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Sample records for adp-ribosylation factors arfs

  1. Localization and characterization of the human ADP-ribosylation factor 5 (ARF5) gene

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.E. |; Daiger, S.P.; Green, E.D.

    1997-05-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor 5 (ARF5) is a member of the ARF gene family. The ARF proteins stimulate the in vitro ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and appear to play a role in vesicular trafficking in vivo. We have mapped ARF5, one of the six known mammalian ARF genes, to a well-defined yeast artificial chromosome contig on human chromosome 7q31.3. In addition, we have isolated and sequenced an {approximately}3.2-kb genomic segment that contains the entire ARF5 coding region, revealing the complete intron-exon structure of the gene. With six coding exons and five introns, the genomic structure of ARF5 is unique among the mammalian ARF genes and provides insight about the evolutionary history of this ancient gene family. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Structure of an ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF1, from Entamoeba histolytica bound to Mg(2+)-GDP.

    PubMed

    Serbzhinskiy, Dmitry A; Clifton, Matthew C; Sankaran, Banumathi; Staker, Bart L; Edwards, Thomas E; Myler, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amebiasis, a diarrheal disease which causes amoebic liver abscesses and amoebic colitis. Approximately 50 million people are infected worldwide with E. histolytica. With only 10% of infected people developing symptomatic amebiasis, there are still an estimated 100,000 deaths each year. Because of the emergence of resistant strains of the parasite, it is necessary to find a treatment which would be a proper response to this challenge. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is a member of the ARF family of GTP-binding proteins. These proteins are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells; they generally associate with cell membranes and regulate vesicular traffic and intracellular signalling. The crystal structure of ARF1 from E. histolytica has been determined bound to magnesium and GDP at 1.8 Å resolution. Comparison with other structures of eukaryotic ARF proteins shows a highly conserved structure and supports the interswitch toggle mechanism of communicating the conformational state to partner proteins.

  3. A presynaptic role for the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor msec7-1.

    PubMed

    Ashery, U; Koch, H; Scheuss, V; Brose, N; Rettig, J

    1999-02-01

    ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) represent a family of small monomeric G proteins that switch from an inactive, GDP-bound state to an active, GTP-bound state. One member of this family, ARF6, translocates on activation from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane and has been implicated in regulated exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. Because GDP release in vivo is rather slow, ARF activation is facilitated by specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors like cytohesin-1 or ARNO. Here we show that msec7-1, a rat homologue of cytohesin-1, translocates ARF6 to the plasma membrane in living cells. Overexpression of msec7-1 leads to an increase in basal synaptic transmission at the Xenopus neuromuscular junction. msec7-1-containing synapses have a 5-fold higher frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents than control synapses. On stimulation, the amplitudes of the resulting evoked postsynaptic currents of msec7-1-overexpressing neurons are increased as well. However, further stimulation leads to a decline in amplitudes approaching the values of control synapses. This transient effect on amplitude is strongly reduced on overexpression of msec7-1E157K, a mutant incapable of translocating ARFs. Our results provide evidence that small G proteins of the ARF family and activating factors like msec7-1 play an important role in synaptic transmission, most likely by making more vesicles available for fusion at the plasma membrane.

  4. Mechanism of activation of cholera toxin by ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF): both low- and high-affinity interactions of ARF with guanine nucleotides promote toxin activation.

    PubMed

    Bobak, D A; Bliziotes, M M; Noda, M; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Moss, J

    1990-01-30

    Activation of adenylyl cyclase by cholera toxin A subunit (CT-A) results from the ADP-ribosylation of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein (GS alpha). This process requires GTP and an endogenous guanine nucleotide binding protein known as ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF). One membrane (mARF) and two soluble forms (sARF I and sARF II) of ARF have been purified from bovine brain. Because the conditions reported to enhance the binding of guanine nucleotides by ARF differ from those observed to promote optimal activity, we sought to characterize the determinants influencing the functional interaction of guanine nucleotides with ARF. High-affinity GTP binding by sARF II (apparent KD of approximately 70 nM) required Mg2+, DMPC, and sodium cholate. sARF II, in DMPC/cholate, also enhanced CT-A ADP-ribosyltransferase activity (apparent EC50 for GTP of approximately 50 nM), although there was a delay before achievement of a maximal rate of sARF II stimulated toxin activity. The delay was abolished by incubation of sARF II with GTP at 30 degrees C before initiation of the assay. In contrast, a maximal rate of activation of toxin by sARF II, in 0.003% SDS, occurred without delay (apparent EC50 for GTP of approximately 5 microM). High-affinity GTP binding by sARF II was not detectable in SDS. Enhancement of CT-A ADP-ribosyltransferase activity by sARF II, therefore, can occur under conditions in which sARF II exhibits either a relatively low affinity or a relatively high affinity for GTP. The interaction of GTP with ARF under these conditions may reflect ways in which intracellular membrane and cytosolic environments modulate GTP-mediated activation of ARF.

  5. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 (ARF6) Promotes Acrosomal Exocytosis by Modulating Lipid Turnover and Rab3A Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Pelletán, Leonardo E.; Suhaiman, Laila; Vaquer, Cintia C.; Bustos, Matías A.; De Blas, Gerardo A.; Vitale, Nicolas; Mayorga, Luis S.; Belmonte, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Regulated secretion is a central issue for the specific function of many cells; for instance, mammalian sperm acrosomal exocytosis is essential for egg fertilization. ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) is a small GTPase implicated in exocytosis, but its downstream effectors remain elusive in this process. We combined biochemical, functional, and microscopy-based methods to show that ARF6 is present in human sperm, localizes to the acrosomal region, and is required for calcium and diacylglycerol-induced exocytosis. Results from pulldown assays show that ARF6 exchanges GDP for GTP in sperm challenged with different exocytic stimuli. Myristoylated and guanosine 5′-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPγS)-loaded ARF6 (active form) added to permeabilized sperm induces acrosome exocytosis even in the absence of extracellular calcium. We explore the ARF6 signaling cascade that promotes secretion. We demonstrate that ARF6 stimulates a sperm phospholipase D activity to produce phosphatidic acid and boosts the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. We present direct evidence showing that active ARF6 increases phospholipase C activity, causing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent intra-acrosomal calcium release. We show that active ARF6 increases the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rab3A, a prerequisite for secretion. We propose that exocytic stimuli activate ARF6, which is required for acrosomal calcium efflux and the assembly of the membrane fusion machinery. This report highlights the physiological importance of ARF6 as a key factor for human sperm exocytosis and fertilization. PMID:25713146

  6. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2011-09-26

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.

  7. A Luman/CREB3–ADP-ribosylation factor 4 (ARF4) signaling pathway mediates the response to Golgi stress and susceptibility to pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Reiling, Jan H.; Olive, Andrew J.; Sanyal, Sumana; Carette, Jan E.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Starnbach, Michael N.; Sabatini, David M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Treatment of cells with Brefeldin A (BFA) blocks secretory vesicle transport and causes a collapse of the Golgi apparatus. To gain more insight into the cellular mechanisms mediating BFA toxicity, we conducted a genome-wide haploid genetic screen that led to the identification of the small G protein ADP-ribosylation factor 4 (ARF4). ARF4 depletion preserves viability, Golgi integrity and cargo trafficking in the presence of BFA, and these effects depend on the guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1 and other ARF isoforms including ARF1 and ARF5. ARF4 knockdown cells show increased resistance to several human pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis and Shigella flexneri. Furthermore, ARF4 expression is induced when cells are exposed to several Golgi-disturbing agents and requires the CREB3/Luman transcription factor whose downregulation mimics ARF4 loss. Thus, we have uncovered a CREB3–ARF4 signaling cascade that may be part of a Golgi stress response set in motion by stimuli compromising Golgi capacity. PMID:24185178

  8. AMF-26, a novel inhibitor of the Golgi system, targeting ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) with potential for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Yoshimi; Iijima, Hiroshi; Yamaotsu, Noriyuki; Yamazaki, Kanami; Sato, Shigeo; Okamura, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Kenji; Dan, Shingo; Hirono, Shuichi; Yamori, Takao

    2012-02-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) plays a major role in mediating vesicular transport. Brefeldin A (BFA), a known inhibitor of the Arf1-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) interaction, is highly cytotoxic. Therefore, interaction of Arf1 with ArfGEF is an attractive target for cancer treatment. However, BFA and its derivatives have not progressed beyond the pre-clinical stage of drug development because of their poor bioavailability. Here, we aimed to identify novel inhibitors of the Arf1-ArfGEF interaction that display potent antitumor activity in vivo but with a chemical structure distinct from that of BFA. We exploited a panel of 39 cell lines (termed JFCR39) coupled with a drug sensitivity data base and COMPARE algorithm, resulting in the identification of a possible novel Arf1-ArfGEF inhibitor AMF-26, which differed structurally from BFA. By using a pulldown assay with GGA3-conjugated beads, we demonstrated that AMF-26 inhibited Arf1 activation. Subsequently, AMF-26 induced Golgi disruption, apoptosis, and cell growth inhibition. Computer modeling/molecular dynamics (MD) simulation suggested that AMF-26 bound to the contact surface of the Arf1-Sec7 domain where BFA bound. AMF-26 affected membrane traffic, including the cis-Golgi and trans-Golgi networks, and the endosomal systems. Furthermore, using AMF-26 and its derivatives, we demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between cell growth inhibition and Golgi disruption. In addition, orally administrated AMF-26 (83 mg/kg of body weight; 5 days) induced complete regression of human breast cancer BSY-1 xenografts in vivo, suggesting that AMF-26 is a novel anticancer drug candidate that inhibits the Golgi system, targeting Arf1 activation.

  9. ADP-ribosylation factor arf6p may function as a molecular switch of new end take off in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    Small GTPases act as molecular switches in a wide variety of cellular processes. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the directions of cell growth change from a monopolar manner to a bipolar manner, which is known as 'New End Take Off' (NETO). Here I report the identification of a gene, arf6{sup +}, encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPase, that may be essential for NETO. arf6{delta} cells completely fail to undergo NETO. arf6p localizes at both cell ends and presumptive septa in a cell-cycle dependent manner. And its polarized localization is not dependent on microtubules, actin cytoskeletons and some NETO factors (bud6p, for3p, tea1p, tea3p, and tea4p). Notably, overexpression of a fast GDP/GTP-cycling mutant of arf6p can advance the timing of NETO. These findings suggest that arf6p functions as a molecular switch for the activation of NETO in fission yeast.

  10. Differential interaction of ADP-ribosylation factors 1, 3, and 5 with rat brain Golgi membranes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Haun, R S; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1992-10-01

    Six mammalian ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) identified by cDNA cloning were expressed as recombinant proteins (rARFs) that stimulated cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Microsequencing of soluble ARFs I and II (sARFs I and II), purified from bovine brain, established that they are ARFs 1 and 3, respectively. Rabbit antibodies (IgG) against sARF II reacted similarly with ARFs 1, 2, and 3 (class I) on Western blots. ARFs 1 and 3 were distinguished by their electrophoretic mobilities. Antiserum against rARF 5 cross-reacted partially with rARF 4 but not detectably with rARF 6 and minimally with class I ARFs. Guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP[gamma S]) increased recovery of ARF activity and immunoreactivity in organelle fractions separated by density gradient centrifugation, after incubation of rat brain homogenate with ATP and a regenerating system. ARF 1 accumulated in microsomes plus Golgi and Golgi fractions, whereas ARF 5 seemed to localize more specifically in Golgi; the smaller increment in ARF 3 was distributed more evenly among fractions. On incubation of Golgi with a crude ARF fraction, GTP[gamma S], and an ATP-regenerating system, association of ARF activity with Golgi increased with increasing ATP concentration paralleled by increases in immunoreactive ARFs 1 and 5 and, to a lesser degree, ARF 3. Golgi incubated with GTP[gamma S] and purified ARF 1 or 3 bound more ARF 1 than ARF 3. Based on immunoreactivity and assay of ARF activity, individual ARFs 1, 3, and 5 appeared to behave independently and selectively in their GTP-dependent association with Golgi in vitro.

  11. Differential interaction of ADP-ribosylation factors 1, 3, and 5 with rat brain Golgi membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Haun, R S; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1992-01-01

    Six mammalian ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) identified by cDNA cloning were expressed as recombinant proteins (rARFs) that stimulated cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Microsequencing of soluble ARFs I and II (sARFs I and II), purified from bovine brain, established that they are ARFs 1 and 3, respectively. Rabbit antibodies (IgG) against sARF II reacted similarly with ARFs 1, 2, and 3 (class I) on Western blots. ARFs 1 and 3 were distinguished by their electrophoretic mobilities. Antiserum against rARF 5 cross-reacted partially with rARF 4 but not detectably with rARF 6 and minimally with class I ARFs. Guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP[gamma S]) increased recovery of ARF activity and immunoreactivity in organelle fractions separated by density gradient centrifugation, after incubation of rat brain homogenate with ATP and a regenerating system. ARF 1 accumulated in microsomes plus Golgi and Golgi fractions, whereas ARF 5 seemed to localize more specifically in Golgi; the smaller increment in ARF 3 was distributed more evenly among fractions. On incubation of Golgi with a crude ARF fraction, GTP[gamma S], and an ATP-regenerating system, association of ARF activity with Golgi increased with increasing ATP concentration paralleled by increases in immunoreactive ARFs 1 and 5 and, to a lesser degree, ARF 3. Golgi incubated with GTP[gamma S] and purified ARF 1 or 3 bound more ARF 1 than ARF 3. Based on immunoreactivity and assay of ARF activity, individual ARFs 1, 3, and 5 appeared to behave independently and selectively in their GTP-dependent association with Golgi in vitro. Images PMID:1409634

  12. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1 Regulates Proliferation, Migration, and Fusion in Early Stage of Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Gu, Dong Ryun; Lee, Soo Young; Lee, Kyunghee; Jeong, Daewon

    2015-01-01

    Small G-protein adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation factors (ARFs) regulate a variety of cellular functions, including actin cytoskeleton remodeling, plasma membrane reorganization, and vesicular transport. Here, we propose the functional roles of ARF1 in multiple stages of osteoclast differentiation. ARF1 was upregulated during receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and transiently activated in an initial stage of their differentiation. Differentiation of ARF1-deficient osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts temporarily increased in pre-maturation stage of osteoclasts followed by reduced formation of mature osteoclasts, indicating that ARF1 regulates the osteoclastogenic process. ARF1 deficiency resulted in reduced osteoclast precursor proliferation and migration as well as increasing cell-cell fusion. In addition, ARF1 silencing downregulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, osteopontin, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-receptor c-Fms as well as upregulating several fusion-related genes including CD44, CD47, E-cadherin, and meltrin-α. Collectively, we showed that ARF1 stimulated proliferation and migration of osteoclast precursors while suppressing their fusion, suggesting that ARF1 may be a plausible inter-player that mediates the transition to osteoclast fusion at multiple steps during osteoclast differentiation PMID:26690137

  13. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1 Regulates Proliferation, Migration, and Fusion in Early Stage of Osteoclast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Gu, Dong Ryun; Lee, Soo Young; Lee, Kyunghee; Jeong, Daewon

    2015-12-09

    Small G-protein adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation factors (ARFs) regulate a variety of cellular functions, including actin cytoskeleton remodeling, plasma membrane reorganization, and vesicular transport. Here, we propose the functional roles of ARF1 in multiple stages of osteoclast differentiation. ARF1 was upregulated during receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and transiently activated in an initial stage of their differentiation. Differentiation of ARF1-deficient osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts temporarily increased in pre-maturation stage of osteoclasts followed by reduced formation of mature osteoclasts, indicating that ARF1 regulates the osteoclastogenic process. ARF1 deficiency resulted in reduced osteoclast precursor proliferation and migration as well as increasing cell-cell fusion. In addition, ARF1 silencing downregulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, osteopontin, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-receptor c-Fms as well as upregulating several fusion-related genes including CD44, CD47, E-cadherin, and meltrin-α. Collectively, we showed that ARF1 stimulated proliferation and migration of osteoclast precursors while suppressing their fusion, suggesting that ARF1 may be a plausible inter-player that mediates the transition to osteoclast fusion at multiple steps during osteoclast differentiation.

  14. Small G proteins in peroxisome biogenesis: the potential involvement of ADP-ribosylation factor 6

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Peroxisomes execute diverse and vital functions in virtually every eukaryote. New peroxisomes form by budding from pre-existing organelles or de novo by vesiculation of the ER. It has been suggested that ADP-ribosylation factors and COPI coatomer complexes are involved in these processes. Results Here we show that all viable Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in one of the small GTPases which have an important role in the regulation of vesicular transport contain functional peroxisomes, and that the number of these organelles in oleate-grown cells is significantly upregulated in the arf1 and arf3 null strains compared to the wild-type strain. In addition, we provide evidence that a portion of endogenous Arf6, the mammalian orthologue of yeast Arf3, is associated with the cytoplasmic face of rat liver peroxisomes. Despite this, ablation of Arf6 did neither influence the regulation of peroxisome abundance nor affect the localization of peroxisomal proteins in cultured fetal hepatocytes. However, co-overexpression of wild-type, GTP hydrolysis-defective or (dominant-negative) GTP binding-defective forms of Arf1 and Arf6 caused mislocalization of newly-synthesized peroxisomal proteins and resulted in an alteration of peroxisome morphology. Conclusion These observations suggest that Arf6 is a key player in mammalian peroxisome biogenesis. In addition, they also lend strong support to and extend the concept that specific Arf isoform pairs may act in tandem to regulate exclusive trafficking pathways. PMID:19686593

  15. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of human ADP-ribosylation factors: Two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Bobak, D.A.; Nightingale, M.S.; Murtagh, J.J.; Price, S.R.; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M. )

    1989-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance the enzymatic activities of cholera toxin. Two ARF cDNAs, ARF1 and ARF3, were cloned from a human cerebellum library. Based on deduced amino acid sequences and patterns of hybridization of cDNA and oligonucleotide probes with mammalian brain poly(A){sup +} RNA, human ARF1 is the homologue of bovine ARF1. Human ARF3, which differs from bovine ARF1 and bovine ARF2, appears to represent a newly identified third type of ARF. Hybridization patterns of human ARF cDNA and clone-specific oligonucleotides with poly(A){sup +} RNA are consistent with the presence of at least two, and perhaps four, separate ARF messages in human brain. In vitro translation of ARF1, ARF2, and ARF3 produced proteins that behaved, by SDS/PAGE, similar to a purified soluble brain ARF. Deduced amino acid sequences of human ARF1 and ARF3 contain regions, similar to those in other G proteins, that are believed to be involved in GTP binding and hydrolysis. ARFS also exhibit a modest degree of homology with a bovine phospholipase C. The observations reported here support the conclusion that the ARFs are members of a multigene family of small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Definition of the regulation of ARF mRNAs and of function(s) of recombinant ARF proteins will aid in the elucidation of the physiologic role(s) of ARFs.

  16. Differential expression during development of ADP-ribosylation factors, 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding protein activators of cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Tsuchiya, M; Chang, P P; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1991-05-01

    Cholera toxin exerts its effects on cells in large part through the ADP-ribosylation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation is enhanced by approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins termed ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are allosteric activators of the toxin catalytic unit. Rabbit antiserum against a purified bovine brain ARF (sARF II) reacted on immunoblots with two approximately 20-kDa ARF-like proteins (sARF I and II) in tissue extracts from bovine, rat, frog, and chicken. Levels of ARF were higher in brain than in non-neural tissues. In rat brain, on the second postnatal day, amounts of sARF I and II were similar. By the 10th postnatal day and thereafter, sARF II predominated. Relative levels of ARF determined by immunoreactivity were in agreement with levels assessed in functional assays of cholera toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Based on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of human and bovine cDNAs, there appear to be at least six different ARF-like genes. Northern blots of rat brain poly(A)+ RNA were hybridized with cDNA and oligonucleotide probes specific for each of the human and bovine ARF genes. From the second to the 27th postnatal day, ARF 3 mRNA increased, whereas mRNAs for ARFs 2 and 4 decreased; and those for ARFs 1, 5, and 6 were apparently unchanged. Partial amino acid sequence of sARF II is consistent with it being either the ARF 1 or 3 gene product. The developmental changes in rat brain ARF parallel neuronal maturation and synapse formation.

  17. MARTX effector cross kingdom activation by Golgi-associated ADP-ribosylation factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung Sik; Satchell, Karla J F

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infects humans and causes lethal septicemia. The primary virulence factor is a multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin consisting of conserved repeats-containing regions and various effector domains. Recent genomic analyses for the newly emerged V. vulnificus biotype 3 strain revealed that its MARTX toxin has two previously unknown effector domains. Herein, we characterized one of these domains, Domain X (DmXVv ). A structure-based homology search revealed that DmXVv belongs to the C58B cysteine peptidase subfamily. When ectopically expressed in cells, DmXVv was autoprocessed and induced cytopathicity including Golgi dispersion. When the catalytic cysteine or the region flanking the scissile bond was mutated, both autoprocessing and cytopathicity were significantly reduced indicating that DmXVv cytopathicity is activated by amino-terminal autoprocessing. Consistent with this, host cell protein export was affected by Vibrio cells producing a toxin with wild-type, but not catalytically inactive, DmXVv . DmXVv was found to localize to Golgi and to directly interact with Golgi-associated ADP-ribosylation factors ARF1, ARF3 and ARF4, although ARF binding was not necessary for the subcellular localization. Rather, this interaction was found to induce autoprocessing of DmXVv . These data demonstrate that the V. vulnificus hijacks the host ARF proteins to activate the cytopathic DmXVv effector domain of MARTX toxin. PMID:26780191

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of human ADP-ribosylation factors: two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, D A; Nightingale, M S; Murtagh, J J; Price, S R; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1989-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance the enzymatic activities of cholera toxin. Two ARF cDNAs, ARF1 and ARF3, were cloned from a human cerebellum library. Based on deduced amino acid sequences and patterns of hybridization of cDNA and oligonucleotide probes with mammalian brain poly(A)+ RNA, human ARF1 is the homologue of bovine ARF1. Human ARF3, which differs from bovine ARF1 and bovine ARF2, appears to represent a newly identified third type of ARF. Hybridization patterns of human ARF cDNA and clone-specific oligonucleotides with poly(A)+ RNA are consistent with the presence of at least two, and perhaps four, separate ARF messages in human brain. In vitro translation of ARF1, ARF2, and ARF3 produced proteins that behaved, by SDS/PAGE, similar to a purified soluble brain ARF. Deduced amino acid sequences of human ARF1 and ARF3 contain regions, similar to those in other G proteins, that are believed to be involved in GTP binding and hydrolysis. ARFs also exhibit a modest degree of homology with a bovine phospholipase C. The observations reported here support the conclusion that the ARFs are members of a multigene family of small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Definition of the regulation of ARF mRNAs and of function(s) of recombinant ARF proteins will aid in the elucidation of the physiologic role(s) of ARFs. Images PMID:2474826

  19. GTP but not GDP analogues promote association of ADP-ribosylation factors, 20-kDa protein activators of cholera toxin, with phospholipids and PC-12 cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Walker, M W; Bobak, D A; Tsai, S C; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1992-02-15

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins initially identified by their ability to enhance cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in the presence of GTP. ARFs have been purified from both membrane and cytosolic fractions. ARF purified from bovine brain cytosol requires phospholipid plus detergent for high affinity guanine nucleotide binding and for optimal enhancement of cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The phospholipid requirements, combined with a putative role for ARF in vesicular transport, suggested that the soluble protein might interact reversibly with membranes. A polyclonal antibody against purified bovine ARF (sARF II) was used to detect ARF by immunoblot in membrane and soluble fractions from rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cell homogenates. ARF was predominantly cytosolic but increased in membranes during incubation of homogenates with nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), guanylyl-(beta gamma-imido)-diphosphate, and guanylyl-(beta gamma-methylene)-diphosphate, and to a lesser extent, adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). GTP, GDP, GMP, and ATP were inactive. Cytosolic ARF similarly associated with added phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, or cardiolipin in GTP gamma S-dependent fashion. ARF binding to phosphatidylserine was reversible and coincident with stimulation of cholera toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. These observations may reflect a mechanism by which ARF could cycle between soluble and membrane compartments in vivo.

  20. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm. PMID:20435371

  1. Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance choleragen ADP-ribosyltransferase activity: nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of an ADP-ribosylation factor cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Price, S R; Nightingale, M; Tsai, S C; Williamson, K C; Adamik, R; Chen, H C; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1988-01-01

    Three (two soluble and one membrane) guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) that enhance ADP-ribosylation of the Gs alpha stimulatory subunit of the adenylyl cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) complex by choleragen have recently been purified from bovine brain. To further define the structure and function of these ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), we isolated a cDNA clone (lambda ARF2B) from a bovine retinal library by screening with a mixed heptadecanucleotide probe whose sequence was based on the partial amino acid sequence of one of the soluble ARFs from bovine brain. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of lambda ARF2B with sequences of peptides from the ARF protein (total of 60 amino acids) revealed only two differences. Whether these are cloning artifacts or reflect the existence of more than one ARF protein remains to be determined. Deduced amino acid sequences of ARF, Go alpha (the alpha subunit of a G protein that may be involved in regulation of ion fluxes), and c-Ha-ras gene product p21 show similarities in regions believed to be involved in guanine nucleotide binding and GTP hydrolysis. ARF apparently lacks a site analogous to that ADP-ribosylated by choleragen in G-protein alpha subunits. Although both the ARF proteins and the alpha subunits bind guanine nucleotides and serve as choleragen substrates, they must interact with the toxin A1 peptide in different ways. In addition to serving as an ADP-ribose acceptor, ARF interacts with the toxin in a manner that modifies its catalytic properties. PMID:3135549

  2. Structure, organization and evolution of ADP-ribosylation factors in rice and foxtail millet, and their expression in rice

    PubMed Central

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Mangu, Venkata R.; Zandkarimi, Hana; Prasad, Manoj; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) have been reported to function in diverse physiological and molecular activities. Recent evidences also demonstrate the involvement of ARFs in conferring tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plant species. In the present study, 23 and 25 ARF proteins were identified in C3 model- rice and C4 model- foxtail millet, respectively. These proteins are classified into four classes (I–IV) based on phylogenetic analysis, with ARFs in classes I–III and ARF-like proteins (ARLs) in class IV. Sequence alignment and domain analysis revealed the presence of conserved and additional motifs, which may contribute to neo- and sub-functionalization of these proteins. Promoter analysis showed the presence of several cis-regulatory elements related to stress and hormone response, indicating their role in stress regulatory network. Expression analysis of rice ARFs and ARLs in different tissues, stresses and abscisic acid treatment highlighted temporal and spatial diversification of gene expression. Five rice cultivars screened for allelic variations in OsARF genes showed the presence of allelic polymorphisms in few gene loci. Altogether, the study provides insights on characteristics of ARF/ARL genes in rice and foxtail millet, which could be deployed for further functional analysis to extrapolate their precise roles in abiotic stress responses. PMID:27097755

  3. Characterization of two novel ADP ribosylation factors from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their responses to WSSV challenge.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zheng-Feng; Ren, Jie; Tan, Jing-Min; Wang, Zheng; Yin, Shao-Wu; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Ren, Qian

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) are small GTP-binding proteins that have an essential function in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. To date, little information is available on the Arfs in the economically important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their relationship to viral infection. Here we identified two Arf genes from M. rosenbergii (MrArf1 and MrArf2) for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrArf1, together with MjArf1 from shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus belonged to Class I Arfs. By contrast, MrArf2 didn't not match any of the Arfs classes of I/II/III, although it could be clustered with an Arf protein from M. japonicas called MjArfn, which may represent an analog of the Arf. MrArf1 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues, with the highest transcription level in the hepatopancreas, whereas MrArf2 was only highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and exhibited very low levels in the heart, stomach, gills and intestine. The expression level of MrArf1 in the gills was down-regulated post 24 h WSSV challenge, and reached the maximal level at 48 h. MrArf1 in the hepatopancreas went up from 24 to 48 h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 transcript in the gill also went down at 24 h and then was upregulated at 48 h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 increased significantly in the hepatopancreas 24 h after infection and then went down at 48 h WSSV challenge. RNAi results showed that knockdown of MrArf1 or MrArf2 could inhibit the expression of the envelope protein gene vp28 of the WSSV. So, it could be speculated that MrArf1 and MrArf2 might play important roles in the innate immune system against WSSV infection.

  4. Identification of a brefeldin A-insensitive guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP-ribosylation factor in bovine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1994-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that participate in vesicular transport in the Golgi and other intracellular compartments and stimulate cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. ARFs are active in the GTP-bound form; hydrolysis of bound GTP to GDP, possibly with the assistance of a GTP hydrolysis (GTPase)-activating protein results in inactivation. Exchange of GDP for GTP and reactivation were shown by other workers to be enhanced by Golgi membranes in a brefeldin A-sensitive reaction, leading to the proposal that the guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (GEP) was a target of brefeldin A. In the studies reported here, a soluble GEP was partially purified from bovine brain. Exchange of nucleotide on ARFs 1 and 3, based on increased ARF activity in a toxin assay and stimulation of binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate, was dependent on phospholipids, with phosphatidylserine being more effective than cardiolipin. GEP appeared to increase the rate of nucleotide exchange but did not affect the affinity of ARF for GTP. Whereas the crude GEP had a size of approximately 700 kDa, the partially purified GEP behaved on Ultrogel AcA 54 as a protein of 60 kDa. With purification, the GEP activity became insensitive to brefeldin A, consistent with the conclusion that, in contrast to earlier inferences, the exchange protein is not itself the target of brefeldin A. PMID:8159707

  5. An Entamoeba histolytica ADP-ribosyl transferase from the diphtheria toxin family modifies the bacterial elongation factor Tu.

    PubMed

    Avila, Eva E; Rodriguez, Orlando I; Marquez, Jaqueline A; Berghuis, Albert M

    2016-06-01

    ADP-ribosyl transferases are enzymes involved in the post-translational modification of proteins; they participate in multiple physiological processes, pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. Several reports have characterized the functions of these enzymes in viruses, prokaryotes and higher eukaryotes, but few studies have reported ADP-ribosyl transferases in lower eukaryotes, such as parasites. The locus EHI_155600 from Entamoeba histolytica encodes a hypothetical protein that possesses a domain from the ADP-ribosylation superfamily; this protein belongs to the diphtheria toxin family according to a homology model using poly-ADP-ribosyl polymerase 12 (PARP12 or ARTD12) as a template. The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited in vitro ADP-ribosylation activity that was dependent on the time and temperature. Unlabeled βNAD(+), but not ADP-ribose, competed in the enzymatic reaction using biotin-βNAD(+) as the ADP-ribose donor. The recombinant enzyme, denominated EhToxin-like, auto-ADP-ribosylated and modified an acceptor from E. coli that was identified by MS/MS as the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to identify an ADP-ribosyl transferase from the diphtheria toxin family in a protozoan parasite. The known toxins from this family (i.e., the diphtheria toxin, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin Exo-A, and Cholix from Vibrio cholerae) modify eukaryotic elongation factor two (eEF-2), whereas the amoeba EhToxin-like modified EF-Tu, which is another elongation factor involved in protein synthesis in bacteria and mitochondria. PMID:27234208

  6. The TITAN5 gene of Arabidopsis encodes a protein related to the ADP ribosylation factor family of GTP binding proteins.

    PubMed

    McElver, J; Patton, D; Rumbaugh, M; Liu, C; Yang, L J; Meinke, D

    2000-08-01

    The titan (ttn) mutants of Arabidopsis exhibit dramatic alterations in mitosis and cell cycle control during seed development. Endosperm development in these mutants is characterized by the formation of giant polyploid nuclei with enlarged nucleoli. Embryo development is accompanied by significant cell enlargement in some mutants (ttn1 and ttn5) but not others (ttn2 and ttn3). We describe here the molecular cloning of TTN5 using a T-DNA-tagged allele. A second allele with a similar phenotype contains a nonsense mutation in the same coding region. The predicted protein is related to ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs), members of the RAS family of small GTP binding proteins that regulate various cellular functions in eukaryotes. TTN5 is most closely related in sequence to the ARL2 class of ARF-like proteins isolated from humans, rats, and mice. Although the cellular functions of ARL proteins remain unclear, the ttn5 phenotype is consistent with the known roles of ARFs in the regulation of intracellular vesicle transport.

  7. Total synthesis of AMF-26, an antitumor agent for inhibition of the Golgi system, targeting ADP-ribosylation factor 1.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Isamu; Umezaki, Yuma; Ohashi, Yoshimi; Yamazaki, Yuta; Dan, Shingo; Yamori, Takao

    2013-01-10

    An effective method for the total synthesis of 1 (AMF-26), a potentially promising new anticancer drug that disrupts the Golgi system by inhibiting the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) activation, has been developed for the first time. The construction of the chiral linear precursor (a key to the synthesis) was achieved by the asymmetric aldol reaction followed by the computer-assisted predictive stereoselective intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction. The global antitumor activity of the totally synthetic 1 against a variety of human cancer cells was assessed using a panel of 39 human cancer cell lines (JFCR39), and it was shown that the synthetic 1 strongly inhibited the growth of several cancer cell lines at concentrations of less than 0.04 μM. Biological assays of novel derivatives, 26 and 31, which have different side-chains at the C-4 positions in the Δ¹,²-octalin backbone, disclosed the importance of the suitable structure of the side-chain containing conjugated multidouble bonds.

  8. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Mammalian Myoblast Fusion through Phospholipase D1 and Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Anne-Sophie; Enjalbert, Sandrine; Comunale, Franck; Bodin, Stéphane; Vitale, Nicolas; Charrasse, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Myoblast fusion is an essential step during myoblast differentiation that remains poorly understood. M-cadherin–dependent pathways that signal through Rac1 GTPase activation via the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Trio are important for myoblast fusion. The ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)6 GTPase has been shown to bind to Trio and to regulate Rac1 activity. Moreover, Loner/GEP100/BRAG2, a GEF of ARF6, has been involved in mammalian and Drosophila myoblast fusion, but the specific role of ARF6 has been not fully analyzed. Here, we show that ARF6 activity is increased at the time of myoblast fusion and is required for its implementation in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Specifically, at the onset of myoblast fusion, ARF6 is associated with the multiproteic complex that contains M-cadherin, Trio, and Rac1 and accumulates at sites of myoblast fusion. ARF6 silencing inhibits the association of Trio and Rac1 with M-cadherin. Moreover, we demonstrate that ARF6 regulates myoblast fusion through phospholipase D (PLD) activation and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate production. Together, these data indicate that ARF6 is a critical regulator of C2C12 myoblast fusion and participates in the regulation of PLD activities that trigger both phospholipids production and actin cytoskeleton reorganization at fusion sites. PMID:20505075

  9. ADP-ribosylation factor 1 controls the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway to regulate epidermal growth factor-dependent growth and migration of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Pierre-Luc; Cotton, Mathieu; Melançon, Paul; Claing, Audrey

    2008-12-26

    Activation of intracellular signaling pathways by growth factors is one of the major causes of cancer development and progression. Recent studies have demonstrated that monomeric G proteins of the Ras family are key regulators of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Using an invasive breast cancer cell lines, we demonstrate that the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1), a small GTPase classically associated with the Golgi, is an important regulator of the biological effects induced by epidermal growth factor. Here, we show that this ARF isoform is activated following epidermal growth factor stimulation and that, in MDA-MB-231 cells, ARF1 is found in dynamic plasma membrane ruffles. Inhibition of endogenous ARF1 expression results in the inhibition of breast cancer cell migration and proliferation. The underlying mechanism involves the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Our data demonstrate that depletion of ARF1 markedly impairs the recruitment of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit (p110alpha) to the plasma membrane, and the association of the regulatory subunit (p85alpha) to the activated receptor. These results uncover a novel molecular mechanism by which ARF1 regulates breast cancer cell growth and invasion during cancer progression.

  10. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex through FIP3/Arfophilin-1-dependent Endosomal Trafficking of N-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yoshinobu; Fukaya, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Kawauchi, Takeshi; Nakajima, Kazunori; Sakagami, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 family-interacting protein 3 (FIP3)/Arfophilin-1, a dual effector for Arf6 and Rab11, as a downstream effector of Arf6 in migrating neurons. The knockdown of FIP3 led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin in migrating neurons, similar to that of Arf6, which could be rescued by the coexpression of wild-type FIP3 but not FIP3 mutants lacking the binding site for Arf6 or Rab11. These results suggest that Arf6 regulates cortical neuronal migration in the intermediate zone through the FIP3-dependent endosomal trafficking. PMID:27622210

  11. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex through FIP3/Arfophilin-1-dependent Endosomal Trafficking of N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yoshinobu; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 family-interacting protein 3 (FIP3)/Arfophilin-1, a dual effector for Arf6 and Rab11, as a downstream effector of Arf6 in migrating neurons. The knockdown of FIP3 led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin in migrating neurons, similar to that of Arf6, which could be rescued by the coexpression of wild-type FIP3 but not FIP3 mutants lacking the binding site for Arf6 or Rab11. These results suggest that Arf6 regulates cortical neuronal migration in the intermediate zone through the FIP3-dependent endosomal trafficking.

  12. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 Regulates Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex through FIP3/Arfophilin-1-dependent Endosomal Trafficking of N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yoshinobu; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 family-interacting protein 3 (FIP3)/Arfophilin-1, a dual effector for Arf6 and Rab11, as a downstream effector of Arf6 in migrating neurons. The knockdown of FIP3 led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin in migrating neurons, similar to that of Arf6, which could be rescued by the coexpression of wild-type FIP3 but not FIP3 mutants lacking the binding site for Arf6 or Rab11. These results suggest that Arf6 regulates cortical neuronal migration in the intermediate zone through the FIP3-dependent endosomal trafficking. PMID:27622210

  13. Selective amplification of an mRNA and related pseudogene for a human ADP-ribosylation factor, a guanine nucleotide-dependent protein activator of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Monaco, L.; Murtagh, J.J.; Newman, K.B.; Tsai, Su-Chen; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M. )

    1990-03-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are {approx}20-kDa proteins that act as GTP-dependent allosteric activators of cholera toxin. With deoxyinosine-containing degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to conserved GTP-binding domains in ARFs, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify simultaneously from human DNA portions of three ARF genes that include codons for 102 amino acids, with intervening sequences. Amplification products that differed in size because of differences in intron sizes were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. One amplified DNA contained no introns and had a sequence different from those of known AFRs. Based on this sequence, selective oligonucleotide probes were prepared and used to isolate clone {Psi}ARF 4, a putative ARF pseudogene, from a human genomic library in {lambda} phage EMBL3. Reverse transcription-PCR was then used to clone from human poly(A){sup +} RNA the cDNA corresponding to the expressed homolog of {Psi}ARF 4, referred to as human ARF 4. It appears that {Psi}ARF 4 arose during human evolution by integration of processed ARF 4 mRNA into the genome. Human ARF 4 differs from previously identified mammalian ARFs 1, 2, and 3. Hybridization of ARF 4-specific oligonucleotide probes with human, bovine, and rat RNA revealed a single 1.8-kilobase mRNA, which was clearly distinguished from the 1.9-kilobase mRNA for ARF 1 in these tissues. The PCR provides a powerful tool for investigating diversity in this and other multigene families, especially with primers targeted at domains believed to have functional significance.

