyl cyclase) and Akt/PKB, translocate specifically to the leading edge of chemotaxing cells. CRAC is essential for the chemoattractant-mediated activation of the adenylyl cyclase ACA, which converts ATP into cAMP, the primary chemoattractant for D. discoideum. The mechanisms by which CRAC activates ACA remain to be determined. We now show that in addition to its essential role in the activation of ACA, CRAC is involved in regulating chemotaxis. Through mutagenesis, we show that these two functions are independently regulated downstream of PI3K. A CRAC mutant that has lost the capacity to bind PI3K products does not support chemotaxis and shows minimal ACA activation. Finally, overexpression of CRAC and various CRAC mutants show strong effects on ACA activation with little effect on chemotaxis. These findings establish that chemoattractant-mediated activation of PI3K is important for the CRAC-dependent regulation of both chemotaxis and adenylyl cyclase activation.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex

    SciTech Connect

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie; Belrhali, Hassan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Wintjens, René

    2005-01-01

    The glutaminyl cyclase isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to 1.7 Å resolution. In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33 kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7 Å.

  20. The Presence of Two Cyclase Thioesterases Expands the Conformational Freedom of the Cyclic Peptide Occidiofungin

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Akshaya; Gu, Ganyu; Escano, Jerome; Lu, Shi-En; Smith, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Occidiofungin is a cyclic nonribosomally synthesized antifungal peptide with submicromolar activity produced by Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia contaminans. The biosynthetic gene cluster was confirmed to contain two cyclase thioesterases. NMR analysis revealed that the presence of both thioesterases is used to increase the conformational repertoire of the cyclic peptide. The loss of the OcfN cyclic thioesterase by mutagenesis results in a reduction of conformational variants and an appreciable decrease in bioactivity against Candida species. Presumably, the presence of both asparagine and β-hydroxyasparagine variants coordinate the enzymatic function of both of the cyclase thioesterases. OcfN has presumably evolved to be part of the biosynthetic gene cluster due to its ability to produce structural variants that enhance antifungal activity against some fungi. The enhancement of the antifungal activity from the incorporation of an additional cyclase thioesterase into the biosynthetic gene cluster of occidiofungin supports the need to explore new conformational variants of other therapeutic or potentially therapeutic cyclic peptides. PMID:23394257

  1. Effects of dopamine on adenylyl cyclase activity and amylase secretion in rat parotid tissue.

    PubMed

    Hatta, S; Amemiya, N; Takemura, H; Ohshika, H

    1995-06-01

    Several previous studies have shown that dopamine causes amylase secretion from rat parotid tissue. However, the mechanism of this dopamine action is still unclear. The present study was designed to characterize dopamine action in rat parotid gland tissue by examining the effects of dopamine on cyclic AMP accumulation, adenylyl cyclase activity, and amylase release. Dopamine significantly enhanced accumulation of cyclic AMP in parotid slices and stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in parotid membrane preparations. It also significantly stimulated amylase release from parotid slices. The stimulatory effects of dopamine on cyclic AMP accumulation, adenylyl cyclase activity, and amylase release were effectively blocked with propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, but not by either SCH 23390, a preferential D1 antagonist, or butaclamol, a preferential D2 antagonist. No substantial specific binding sites for D1 receptors were detectable by [3H]SCH 23390 binding in parotid membranes. These results suggest that the stimulatory effect of dopamine on amylase secretion in rat parotid tissue is not mediated through specific D1 dopamine receptors but rather through beta-adrenergic receptors.

  2. Differential expression of functional guanylyl cyclases in melanocytes: absence of nitric-oxide-sensitive isoform in metastatic cells.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, K; Das, P K; van den Wijngaard, R M; Lenz, W; Klockenbring, T; Malcharzyk, V; Drummer, C; Gerzer, R

    2001-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive endogenous molecule with multiple functions and its cellular signaling activity is mainly mediated by activation of the soluble isoform of guanylyl cyclase, a heterodimeric (alpha/beta) hemeprotein. The expression of the NO-sensitive soluble isoform of guanylyl cyclase was studied in various cultured melanocytic cells by measuring the accumulation of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in the presence and absence of NO donors. Here we report that 3-morpholino-sydnonimine, a donor of NO redox species, and (Z)-1-[2- (2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, a direct NO donor, induced a 20-fold increase in intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in nonmetastatic melanoma cells and normal melanocytes in culture that could be related to cellular melanin content in a concentration-dependent manner. The increased intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate was due to stimulation of the activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase as such increase was completely abolished by using a specific inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase. The involvement of functional soluble guanylyl cyclase was further confirmed by the presence of alpha1 and beta1 subunits in these cells at both mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, none of the NO donors induced guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate production in metastatic melanoma cells, which could be attributed to the absence of the beta1 subunit that is essential for catalytic activity of the soluble isoform of guanylyl cyclase. Metastatic melanoma cells produced higher levels of intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in response to natriuretic peptides than other cell types, however, due to upregulation of membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase activities, but they are less pigmented or unpigmented. The present finding suggests that NO signaling in association with melanogenesis is dependent on the soluble isoform of guanylyl cyclase, whereas absence of soluble guanylyl

  3. Adenylyl cyclase 3/adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) complex mediates the anti-migratory effect of forskolin in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Sierra N; Graves, Sarai H; Dains-McGahee, Clayton; Friedman, Emilee M; Hassan, Humma; Witkowski, Piotr; Sabbatini, Maria E