  14. Modes of Action of ADP-Ribosylated Elongation Factor 2 in Inhibiting the Polypeptide Elongation Cycle: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kevin C.; Xie, Honglin; Cai, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EF2) leads to inhibition of protein synthesis, the mechanism by which ADP-ribosylated EF2 (ADPR•EF2) causes this inhibition remains controversial. Here, we applied modeling approaches to investigate the consequences of various modes of ADPR•EF2 inhibitory actions on the two coupled processes, the polypeptide chain elongation and ADP-ribosylation of EF2. Modeling of experimental data indicates that ADPR•EF2 fully blocks the late-phase translocation of tRNAs; but the impairment in the translocation upstream process, mainly the GTP-dependent factor binding with the pretranslocation ribosome and/or the guanine nucleotide exchange in EF2, is responsible for the overall inhibition kinetics. The reduced ADPR•EF2-ribosome association spares the ribosome to bind and shield native EF2 against toxin attack, thereby deferring the inhibition of protein synthesis inhibition and inactivation of EF2. Minimum association with the ribosome also keeps ADPR•EF2 in an accessible state for toxins to catalyze the reverse reaction when nicotinamide becomes available. Our work underscores the importance of unveiling the interactions between ADPR•EF2 and the ribosome, and argues against that toxins inhibit protein synthesis through converting native EF2 to a competitive inhibitor to actively disable the ribosome. PMID:23861744

  15. Functional genomic analysis of the ADP-ribosylation factor family of GTPases: phylogeny among diverse eukaryotes and function in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Li, Yawei; Kelly, William G; Logsdon, John M; Schurko, Andrew M; Harfe, Brian D; Hill-Harfe, Katherine L; Kahn, Richard A

    2004-12-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) and Arf-like (Arl) proteins are a family of highly conserved 21 kDa GTPases that emerged early in the evolution of eukaryotes. These proteins serve regulatory roles in vesicular traffic, lipid metabolism, microtubule dynamics, development, and likely other cellular processes. We found evidence for the presence of 6 Arf family members in the protist Giardia lamblia and 22 members in mammals. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to delineate the evolutionary relationships among Arf family members and to attempt to organize them by both their evolutionary origins and functions in cells and/or organisms. The approximately 100 protein sequences analyzed from animals, fungi, plants, and protists clustered into 11 groups, including Arfs, nine Arls, and Sar proteins. To begin functional analyses of the family in a metazoan model organism, we examined roles for all three C. elegans Arfs (Arf-1, Arf-3, and Arf-6) and three Arls (Arl-1, Arl-2, and Arl-3) by use of RNA-mediated interference (RNAi). Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) encoding Arf-1 or Arf-3 into N2 hermaphrodites produced embryonic lethality in their offspring and, later, sterility in the injected animals themselves. Injection of Arl-2 dsRNA resulted in a disorganized germline and sterility in early offspring, with later offspring exhibiting an early embryonic arrest. Thus, of the six Arf family members examined in C. elegans, at least three are required for embryogenesis. These data represent the first analysis of the role(s) of multiple members of this family in the development of a multicellular organism.

  16. ADP ribosylation factor like 2 (Arl2) protein influences microtubule dynamics in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Beghin, Anne . E-mail: anne.beghin@recherche.univ-lyon1.fr; Honore, Stephane; Messana, Celine; Matera, Eva-Laure; Aim, Jennifer; Burlinchon, Sandrine; Braguer, Diane; Dumontet, Charles

    2007-02-01

    ADP ribosylation factor like 2 (Arl2) protein is involved in the folding of tubulin peptides. Variants of the human adenocarcinoma line MCF7 cells with increased or reduced content of Arl2 protein were produced and characterized. Western blot analysis performed after separation of the different fractions of tubulins showed that the content in polymerizable soluble heterodimers was significantly increased in cells with the highest Arl2 expression level (MA+) and reduced in cells with the lowest Arl2 expression level (MA-) in comparison to control cells (MP). Microtubule dynamic instability, measured after microinjection of rhodamine-labelled tubulin in living cells, was significantly enhanced in MA+ cells and reduced in MA- cells. These alterations involved modifications of the microtubule growth and shortening rates, duration of attenuation phases, percentage of time spent in each phase (growth, shortening and attenuation) and catastrophe frequency. We also observed modifications in the expression level of the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2Ac, which has been shown to form a complex with Arl2. Finally, cell cycle progression was modified in these cells, particularly in regard to duration of telophase. In summary, alterations in Arl2 protein content were found to be associated with modifications in tubulin pools, microtubule dynamics as well as cell cycle progression.

  17. The Structure of RalF, an ADP-Ribosylation Factor Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor from Legionella pneumophila, Reveals the Presence of a Cap over the Active Site

    SciTech Connect

    Amor,J.; Swails, J.; Zhu, X.; Roy, C.; Nagai, H.; Ingmundson, A.; Cheng, X.; Kahn, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Legionella pneumophila protein RalF is secreted into host cytosol via the Dot/Icm type IV transporter where it acts to recruit ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) to pathogen-containing phagosomes in the establishment of a replicative organelle. The presence in RalF of the Sec7 domain, present in all Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors, has suggested that recruitment of Arf is an early step in pathogenesis. We have determined the crystal structure of RalF and of the isolated Sec7 domain and found that RalF is made up of two domains. The Sec7 domain is homologous to mammalian Sec7 domains. The C-terminal domain forms a cap over the active site in the Sec7 domain and contains a conserved folding motif, previously observed in adaptor subunits of vesicle coat complexes. The importance of the capping domain and of the glutamate in the 'glutamic finger,' conserved in all Sec7 domains, to RalF functions was examined using three different assays. These data highlight the functional importance of domains other than Sec7 in Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors to biological activities and suggest novel mechanisms of regulation of those activities.

  18. Solution structure of the cytohesin-1 (B2–1) Sec7 domain and its interaction with the GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Stephen F.; Schnuchel, Arndt; Wang, Hong; Olejniczak, Edward T.; Meadows, Robert P.; Lipsky, Brian P.; Harris, Edith A. S.; Staunton, Donald E.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    1998-01-01

    Cytohesin-1 (B2–1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for human ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases, which are important for vesicular protein trafficking and coatamer assembly in the cell. Cytohesin-1 also has been reported to promote cellular adhesion via binding to the β2 integrin cytoplasmic domain. The solution structure of the Sec7 domain of cytohesin-1, which is responsible for both the protein’s guanine nucleotide exchange factor function and β2 integrin binding, was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The structure consists of 10 α-helices that form a unique tertiary fold. The binding between the Sec7 domain and a soluble, truncated version of human Arf-1 was investigated by examining 1H-15N and 1H-13C chemical shift changes between the native protein and the Sec7/Arf-1 complex. We show that the binding to Arf-1 occurs through a large surface on the C-terminal subdomain that is composed of both hydrophobic and polar residues. Structure-based mutational analysis of the cytohesin-1 Sec7 domain has been used to identify residues important for binding to Arf and for mediating nucleotide exchange. Investigations into the interaction between the Sec7 domain and the β2 integrin cytoplasmic domain suggest that the two proteins do not interact in the solution phase. PMID:9653114

  19. GB virus type C E2 protein inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag assembly by downregulating human ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenliang; Timmons, Christine L.; Shao, Qiujia; Kinlock, Ballington L.; Turner, Tiffany M.; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Huanliang; Liu, Bindong

    2015-01-01

    GB virus type C (GBV-C) glycoprotein E2 protein disrupts HIV-1 assembly and release by inhibiting Gag plasma membrane targeting, however the mechanism by which the GBV-C E2 inhibits Gag trafficking remains unclear. In the present study, we identified ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) contributed to the inhibitory effect of GBV-C E2 on HIV-1 Gag membrane targeting. Expression of GBV-C E2 decreased ARF1 expression in a proteasomal degradation-dependent manner. The restoration of ARF1 expression rescued the HIV-1 Gag processing and membrane targeting defect imposed by GBV-C E2. In addition, GBV-C E2 expression also altered Golgi morphology and suppressed protein traffic through the secretory pathway, which are all consistent with a phenotype of disrupting the function of ARF1 protein. Thus, our results indicate that GBV-C E2 inhibits HIV-1 assembly and release by decreasing ARF1, and may provide insights regarding GBV-C E2's potential for a new therapeutic approach for treating HIV-1. PMID:26675377

  20. Characterization of ADP ribosylation factor 1 gene from Exopalaemon carinicauda and its immune response to pathogens challenge and ammonia-N stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jitao; Liu, Ping

    2016-08-01

    ADP ribosylation factors (Arf), as highly conserved small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins, participates in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. In this study, a full-length cDNA of Arf1 (designated EcArf1) was cloned from Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EcArf1 was 1428 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 549 bp, encoding a 182 amino-acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 20.69 kDa and estimated isoelectric point was 7.24. Sequence analysis revealed that the conserved Arf protein family signatures were identified in EcArf1. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcArf1 shared high identity (95%-98%) with that of other species and clustered together with Arf1 of other shrimp in the NJ phylogenetic tree, indicating that EcArf1 should be a member of the Arf1 family. Quantitative real-time RT-qPCR analysis indicated that EcArf1 was expressed in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, muscle, ovary, intestine, stomach and heart, and the most abundant level was in hemocytes and gills, which were also the two main target tissues of pathogen infection and environmental stress. After Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge, EcArf1 transcripts level significantly increased in hemocytes and hepatopancreas at 3 h and 6 h, respectively. The expression of EcArf1 in hemocytes and hepatopancreas significantly up-regulated at 12 h and 6 h respectively, and down-regulated at 72 h and 48 h, respectively. EcArf1 expression in hepatopancreas and gills both significantly increased at 6 h and decreased at 24 h under ammonia-N stress. The results suggested that EcArf1 might be involved in immune responses to pathogens (V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV) challenge and ammonia-N stress in E. carinicauda. PMID:27231192

  1. Characterization of ADP ribosylation factor 1 gene from Exopalaemon carinicauda and its immune response to pathogens challenge and ammonia-N stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jitao; Liu, Ping

    2016-08-01

    ADP ribosylation factors (Arf), as highly conserved small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins, participates in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. In this study, a full-length cDNA of Arf1 (designated EcArf1) was cloned from Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EcArf1 was 1428 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 549 bp, encoding a 182 amino-acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 20.69 kDa and estimated isoelectric point was 7.24. Sequence analysis revealed that the conserved Arf protein family signatures were identified in EcArf1. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcArf1 shared high identity (95%-98%) with that of other species and clustered together with Arf1 of other shrimp in the NJ phylogenetic tree, indicating that EcArf1 should be a member of the Arf1 family. Quantitative real-time RT-qPCR analysis indicated that EcArf1 was expressed in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, muscle, ovary, intestine, stomach and heart, and the most abundant level was in hemocytes and gills, which were also the two main target tissues of pathogen infection and environmental stress. After Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge, EcArf1 transcripts level significantly increased in hemocytes and hepatopancreas at 3 h and 6 h, respectively. The expression of EcArf1 in hemocytes and hepatopancreas significantly up-regulated at 12 h and 6 h respectively, and down-regulated at 72 h and 48 h, respectively. EcArf1 expression in hepatopancreas and gills both significantly increased at 6 h and decreased at 24 h under ammonia-N stress. The results suggested that EcArf1 might be involved in immune responses to pathogens (V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV) challenge and ammonia-N stress in E. carinicauda.

  2. ADP-ribosylation Factor-related Protein 1 Interacts with NS5A and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Propagation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun-Sook; Ngo, Huong T T; Lee, Jihye; Son, Kidong; Park, Eun-Mee; Hwang, Soon B

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is tightly coupled to the lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have previously screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet (LD) formation using cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. In this study, we selected and characterized the gene encoding ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1). ARFRP1 is essential for LD growth and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ARFRP1 significantly inhibited HCV replication in both subgenomic replicon cells and HCVcc-infected cells. ARFRP1 interacted with NS5A and NS5A partially colocalized with LD. Silencing of ARFRP1 abrogated HCV-induced LD growth and viral protein expressions. Moreover, ARFRP1 recruited synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) to sites in close proximity to LDs in HCV-infected cells. Silencing of ARFRP1 ablated relocalization of SNAP23 to LD. These data indicate that HCV regulates ARFRP1 for LD growth to facilitate viral propagation and thus ARFRP1 may be a potential target for antiviral therapy. PMID:27550144

  3. ADP-ribosylation Factor-related Protein 1 Interacts with NS5A and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun-Sook; Ngo, Huong T. T.; Lee, Jihye; Son, Kidong; Park, Eun-Mee; Hwang, Soon B.

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is tightly coupled to the lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have previously screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet (LD) formation using cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. In this study, we selected and characterized the gene encoding ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1). ARFRP1 is essential for LD growth and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ARFRP1 significantly inhibited HCV replication in both subgenomic replicon cells and HCVcc-infected cells. ARFRP1 interacted with NS5A and NS5A partially colocalized with LD. Silencing of ARFRP1 abrogated HCV-induced LD growth and viral protein expressions. Moreover, ARFRP1 recruited synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) to sites in close proximity to LDs in HCV-infected cells. Silencing of ARFRP1 ablated relocalization of SNAP23 to LD. These data indicate that HCV regulates ARFRP1 for LD growth to facilitate viral propagation and thus ARFRP1 may be a potential target for antiviral therapy. PMID:27550144

  4. Cholix Toxin, a Novel ADP-ribosylating Factor from Vibrio cholerae

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Rene; Purdy, Alexandra E.; Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Kimber, Matthew S.; Bartlett, Douglas H.; Merrill, A. Rod

    2008-07-15

    The ADP-ribosyltransferases are a class of enzymes that display activity in a variety of bacterial pathogens responsible for causing diseases in plants and animals, including those affecting mankind, such as diphtheria, cholera, and whooping cough. We report the characterization of a novel toxin from Vibrio cholerae, which we call cholix toxin. The toxin is active against mammalian cells (IC50 = 4.6 {+-} 0.4 ng/ml) and crustaceans (Artemia nauplii LD50 = 10 {+-} 2 {mu}g/ml). Here we show that this toxin is the third member of the diphthamide-specific class of ADP-ribose transferases and that it possesses specific ADP-ribose transferase activity against ribosomal eukaryotic elongation factor 2. We also describe the high resolution crystal structures of the multidomain toxin and its catalytic domain at 2.1- and 1.25-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The new structural data show that cholix toxin possesses the necessary molecular features required for infection of eukaryotes by receptor-mediated endocytosis, translocation to the host cytoplasm, and inhibition of protein synthesis by specific modification of elongation factor 2. The crystal structures also provide important insight into the structural basis for activation of toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. These results indicate that cholix toxin may be an important virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae that likely plays a significant role in the survival of the organism in an aquatic environment.

  5. Exocytosis of CTLA-4 is dependent on phospholipase D and ADP ribosylation factor-1 and stimulated during activation of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Mead, Karen I; Zheng, Yong; Manzotti, Claire N; Perry, Laura C A; Liu, Michael K P; Burke, Fiona; Powner, Dale J; Wakelam, Michael J O; Sansom, David M

    2005-04-15

    CTLA-4 is an essential protein in the regulation of T cell responses that interacts with two ligands found on the surface of APCs (CD80 and CD86). CTLA-4 is itself poorly expressed on the T cell surface and is predominantly localized to intracellular compartments. We have studied the mechanisms involved in the delivery of CTLA-4 to the cell surface using a model Chinese hamster ovary cell system and compared this with activated and regulatory human T cells. We have shown that expression of CTLA-4 at the plasma membrane (PM) is controlled by exocytosis of CTLA-4-containing vesicles and followed by rapid endocytosis. Using selective inhibitors and dominant negative mutants, we have shown that exocytosis of CTLA-4 is dependent on the activity of the GTPase ADP ribosylation factor-1 and on phospholipase D activity. CTLA-4 was identified in a perinuclear compartment overlapping with the cis-Golgi marker GM-130 but did not colocalize strongly with lysosomal markers such as CD63 and lysosome-associated membrane protein. In regulatory T cells, activation of phospholipase D was sufficient to trigger release of CTLA-4 to the PM but did not inhibit endocytosis. Taken together, these data suggest that CTLA-4 may be stored in a specialized compartment in regulatory T cells that can be triggered rapidly for deployment to the PM in a phospholipase D- and ADP ribosylation factor-1-dependent manner.

  6. Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by ADP-ribosylation*

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yukihide; Papoutsoglou, Panagiotis; Maturi, Varun; Tsubakihara, Yutaro; Hottiger, Michael O.; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    We previously established a mechanism of negative regulation of transforming growth factor β signaling mediated by the nuclear ADP-ribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and the deribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), which dynamically regulate ADP-ribosylation of Smad3 and Smad4, two central signaling proteins of the pathway. Here we demonstrate that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway can also be regulated by the opposing actions of PARP1 and PARG. PARG positively contributes to BMP signaling and forms physical complexes with Smad5 and Smad4. The positive role PARG plays during BMP signaling can be neutralized by PARP1, as demonstrated by experiments where PARG and PARP1 are simultaneously silenced. In contrast to PARG, ectopic expression of PARP1 suppresses BMP signaling, whereas silencing of endogenous PARP1 enhances signaling and BMP-induced differentiation. The two major Smad proteins of the BMP pathway, Smad1 and Smad5, interact with PARP1 and can be ADP-ribosylated in vitro, whereas PARG causes deribosylation. The overall outcome of this mode of regulation of BMP signal transduction provides a fine-tuning mechanism based on the two major enzymes that control cellular ADP-ribosylation. PMID:27129221

  7. The role of ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Alasdair R.; Banos-Pinero, Benito; Paschke, Peggy; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Ariza, Antonio; Day, Joseph; Emrich, Mehera; Leys, David; Ponting, Chris P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADP-ribosylation by ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) has a well-established role in DNA strand break repair by promoting enrichment of repair factors at damage sites through ADP-ribose interaction domains. Here, we exploit the simple eukaryote Dictyostelium to uncover a role for ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair and redundancy of this pathway with non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). In silico searches were used to identify a protein that contains a permutated macrodomain (which we call aprataxin/APLF-and-PNKP-like protein; APL). Structural analysis reveals that this permutated macrodomain retains features associated with ADP-ribose interactions and that APL is capable of binding poly(ADP-ribose) through this macrodomain. APL is enriched in chromatin in response to cisplatin treatment, an agent that induces DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). This is dependent on the macrodomain of APL and the ART Adprt2, indicating a role for ADP-ribosylation in the cellular response to cisplatin. Although adprt2− cells are sensitive to cisplatin, ADP-ribosylation is evident in these cells owing to redundant signalling by the double-strand break (DSB)-responsive ART Adprt1a, promoting NHEJ-mediated repair. These data implicate ADP-ribosylation in DNA ICL repair and identify that NHEJ can function to resolve this form of DNA damage in the absence of Adprt2. PMID:27587838

  8. Wnt pathway activation by ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eungi; Tacchelly-Benites, Ofelia; Wang, Zhenghan; Randall, Michael P; Tian, Ai; Benchabane, Hassina; Freemantle, Sarah; Pikielny, Claudio; Tolwinski, Nicholas S; Lee, Ethan; Ahmed, Yashi

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling directs fundamental processes during metazoan development and can be aberrantly activated in cancer. Wnt stimulation induces the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin from an inhibitory destruction complex to a stimulatory signalosome. Here we analyse the early effects of Wnt on Axin and find that the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks)--known to target Axin for proteolysis-regulates Axin's rapid transition following Wnt stimulation. We demonstrate that the pool of ADP-ribosylated Axin, which is degraded under basal conditions, increases immediately following Wnt stimulation in both Drosophila and human cells. ADP-ribosylation of Axin enhances its interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, an essential step in signalosome assembly. We suggest that in addition to controlling Axin levels, Tnks-dependent ADP-ribosylation promotes the reprogramming of Axin following Wnt stimulation; and propose that Tnks inhibition blocks Wnt signalling not only by increasing destruction complex activity, but also by impeding signalosome assembly. PMID:27138857

  9. Wnt pathway activation by ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eungi; Tacchelly-Benites, Ofelia; Wang, Zhenghan; Randall, Michael P.; Tian, Ai; Benchabane, Hassina; Freemantle, Sarah; Pikielny, Claudio; Tolwinski, Nicholas S.; Lee, Ethan; Ahmed, Yashi

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling directs fundamental processes during metazoan development and can be aberrantly activated in cancer. Wnt stimulation induces the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin from an inhibitory destruction complex to a stimulatory signalosome. Here we analyse the early effects of Wnt on Axin and find that the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks)—known to target Axin for proteolysis—regulates Axin's rapid transition following Wnt stimulation. We demonstrate that the pool of ADP-ribosylated Axin, which is degraded under basal conditions, increases immediately following Wnt stimulation in both Drosophila and human cells. ADP-ribosylation of Axin enhances its interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, an essential step in signalosome assembly. We suggest that in addition to controlling Axin levels, Tnks-dependent ADP-ribosylation promotes the reprogramming of Axin following Wnt stimulation; and propose that Tnks inhibition blocks Wnt signalling not only by increasing destruction complex activity, but also by impeding signalosome assembly. PMID:27138857

  10. Analysis of Chromatin ADP-Ribosylation at the Genome-wide Level and at Specific Loci by ADPr-ChAP.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Giody; Leutert, Mario; Manzo, Massimiliano; Baubec, Tuncay; Hottiger, Michael O

    2016-02-01

    Chromatin ADP-ribosylation regulates important cellular processes. However, the exact location and magnitude of chromatin ADP-ribosylation are largely unknown. A robust and versatile method for assessing chromatin ADP-ribosylation is therefore crucial for further understanding its function. Here, we present a chromatin affinity precipitation method based on the high specificity and avidity of two well-characterized ADP-ribose binding domains to map chromatin ADP-ribosylation at the genome-wide scale and at specific loci. Our ADPr-ChAP method revealed that in cells exposed to oxidative stress, ADP-ribosylation of chromatin scales with histone density, with highest levels at heterochromatic sites and depletion at active promoters. Furthermore, in growth factor-induced adipocyte differentiation, increased chromatin ADP-ribosylation was observed at PPARγ target genes, whose expression is ADP-ribosylation dependent. In combination with deep-sequencing and conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation, the established ADPr-ChAP provides a valuable resource for the bioinformatic comparison of ADP-ribosylation with other chromatin modifications and for addressing its role in other biologically important processes. PMID:26833088

  11. Proteomics Approaches to Identify Mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated and Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vivelo, Christina A.; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the addition of one or more ADP-ribose units onto protein substrates and this protein modification has been implicated in various cellular processes including DNA damage repair, RNA metabolism, transcription and cell cycle regulation. This review focuses on a compilation of large-scale proteomics studies that identify ADP-ribosylated proteins and their associated proteins by mass spectrometry using a variety of enrichment strategies. Some methods, such as the use of a poly(ADP-ribose)-specific antibody and boronate affinity chromatography and NAD+ analogues, have been employed for decades while others, such as the use of protein microarrays and recombinant proteins that bind ADP-ribose moieties (such as macrodomains), have only recently been developed. The advantages and disadvantages of each method and whether these methods are specific for identifying mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins will be discussed. Lastly, since poly(ADP-ribose) is heterogeneous in length, it has been difficult to attain a mass signature associated with the modification sites. Several strategies on how to reduce polymer chain length heterogeneity for site identification will be reviewed. PMID:25263235

  12. Proteomics approaches to identify mono-(ADP-ribosyl)ated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins.

    PubMed

    Vivelo, Christina A; Leung, Anthony K L

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation refers to the addition of one or more ADP-ribose units onto protein substrates and this protein modification has been implicated in various cellular processes including DNA damage repair, RNA metabolism, transcription, and cell cycle regulation. This review focuses on a compilation of large-scale proteomics studies that identify ADP-ribosylated proteins and their associated proteins by MS using a variety of enrichment strategies. Some methods, such as the use of a poly(ADP-ribose)-specific antibody and boronate affinity chromatography and NAD(+) analogues, have been employed for decades while others, such as the use of protein microarrays and recombinant proteins that bind ADP-ribose moieties (such as macrodomains), have only recently been developed. The advantages and disadvantages of each method and whether these methods are specific for identifying mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins will be discussed. Lastly, since poly(ADP-ribose) is heterogeneous in length, it has been difficult to attain a mass signature associated with the modification sites. Several strategies on how to reduce polymer chain length heterogeneity for site identification will be reviewed. PMID:25263235

  13. HPF1/C4orf27 Is a PARP-1-Interacting Protein that Regulates PARP-1 ADP-Ribosylation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Fontana, Pietro; Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Summary We report the identification of histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1; also known as C4orf27) as a regulator of ADP-ribosylation signaling in the DNA damage response. HPF1/C4orf27 forms a robust protein complex with PARP-1 in cells and is recruited to DNA lesions in a PARP-1-dependent manner, but independently of PARP-1 catalytic ADP-ribosylation activity. Functionally, HPF1 promotes PARP-1-dependent in trans ADP-ribosylation of histones and limits DNA damage-induced hyper-automodification of PARP-1. Human cells lacking HPF1 exhibit sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and PARP inhibition, thereby suggesting an important role for HPF1 in genome maintenance and regulating the efficacy of PARP inhibitors. Collectively, our results demonstrate how a fundamental step in PARP-1-dependent ADP-ribosylation signaling is regulated and suggest that HPF1 functions at the crossroads of histone ADP-ribosylation and PARP-1 automodification. PMID:27067600

  14. A Clickable Aminooxy Probe for Monitoring Cellular ADP-Ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Rory K.; Cohen, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is essential for cell function, yet there is a dearth of methods for detecting this post-translational modification in cells. Here, we describe a clickable aminooxy alkyne (AO-alkyne) probe that can detect cellular ADP-ribosylation on acidic amino acids following Cu-catalyzed conjugation to an azide-containing reporter. Using AO-alkyne, we show that PARP10 and PARP11 are auto-ADP-ribosylated in cells. We also demonstrate that AO-alkyne can be used to monitor stimulus-induced ADP-ribosylation in cells. Functional studies using AO-alkyne support a previously unknown mechanism for ADP-ribosylation on acidic amino acids, wherein a glutamate or aspartate at the initial C1′-position of ADP-ribose transfers to the C2′ position. This new mechanism for ADP-ribosylation has important implications for how glutamyl/aspartyl-ADP-ribose is recognized by proteins in cells. PMID:25978521

  15. Bacillus cereus Certhrax ADP-ribosylates vinculin to disrupt focal adhesion complexes and cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Simon, Nathan C; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2014-04-11

    Bacillus cereus is often associated with mild to moderate gastroenteritis; however, some recent isolates cause inhalational anthrax-like diseases and death. These potential emerging human pathogens express multiple virulence factors. B. cereus strain G9241 expresses anthrax toxin, several polysaccharide capsules, and the novel ADP-ribosyltransferase, Certhrax. In this study, we show that Certhrax ADP-ribosylates Arg-433 of vinculin, a protein that coordinates actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix interactions. ADP-ribosylation of vinculin disrupted focal adhesion complexes and redistributed vinculin to the cytoplasm. Exogenous vinculin rescued these phenotypes. This provides a mechanism for strain G9241 to breach host barrier defenses and promote bacterial growth and spread. Certhrax is the first bacterial toxin to add a post-translational modification to vinculin to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton.

  16. ADP-ribosylation of proteins: Enzymology and biological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Althaus, F.R.; Richter, C.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the molecular and biological consequences of the posttranslational modification of proteins with ADP-ribose monomers and polymers. Part one focuses on chromatin-associated poly ADP-ribosylation reactions which have evolved in higher eukaryotes as modulators of chromatin functions. The significance of poly ADP-ribosylation in DNA repair, carcinogenesis, and gene expression during terminal differentiation is discussed. Part two reviews mono ADP-ribosylation reactions which are catalyzed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes. Consideration is given to the action of bacterial toxins, such as cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and diphtheria toxin. These toxins have emerged as tools for the molecular probing of proteins involved in signal transduction and protein biosynthesis.

  17. PARPs and ADP-Ribosylation: Fifty Years… and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, W. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over 50 years ago, the discovery of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) set a new field of science in motion - the field of poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases (PARPs) and ADP-ribosylation. The field is still flourishing today. The diversity of biological processes now known to require PARPs and ADP-ribosylation was practically unimaginable even two decades ago. From an initial focus on DNA damage detection and repair in response to genotoxic stresses, the field has expanded to include the regulation of chromatin structure, gene expression, and RNA processing in a wide range of biological systems, including reproduction, development, aging, stem cells, inflammation, metabolism, and cancer. This special focus issue of Molecular Cell includes a collection of three Reviews, three Perspectives, and a SnapShot, which together summarize the current state of the field and suggest where it may be headed. PMID:26091339

  18. The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor ARNO mediates the activation of ARF and phospholipase D by insulin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Sheng; Shome, Kuntala; Rojas, Raúl; Rizzo, Mark A; Vasudevan, Chandrasekaran; Fluharty, Eric; Santy, Lorraine C; Casanova, James E; Romero, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Background Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many signaling pathways. In most systems, the activity of PLD is primarily regulated by the members of the ADP-Ribosylation Factor (ARF) family of GTPases, but the mechanism of activation of PLD and ARF by extracellular signals has not been fully established. Here we tested the hypothesis that ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs) of the cytohesin/ARNO family mediate the activation of ARF and PLD by insulin. Results Wild type ARNO transiently transfected in HIRcB cells was translocated to the plasma membrane in an insulin-dependent manner and promoted the translocation of ARF to the membranes. ARNO mutants: ΔCC-ARNO and CC-ARNO were partially translocated to the membranes while ΔPH-ARNO and PH-ARNO could not be translocated to the membranes. Sec7 domain mutants of ARNO did not facilitate the ARF translocation. Overexpression of wild type ARNO significantly increased insulin-stimulated PLD activity, and mutations in the Sec7 and PH domains, or deletion of the PH or CC domains inhibited the effects of insulin. Conclusions Small ARF-GEFs of the cytohesin/ARNO family mediate the activation of ARF and PLD by the insulin receptor. PMID:12969509

  19. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is recognized by ECT2 during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an unique posttranslational modification and required for spindle assembly and function during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show the evidence that PAR is recognized by ECT2, a key guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mitosis. The BRCT domain of ECT2 directly binds to PAR both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that α-tubulin is PARylated during mitosis. PARylation of α-tubulin is recognized by ECT2 and recruits ECT2 to mitotic spindle for completing mitosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which PAR regulates mitosis.

  20. ADP-ribosylation of histones by ARTD1: an additional module of the histone code?

    PubMed

    Hottiger, Michael O

    2011-06-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a covalent post-translational protein modification catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases and is involved in important processes such as cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, replication or transcription. Histones are ADP-ribosylated by ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1 at specific amino acid residues, in particular lysines, of the histones tails. Specific ADP-ribosyl hydrolases and poly-ADP-ribose glucohydrolases degrade the ADP-ribose polymers. The ADP-ribose modification is read by zinc finger motifs or macrodomains, which then regulate chromatin structure and transcription. Thus, histone ADP-ribosylation may be considered an additional component of the histone code.

  1. Class I Arfs (Arf1 and Arf3) and Arf6 are localized to the Flemming body and play important roles in cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Ayako; Ohgi, Minako; Yagi, Chikako; Ueda, Tomoko; Shin, Hye-Won; Nakayama, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Small GTPases play important roles in various aspects of cell division as well as membrane trafficking. We and others previously showed that ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is locally activated around the ingressing cleavage furrow and recruited to the Flemming body in late cytokinesis phases, and involved in faithful completion of cytokinesis. However, knockout of the Arf6 gene or Arf6 depletion by siRNAs did not drastically influence cytokinesis. We here show that, in addition to Arf6, Class I Arfs (Arf1 and Arf3) are localized to the Flemming body, and that double knockdown of Arf1 and Arf3 moderately increases the proportion of multinucleate cells and simultaneous knockdown of Arf1, Arf3 and Arf6 leads to severe cytokinesis defects. These observations indicate that Arf1 and Arf3 as well as Arf6 play important roles in cytokinesis. We further show that EFA6 (exchange factor for Arf6) activates not only Arf6 but also Arf1 in the cell. Taken together with our previous data, these Arf GTPases are likely to be locally activated by EFA6 and in turn targeted to the Flemming body to complete cytokinesis. PMID:26330566

  2. Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in butterflies and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed.

  3. Arsenite induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of tumor suppressor P53 in human skin keratinocytes as a possible mechanism for carcinogenesis associated with arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Komissarova, Elena V; Rossman, Toby G

    2010-03-15

    Arsenite is an environmental pollutant. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water is associated with elevated cancer risk, especially in skin. Arsenite alone does not cause skin cancer in animals, but arsenite can enhance the carcinogenicity of solar UV. Arsenite is not a significant mutagen at non-toxic concentrations, but it enhances the mutagenicity of other carcinogens. The tumor suppressor protein P53 and nuclear enzyme PARP-1 are both key players in DNA damage response. This laboratory demonstrated earlier that in cells treated with arsenite, the P53-dependent increase in p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression, normally a block to cell cycle progression after DNA damage, is deficient. Here we show that although long-term exposure of human keratinocytes (HaCaT) to a nontoxic concentration (0.1 microM) of arsenite decreases the level of global protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, it increases poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of P53 protein and PARP-1 protein abundance. We also demonstrate that exposure to 0.1 microM arsenite depresses the constitutive expression of p21 mRNA and P21 protein in HaCaT cells. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of P53 is reported to block its activation, DNA binding and its functioning as a transcription factor. Our results suggest that arsenite's interference with activation of P53 via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation may play a role in the comutagenic and cocarcinogenic effects of arsenite.

  4. Arsenite induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of tumor suppressor P53 in human skin keratinocytes as a possible mechanism for carcinogenesis associated with arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Komissarova, Elena V.; Rossman, Toby G.

    2010-03-15

    Arsenite is an environmental pollutant. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water is associated with elevated cancer risk, especially in skin. Arsenite alone does not cause skin cancer in animals, but arsenite can enhance the carcinogenicity of solar UV. Arsenite is not a significant mutagen at non-toxic concentrations, but it enhances the mutagenicity of other carcinogens. The tumor suppressor protein P53 and nuclear enzyme PARP-1 are both key players in DNA damage response. This laboratory demonstrated earlier that in cells treated with arsenite, the P53-dependent increase in p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} expression, normally a block to cell cycle progression after DNA damage, is deficient. Here we show that although long-term exposure of human keratinocytes (HaCaT) to a nontoxic concentration (0.1 muM) of arsenite decreases the level of global protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, it increases poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of P53 protein and PARP-1 protein abundance. We also demonstrate that exposure to 0.1 muM arsenite depresses the constitutive expression of p21 mRNA and P21 protein in HaCaT cells. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of P53 is reported to block its activation, DNA binding and its functioning as a transcription factor. Our results suggest that arsenite's interference with activation of P53 via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation may play a role in the comutagenic and cocarcinogenic effects of arsenite.

  5. Regulation of E2F1-induced apoptosis by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, A; Iwasaki, T; Pyndiah, S; Cassimere, E K; Palani, C D; Sakamuro, D

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor adenovirus E2 promoter-binding factor (E2F)-1 normally enhances cell-cycle progression, but it also induces apoptosis under certain conditions, including DNA damage and serum deprivation. Although DNA damage facilitates the phosphorylation and stabilization of E2F1 to trigger apoptosis, how serum starvation renders cells vulnerable to E2F1-induced apoptosis remains unclear. Because poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), a nuclear enzyme essential for genomic stability and chromatin remodeling, interacts directly with E2F1, we investigated the effects of PARP1 on E2F1-mediated functions in the presence and absence of serum. PARP1 attenuation, which increased E2F1 transactivation, induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest under normal growth conditions, but enhanced E2F1-induced apoptosis in serum-starved cells. Interestingly, basal PARP1 activity was sufficient to modify E2F1 by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which stabilized the interaction between E2F1 and the BIN1 tumor suppressor in the nucleus. Accordingly, BIN1 acted as an RB1-independent E2F1 corepressor. Because E2F1 directly activates the BIN1 gene promoter, BIN1 curbed E2F1 activity through a negative-feedback mechanism. Conversely, when the BIN1–E2F1 interaction was abolished by PARP1 suppression, E2F1 continuously increased BIN1 levels. This is functionally germane, as PARP1-depletion-associated G2/M arrest was reversed by the transfection of BIN1 siRNA. Moreover, PARP-inhibitor-associated anti-transformation activity was compromised by the coexpression of dominant-negative BIN1. Because serum starvation massively reduced the E2F1 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, we conclude that the release of BIN1 from hypo-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated E2F1 is a mechanism by which serum starvation promotes E2F1-induced apoptosis. PMID:25257171

  6. Chemical reporters for exploring ADP-ribosylation and AMPylation at the host-pathogen interface

    PubMed Central

    Westcott, Nathan P.; Hang, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens secrete protein toxins and effectors that hijack metabolites to covalently modify key host proteins and interfere with their function during infection. Adenosine metabolites, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), have in particular been co-opted by these secreted virulence factors to reprogram host pathways. While some host targets for secreted virulence factors have been identified, other toxin and effector substrates have been elusive, which require new methods for their characterization. In this review, we focus on chemical reporters based on NAD and ATP that should facilitate the discovery and characterization of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation and adenylylation/AMPylation in bacterial pathogenesis and cell biology. PMID:25461386

  7. Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.; Bourne, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins.

  8. Ultrastructural Localization of Endogenous Exchange Factor for ARF6 in Adrenocortical Cells In Situ of Mice.

    PubMed

    Chomphoo, Surang; Mothong, Wilaiwan; Sawatpanich, Tarinee; Kanla, Pipatphong; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisatake; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

    2016-06-28

    EFA6 (exchange factor for ARF6) activates Arf6 (ADP ribosylation factor 6) by exchanging ADP to ATP, and the resulting activated form of Arf6 is involved in the membrane dynamics and actin re-organization of cells. The present study was attempted to localize EFA6 type D (EFA6D) in mouse adrenocortical cells in situ whose steroid hormone secretion is generally considered not to depend on the vesicle-involved regulatory mechanism. In immunoblotting, an immunoreactive band with the same size as brain EFA6D was detected in homogenates of adrenal cortical tissues almost free of adrenal capsules and medulla. In immuno-light microscopy, EFA6D-immunoreactivity was positive in adrenocortical cells and it was often distinct along the plasmalemma, especially along portions of the cell columns facing the interstitium. In immuno-electron microscopy, the gold-labeling was more dense in the peripheral intracellular domains than the central domain of the immunopositive cells. The labeling was deposited on the plasma membranes in a discontinuous pattern and in cytoplasmic domains rich in filaments. It was also associated with some, but not all, of pleiomorphic vesicles and coated pits/vesicles. No labeling was seen in association with lipid droplets or smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The present finding is in support of the importance of EFA6D for activation of Arf6 in adrenocortical cells. PMID:27462133

  9. The Promise of Proteomics for the Study of ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Casey M.; Ong, Shao-En; Leung, Anthony K. L.