    2017-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal human malignancies. A better understanding of the intracellular mechanism of migration and invasion is urgently needed to develop treatment that will suppress metastases and improve overall survival. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is a second messenger that has shown to regulate migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. The rise of cyclic AMP suppressed migration and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. Cyclic AMP is formed from cytosolic ATP by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase (AC). There are ten isoforms of ACs; nine are anchored in the plasma membrane and one is soluble. What remains unknown is the extent to which the expression of transmembrane AC isoforms is both modified in pancreatic cancer and mediates the inhibitory effect of forskolin on cell motility. Using real-time PCR analysis, ADCY3 was found to be highly expressed in pancreatic tumor tissues, resulting in a constitutive increase in cyclic AMP levels. On the other hand, ADCY2 was down-regulated. Migration, invasion, and filopodia formation in two different pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, HPAC and PANC-1 deficient in AC1 or AC3, were studied. We found that AC3, upon stimulation with forskolin, enhanced cyclic AMP levels and inhibited cell migration and invasion. Unlikely to be due to a cytotoxic effect, the inhibitory effects of forskolin involved the quick formation of AC3/adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1)/G-actin complex, which inhibited filopodia formation and cell motility. Using Western blotting analysis, forskolin, through AC3 activation, caused phosphorylation of CREB, but not ERK. The effect of CREB phosphorylation is likely to be associated with long-term signaling changes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Association of yeast adenylyl cyclase with cyclase-associated protein CAP forms a second Ras-binding site which mediates its Ras-dependent activation.

    PubMed

    Shima, F; Okada, T; Kido, M; Sen, H; Tanaka, Y; Tamada, M; Hu, C D; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y; Kariya, K; Kataoka, T

    2000-01-01

    Posttranslational modification, in particular farnesylation, of Ras is crucial for activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase (CYR1). Based on the previous observation that association of CYR1 with cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is essential for its activation by posttranslationally modified Ras, we postulated that the associated CAP might contribute to the formation of a Ras-binding site of CYR1, which mediates CYR1 activation, other than the primary Ras-binding site, the leucine-rich repeat domain. Here, we observed a posttranslational modification-dependent association of Ras with a complex between CAP and CYR1 C-terminal region. When CAP mutants defective in Ras signaling but retaining the CYR1-binding activity were isolated by screening of a pool of randomly mutagenized CAP, CYR1 complexed with two of the obtained three mutants failed to be activated efficiently by modified Ras and exhibited a severely impaired ability to bind Ras, providing a genetic evidence for the importance of the physical association with Ras at the second Ras-binding site. On the other hand, CYR1, complexed with the other CAP mutant, failed to be activated by Ras but exhibited a greatly enhanced binding to Ras. Conversely, a Ras mutant E31K, which exhibits a greatly enhanced binding to the CYR1-CAP complex, failed to activate CYR1 efficiently. Thus, the strength of interaction at the second Ras-binding site appears to be a critical determinant of CYR1 regulation by Ras: too-weak and too-strong interactions are both detrimental to CYR1 activation. These results, taken together with those obtained with mammalian Raf, suggest the importance of the second Ras-binding site in effector regulation.

  5. [Potentiation of NO-dependent activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase by 5-nitroisatin and antiviral preparatation arbidol].

    PubMed

    Severina, I S; Shchegolev, A Iu; Medvedev, A E

    2013-01-01

    Isatin (indole-dione) is an endogenous indole that exibits a wide range of biological and physiological activity. The influence of isatin derivatives 5-nitroisatin and arbidol (an antiviral preparatation) on spermine NONO-induced activation of human platelet soluble guanylyl cyclase was investigated. 5-nitroistnin and arbidol had no effect on basal activity, but synergistically increased in a concentration-dependent manner the spermine NONO-induced activation of this enzyme. 5-Nitroisatin and arbidol, like YC-1, sensitized guanylyl cyclase towards nitric oxide (NO) and produced a leftward shift of the spermine NONO concentration response curve. At the same time both compounds used did not influence the activation of guanylyl cyclase by YC-1 and did not change the synergistic increase of spermine NONO-induced activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase in the presence of YC-1. This suggests that 5-nitroisanin and arbidol did not compete with YC-1. Addition of isatin did not change the synergistic increase in the spermine NONO-induced guanylyl cyclase activation by 5-nitroisatin and arbidol and did not influence a leftward shift of spermine NONO concentration response curve produced by these compounds. These data suggest lack of competitive interaction between isatin and both its derivatives used.

  6. Polymerase chain reaction localization of constitutive nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase messenger RNAs in microdissected rat nephron segments.