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification where single units (mono-ADP-ribosylation) or polymeric chains (poly-ADP-ribosylation) of ADP-ribose are conjugated to proteins by ADP-ribosyltransferases. This post-translational modification and the ADP-ribosyltransferases (also known as PARPs) responsible for its synthesis have been found to play a role in nearly all major cellular processes, including DNA repair, transcription, translation, cell signaling and cell death. Furthermore, dysregulation of ADP-ribosylation has been linked to diseases including cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders and heart failure, leading to the development of therapeutic PARP inhibitors, many of which are currently in clinical trials. The study of this therapeutically important modification has recently been bolstered by the application of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, arguably the most powerful tool for the unbiased analysis of protein modifications. Unfortunately, progress has been hampered by the inherent challenges that stem from the physicochemical properties of ADP-ribose which as a post-translational modification is highly charged, heterogeneous (linear or branched polymers, as well as monomers), labile, and found on a wide range of amino acid acceptors. In this perspective, we discuss the progress that has been made in addressing these challenges, including the recent breakthroughs in proteomics techniques to identify ADP-ribosylation sites, and future developments to provide a proteome-wide view of the many cellular processes regulated by ADP-ribosylation. PMID:26091340

  10. Analysis of Arf GTP-binding Protein Function in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lee Ann; Donaldson, Julie G.

    2010-01-01

    This unit describes techniques and approaches that can be used to study the functions of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) GTP-binding proteins in cells. There are 6 mammalian Arfs and many more Arf-like proteins (Arls) and these proteins are conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to man. Like all GTPases, Arfs cycle between GDP-bound, inactive and GTP-bound active conformations, facilitated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) that catalyze GTP binding and hydrolysis respectively. Here we describe approaches that can be taken to examine the localization and function of Arf and Arl proteins in cells (Protocol 1). We also provide a simple protocol for measuring activation (GTP-binding) of specific Arf proteins in cells using a pull-down assay (Protocol 2). We then discuss approaches that can be taken to assess function of GEFs and GAPs in cells (Protocol 3). PMID:20853342

  11. Inhibiting poly(ADP-ribosylation) improves axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Alexandra B; McWhirter, Rebecca D; Sekine, Yuichi; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Miller, David M; Hammarlund, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The ability of a neuron to regenerate its axon after injury depends in part on its intrinsic regenerative potential. Here, we identify novel intrinsic regulators of axon regeneration: poly(ADP-ribose) glycohodrolases (PARGs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). PARGs, which remove poly(ADP-ribose) from proteins, act in injured C. elegans GABA motor neurons to enhance axon regeneration. PARG expression is regulated by DLK signaling, and PARGs mediate DLK function in enhancing axon regeneration. Conversely, PARPs, which add poly(ADP-ribose) to proteins, inhibit axon regeneration of both C. elegans GABA neurons and mammalian cortical neurons. Furthermore, chemical PARP inhibitors improve axon regeneration when administered after injury. Our results indicate that regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) levels is a critical function of the DLK regeneration pathway, that poly-(ADP ribosylation) inhibits axon regeneration across species, and that chemical inhibition of PARPs can elicit axon regeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12734.001 PMID:27697151

  12. ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase from Clostridium pasteurianum prevents its inhibition of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Murrell, S A; Lowery, R G; Ludden, P W

    1988-04-15

    The effect of ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase on its binding to dinitrogenase was investigated. Dinitrogenase reductase from Clostridium pasteurianum (Cp2) was a substrate for the ADP-ribosyltransferase and the dinitrogenase-reductase-activating glycohydrolase from Rhodospirillum rubrum. ADP-ribosylation inactivated Cp2 and prevented its formation of a tight complex with dinitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii (Av1). The complex between Cp2 and Av1 could not be ADP-ribosylated once it formed.

  13. State of the art of protein mono-ADP-ribosylation: biological role and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Gaia; Scarpa, Emanuele Salvatore; Di Girolamo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that was discovered more than five decades ago, and it consists of the enzymatic transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD⁺ to acceptor proteins. In viruses and prokaryotes, mono-ADP-ribosylation is mainly, but not exclusively, a mechanism used to take control of the host cell. In mammals, mono-ADP-ribosylation serves to regulate protein functions, and it is catalysed by two families of toxin-related cellular ADP-ribosyltransferases: ecto-enzymes that modify various cell-surface proteins, like integrins and receptors, and intracellular enzymes that act on a variety of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. These two families have been recently renamed the ARTCs (clostridia toxin like) and ARTDs (diphtheria toxin like), depending on their conserved structural features, and in terms of their relationships to the bacterial toxins. In addition, two members of the structurally non-related sirtuin family can also modify cellular proteins by mono-ADP-ribosylation. Recently, new examples of ADP-ribosylation of proteins involved in signal transduction and intracellular trafficking have been discovered, thus opening the route to the better molecular understanding of this reaction and of its role in human cell physiology and pathology.

  14. ADP-ribosylation of membrane components by pertussis and cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro-Neto, F.A.P.; Mattera, F.; Hildebrandt, J.D.; Codina, J.; Field, J.B.; Birnbaumer, L.; Sekura, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Pertussis and cholera toxins are important tools to investigate functional and structural aspects of the stimulatory (N/sub s/) and inhibitory (N/sub i/) regulatory components of adenylyl cyclase. Cholera toxin acts on N/sub s/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha../sub s/ subunit; pertussis toxin acts on N/sub i/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha..; subunit. By using (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and determining the transfer of its (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribose moiety to membrane components, it is possible to obtain information on N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A set of protocols is presented that can be used to study simultaneously and comparatively the susceptibility of N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ to be ADP-ribosylated by cholera and pertussis toxin.

  15. Identification of a Class of Protein ADP-Ribosylating Sirtuins in Microbial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Morra, Rosa; Barkauskaite, Eva; Kraehenbuehl, Rolf; Ariza, Antonio; Qu, Yue; Ortmayer, Mary; Leidecker, Orsolya; Cameron, David R.; Matic, Ivan; Peleg, Anton Y.; Leys, David; Traven, Ana; Ahel, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sirtuins are an ancient family of NAD+-dependent deacylases connected with the regulation of fundamental cellular processes including metabolic homeostasis and genome integrity. We show the existence of a hitherto unrecognized class of sirtuins, found predominantly in microbial pathogens. In contrast to earlier described classes, these sirtuins exhibit robust protein ADP-ribosylation activity. In our model organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, the activity is dependent on prior lipoylation of the target protein and can be reversed by a sirtuin-associated macrodomain protein. Together, our data describe a sirtuin-dependent reversible protein ADP-ribosylation system and establish a crosstalk between lipoylation and mono-ADP-ribosylation. We propose that these posttranslational modifications modulate microbial virulence by regulating the response to host-derived reactive oxygen species. PMID:26166706

  16. Yeast Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-Ribosylation Factor-binding Proteins Are but Adaptor Protein-1 Is Not Required for Cell-free Transport of Membrane Proteins from the Trans-Golgi Network to the Prevacuolar Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Abazeed, Mohamed E.

    2008-01-01

    Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. To examine the roles of the Ggas and AP-1 in TGN–PVC transport, we used a cell-free assay that measures delivery to the PVC of either Kex2p or a chimeric protein (K-V), in which the Vps10p cytosolic tail replaces the Kex2p tail. Either antibody inhibition or dominant-negative Gga2p completely blocked K-V transport but only partially blocked Kex2p transport. Deletion of APL2, encoding the β subunit of AP-1, did not affect K-V transport but partially blocked Kex2p transport. Residual Kex2p transport seen with apl2Δ membranes was insensitive to dominant-negative Gga2p, suggesting that the apl2Δ mutation causes Kex2p to localize to a compartment that precludes Gga-dependent trafficking. These results suggest that yeast Ggas facilitate the specific and direct delivery of Vps10p and Kex2p from the TGN to the PVC and that AP-1 modulates Kex2p trafficking through a distinct pathway, presumably involving the early endosome. PMID:18784256

  17. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in the regulation of nuclear functions.

    PubMed Central

    D'Amours, D; Desnoyers, S; D'Silva, I; Poirier, G G

    1999-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins. During this process, molecules of ADP-ribose are added successively on to acceptor proteins to form branched polymers. This modification is transient but very extensive in vivo, as polymer chains can reach more than 200 units on protein acceptors. The existence of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymer was first reported nearly 40 years ago. Since then, the importance of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis has been established in many cellular processes. However, a clear and unified picture of the physiological role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation still remains to be established. The total dependence of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis on DNA strand breaks strongly suggests that this post-translational modification is involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids. This view is also supported by the identification of direct protein-protein interactions involving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (113 kDa PARP), an enzyme catalysing the formation of poly(ADP-ribose), and key effectors of DNA repair, replication and transcription reactions. The presence of PARP in these multiprotein complexes, in addition to the actual poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of some components of these complexes, clearly supports an important role for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in DNA transactions. Accordingly, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis by any of several approaches and the analysis of PARP-deficient cells has revealed that the absence of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation strongly affects DNA metabolism, most notably DNA repair. The recent identification of new poly(ADP-ribosyl)ating enzymes with distinct (non-standard) structures in eukaryotes and archaea has revealed a novel level of complexity in the regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism. PMID:10455009

  18. Poly-ADP-ribosylation of HMGB1 regulates TNFSF10/TRAIL resistance through autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minghua; Liu, Liying; Xie, Min; Sun, Xiaofang; Yu, Yan; Kang, Rui; Yang, Liangchun; Zhu, Shan; Cao, Lizhi; Tang, Daolin

    2015-01-01

    Both apoptosis ("self-killing") and autophagy ("self-eating") are evolutionarily conserved processes, and their crosstalk influences anticancer drug sensitivity and cell death. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1), normally a nuclear protein, is a crucial regulator of TNFSF10/TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor [ligand] superfamily, member 10)-induced cancer cell death. Activation of PARP1 (poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1) was required for TNFSF10-induced ADP-ribosylation of HMGB1 in cancer cells. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 activity or knockdown of PARP1 gene expression significantly inhibited TNFSF10-induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and subsequent HMGB1-BECN1 complex formation. Furthermore, suppression of the PARP1-HMGB1 pathway diminished autophagy, increased apoptosis, and enhanced the anticancer activity of TNFSF10 in vitro and in a subcutaneous tumor model. These results indicate that PARP1 acts as a prominent upstream regulator of HMGB1-mediated autophagy and maintains a homeostatic balance between apoptosis and autophagy, which provides new insight into the mechanism of TNFSF10 resistance.

  19. Microtubule protein ADP-ribosylation in vitro leads to assembly inhibition and rapid depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Scaife, R.M. ); Wilson, L. ); Purich, D.L. )

    1992-01-14

    Bovine brain microtubule protein, containing both tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins, undergoes ADP-ribosylation in the presence of ({sup 14}C)NAD{sup +} and a turkey erythrocyte mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase in vitro. The modification reaction could be demonstrated in crude brain tissue extracts where selective ADP-ribosylation of both the {alpha} and {beta} chains of tubulin and of the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2 occurred. In experiments with purified microtubule protein, tubulin dimer, the high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein MAP-2, and another high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein which may be a MAP-1 species were heavily labeled. Tubulin and MAP-2 incorporated ({sup 14}C)ADP-ribose to an average extent of approximately 2.4 and 30 mol of ADP-ribose/mol of protein, respectively. Assembly of microtubule protein into microtubules in vitro was inhibited by ADP-ribosylation, and incubation of assembled steady-state microtubules with ADP-ribosyltransferase and NAD{sup +} resulted in rapid depolymerization of the microtubules. Thus, the eukaryotic enzyme can ADP-ribosylate tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins to much greater extents than previously observed with cholera and pertussis toxins, and the modification can significantly modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

  20. The natural history of ADP-ribosyltransferases and the ADP-ribosylation system.

    PubMed

    Aravind, L; Zhang, Dapeng; de Souza, Robson F; Anand, Swadha; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M

    2015-01-01

    Catalysis of NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosylation of proteins, nucleic acids, or small molecules has evolved in at least three structurally unrelated superfamilies of enzymes, namely ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART), the Sirtuins, and probably TM1506. Of these, the ART superfamily is the most diverse in terms of structure, active site residues, and targets that they modify. The primary diversification of the ART superfamily occurred in the context of diverse bacterial conflict systems, wherein ARTs play both offensive and defensive roles. These include toxin-antitoxin systems, virus-host interactions, intraspecific antagonism (polymorphic toxins), symbiont/parasite effectors/toxins, resistance to antibiotics, and repair of RNAs cleaved in conflicts. ARTs evolving in these systems have been repeatedly acquired by lateral transfer throughout eukaryotic evolution, starting from the PARP family, which was acquired prior to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. They were incorporated into eukaryotic regulatory/epigenetic control systems (e.g., PARP family and NEURL4), and also used as defensive (e.g., pierisin and CARP-1 families) or immunity-related proteins (e.g., Gig2-like ARTs). The ADP-ribosylation system also includes other domains, such as the Macro, ADP-ribosyl glycohydrolase, NADAR, and ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which appear to have initially diversified in bacterial conflict-related systems. Unlike ARTs, sirtuins appear to have a much smaller presence in conflict-related systems.

  1. Agonist-induced ADP-ribosylation of a cytosolic protein in human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Bruene, B.; Molina Y Vedia, L.; Lapetina, E.G. )

    1990-05-01

    {alpha}-Thrombin and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate stimulated the mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a 42-kDa cytosolic protein of human platelets. This effect was mediated by protein kinase C activation and was inhibited by protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine. It also was prevented by prostacyclin, which is known to inhibit the phospholipase C-induced formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol, which is one of the endogenous activators of protein kinase C. On sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the 42-kDa protein that is ADP-ribosylated by {alpha}-thrombin was clearly distinct from the {alpha} subunits of membrane-bound inhibitory and stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins, respectively G{sub i{alpha}} and G{sub s{alpha}}; the 47-kDa protein that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C in platelets; and the 39-kDa protein that has been shown to be endogenously ADP-ribosylated by agents that release nitric oxide. This information shows that agonist-induced activation of protein kinase leads to the ADP-ribosylation of a specific protein. This covalent modification might have a functional role in platelet activation.

  2. The natural history of ADP-ribosyltransferases and the ADP-ribosylation system.

    PubMed

    Aravind, L; Zhang, Dapeng; de Souza, Robson F; Anand, Swadha; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M

    2015-01-01

    Catalysis of NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosylation of proteins, nucleic acids, or small molecules has evolved in at least three structurally unrelated superfamilies of enzymes, namely ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART), the Sirtuins, and probably TM1506. Of these, the ART superfamily is the most diverse in terms of structure, active site residues, and targets that they modify. The primary diversification of the ART superfamily occurred in the context of diverse bacterial conflict systems, wherein ARTs play both offensive and defensive roles. These include toxin-antitoxin systems, virus-host interactions, intraspecific antagonism (polymorphic toxins), symbiont/parasite effectors/toxins, resistance to antibiotics, and repair of RNAs cleaved in conflicts. ARTs evolving in these systems have been repeatedly acquired by lateral transfer throughout eukaryotic evolution, starting from the PARP family, which was acquired prior to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. They were incorporated into eukaryotic regulatory/epigenetic control systems (e.g., PARP family and NEURL4), and also used as defensive (e.g., pierisin and CARP-1 families) or immunity-related proteins (e.g., Gig2-like ARTs). The ADP-ribosylation system also includes other domains, such as the Macro, ADP-ribosyl glycohydrolase, NADAR, and ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which appear to have initially diversified in bacterial conflict-related systems. Unlike ARTs, sirtuins appear to have a much smaller presence in conflict-related systems. PMID:25027823

  3. Radiolabelling of bovine myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS) in an ADP-ribosylation reaction.

    PubMed

    Chao, D; Severson, D L; Zwiers, H; Hollenberg, M D

    1994-01-01

    In an ADP-ribosylation reaction, we have observed the radiolabelling of a protein in a crude bovine brain homogenate, which upon two-dimensional gel electrophoresis migrated with an acidic pI (< 4.5) and an apparent molecular mass (80-90 kDa) consistent with the properties of the myristoylated, alanine-rich, protein kinase C substrate protein termed MARCKS. To establish the identity of this radiolabelled constituent in brain homogenates, we first purified bovine brain MARCKS using calmodulin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and we then supplemented the crude ADP-ribosylation reaction mixture with this purified MARCKS fraction. Concordant increases in radiolabelling and silver staining of the same protein component from the MARCKS-supplemented ADP-ribosylation reaction, as compared with the ADP-ribosylated crude homogenate, established the identity of this constituent as MARCKS. The radiolabelling of MARCKS was lower in comparison with the ADP-ribosylation of the related neuronal protein B-50/GAP-43 under identical reaction conditions. The potential functional consequences of the ADP-ribosylation of MARCKS are discussed and the possibility is raised that other members of the MARCKS family, such as the F52/MacMARCKS/MRP protein, may also be subject to ADP-ribosylation. PMID:7605610

  4. NADP/sup +/ enhances cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Y.; Whitsel, C.; Arinze, I.J.

    1986-05-01

    Cholera or pertussis toxin-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation is frequently used to estimate the concentration of the stimulatory (Ns) or inhibitory (Ni) guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins which modulate the activity of adenylate cyclase. With this assay, however, the degradation of the substrate, NAD/sup +/, by endogenous enzymes such as NAD/sup +/-glycohydrolase (NADase) present in the test membranes can influence the results. In this study the authors show that both cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation of liver membrane proteins is markedly enhanced by NADP/sup +/. The effect is concentration dependent; with 20 ..mu..M (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ as substrate maximal enhancement is obtained at 0.5-1.0 mM NADP/sup +/. The enhancement of (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation by NADP/sup +/ was much greater than that by other known effectors such as Mg/sup 2 +/, phosphate or isoniazid. The effect of NADP/sup +/ on ADP-ribosylation may occur by inhibition of the degradation of NAD/sup +/ probably by acting as an alternate substrate for NADase. Among inhibitors tested (NADP/sup +/, isoniazid, imidazole, nicotinamide, L-Arg-methyl-ester and HgCl/sub 2/) to suppress NADase activity, NADP/sup +/ was the most effective and, 10 mM, inhibited activity of the enzyme by about 90%. In membranes which contain substantial activities of NADase the inclusion of NADP/sup +/ in the assay is necessary to obtain maximal ADP-ribosylation.

  5. ArfGAP1 function in COPI mediated membrane traffic: currently debated models and comparison to other coat-binding ArfGAPs.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Yoko; Randazzo, Paul A

    2012-09-01

    The ArfGAPs are a family of proteins containing an ArfGAP catalytic domain that induces the hydrolysis of GTP bound to the small guanine nucleotide binding-protein ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf). Functional models for Arfs, which are regulators of membrane traffic, are based on the idea that guanine nucleotide-binding proteins function as switches: Arf with GTP bound is active and binds to effector proteins; the conversion of GTP to GDP inactivates Arf. The cellular activities of ArfGAPs have been examined primarily as regulatory proteins that inactivate Arf; however, Arf function in membrane traffic does not strictly adhere to the concept of a simple switch, adding complexity to models explaining the role of ArfGAPs. Here, we review the literature addressing the function Arf and ArfGAP1 in COPI mediated transport, focusing on two critical and integrated functions of membrane traffic, cargo sorting and vesicle coat polymerization. We briefly discuss other ArfGAPs that may have similar function in Arf-dependent membrane traffic outside the ER-Golgi.

  6. Activation of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins by native and recombinant adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factors, 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C M; Chang, P P; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Price, S R; Kunz, B C; Moss, J; Twiddy, E M; Holmes, R K

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) are responsible in part for "traveler's diarrhea" and related diarrheal illnesses. The family of LTs comprises two serogroups termed LT-I and LT-II; each serogroup includes two or more antigenic variants. The effects of LTs result from ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, a stimulatory component of adenylyl cyclase; the mechanism of action is identical to that of cholera toxin (CT). The ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of CT is enhanced by 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, known as ADP-ribosylation factors or ARFs. These proteins directly activate the CTA1 catalytic unit and stimulate its ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, other proteins, and simple guanidino compounds (e.g., agmatine). Because of the similarities between CT and LTs, we investigated the effects of purified bovine brain ARF and a recombinant form of bovine ARF synthesized in Escherichia coli on LT activity. ARF enhanced the LT-I-, LT-IIa-, and LT-IIb-catalyzed ADP ribosylation of agmatine, as well as the auto-ADP ribosylation of the toxin catalytic unit. Stimulation of ADP-ribosylagmatine formation by LTs and CT in the presence of ARF was GTP dependent and enhanced by sodium dodecyl sulfate. With agmatine as substrate, LT-IIa and LT-IIb exhibited less than 1% the activity of CT and LT-Ih. CT and LTs catalyzed ADP-ribosyl-Gs alpha formation in a reaction dependent on ARF, GTP, and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/cholate. With Gs alpha as substrate, the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of the toxins were similar, although CT and LT-Ih appeared to be slightly more active than LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Thus, LT-IIa and LT-IIb appear to differ somewhat from CT and LT-Ih in substrate specificity. Responsiveness to stimulation by ARF, GTP, and phospholipid/detergent as well as the specificity of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity are functions of LTs from serogroups LT-I and LT-II that are shared with CT. Images PMID:1902492

  7. Inhibition of cell migration by PITENINs: the role of ARF6

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Benchun; Skidan, Igor; Yang, Jinsheng; You, Zerong; Fu, Xueyan; Famulok, Michael; Schaffhausen, Brian; Torchilin, Vladimir; Yuan, Junying; Degterev, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported the development of small molecule phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) antagonists (PITs) that block pleckstrin homology (PH) domain interaction, including activation of Akt, and show anti-tumor potential. Here we show that the same molecules inhibit growth factor-induced actin remodeling, lamellipodia formation and, ultimately, cell migration and invasion, consistent with an important role of PIP3 in these processes. In vivo, a PIT-1 analog displays significant inhibition on tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) was recently identified as an important mediator of cytoskeleton and cell motility, which is regulated by PIP3-dependent membrane translocation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) such as ADP-ribosylation factor nucleotide binding-site opener (ARNO) and general receptor for 3-phosphoinositides (GRP1). We demonstrate that PITs inhibit PIP3/ARNO or GRP1 PH domain binding and membrane localization, resulting in the inhibition of ARF6 activation. Importantly, we show that expression of the constitutively active mutant of Arf6 attenuates inhibition of lamellipodia formation and cell migration by PITs, confirming that inhibition of Arf6 contributes to inhibition of these processes by PITs. Overall, our studies demonstrate the feasibility of developing specific small molecule targeting PIP3 binding by PH domains as potential anti-cancer agents that can simultaneously interfere with cancer development at multiple points. PMID:22179837

  8. Photorhabdus luminescens toxins ADP-ribosylate actin and RhoA to force actin clustering.

    PubMed

    Lang, Alexander E; Schmidt, Gudula; Schlosser, Andreas; Hey, Timothy D; Larrinua, Ignacio M; Sheets, Joel J; Mannherz, Hans G; Aktories, Klaus

    2010-02-26

    The bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens is mutualistically associated with entomopathogenetic nematodes. These nematodes invade insect larvae and release the bacteria from their intestine, which kills the insects through the action of toxin complexes. We elucidated the mode of action of two of these insecticidal toxins from P. luminescens. We identified the biologically active components TccC3 and TccC5 as adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyltransferases, which modify unusual amino acids. TccC3 ADP-ribosylated threonine-148 of actin, resulting in actin polymerization. TccC5 ADP-ribosylated Rho guanosine triphosphatase proteins at glutamine-61 and glutamine-63, inducing their activation. The concerted action of both toxins inhibited phagocytosis of target insect cells and induced extensive intracellular polymerization and clustering of actin. Several human pathogenic bacteria produce related toxins. PMID:20185726

  9. Detection and Quantification of ADP-Ribosylated RhoA/B by Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry. PMID:27043630

  10. Detection and Quantification of ADP-Ribosylated RhoA/B by Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry. PMID:27043630

  11. Post-Transcriptional Regulation by Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yingbiao; Tulin, Alexei V.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is intricately regulated at the post-transcriptional level by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) via their interactions with pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) and mRNA during development. However, very little is known about the mechanism regulating RBP activities in RNA metabolism. During the past few years, a large body of evidence has suggested that many RBPs, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), undergo post-translational modification through poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation to modulate RNA processing, including splicing, polyadenylation, translation, miRNA biogenesis and rRNA processing. Accordingly, RBP poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation has been shown to be involved in stress responses, stem cell differentiation and retinal morphogenesis. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the biological roles of RBP poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, as controlled by Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases (PARPs) and Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase (PARG). In addition, we discuss the potential of PARP and PARG inhibitors for the treatment of RBP-related human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23921685

  12. Recruitment of Arf1-GDP to Golgi by Glo3p-Type ArfGAPs Is Crucial for Golgi Maintenance and Plant Growth1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Min, Myung Ki; Jang, Mihue; Lee, Myounghui; Lee, Junho; Song, Kyungyoung; Lee, Yongjik; Choi, Kwan Yong; Robinson, David G.; Hwang, Inhwan

    2013-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor1 (Arf1), a member of the small GTP-binding proteins, plays a pivotal role in protein trafficking to multiple organelles. In its GDP-bound form, Arf1 is recruited from the cytosol to organelle membranes, where it functions in vesicle-mediated protein trafficking. However, the mechanism of Arf1-GDP recruitment remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that two Glo3p-type Arf GTPase-activating proteins (ArfGAPs), ArfGAP domain8 (AGD8) and AGD9, are involved in the recruitment of Arf1-GDP to the Golgi apparatus in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). RNA interference plants expressing low levels of AGD8 and AGD9 exhibited abnormal Golgi morphology, inhibition of protein trafficking, and arrest of plant growth and development. In RNA interference plants, Arf1 was poorly recruited to the Golgi apparatus. Conversely, high levels of AGD8 and AGD9 induced Arf1 accumulation at the Golgi and suppressed Golgi disruption and inhibition of vacuolar trafficking that was caused by overexpression of AGD7. Based on these results, we propose that the Glo3p-type ArfGAPs AGD8 and AGD9 recruit Arf1-GDP from the cytosol to the Golgi for Arf1-mediated protein trafficking, which is essential for plant development and growth. PMID:23266962

  13. ARF6, PI3-kinase and host cell actin cytoskeleton in Toxoplasma gondii cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira da Silva, Claudio; Alves da Silva, Erika; Costa Cruz, Mario; Chavrier, Philippe; Arruda Mortara, Renato

    2009-01-16

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of different cell types in a range of different hosts. Host cell invasion by T. gondii occurs by active penetration of the host cell, a process previously described as independent of host actin polymerization. Also, the parasitophorous vacuole has been shown to resist fusion with endocytic and exocytic pathways of the host cell. ADP-ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6) belongs to the ARF family of small GTP-binding proteins. ARF6 regulates membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements at the plasma membrane. Here, we have observed that ARF6 is recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole of tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and it also plays an important role in the parasite cell invasion with activation of PI3-kinase and recruitment of PIP{sub 2} and PIP{sub 3} to the parasitophorous vacuole of invading parasites. Moreover, it was verified that maintenance of host cell actin cytoskeleton integrity is important to parasite invasion.

  14. Distribution of cytotoxic and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in crude extracts from butterflies among the family Pieridae

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yasuko; Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Odagiri, Ken-Ichi; Yata, Osamu; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae, contain strong cytotoxic proteins, designated as pierisin-1 and -2, against cancer cell lines. These proteins exhibit DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. To determine the distribution of substances with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity among other species, crude extracts from 20 species of the family Pieridae were examined for cytotoxicity in HeLa cells and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. Both activities were detected in extracts from 13 species: subtribes Pierina (Pieris rapae, Pieris canidia, Pieris napi, Pieris melete, Pieris brassicae, Pontia daplidice, and Talbotia naganum), Aporiina (Aporia gigantea, Aporia crataegi, Aporia hippia, and Delias pasithoe), and Appiadina (Appias nero and Appias paulina). All of these extracts contained substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies, with a molecular mass of ≈100 kDa established earlier for pierisin-1. Moreover, sequences containing NAD-binding sites, conserved in ADP-ribosyltransferases, were amplified from genomic DNA from 13 species of butterflies with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity by PCR. Extracts from seven species, Appias lyncida, Leptosia nina, Anthocharis scolymus, Eurema hecabe, Catopsilia pomona, Catopsilia scylla, and Colias erate, showed neither cytotoxicity nor DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, and did not contain substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies. Sequences containing NAD-binding sites were not amplified from genomic DNA from these seven species. Thus, pierisin-like proteins, showing cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, are suggested to be present in the extracts from butterflies not only among the subtribe Pierina, but also among the subtribes Aporiina and Appiadina. These findings offer insight to understanding the nature of DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in the butterfly. PMID:18256183

  15. Purification and molecular cloning of a DNA ADP-ribosylating protein, CARP-1, from the edible clam Meretrix lamarckii

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Enomoto, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Totsuka, Yukari; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2006-01-01

    The cabbage butterflies Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae have unique enzymes, named pierisin-1 and -2, respectively, that catalyze the ADP-ribosylation of guanine residues of DNA, which has been linked with induction of apoptosis and mutation in mammalian cell lines. In the present study, we identified ADP-ribosylation activity targeting DNA in six kinds of edible clam. Similar to our observations with pierisin-1 and -2, crude extracts from the clams Meretrix lamarckii, Ruditapes philippinarum, and Corbicula japonica incubated with calf thymus DNA and β-NAD resulted in production of N2-(ADP-ribos-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine. The DNA ADP-ribosylating protein in the hard clam M. lamarckii, designated as CARP-1, was purified by column chromatography, and its cDNA was cloned. The cDNA encodes a 182-aa protein with a calculated molecular mass of 20,332. The protein synthesized in vitro from the cDNA in a reticulocyte lysate exhibited the same ADP-ribosylating activity as that of purified CARP-1. Neither the nucleotide nor the deduced amino acid sequence of CARP-1 showed homology with pierisin-1 or -2. However, a glutamic acid residue (E128) at the putative NAD-binding site, conserved in all ADP-ribosyltransferases, was found in CARP-1, and replacement of aspartic acid for this glutamic acid resulted in loss of almost all ADP-ribosylating activity. CARP-1 in the culture medium showed no cytotoxicity against HeLa and TMK-1 cells; however, introduction of this protein by electroporation induced apoptosis in these cells. The finding of clam ADP-ribosylating protein targeting guanine residues in DNA could offer new insights into the biological significance of ADP-ribosylation of DNA. PMID:16945908

  16. Stimulation of mono-ADP ribosylation in rat liver plasma membranes after long-term alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Nomura, F; Noda, M

    1993-10-01

    ADP ribosylation is considered one of the important covalent modifications of cellular proteins catalyzed by ADP ribosyltransferase, which transfers ADP ribose moiety of NAD to an acceptor protein. Because a growing body of evidence has suggested significant biological roles for mono-ADP ribosylations in transmembrane signal transduction and other cell metabolism, how alcohol intake alters them is of interest. Cholera toxin and pertussis toxin have been widely used as probes to investigate the roles of GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) in the transduction of hormonal and sensory signals. We first tested effects of long-term alcohol intake on these toxin-catalyzed ADP ribosylations of G-proteins in rat liver plasma membranes. Treatment of rat liver plasma membrane with [32P]NAD and thiol-preactivated cholera toxin resulted in the labeling of a 44-kD band, most likely an alpha-subunit of the stimulatory GTP-binding protein, the extent of which was much greater in alcohol-fed rats than in pair-fed controls. Analogous experiments with pertussis toxin also demonstrated enhancement of toxin-catalyzed ADP ribosylation of the inhibitory GTP-binding protein after long-term alcohol intake. More interesting was that long-term alcohol intake remarkably stimulated endogenous mono-ADP ribosylation of a 58-kD protein in a GTP-dependent manner. In vitro, ethanol (50 mmol/L) or a single load of ethanol (3 gm/kg) did not stimulate the reaction. Thus long-term alcohol intake stimulated both toxin-catalyzed and endogenous mono-ADP ribosylations of proteins in rat liver plasma membranes. Pursuit of alcohol interaction with mono-ADP ribosylation may provide an interesting approach to the study of alcohol's effects on the liver.

  17. Roles of Asp179 and Glu270 in ADP-Ribosylation of Actin by Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Belyy, Alexander; Tabakova, Irina; Lang, Alexander E.; Jank, Thomas; Belyi, Yury; Aktories, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens iota toxin is a binary toxin composed of the enzymatically active component Ia and receptor binding component Ib. Ia is an ADP-ribosyltransferase, which modifies Arg177 of actin. The previously determined crystal structure of the actin-Ia complex suggested involvement of Asp179 of actin in the ADP-ribosylation reaction. To gain more insights into the structural requirements of actin to serve as a substrate for toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation, we engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, in which wild type actin was replaced by actin variants with substitutions in residues located on the Ia-actin interface. Expression of the actin mutant Arg177Lys resulted in complete resistance towards Ia. Actin mutation of Asp179 did not change Ia-induced ADP-ribosylation and growth inhibition of S. cerevisiae. By contrast, substitution of Glu270 of actin inhibited the toxic action of Ia and the ADP-ribosylation of actin. In vitro transcribed/translated human β-actin confirmed the crucial role of Glu270 in ADP-ribosylation of actin by Ia. PMID:26713879

  18. Distribution of protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation systems across all domains of life

    PubMed Central

    Perina, Dragutin; Mikoč, Andreja; Ahel, Josip; Ćetković, Helena; Žaja, Roko; Ahel, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in regulation of many cellular pathways. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) consists of chains of repeating ADP-ribose nucleotide units and is synthesized by the family of enzymes called poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). This modification can be removed by the hydrolytic action of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3). Hydrolytic activity of macrodomain proteins (MacroD1, MacroD2 and TARG1) is responsible for the removal of terminal ADP-ribose unit and for complete reversion of protein ADP-ribosylation. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is widely utilized in eukaryotes and PARPs are present in representatives from all six major eukaryotic supergroups, with only a small number of eukaryotic species that do not possess PARP genes. The last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed at least five types of PARP proteins that include both mono and poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases. Distribution of PARGs strictly follows the distribution of PARP proteins in eukaryotic species. At least one of the macrodomain proteins that hydrolyse terminal ADP-ribose is also always present. Therefore, we can presume that the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed a fully functional and reversible PAR metabolism and that PAR signalling provided the conditions essential for survival of the ancestral eukaryote in its ancient environment. PARP proteins are far less prevalent in bacteria and were probably gained through horizontal gene transfer. Only eleven bacterial species possess all proteins essential for a functional PAR metabolism, although it is not known whether PAR metabolism is truly functional in bacteria. Several dsDNA viruses also possess PARP homologues, while no PARP proteins have been identified in any archaeal genome. Our analysis of the distribution of enzymes involved in PAR metabolism provides insight into the evolution of these important signalling systems, as well as

  19. Arf6 coordinates actin assembly through the WAVE complex, a mechanism usurped by Salmonella to invade host cells

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Daniel; Davidson, Anthony C.; Hume, Peter J.; Makin, Laura E.; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2013-01-01

    ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) 6 anchors to the plasma membrane, where it coordinates membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodelling, but how it assembles actin filaments is unknown. By reconstituting membrane-associated actin assembly mediated by the WASP family veroprolin homolog (WAVE) regulatory complex (WRC), we recapitulated an Arf6-driven actin polymerization pathway. We show that Arf6 is divergent from other Arf members, as it was incapable of directly recruiting WRC. We demonstrate that Arf6 triggers actin assembly at the membrane indirectly by recruiting the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARNO that activates Arf1 to enable WRC-dependent actin assembly. The pathogen Salmonella usurped Arf6 for host cell invasion by recruiting its canonical GEFs EFA6 and BRAG2. Arf6 and its GEFs facilitated membrane ruffling and pathogen invasion via ARNO, and triggered actin assembly by generating an Arf1–WRC signaling hub at the membrane in vitro and in cells. This study reconstitutes Arf6-dependent actin assembly to reveal a mechanism by which related Arf GTPases orchestrate distinct steps in the WRC cytoskeleton remodelling pathway. PMID:24085844

  20. Arf6 coordinates actin assembly through the WAVE complex, a mechanism usurped by Salmonella to invade host cells.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Daniel; Davidson, Anthony C; Hume, Peter J; Makin, Laura E; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2013-10-15

    ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) 6 anchors to the plasma membrane, where it coordinates membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodelling, but how it assembles actin filaments is unknown. By reconstituting membrane-associated actin assembly mediated by the WASP family veroprolin homolog (WAVE) regulatory complex (WRC), we recapitulated an Arf6-driven actin polymerization pathway. We show that Arf6 is divergent from other Arf members, as it was incapable of directly recruiting WRC. We demonstrate that Arf6 triggers actin assembly at the membrane indirectly by recruiting the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARNO that activates Arf1 to enable WRC-dependent actin assembly. The pathogen Salmonella usurped Arf6 for host cell invasion by recruiting its canonical GEFs EFA6 and BRAG2. Arf6 and its GEFs facilitated membrane ruffling and pathogen invasion via ARNO, and triggered actin assembly by generating an Arf1-WRC signaling hub at the membrane in vitro and in cells. This study reconstitutes Arf6-dependent actin assembly to reveal a mechanism by which related Arf GTPases orchestrate distinct steps in the WRC cytoskeleton remodelling pathway.

  1. Tuning IL-2 signaling by ADP-ribosylation of CD25

    PubMed Central

    Teege, Sophie; Hann, Alexander; Miksiewicz, Maria; MacMillan, Cary; Rissiek, Björn; Buck, Friedrich; Menzel, Stephan; Nissen, Marion; Bannas, Peter; Haag, Friedrich; Boyer, Olivier; Seman, Michel; Adriouch, Sahil; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Control of immunologic tolerance and homeostasis rely on Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) that constitutively express the high affinity receptor for Interleukin-2, CD25. Tregs proliferate in response to injections of IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes or low doses of IL-2. However, little is known about endogenous mechanisms that regulate the sensitivity of CD25 to signaling by IL-2. Here we demonstrate that CD25 is ADP-ribosylated at Arg35 in the IL-2 binding site by ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTC2.2, a toxin-related GPI-anchored ecto-enzyme. ADP-ribosylation inhibits binding of IL-2 by CD25, IL-2- induced phosphorylation of STAT5, and IL-2-dependent cell proliferation. Our study elucidates an as-yet-unrecognized mechanism to tune IL-2 signaling. This newly found mechanism might thwart Tregs at sites of inflammation and thereby permit a more potent response of activated effector T cells. PMID:25753532

  2. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation-dependent Transient Chromatin Decondensation and Histone Displacement following Laser Microirradiation.