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Y; Tomita, K; Nonoguchi, H; Marumo, F

    1992-01-01

    Stimulation of the release of nitric oxide (NO) in the kidney has been shown to result in renal hemodynamic changes and natriuresis. NO is a potent stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase, leading to an increase of cyclic GMP. The precise localization of NO synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase in the renal structure is not known. In this study, the microlocalization of mRNAs coding for constitutive NO synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase was carried out in the rat kidney, using an assay of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction in individual microdissected renal tubule segments along the nephron, glomeruli, vasa recta bundle, and arcuate arteries. A large signal for constitutive NO synthase was detected in inner medullary collecting duct. Small signals were detected in inner medullary thin limb, cortical collecting duct, outer medullary collecting duct, glomerulus, vasa recta, and arcuate artery. Soluble guanylate cyclase mRNA is expressed largely in glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, proximal straight tubule, and cortical collecting duct, and in small amounts in medullary thick ascending limb, inner medullary thin limb, outer medullary collecting duct, inner medullary collecting duct, and the vascular system. Our data demonstrate that NO can be produced locally in the kidney, and that soluble guanylate cyclase is widely distributed in glomerulus, renal tubules, and the vascular system. Images PMID:1379616

  7. Effect of mitomycin C on the activation of adenylate cyclase in rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Matsunaga, T; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R

    1986-09-01

    Isoproterenol (IPN)-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner by exposure of AH130 cells to mitomycin C (MMC). The enhancement was also observed in prostaglandin E1-, guanine nucleotide analog-, NaF-, cholera toxin- and forskolin-stimulated activities of the enzyme but not in manganese-stimulated activity. In addition, even when the cells pretreated with islet-activating protein were exposed to MMC, IPN-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase was enhanced. Anaerobic exposure of AH130 cells to MMC somewhat inhibited IPN-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase in contrast with aerobic exposure. Exposure of cells to adriamycin also caused enhancement of IPN-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase but exposure to nitrogen mustard inhibited the enzyme stimulation by IPN. The enhancing effect of MMC was lost by the combined treatment with alpha-tocopherol. From these results, it was shown that MMC modulated the activity of adenylate cyclase, probably through alterations in membrane structure.

  8. The cyclase-associated protein CAP as regulator of cell polarity and cAMP signaling in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Noegel, Angelika A; Blau-Wasser, Rosemarie; Sultana, Hameeda; Müller, Rolf; Israel, Lars; Schleicher, Michael; Patel, Hitesh; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2004-02-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of the G-actin/F-actin ratio and, in yeast, is involved in regulating the adenylyl cyclase activity. We show that cell polarization, F-actin organization, and phototaxis are altered in a Dictyostelium CAP knockout mutant. Furthermore, in complementation assays we determined the roles of the individual domains in signaling and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We studied in detail the adenylyl cyclase activity and found that the mutant cells have normal levels of the aggregation phase-specific adenylyl cyclase and that receptor-mediated activation is intact. However, cAMP relay that is responsible for the generation of propagating cAMP waves that control the chemotactic aggregation of starving Dictyostelium cells was altered, and the cAMP-induced cGMP production was significantly reduced. The data suggest an interaction of CAP with adenylyl cyclase in Dictyostelium and an influence on signaling pathways directly as well as through its function as a regulatory component of the cytoskeleton.

  9. Actin activates Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoY nucleotidyl cyclase toxin and ExoY-like effector domains from MARTX toxins

    PubMed Central

    Belyy, Alexander; Raoux-Barbot, Dorothée; Saveanu, Cosmin; Namane, Abdelkader; Ogryzko, Vasily; Worpenberg, Lina; David, Violaine; Henriot, Veronique; Fellous, Souad; Merrifield, Christien; Assayag, Elodie; Ladant, Daniel; Renault, Louis; Mechold, Undine

    2016-01-01

    The nucleotidyl cyclase toxin ExoY is one of the virulence factors injected by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system into host cells. Inside cells, it is activated by an unknown eukaryotic cofactor to synthesize various cyclic nucleotide monophosphates. ExoY-like adenylate cyclases are also found in Multifunctional-Autoprocessing Repeats-in-ToXin (MARTX) toxins produced by various Gram-negative pathogens. Here we demonstrate that filamentous actin (F-actin) is the hitherto unknown cofactor of ExoY. Association with F-actin stimulates ExoY activity more than 10,000 fold in vitro and results in stabilization of actin filaments. ExoY is recruited to actin filaments in transfected cells and alters F-actin turnover. Actin also activates an ExoY-like adenylate cyclase MARTX effector domain from Vibrio nigripulchritudo. Finally, using a yeast genetic screen, we identify actin mutants that no longer activate ExoY. Our results thus reveal a new sub-group within the class II adenylyl cyclase family, namely actin-activated nucleotidyl cyclase (AA-NC) toxins. PMID:27917880

  10. Cellular levels of feedback regulator of adenylate cyclase and the effect of epinephrine and insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, R j; Russell, T R; Asakawa, T; Sutherland, E W

    1975-01-01

    We have obtained direct evidence that shows the cellular formation and subsequent release of a potent inhibitor (feedback regulator) of adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] by adipocytes, upon stimulation with epinephrine. The appearance of such a feedback regulator in adipocytes preceded its release into the medium. During a 30 min incubation, intracellular regulator levels rose rapidly and reached 39-61 units/g of adipocyte at 10 min. Release of inhibitor into the medium increased slowly and was 11-16 units/g of adipocyte at 10 min. Upon continued incubation, the cells at 30 min contained 30-41 units/g of ingibitor, slightly less than the content at 30 min; meanwhile, the medium content rose more than 3-fold. The inhibitor from both locations appeared to have the same characteristics, judging from the purification procedures and the biological activities on hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase was inhibited by the feedback regulator in vitro when either epinephrine, corticotropin (ACTH), or glucagon was used as activator. The site of action of this inhibitor is therefore most likely beyond the specific hormone receptors. A new in vitro action of insulin has been found. Insulin, 50-500 microunits/ml, inhibited the formation and release of this factor from isolated rat or hamster adipocytes by 29-81% after these cells were stimulated by hormones that raise intracellular adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate. This factor enhaced the effect of insulin in lowering the adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate levels in fresh rat adipocytes. A reduced formation of such a factor may modify the metabolic events in adipocytes, and some as yet unexplained effects of insulin could therefore be linked to the metabolic effects of this factor. PMID:174073

  11. Structure, signaling mechanism and regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylate cyclase.

    SciTech Connect

    Misono, K. S.; Philo, J. S.; Arakawa, T.; Ogata, C. M.; Qiu, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Young, H. S.

    2011-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the homologous B-type natriuretic peptide are cardiac hormones that dilate blood vessels and stimulate natriuresis and diuresis, thereby lowering blood pressure and blood volume. ANP and B-type natriuretic peptide counterbalance the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and neurohormonal systems, and play a central role in cardiovascular regulation. These activities are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA), a single transmembrane segment, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-linked receptor that occurs as a homodimer. Here, we present an overview of the structure, possible chloride-mediated regulation and signaling mechanism of NPRA and other receptor GCs. Earlier, we determined the crystal structures of the NPRA extracellular domain with and without bound ANP. Their structural comparison has revealed a novel ANP-induced rotation mechanism occurring in the juxtamembrane region that apparently triggers transmembrane signal transduction. More recently, the crystal structures of the dimerized catalytic domain of green algae GC Cyg12 and that of cyanobacterium GC Cya2 have been reported. These structures closely resemble that of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic domain, consisting of a C1 and C2 subdomain heterodimer. Adenylyl cyclase is activated by binding of G{sub s}{alpha} to C2 and the ensuing 7{sup o} rotation of C1 around an axis parallel to the central cleft, thereby inducing the heterodimer to adopt a catalytically active conformation. We speculate that, in NPRA, the ANP-induced rotation of the juxtamembrane domains, transmitted across the transmembrane helices, may induce a similar rotation in each of the dimerized GC catalytic domains, leading to the stimulation of the GC catalytic activity.

  12. New insights concerning the molecular basis for defective glucoregulation in soluble adenylyl cyclase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Holz, George G; Leech, Colin A; Chepurny, Oleg G

    2014-12-01

    Recently published findings indicate that a knockout (KO) of soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, also known as AC-10) gene expression in mice leads to defective glucoregulation that is characterized by reduced pancreatic insulin secretion and reduced intraperitoneal glucose tolerance. Summarized here are current concepts regarding the molecular basis for this phenotype, with special emphasis on the potential role of sAC as a determinant of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Highlighted is new evidence that in pancreatic beta cells, oxidative glucose metabolism stimulates mitochondrial CO₂production that in turn generates bicarbonate ion (HCO(3)(-)). Since HCO(3)(-) binds to and directly stimulates the activity of sAC, we propose that glucose-stimulated cAMP production in beta cells is mediated not simply by transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (TMACs), but also by sAC. Based on evidence that sAC is expressed in mitochondria, there exists the possibility that beta-cell glucose metabolism is linked to mitochondrial cAMP production with consequent facilitation of oxidative phosphorylation. Since sAC is also expressed in the cytoplasm, sAC catalyzed cAMP production may activate cAMP sensors such as PKA and Epac2 to control ion channel function, intracellular Ca²⁺ handling, and Ca²⁺-dependent exocytosis. Thus, we propose that the existence of sAC in beta cells provides a new and unexpected explanation for previously reported actions of glucose metabolism to stimulate cAMP production. It seems possible that alterations of sAC activity might be of importance when evaluating new strategies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), or when evaluating why glucose metabolism fails to stimulate insulin secretion in patients diagnosed with T2DM. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The role of soluble adenylyl cyclase in health and disease.

  13. Thalamic adenylyl cyclase 1 is required for barrel formation in the somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Lee, L-J; Hayashi, Y; Muglia, L; Itohara, S; Erzurumlu, R S; Iwasato, T

    2015-04-02

    Cyclic AMP signaling is critical for activity-dependent refinement of neuronal circuits. Global disruption of adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1), the major calcium/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase in the brain, impairs formation of whisker-related discrete neural modules (the barrels) in cortical layer 4 in mice. Since AC1 is expressed both in the thalamus and the neocortex, the question of whether pre- or postsynaptic (or both) AC1 plays a role in barrel formation has emerged. Previously, we generated cortex-specific AC1 knockout (Cx-AC1KO) mice and found that these animals develop histologically normal barrels, suggesting a potentially more prominent role for thalamic AC1 in barrel formation. To determine this, we generated three new lines of mice: one in which AC1 is disrupted in nearly half of the thalamic ventrobasal nucleus cells in addition to the cortical excitatory neurons (Cx/pTh-AC1KO mouse), and another in which AC1 is disrupted in the thalamus but not in the cortex or brainstem nuclei of the somatosensory system (Th-AC1KO mouse). Cx/pTh-AC1KO mice show severe deficits in barrel formation. Th-AC1KO mice show even more severe disruption in barrel patterning. In these two lines, single thalamocortical (TC) axon labeling revealed a larger lateral extent of TC axons in layer 4 compared to controls. In the third line, all calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (both AC1 and AC8) are deleted in cortical excitatory neurons. These mice have normal barrels. Taken together, these results indicate that thalamic AC1 plays a major role in patterning and refinement of the mouse TC circuitry.