    PubMed

    Strickfaden, Hilmar; McDonald, Darin; Kruhlak, Michael J; Haince, Jean-Francois; Th'ng, John P H; Rouleau, Michele; Ishibashi, Toytaka; Corry, Gareth N; Ausio, Juan; Underhill, D Alan; Poirier, Guy G; Hendzel, Michael J

    2016-01-22

    Chromatin undergoes a rapid ATP-dependent, ATM and H2AX-independent decondensation when DNA damage is introduced by laser microirradiation. Although the detailed mechanism of this decondensation remains to be determined, the kinetics of decondensation are similar to the kinetics of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. We used laser microirradiation to introduce DNA strand breaks into living cells expressing a photoactivatable GFP-tagged histone H2B. We find that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation mediated primarily by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is responsible for the rapid decondensation of chromatin at sites of DNA damage. This decondensation of chromatin correlates temporally with the displacement of histones, which is sensitive to PARP inhibition and is transient in nature. Contrary to the predictions of the histone shuttle hypothesis, we did not find that histone H1 accumulated on poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in vivo. Rather, histone H1, and to a lessor extent, histones H2A and H2B were rapidly depleted from the sites of PAR accumulation. However, histone H1 returns to chromatin and the chromatin recondenses. Thus, the PARP-dependent relaxation of chromatin closely correlates with histone displacement.

  3. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation-dependent Transient Chromatin Decondensation and Histone Displacement following Laser Microirradiation.

    PubMed

    Strickfaden, Hilmar; McDonald, Darin; Kruhlak, Michael J; Haince, Jean-Francois; Th'ng, John P H; Rouleau, Michele; Ishibashi, Toytaka; Corry, Gareth N; Ausio, Juan; Underhill, D Alan; Poirier, Guy G; Hendzel, Michael J

    2016-01-22

    Chromatin undergoes a rapid ATP-dependent, ATM and H2AX-independent decondensation when DNA damage is introduced by laser microirradiation. Although the detailed mechanism of this decondensation remains to be determined, the kinetics of decondensation are similar to the kinetics of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. We used laser microirradiation to introduce DNA strand breaks into living cells expressing a photoactivatable GFP-tagged histone H2B. We find that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation mediated primarily by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is responsible for the rapid decondensation of chromatin at sites of DNA damage. This decondensation of chromatin correlates temporally with the displacement of histones, which is sensitive to PARP inhibition and is transient in nature. Contrary to the predictions of the histone shuttle hypothesis, we did not find that histone H1 accumulated on poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in vivo. Rather, histone H1, and to a lessor extent, histones H2A and H2B were rapidly depleted from the sites of PAR accumulation. However, histone H1 returns to chromatin and the chromatin recondenses. Thus, the PARP-dependent relaxation of chromatin closely correlates with histone displacement. PMID:26559976

  4. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of p53 Contributes to TPEN-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Lim; Ra, Hana; Kim, Ki-Ryeong; Lee, Jeong-Min; Im, Hana; Kim, Yang-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Depletion of intracellular zinc by N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) induces p53-mediated protein synthesis-dependent apoptosis of mouse cortical neurons. Here, we examined the requirement for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 as an upstream regulator of p53 in zinc depletion-induced neuronal apoptosis. First, we found that chemical inhibition or genetic deletion of PARP-1 markedly attenuated TPEN-induced apoptosis of cultured mouse cortical neurons. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of p53 occurred starting 1 h after TPEN treatment. Suggesting the critical role of PARP-1, the TPEN-induced increase of stability and activity of p53 as well as poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of p53 was almost completely blocked by PARP inhibition. Consistent with this, the induction of downstream proapoptotic proteins PUMA and NOXA was noticeably reduced by chemical inhibitors or genetic deletion of PARP-1. TPEN-induced cytochrome C release into the cytosol and caspase-3 activation were also blocked by inhibition of PARP-1. Taken together, these findings indicate that PARP-1 is essential for TPEN-induced neuronal apoptosis. PMID:25813624

  5. PARP-2 regulates cell cycle-related genes through histone deacetylation and methylation independently of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Ya-Chen; Hsu, Chiao-Yu; Yao, Ya-Li; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► PARP-2 acts as a transcription co-repressor independently of PARylation activity. ► PARP-2 recruits HDAC5, 7, and G9a and generates repressive chromatin. ► PARP-2 is recruited to the c-MYC promoter by DNA-binding factor YY1. ► PARP-2 represses cell cycle-related genes and alters cell cycle progression. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and regulates numerous nuclear processes, including transcription. Depletion of PARP-2 alters the activity of transcription factors and global gene expression. However, the molecular action of how PARP-2 controls the transcription of target promoters remains unclear. Here we report that PARP-2 possesses transcriptional repression activity independently of its enzymatic activity. PARP-2 interacts and recruits histone deacetylases HDAC5 and HDAC7, and histone methyltransferase G9a to the promoters of cell cycle-related genes, generating repressive chromatin signatures. Our findings propose a novel mechanism of PARP-2 in transcriptional regulation involving specific protein–protein interactions and highlight the importance of PARP-2 in the regulation of cell cycle progression.

  6. Poly-ADP-ribosylation-mediated degradation of ARTD1 by the NLRP3 inflammasome is a prerequisite for osteoclast maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C; Qu, C; Alippe, Y; Bonar, S L; Civitelli, R; Abu-Amer, Y; Hottiger, M O; Mbalaviele, G

    2016-01-01

    Evidence implicates ARTD1 in cell differentiation, but its role in skeletal metabolism remains unknown. Osteoclasts (OC), the bone-resorbing cells, differentiate from macrophages under the influence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). We found that M-CSF induced ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1 (ARTD1) auto-ADP-ribosylation in macrophages, a modification that marked ARTD1 for cleavage, and subsequently, for degradation upon RANKL exposure. We established that ARTD1 proteolysis was NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent, and occurred via the proteasome pathway. Since ARTD1 is cleaved at aspartate214, we studied the impact of ARTD1 rendered uncleavable by D214N substitution (ARTD1D214N) on skeletal homeostasis. ARTD1D214N, unlike wild-type ARTD1, was resistant to cleavage and degradation during osteoclastogenesis. As a result, ARTD1D214N altered histone modification and promoted the abundance of the repressors of osteoclastogenesis by interfering with the expression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1), the master regulator of anti-osteoclastogenic transcription factors. Importantly, ARTD1D214N-expressing mice exhibited higher bone mass compared with controls, owing to decreased osteoclastogenesis while bone formation was unaffected. Thus, unless it is degraded, ARTD1 represses OC development through transcriptional regulation. PMID:27010854

  7. Role of CTCF poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation in the regulation of apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Venkatraman, Bhooma; Klenova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: CTCF is a candidate tumor suppressor gene encoding a multifunctional transcription factor. CTCF function is controlled by posttranslational modification and interaction with other proteins. Research findings suggested that CTCF function can be regulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARlation) and has specific anti-apoptotic function in breast cancer cells. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of CTCF-wild type (WT) and CTCF complete mutant, which is deficient of PARlation in regulating apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The effect of CTCF-WT and CTCF complete mutant was expressed in breast cancer cell-lines by DNA-mediated transfection technique monitored by enhanced green fluorescent protein fluorescence. Evaluation of apoptotic cell death was carried out with immunohistochemical staining using 4’-6’-diamino-2 phenylindole and scoring by fluorescent microscopy. Results: CTCF-WT supports survival of breast cancer cells and was observed that CTCF complete mutant interferes with the functions of the CTCF-WT and there was a considerable apoptotic cell death in the breast cancer cell lines such as MDA-MB-435, CAMA-1 and MCF-7. Conclusion: The study enlighten CTCF as a Biological Marker for breast cancer and the role of CTCF PARlation may be involved in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:25810575

  8. Poly(ADP-ribosylation) regulates chromatin organization through histone H3 modification and DNA methylation of the first cell cycle of mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Osada, Tomoharu; Rydén, Anna-Margareta; Masutani, Mitsuko

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Histone modification of the mouse pronuclei is regulated by poly(ADP-ribosylation). •Hypermethylation of the mouse female pronuclei is maintained by poly(ADP-ribosylation). •Parp1 is physically interacted with Suz12, which may function in the pronuclei. •Poly(ADP-ribosylation) affects ultrastructure of chromatin of the mouse pronucleus. -- Abstract: We examined the roles of poly(ADP-ribosylation) in chromatin remodeling during the first cell cycle of mouse embryos. Drug-based inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosylation) by a PARP inhibitor, PJ-34, revealed up-regulation of dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 in male pronuclei and down-regulation of dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9) and lysine 27 (H3K27). Association of poly(ADP-ribosylation) with histone modification was suggested to be supported by the interaction of Suz12, a histone methyltransferase in the polycomb complex, with Parp1. PARP activity was suggested to be required for a proper localization and maintenance of Suz12 on chromosomes. Notably, DNA methylation level of female pronuclei in one-cell embryos was robustly decreased by PJ-34. Electron microscopic analysis showed a frequent appearance of unusual electron-dense areas within the female pronuclei, implying the disorganized and hypercondensed chromatin ultrastructure. These results show that poly(ADP-ribosylation) is important for the integrity of non-equivalent epigenetic dynamics of pronuclei during the first cell cycle of mouse embryos.

  9. Physiological functions of the small GTPase Arf6 in the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Masahiro; Kanaho, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) plays important roles in membrane dynamics-based neuronal cell events such as neurite outgrowth and spine formation. However, physiological functions of Arf6 in the nervous system at whole animal level have not yet been explored. We have recently generated conditional knockout mice lacking Arf6 in neurons or oligodendrocytes of central nervous system (CNS) or both cell lineages, and analyzed them. We found that ablation of Arf6 gene from neurons, but not from oligodendrocytes, caused the defect in axon myelination at the fimbria of hippocampus (Fim) and corpus callosum (CC). We also found that migration of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) from the subventricular zone to the Fim and CC in mice lacking Arf6 in neurons was impaired. Finally, it was found that secretion of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a guidance factor for OPC migration, from hippocampi lacking Arf6 was impaired. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that Arf6 in neurons of the CNS plays an important role in OPC migration by regulating secretion of FGF-2 from neurons, thereby contributing to the axon myelination. Here, we discuss our current understanding of physiological functions of Arf6 in the nervous system. PMID:26291245

  10. Arf6 plays an early role in platelet activation by collagen and convulxin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wangsun; Karim, Zubair A; Whiteheart, Sidney W

    2006-04-15

    Small GTPases play critical roles in hemostasis, though the roster of such molecules in platelets is not complete. In this study, we report the presence of Ras-related GTPases of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family. Platelets contain Arf1 or 3 and Arf6, with the latter being predominantly membrane associated. Using effector domain pull-down assays, we show, counter to other GTPases, that Arf6-GTP is present in resting platelets and decreases rapidly upon activation with collagen or convulxin. This decrease does not completely rely on secondary agonists (ADP and thromboxane A2) or require integrin signaling. The decrease in free Arf6-GTP temporally precedes activation of Rho family GTPases (RhoA, Cdc42, and Rac1). Using a membrane-permeant, myristoylated peptide, which mimics the N-terminus of Arf6, we show that the Arf6-GTP decrease is essential for collagen- and convulxin-induced aggregation, platelet adherence, and spreading on collagen-coated glass. Treatment with this peptide also affects the activation of Rho family GTPases, but has little effect on RalA and Rap1 or on agonist-induced calcium mobilization. These data show that Arf6 is a key element in activation through GPVI, and is required for activation of the Rho family GTPases and the subsequent cytoskeletal rearrangements needed for full platelet function. PMID:16352809

  11. Two novel human members of an emerging mammalian gene family related to mono-ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Koch-Nolte, F.; Haag, F.; Braren, R.

    1997-02-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is one of the posttranslational protein modifications regulating cellular metabolism, e.g., nitrogen fixation, in prokaryotes. Several bacterial toxins mono-ADP-ribosylate and inactivate specific proteins in their animal hosts. Recently, two mammalian GPI-anchored cell surface enzymes with similar activities were cloned (designated ART1 and ART2). We have now identified six related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public database and cloned the two novel human genes from which these are derived (designated ART3 and ART4). The deduced amino acid sequences of the predicted gene products show 28% sequence identity to one another and 32-41% identity vs the muscle and T cell enzymes. They contain signal peptide sequences characteristic of GPI anchorage. Southern Zoo blot analyses suggest the presence of related genes in other mammalian species. By PCR screening of somatic cell hybrids and by in situ hybridization, we have mapped the two genes to human chromosomes 4p14-p15.l and 12q13.2- q13.3. Northern blot analyses show that these genes are specifically expressed in testis and spleen, respectively. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences reveals a conserved exon/intron structure, with an unusually large exon encoding the predicted mature membrane proteins. Secondary structure prediction analyses indicate conserved motifs and amino acid residues consistent with a common ancestry of this emerging mammalian enzyme family and bacterial mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases. It is possible that the four human gene family members identified so far represent the {open_quotes}tip of an iceberg,{close_quote} i.e., a larger family of enzymes that influences the function of target proteins via mono-ADP-ribosylation. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Methyl CpG Binding Domain Protein 2 Regulates Chromatin Structure.

    PubMed

    Becker, Annette; Zhang, Peng; Allmann, Lena; Meilinger, Daniela; Bertulat, Bianca; Eck, Daniel; Hofstaetter, Maria; Bartolomei, Giody; Hottiger, Michael O; Schreiber, Valérie; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2016-03-01

    The epigenetic information encoded in the genomic DNA methylation pattern is translated by methylcytosine binding proteins like MeCP2 into chromatin topology and structure and gene activity states. We have shown previously that the MeCP2 level increases during differentiation and that it causes large-scale chromatin reorganization, which is disturbed by MeCP2 Rett syndrome mutations. Phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications of MeCP2 have been described recently to modulate its function. Here we show poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of endogenous MeCP2 in mouse brain tissue. Consequently, we found that MeCP2 induced aggregation of pericentric heterochromatin and that its chromatin accumulation was enhanced in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1(-/-) compared with wild-type cells. We mapped the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation domains and engineered MeCP2 mutation constructs to further analyze potential effects on DNA binding affinity and large-scale chromatin remodeling. Single or double deletion of the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated regions and PARP inhibition increased the heterochromatin clustering ability of MeCP2. Increased chromatin clustering may reflect increased binding affinity. In agreement with this hypothesis, we found that PARP-1 deficiency significantly increased the chromatin binding affinity of MeCP2 in vivo. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of MeCP2-mediated, higher-order chromatin architecture and suggest therapeutic opportunities to manipulate MeCP2 function.

  13. Molecular recognition of an ADP-ribosylating Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme by RalA GTPase

    PubMed Central

    Holbourn, Kenneth P.; Sutton, J. Mark; Evans, Hazel R.; Shone, Clifford C.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2005-01-01

    C3 exoenzymes (members of the ADP-ribosyltranferase family) are produced by Clostridium botulinum (C3bot1 and -2), Clostridium limosum (C3lim), Bacillus cereus (C3cer), and Staphylococcus aureus (C3stau1–3). These exoenzymes lack a translocation domain but are known to specifically inactivate Rho GTPases in host target cells. Here, we report the crystal structure of C3bot1 in complex with RalA (a GTPase of the Ras subfamily) and GDP at a resolution of 2.66 Å. RalA is not ADP-ribosylated by C3 exoenzymes but inhibits ADP-ribosylation of RhoA by C3bot1, C3lim, and C3cer to different extents. The structure provides an insight into the molecular interactions between C3bot1 and RalA involving the catalytic ADP-ribosylating turn–turn (ARTT) loop from C3bot1 and helix α4 and strand β6 (which are not part of the GDP-binding pocket) from RalA. The structure also suggests a molecular explanation for the different levels of C3-exoenzyme inhibition by RalA and why RhoA does not bind C3bot1 in this manner. PMID:15809419

  14. Arf4 Determines Dentate Gyrus-Mediated Pattern Separation by Regulating Dendritic Spine Development

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sachi; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Zhu, Lei; Brodbeck, Jens; Dai, Jessica; Walker, David; Huang, Yadong

    2012-01-01

    The ability to distinguish between similar experiences is a critical feature of episodic memory and is primarily regulated by the dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such pattern separation tasks are poorly understood. We report a novel role for the small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 4 (Arf4) in controlling pattern separation by regulating dendritic spine development. Arf4+/− mice at 4–5 months of age display severe impairments in a pattern separation task, as well as significant dendritic spine loss and smaller miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) in granule cells of the DG. Arf4 knockdown also decreases spine density in primary neurons, whereas Arf4 overexpression promotes spine development. A constitutively active form of Arf4, Arf4-Q71L, promotes spine density to an even greater extent than wildtype Arf4, whereas the inactive Arf4-T31N mutant does not increase spine density relative to controls. Arf4′s effects on spine development are regulated by ASAP1, a GTPase-activating protein that modulates Arf4 GTPase activity. ASAP1 overexpression decreases spine density, and this effect is partially rescued by concomitant overexpression of wildtype Arf4 or Arf4-Q71L. In addition, Arf4 overexpression rescues spine loss in primary neurons from an Alzheimer's disease-related apolipoprotein (apo) E4 mouse model. Our findings suggest that Arf4 is a critical modulator of DG-mediated pattern separation by regulating dendritic spine development. PMID:23050017

  15. The Escherichia coli effector EspJ blocks Src kinase activity via amidation and ADP ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Joanna C.; Clements, Abigail; Lang, Alexander E.; Garnett, James A.; Munera, Diana; Arbeloa, Ana; Pearson, Jaclyn; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Matthews, Stephen J.; Mousnier, Aurelie; Barry, David J.; Way, Michael; Schlosser, Andreas; Aktories, Klaus; Frankel, Gad

    2014-01-01

    The hallmark of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection is the formation of actin-rich pedestal-like structures, which are generated following phosphorylation of the bacterial effector Tir by cellular Src and Abl family tyrosine kinases. This leads to recruitment of the Nck–WIP–N-WASP complex that triggers Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization in the host cell. The same phosphorylation-mediated signalling network is also assembled downstream of the Vaccinia virus protein A36 and the phagocytic Fc-gamma receptor FcγRIIa. Here we report that the EPEC type-III secretion system effector EspJ inhibits autophosphorylation of Src and phosphorylation of the Src substrates Tir and FcγRIIa. Consistent with this, EspJ inhibits actin polymerization downstream of EPEC, Vaccinia virus and opsonized red blood cells. We identify EspJ as a unique adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosyltransferase that directly inhibits Src kinase by simultaneous amidation and ADP ribosylation of the conserved kinase-domain residue, Src E310, resulting in glutamine-ADP ribose. PMID:25523213

  16. The Escherichia coli effector EspJ blocks Src kinase activity via amidation and ADP ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Young, Joanna C; Clements, Abigail; Lang, Alexander E; Garnett, James A; Munera, Diana; Arbeloa, Ana; Pearson, Jaclyn; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Matthews, Stephen J; Mousnier, Aurelie; Barry, David J; Way, Michael; Schlosser, Andreas; Aktories, Klaus; Frankel, Gad

    2014-01-01

    The hallmark of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection is the formation of actin-rich pedestal-like structures, which are generated following phosphorylation of the bacterial effector Tir by cellular Src and Abl family tyrosine kinases. This leads to recruitment of the Nck-WIP-N-WASP complex that triggers Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization in the host cell. The same phosphorylation-mediated signalling network is also assembled downstream of the Vaccinia virus protein A36 and the phagocytic Fc-gamma receptor FcγRIIa. Here we report that the EPEC type-III secretion system effector EspJ inhibits autophosphorylation of Src and phosphorylation of the Src substrates Tir and FcγRIIa. Consistent with this, EspJ inhibits actin polymerization downstream of EPEC, Vaccinia virus and opsonized red blood cells. We identify EspJ as a unique adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosyltransferase that directly inhibits Src kinase by simultaneous amidation and ADP ribosylation of the conserved kinase-domain residue, Src E310, resulting in glutamine-ADP ribose.

  17. Rifamycin Antibiotic Resistance by ADP-Ribosylation: Structure and Diversity of Arr

    SciTech Connect

    Baysarowich, J.; Koteva, K; Hughes, D; Ejim, L; Griffiths, E; Zhang, K; Junop, M; Wright, G

    2008-01-01

    The rifamycin antibiotic rifampin is important for the treatment of tuberculosis and infections caused by multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Recent iterations of the rifampin core structure have resulted in new drugs and drug candidates for the treatment of a much broader range of infectious diseases. This expanded use of rifamycin antibiotics has the potential to select for increased resistance. One poorly characterized mechanism of resistance is through Arr enzymes that catalyze ADP-ribosylation of rifamycins. We find that genes encoding predicted Arr enzymes are widely distributed in the genomes of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Biochemical analysis of three representative Arr enzymes from environmental and pathogenic bacterial sources shows that these have equally efficient drug resistance capacity in vitro and in vivo. The 3D structure of one of these orthologues from Mycobacterium smegmatis was determined and reveals structural homology with ADP-ribosyltransferases important in eukaryotic biology, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and bacterial toxins, despite no significant amino acid sequence homology with these proteins. This work highlights the extent of the rifamycin resistome in microbial genera with the potential to negatively impact the expanded use of this class of antibiotic.

  18. Molecular analysis of ARF1 expression profiles during development of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaobo; Lin, Fanrong; Lii, Yifan; Gou, Chunbao; Chen, Fang

    2011-03-01

    A cDNA clone designated arf1 was isolated from a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) endosperm cDNA library which encodes a small GTP-binding protein and has significant homology to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARF) in plants, animals and microbes. The cDNA contains an open reading frame that encodes a polypeptide of 181 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 20.7 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high homology to known ARFs from other organisms. The products of the arf1 obtained by overexpression in E. coli revealed the specific binding activity toward GTP. The expression of arf1 was observed in flowers, roots, stems and leaves as analyzed by RT-PCR, and its transcriptional level was highest in flowers. In particular, the accumulation of arf1 transcripts was different under various environmental stresses in seedlings. The results suggest that arf1 plays distinct physiological roles in Jatropha curcas cells. PMID:20853149

  19. Arabidopsis ARF-GTP exchange factor, GNOM, mediates transport required for innate immunity and focal accumulation of syntaxin PEN1.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mads Eggert; Feechan, Angela; Böhlenius, Henrik; Ueda, Takashi; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2012-07-10

    Penetration resistance to powdery mildew fungi, conferred by localized cell wall appositions (papillae), is one of the best-studied processes in plant innate immunity. The syntaxin PENETRATION (PEN)1 is required for timely appearance of papillae, which contain callose and extracellular membrane material, as well as PEN1 itself. Appearance of membrane material in papillae suggests secretion of exosomes. These are potentially derived from multivesicular bodies (MVBs), supported by our observation that ARA6-labeled organelles assemble at the fungal attack site. However, the trafficking components that mediate delivery of extracellular membrane material are unknown. Here, we show that the delivery is independent of PEN1 function. Instead, we find that application of brefeldin (BF)A blocks the papillary accumulation of GFP-PEN1-labeled extracellular membrane and callose, while impeding penetration resistance. We subsequently provide evidence indicating that the responsible BFA-sensitive ADP ribosylation factor-GTP exchange factor (ARF-GEF) is GNOM. Firstly, analysis of the transheterozygote gnom(B4049/emb30-1) (gnom(B)(/E)) mutant revealed a delay in papilla formation and reduced penetration resistance. Furthermore, a BFA-resistant version of GNOM restored the BFA-sensitive papillary accumulation of GFP-PEN1 and callose. Our data, therefore, provide a link between GNOM and disease resistance. We suggest that papilla formation requires rapid reorganization of material from the plasma membrane mediated by GNOM. The papilla material is subsequently presumed to be sorted into MVBs and directed to the site of fungal attack, rendering the epidermal plant cell inaccessible for the invading powdery mildew fungus.

  20. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Methyl CpG Binding Domain Protein 2 Regulates Chromatin Structure*

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Annette; Zhang, Peng; Allmann, Lena; Meilinger, Daniela; Bertulat, Bianca; Eck, Daniel; Hofstaetter, Maria; Bartolomei, Giody; Hottiger, Michael O.; Schreiber, Valérie; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M. Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic information encoded in the genomic DNA methylation pattern is translated by methylcytosine binding proteins like MeCP2 into chromatin topology and structure and gene activity states. We have shown previously that the MeCP2 level increases during differentiation and that it causes large-scale chromatin reorganization, which is disturbed by MeCP2 Rett syndrome mutations. Phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications of MeCP2 have been described recently to modulate its function. Here we show poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of endogenous MeCP2 in mouse brain tissue. Consequently, we found that MeCP2 induced aggregation of pericentric heterochromatin and that its chromatin accumulation was enhanced in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1−/− compared with wild-type cells. We mapped the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation domains and engineered MeCP2 mutation constructs to further analyze potential effects on DNA binding affinity and large-scale chromatin remodeling. Single or double deletion of the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated regions and PARP inhibition increased the heterochromatin clustering ability of MeCP2. Increased chromatin clustering may reflect increased binding affinity. In agreement with this hypothesis, we found that PARP-1 deficiency significantly increased the chromatin binding affinity of MeCP2 in vivo. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of MeCP2-mediated, higher-order chromatin architecture and suggest therapeutic opportunities to manipulate MeCP2 function. PMID:26772194

  1. Golgi enlargement in Arf-depleted yeast cells is due to altered dynamics of cisternal maturation

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Madhura; Papanikou, Effrosyni; Iyer, Prasanna; Pandya, Koushal; Jain, Bhawik Kumar; Ganguly, Abira; Sharma, Chandrakala; Pawar, Ketakee; Austin, Jotham; Day, Kasey J.; Rossanese, Olivia W.; Glick, Benjamin S.; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regulation of the size and abundance of membrane compartments is a fundamental cellular activity. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, disruption of the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) gene yields larger and fewer Golgi cisternae by partially depleting the Arf GTPase. We observed a similar phenotype with a thermosensitive mutation in Nmt1, which myristoylates and activates Arf. Therefore, partial depletion of Arf is a convenient tool for dissecting mechanisms that regulate Golgi structure. We found that in arf1Δ cells, late Golgi structure is particularly abnormal, with the number of late Golgi cisternae being severely reduced. This effect can be explained by selective changes in cisternal maturation kinetics. The arf1Δ mutation causes early Golgi cisternae to mature more slowly and less frequently, but does not alter the maturation of late Golgi cisternae. These changes quantitatively explain why late Golgi cisternae are fewer in number and correspondingly larger. With a stacked Golgi, similar changes in maturation kinetics could be used by the cell to modulate the number of cisternae per stack. Thus, the rates of processes that transform a maturing compartment can determine compartmental size and copy number. PMID:24190882

  2. The ARTT motif and a unified structural understanding of substraterecognition in ADP ribosylating bacterial toxins and eukaryotic ADPribosyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.; Tainer, J.A.

    2001-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation is a widely occurring and biologically critical covalent chemical modification process in pathogenic mechanisms, intracellular signaling systems, DNA repair, and cell division. The reaction is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases, which transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to a target protein with nicotinamide release. A family of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic enzymes has been termed the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases, in distinction to the poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases, which catalyze the addition of multiple ADP-ribose groups to the carboxyl terminus of eukaryotic nucleoproteins. Despite the limited primary sequence homology among the different ADP-ribosyltransferases, a central cleft bearing NAD-binding pocket formed by the two perpendicular b-sheet core has been remarkably conserved between bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono- and poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases. The majority of bacterial toxins and eukaryotic mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved His and catalytic Glu residues. In contrast, Diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and eukaryotic poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases are characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. The NAD-binding core of a binary toxin and a C3-like toxin family identified an ARTT motif (ADP-ribosylating turn-turn motif) that is implicated in substrate specificity and recognition by structural and mutagenic studies. Here we apply structure-based sequence alignment and comparative structural analyses of all known structures of ADP-ribosyltransfeases to suggest that this ARTT motif is functionally important in many ADP-ribosylating enzymes that bear a NAD binding cleft as characterized by conserved Arg and catalytic Glu residues. Overall, structure-based sequence analysis reveals common core structures and conserved active sites of ADP-ribosyltransferases to support similar NAD binding mechanisms but differing mechanisms of target protein binding via sequence variations within the ARTT

  3. ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase in Azospirillum brasilense is regulated by AmtB-dependent membrane sequestration of DraG.

    PubMed

    Huergo, Luciano F; Souza, Emanuel M; Araujo, Mariana S; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S; Steffens, Maria B R; Merrick, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation in some diazotrophic bacteria is regulated by mono-ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase (NifH) that occurs in response to addition of ammonium to the extracellular medium. This process is mediated by dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DraT) and reversed by dinitrogenase reductase glycohydrolase (DraG), but the means by which the activities of these enzymes are regulated are unknown. We have investigated the role of the P(II) proteins (GlnB and GlnZ), the ammonia channel protein AmtB and the cellular localization of DraG in the regulation of the NifH-modification process in Azospirillum brasilense. GlnB, GlnZ and DraG were all membrane-associated after an ammonium shock, and both this membrane sequestration and ADP-ribosylation of NifH were defective in an amtB mutant. We now propose a model in which membrane association of DraG after an ammonium shock creates a physical separation from its cytoplasmic substrate NifH thereby inhibiting ADP-ribosyl-removal. Our observations identify a novel role for an ammonia channel (Amt) protein in the regulation of bacterial nitrogen metabolism by mediating membrane sequestration of a protein other than a P(II) family member. They also suggest a model for control of ADP-ribosylation that is likely to be applicable to all diazotrophs that exhibit such post-translational regulation of nitrogenase.

  4. Characterization of transducin from bovine retinal rod outer segments: mechanism and effects of cholera toxin-catalyzed adp-ribosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Navon, S.E.; Fung, B.K.K.

    1984-05-25

    Transducin, a guanine nucleotide-binding protein consisting of two subunits (T/sub ..cap alpha../ and T/sub ..beta gamma../), mediates the signal coupling between rhodopsin and a membrane-bound cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase in retinal rod outer segments. The T/sub ..cap alpha../ subunit is an activator of the phosphodiesterase, and the function of the T/sub ..beta gamma../ subunit is to physically link T/sub ..cap alpha../ with photolyzed rhodopsin. In this study, the mechanism of cholera toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of T/sub ..cap alpha../ has been examined in a reconstituted system consisting of purified transducin and stripped rod outer segment membranes. Limited proteolysis of the labeled T/sub ..cap alpha../ with trypsin indicated that the inserted ADP-ribose is located exclusively on a single proteolytic fragment with an apparent molecular weight of 23,000. Maximal incorporation of ADP-ribose was achieved when guanosine 5'-(..beta..,..gamma..-im ido)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) and T/sub ..beta gamma../ were present at concentrations equal to that of T/sub ..cap alpha../ and when rhodopsin was continuously irradiated with visible light in the 400-500 nm region. The stimulating effect of illumination was related to the direct interaction of the retinal chromophore with opsin. These findings strongly suggest that a transient protein complex consisting of T/sub ..cap alpha../xGpp(NH)p, T/sub ..beta gamma../, and a photointermediate of rhodopsin is the required substrate for cholera toxin. Single turnover kinetic measurements demonstrated that the ADP-ribosylation of T/sub ..cap alpha../ coincided with the appearance of a population of transducin molecules having a very slow rate of GTP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis rate of the bound GTP for this population was 1.1 x 10/sup -3//s, which was 22-fold slower than the rate for the unmodified transducin. 30 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  5. Human ARF4 expression rescues sec7 mutant yeast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, S B; Wu, C; Silve, S; Howell, K E; Melançon, P; Kahn, R A; Franzusoff, A

    1996-01-01

    Vesicle-mediated traffic between compartments of the yeast secretory pathway involves recruitment of multiple cytosolic proteins for budding, targeting, and membrane fusion events. The SEC7 gene product (Sec7p) is a constituent of coat structures on transport vesicles en route to the Golgi complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify mammalian homologs of Sec7p and its interacting proteins, we used a genetic selection strategy in which a human HepG2 cDNA library was transformed into conditional-lethal yeast sec7 mutants. We isolated several clones capable of rescuing sec7 mutant growth at the restrictive temperature. The cDNA encoding the most effective suppressor was identified as human ADP ribosylation factor 4 (hARF4), a member of the GTPase family proposed to regulate recruitment of vesicle coat proteins in mammalian cells. Having identified a Sec7p-interacting protein rather than the mammalian Sec7p homolog, we provide evidence that hARF4 suppressed the sec7 mutation by restoring secretory pathway function. Shifting sec7 strains to the restrictive temperature results in the disappearance of the mutant Sec7p cytosolic pool without apparent changes in the membrane-associated fraction. The introduction of hARF4 to the cells maintained the balance between cytosolic and membrane-associated Sec7p pools. These results suggest a requirement for Sec7p cycling on and off of the membranes for cell growth and vesicular traffic. In addition, overexpression of the yeast GTPase-encoding genes ARF1 and ARF2, but not that of YPT1, suppressed the sec7 mutant growth phenotype in an allele-specific manner. This allele specificity indicates that individual ARFs are recruited to perform two different Sec7p-related functions in vesicle coat dynamics. PMID:8668142

  6. Interconversion of two GDP-bound conformations and their selection in an Arf-family small G protein.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hideyasu; Nishikiori, Masaki; Xiang, Hongyu; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Katoh, Etsuko

    2011-07-13

    ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) and other Arf-family small G proteins participate in many cellular functions via their characteristic GTP/GDP conformational cycles, during which a nucleotide(∗)Mg(2+)-binding site communicates with a remote N-terminal helix. However, the conformational interplay between the nucleotides, the helix, the protein core, and Mg(2+) has not been fully delineated. Herein, we report a study of the dynamics of an Arf-family protein, Arl8, under various conditions by means of NMR relaxation spectroscopy. The data indicated that, when GDP is bound, the protein core, which does not include the N-terminal helix, reversibly transition between an Arf-family GDP form and another conformation that resembles the Arf-family GTP form. Additionally, we found that the N-terminal helix and Mg(2+), respectively, stabilize the aforementioned former and latter conformations in a population-shift manner. Given the dynamics of the conformational changes, we can describe the Arl8 GTP/GDP cycle in terms of an energy diagram.

  7. Pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of a G protein in mouse oocytes, eggs, and preimplantation embryos: Developmental changes and possible functional roles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.; Schultz, R.M. )

    1990-06-01

    G proteins, which in many somatic cells serve as mediators of signal transduction, were identified in preimplantation mouse embryos by their capacity to undergo pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Two pertussis toxin (PT) substrates with Mr = 38,000 and 39,000 (alpha 38 and alpha 39) are present in approximately equal amounts. Relative to the amount in freshly isolated germinal vesicle (GV)-intact oocytes, the amount of PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 falls during oocyte maturation, rises between the one- and two-cell stages, falls by the eight-cell and morula stages, and increases again by the blastocyst stage. The decrease in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 that occurs during oocyte maturation, however, does not require germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), since inhibiting GVBD with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX) does not prevent the decrease in the extent of PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. A biologically active phorbol diester (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate), but not an inactive one (4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, 4 alpha-PDD), totally inhibits the increase in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39 that occurs between the one- and two-cell stage; TPA inhibits cleavage, but not transcriptional activation, which occurs in the two-cell embryo. In contrast, cytochalasin D, genistein, or aphidicolin, each of which inhibits cleavage of one-cell embryos, or alpha-amanitin or H8, each of which inhibits transcriptional activation but not cleavage of one-cell embryos, have little or inhibitory effects on the increase in PT-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 38-39. Results of immunoblotting experiments using an antibody that is highly specific for alpha il-3 reveal the presence of a cross-reactive species of Mr = 38,000 (alpha 38) in the GV-intact oocyte, metaphase II-arrested egg, and one-, two-cell embryos.

  8. HIV-1 requires Arf6-mediated membrane dynamics to efficiently enter and infect T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    García-Expósito, Laura; Barroso-González, Jonathan; Puigdomènech, Isabel; Machado, José-David; Blanco, Julià; Valenzuela-Fernández, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    As the initial barrier to viral entry, the plasma membrane along with the membrane trafficking machinery and cytoskeleton are of fundamental importance in the viral cycle. However, little is known about the contribution of plasma membrane dynamics during early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Considering that ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) regulates cellular invasion via several microorganisms by coordinating membrane trafficking, our aim was to study the function of Arf6-mediated membrane dynamics on HIV-1 entry and infection of T lymphocytes. We observed that an alteration of the Arf6–guanosine 5′-diphosphate/guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP/GDP) cycle, by GDP-bound or GTP-bound inactive mutants or by specific Arf6 silencing, inhibited HIV-1 envelope–induced membrane fusion, entry, and infection of T lymphocytes and permissive cells, regardless of viral tropism. Furthermore, cell-to-cell HIV-1 transmission of primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes was inhibited by Arf6 knockdown. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed that Arf6 mutants provoked the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-biphosphate–associated structures on the plasma membrane of permissive cells, without affecting CD4-viral attachment but impeding CD4-dependent HIV-1 entry. Arf6 silencing or its mutants did not affect fusion, entry, and infection of vesicular stomatitis virus G–pseudotyped viruses or ligand-induced CXCR4 or CCR5 endocytosis, both clathrin-dependent processes. Therefore we propose that efficient early HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes requires Arf6-coordinated plasma membrane dynamics that promote viral fusion and entry. PMID:21346189

  9. ARTC1-mediated ADP-ribosylation of GRP78/BiP: a new player in endoplasmic-reticulum stress responses.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Gaia; Di Paola, Simone; Stilla, Annalisa; Giannotta, Monica; Ruggiero, Carmen; Menzel, Stephan; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Sallese, Michele; Di Girolamo, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Protein mono-ADP-ribosylation is a reversible post-translational modification of cellular proteins. This scheme of amino-acid modification is used not only by bacterial toxins to attack host cells, but also by endogenous ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) in mammalian cells. These latter ARTs include members of three different families of proteins: the well characterised arginine-specific ecto-enzymes (ARTCs), two sirtuins, and some members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP/ARTD) family. In the present study, we demonstrate that human ARTC1 is localised to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in contrast to the previously characterised ARTC proteins, which are typical GPI-anchored ecto-enzymes. Moreover, using the "macro domain" cognitive binding module to identify ADP-ribosylated proteins, we show here that the ER luminal chaperone GRP78/BiP (glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa/immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein) is a cellular target of human ARTC1 and hamster ARTC2. We further developed a procedure to visualise ADP-ribosylated proteins using immunofluorescence. With this approach, in cells overexpressing ARTC1, we detected staining of the ER that co-localises with GRP78/BiP, thus confirming that this modification occurs in living cells. In line with the key role of GRP78/BiP in the ER stress response system, we provide evidence here that ARTC1 is activated during the ER stress response, which results in acute ADP-ribosylation of GRP78/BiP paralleling translational inhibition. Thus, this identification of ARTC1 as a regulator of GRP78/BiP defines a novel, previously unsuspected, player in GRP78-mediated ER stress responses.