  14. Inhibition of adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase isoforms by the antiviral drug foscarnet.

    PubMed

    Kudlacek, O; Mitterauer, T; Nanoff, C; Hohenegger, M; Tang, W J; Freissmuth, M; Kleuss, C

    2001-02-02

    The pyrophosphate (PP(i)) analog foscarnet inhibits viral DNA-polymerases and is used to treat cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency vius infections. Nucleotide cyclases and DNA-polymerases catalyze analogous reactions, i.e. a phosphodiester bond formation, and have similar topologies in their active sites. Inhibition by foscarnet of adenylyl cyclase isoforms was therefore tested with (i) purified catalytic domains C1 and C2 of types I and VII (IC1 and VIIC1) and of type II (IIC2) and (ii) membrane-bound holoenzymes (from mammalian tissues and types I, II, and V heterologously expressed in Sf9 cell membranes). Foscarnet was more potent than PP(i) in suppressing forskolin-stimulated catalysis by both, IC1/IIC2 and VIIC1/IIC2. Stimulation of VIIC1/IIC2 by Galpha(s) relieved the inhibition by foscarnet but not that by PP(i). The IC(50) of foscarnet on membrane-bound adenylyl cyclases also depended on their mode of regulation. These findings predict that receptor-dependent cAMP formation is sensitive to inhibition by foscarnet in some, but not all, cells. This was verified with two cell lines; foscarnet blocked cAMP accumulation after A(2A)-adenosine receptor stimulation in PC12 but not in HEK-A(2A) cells. Foscarnet also inhibited soluble and, to a lesser extent, particulate guanylyl cylase. Thus, foscarnet interferes with the generation of cyclic nucleotides, an effect which may give rise to clinical side effects. The extent of inhibition varies with the enzyme isoform and with the regulatory input.

  15. Regulation and therapeutic targeting of peptide-activated receptor guanylyl cyclases.

    PubMed

    Potter, Lincoln R

    2011-04-01

    Cyclic GMP is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates a wide array of physiologic processes such as blood pressure, long bone growth, intestinal fluid secretion, phototransduction and lipolysis. Soluble and single-membrane-spanning enzymes called guanylyl cyclases (GC) synthesize cGMP. In humans, the latter group consists of GC-A, GC-B, GC-C, GC-E and GC-F, which are also known as NPR-A, NPR-B, StaR, Ret1-GC and Ret2-GC, respectively. Membrane GCs are activated by peptide ligands such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), guanylin, uroguanylin, heat stable enterotoxin and GC-activating proteins. Nesiritide and carperitide are clinically approved peptide-based drugs that activate GC-A. CD-NP is an experimental heart failure drug that primarily activates GC-B but also activates GC-A at high concentrations and is resistant to degradation. Inactivating mutations in GC-B cause acromesomelic dysplasia type Maroteaux dwarfism and chromosomal mutations that increase CNP concentrations are associated with Marfanoid-like skeletal overgrowth. Pump-based CNP infusions increase skeletal growth in a mouse model of the most common type of human dwarfism, which supports CNP/GC-B-based therapies for short stature diseases. Linaclotide is a peptide activator of GC-C that stimulates intestinal motility and is in late-stage clinical trials for the treatment of chronic constipation. This review discusses the discovery of cGMP, guanylyl cyclases, the general characteristics and therapeutic applications of GC-A, GC-B and GC-C, and emphasizes the regulation of transmembrane guanylyl cyclases by phosphorylation and ATP.

  16. Multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclases and cytochrome P450 involved in the biosynthesis of apple fruit triterpenic acids.

    PubMed

    Andre, Christelle M; Legay, Sylvain; Deleruelle, Amélie; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Punter, Matthew; Brendolise, Cyril; Cooney, Janine M; Lateur, Marc; Hausman, Jean-François; Larondelle, Yvan; Laing, William A

    2016-09-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) accumulates bioactive ursane-, oleanane-, and lupane-type triterpenes in its fruit cuticle, but their biosynthetic pathway is still poorly understood. We used a homology-based approach to identify and functionally characterize two new oxidosqualene cyclases (MdOSC4 and MdOSC5) and one cytochrome P450 (CYP716A175). The gene expression patterns of these enzymes and of previously described oxidosqualene cyclases were further studied in 20 apple cultivars with contrasting triterpene profiles. MdOSC4 encodes a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase producing an oleanane-type triterpene, putatively identified as germanicol, as well as β-amyrin and lupeol, in the proportion 82 : 14 : 4. MdOSC5 cyclizes 2,3-oxidosqualene into lupeol and β-amyrin at a ratio of 95 : 5. CYP716A175 catalyses the C-28 oxidation of α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and germanicol, producing ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, and putatively morolic acid. The gene expression of MdOSC1 was linked to the concentrations of ursolic and oleanolic acid, whereas the expression of MdOSC5 was correlated with the concentrations of betulinic acid and its caffeate derivatives. Two new multifuntional triterpene synthases as well as a multifunctional triterpene C-28 oxidase were identified in Malus × domestica. This study also suggests that MdOSC1 and MdOSC5 are key genes in apple fruit triterpene biosynthesis.