  10. The NarE protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of several ADP-ribose acceptors despite an N-terminal deletion.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Paula I; Álamos-Musre, A Said; Álvarez, Francisca P; Escobar, Alejandro; Tapia, Cecilia V; Osorio, Eduardo; Otero, Carolina; Calderón, Iván L; Fuentes, Juan A; Gil, Fernando; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-09-01

    The ADP-ribosylating enzymes are encoded in many pathogenic bacteria in order to affect essential functions of the host. In this study, we show that Neisseria gonorrhoeae possess a locus that corresponds to the ADP-ribosyltransferase NarE, a previously characterized enzyme in N. meningitidis The 291 bp coding sequence of gonococcal narE shares 100% identity with part of the coding sequence of the meningococcal narE gene due to a frameshift previously described, thus leading to a 49-amino-acid deletion at the N-terminus of gonococcal NarE protein. However, we found a promoter region and a GTG start codon, which allowed expression of the protein as demonstrated by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Using a gonococcal NarE-6xHis fusion protein, we demonstrated that the gonococcal enzyme underwent auto-ADP-ribosylation but to a lower extent than meningococcal NarE. We also observed that gonoccocal NarE exhibited ADP-ribosyltransferase activity using agmatine and cell-free host proteins as ADP-ribose acceptors, but its activity was inhibited by human β-defensins. Taken together, our results showed that NarE of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a functional enzyme that possesses key features of bacterial ADP-ribosylating enzymes.

  11. The NarE protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of several ADP-ribose acceptors despite an N-terminal deletion.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Paula I; Álamos-Musre, A Said; Álvarez, Francisca P; Escobar, Alejandro; Tapia, Cecilia V; Osorio, Eduardo; Otero, Carolina; Calderón, Iván L; Fuentes, Juan A; Gil, Fernando; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-09-01

    The ADP-ribosylating enzymes are encoded in many pathogenic bacteria in order to affect essential functions of the host. In this study, we show that Neisseria gonorrhoeae possess a locus that corresponds to the ADP-ribosyltransferase NarE, a previously characterized enzyme in N. meningitidis The 291 bp coding sequence of gonococcal narE shares 100% identity with part of the coding sequence of the meningococcal narE gene due to a frameshift previously described, thus leading to a 49-amino-acid deletion at the N-terminus of gonococcal NarE protein. However, we found a promoter region and a GTG start codon, which allowed expression of the protein as demonstrated by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Using a gonococcal NarE-6xHis fusion protein, we demonstrated that the gonococcal enzyme underwent auto-ADP-ribosylation but to a lower extent than meningococcal NarE. We also observed that gonoccocal NarE exhibited ADP-ribosyltransferase activity using agmatine and cell-free host proteins as ADP-ribose acceptors, but its activity was inhibited by human β-defensins. Taken together, our results showed that NarE of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a functional enzyme that possesses key features of bacterial ADP-ribosylating enzymes. PMID:27465490

  12. A Review of Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Si-Bei; Xie, Zong-Zhou; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Auxin is a key regulator of virtually every aspect of plant growth and development from embryogenesis to senescence. Previous studies have indicated that auxin regulates these processes by controlling gene expression via a family of functionally distinct DNA-binding auxin response factors (ARFs). ARFs are likely components that confer specificity to auxin response through selection of target genes as transcription factors. They bind to auxin response DNA elements (AuxRE) in the promoters of auxin-regulated genes and either activate or repress transcription of these genes depending on a specific domain in the middle of the protein. Genetic studies have implicated various ARFs in distinct developmental processes through loss-of-function mutant analysis. Recent advances have provided information on the regulation of ARF gene expression, the role of ARFs in growth and developmental processes, protein–protein interactions of ARFs and target genes regulated by ARFs in plants. In particular, protein interaction and structural studies of ARF proteins have yielded novel insights into the molecular basis of auxin-regulated transcription. These results provide the foundation for predicting the contributions of ARF genes to the biology of other plants. PMID:26870066

  13. Diversification, phylogeny and evolution of auxin response factor (ARF) family: insights gained from analyzing maize ARF genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Deng, Dexiang; Shi, Yating; Miao, Nan; Bian, Yunlong; Yin, Zhitong

    2012-03-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs), member of the plant-specific B3 DNA binding superfamily, target specifically to auxin response elements (AuxREs) in promoters of primary auxin-responsive genes and heterodimerize with Aux/IAA proteins in auxin signaling transduction cascade. In previous research, we have isolated and characterized maize Aux/IAA genes in whole-genome scale. Here, we report the comprehensive analysis of ARF genes in maize. A total of 36 ARF genes were identified and validated from the B73 maize genome through an iterative strategy. Thirty-six maize ARF genes are distributed in all maize chromosomes except chromosome 7. Maize ARF genes expansion is mainly due to recent segmental duplications. Maize ARF proteins share one B3 DNA binding domain which consists of seven-stranded β sheets and two short α helixes. Twelve maize ARFs with glutamine-rich middle regions could be as activators in modulating expression of auxin-responsive genes. Eleven maize ARF proteins are lack of homo- and heterodimerization domains. Putative cis-elements involved in phytohormones and light signaling responses, biotic and abiotic stress adaption locate in promoters of maize ARF genes. Expression patterns vary greatly between clades and sister pairs of maize ARF genes. The B3 DNA binding and auxin response factor domains of maize ARF proteins are primarily subjected to negative selection during selective sweep. The mixed selective forces drive the diversification and evolution of genomic regions outside of B3 and ARF domains. Additionally, the dicot-specific proliferation of ARF genes was detected. Comparative genomics analysis indicated that maize, sorghum and rice duplicate chromosomal blocks containing ARF homologs are highly syntenic. This study provides insights into the distribution, phylogeny and evolution of ARF gene family.

  14. The Role of ARF6 in Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Glessner, Joseph; Ashokkumar, Chethan; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Min, Jun; Higgs, Brandon W.; Sun, Qing; Haberman, Kimberly; Schmitt, Lori; Vilarinho, Silvia; Mistry, Pramod K.; Vockley, Gerard; Dhawan, Anil; Gittes, George K.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Jaffe, Ronald; Subramaniam, Shankar; Shin, Donghun; Sindhi, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Altered extrahepatic bile ducts, gut, and cardiovascular anomalies constitute the variable phenotype of biliary atresia (BA). Methods To identify potential susceptibility loci, Caucasian children, normal (controls) and with BA (cases) at two US centers were compared at >550000 SNP loci. Systems biology analysis was carried out on the data. In order to validate a key gene identified in the analysis, biliary morphogenesis was evaluated in 2-5-day post-fertilization zebrafish embryos after morpholino-antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of the candidate gene ADP ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6, Mo-arf6). Results Among 39 and 24 cases at centers 1 and 2, respectively, and 1907 controls, which clustered together on principal component analysis, the SNPs rs3126184 and rs10140366 in a 3’ flanking enhancer region for ARF6 demonstrated higher minor allele frequencies (MAF) in each cohort, and 63 combined cases, compared with controls (0.286 vs. 0.131, P = 5.94x10-7, OR 2.66; 0.286 vs. 0.13, P = 5.57x10-7, OR 2.66). Significance was enhanced in 77 total cases, which included 14 additional BA genotyped at rs3126184 only (p = 1.58x10-2, OR = 2.66). Pathway analysis of the 1000 top-ranked SNPs in CHP cases revealed enrichment of genes for EGF regulators (p<1 x10-7), ERK/MAPK and CREB canonical pathways (p<1 x10-34), and functional networks for cellular development and proliferation (p<1 x10-45), further supporting the role of EGFR-ARF6 signaling in BA. In zebrafish embryos, Mo-arf6 injection resulted in a sparse intrahepatic biliary network, several biliary epithelial cell defects, and poor bile excretion to the gall bladder compared with uninjected embryos. Biliary defects were reproduced with the EGFR-blocker AG1478 alone or with Mo-arf6 at lower doses of each agent and rescued with arf6 mRNA. Conclusions The BA-associated SNPs identify a chromosome 14q21.3 susceptibility locus encompassing the ARF6 gene. arf6 knockdown in zebrafish implicates early biliary

  15. Thromboxane-induced renal vasoconstriction is mediated by the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 and superoxide anion

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Paul A.; Kopple, Tayler E.; Arendshorst, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The present renal hemodynamic study tested the hypothesis that CD38 and superoxide anion (O2·−) participate in the vasoconstriction produced by activation of thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors in the mouse kidney. CD38 is the major mammalian ADP-ribosyl cyclase contributing to vasomotor tone through the generation of cADP-ribose, a second messenger that activates ryanodine receptors to release Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in vascular smooth muscle cells. We evaluated whether the stable thromboxane mimetic U-46619 causes less pronounced renal vasoconstriction in CD38-deficient mice and the involvement of O2·− in U-46619-induced renal vasoconstriction. Our results indicate that U-46619 activation of TP receptors causes renal vasoconstriction in part by activating cADP-ribose signaling in renal resistance arterioles. Based on maximal renal blood flow and renal vascular resistance responses to bolus injections of U-46619, CD38 contributes 30–40% of the TP receptor-induced vasoconstriction. We also found that the antioxidant SOD mimetic tempol attenuated the magnitude of vasoconstriction by U-46619 in both groups of mice, suggesting mediation by O2·−. The degree of tempol blockage of U-46619-induced renal vasoconstriction was greater in wild-type mice, attenuating renal vasoconstriction by 40% compared with 30% in CD38-null mice. In other experiments, U-46619 rapidly stimulated O2·− production (dihydroethidium fluorescence) in isolated mouse afferent arterioles, an effect abolished by tempol. These observations provide the first in vivo demonstration of CD38 and O2·− involvement in the vasoconstrictor effects of TP receptor activation in the kidney and in vitro evidence for TP receptor stimulation of O2·− production by the afferent arteriole. PMID:23884143

  16. Arf-like Protein 3 (ARL3) Regulates Protein Trafficking and Ciliogenesis in Mouse Photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Hanke-Gogokhia, Christin; Wu, Zhijian; Gerstner, Cecilia D; Frederick, Jeanne M; Zhang, Houbin; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2016-03-25

    Arf-like protein 3 (ARL3) is a ubiquitous small GTPase expressed in ciliated cells of plants and animals. Germline deletion ofArl3in mice causes multiorgan ciliopathy reminiscent of Bardet-Biedl or Joubert syndromes. As photoreceptors are elegantly compartmentalized and have cilia, we probed the function of ARL3 (ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)-like 3 protein) by generating rod photoreceptor-specific (prefix(rod)) and retina-specific (prefix(ret))Arl3deletions. In predegenerate(rod)Arl3(-/-)mice, lipidated phototransduction proteins showed trafficking deficiencies, consistent with the role of ARL3 as a cargo displacement factor for lipid-binding proteins. By contrast,(ret)Arl3(-/-)rods and cones expressing Cre recombinase during embryonic development formed neither connecting cilia nor outer segments and degenerated rapidly. Absence of cilia infers participation of ARL3 in ciliogenesis and axoneme formation. Ciliogenesis was rescued, and degeneration was reversed in part by subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus particles expressing ARL3-EGFP. The conditional knock-out phenotypes permitted identification of two ARL3 functions, both in the GTP-bound form as follows: one as a regulator of intraflagellar transport participating in photoreceptor ciliogenesis and the other as a cargo displacement factor transporting lipidated protein to the outer segment. Surprisingly, a farnesylated inositol polyphosphate phosphatase only trafficked from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, thereby excluding it from a role in photoreceptor cilia physiology. PMID:26814127

  17. ARF6-mediated endosomal transport of Telencephalin affects dendritic filopodia-to-spine maturation

    PubMed Central

    Raemaekers, Tim; Peric, Aleksandar; Baatsen, Pieter; Sannerud, Ragna; Declerck, Ilse; Baert, Veerle; Michiels, Christine; Annaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic filopodia are dynamic structures thought to be the precursors of spines during synapse development. Morphological maturation to spines is associated with the stabilization and strengthening of synapses, and can be altered in various neurological disorders. Telencephalin (TLN/intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM5)) localizes to dendritic filopodia, where it facilitates their formation/maintenance, thereby slowing spine morphogenesis. As spines are largely devoid of TLN, its exclusion from the filopodia surface appears to be required in this maturation process. Using HeLa cells and primary hippocampal neurons, we demonstrate that surface removal of TLN involves internalization events mediated by the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), and its activator EFA6A. This endocytosis of TLN affects filopodia-to-spine transition, and requires Rac1-mediated dephosphorylation/release of actin-binding ERM proteins from TLN. At the somato-dendritic surface, TLN and EFA6A are confined to distinct, flotillin-positive membrane subdomains. The co-distribution of TLN with this lipid raft marker also persists during its endosomal targeting to CD63-positive late endosomes. This suggests a specific microenvironment facilitating ARF6-mediated mobilization of TLN that contributes to promotion of dendritic spine development. PMID:22781129

  18. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of a 46 kDa protein is decreased in brains of ethanol-fed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nhamburo, P.T.; Hoffman, P.L.; Tabakoff, B.

    1988-01-01

    The acute in vitro effects of ethanol on cerebral cortical adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenergic receptor characteristics suggested a site of action of ethanol at Gs, the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein. After chronic ethanol ingestion, the beta-adrenergic receptor appeared to be uncoupled (i.e., the form of the receptor with high affinity for agonist was undetectable), and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by isoproterenol or guanine nucleotides was reduced, suggesting an alteration in the properties of Gs. To further characterize this change, cholera and pertussis toxin-mediated /sup 32/P-ADP-ribosylation of mouse cortical membranes was assessed in mice that had chronically ingested ethanol in a liquid diet. /sup 32/P-labeled proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantitated by autoradiography. There was a selective 30-50% decrease in cholera toxin-induced labeling of 46 kDa protein band in membranes of ethanol-fed mice, with no apparent change in pertussis toxin-induced labeling. The 46 kDa protein has a molecular weight similar to that of the alpha subunit of Gs, suggesting a reduced amount of this protein or a change in its characteristics as a substrate for cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation in cortical membranes of ethanol-fed mice.

  19. Role of ARF6 in internalization of metal-binding proteins, metallothionein and transferrin, and cadmium-metallothionein toxicity in kidney proximal tubule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Natascha A.; Lee, Wing-Kee; Abouhamed, Marouan

    2008-07-01

    Filtered metal-protein complexes, such as cadmium-metallothionein-1 (CdMT-1) or transferrin (Tf) are apically endocytosed partly via megalin/cubilin by kidney proximal tubule (PT) cells where CdMT-1 internalization causes apoptosis. Small GTPase ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor) proteins regulate endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. We investigated roles of ARF6, which has been shown to be involved in internalization of ligands and endocytic trafficking in PT cells, following MT-1/CdMT-1 and Tf uptake by PT cells. WKPT-0293 Cl.2 cells derived from rat PT S1 segment were transfected with hemagglutinin-tagged wild-type (ARF6-WT) or dominant negative (ARF6-T27N) forms of ARF6. Using immunofluorescence, endogenous ARF6 was associated with the plasma membrane (PM) as well as juxtanuclear and co-localized with Rab5a and Rab11 involved in early and recycling endosomal trafficking. Immunofluorescence staining of megalin showed reduced surface labelling in ARF6 dominant negative (ARF6-DN) cells. Intracellular Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated MT-1 uptake was reduced in ARF6-DN cells and CdMT-1 (14.8 {mu}M for 24 h) toxicity was significantly attenuated from 27.3 {+-} 3.9% in ARF6-WT to 11.1 {+-} 4.0% in ARF6-DN cells (n = 6, P < 0.02). Moreover, reduced Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated Tf uptake was observed in ARF-DN cells (75.0 {+-} 4.6% versus 3.9 {+-} 3.9% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.01) and/or remained near the PM (89.3 {+-} 5. 6% versus 45.2 {+-} 14.3% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the data support roles for ARF6 in receptor-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of MT-1/Tf to endosomes/lysosomes and CdMT-1 toxicity of PT cells.

  20. Unfolded protein response regulates yeast small GTPase Arl1p activation at late Golgi via phosphorylation of Arf GEF Syt1p

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jia-Wei; Tang, Pei-Hua; Wang, I-Hao; Liu, Chia-Lun; Chen, Wen-Hui; Tsai, Pei-Chin; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Yu, Chia-Jung

    2016-01-01

    ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases are key regulators of membrane traffic at the Golgi complex. In yeast, Arf guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) Syt1p activates Arf-like protein Arl1p, which was accompanied by accumulation of golgin Imh1p at late Golgi, but whether and how this function of Syt1p is regulated remains unclear. Here, we report that the inositol-requiring kinase 1 (Ire1p)-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) modulated Arl1p activation at late Golgi. Arl1p activation was dependent on both kinase and endo-RNase activities of Ire1p. Moreover, constitutively active transcription factor Hac1p restored the Golgi localization of Arl1p and Imh1p in IRE1-deleted cells. Elucidating the mechanism of Ire1p–Hac1p axis actions, we found that it regulated phosphorylation of Syt1p, which enhances Arl1p activation, recruitment of Imh1p to the Golgi, and Syt1p interaction with Arl1p. Consistent with these findings, the induction of UPR by tunicamycin treatment increases phosphorylation of Syt1p, resulting in Arl1p activation. Thus, these findings clarify how the UPR influences the roles of Syt1p, Arl1p, and Imh1p in Golgi transport. PMID:26966233

  1. Platelet cytosolic 44-kDa protein is a substrate of cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation and is not recognized by antisera against the. alpha. subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Molina Y Vedia, L.M.; Reep, B.R.; Lapetina, E.G. )

    1988-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation induced by cholera toxin and pertussis toxin was studied in particulate and cytosolic fractions of human platelets. Platelets were disrupted by a cycle of freezing and thawing in the presence of a hyposmotic buffer containing protease inhibitors. In both fractions, the A subunit of cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates two proteins with molecular masses of 42 and 44 kDa, whereas pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylates a 41-kDa polypeptide. Two antisera against the {alpha} subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein recognize only the 42-kDa polypeptide. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of the 42- and 44-kDa proteins is reduced by pretreatment of platelets with iloprost, a prostacyclin analog. The 44-kDa protein, which is substrate of cholera toxin, could be extracted completely from the membrane and recovered in the cytosolic fraction when the cells were disrupted by Dounce homogenization and the pellet was extensively washed. A 44-kDa protein can also be labeled with 8-azidoguanosine 5{prime}-({alpha}-{sup 32}P)triphosphate in the cytosol and membranes. These finding indicate that cholera and pertussis toxins produced covalent modifications of proteins present in particulate and cytosolic platelet fractions. Moreover, the 44-kDa protein might be an {alpha} subunit of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein that is not recognized by available antisera.

  2. ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin: functional analysis of a cellular system that stimulates the enzymic activity of cholera toxin fragment A/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.M.; Coburn, J.

    1987-10-06

    The authors have clarified relationships between cholera toxin, cholera toxin substrates, a membrane protein S that is required for toxin activity, and a soluble protein CF that is needed for the function of S. The toxin has little intrinsic ability to catalyze ADP-ribosylations unless it encounters the active form of the S protein, which is S liganded to GTP or to a GTP analogue. In the presence of CF, S x GTP forms readily, though reversibly, but a more permanent active species, S-guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (S x GTP..gamma..S), forms over a period of 10-15 min at 37/sup 0/C. Both guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) and GTP block this quasi-permanent activation. Some S x GTP..gamma..S forms in membranes that are exposed to CF alone and then to GTP..gamma..S, with a wash in between, and it is possible that CF facilitates a G nucleotide exchange. S x GTP..gamma..S dissolved by nonionic detergents persists in solution and can be used to support the ADP-ribosylation of nucleotide-free substrates. In this circumstance, added guanyl nucleotides have no further effect. This active form of S is unstable, especially when heated, but the thermal inactivation above 45/sup 0/C is decreased by GTP..gamma..S. Active S is required equally for the ADP-ribosylation of all of cholera toxin's protein substrates, regardless of whether they bind GTP or not. They suggest that active S interacts directly with the enzymic A/sub 1/ fragments of cholera toxin and not with any toxin substrate. The activation and activity of S are independent of the state, or even the presence, of adenylate cyclase and seem to be involved with the cyclase system only via cholera toxin. S is apparently not related by function to certain other GTP binding proteins, including p21/sup ras/, and appears to be a new GTP binding protein whose physiologic role remains to be identified.

  3. Molecular Basis of Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate and ARF1 GTPase Recognition by the FAPP1 Pleckstrin Homology (PH) Domain

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.; Heroux, A.; Scott, J. L.; Roy, S.; Lenoir, M.; Overduin, M.; Stahelin, R. V.; Kutateladze, T. G.

    2011-05-27

    Four-phosphate-adaptor protein 1 (FAPP1) regulates secretory transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane. FAPP1 is recruited to the Golgi through binding of its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P) and a small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1). Despite the critical role of FAPP1 in membrane trafficking, the molecular basis of its dual function remains unclear. Here, we report a 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the FAPP1 PH domain and detail the molecular mechanisms of the PtdIns(4)P and ARF1 recognition. The FAPP1 PH domain folds into a seven-stranded {beta}-barrel capped by an {alpha}-helix at one edge, whereas the opposite edge is flanked by three loops and the {beta}4 and {beta}7 strands that form a lipid-binding pocket within the {beta}-barrel. The ARF1-binding site is located on the outer side of the {beta}-barrel as determined by NMR resonance perturbation analysis, mutagenesis, and measurements of binding affinities. The two binding sites have little overlap, allowing FAPP1 PH to associate with both ligands simultaneously and independently. Binding to PtdIns(4)P is enhanced in an acidic environment and is required for membrane penetration and tubulation activity of FAPP1, whereas the GTP-bound conformation of the GTPase is necessary for the interaction with ARF1. Together, these findings provide structural and biochemical insight into the multivalent membrane anchoring by the PH domain that may augment affinity and selectivity of FAPP1 toward the TGN membranes enriched in both PtdIns(4)P and GTP-bound ARF1.

  4. Purification and properties of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase from Crithidia fasciculata. Automodification and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DNA topoisomerase I.

    PubMed

    Podestá, Dolores; García-Herreros, María I; Cannata, Joaquín J B; Stoppani, Andrés O M; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H

    2004-06-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase has been purified more than 160000-fold from Crithidia fasciculata. This is the first PARP isolated to apparent homogeneity from trypanosomatids. The purified enzyme absolutely required DNA for catalytic activity and histones enhanced it 2.5-fold, when the DNA:histone ratio was 1:1.3. The enzyme required no magnesium or any other metal ion cofactor. The apparent molecular mass of 111 kDa, determined by gel filtration would correspond to a dimer of two identical 55-kDa subunits. Activity was inhibited by nicotinamide, 3-aminobenzamide, theophylline, thymidine, xanthine and hypoxanthine but not by adenosine. The enzyme was localized to the cell nucleus. Our findings suggest that covalent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP itself or DNA topoisomerase I resulted in the inhibition of their activities and provide an initial biochemical characterization of this covalent post-translational modification in trypanosomatids.

  5. Which Way In? The RalF Arf-GEF Orchestrates Rickettsia Host Cell Invasion.

    PubMed

    Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen E; Rahman, M Sayeedur; Gillespie, Joseph J; Guillotte, Mark L; Kaur, Simran J; Lehman, Stephanie S; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial Sec7-domain-containing proteins (RalF) are known only from species of Legionella and Rickettsia, which have facultative and obligate intracellular lifestyles, respectively. L. pneumophila RalF, a type IV secretion system (T4SS) effector, is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs), activating and recruiting host Arf1 to the Legionella-containing vacuole. In contrast, previous in vitro studies showed R. prowazekii (Typhus Group) RalF is a functional Arf-GEF that localizes to the host plasma membrane and interacts with the actin cytoskeleton via a unique C-terminal domain. As RalF is differentially encoded across Rickettsia species (e.g., pseudogenized in all Spotted Fever Group species), it may function in lineage-specific biology and pathogenicity. Herein, we demonstrate RalF of R. typhi (Typhus Group) interacts with the Rickettsia T4SS coupling protein (RvhD4) via its proximal C-terminal sequence. RalF is expressed early during infection, with its inactivation via antibody blocking significantly reducing R. typhi host cell invasion. For R. typhi and R. felis (Transitional Group), RalF ectopic expression revealed subcellular localization with the host plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Remarkably, R. bellii (Ancestral Group) RalF showed perinuclear localization reminiscent of ectopically expressed Legionella RalF, for which it shares several structural features. For R. typhi, RalF co-localization with Arf6 and PI(4,5)P2 at entry foci on the host plasma membrane was determined to be critical for invasion. Thus, we propose recruitment of PI(4,5)P2 at entry foci, mediated by RalF activation of Arf6, initiates actin remodeling and ultimately facilitates bacterial invasion. Collectively, our characterization of RalF as an invasin suggests that, despite carrying a similar Arf-GEF unknown from other bacteria, different intracellular lifestyles across Rickettsia and Legionella species have driven divergent roles for Ral

  6. Which Way In? The RalF Arf-GEF Orchestrates Rickettsia Host Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen E.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Guillotte, Mark L.; Kaur, Simran J.; Lehman, Stephanie S.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial Sec7-domain-containing proteins (RalF) are known only from species of Legionella and Rickettsia, which have facultative and obligate intracellular lifestyles, respectively. L. pneumophila RalF, a type IV secretion system (T4SS) effector, is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs), activating and recruiting host Arf1 to the Legionella-containing vacuole. In contrast, previous in vitro studies showed R. prowazekii (Typhus Group) RalF is a functional Arf-GEF that localizes to the host plasma membrane and interacts with the actin cytoskeleton via a unique C-terminal domain. As RalF is differentially encoded across Rickettsia species (e.g., pseudogenized in all Spotted Fever Group species), it may function in lineage-specific biology and pathogenicity. Herein, we demonstrate RalF of R. typhi (Typhus Group) interacts with the Rickettsia T4SS coupling protein (RvhD4) via its proximal C-terminal sequence. RalF is expressed early during infection, with its inactivation via antibody blocking significantly reducing R. typhi host cell invasion. For R. typhi and R. felis (Transitional Group), RalF ectopic expression revealed subcellular localization with the host plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Remarkably, R. bellii (Ancestral Group) RalF showed perinuclear localization reminiscent of ectopically expressed Legionella RalF, for which it shares several structural features. For R. typhi, RalF co-localization with Arf6 and PI(4,5)P2 at entry foci on the host plasma membrane was determined to be critical for invasion. Thus, we propose recruitment of PI(4,5)P2 at entry foci, mediated by RalF activation of Arf6, initiates actin remodeling and ultimately facilitates bacterial invasion. Collectively, our characterization of RalF as an invasin suggests that, despite carrying a similar Arf-GEF unknown from other bacteria, different intracellular lifestyles across Rickettsia and Legionella species have driven divergent roles for Ral

  7. ARF1-regulated coatomer directs the steady-state localization of protein kinase C epsilon at the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Tabitha A; Stamnes, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) contributes to multiple signaling pathways affecting human disease. The function of PKCε requires it to undergo changes in subcellular distribution in response to signaling events. While the mechanisms underlying this translocation are incompletely understood, it involves the receptor for activated C kinase protein (RACK2/β'-COP). This receptor also functions as a vesicle coat protein in the secretory pathway where it is regulated by the small GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF1. We inhibited ARF1 activation to test the requirement for RACK2/β'-COP in PKCε localization in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. We found that steady-state localization of PKCε at the Golgi complex requires ARF1-regulated RACK2/β'-COP function. By contrast, we did not observe any defects in phorbol ester-induced translocation when ARF1 was inhibited. We also found that PKCε bound to isolated membranes through two distinct mechanisms. One mechanism was dependent upon RACK2/β'-COP while a second was RACK2/β'-COP-independent and stimulated by phorbol esters. Finally, we show that RACK2/β'-COP affects the subcellular distribution of a constitutively active form of PKCε, in a manner similar to what we observed for wild-type PKCε. Together, our data support a role for RACK2/β'-COP in the steady-state localization of PKCε at the Golgi apparatus, which may be independent of its role during PKCε translocation to the cell surface.

  8. SmARF8, a transcription factor involved in parthenocarpy in eggplant.

    PubMed

    Du, Liming; Bao, Chonglai; Hu, Tianhua; Zhu, Qinmei; Hu, Haijiao; He, Qunyan; Mao, Weihai

    2016-02-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit is a very attractive trait for consumers and especially in eggplants where seeds can lead to browning of the flesh and bitterness. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying parthenocarpy in eggplant still remain unknown. Some auxin response factors have been previously shown in model species, such as Arabidopsis and tomato, to play an important role in such a process. Here, we have identified a natural parthenocarpic mutant and showed that ARF8 from eggplant (SmARF8), is down-regulated in buds compared to wild-type plants. Further characterization of SmARF8 showed that it is a nuclear protein and an active transcriptional regulator. We determined that amino acids 629-773 of SmARF8 act as the transcriptional activation domain, the C terminus of SmARF8 is the protein-binding domain, and that SmARF8 might form homodimers. Expression analysis in eggplant showed that SmARF8 is expressed ubiquitously in all tissues and organs and is responsive to auxin. Eggplant transgenic lines harboring RNA interference of SmARF8 exhibited parthenocarpy in unfertilized flowers, suggesting that SmARF8 negatively regulates fruit initiation. Interestingly, SmARF8-overexpressing Arabidopsis lines also induced parthenocarpy. These results indicate that SmARF8 could affect the dimerization of auxin/indole acetic acid repressors with SmARF8 via domains III and IV and thus induce fruit development. Furthermore, the introduction of SmARF8 full-length cDNA could partially complement the parthenocarpic phenotypes in Arabidopsis arf8-1 and arf8-4 mutants. Collectively, our results demonstrate that SmARF8 may act as a key negative regulator involved in parthenocarpic fruit development of eggplant. These findings give more insights into the conserved mechanisms leading to parthenocarpy in which auxin signaling plays a pivotal role, and provide potential target for eggplant breeding. PMID:26174736

  9. SmARF8, a transcription factor involved in parthenocarpy in eggplant.

    PubMed

    Du, Liming; Bao, Chonglai; Hu, Tianhua; Zhu, Qinmei; Hu, Haijiao; He, Qunyan; Mao, Weihai

    2016-02-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit is a very attractive trait for consumers and especially in eggplants where seeds can lead to browning of the flesh and bitterness. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying parthenocarpy in eggplant still remain unknown. Some auxin response factors have been previously shown in model species, such as Arabidopsis and tomato, to play an important role in such a process. Here, we have identified a natural parthenocarpic mutant and showed that ARF8 from eggplant (SmARF8), is down-regulated in buds compared to wild-type plants. Further characterization of SmARF8 showed that it is a nuclear protein and an active transcriptional regulator. We determined that amino acids 629-773 of SmARF8 act as the transcriptional activation domain, the C terminus of SmARF8 is the protein-binding domain, and that SmARF8 might form homodimers. Expression analysis in eggplant showed that SmARF8 is expressed ubiquitously in all tissues and organs and is responsive to auxin. Eggplant transgenic lines harboring RNA interference of SmARF8 exhibited parthenocarpy in unfertilized flowers, suggesting that SmARF8 negatively regulates fruit initiation. Interestingly, SmARF8-overexpressing Arabidopsis lines also induced parthenocarpy. These results indicate that SmARF8 could affect the dimerization of auxin/indole acetic acid repressors with SmARF8 via domains III and IV and thus induce fruit development. Furthermore, the introduction of SmARF8 full-length cDNA could partially complement the parthenocarpic phenotypes in Arabidopsis arf8-1 and arf8-4 mutants. Collectively, our results demonstrate that SmARF8 may act as a key negative regulator involved in parthenocarpic fruit development of eggplant. These findings give more insights into the conserved mechanisms leading to parthenocarpy in which auxin signaling plays a pivotal role, and provide potential target for eggplant breeding.

  10. Endothelial Cells Can Regulate Smooth Muscle Cells in Contractile Phenotype through the miR-206/ARF6&NCX1/Exosome Axis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao; He, Yu; Hou, Xue; Zhang, Zhenming; Wang, Rui; Wu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Active interactions between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are critical to maintaining the SMC phenotype. Exosomes play an important role in intercellular communication. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate endothelial cells and SMCs crosstalk. We aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the SMC phenotype by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through exosomes. We found that HUVECs overexpressing miR-206 upregulated contractile marker (α-SMA, Smoothelin and Calponin) mRNA expression in SMCs. We also found that the expression of miR-206 by HUVECs reduced exosome production by regulating ADP-Ribosylation Factor 6 (ARF6) and sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1). Using real-time PCR and western blot analysis, we showed that HUVEC-derived exosomes decreased the expression of contractile phenotype marker genes (α-SMA, Smoothelin and Calponin) in SMCs. Furthermore, a reduction of the miR-26a-containing exosomes secreted from HUVECs affects the SMC phenotype. We propose a novel mechanism in which miR-206 expression in HUVECs maintains the contractile phenotype of SMCs by suppressing exosome secretion from HUVECs, particularly miR-26a in exosomes, through targeting ARF6 and NCX1. PMID:27031991

  11. Blockade of PARP activity attenuates poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation but offers only partial neuroprotection against NMDA-induced cell death in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Dennis J; Winkler, Barry S

    2006-09-01

    Recent reports have linked neuronal cell death by necrosis to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) hyperactivation. It is believed that under stress, the activity of this enzyme is up-regulated, resulting in extensive poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins, using NAD(+) as its substrate, which, in turn, leads to the depletion of NAD(+). In efforts to restore the level of NAD(+), depletion of ATP occurs, resulting in the shutdown of ATP-dependent ionic pumps. This results in cell swelling and eventual loss of membrane selectivity, hallmarks of necrosis. Reports from in vitro and in vivo studies in the brain have shown that NMDA receptor activation stimulates PARP activity and that blockade of the enzyme provides substantial neuroprotection. The present study was undertaken to determine whether PARP activity is regulated by NMDA in the rat retina, and whether blockade of PARP activity provides protection against toxic effects of NMDA. Rat retinas exposed to intravitreal injections containing NMDA, with or without the PARP inhibitor N-(6-oxo-5, 6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-(N,-dimethylamino) acetamide hydrochloride (PJ-34), were assessed for changes in PARP-1 activity as evidenced by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PAR), loss of membrane integrity, morphological indicators of apoptosis and necrosis, and ganglion cell loss. Results showed that: NMDA increased PAR formation in a concentration-dependent manner and caused a decline in retinal ATP levels; PJ-34 blockade attenuated the NMDA-induced formation of PAR and decline in ATP; NMDA induced the loss of membrane selectivity to ethidium bromide (EtBr) in inner retinal neurons, but loss of membrane selectivity was not prevented by blocking PARP activity; cells stained with EtBr, or reacted for TUNEL-labeling, displayed features characteristic of both apoptosis and necrosis. In the presence of PJ-34, greater numbers of cells exhibited apoptotic features; PJ-34 provided partial neuroprotection against NMDA-induced ganglion

  12. Cholera toxin partially inhibits the T-cell response to phytohaemagglutinin through the ADP-ribosylation of a 45 kDa membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Nel, A E; Vandenplas, M; Wooten, M M; Cooper, R; Vandenplas, S; Rheeder, A; Daniels, J

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the influence of cholera toxin (CT) on T lymphocyte activation by the mitogenic lectin phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). CT suppressed lectin-induced [3H]thymidine uptake in a dose-dependent fashion and acted synergistically with PHA in the generation of intracellular cyclic AMP. The toxin was assumed to act on Gs, because it also stimulated ADP-ribosylation of a 45 kDa membrane protein in vitro; no additional substrates were seen. The inhibitory effect of the adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP pathway was shown to be directed at a concomitant stimulatory pathway, namely inositol phospholipid turnover. Lectin-stimulated 32P incorporation into both phosphatidylinositol as well as its 4,5-biphosphate derivative was depressed in the presence of CT or exogenous dibutyryl cyclic AMP. This, in turn, was associated with reduced activation of C-kinase as determined by decreased lectin-induced translocation from the cytosol to the surface membrane. These results indicate that Gs probably acts as a transducer between the PHA receptor and adenylate cyclase and may give rise to an exaggerated adenylate cyclase response in the presence of CT. It would seem as if reduction in inositol phospholipid turnover is related to the elevation of cyclic AMP rather than a CT effect on a putative transducer which acts directly on phospholipase C. Our study does not exclude the existence of non-CT-sensitive transducers in this capacity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2851989

  13. Nucleotide sequence and chromosomal localization of the gene for pierisin-1, a DNA ADP-ribosylating protein, in the cabbage butterfly Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masafumi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Totsuka, Yukari; Imanishi, Shigeo; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2011-10-01

    Cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, contains a unique DNA ADP-ribosylating protein, pierisin-1, which transfers ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to guanine bases of DNA. Pierisin-like proteins are only distributed in subtribes Pierina, Aporiina and Appiadina of the family Pieridae. In this study, we obtained genomic clones carrying the pierisin-1 gene from adult samples of P. rapae by plaque hybridization. The pierisin-1 gene was found to consist of two exons, 0.1-kb exon 1 and 3.9-kb exon 2, and a 2.3-kb intron. In addition, we could demonstrate that the putative promoter in the about 3-kb upstream region from the transcription start site of the gene include a transcriptional activating motif involved in immune pathways and hormonal regulation. We also examined chromosomal localization of the pierisin-1 gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using Cy3-labeled pierisin-1 genomic clone demonstrated the localization of the gene near the kinetochore in chromosome 9. Thus, we confirmed that the pierisin-1 gene is located in the genome of P. rapae.

  14. Functional Characterization of an Extended Binding Component of the Actin-ADP-Ribosylating C2 Toxin Detected in Clostridium botulinum Strain (C) 2300 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sterthoff, Charlott; Lang, Alexander E.; Schwan, Carsten; Tauch, Andreas; Aktories, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin consists of the binding component C2II and the enzyme component C2I, which ADP-ribosylates G-actin of eukaryotic cells. Trypsin-activated C2II (C2IIa) forms heptamers that mediate cell binding and translocation of C2I from acidic endosomes into the cytosol of target cells. By genome sequencing of C. botulinum strain (C) 2300, we found that C2II from this strain carries a C-terminal extension of 129 amino acids, unlike its homologous counterparts from strains (C) 203U28, (C) 468, and (D) 1873. This extension shows a high similarity to the C-terminal receptor-binding domain of C2II and is presumably the result of a duplication of this domain. The C2II extension facilitates the binding to cell surface receptors, which leads to an increased intoxication efficiency compared to that of C2II proteins from other C. botulinum strains. PMID:20145093

  15. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction...

  16. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction...

  17. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction...

  18. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction...

  19. Immunochemical analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by the mono-alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES): Impact of experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Debiak, Malgorzata; Lex, Kirsten; Ponath, Viviane; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent with a long history of use as a chemical weapon. Although its last military use is dated for the eighties of the last century, a potential use in terroristic attacks against civilians remains a significant threat. Thus, improving medical therapy of mustard exposed individuals is still of particular interest. PARP inhibitors were recently brought into the focus as a potential countermeasure for mustard-induced pathologies, supported by the availability of efficient compounds successfully tested in cancer therapy. PARP activation after SM treatment was reported in several cell types and tissues under various conditions; however, a detailed characterization of this phenomenon is still missing. This study provides the basis for such studies by developing and optimizing experimental conditions to investigate poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) in HaCaT keratinocytes upon treatment with the monofunctional alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide ("half mustard", CEES). By using an immunofluorescence-based approach, we show that optimization of experimental conditions with regards to the type of solvent, dilution factors and treatment procedure is essential to obtain a homogenous PAR staining in HaCaT cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different CEES treatment protocols significantly influence the cytotoxicity profiles of treated cells. Using an optimized treatment protocol, our data reveals that CEES induces a dose- and time-dependent dynamic PARylation response in HaCaT cells that could be completely blocked by treating cells with the clinically relevant pharmacological PARP inhibitor ABT888 (also known as veliparib). Finally, siRNA experiments show that CEES-induced PAR formation is predominantly due to the activation of PARP1. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to study the

  20. Disordered osteoclast formation and function in a CD38 (ADP-ribosyl cyclase)-deficient mouse establishes an essential role for CD38 in bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Iqbal, Jameel; Dolgilevich, Svetlana; Yuen, Tony; Wu, Xue-Bin; Moonga, Baljit S; Adebanjo, Olugbenga A; Bevis, Peter J R; Lund, Frances; Huang, Christopher L-H; Blair, Harry C; Abe, Etsuko; Zaidi, Mone

    2003-03-01

    We have evaluated the role of the ADP-ribosyl cyclase, CD38, in bone remodeling, a process by which the skeleton is being renewed constantly through the coordinated activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. CD38 catalyzes the cyclization of its substrate, NAD+, to the Ca2+-releasing second messenger, cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPr). We have shown previously that CD38 is expressed both in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Its activation in the osteoclast triggers Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptors (RyRs), stimulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), and an inhibition of bone resorption. Here, we have examined the consequences of deleting the CD38 gene in mice on skeletal remodeling. We report that CD38-/- mice displayed a markedly reduced bone mineral density (BMD) at the femur, tibia, and lumbar spine at 3 months and at the lumbar spine at 4 months, with full normalization of the BMD at all sites at 5 months. The osteoporosis at 3 months was accompanied by a reduction in primary spongiosa and increased osteoclast surfaces on histomorphometric analysis. Hematopoetic stem cells isolated ex vivo from CD38-/- mice showed a dramatic approximately fourfold increase in osteoclast formation in response to incubation for 6 days with RANK-L and M-CSF. The osteoclasts so formed in these cultures showed a approximately 2.5-fold increase in resorptive activity compared with wild-type cells. However, when adherent bone marrow stromal cells were allowed to mature into alkaline phosphatase-positive colony-forming units (CFU-Fs), those derived from CD38-/- mice showed a significant reduction in differentiation compared with wild-type cells. Real-time RT-PCR on mRNA isolated from osteoclasts at day 6 showed a significant reduction in IL-6 and IL-6 receptor mRNA, together with significant decreases in the expression of all calcineurin A isoforms, alpha, beta, and gamma. These findings establish a critical role for CD38 in osteoclast formation and bone resorption. We speculate that CD38 functions

  1. Genome-wide identification of auxin response factor (ARF) genes and its tissue-specific prominent expression in Gossypium raimondii.

    PubMed

    Sun, Runrun; Wang, Kunbo; Guo, Tenglong; Jones, Don C; Cobb, Juliana; Zhang, Baohong; Wang, Qinglian

    2015-07-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are recently discovered transcription factors that bind with auxin response elements (AuxRE, TGTCTC) to regulate the expression of early auxin-responsive genes. To our knowledge, the ARF gene family has never been characterized in cotton, the most important fiber crop in the world. In this study, a total of 35 ARF genes, named as GrARFs, were identified in a diploid cotton species Gossypium raimondii. The 35 ARF genes were located in 12 of the 13 cotton chromosomes; the intron/exon distribution of the GrARF genes was similar among sister pairs, whereas the divergence of some GrARF genes suggests the possibility of functional diversification. Our results show that the middle domains of nine GrARF proteins rich in glutamine (Q) are activators, while 26 other GrARF proteins rich in proline (P), serine (S), and threonine (T) are repressors. Our results also show that the expression of GrARF genes is diverse in different tissues. The expression of GrARF1 was significantly higher in leaves, whereas GrARF2a had higher expression level in shoots, which implicates different roles in the tested tissues. The GrARF11 has a higher expression level in buds than that in leaves, while GrARF19.2 shows contrasting expression patterns, having higher expression in leaves than that in buds. This suggests that they play different roles in leaves and buds. During long-term evolution of G. raimondii, some ARF genes were lost and some arose. The identification and characterization of the ARF genes in G. raimondii elucidate its important role in cotton that ARF genes regulate the development of flower buds, sepals, shoots, and leaves.

  2. Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)-Ribosylation of the Guanosine Triphosphatase (GTPase) Rho in Resting Peripheral Blood Human T Lymphocytes Results in Pseudopodial Extension and the Inhibition of  T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Woodside, Darren G.; Wooten, David K.; McIntyre, Bradley W.

    1998-01-01

    Scrape loading Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme into primary peripheral blood human T lymphocytes (PB T cells) efficiently adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylates and thus inactivates the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rho. Basal adhesion of PB T cells to the β1 integrin substrate fibronectin (Fn) was not inhibited by inactivation of Rho, nor was upregulation of adhesion using phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; 10 ng/ml) or Mn++ (1 mM) affected. Whereas untreated PB T cells adherent to Fn remain spherical, C3-treated PB T cells extend F-actin–containing pseudopodia. Inactivation of Rho delayed the kinetics of PMA-dependent PB T cell homotypic aggregation, a process involving integrin αLβ2. Although C3 treatment of PB T cells did not prevent adhesion to the β1 integrin substrate Fn, it did inhibit β1 integrin/CD3-mediated costimulation of proliferation. Analysis of intracellular cytokine production at the single cell level demonstrated that ADP-ribosylation of Rho inhibited β1 integrin/ CD3 and CD28/CD3 costimulation of IL-2 production within 6 h of activation. Strikingly, IL-2 production induced by PMA and ionomycin was unaffected by C3 treatment. Thus, the GTPase Rho is a novel regulator of T lymphocyte cytoarchitecture, and functional Rho is required for very early events regulating costimulation of IL-2 production in PB T cells. PMID:9763600

  3. Activation of immobilized, biotinylated choleragen AI protein by a 19-kilodalton guanine nucleotide-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Bobak, D A; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1989-09-19

    Cholera toxin catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation that results in activation of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein of the adenylyl cyclase system, known as Gs. The toxin also ADP-ribosylates other proteins and simple guanidino compounds and auto-ADP-ribosylates its AI protein (CTA1). All of the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of CTAI are enhanced by 19-21-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins known as ADP-ribosylation factors, or ARFs. CTAI contains a single cysteine located near the carboxy terminus. CTAI was immobilized through this cysteine by reaction with iodoacetyl-N-biotinyl-hexylenediamine and binding of the resulting biotinylated protein to avidin-agarose. Immobilized CTAI catalyzed the ARF-stimulated ADP-ribosylation of agmatine. The reaction was enhanced by detergents and phospholipid, but the fold stimulation by purified sARF-II from bovine brain was considerably less than that observed with free CTA. ADP-ribosylation of Gsa by immobilized CTAI, which was somewhat enhanced by sARF-II, was much less than predicted on the basis of the NAD:agmatine ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Immobilized CTAI catalyzed its own auto-ADP-ribosylation as well as the ADP-ribosylation of the immobilized avidin and CTA2, with relatively little stimulation by sARF-II. ADP-ribosylation of CTA2 by free CTAI is minimal. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that the cysteine near the carboxy terminus of the toxin is not critical for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity or for its regulation by sARF-II. Biotinylation and immobilization of the toxin through this cysteine may, however, limit accessibility to Gsa or SARF-II, or perhaps otherwise reduce interaction with these proteins whether as substrates or activator.

  4. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Si-Bei; OuYang, Wei-Zhi; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Xie, Liang-Liang; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologs of ARFs. A total of 19 nonredundant ARF genes (CiARF) were found and validated from the sweet orange. A comprehensive overview of the CiARFs was undertaken, including the gene structures, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome locations, conserved motifs of proteins, and cis-elements in promoters of CiARF. Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR revealed many CiARF genes, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under two hormone treatments using real-time PCR. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and N-1-napthylphthalamic acid (NPA) treatment experiments revealed differential up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the 19 citrus ARF genes in the callus of sweet orange. Our comprehensive analysis of ARF genes further elucidates the roles of CiARF family members during citrus growth and development process. PMID:25870601

  5. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Si-Bei; OuYang, Wei-Zhi; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Xie, Liang-Liang; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologs of ARFs. A total of 19 nonredundant ARF genes (CiARF) were found and validated from the sweet orange. A comprehensive overview of the CiARFs was undertaken, including the gene structures, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome locations, conserved motifs of proteins, and cis-elements in promoters of CiARF. Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR revealed many CiARF genes, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under two hormone treatments using real-time PCR. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and N-1-napthylphthalamic acid (NPA) treatment experiments revealed differential up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the 19 citrus ARF genes in the callus of sweet orange. Our comprehensive analysis of ARF genes further elucidates the roles of CiARF family members during citrus growth and development process.

  6. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato. PMID:26716451

  7. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato. PMID:26716451

  8. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family from tomato and analysis of their role in flower and fruit development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Sharma, Arun K

    2011-03-01

    Auxin response transcription factors have been widely implicated in auxin-mediated responses during various developmental processes ranging from root and shoot development to flower and fruit development in plants. In order to use them for improvement of agronomic traits related to fruit, we need to have better understanding of their role during fruit development. In this study, 17 SlARF genes have been identified from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), using various publically available tomato EST databases. Phylogenetic analysis of the 23 AtARF and 17 SlARF proteins results in formation of three major classes and a total of 14 sister pairs, including seven SlARF-AtARF, four SlARF-SlARF and three AtARF-AtARF sister pairs, providing insights into various orthologous relationships between AtARFs and SlARFs. Further, search for orthologs of these SlARFs resulted in identification of nine, ten, four and three ARF genes from potato, tobacco, N. benthemiana and pepper, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of these genes, along with their orthologs from Solanaceae species, suggests the presence of a common set of the ARF genes in this family. Comparison of the expression of these SlARF genes in wild type and rin mutant provides an insight into their role during different stages of flower and fruit development. This study suggests that ARF genes may play diverse role during flower and fruit development. Comprehensive data generated here will provide a platform for identification of ARF genes and elucidation of their function during reproductive development stages in Solanaceae in general and fruit development in tomato, in particular.

  10. Arf6 guanine-nucleotide exchange factor cytohesin-2 regulates myelination in nerves.

    PubMed

    Torii, Tomohiro; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kawahara, Kazuko; Saitoh, Yurika; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Takashima, Shou; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-05-01

    In postnatal development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells differentiate to insulate neuronal axons with myelin sheaths, increasing the nerve conduction velocity. To produce the mature myelin sheath with its multiple layers, Schwann cells undergo dynamic morphological changes. While extracellular molecules such as growth factors and cell adhesion ligands are known to regulate the myelination process, the intracellular molecular mechanism underlying myelination remains unclear. In this study, we have produced Schwann cell-specific conditional knockout mice for cytohesin-2, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) specifically activating Arf6. Arf6, a member of the Ras-like protein family, participates in various cellular functions including cell morphological changes. Cytohesin-2 knockout mice exhibit decreased Arf6 activity and reduced myelin thickness in the sciatic nerves, with decreased expression levels of myelin protein zero (MPZ), the major myelin marker protein. These results are consistent with those of experiments in which Schwann cell-neuronal cultures were treated with pan-cytohesin inhibitor SecinH3. On the other hand, the numbers of Ki67-positive cells in knockout mice and controls are comparable, indicating that cytohesin-2 does not have a positive effect on cell numbers. Thus, signaling through cytohesin-2 is required for myelination by Schwann cells, and cytohesin-2 is added to the list of molecules known to underlie PNS myelination.

  11. SynArfGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6 and localizes preferentially at post-synaptic specializations of inhibitory synapses.

    PubMed

    Fukaya, Masahiro; Kamata, Akifumi; Hara, Yoshinobu; Tamaki, Hideaki; Katsumata, Osamu; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Hata, Yutaka; Suzuki, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Masahiko; Harvey, Robert J; Sakagami, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-01

    SynArfGEF, also known as BRAG3 or IQSEC3, is a member of the brefeldin A-resistant Arf-GEF/IQSEC family and was originally identified by screening for mRNA species associated with the post-synaptic density fraction. In this study, we demonstrate that synArfGEF activates Arf6, using Arf pull down and transferrin incorporation assays. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that synArfGEF is present in somata and dendrites as puncta in close association with inhibitory synapses, whereas immunoelectron microscopic analysis reveals that synArfGEF localizes preferentially at post-synaptic specializations of symmetric synapses. Using yeast two-hybrid and pull down assays, we show that synArfGEF is able to bind utrophin/dystrophin and S-SCAM/MAGI-2 scaffolding proteins that localize at inhibitory synapses. Double immunostaining reveals that synArfGEF co-localizes with dystrophin and S-SCAM in cultured hippocampal neurons and cerebellar cortex, respectively. Both β-dystroglycan and S-SCAM were immunoprecipitated from brain lysates using anti-synArfGEF IgG. Taken together, these findings suggest that synArfGEF functions as a novel regulator of Arf6 at inhibitory synapses and associates with the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex and S-SCAM.

  12. Mechanism of cholera toxin activation by a guanine nucleotide-dependent 19 kDa protein.

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1990-05-16

    Cholera toxin causes the devastating diarrheal syndrome characteristic of cholera by catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha, a GTP-binding regulatory protein, resulting in activation of adenylyl cyclase. ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha is enhanced by 19 kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins known as ADP-ribosylation factors or ARFs. We investigated the effects of agents known to alter toxin-catalyzed activation of adenylyl cyclase on the stimulation of toxin- and toxin subunit-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha and other substrates by an ADP-ribosylation factor purified from a soluble fraction of bovine brain (sARF II). In the presence of GTP, sARF II enhanced activity of both the toxin catalytic unit and a reduced and alkylated fragment ('A1'), as a result of an increase in substrate affinity with no significant effects on Vmax. Activation of toxin was independent of Gs alpha and was stimulated 4-fold by sodium dodecyl sulfate, but abolished by Triton X-100. sARF II therefore serves as a direct allosteric activator of the A1 protein and may thus amplify the pathological effects of cholera toxin.

  13. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) Gene Family in Eucalyptus grandis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; Mila, Isabelle; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Dunand, Christophe; Paiva, Jorge A. P.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is a central hormone involved in a wide range of developmental processes including the specification of vascular stem cells. Auxin Response Factors (ARF) are important actors of the auxin signalling pathway, regulating the transcription of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allowed us to examine the characteristics and evolutionary history of this gene family in a woody plant of high economic importance. With 17 members, the E. grandis ARF gene family is slightly contracted, as compared to those of most angiosperms studied hitherto, lacking traces of duplication events. In silico analysis of alternative transcripts and gene truncation suggested that these two mechanisms were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ARF family in Eucalyptus. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with genomes of other taxonomic lineages revealed the presence of a new ARF clade found preferentially in woody and/or perennial plants. High-throughput expression profiling among different organs and tissues and in response to environmental cues highlighted genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, responding dynamically to various environmental stimuli. Finally, this study allowed identification of three ARF candidates potentially involved in the auxin-regulated transcriptional program underlying wood formation. PMID:25269088

  14. Novel cholix toxin variants, ADP-ribosylating toxins in Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains, and their pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Asakura, Masahiro; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Golbar, Hossain M; Yamate, Jyoji; Arakawa, Eiji; Tada, Toshiji; Ramamurthy, T; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2013-02-01

    Cholix toxin (ChxA) is a recently discovered exotoxin in Vibrio cholerae which has been characterized as a third member of the eukaryotic elongation factor 2-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase toxins, in addition to exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and diphtheria toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. These toxins consist of three characteristic domains for receptor binding, translocation, and catalysis. However, there is little information about the prevalence of chxA and its genetic variations and pathogenic mechanisms. In this study, we screened the chxA gene in a large number (n = 765) of V. cholerae strains and observed its presence exclusively in non-O1/non-O139 strains (27.0%; 53 of 196) and not in O1 (n = 485) or O139 (n = 84). Sequencing of these 53 chxA genes generated 29 subtypes which were grouped into three clusters designated chxA I, chxA II, and chxA III. chxA I belongs to the prototype, while chxA II and chxA III are newly discovered variants. ChxA II and ChxA III had unique receptor binding and catalytic domains, respectively, in comparison to ChxA I. Recombinant ChxA I (rChxA I) and rChxA II but not rChxA III showed variable cytotoxic effects on different eukaryotic cells. Although rChxA II was more lethal to mice than rChxA I when injected intravenously, no enterotoxicity of any rChxA was observed in a rabbit ileal loop test. Hepatocytes showed coagulation necrosis in rChxA I- or rChxA II-treated mice, seemingly the major target for ChxA. The present study illustrates the potential of ChxA as an important virulence factor in non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, which may be associated with extraintestinal infections rather than enterotoxicity.

  15. Arfs at a glance.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Catherine L; Bouvet, Samuel

    2014-10-01

    The Arf small G proteins regulate protein and lipid trafficking in eukaryotic cells through a regulated cycle of GTP binding and hydrolysis. In their GTP-bound form, Arf proteins recruit a specific set of protein effectors to the membrane surface. These effectors function in vesicle formation and tethering, non-vesicular lipid transport and cytoskeletal regulation. Beyond fundamental membrane trafficking roles, Arf proteins also regulate mitosis, plasma membrane signaling, cilary trafficking and lipid droplet function. Tight spatial and temporal regulation of the relatively small number of Arf proteins is achieved by their guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which catalyze GTP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. A unifying function of Arf proteins, performed in conjunction with their regulators and effectors, is sensing, modulating and transporting the lipids that make up cellular membranes. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we discuss the unique features of Arf small G proteins, their functions in vesicular and lipid trafficking in cells, and how these functions are modulated by their regulators, the GEFs and GAPs. We also discuss how these Arf functions are subverted by human pathogens and disease states.

  16. Identification and expression profiling of the auxin response factors (ARFs) in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) under various abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Xia; Mao, Juan; Chen, Wei; Qian, Ting-Ting; Liu, Sheng-Chuan; Hao, Wan-Jun; Li, Chun-Fang; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Auxin response factor (ARF) proteins are a multigene family of regulators involved in various physiological and developmental processes in plants. However, their modes of action in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified 15 members of the tea ARF gene family, using the public information about C. sinensis, both in our laboratory, as well as in other laboratories, and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, conserved domains and the compositions of the amino acids in the middle region. A comprehensive expression analysis in different tissues and organs revealed that many ARF genes were expressed in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting they have different functions in the growth and development processes of the tea plant. The expression analysis under three forms of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid) treatment showed that the majority of the ARF genes were down-regulated in the shoots and up-regulated in the roots, suggesting opposite action mechanisms of the ARF genes in the shoots and roots. The expression levels of most ARF genes were changed under various phytohormone and abiotic stresses, indicating the ARF gene family plays important roles in various phytohormone and abiotic stress signals and may mediate the crosstalk between phytohormones and abiotic stresses. The current study provides basic information for the ARF genes of the tea plant and will pave the way for deciphering the precise role of ARFs in tea developmental processes and breeding stress-tolerant tea varieties.

  17. Regulation of a senescence checkpoint response by the E2F1 transcription factor and p14ARF tumor suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Dimri, Goberdhan P.; Itahana, Koji; Acosta, Meileen; Campisi, Judith

    1999-11-05

    Normal cells do not divide indefinitely due to a process known as replicative senescence. Human cells arrest growth with a senescent phenotype when they acquire one or more critically short telomere as a consequence of cell division. Recent evidence suggests that certain types of DNA damage, chromatin remodeling, or oncogenic forms of Rasor Raf can also elicit a senescence response. We show here that E2F1, a multifunctional transcription factor that binds the retinoblastoma (pRb) tumor suppressor and can either promote or suppress tumorigenesis, induces a senescent phenotype when overexpressed in normal human fibroblasts. Normal human cells stably arrested proliferation and expressed several markers of replicative senescence in response to E2F1. This activity of E2F1 was independent of its pRb binding activity, but dependent on its ability to stimulate gene expression. The E2F1 target gene critical for the senescence response appeared to be the p14ARF tumor suppressor. Replicatively senescent human fibroblasts overexpressed p14ARF, and ectopic expression of p14ARF in presenescent cells induced a phenotype similar to that induced by E2F1. Consistent with a critical role for p14ARF, cells with compromised p53 function were immune to senescence induction by E2F1, as were cells deficient in p14ARF. Our findings support the idea that the senescence response is a critical tumor suppressive mechanism, provide an explanation for the apparently paradoxical roles of E2F1 in oncogenesis, and identify p14ARF as a potentially important mediator of the senescent phenotype.

  18. Structural Basis and Mechanism of Autoregulation in 3-Phosphoionsitide-Dependent Grp1 Family Arf GTPase Exchange Factors

    SciTech Connect

    DiNitto,J.; Delprato, A.; Lee, M.; Cronin, T.; Huang, S.; Guilherme, A.; Czech, M.; Lambright, D.

    2007-01-01

    Arf GTPases regulate membrane trafficking and actin dynamics. Grp1, ARNO, and Cytohesin-1 comprise a family of phosphoinositide-dependent Arf GTPase exchange factors with a Sec7-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain tandem. Here, we report that the exchange activity of the Sec7 domain is potently autoinhibited by conserved elements proximal to the PH domain. The crystal structure of the Grp1 Sec7-PH tandem reveals a pseudosubstrate mechanism of autoinhibition in which the linker region between domains and a C-terminal amphipathic helix physically block the docking sites for the switch regions of Arf GTPases. Mutations within either element result in partial or complete activation. Critical determinants of autoinhibition also contribute to insulin-stimulated plasma membrane recruitment. Autoinhibition can be largely reversed by binding of active Arf6 to Grp1 and by phosphorylation of tandem PKC sites in Cytohesin-1. These observations suggest that Grp1 family GEFs are autoregulated by mechanisms that depend on plasma membrane recruitment for activation.

  19. MicroRNA167-Directed Regulation of the Auxin Response Factors GmARF8a and GmARF8b Is Required for Soybean Nodulation and Lateral Root Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youning; Li, Kexue; Chen, Liang; Zou, Yanmin; Liu, Haipei; Tian, Yinping; Li, Dongxiao; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Fang; Ferguson, Brett J; Gresshoff, Peter M; Li, Xia

    2015-07-01

    Legume root nodules convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into ammonium through symbiosis with a prokaryotic microsymbiont broadly called rhizobia. Auxin signaling is required for determinant nodule development; however, the molecular mechanism of auxin-mediated nodule formation remains largely unknown. Here, we show in soybean (Glycine max) that the microRNA miR167 acts as a positive regulator of lateral root organs, namely nodules and lateral roots. miR167c expression was up-regulated in the vasculature, pericycle, and cortex of soybean roots following inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain USDA110 (the microsymbiont). It was found to positively regulate nodule numbers directly by repressing the target genes GmARF8a and GmARF8b (homologous genes of Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana] AtARF8 that encode auxin response factors). Moreover, the expression of miR167 and its targets was up- and down-regulated by auxin, respectively. The miR167-GmARF8 module also positively regulated nodulation efficiency under low microsymbiont density, a condition often associated with environmental stress. The regulatory role of miR167 on nodule initiation was dependent on the Nod factor receptor GmNFR1α, and it acts upstream of the nodulation-associated genes nodule inception, nodulation signaling pathway1, early nodulin40-1, NF-YA1 (previously known as HAEM activator protein2-1), and NF-YA2. miR167 also promoted lateral root numbers. Collectively, our findings establish a key role for the miR167-GmARF8 module in auxin-mediated nodule and lateral root formation in soybean. PMID:25941314

  20. MicroRNA167-Directed Regulation of the Auxin Response Factors GmARF8a and GmARF8b Is Required for Soybean Nodulation and Lateral Root Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youning; Li, Kexue; Chen, Liang; Zou, Yanmin; Tian, Yinping; Li, Dongxiao; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Fang; Ferguson, Brett J.; Gresshoff, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Legume root nodules convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into ammonium through symbiosis with a prokaryotic microsymbiont broadly called rhizobia. Auxin signaling is required for determinant nodule development; however, the molecular mechanism of auxin-mediated nodule formation remains largely unknown. Here, we show in soybean (Glycine max) that the microRNA miR167 acts as a positive regulator of lateral root organs, namely nodules and lateral roots. miR167c expression was up-regulated in the vasculature, pericycle, and cortex of soybean roots following inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain USDA110 (the microsymbiont). It was found to positively regulate nodule numbers directly by repressing the target genes GmARF8a and GmARF8b (homologous genes of Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana] AtARF8 that encode auxin response factors). Moreover, the expression of miR167 and its targets was up- and down-regulated by auxin, respectively. The miR167-GmARF8 module also positively regulated nodulation efficiency under low microsymbiont density, a condition often associated with environmental stress. The regulatory role of miR167 on nodule initiation was dependent on the Nod factor receptor GmNFR1α, and it acts upstream of the nodulation-associated genes NODULE INCEPTION, NODULATION SIGNALING PATHWAY1, EARLY NODULIN40-1, NF-YA1 (previously known as HAEM ACTIVATOR PROTEIN2-1), and NF-YA2. miR167 also promoted lateral root numbers. Collectively, our findings establish a key role for the miR167-GmARF8 module in auxin-mediated nodule and lateral root formation in soybean. PMID:25941314

  1. MicroRNA167-Directed Regulation of the Auxin Response Factors GmARF8a and GmARF8b Is Required for Soybean Nodulation and Lateral Root Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youning; Li, Kexue; Chen, Liang; Zou, Yanmin; Liu, Haipei; Tian, Yinping; Li, Dongxiao; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Fang; Ferguson, Brett J; Gresshoff, Peter M; Li, Xia

    2015-07-01

    Legume root nodules convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into ammonium through symbiosis with a prokaryotic microsymbiont broadly called rhizobia. Auxin signaling is required for determinant nodule development; however, the molecular mechanism of auxin-mediated nodule formation remains largely unknown. Here, we show in soybean (Glycine max) that the microRNA miR167 acts as a positive regulator of lateral root organs, namely nodules and lateral roots. miR167c expression was up-regulated in the vasculature, pericycle, and cortex of soybean roots following inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain USDA110 (the microsymbiont). It was found to positively regulate nodule numbers directly by repressing the target genes GmARF8a and GmARF8b (homologous genes of Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana] AtARF8 that encode auxin response factors). Moreover, the expression of miR167 and its targets was up- and down-regulated by auxin, respectively. The miR167-GmARF8 module also positively regulated nodulation efficiency under low microsymbiont density, a condition often associated with environmental stress. The regulatory role of miR167 on nodule initiation was dependent on the Nod factor receptor GmNFR1α, and it acts upstream of the nodulation-associated genes nodule inception, nodulation signaling pathway1, early nodulin40-1, NF-YA1 (previously known as HAEM activator protein2-1), and NF-YA2. miR167 also promoted lateral root numbers. Collectively, our findings establish a key role for the miR167-GmARF8 module in auxin-mediated nodule and lateral root formation in soybean.

  2. The Drosophila Arf1 homologue Arf79F is essential for lamellipodium formation.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Daniel; Liu, Tao; Davidson, Anthony C; Hume, Peter J; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2012-12-01

    The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) drives the polymerisation of actin filaments located beneath the plasma membrane to generate lamellipodia that are pivotal to cell architecture and movement. By reconstituting WRC-dependent actin assembly at the membrane, we recently discovered that several classes of Arf family GTPases directly recruit and activate WRC in cell extracts, and that Arf cooperates with Rac1 to trigger actin polymerisation. Here, we demonstrate that the Class 1 Arf1 homologue Arf79F colocalises with the WRC at dynamic lamellipodia. We report that Arf79F is required for lamellipodium formation in Drosophila S2R+ cells, which only express one Arf isoform for each class. Impeding Arf function either by dominant-negative Arf expression or by Arf double-stranded RNA interference (dsRNAi)-mediated knockdown uncovered that Arf-dependent lamellipodium formation was specific to Arf79F, establishing that Class 1 Arfs, but not Class 2 or Class 3 Arfs, are crucial for lamellipodia. Lamellipodium formation in Arf79F-silenced cells was restored by expressing mammalian Arf1, but not by constitutively active Rac1, showing that Arf79F does not act via Rac1. Abolition of lamellipodium formation in Arf79F-silenced cells was not due to Golgi disruption. Blocking Arf79F activation with guanine nucleotide exchange factor inhibitors impaired WRC localisation to the plasma membrane and concomitant generation of lamellipodia. Our data indicate that the Class I Arf GTPase is a central component in WRC-driven lamellipodium formation. PMID:22992458

  3. A DNA-binding factor, ArfA, interacts with the bldH promoter and affects undecylprodigiosin production in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Delin; Kim, Tae-Jong; Park, Zee-Yong; Lee, Sung-Kwon; Yang, Seung Hwan; Kwon, Hyung-Jin; Suh, Joo-Won

    2009-02-01

    The fact that adpA promoter activity is enhanced by S-adenosylmethionine without the involvement of the A-factor/ArpA regulatory cascade suggests the existence of additional transcriptional regulators for adpA expression in Streptomyces griseus. In this study, an additional adpA promoter regulatory protein, named ArfA, that is conserved among many bacteria was identified using DNA affinity purification from the cell extracts of Streptomyces lividans. The interactions of ArfA with the adpA promoter from S. griseus and with the bldH promoter from S. lividans were specific and both adpA and bldH promoters required ArfA for the wild-type level of their expressions in S. lividans. bldH of S. lividans is a homolog of adpA of S. lividans. ArfA-deletion mutant had only 70% of the normal undecylprodigiosin production. This result was confirmed by reduced redD promoter activity in the ArfA-deletion mutant. These results suggest that ArfA is a new type of DNA-binding regulator.

  4. IAA8 Involved in Lateral Root Formation Interacts with the TIR1 Auxin Receptor and ARF Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Egusa, Mayumi; Nishimoto, Nami; Sakurai, Sumiko; Sakamoto, Naho; Kaminaka, Hironori

    2012-01-01

    The expression of auxin-responsive genes is regulated by the TIR1/AFB auxin receptor-dependent degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors, which interact with auxin-responsive factors (ARFs). Most of the 29 Aux/IAA genes present in Arabidopsis have not been functionally characterized to date. IAA8 appears to have a distinct function from the other Aux/IAA genes, due to its unique transcriptional response to auxin and the stability of its encoded protein. In this study, we characterized the function of Arabidopsis IAA8 in various developmental processes governed by auxin and in the transcriptional regulation of the auxin response. Transgenic plants expressing estrogen-inducible IAA8 (XVE::IAA8) exhibited significantly fewer lateral roots than the wild type, and an IAA8 loss-of-function mutant exhibited significantly more. Ectopic overexpression of IAA8 resulted in abnormal gravitropism. The strong induction of early auxin-responsive marker genes by auxin treatment was delayed by IAA8 overexpression. GFP-fusion analysis revealed that IAA8 localized not only to the nucleus, but, in contrast to other Aux/IAAs, also to the cytosol. Furthermore, we demonstrated that IAA8 interacts with TIR1, in an auxin-dependent fashion, and with ARF proteins, both in yeast and in planta. Taken together, our results show that IAA8 is involved in lateral root formation, and that this process is regulated through the interaction with the TIR1 auxin receptor and ARF transcription factors in the nucleus. PMID:22912871

  5. Critical roles of DMP1 in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu-Arf-p53 signaling and breast cancer development.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Pankaj; Maglic, Dejan; Kai, Fumitake; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Kendig, Robert D; Frazier, Donna P; Willingham, Mark C; Inoue, Kazushi

    2010-11-15

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression stimulates cell growth in p53-mutated cells while it inhibits cell proliferation in those with wild-type p53, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. The Dmp1 promoter was activated by HER2/neu through the phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase-Akt-NF-κB pathway, which in turn stimulated Arf transcription. Binding of p65 and p52 subunits of NF-κB was shown to the Dmp1 promoter and that of Dmp1 to the Arf promoter on HER2/neu overexpression. Both Dmp1 and p53 were induced in premalignant lesions from mouse mammary tumor virus-neu mice, and mammary tumorigenesis was significantly accelerated in both Dmp1+/- and Dmp1-/- mice. Selective deletion of Dmp1 and/or overexpression of Tbx2/Pokemon was found in >50% of wild-type HER2/neu carcinomas, although the involvement of Arf, Mdm2, or p53 was rare. Tumors from Dmp1+/-, Dmp1-/-, and wild-type neu mice with hemizygous Dmp1 deletion showed significant downregulation of Arf and p21Cip1/WAF1, showing p53 inactivity and more aggressive phenotypes than tumors without Dmp1 deletion. Notably, endogenous hDMP1 mRNA decreased when HER2 was depleted in human breast cancer cells. Our study shows the pivotal roles of Dmp1 in HER2/neu-p53 signaling and breast carcinogenesis. PMID:21062982

  6. Critical roles of DMP1 in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu-Arf-p53 signaling and breast cancer development.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Pankaj; Maglic, Dejan; Kai, Fumitake; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Kendig, Robert D; Frazier, Donna P; Willingham, Mark C; Inoue, Kazushi

    2010-11-15

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression stimulates cell growth in p53-mutated cells while it inhibits cell proliferation in those with wild-type p53, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. The Dmp1 promoter was activated by HER2/neu through the phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase-Akt-NF-κB pathway, which in turn stimulated Arf transcription. Binding of p65 and p52 subunits of NF-κB was shown to the Dmp1 promoter and that of Dmp1 to the Arf promoter on HER2/neu overexpression. Both Dmp1 and p53 were induced in premalignant lesions from mouse mammary tumor virus-neu mice, and mammary tumorigenesis was significantly accelerated in both Dmp1+/- and Dmp1-/- mice. Selective deletion of Dmp1 and/or overexpression of Tbx2/Pokemon was found in >50% of wild-type HER2/neu carcinomas, although the involvement of Arf, Mdm2, or p53 was rare. Tumors from Dmp1+/-, Dmp1-/-, and wild-type neu mice with hemizygous Dmp1 deletion showed significant downregulation of Arf and p21Cip1/WAF1, showing p53 inactivity and more aggressive phenotypes than tumors without Dmp1 deletion. Notably, endogenous hDMP1 mRNA decreased when HER2 was depleted in human breast cancer cells. Our study shows the pivotal roles of Dmp1 in HER2/neu-p53 signaling and breast carcinogenesis.

  7. Tumor suppressor ARF

    PubMed Central

    Través, Paqui G.; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-01-01

    ARF (alternative reading frame) is one of the most important tumor regulator playing critical roles in controlling tumor initiation and progression. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel and unexpected role for ARF as modulator of inflammatory responses. PMID:23162766

  8. Arf6 arbitrates fibrinogen endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rondina, Matthew T; Weyrich, Andrew S

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Blood, in a departure from studies of classic platelet function, Huang et al turn their attention to endocytosis and show that adenosine 5′-diphosphate-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) plays a key role in fibrinogen engulfment. Although platelets are known to bind, absorb, and load their granules with plasma proteins, this report is one of the first to explore mechanisms that control endocytosis in this anucleate cell. Huang et al demonstrate that Arf6-dependent endocytosis is restricted to fibrinogen, implying that Arf6 also modulates trafficking of αIIbβ3 integrins in platelets. Consistent with this notion, deletion of Arf6 in platelets enhances spreading on fibrinogen and accelerates clot retraction (see figure). However, activation of surface αIIbβ3 is unaffected, and Arf6 deficiency does not alter thrombosis in vivo. These incongruous results point toward the complexity of anucleate platelets and the need for more detailed studies to understand intracellular trafficking, recycling, and endocytosis in platelets and their precurs

  9. Sequence analysis of the peptide-elongation factor EF-2 gene, downstream from those of ribosomal proteins H-S12 and H-S7, from the archaebacterial extreme halophile, Halobacterium halobium.

    PubMed

    Itoh, T

    1989-12-01

    The gene for the peptide-elongation factor 2 (EF-2) was cloned from the archaebacterial extreme halophile Halobacterium halobium and sequenced. The 1013 nucleotides upstream from this gene was two open reading frames similar to ribosomal proteins S12 and S7 from Escherichia coli. Sequence alignment studies showed the halobacterial elongation factor 2 to be equivalent to eukaryotic EF-2 and eubacterial EF-G. Sequence similarity to the eukaryotic elongation factor was much higher than to the eubacterial factor. Conserved sequence regions were present within the factor and are likely to constitute functionally important domains. These include the sites of GTP binding and ADP ribosylation by diphtheria toxin.

  10. ArF Photoresist Parameter Optimization for Mask Error Enhancement Factor Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2005-10-01

    The mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) is the best representative index for critical dimension (CD) variation in a wafer which is amplified by real specific mask CD variation. As already clarified in previous reports, MEEF is increased by reducing k1 (process ability index) or pattern pitch. The illumination system, just like lens aberration or stage defocus effects directly the MEEF value, but the leveling or species of a substrate and the resist performance are also strongly related to the MEEF value. In practice, when engineers set up the photoprocess for fabricating the miniaturized structures of current devices, they established minimum shot uniformity target such as the MEEF value within wafer uniformity and wafer-to-wafer uniformity, in addition to the usable depth of focus (UDOF) or exposure latitude (EL) margin. We examined MEEF reduction by checking the differences in resist parameters and attempted to correlate the results between experiment and simulation. Solid-C was used as the simulation tool. The target node is dense line/space pattern (L/S) of sub-80 nm and we used the same illumination conditions. We calculated MEEF values by comparing with the original mask uniformity using the optical parameters of each resist type. The normalized image log slope (NILS) showed us some points of the saturation value with pupil mesh points and the aberration is not considered. We used four different types of resist and changed resist optical properties (i.e., n, k refractive index; A, B, and C Dill exposure parameters). It is very difficult to measure the kinetic phenomenon, thus we chose the Fickian model in post exposure bake (PEB) and the Weiss model for development. In this paper, we suggest another direction of photoresist improvement by comparing the resist parameters with the MEEF values at different pitches.

  11. ArF photoresist parameter optimization for mask error enhancement factor reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Han, Seok; Park, Kyung Sil; Kang, Hye Young; Oh, Hyun Wook; Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Kyung Me; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Tae Sung; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2005-05-01

    MEEF (Mask Error Enhancement Factor) is the most representative index which CD (Critical Dimension) variation in wafer is amplified by real specific mask CD variation. Already, as it was announced through other papers, MEEF is increased by small k1 or pattern pitch. Illumination system, just like lens aberration or stage defocus affects directly MEEF value, but the leveling or species of substrate and the resist performance are also deeply related to MEEF value. Actually, when the engineers set up the photo process of shrink structure in current device makers, they established minimum shot uniformity target such as MEEF value within wafer uniformity and wafer to wafer uniformity, besides UDOF (Usable Depth of Focus) or EL (Exposure Latitude) margin. We examined MEEF reduction by checking the difference in resist parameters and tried to correlate the results between experiment and simulation. Solid-C was used for simulation tool. The target node was dense L/S (Line/Space) of sub-80 nm and we fix the same illumination conditions. We calculated MEEF values by comparing to original mask uniformity through the optical parameters of each resist type. NILS (Normalized Image Log Slope) shows us some points of the saturation value with pupil mesh points and the aberration was not considered. We used four different type resists and changed resist optical properties (i.e. n, k refractive index; A, B, and C Dill exposure parameters). It was very difficult to measure the kinetic phenomenon, so we choose Fickian model in PEB (Post Exposure Bake) and Weiss model in development. In this paper, we tried to suggest another direction of photoresist improvement by comparing the resist parameters to MEEF value of different pitches.