  17. Identification of Glutaminyl Cyclase Genes Involved in Pyroglutamate Modification of Fungal Lignocellulolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Vincent W.; Dana, Craig M.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Clark, Douglas S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The breakdown of plant biomass to simple sugars is essential for the production of second-generation biofuels and high-value bioproducts. Currently, enzymes produced from filamentous fungi are used for deconstructing plant cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars for biorefinery applications. A post-translational N-terminal pyroglutamate modification observed in some of these enzymes occurs when N-terminal glutamine or glutamate is cyclized to form a five-membered ring. This modification has been shown to confer resistance to thermal denaturation for CBH-1 and EG-1 cellulases. In mammalian cells, the formation of pyroglutamate is catalyzed by glutaminyl cyclases. Using the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, we identified two genes (qc-1 and qc-2) that encode proteins homologous to mammalian glutaminyl cyclases. We show that qc-1 and qc-2 are essential for catalyzing the formation of an N-terminal pyroglutamate on CBH-1 and GH5-1. CBH-1 and GH5-1 produced in a Δqc-1 Δqc-2 mutant, and thus lacking the N-terminal pyroglutamate modification, showed greater sensitivity to thermal denaturation, and for GH5-1, susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. QC-1 and QC-2 are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized proteins. The pyroglutamate modification is predicted to occur in a number of additional fungal proteins that have diverse functions. The identification of glutaminyl cyclases in fungi may have implications for production of lignocellulolytic enzymes, heterologous expression, and biotechnological applications revolving around protein stability. PMID:28096492

  18. Adenylyl Cyclase-Associated Protein 1 in the Development of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kakurina, G V; Kondakova, I V; Cheremisina, O V; Shishkin, D A; Choinzonov, E L

    2016-03-01

    We compared the content of adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) in the blood and tissues of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (with and without regional metastases), patients with chronic inflammatory diseases aggravated by laryngeal and laryngopharyngeal dysplasia, and healthy individuals. The data suggest that serum CAP1 concentration correlated with the depth of primary tumor invasion and the presence of regional metastases. In cancer patients, the serum level of CAP1 was lower than in patients with laryngeal and laryngopharyngeal dysplasia, which can be of importance for differential and timely diagnostics of malignant tumors.

  19. Forskolin photoaffinity labels with specificity for adenylyl cyclase and the glucose transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.I.; Robbins, J.D.; Ruoho, A.E.; Sutkowski, E.M.; Seamon, K.B. )

    1991-07-15

    Two photolabels, N-(3-(4-azido-3-125I-phenyl)-propionamide)-6- aminoethylcarbamylforskolin(125I-6-AIPP-Fsk) and N-(3-(4-azido-3-125I-phenyl)propionamide)-7-aminoethylcarbamyl-7- desacetylforskolin (125I-7-AIPP-Fsk) were synthesized with specific activities of 2200 Ci/mmol and used to label adenylyl cyclase and the glucose transporter. The affinities of the photolabels for adenylyl cyclase were determined by their inhibition of (3H)forskolin binding to bovine brain membranes. 6-AIPP-Fsk and 7-AIPP-Fsk inhibited (3H)forskolin binding with IC50 values of 15 nM and 200 nM, respectively. 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk labeled a 115-kDa protein in control and GTP {gamma} S-preactivated bovine brain membranes. This labeling was inhibited by forskolin but not by 1,9-dideoxyforskolin or cytochalasin B. 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk labeling of partially purified adenylyl cyclase was inhibited by forskolin but not by 1,9-dideoxyforskolin. 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk specifically labeled a 45-kDa protein and not a 115-kDa protein in control and GTP {gamma} S-preactivated brain membranes. This labeling was inhibited by forskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, cytochalasin B, and D-glucose but not cytochalasin E or L-glucose. Human erythrocyte membranes were photolyzed with 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk and 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk. 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk, but not 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk, strongly labeled a broad 45-70-kDa band. Forskolin, 7-bromoacetyl-7-desacetylforskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, cytochalasin B, and D-glucose, but not cytochalasin E or L-glucose, inhibited 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk labeling of the 45-70-kDa band. 125I-6-AIPP-Fsk and 125I-7-AIPP-Fsk are high affinity photolabels with specificity for adenylyl cyclase and the glucose transporter, respectively.

  20. Regulation of cGMP levels by guanylate cyclase in truncated frog rod outer segments

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Cyclic GMP is the second messenger in phototransduction and regulates the photoreceptor current. In the present work, we tried to understand the regulation mechanism of cytoplasmic cGMP levels in frog photoreceptors by measuring the photoreceptor current using a truncated rod outer segment (tROS) preparation. Since exogenously applied substance diffuses into tROS from the truncated end, we could examine the biochemical reactions relating to the cGMP metabolism by manipulating the cytoplasmic chemical condition. In tROS, exogenously applied GTP produced a dark current whose amplitude was half-maximal at approximately 0.4 mM GTP. The conductance for this current was suppressed by light in a fashion similar to when it is activated by cGMP. In addition, no current was produced in the absence of Mg2+, which is known to be necessary for the guanylate cyclase activity. These results indicate that guanylate cyclase was present in tROS and synthesized cGMP from exogenously applied GTP. The enzyme activity was distributed throughout the rod outer segment. The amount of synthesized cGMP increased as the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration of tROS decreased, which indicated the activation of guanylate cyclase at low Ca2+ concentrations. Half-maximal effect of Ca2+ was observed at approximately 100 nM. tROS contained the proteins involved in the phototransduction mechanism and therefore, we could examine the regulation of the light response waveform by Ca2+. At low Ca2+ concentrations, the time course of the light response was speeded up probably because cGMP recovery was facilitated by activation of the cyclase. Then, if the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration of a photoreceptor decreases during light stimulation, the Ca2+ decrease may explain the acceleration of the light response during light adaptation. In tROS, however, we did observe an acceleration during repetitive light flashes when the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration increased during the stimulation. This result suggests the