  12. ArF photoresist parameter optimization for mask error enhancement factor reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang H.; Han, Seok; Park, Kyoung S.; Yoon, Sangwoong; Kang, Hye Y.; Oh, Hyun W.; Lee, Ji E.; Kim, Young H.; Kim, Tae S.; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2005-06-01

    MEEF (Mask Error Enhancement Factor) is the most representative index which CD (Critical Dimension) variation in wafer is amplified by real specific mask CD variation. Already, as it was announced through other papers, MEEF is increased by small k1 or pattern pitch. Illumination system, just like lens aberration or stage defocus affects directly MEEF value, but the leveling or species of substrate and the resist performance are also deeply related to MEEF value. Actually, when the engineers set up the photo process of shrink structure in current device makers, they established minimum shot uniformity target such as MEEF value within wafer uniformity and wafer to wafer uniformity, besides UDOF (Usable Depth of Focus) or EL (Exposure Latitude) margin. We examined MEEF reduction by checking the difference in resist parameters and tried to correlate the results between experiment and simulation. Solid-C was used for simulation tool. The target node was dense L/S (Line/Space) of sub-80 nm and we fix the same illumination conditions. We calculated MEEF values by comparing to original mask uniformity through the optical parameters of each resist type. NILS (Normalized Image Log Slope) shows us some points of the saturation value with pupil mesh points and the aberration was not considered. We used four different type resists and changed resist optical properties (i.e. n, k refractive index; A, B, and C Dill exposure parameters). It was very difficult to measure the kinetic phenomenon, so we choose Fickian model in PEB (Post Exposure Bake) and Weiss model in development. In this paper, we tried to suggest another direction of photoresist improvement by comparing the resist parameters to MEEF value of different pitches.

  13. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrer, Joerg; Wagner, Silvia; Buerkle, Alexander; Koenigsrainer, Alfred

    2009-08-14

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  14. EFA6 controls Arf1 and Arf6 activation through a negative feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Dominique; Folly-Klan, Marcia; Labarde, Audrey; Boulakirba, Sonia; Campanacci, Valérie; Franco, Michel; Zeghouf, Mahel; Cherfils, Jacqueline

    2014-08-26

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of the exchange factor for Arf6 (EFA6), brefeldin A-resistant Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (BRAG), and cytohesin subfamilies activate small GTPases of the Arf family in endocytic events. These ArfGEFs carry a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain in tandem with their catalytic Sec7 domain, which is autoinhibitory and supports a positive feedback loop in cytohesins but not in BRAGs, and has an as-yet unknown role in EFA6 regulation. In this study, we analyzed how EFA6A is regulated by its PH and C terminus (Ct) domains by reconstituting its GDP/GTP exchange activity on membranes. We found that EFA6 has a previously unappreciated high efficiency toward Arf1 on membranes and that, similar to BRAGs, its PH domain is not autoinhibitory and strongly potentiates nucleotide exchange on anionic liposomes. However, in striking contrast to both cytohesins and BRAGs, EFA6 is regulated by a negative feedback loop, which is mediated by an allosteric interaction of Arf6-GTP with the PH-Ct domain of EFA6 and monitors the activation of Arf1 and Arf6 differentially. These observations reveal that EFA6, BRAG, and cytohesins have unanticipated commonalities associated with divergent regulatory regimes. An important implication is that EFA6 and cytohesins may combine in a mixed negative-positive feedback loop. By allowing EFA6 to sustain a pool of dormant Arf6-GTP, such a circuit would fulfill the absolute requirement of cytohesins for activation by Arf-GTP before amplification of their GEF activity by their positive feedback loop.

  15. Role of the tumor suppressor ARF in macrophage polarization: Enhancement of the M2 phenotype in ARF-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Sandra; Través, Paqui G; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-11-01

    The ARF locus is frequently inactivated in human cancer. The oncosuppressor ARF has indeed been described as a general sensor for different situation of cellular stress. We have previously demonstrated that ARF deficiency severely impairs inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo, establishing a role for ARF in the regulation of innate immunity. The aim of the present work was to get further insights into the immune functions of ARF and to evaluate its possible contribution to the polarization of macrophages toward the M1 or M2 phenotype. Our results demonstrate that resting Arf(-/-) macrophages express high levels of Ym1 and Fizz-1, two typical markers of alternatively-activated macrophages (M2). Additionally, Arf(-/-) peritoneal macrophages showed an impaired response to lipopolysaccharide (a classical inducer of M1 polaryzation) and a reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Moreover, upon stimulation with interleukin-4 (IL-4), an inducer of the M2 phenotype, well established M2 markers such as Fizz-1, Ym1 and arginase-1 were upregulated in Arf(-/-) as compared with wild type macrophages. Accordingly, the cytokine and chemokine profile associated with the M2 phenotype was significantly overexpressed in Arf(-/-) macrophages responding to IL-4. In addition, multiple pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF and MMP-9 were also increased. In summary, these results indicate that ARF contributes to the polarization and functional plasticity of macrophages.

  16. The Adaptor Proteins p66Shc and Grb2 Regulate the Activation of the GTPases ARF1 and ARF6 in Invasive Breast Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Eric; Saucier, Caroline; Claing, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Signals downstream of growth factor receptors play an important role in mammary carcinogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that the small GTPases ARF1 and ARF6 were shown to be activated downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and act as a key regulator of growth, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells. However, the mechanism via which the EGFR recruits and activates ARF1 and ARF6 to transmit signals has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we identify adaptor proteins Grb2 and p66Shc as important regulators mediating ARF activation. We demonstrate that ARF1 can be found in complex with Grb2 and p66Shc upon EGF stimulation of the basal-like breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line. However, we report that these two adaptors regulate ARF1 activation differently, with Grb2 promoting ARF1 activation and p66Shc blocking this response. Furthermore, we show that Grb2 is essential for the recruitment of ARF1 to the EGFR, whereas p66Shc hindered ARF1 receptor recruitment. We demonstrate that the negative regulatory role of p66Shc stemmed from its ability to block the recruitment of Grb2/ARF1 to the EGFR. Conversely, p66Shc potentiates ARF6 activation as well as the recruitment of this ARF isoform to the EGFR. Interestingly, we demonstrate that Grb2 is also required for the activation and receptor recruitment of ARF6. Additionally, we show an important role for p66Shc in modulating ARF activation, cell growth, and migration in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Together, our results highlight a central role for adaptor proteins p66Shc and Grb2 in the regulation of ARF1 and ARF6 activation in invasive breast cancer cells. PMID:24407288

  17. Auxin-dependent compositional change in Mediator in ARF7- and ARF19-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Ito, Jun; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Onoda, Makoto; Li, Lin; Li, Chuanyou; Tasaka, Masao; Furutani, Masahiko

    2016-06-01

    Mediator is a multiprotein complex that integrates the signals from transcription factors binding to the promoter and transmits them to achieve gene transcription. The subunits of Mediator complex reside in four modules: the head, middle, tail, and dissociable CDK8 kinase module (CKM). The head, middle, and tail modules form the core Mediator complex, and the association of CKM can modify the function of Mediator in transcription. Here, we show genetic and biochemical evidence that CKM-associated Mediator transmits auxin-dependent transcriptional repression in lateral root (LR) formation. The AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID 14 (Aux/IAA14) transcriptional repressor inhibits the transcriptional activity of its binding partners AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (ARF7) and ARF19 by making a complex with the CKM-associated Mediator. In addition, TOPLESS (TPL), a transcriptional corepressor, forms a bridge between IAA14 and the CKM component MED13 through the physical interaction. ChIP assays show that auxin induces the dissociation of MED13 but not the tail module component MED25 from the ARF7 binding region upstream of its target gene. These findings indicate that auxin-induced degradation of IAA14 changes the module composition of Mediator interacting with ARF7 and ARF19 in the upstream region of their target genes involved in LR formation. We suggest that this regulation leads to a quick switch of signal transmission from ARFs to target gene expression in response to auxin. PMID:27217573

  18. Auxin-dependent compositional change in Mediator in ARF7- and ARF19-mediated transcription

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Jun; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Onoda, Makoto; Li, Lin; Li, Chuanyou; Tasaka, Masao; Furutani, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Mediator is a multiprotein complex that integrates the signals from transcription factors binding to the promoter and transmits them to achieve gene transcription. The subunits of Mediator complex reside in four modules: the head, middle, tail, and dissociable CDK8 kinase module (CKM). The head, middle, and tail modules form the core Mediator complex, and the association of CKM can modify the function of Mediator in transcription. Here, we show genetic and biochemical evidence that CKM-associated Mediator transmits auxin-dependent transcriptional repression in lateral root (LR) formation. The AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID 14 (Aux/IAA14) transcriptional repressor inhibits the transcriptional activity of its binding partners AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (ARF7) and ARF19 by making a complex with the CKM-associated Mediator. In addition, TOPLESS (TPL), a transcriptional corepressor, forms a bridge between IAA14 and the CKM component MED13 through the physical interaction. ChIP assays show that auxin induces the dissociation of MED13 but not the tail module component MED25 from the ARF7 binding region upstream of its target gene. These findings indicate that auxin-induced degradation of IAA14 changes the module composition of Mediator interacting with ARF7 and ARF19 in the upstream region of their target genes involved in LR formation. We suggest that this regulation leads to a quick switch of signal transmission from ARFs to target gene expression in response to auxin. PMID:27217573

  19. Reactivating the ARF-p53 axis in AML cells by targeting ULF

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Delin; Yoon, Jong-Bok

    2010-01-01

    The tumor suppressor ARF plays an essential role in the cellular response to oncogenic stress mainly through activation of p53. Nucleophosmin (NPM), a multifunctional protein, forms a stable protein complex with ARF in the nucleolus and protects ARF from the proteasome-mediated degradation. Notably, NPM is mutated in about one third of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients and these mutations lead to aberrant cytoplasmic dislocation of nucleophosmin (NPM-c). Cytoplasmic NPM mutants lose their abilities to retain ARF in the nucleolus and fail to stabilize ARF. Thus, activation of the ARF-p53 axis is significantly compromised in these AML cells. We have recently identified the ubiquitin ligase of ARF (ULF) as a key factor that controls ARF turnover in human cells. Here, we found that the steady levels of both ARF and p53 are very low in human acute myeloid leukaemia OCI-AML3 cells expressing cytoplamsic dislocated nucleophosmin (NPM-c). As expected, ARF is very unstable and rapidly degraded by proteasome. Nevertheless, ULF knockdown stabilizes ARF and reactivates p53 responses in these AML cells. These results further demonstrate that ULF is a bona fide E3 ligase for ARF and also suggest that ULF is an important target for activating the ARF-p53 axis in human AML cells. PMID:20699639

  20. The Endosome Localized Arf-GAP AGAP1 Modulates Dendritic Spine Morphology Downstream of the Neurodevelopmental Disorder Factor Dysbindin

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Miranda; Cross, Rebecca; Singleton, Kaela S.; Zlatic, Stephanie; Chapleau, Christopher; Mullin, Ariana P.; Rolle, Isaiah; Moore, Carlene C.; Theibert, Anne; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Faundez, Victor; Larimore, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    AGAP1 is an Arf1 GTPase activating protein that interacts with the vesicle-associated protein complexes adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) and Biogenesis of Lysosome Related Organelles Complex-1 (BLOC-1). Overexpression of AGAP1 in non-neuronal cells results in an accumulation of endosomal cargoes, which suggests a role in endosome-dependent traffic. In addition, AGAP1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for two neurodevelopmental disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ); yet its localization and function in neurons have not been described. Here, we describe that AGAP1 localizes to axons, dendrites, dendritic spines and synapses, colocalizing preferentially with markers of early and recycling endosomes. Functional studies reveal overexpression and down-regulation of AGAP1 affects both neuronal endosomal trafficking and dendritic spine morphology, supporting a role for AGAP1 in the recycling endosomal trafficking involved in their morphogenesis. Finally, we determined the sensitivity of AGAP1 expression to mutations in the DTNBP1 gene, which is associated with neurodevelopmental disorder, and found that AGAP1 mRNA and protein levels are selectively reduced in the null allele of the mouse ortholog of DTNBP1. We postulate that endosomal trafficking contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders affecting dendritic spine morphology, and thus excitatory synapse structure and function. PMID:27713690

  1. Trs65p, a subunit of the Ypt1p GEF TRAPPII, interacts with the Arf1p exchange factor Gea2p to facilitate COPI-mediated vesicle traffic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuliang; Cai, Huaqing; Park, Sei-Kyoung; Menon, Shekar; Jackson, Catherine L; Ferro-Novick, Susan

    2011-10-01

    The TRAPP complexes are multimeric guanine exchange factors (GEFs) for the Rab GTPase Ypt1p. The three complexes (TRAPPI, TRAPPII, and TRAPPIII) share a core of common subunits required for GEF activity, as well as unique subunits (Trs130p, Trs120p, Trs85p, and Trs65p) that redirect the GEF from the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi pathway to different cellular locations where TRAPP mediates distinct membrane trafficking events. Roles for three of the four unique TRAPP subunits have been described before; however, the role of the TRAPPII-specific subunit Trs65p has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that Trs65p directly binds to the C-terminus of the Arf1p exchange factor Gea2p and provide in vivo evidence that this interaction is physiologically relevant. Gea2p and TRAPPII also bind to the yeast orthologue of the γ subunit of the COPI coat complex (Sec21p), a known Arf1p effector. These and previous findings reveal that TRAPPII is part of an Arf1p GEF-effector loop that appears to play a role in recruiting or stabilizing TRAPPII to membranes. In support of this proposal, we show that TRAPPII is more soluble in an arf1Δ mutant.

  2. The processed isoform of the translation termination factor eRF3 localizes to the nucleus to interact with the ARF tumor suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Yoshifumi; Kumagai, Naomichi; Hosoda, Nao; Hoshino, Shin-ichi

    2014-03-14

    Highlights: • So far, eRF3 has been thought to function exclusively in the cytoplasm. • eRF3 is a nucleo-cutoplasmic shuttling protein. • eRF3 has a leptomycin-sensitive nuclear export signal (NES). • Removal of NES by proteolytic cleavage allows eRF3 to translocate to the nucleus. • The processed eRF3 (p-eRF3) interacts with a nuclear tumor suppressor ARF. - Abstract: The eukaryotic releasing factor eRF3 is a multifunctional protein that plays pivotal roles in translation termination as well as the initiation of mRNA decay. eRF3 also functions in the regulation of apoptosis; eRF3 is cleaved at Ala73 by an as yet unidentified protease into processed isoform of eRF3 (p-eRF3), which interacts with the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). The binding of p-eRF3 with IAPs leads to the release of active caspases from IAPs, which promotes apoptosis. Although full-length eRF3 is localized exclusively in the cytoplasm, p-eRF3 localizes in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm. We here focused on the role of p-eRF3 in the nucleus. We identified leptomycin-sensitive nuclear export signal (NES) at amino acid residues 61–71 immediately upstream of the cleavage site Ala73. Thus, the proteolytic cleavage of eRF3 into p-eRF3 leads to release an amino-terminal fragment containing NES to allow the relocalization of eRF3 into the nucleus. Consistent with this, p-eRF3 more strongly interacted with the nuclear ARF tumor suppressor than full-length eRF3. These results suggest that while p-eRF3 interacts with IAPs to promote apoptosis in the cytoplasm, p-eRF3 also has some roles in regulating cell death in the nucleus.

  3. The Arf GTPase-Activating Protein Family Is Exploited by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium To Invade Nonphagocytic Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Anthony C.; Humphreys, Daniel; Brooks, Andrew B. E.; Hume, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To establish intracellular infections, Salmonella bacteria trigger host cell membrane ruffling and invasion by subverting cellular Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases by promoting GTP binding. A family of cellular Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) can downregulate Arf signaling by stimulating GTP hydrolysis, but whether they do this during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered a remarkable role for distinct Arf GAP family members in Salmonella invasion. The Arf6 GAPs ACAP1 and ADAP1 and the Arf1 GAP ASAP1 localized at Salmonella-induced ruffles, which was not the case for the plasma membrane-localized Arf6 GAPs ARAP3 and GIT1 or the Golgi-associated Arf1 GAP1. Surprisingly, we found that loss of ACAP1, ADAP1, or ASAP1 impaired Salmonella invasion, revealing that GAPs cannot be considered mere terminators of cytoskeleton remodeling. Salmonella invasion was restored in Arf GAP-depleted cells by expressing fast-cycling Arf derivatives, demonstrating that Arf GTP/GDP cycles facilitate Salmonella invasion. Consistent with this view, both constitutively active and dominant-negative Arf derivatives that cannot undergo GTP/GDP cycles inhibited invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Arf GEFs and GAPs colocalize at invading Salmonella and collaborate to drive Arf1-dependent pathogen invasion. This study revealed that Salmonella bacteria exploit a remarkable interplay between Arf GEFs and GAPs to direct cycles of Arf GTPase activation and inactivation. These cycles drive Salmonella cytoskeleton remodeling and enable intracellular infections. PMID:25670778

  4. Negative Regulation of Melanoma Differentiation-associated Gene 5 (MDA5)-dependent Antiviral Innate Immune Responses by Arf-like Protein 5B*

    PubMed Central

    Kitai, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Kawasaki, Takumi; Ori, Daisuke; Sueyoshi, Takuya; Murase, Motoya; Akira, Shizuo; Kawai, Taro

    2015-01-01

    RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), including retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and MDA5, constitute a family of cytoplasmic RNA helicases that senses viral RNA and mounts antiviral innate immunity by producing type I interferons and inflammatory cytokines. Despite their essential roles in antiviral host defense, RLR signaling is negatively regulated to protect the host from excessive inflammation and autoimmunity. Here, we identified ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 5B (Arl5B), an Arl family small GTPase, as a regulator of RLR signaling through MDA5 but not RIG-I. Overexpression of Arl5B repressed interferon β promoter activation by MDA5 but not RIG-I, and its knockdown enhanced MDA5-mediated responses. Furthermore, Arl5B-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast cells exhibited increased type I interferon expression in response to MDA5 agonists such as poly(I:C) and encephalomyocarditis virus. Arl5B-mediated negative regulation of MDA5 signaling does not require its GTP binding ability but requires Arl5B binding to the C-terminal domain of MDA5, which prevents interaction between MDA5 and poly(I:C). Our results, therefore, suggest that Arl5B is a negative regulator for MDA5. PMID:25451939

  5. OsARF16, a transcription factor regulating auxin redistribution, is required for iron deficiency response in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenjia; Yue, Runqing; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yanjun; Wang, Huizhong

    2015-02-01

    Plant response to iron deficiency is the most important feature for survival in Fe-limited soils. Several phytohormones, including auxin, are involved in iron uptake and homeostasis. However, the mechanisms behind how auxin participates in the iron deficiency response in rice are largely unknown. We found that OsARF16 was involved in the iron deficiency response and the induction of iron deficiency response genes. Most Fe-deficient symptoms could be partially restored in the osarf16 mutant, including dwarfism, photosynthesis decline, a reduction in iron content and root system architecture (RSA) regulation. OsARF16 expression was induced in the roots and shoots by Fe deprivation. Restoration of the phenotype could also be mimicked by 1-NOA, an auxin influx inhibitor. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR data indicated that the induction of Fe-deficiency response genes by iron deficiency was more compromised in the osarf16 mutant than in Nipponbare. In conclusion, osarf16, an auxin insensitive mutant, was involved in iron deficiency response in rice. Our results reveal a new biological function for OsARF16 and provide important information on how ARF-medicated auxin signaling affects iron signaling and the iron deficiency response. This work may help us to improve production or increased Fe nutrition of rice to iron deficiency by regulating auxin signaling.

  6. The TRIP from ULF to ARF.

    PubMed

    Collado, Manuel; Serrano, Manuel

    2010-04-13

    ARF is a key activator of p53, and together they form a critical duo for protection against cancer. Previous evidence had recognized the regulatory potential of ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ARF. The recent identification of TRIP12/ULF as a ubiquitin ligase of ARF adds an important missing piece to the ARF/p53 pathway.

  7. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer activation sensor for Arf6.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian; McLean, Mark A; Davis, Kathryn; Casanova, James E; Sligar, Steven G; Schwartz, Martin A

    2008-03-15

    The involvement of the small GTPase Arf6 in Rac activation, cell migration, and cancer invasiveness suggests that it is activated in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Small GTPase activation has been imaged in cells using probes in which the GTPase and a fragment of a downstream effector protein are fused to fluorescent reporter proteins that constitute a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor/acceptor pair. Unlike other Ras family GTPases, the N terminus of Arf6 is critical for membrane targeting and, thus, cannot be modified by fusion to a fluorescent protein. We found that the previously described C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) derivative also shows diminished membrane targeting. Therefore, we inserted a fluorescent protein into an inert loop within the Arf6 sequence. This fusion showed normal membrane targeting, nucleotide-dependent interaction with the downstream effector GGA3, and normal regulation by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Using the recently developed CyPET/YPET fluorescent proteins as a FRET pair, we found that Arf6-CyPET underwent efficient energy transfer when bound to YPET-GGA3 effector domain in intact cells. The addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to fibroblasts triggered a rapid and transient increase in FRET, indicative of Arf6 activation. These reagents should be useful for investigations of Arf6 activation and function.

  8. The Garz Sec7 domain guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf regulates salivary gland development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Szul, Tomasz; Burgess, Jason; Jeon, Mili; Zinn, Kai; Marques, Guillermo; Brill, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    Surface delivery of proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in cultured mammalian cells requires the GBF1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor. However, the role of GBF1 in delivery of adhesion proteins during organogenesis in intact animals has not been characterized. Here, we report the function of the fly GBF1 homolog, Gartenzwerg (Garz) in the development of the salivary gland in Drosophila melanogaster. We used the GAL4/UAS system to selectively deplete Garz from salivary gland cells. We show that depletion of Garz disrupts the secretory pathway as evidenced by the collapse of Golgi-localized Lava lamp (Lva) and the TGN-localized γ subunit of the clathrin-adaptor protein complex (AP-1). Additionally, Garz depletion inhibits trafficking of cell-cell adhesion proteins cadherin (DE-cad) and Flamingo to the cell surface. Disregulation of trafficking correlates with mistargeting of the tumor suppressor protein Discs large involved in epithelial polarity determination. Garz-depleted salivary cells are smaller and lack well-defined plasma membrane domains. Garz depletion also inhibits normal elongation and positioning of epithelial cells, resulting in a disorganized salivary gland that lacks a well defined luminal duct. Our findings suggest that Garz is essential for establishment of epithelial structures and demonstrate an absolute requirement for Garz during Drosophila development. PMID:21686256

  9. Role of the tumor suppressor ARF in macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Herranz, Sandra; Través, Paqui G.; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-01-01

    The ARF locus is frequently inactivated in human cancer. The oncosuppressor ARF has indeed been described as a general sensor for different situation of cellular stress. We have previously demonstrated that ARF deficiency severely impairs inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo, establishing a role for ARF in the regulation of innate immunity. The aim of the present work was to get further insights into the immune functions of ARF and to evaluate its possible contribution to the polarization of macrophages toward the M1 or M2 phenotype. Our results demonstrate that resting Arf−/− macrophages express high levels of Ym1 and Fizz-1, two typical markers of alternatively-activated macrophages (M2). Additionally, Arf−/− peritoneal macrophages showed an impaired response to lipopolysaccharide (a classical inducer of M1 polaryzation) and a reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Moreover, upon stimulation with interleukin-4 (IL-4), an inducer of the M2 phenotype, well established M2 markers such as Fizz-1, Ym1 and arginase-1 were upregulated in Arf−/− as compared with wild type macrophages. Accordingly, the cytokine and chemokine profile associated with the M2 phenotype was significantly overexpressed in Arf−/− macrophages responding to IL-4. In addition, multiple pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF and MMP-9 were also increased. In summary, these results indicate that ARF contributes to the polarization and functional plasticity of macrophages. PMID:23243586

  10. Genomewide identification and expression analysis of the ARF gene family in apple.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Cui; Sun, Mei-Hong; Xu, Rui-Rui; Shu, Huai-Rui; Wang, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Shi-Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Auxin response factors (ARF) are transcription factors that regulate auxin responses in plants. Although the genomewide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known regarding ARF genes in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, 31 putative apple ARF genes have been identified and located within the apple genome. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that MdARFs could be divided into three subfamilies (groups I, II and III). The predicted MdARFs were distributed across 15 of 17 chromosomes with different densities. In addition, the analysis of exon-intron junctions and of the intron phase inside the predicted coding region of each candidate gene has revealed high levels of conservation within and between phylogenetic groups. Expression profile analyses of MdARF genes were performed in different tissues (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit), and all the selected genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues that were tested, which indicated that MdARFs are involved in various aspects of physiological and developmental processes of apple. To our knowledge, this report is the first to provide a genomewide analysis of the apple ARF gene family. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the ARF signal in apple.

  11. Yeast Ysl2p, Homologous to Sec7 Domain Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors, Functions in Endocytosis and Maintenance of Vacuole Integrity and Interacts with the Arf-Like Small GTPase Arl1p

    PubMed Central

    Jochum, Alexandra; Jackson, David; Schwarz, Heinz; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Singer-Krüger, Birgit

    2002-01-01

    We previously described the isolation of ysl2-1 due to its genetic interaction with Δypt51/vps21, a mutant with a deletion of the coding sequence for the yeast Rab5 homolog, which regulates endocytic traffic between early and late endosomes. Here we report that Ysl2p is a novel 186.8-kDa peripheral membrane protein homologous to members of the Sec7 family. We provide multiple genetic and biochemical evidence for an interaction between Ysl12p and the Arf-like protein Arl1p, consistent with a potential function as an Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). The temperature-sensitive alleles ysl2-307 and ysl2-316 are specifically defective in ligand-induced degradation of Ste2p and α-factor and exhibit vacuole fragmentation directly upon a shift to 37°C. In living cells, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Ysl2p colocalizes with endocytic elements that accumulate FM4-64. The GFP-Ysl2p staining is sensitive to a mutation in VPS27 resulting in the formation of an aberrant class E compartment, but it is not affected by a sec7 mutation. Consistent with the idea that Ysl2p and Arl1p have closely related functions, Δarl1 cells are defective in endocytic transport and in vacuolar protein sorting. PMID:12052896

  12. MTV1 and MTV4 Encode Plant-Specific ENTH and ARF GAP Proteins That Mediate Clathrin-Dependent Trafficking of Vacuolar Cargo from the Trans-Golgi Network[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Michael; Delgadillo, M. Otilia; Zouhar, Jan; Reynolds, Gregory D.; Pennington, Janice G.; Jiang, Liwen; Liljegren, Sarah J.; Stierhof, York-Dieter; De Jaeger, Geert; Otegui, Marisa S.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.; Rojo, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Many soluble proteins transit through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the prevacuolar compartment (PVC) en route to the vacuole, but our mechanistic understanding of this vectorial trafficking step in plants is limited. In particular, it is unknown whether clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) participate in this transport step. Through a screen for modified transport to the vacuole (mtv) mutants that secrete the vacuolar protein VAC2, we identified MTV1, which encodes an EPSIN N-TERMINAL HOMOLOGY protein, and MTV4, which encodes the ADP ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein NEVERSHED/AGD5. MTV1 and NEV/AGD5 have overlapping expression patterns and interact genetically to transport vacuolar cargo and promote plant growth, but they have no apparent roles in protein secretion or endocytosis. MTV1 and NEV/AGD5 colocalize with clathrin at the TGN and are incorporated into CCVs. Importantly, mtv1 nev/agd5 double mutants show altered subcellular distribution of CCV cargo exported from the TGN. Moreover, MTV1 binds clathrin in vitro, and NEV/AGD5 associates in vivo with clathrin, directly linking these proteins to CCV formation. These results indicate that MTV1 and NEV/AGD5 are key effectors for CCV-mediated trafficking of vacuolar proteins from the TGN to the PVC in plants. PMID:23771894

  13. Arf Induction by Tgfβ Is Influenced by Sp1 and C/ebpβ in Opposing Directions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanbin; Devitt, Caitlin; Liu, Jing; Iqbal, Nida; Skapek, Stephen X.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show that Arf, a bona fide tumor suppressor, also plays an essential role during mouse eye development. Tgfβ is required for Arf promoter activation in developing mouse eyes, and its capacity to induce Arf depends on Smads 2/3 as well as p38 Mapk. Substantial delay between activation of these pathways and increased Arf transcription imply that changes in the binding of additional transcription factors help orchestrate changes in Arf expression. Focusing on proteins with putative DNA binding elements near the mouse Arf transcription start, we now show that Tgfβ induction of this gene correlated with decreased expression and DNA binding of C/ebpβ to the proximal Arf promoter. Ectopic expression of C/ebpβ in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) blocked Arf induction by Tgfβ. Although basal levels of Arf mRNA were increased by C/ebpβ loss in MEFs and in the developing eye, Tgfβ was still able to increase Arf, indicating that derepression was not the sole factor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed increased Sp1 binding to the Arf promotor at 24 and 48 hours after Tgfβ treatment, at which time points Arf expression was significantly induced by Tgfβ. Chemical inhibition of Sp1 and its knockdown by RNA interference blocked Arf induction by Tgfβ in MEFs. In summary, our results indicate that C/ebpβ and Sp1 are negative and positive Arf regulators that are influenced by Tgfβ. PMID:23940569

  14. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  15. Evaluation for EAPSM life time by ArF pellicle characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Kang Joon; Ryu, Ji Sun; Jeong, Goo Min; Kang, Shin Cheol; Kim, Yong Dae; Kim, Sang Chul; Kim, Chang Yeol

    2009-04-01

    As the nano-lithography technology continues to develop towards advanced generation of ArF immersion lithography, the quality of ArF EAPSM becomes the most valuable factor for worldwide Maskshop. Therefore outturn of ArF EAPMS increase continuously, and people who work in the fields of semiconductor engineering give consequence to good quality of ArF EAPSM until the EUV lithography generation. Because 300mm wafer litho-facility use higher exposure energy, wider shot field and more shots per a wafer for achieving more memory(DRAM or Flash) chips than 200mm exposure facility, photo engineer wants unchanged initial condition of mask quality(CD MTT, CD Uniformity, repeating defect, phase shift and transmittance). In other words, mask manufacturer must focus on the concept of ArF EAPSM 'life time'. We have investigated the influence grade inducing the lithographic variation between the growth of exposure energy based Haze phenomena, thin organic pellicle membrane characteristics, and we have verified that the ArF pellicle durability is one of the most important evidence for improvement of life time of ArF EAPSM. In this study, related with ArF EAPSM life time, we tried to evaluate the influence of ArF pellicle characteristic consisting of pellicle membrane transmittance strength (durability against ArF laser source) and non acid mask condition for the period of non Haze contamination without added re-pellicle --> re-cleaning cycle. Metrological inspection and evaluation was conducted with several equipment and analysis including mask inspection, Scatterometer, IC, ArF laser accelerator.

  16. Inactivation of arf-bp1 induces p53 activation and diabetic phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Kon, Ning; Zhong, Jiayun; Qiang, Li; Accili, Domenico; Gu, Wei

    2012-02-10

    It is well accepted that the Mdm2 ubiquitin ligase acts as a major factor in controlling p53 stability and activity in vivo. Although several E3 ligases have been reported to be involved in Mdm2-independent p53 degradation, the roles of these ligases in p53 regulation in vivo remain largely unknown. To elucidate the physiological role of the ubiquitin ligase ARF-BP1, we generated arf-bp1 mutant mice. We found that inactivation of arf-bp1 during embryonic development in mice resulted in p53 activation and embryonic lethality, but the mice with arf-bp1 deletion specifically in the pancreatic β-cells (arf-bp1(FL/Y)/RIP-cre) were viable and displayed no obvious abnormality after birth. Interestingly, these mice showed dramatic loss of β-cells as mice aged, and >50% of these mice died of severe diabetic symptoms before reaching 1 year of age. Notably, the diabetic phenotype of these mice was largely reversed by concomitant deletion of p53, and the life span of the mice was significantly extended (p53(LFL/FL)/arf-bp1(FL/Y)/RIP-cre). These findings underscore an important role of ARF-BP1 in maintaining β-cell homeostasis in aging mice and reveal that the stability of p53 is critically regulated by ARF-BP1 in vivo.

  17. ARF tumor suppression in the nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Leonard B; Winkeler, Crystal L; Miceli, Alexander P; Apicelli, Anthony J; Brady, Suzanne N; Kuchenreuther, Michael J; Weber, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Since its discovery close to twenty years ago, the ARF tumor suppressor has played a pivotal role in the field of cancer biology. Elucidating ARF's basal physiological function in the cell has been the focal interest of numerous laboratories throughout the world for many years. Our current understanding of ARF is constantly evolving to include novel frameworks for conceptualizing the regulation of this critical tumor suppressor. As a result of this complexity, there is great need to broaden our understanding of the intricacies governing the biology of the ARF tumor suppressor. The ARF tumor suppressor is a key sensor of signals that instruct a cell to grow and proliferate and is appropriately localized in nucleoli to limit these processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease.

  18. Sam68 Is Required for DNA Damage Responses via Regulating Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Andrea; Wier, Eric M.; Wen, Matthew G.; Kamenyeva, Olena; Xia, Xue; Koo, Lily Y.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid and robust synthesis of polymers of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (PAR) chains, primarily catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), is crucial for cellular responses to DNA damage. However, the precise mechanisms through which PARP1 is activated and PAR is robustly synthesized are not fully understood. Here, we identified Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) as a novel signaling molecule in DNA damage responses (DDRs). In the absence of Sam68, DNA damage-triggered PAR production and PAR-dependent DNA repair signaling were dramatically diminished. With serial cellular and biochemical assays, we demonstrated that Sam68 is recruited to and significantly overlaps with PARP1 at DNA lesions and that the interaction between Sam68 and PARP1 is crucial for DNA damage-initiated and PARP1-conferred PAR production. Utilizing cell lines and knockout mice, we illustrated that Sam68-deleted cells and animals are hypersensitive to genotoxicity caused by DNA-damaging agents. Together, our findings suggest that Sam68 plays a crucial role in DDR via regulating DNA damage-initiated PAR production. PMID:27635653

  19. Sam68 Is Required for DNA Damage Responses via Regulating Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Fu, Kai; Hodgson, Andrea; Wier, Eric M; Wen, Matthew G; Kamenyeva, Olena; Xia, Xue; Koo, Lily Y; Wan, Fengyi

    2016-09-01

    The rapid and robust synthesis of polymers of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (PAR) chains, primarily catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), is crucial for cellular responses to DNA damage. However, the precise mechanisms through which PARP1 is activated and PAR is robustly synthesized are not fully understood. Here, we identified Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) as a novel signaling molecule in DNA damage responses (DDRs). In the absence of Sam68, DNA damage-triggered PAR production and PAR-dependent DNA repair signaling were dramatically diminished. With serial cellular and biochemical assays, we demonstrated that Sam68 is recruited to and significantly overlaps with PARP1 at DNA lesions and that the interaction between Sam68 and PARP1 is crucial for DNA damage-initiated and PARP1-conferred PAR production. Utilizing cell lines and knockout mice, we illustrated that Sam68-deleted cells and animals are hypersensitive to genotoxicity caused by DNA-damaging agents. Together, our findings suggest that Sam68 plays a crucial role in DDR via regulating DNA damage-initiated PAR production. PMID:27635653

  20. Protein ADP-ribosylation and the cellular response to DNA strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Caldecott, K W

    2014-07-01

    DNA strand breaks arise continuously in cells and can lead to chromosome rearrangements and genome instability or cell death. The commonest DNA breaks are DNA single-strand breaks, which arise at a frequency of tens-of-thousands per cell each day and which can block the progression of RNA/DNA polymerases and disrupt gene transcription and genome duplication. If not rapidly repaired, SSBs can be converted into DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during genome duplication, eliciting a complex series of DNA damage responses that attempt to protect cells from irreversible replication fork collapse. DSBs are the most cytotoxic and clastogenic type of DNA breaks, and can also arise independently of DNA replication, albeit at a frequency several orders of magnitude lower than SSBs. Here, I discuss the evidence that DNA single- and double -strand break repair pathways, and cellular tolerance mechanisms for protecting replication forks during genome duplication, utilize signalling by protein ADP-ribosyltransferases to protect cells from the harmful impact of DNA strand breakage.

  1. Identification of inhibitors against the potential ligandable sites in the active cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Aditi; Datta, Abhijit

    2015-04-01

    The active cholera toxin responsible for the massive loss of water and ions in cholera patients via its ADP ribosylation activity is a heterodimer of the A1 subunit of the bacterial holotoxin and the human cytosolic ARF6 (ADP Ribosylation Factor 6). The active toxin is a potential target for the design of inhibitors against cholera. In this study we identified the potential ligandable sites of the active cholera toxin which can serve as binding sites for drug-like molecules. By employing an energy-based approach to identify ligand binding sites, and comparison with the results of computational solvent mapping, we identified two potential ligandable sites in the active toxin which can be targeted during structure-based drug design against cholera. Based on the probe affinities of the identified ligandable regions, docking-based virtual screening was employed to identify probable inhibitors against these sites. Several indole-based alkaloids and phosphates showed strong interactions to the important residues of the ligandable region at the A1 active site. On the other hand, 26 top scoring hits were identified against the ligandable region at the A1 ARF6 interface which showed strong hydrogen bonding interactions, including guanidines, phosphates, Leucopterin and Aristolochic acid VIa. This study has important implications in the application of hybrid structure-based and ligand-based methods against the identified ligandable sites using the identified inhibitors as reference ligands, for drug design against the active cholera toxin.

  2. Characterization of the Tomato ARF Gene Family Uncovers a Multi-Levels Post-Transcriptional Regulation Including Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Chateigner-Boutin, Anne-Laure; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Wang, Hua; Audran, Corinne; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background The phytohormone auxin is involved in a wide range of developmental processes and auxin signaling is known to modulate the expression of target genes via two types of transcriptional regulators, namely, Aux/IAA and Auxin Response Factors (ARF). ARFs play a major role in transcriptional activation or repression through direct binding to the promoter of auxin-responsive genes. The present study aims at gaining better insight on distinctive structural and functional features among ARF proteins. Results Building on the most updated tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) reference genome sequence, a comprehensive set of ARF genes was identified, extending the total number of family members to 22. Upon correction of structural annotation inconsistencies, renaming the tomato ARF family members provided a consensus nomenclature for all ARF genes across plant species. In silico search predicted the presence of putative target site for small interfering RNAs within twelve Sl-ARFs while sequence analysis of the 5′-leader sequences revealed the presence of potential small uORF regulatory elements. Functional characterization carried out by transactivation assay partitioned tomato ARFs into repressors and activators of auxin-dependent gene transcription. Expression studies identified tomato ARFs potentially involved in the fruit set process. Genome-wide expression profiling using RNA-seq revealed that at least one third of the gene family members display alternative splicing mode of regulation during the flower to fruit transition. Moreover, the regulation of several tomato ARF genes by both ethylene and auxin, suggests their potential contribution to the convergence mechanism between the signaling pathways of these two hormones. Conclusion All together, the data bring new insight on the complexity of the expression control of Sl-ARF genes at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels supporting the hypothesis that these transcriptional mediators might represent

  3. Arf tumor suppressor promoter monitors latent oncogenic signals in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zindy, Frederique; Williams, Richard T.; Baudino, Troy A.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Skapek, Stephen X.; Cleveland, John L.; Roussel, Martine F.; Sherr, Charles J.