  1. Presence of hormonally-sensitive adenylate cyclase receptors in capillary-enriched fractions from rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Baca, G M; Palmer, G C

    1978-01-01

    The 10 000 g particulate fraction from capillary-enriched fractions isolated from rat cerebral cortex was shown to possess an adenylate cyclase highly sensitive to activation by sodium fluoride, norepinephrine, epinephrine, isoproterenol and dopamine. To a lesser extent histamine and three dopamine agonists, namely M-7 (5,6-dihydroxy-2-dimethylamino tetralin), ET-495 (methane sulfonate of pyribedil), and S-584 (metabolite of pyribedil) stimulated the enzyme preparation. The action of norepinephrine was blocked by propanolol while phenotolamine and haloperidol were relatively ineffective except at highest concentrations. Phentolamine and propanolol at only highest concentrations (10(-4) M) antagonized the action of dopamine. Haloperidol was seen to be a potent inhibitor of either dopamine- or dopamine agonist-sensitive adenylate cyclase. No effects on the enzyme were observed with methoxamine, octopamine or serotonin. These preliminary data suggest the presence of a mixed population of receptors for adenylate cyclase in rat brain capillaries.

  2. Glucose and GLP-1 Stimulate cAMP Production via Distinct Adenylyl Cyclases in INS-1E Insulinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Lavoisier S.; Zippin, Jonathan Hale; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

    2008-01-01

    In β cells, both glucose and hormones, such as GLP-1, stimulate production of the second messenger cAMP, but glucose and GLP-1 elicit distinct cellular responses. We now show in INS-1E insulinoma cells that glucose and GLP-1 produce cAMP with distinct kinetics via different adenylyl cyclases. GLP-1 induces a rapid cAMP signal mediated by G protein–responsive transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmAC). In contrast, glucose elicits a delayed cAMP rise mediated by bicarbonate, calcium, and ATP-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). This glucose-induced, sAC-dependent cAMP rise is dependent upon calcium influx and is responsible for the glucose-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. These results demonstrate that sAC-generated and tmAC-generated cAMP define distinct signaling cascades. PMID:18695009

  3. Mutation of His-105 in the beta 1 subunit yields a nitric oxide-insensitive form of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Wedel, B; Humbert, P; Harteneck, C; Foerster, J; Malkewitz, J; Böhme, E; Schultz, G; Koesling, D

    1994-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase [GTP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing); EC 4.6.1.2] is a hemoprotein that exists as a heterodimer; the heme moiety has been proposed to bind nitric oxide, resulting in a dramatic activation of the enzyme. Mutation of six conserved His residues reduced but did not abolish nitric oxide stimulation whereas a change of His-105 to Phe in the beta 1 subunit yielded a heterodimer that retained basal cyclase activity but failed to respond to nitric oxide. Heme was not detected as a component of the mutant heterodimer and protophorphyrin IX failed to stimulate enzyme activity. The activity of the His mutant was almost identical to that of the wild-type enzyme in the presence of KCN, suggesting that disruption of heme binding is the principal effect of the mutation. Thus, the mutation provides a means to inhibit the nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase signaling pathway. Images PMID:7908439

  4. Enzymatic (13)C labeling and multidimensional NMR analysis of miltiradiene synthesized by bifunctional diterpene cyclase in Selaginella moellendorffii.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Yoshinori; Ueno, Yohei; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Oogami, Shingo; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Matsumoto, Sadamu; Natsume, Masahiro; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Kawaide, Hiroshi

    2011-12-16

    Diterpenes show diverse chemical structures and various physiological roles. The diversity of diterpene is primarily established by diterpene cyclases that catalyze a cyclization reaction to form the carbon skeleton of cyclic diterpene. Diterpene cyclases are divided into two types, monofunctional and bifunctional cyclases. Bifunctional diterpene cyclases (BDTCs) are involved in hormone and defense compound biosyntheses in bryophytes and gymnosperms, respectively. The BDTCs catalyze the successive two-step type-B (protonation-initiated cyclization) and type-A (ionization-initiated cyclization) reactions of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP). We found that the genome of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, contains six BDTC genes with the majority being uncharacterized. The cDNA from S. moellendorffii encoding a BDTC-like enzyme, miltiradiene synthase (SmMDS), was cloned. The recombinant SmMDS converted GGDP to a diterpene hydrocarbon product with a molecular mass of 272 Da. Mutation in the type-B active motif of SmMDS abolished the cyclase activity, whereas (+)-copalyl diphosphate, the reaction intermediate from the conversion of GGDP to the hydrocarbon product, rescued the cyclase activity of the mutant to form a diterpene hydrocarbon. Another mutant lacking type-A activity accumulated copalyl diphosphate as the reaction intermediate. When the diterpene hydrocarbon was enzymatically synthesized from [U-(13)C(6)]mevalonate, all carbons were labeled with (13)C stable isotope (>99%). The fully (13)C-labeled product was subjected to (13)C-(13)C COSY NMR spectroscopic analyses. The direct carbon-carbon connectivities observed in the multidimensional NMR spectra demonstrated that the hydrocarbon product by SmMDS is miltiradiene, a putative biosynthetic precursor of tanshinone identified from the Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza. Hence, SmMDS functions as a bifunctional miltiradiene synthase in S. moellendorffii. In this study, we demonstrate that one

  5. Multiple effects of phorbol esters on hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in S49 lymphoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.D.; Brunton, L.L.

    1987-06-01

    In S49 lymphoma cells, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) enhances adenylate cyclase activity and doubles cAMP accumulation in response to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation at 37/sup 0/C, putatively via the action of protein kinase C. at 27/sup 0/C, TPA has the opposite effect, inhibiting cAMP production in response to isoproterenol by approx. 25%. TPA also inhibits the response to prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/), another stimulant of hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase in these cells, by 30% at 37/sup 0/C and almost 50% at 27/sup 0/C. In contrast, TPA enhances responses to forskolin and cholera toxin at both 27 and 37/sup 0/C. In membranes from cells treated with TPA, PGE/sub 1/-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity is inhibited by 50%, whereas the catalytic activity stimulated by NaF or forskolin is enhanced. TPA reduces the potency of both PGE/sub 1/ and isoproterenol for cAMP generation by 50%. TPA causes a similar decrease in ..beta..-adrenergic agonist affinity with no reduction in the density of either antagonist of agonist binding sites in wild type cells and in cells lacking the ..cap alpha..-subunit of the stimulatory transducer protein (G/sub s/) (cyc/sup -/) or lacking functional receptor G/sub s/ coupling (UNC). Therefore, TPA has at least three functionally distinct effects on hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase in S49 cells. The authors conclude that multiple and opposing effects of TPA on hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase occur simultaneously within the same cell, affecting the responses to several agonists differently. In addition, the data offer a mechanism by which a cell can achieve heterogeneous efficacies to hormones that activate adenylate cyclase.

  6. Role of protein kinase C on the acute desensitization of renal cortical adenylate cyclase to parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Bellorin-Font, E; López, C; Díaz, K; Pernalete, N; López, M; Starosta, R

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms of adenylate cyclase desensitization to parathyroid hormone are still unclear. Current evidence suggest that the signal generated after PTH binding to receptors results in activation of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of phospholipase C with subsequent activation of protein kinase C. Recent studies have suggested a role of protein kinase C on the regulation of the PTH-dependent receptor-adenylate cyclase system in cultured cells. Therefore, the present studies were conducted to examine the role of protein kinase C on the desensitization of canine renal cortical adenylate cyclase after an acute exposure in vivo to PTH. A group of normal dogs were treated with a single intravenous injection of 1 microgram/k of syn bPTH (1-34) or Nle bPTH (3-34). Ten minutes later, animals were subjected to bilateral nephrectomy and the kidney cortex processed for preparations of basolateral membranes for determinations of adenylate cyclase activity, as well as membrane and cytosolic fractions for analysis of protein kinase C activity. Animals not treated with PTH were used as controls. PTH administration in vivo resulted in a 46.9 +/- 9.3% decrease in maximal adenylate cyclase activity in vitro in response to syn bPTH (1-34) (P < 0.001). Likewise, PTH binding as measured with 125I-Nle8,18,Tyr34-bPTH (1-34)NH2 showed a 40 +/- 3% decrease. This alterations were associated with a marked translocation of protein kinase C from the cytosol to the membrane. Thus, protein kinase C activity in membrane fractions increased from 160.6 +/- 44.8 pmol Pi/min in controls to 500.4 +/- 123 in PTH treated dogs (P < 0.03).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Tryptophan 232 within oxidosqualene-lanosterol cyclase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae influences rearrangement and deprotonation but not cyclization reactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tung-Kung; Yu, Mei-Ting; Liu, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Cheng-Hsian; Wang, Hsing-Ju; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2006-03-30

    [reaction: see text] Oxidosqualene-lanosterol cyclases convert oxidosqualene to lanosterol in yeast and mammals. Site-saturated mutants' construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxidosqualene-lanosterol cyclase, at Trp232 exchanges against proteinogenic amino acids, and product profiles are shown. All mutants, except Lys and Arg, produced protosta-12,24-dien-3beta-ol, lanosterol, and parkeol. Overall, Trp232 plays a catalytic role in the influence of rearrangement process and determination of deprotonation position but does not involve intervention in the cyclization steps.

  8. Soluble adenylyl cyclase accounts for high basal cCMP and cUMP concentrations in HEK293 and B103 cells.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Alan; Danker, Kerstin Y; Wolter, Sabine; Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard; Seifert, Roland

    2014-05-30

    Intact HEK293 cells and B103 neuroblastoma cells possess high basal concentrations of the established second messengers cAMP and cGMP and of the emerging second messengers cCMP and cUMP. We asked the question which nucleotidyl cyclase accounts for the high basal cNMP concentrations. Activators and inhibitors of soluble guanylyl cyclase had no major effects on cNMPs, and the activator of membranous adenylyl cyclase forsko