    2003-12-01

    Induction of the Arf tumor suppressor gene by elevated thresholds of mitogenic signals activates a p53-dependent transcriptional response that triggers either growth arrest or apoptosis, thereby countering abnormal cell proliferation. Conversely, Arf inactivation is associated with tumor development. Expression of Arf in tissues of adult mice is difficult to detect, possibly because its induction leads to the arrest or elimination of incipient tumor cells. We replaced coding sequences of exon 1 of the mouse cellular Arf gene with a cDNA encoding GFP, thereby producing Arf-null animals in which GFP expression is driven by the intact Arf promoter. The Arf promoter was induced in several biologic settings previously shown to elicit mouse p19Arf expression. Inactivation of Arf in this manner led to the outgrowth of tumor cells expressing GFP, thereby providing direct evidence that the Arf promoter monitors latent oncogenic signals in vivo.

  4. Arf6 controls platelet spreading and clot retraction via integrin αIIbβ3 trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunjie; Joshi, Smita; Xiang, Binggang; Kanaho, Yasunori; Li, Zhenyu; Bouchard, Beth A.; Moncman, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet and megakaryocyte endocytosis is important for loading certain granule cargo (ie, fibrinogen [Fg] and vascular endothelial growth factor); however, the mechanisms of platelet endocytosis and its functional acute effects are understudied. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate–ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small guanosine triphosphate–binding protein that regulates endocytic trafficking, especially of integrins. To study platelet endocytosis, we generated platelet-specific Arf6 knockout (KO) mice. Arf6 KO platelets had less associated Fg suggesting that Arf6 affects αIIbβ3-mediated Fg uptake and/or storage. Other cargo was unaffected. To measure Fg uptake, mice were injected with biotinylated- or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–labeled Fg. Platelets from the injected Arf6 KO mice showed lower accumulation of tagged Fg, suggesting an uptake defect. Ex vivo, Arf6 KO platelets were also defective in FITC-Fg uptake and storage. Immunofluorescence analysis showed initial trafficking of FITC-Fg to a Rab4-positive compartment followed by colocalization with Rab11-positive structures, suggesting that platelets contain and use both early and recycling endosomes. Resting and activated αIIbβ3 levels, as measured by flow cytometry, were unchanged; yet, Arf6 KO platelets exhibited enhanced spreading on Fg and faster clot retraction. This was not the result of alterations in αIIbβ3 signaling, because myosin light-chain phosphorylation and Rac1/RhoA activation were unaffected. Consistent with the enhanced clot retraction and spreading, Arf6 KO mice showed no deficits in tail bleeding or FeCl3-induced carotid injury assays. Our studies present the first mouse model for defining the functions of platelet endocytosis and suggest that altered integrin trafficking may affect the efficacy of platelet function. PMID:26738539

  5. Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells Escape Senescence by Loss of p19ARF

    PubMed Central

    Koudelkova, Petra; Weber, Gerhard; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) represent a highly differentiated cell type that lines hepatic sinusoids. LSECs form a discontinuous endothelium due to fenestrations under physiological conditions, which are reduced upon chronic liver injury. Cultivation of rodent LSECs associates with a rapid onset of stress-induced senescence a few days post isolation, which limits genetic and biochemical studies ex vivo. Here we show the establishment of LSECs isolated from p19ARF-/- mice which undergo more than 50 cell doublings in the absence of senescence. Isolated p19ARF-/- LSECs display a cobblestone-like morphology and show the ability of tube formation. Analysis of DNA content revealed a stable diploid phenotype after long-term passaging without a gain of aneuploidy. Notably, p19ARF-/- LSECs express the endothelial markers CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, VE-cadherin, von Willebrand factor, stabilin-2 and CD146 suggesting that these cells harbor and maintain an endothelial phenotype. In line, treatment with small molecule inhibitors against VEGFR-2 caused cell death, demonstrating the sustained ability of p19ARF-/- LSECs to respond to anti-angiogenic therapeutics. From these data we conclude that loss of p19ARF overcomes senescence of LSECs, allowing immortalization of cells without losing endothelial characteristics. Thus, p19ARF-/- LSECs provide a novel cellular model to study endothelial cell biology. PMID:26528722

  6. Chemical genetic discovery of PARP targets reveals a role for PARP-1 in transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bryan A; Zhang, Yajie; Jiang, Hong; Hussey, Kristine M; Shrimp, Jonathan H; Lin, Hening; Schwede, Frank; Yu, Yonghao; Kraus, W Lee

    2016-07-01

    Poly[adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerases (PARPs) are a family of enzymes that modulate diverse biological processes through covalent transfer of ADP-ribose from the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) onto substrate proteins. Here we report a robust NAD(+) analog-sensitive approach for PARPs, which allows PARP-specific ADP-ribosylation of substrates that is suitable for subsequent copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions. Using this approach, we mapped hundreds of sites of ADP-ribosylation for PARPs 1, 2, and 3 across the proteome, as well as thousands of PARP-1-mediated ADP-ribosylation sites across the genome. We found that PARP-1 ADP-ribosylates and inhibits negative elongation factor (NELF), a protein complex that regulates promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Depletion or inhibition of PARP-1 or mutation of the ADP-ribosylation sites on NELF-E promotes Pol II pausing, providing a clear functional link between PARP-1, ADP-ribosylation, and NELF. This analog-sensitive approach should be broadly applicable across the PARP family and has the potential to illuminate the ADP-ribosylated proteome and the molecular mechanisms used by individual PARPs to mediate their responses to cellular signals.

  7. Chemical genetic discovery of PARP targets reveals a role for PARP-1 in transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bryan A; Zhang, Yajie; Jiang, Hong; Hussey, Kristine M; Shrimp, Jonathan H; Lin, Hening; Schwede, Frank; Yu, Yonghao; Kraus, W Lee

    2016-07-01

    Poly[adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerases (PARPs) are a family of enzymes that modulate diverse biological processes through covalent transfer of ADP-ribose from the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) onto substrate proteins. Here we report a robust NAD(+) analog-sensitive approach for PARPs, which allows PARP-specific ADP-ribosylation of substrates that is suitable for subsequent copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions. Using this approach, we mapped hundreds of sites of ADP-ribosylation for PARPs 1, 2, and 3 across the proteome, as well as thousands of PARP-1-mediated ADP-ribosylation sites across the genome. We found that PARP-1 ADP-ribosylates and inhibits negative elongation factor (NELF), a protein complex that regulates promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Depletion or inhibition of PARP-1 or mutation of the ADP-ribosylation sites on NELF-E promotes Pol II pausing, providing a clear functional link between PARP-1, ADP-ribosylation, and NELF. This analog-sensitive approach should be broadly applicable across the PARP family and has the potential to illuminate the ADP-ribosylated proteome and the molecular mechanisms used by individual PARPs to mediate their responses to cellular signals. PMID:27256882

  8. The Sec7 N-terminal regulatory domains facilitate membrane-proximal activation of the Arf1 GTPase

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Brian C; Halaby, Steve L; Gustafson, Margaret A; Fromme, J Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi complex is the central sorting compartment of eukaryotic cells. Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Arf-GEFs) regulate virtually all traffic through the Golgi by activating Arf GTPase trafficking pathways. The Golgi Arf-GEFs contain multiple autoregulatory domains, but the precise mechanisms underlying their function remain largely undefined. We report a crystal structure revealing that the N-terminal DCB and HUS regulatory domains of the Arf-GEF Sec7 form a single structural unit. We demonstrate that the established role of the N-terminal region in dimerization is not conserved; instead, a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain is responsible for dimerization of Sec7. We find that the DCB/HUS domain amplifies the ability of Sec7 to activate Arf1 on the membrane surface by facilitating membrane insertion of the Arf1 amphipathic helix. This enhancing function of the Sec7 N-terminal domains is consistent with the high rate of Arf1-dependent trafficking to the plasma membrane necessary for maximal cell growth. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12411.001 PMID:26765562

  9. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  10. Low p14ARF expression in neuroblastoma cells is associated with repressed histone mark status, and enforced expression induces growth arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Dreidax, Daniel; Gogolin, Sina; Schroeder, Christina; Muth, Daniel; Brueckner, Lena Marie; Hess, Elisa Maria; Zapatka, Marc; Theißen, Jessica; Fischer, Matthias; Ehemann, Volker; Schwab, Manfred; Savelyeva, Larissa; Westermann, Frank

    2013-05-01

    The TP53 tumor suppressor pathway is abrogated by TP53 mutations in the majority of human cancers. Increased levels of wild-type TP53 in aggressive neuroblastomas appear paradox but are tolerated by tumor cells due to co-activation of the TP53 ubiquitin ligase, MDM2. The role of the MDM2 antagonist, p14(ARF), in controlling the TP53-MDM2 balance in neuroblastoma is unresolved. In the present study, we show that conditional p14(ARF) expression substantially suppresses viability, clonogenicity and anchorage-independent growth in p14(ARF)-deficient or MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines. Furthermore, ectopic 14(ARF) expression induced accumulation of cells in the G1 phase and apoptosis, which was paralleled by accumulation of TP53 and its targets. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of 193 primary neuroblastomas detected one homozygous deletion of CDKN2A (encoding both p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A)) and heterozygous loss of CDKN2A in 22% of tumors. Co-expression analysis of p14(ARF) and its transactivator, E2F1, in a set of 68 primary tumors revealed only a weak correlation, suggesting that further regulatory mechanisms govern p14(ARF) expression in neuroblastomas. Intriguingly, analyses utilizing chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed different histone mark-defined epigenetic activity states of p14(ARF) in neuroblastoma cell lines that correlated with endogenous p14(ARF) expression but not with episomal p14(ARF) promoter reporter activity, indicating that the native chromatin context serves to epigenetically repress p14(ARF) in neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, the data pinpoint p14(ARF) as a critical factor for efficient TP53 response in neuroblastoma cells and assign p14(ARF) as a neuroblastoma suppressor candidate that is impaired by genomic loss and epigenetic repression.

  11. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. PMID:27247276

  12. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13325.001 PMID:27247276

  13. Auxin Response Gene SlARF3 Plays Multiple Roles in Tomato Development and is Involved in the Formation of Epidermal Cells and Trichomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Yan, Fang; Tang, Yuwei; Yuan, Yujin; Deng, Wei; Li, Zhengguo

    2015-11-01

    The auxin response factor (ARF) genes encode a large family of proteins involved in auxin signaling transduction. SlARF3, a member of the ARF gene family, encodes a protein containing two conserved domains, B3 and ARF, and lacking an Aux/IAA domain. Expression analysis showed that SlARF3 has a particularly high expression level in trichomes. In situ hybridization also detected the SlARF3 transcripts in epidermal pavement cells of leaves. The physiological function of SlARF3 was studied by using the RNA interference (RNAi) strategy. SlARF3-down-regulated plants exhibited decreased density of epidermal pavement cells and obviously reduced density of type I, V and VI trichomes of leaves, which indicates the important role of SlARF3 in the formation of trichomes and epidermal cells in tomato. The number of shoot xylem cells was also decreased in SlARF3-down-regulated lines. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis identified 51 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) belonging to 14 transcription factor (TF) families, such as MYB, bHLH, WD40 and C2H2 zinc finger. Twenty-seven DEGs were involved in the metabolism and signaling transduction of phytohormones, such as auxin, ethylene and gibberellin. These results indicated the important roles of the TFs and hormones in auxin-dependent transcriptional regulation of trichome formation in tomato. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SlARF3 plays an important role in the formation of epidermal cells and trichomes and reveal novel and specific functions for ARFs in tomato developmental processes. PMID:26412778

  14. Repression of ARF10 by microRNA160 plays an important role in the mediation of leaf water loss.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Dong, Xiufen; Liu, Zihan; Shi, Zihang; Jiang, Yun; Qi, Mingfang; Xu, Tao; Li, Tianlai

    2016-10-01

    Solanum lycopersicum auxin response factor 10 (SlARF10) is post-transcriptionally regulated by Sl-miR160. Overexpression of a Sl-miR160-resistant SlARF10 (mSlARF10) resulted in narrower leaflet blades with larger stomata but lower densities. 35S:mSlARF10-6 plants with narrower excised leaves had greater water loss, which was in contrast to the wild type (WT). Further analysis revealed that the actual water loss was not consistent with the calculated stomatal water loss in 35S:mSlARF10-6 and the WT under the dehydration treatment, indicating that there is a difference in hydraulic conductance. Pretreatment with abscisic acid (ABA) and HgCl2 confirmed higher hydraulic conductance in 35S:mSlARF10, which is related to the larger stomatal size and higher activity of aquaporins (AQPs). Under ABA treatment, 35S:mSlARF10-6 showed greater sensitivity, and the stomata closed rapidly. Screening by RNA sequencing revealed that five AQP-related genes, fourteen ABA biosynthesis/signal genes and three stomatal development genes were significantly altered in 35S:mSlARF10-6 plants, and this result was verified by qRT-PCR. The promoter analysis showed that upregulated AQPs contain AuxRE and ABRE, implying that these elements may be responsible for the high expression levels of AQPs in 35S:mSlARF10-6. The three most upregulated AQPs (SlTIP1-1-like, SlPIP2;4 and SlNIP-type-like) were chosen to confirm AuxRE and ABRE function. Promoters transient expression demonstrated that the SlPIP2;4 and SlNIP-type-like AuxREs and SlPIP2;4 and SlTIP1-1-like ABREs could significantly enhance the expression of the GUS reporter in 35S:mSlARF10-6, confirming that AuxRE and ABRE may be the main factors inducing the expression of AQPs. Additionally, two upregulated transcription factors in 35S:mSlARF10-6, SlARF10 and SlABI5-like were shown to directly bind to those elements in an electromobility shift assay and a yeast one-hybrid assay. Furthermore, transient expression of down-regulated ARF10 or up

  15. Natural variation in ARF18 gene simultaneously affects seed weight and silique length in polyploid rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Hu, Zhiyong; Yang, Hongli; Zhang, Liang; Li, Rongjun; Deng, Linbin; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-09-15

    Seed weight (SW), which is one of the three major factors influencing grain yield, has been widely accepted as a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes, particularly in polyploid crops. Brassica napus L., which is the second leading crop source for vegetable oil around the world, is a tetraploid (4×) species. In the present study, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome A9 of rapeseed in which the genes for SW and silique length (SL) were colocated. By fine mapping and association analysis, we uncovered a 165-bp deletion in the auxin-response factor 18 (ARF18) gene associated with increased SW and SL. ARF18 encodes an auxin-response factor and shows inhibitory activity on downstream auxin genes. This 55-aa deletion prevents ARF18 from forming homodimers, in turn resulting in the loss of binding activity. Furthermore, reciprocal crossing has shown that this QTL affects SW by maternal effects. Transcription analysis has shown that ARF18 regulates cell growth in the silique wall by acting via an auxin-response pathway. Together, our results suggest that ARF18 regulates silique wall development and determines SW via maternal regulation. In addition, our study reveals the first (to our knowledge) QTL in rapeseed and may provide insights into gene cloning involving polyploid crops.

  16. Natural variation in ARF18 gene simultaneously affects seed weight and silique length in polyploid rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Hu, Zhiyong; Yang, Hongli; Zhang, Liang; Li, Rongjun; Deng, Linbin; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight (SW), which is one of the three major factors influencing grain yield, has been widely accepted as a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes, particularly in polyploid crops. Brassica napus L., which is the second leading crop source for vegetable oil around the world, is a tetraploid (4×) species. In the present study, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome A9 of rapeseed in which the genes for SW and silique length (SL) were colocated. By fine mapping and association analysis, we uncovered a 165-bp deletion in the auxin-response factor 18 (ARF18) gene associated with increased SW and SL. ARF18 encodes an auxin-response factor and shows inhibitory activity on downstream auxin genes. This 55-aa deletion prevents ARF18 from forming homodimers, in turn resulting in the loss of binding activity. Furthermore, reciprocal crossing has shown that this QTL affects SW by maternal effects. Transcription analysis has shown that ARF18 regulates cell growth in the silique wall by acting via an auxin-response pathway. Together, our results suggest that ARF18 regulates silique wall development and determines SW via maternal regulation. In addition, our study reveals the first (to our knowledge) QTL in rapeseed and may provide insights into gene cloning involving polyploid crops. PMID:26324896

  17. Natural variation in ARF18 gene simultaneously affects seed weight and silique length in polyploid rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Hu, Zhiyong; Yang, Hongli; Zhang, Liang; Li, Rongjun; Deng, Linbin; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-09-15

    Seed weight (SW), which is one of the three major factors influencing grain yield, has been widely accepted as a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes, particularly in polyploid crops. Brassica napus L., which is the second leading crop source for vegetable oil around the world, is a tetraploid (4×) species. In the present study, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome A9 of rapeseed in which the genes for SW and silique length (SL) were colocated. By fine mapping and association analysis, we uncovered a 165-bp deletion in the auxin-response factor 18 (ARF18) gene associated with increased SW and SL. ARF18 encodes an auxin-response factor and shows inhibitory activity on downstream auxin genes. This 55-aa deletion prevents ARF18 from forming homodimers, in turn resulting in the loss of binding activity. Furthermore, reciprocal crossing has shown that this QTL affects SW by maternal effects. Transcription analysis has shown that ARF18 regulates cell growth in the silique wall by acting via an auxin-response pathway. Together, our results suggest that ARF18 regulates silique wall development and determines SW via maternal regulation. In addition, our study reveals the first (to our knowledge) QTL in rapeseed and may provide insights into gene cloning involving polyploid crops. PMID:26324896

  18. Botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase activity as affected by detergents and phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Maehama, T; Ohoka, Y; Ohtsuka, T; Takahashi, K; Nagata, K; Nozawa, Y; Ueno, K; Ui, M; Katada, T

    1990-04-24

    GTP-binding proteins with Mr values of 22,000 and 25,000 in bovine brain cytosol were ADP-ribosylated by an exoenzyme (termed C3) purified from Clostridium botulinum type C. The rate of C3-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of the partially purified substrates was extremely low by itself, but was increased enormously when a protein factor(s) obtained from the cytosol was simultaneously added. The rate of the C3-catalyzed reaction was also stimulated by the addition of certain types of detergents or phospholipids even in the absence of the protein factors. The ADP-ribosylation appeared to be enhanced to an extent more than the additive effect of either the protein factors or the detergents (and phospholipids). Thus, ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by botulinum C3 enzyme was affected not only by cytoplasmic protein factors but also by detergents or phospholipids in manners different from each other.

  19. Polycomb Mediated Epigenetic Silencing and Replication Timing at the INK4a/ARF Locus during Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Verthuy, Christophe; Chasson, Lionel; Serrano, Manuel; Djabali, Malek

    2009-01-01

    Background The INK4/ARF locus encodes three tumor suppressor genes (p15Ink4b, Arf and p16Ink4a) and is frequently inactivated in a large number of human cancers. Mechanisms regulating INK4/ARF expression are not fully characterized. Principal Findings Here we show that in young proliferating embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) member EZH2 together with PRC1 members BMI1 and M33 are strongly expressed and localized at the INK4/ARF regulatory domain (RD) identified as a DNA replication origin. When cells enter senescence the binding to RD of both PRC1 and PRC2 complexes is lost leading to a decreased level of histone H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). This loss is accompanied with an increased expression of the histone demethylase Jmjd3 and with the recruitment of the MLL1 protein, and correlates with the expression of the Ink4a/Arf genes. Moreover, we show that the Polycomb protein BMI1 interacts with CDC6, an essential regulator of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Polycomb proteins and associated epigenetic marks are crucial for the control of the replication timing of the INK4a/ARF locus during senescence. Conclusions We identified the replication licencing factor CDC6 as a new partner of the Polycomb group member BMI1. Our results suggest that in young cells Polycomb proteins are recruited to the INK4/ARF locus through CDC6 and the resulting silent locus is replicated during late S-phase. Upon senescence, Jmjd3 is overexpressed and the MLL1 protein is recruited to the locus provoking the dissociation of Polycomb from the INK4/ARF locus, its transcriptional activation and its replication during early S-phase. Together, these results provide a unified model that integrates replication, transcription and epigenetics at the INK4/ARF locus. PMID:19462008

  20. Genetic interactions in yeast between Ypt GTPases and Arf guanine nucleotide exchangers.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S; Jedd, G; Kahn, R A; Franzusoff, A; Bartolini, F; Segev, N

    1999-01-01

    Two families of GTPases, Arfs and Ypt/rabs, are key regulators of vesicular transport. While Arf proteins are implicated in vesicle budding from the donor compartment, Ypt/rab proteins are involved in the targeting of vesicles to the acceptor compartment. Recently, we have shown a role for Ypt31/32p in exit from the yeast trans-Golgi, suggesting a possible function for Ypt/rab proteins in vesicle budding as well. Here we report the identification of a new member of the Sec7-domain family, SYT1, as a high-copy suppressor of a ypt31/32 mutation. Several proteins that belong to the Sec7-domain family, including the yeast Gea1p, have recently been shown to stimulate nucleotide exchange by Arf GTPases. Nucleotide exchange by Arf GTPases, the switch from the GDP- to the GTP-bound form, is thought to be crucial for their function. Sec7p itself has an important role in the yeast secretory pathway. However, its mechanism of action is not yet understood. We show that all members of the Sec7-domain family exhibit distinct genetic interactions with the YPT genes. Biochemical assays demonstrate that, although the homology between the members of the Sec7-domain family is relatively low (20-35%) and limited to a small domain, they all can act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Arf proteins, but not for Ypt GTPases. The Sec7-domain of Sec7p is sufficient for this activity. Interestingly, the Sec7 domain activity is inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite that inhibits some of the Arf-GEFs, indicating that this domain is a target for BFA. These results demonstrate that the ability to act as Arf-GEFs is a general property of all Sec7-domain proteins in yeast. The genetic interactions observed between Arf GEFs and Ypt GTPases suggest the existence of a Ypt-Arf GTPase cascade in the secretory pathway. PMID:10430582

  1. Novel ArF photoresist polymer to suppress the roughness formation in plasma etching processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Keisuke; Yasuda, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin-ichi; Uesugi, Takuji; Okada, Takeru; Wada, Akira; Samukawa, Seiji

    2013-03-01

    The serious problem associated with 193-nm lithography using an ArF photoresist is roughness formation of photoresist polymer during plasma processes. We have previously investigated the mechanism of roughness formation caused by plasma. The main deciding factor for roughness formation is a chemical reaction between photoresist polymer and reactive species from plasma. The lactone group in photoresist polymer is highly chemically reactive, and shrinking the lactone structure enhances the roughness formation. In this paper, on the basis of the mechanism of roughness formation, we propose a novel ArF photoresist polymer. The roughness formation was much more suppressed in the novel photoresist polymer during plasma etching process than in the previous type. In the novel photoresist polymer, chemical reactions were spread evenly on the photoresist film surface by adding the polar structure. As a result, decreases in the lactone group were inhibited, leading to suppressing ArF photoresist roughness.

  2. WAVE regulatory complex activation by cooperating GTPases Arf and Rac1.

    PubMed

    Koronakis, Vassilis; Hume, Peter J; Humphreys, Daniel; Liu, Tao; Hørning, Ole; Jensen, Ole N; McGhie, Emma J

    2011-08-30

    The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) is a critical element in the control of actin polymerization at the eukaryotic cell membrane, but how WRC is activated remains uncertain. While Rho GTPase Rac1 can bind and activate WRC in vitro, this interaction is of low affinity, suggesting other factors may be important. By reconstituting WAVE-dependent actin assembly on membrane-coated beads in mammalian cell extracts, we found that Rac1 was not sufficient to engender bead motility, and we uncovered a key requirement for Arf GTPases. In vitro, Rac1 and Arf1 were individually able to bind weakly to recombinant WRC and activate it, but when both GTPases were bound at the membrane, recruitment and concomitant activation of WRC were dramatically enhanced. This cooperativity between the two GTPases was sufficient to induce WAVE-dependent bead motility in cell extracts. Our findings suggest that Arf GTPases may be central components in WAVE signalling, acting directly, alongside Rac1.

  3. Over-expression of mango (Mangifera indica L.) MiARF2 inhibits root and hypocotyl growth of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Li, Yun-He; Wu, Jian-Yong; Chen, Qi-Zhu; Huang, Xia; Chen, Yun-Feng; Huang, Xue-Lin

    2011-06-01

    An auxin response factor 2 gene, MiARF2, was cloned in our previous study [1] from the cotyledon section of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zihua) during adventitious root formation, which shares an 84% amino acid sequence similarity to Arabidopsis ARF2. This study was to examine the effects of over-expression of the full-length MiARF2 open reading frame on the root and hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis. Phenotype analysis showed that the T(3) transgenic lines had about 20-30% reduction in the length of hypocotyls and roots of the seedlings in comparison with the wild-type. The transcription levels of ANT and ARGOS genes which play a role in controlling organ size and cell proliferation in the transgenic seedlings also decreased. Therefore, the inhibited root and hypocotyl growth in the transgenic seedlings may be associated with the down-regulated transcription of ANT and ARGOS by the over-expression of MiARF2. This study also suggests that although MiARF2 only has a single DNA-binding domain (DBD), it can function as other ARF-like proteins containing complete DBD, middle region (MR) and carboxy-terminal dimerization domain (CTD).

  4. ArF Excimer Emission from Microhollow Cathode Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenhui; El-Habachi, Ahmed; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    1999-10-01

    Microhollow cathode discharges (MHCD) in Ar and Xe have been shown to emit excimer radiation at 128 nm and 172 nm, respectively, with an efficiency (in case of Xe) of approximately 8range towards longer wavelengths we have studied MHCD in argon fluoride mixtures (1to generate stable dc discharges in flowing gas at pressures ranging from 100 Torr to atmospheric pressure. The discharge voltage was approximately 500 V, the discharge current in these experiments was 10 mA. Whereas the spectrum at 300 Torr was dominated by atomic lines, at 700 Torr only excimer radiation peaking at 193 nm is observed in the spectral range from 120 nm to 300 nm. Absolute measurements of ArF excimer emission provided a value of approximately 3efficiency, or a total optical power of the excimer radiation of 150 mW. The peak power at 193 nm is 17 mW/nm. This is higher by a factor of 2 to 3, compared to xenon excimer emitters, due to the small FWHM of the 193nm ArF line (4 nm) compared to that of the Xe excimer line (24 nm). [1] Karl H. Schenbach, Ahmed El-Habachi, Wenhui Shi, and Marco Ciocca, Plasma Source Science and Technology 6, 468 (1997). [2] Ahmed El-Habachi and Karl H. Schoenbach, Appl.Phys.Lett. 73, 885 (1998). This work was funded by the DOE, Advanced Energy Division, and by the National Science Foundation.

  5. Rab11-FIP3 is a Rab11-binding protein that regulates breast cancer cell motility by modulating the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jian; Tarbutton, Elizabeth; Wilson, Gayle; Prekeris, Rytis

    2009-01-01

    Cell adhesion and motility are very dynamic processes that require the temporal and spatial coordination of many cellular structures. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) has emerged as master regulator of endocytic membrane traffic and cytoskeletal dynamics during cell movement. Recently, a novel Arf6-binding protein known as FIP3/arfophilin/eferin has been identified. In addition to Arf6, FIP3 also interacts with Rab11, a small monomeric GTPase that regulates endocytic membrane transport. Both Arf6 and Rab11 GTPases have been implicated in regulation of cell motility. Here we test the role of FIP3 in breast carcinoma cell motility. First, we demonstrate that FIP3 is associated with recycling endosomes that are present at the leading edge of motile cells. Second, we show that FIP3 is required for the motility of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Third, we demonstrate that FIP3 regulates Rac1-dependent actin cytoskeleton dynamics and modulates the formation and ruffling of lamellipodia. Finally, we demonstrate that FIP3 regulates the localization of Arf6 at the plasma membrane of MDA-MB-231 cells. Based on our data we propose that FIP3 affects cell motility by regulating Arf6 localization to the plasma membrane of the leading edge, thus regulating polarized Rac1 activation and actin dynamics. PMID:19327867

  6. Deregulation of the OsmiR160 Target Gene OsARF18 Causes Growth and Developmental Defects with an Alteration of Auxin Signaling in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Dazhong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression as key negative regulators at the post-transcriptional level. MiR160 plays a pivotal role in Arabidopsis growth and development through repressing expression of its target AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) genes; however, the function of miR160 in monocots remains elusive. In this study, we found that the mature rice miR160 (OsmiR160) was mainly derived from OsMIR160a and OsMIR160b genes. Among four potential OsmiR160 target OsARF genes, the OsARF18 transcript was cleaved at the OsmiR160 target site. Rice transgenic plants (named mOsARF18) expressing an OsmiR160-resistant version of OsARF18 exhibited pleiotropic defects in growth and development, including dwarf stature, rolled leaves, and small seeds. mOsARF18 leaves were abnormal in bulliform cell differentiation and epidermal cell division. Starch accumulation in mOsARF18 seeds was also reduced. Moreover, auxin induced expression of OsMIR160a, OsMIR160b, and OsARF18, whereas expression of OsMIR160a and OsMIR160b as well as genes involved in auxin signaling was altered in mOsARF18 plants. Our results show that negative regulation of OsARF18 expression by OsmiR160 is critical for rice growth and development via affecting auxin signaling, which will advance future studies on the molecular mechanism by which miR160 fine-tunes auxin signaling in plants. PMID:27444058

  7. Deregulation of the OsmiR160 Target Gene OsARF18 Causes Growth and Developmental Defects with an Alteration of Auxin Signaling in Rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Dazhong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression as key negative regulators at the post-transcriptional level. MiR160 plays a pivotal role in Arabidopsis growth and development through repressing expression of its target AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) genes; however, the function of miR160 in monocots remains elusive. In this study, we found that the mature rice miR160 (OsmiR160) was mainly derived from OsMIR160a and OsMIR160b genes. Among four potential OsmiR160 target OsARF genes, the OsARF18 transcript was cleaved at the OsmiR160 target site. Rice transgenic plants (named mOsARF18) expressing an OsmiR160-resistant version of OsARF18 exhibited pleiotropic defects in growth and development, including dwarf stature, rolled leaves, and small seeds. mOsARF18 leaves were abnormal in bulliform cell differentiation and epidermal cell division. Starch accumulation in mOsARF18 seeds was also reduced. Moreover, auxin induced expression of OsMIR160a, OsMIR160b, and OsARF18, whereas expression of OsMIR160a and OsMIR160b as well as genes involved in auxin signaling was altered in mOsARF18 plants. Our results show that negative regulation of OsARF18 expression by OsmiR160 is critical for rice growth and development via affecting auxin signaling, which will advance future studies on the molecular mechanism by which miR160 fine-tunes auxin signaling in plants. PMID:27444058

  8. Cholesterol-Independent SREBP-1 Maturation Is Linked to ARF1 Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Smulan, Lorissa J; Ding, Wei; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Gujja, Sharvari; Edwards, Yvonne J K; Walker, Amy K

    2016-06-28

    Lipogenesis requires coordinated expression of genes for fatty acid, phospholipid, and triglyceride synthesis. Transcription factors, such as SREBP-1 (Sterol regulatory element binding protein), may be activated in response to feedback mechanisms linking gene activation to levels of metabolites in the pathways. SREBPs can be regulated in response to membrane cholesterol and we also found that low levels of phosphatidylcholine (a methylated phospholipid) led to SBP-1/SREBP-1 maturation in C. elegans or mammalian models. To identify additional regulatory components, we performed a targeted RNAi screen in C. elegans, finding that both lpin-1/Lipin 1 (which converts phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol) and arf-1.2/ARF1 (a GTPase regulating Golgi function) were important for low-PC activation of SBP-1/SREBP-1. Mechanistically linking the major hits of our screen, we find that limiting PC synthesis or LPIN1 knockdown in mammalian cells reduces the levels of active GTP-bound ARF1. Thus, changes in distinct lipid ratios may converge on ARF1 to increase SBP-1/SREBP-1 activity. PMID:27320911

  9. Rab, Arf, and Arl-Regulated Membrane Traffic in Cortical Neuron Migration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-07-01

    The migration of projection neurons from its birthplace in the subventricular zone to their final destination in the cortical plate is a complex process that requires a series of highly coordinated cellular events. Amongst the key factors involved in the processes are modulators of cytoskeletal dynamics, as well as cellular membrane traffic. Members of the small GTPases family responsible for the latter process, the Rabs and Arfs, have been recently implicated in cortical neuron migration. Rab5 and Rab11, which are key modulators of endocytosis and endocytic recycling respectively, ensure proper surface expression and distribution of N-cadherin, a key adhesion protein that tethers migrating neurons to the radial glia fiber tracts during pia-directed migration. Rab7, which is associated with lysosomal biogenesis and function, is important for the final step of terminal translocation when N-cadherin is downregulated by lysosomal degradation. Arf6 activity, which is known to be important in neuronal processes outgrowth, may negatively impact the multipolar-bipolar transition of cortical neurons undergoing radial migration, but the downstream effector of Arf6 in this regard is not yet known. In addition to the above, members of the Arl family which have been recently shown to be important in radial glia scaffold formation, would also be important for cortical neuron migration. In this short review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the importance of membrane traffic regulated by the Rab, Arf, and Arl family members in cortical neuron migration.

  10. Rab, Arf, and Arl-Regulated Membrane Traffic in Cortical Neuron Migration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-07-01

    The migration of projection neurons from its birthplace in the subventricular zone to their final destination in the cortical plate is a complex process that requires a series of highly coordinated cellular events. Amongst the key factors involved in the processes are modulators of cytoskeletal dynamics, as well as cellular membrane traffic. Members of the small GTPases family responsible for the latter process, the Rabs and Arfs, have been recently implicated in cortical neuron migration. Rab5 and Rab11, which are key modulators of endocytosis and endocytic recycling respectively, ensure proper surface expression and distribution of N-cadherin, a key adhesion protein that tethers migrating neurons to the radial glia fiber tracts during pia-directed migration. Rab7, which is associated with lysosomal biogenesis and function, is important for the final step of terminal translocation when N-cadherin is downregulated by lysosomal degradation. Arf6 activity, which is known to be important in neuronal processes outgrowth, may negatively impact the multipolar-bipolar transition of cortical neurons undergoing radial migration, but the downstream effector of Arf6 in this regard is not yet known. In addition to the above, members of the Arl family which have been recently shown to be important in radial glia scaffold formation, would also be important for cortical neuron migration. In this short review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the importance of membrane traffic regulated by the Rab, Arf, and Arl family members in cortical neuron migration. PMID:26587959

  11. Anxiety-like behaviors in mice lacking GIT2

    PubMed Central

    Schmalzigaug, Robert; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Phillips, Lindsey E.; Davidson, Collin E.; Wetsel, William C.; Premont, Richard T.

    2008-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 2 (GIT2) is a signaling scaffold protein that also functions as GTPase-activating protein (GAPs) for ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) small GTP-binding proteins. GIT2 has been implicated in the regulation of G protein-coupled receptor trafficking and cell adhesion and migration. To evaluate possible neurobehavioral functions of GIT2 in vivo, we evaluated GIT2-knockout (KO) mice for abnormalities in emotionality and mood. Male and female GIT2-KO mice presented with anxiety-like behaviors in the zero-maze and light-dark emergence tests. Immobility times in tail suspension were reduced in GIT2-KO males, but were normal in GIT2-KO females. Hence, GIT2-KO mice display anxiety-like behavior in an absence of depressive-like responses. PMID:19114090

  12. Wnt Signaling in Cell Motility and Invasion: Drawing Parallels between Development and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sedgwick, Alanna E.; D’Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2016-01-01

    The importance of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signal transduction cascades in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis is well recognized. The aberrant activation of these pathways in the adult leads to abnormal cellular behaviors, and tumor progression is frequently a consequence. Here we discuss recent findings and analogies between Wnt signaling in developmental processes and tumor progression, with a particular focus on cell motility and matrix invasion and highlight the roles of the ARF (ADP-Ribosylation Factor) and Rho-family small GTP-binding proteins. Wnt-regulated signal transduction from cell surface receptors, signaling endosomes and/or extracellular vesicles has the potential to profoundly influence cell movement, matrix degradation and paracrine signaling in both development and disease. PMID:27589803

  13. Anxiety-like behaviors in mice lacking GIT2.

    PubMed

    Schmalzigaug, Robert; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Phillips, Lindsey E; Davidson, Collin E; Wetsel, William C; Premont, Richard T

    2009-02-20

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 2 (GIT2) is a signaling scaffold protein that also functions as GTPase-activating protein (GAPs) for ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) small GTP-binding proteins. GIT2 has been implicated in the regulation of G protein-coupled receptor trafficking and cell adhesion and migration. To evaluate possible neurobehavioral functions of GIT2 in vivo, we evaluated GIT2-knockout (KO) mice for abnormalities in emotionality and mood. Male and female GIT2-KO mice presented with anxiety-like behaviors in the zero-maze and light-dark emergence tests. Immobility times in tail suspension were reduced in GIT2-KO males, but were normal in GIT2-KO females. Hence, GIT2-KO mice display anxiety-like behavior in an absence of depressive-like responses. PMID:19114090

  14. Wnt Signaling in Cell Motility and Invasion: Drawing Parallels between Development and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, Alanna E; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2016-01-01

    The importance of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signal transduction cascades in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis is well recognized. The aberrant activation of these pathways in the adult leads to abnormal cellular behaviors, and tumor progression is frequently a consequence. Here we discuss recent findings and analogies between Wnt signaling in developmental processes and tumor progression, with a particular focus on cell motility and matrix invasion and highlight the roles of the ARF (ADP-Ribosylation Factor) and Rho-family small GTP-binding proteins. Wnt-regulated signal transduction from cell surface receptors, signaling endosomes and/or extracellular vesicles has the potential to profoundly influence cell movement, matrix degradation and paracrine signaling in both development and disease. PMID:27589803

  15. Human DMTF1β antagonizes DMTF1α regulation of the p14ARF Tumor Suppressor and Promotes Cellular Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tschan, Mario P.; Federzoni, Elena A.; Haimovici, Aladin; Britschgi, Christian; Moser, Bettina A.; Jin, Jing; Reddy, Venkateshwar A.; Sheeter, Dennis A.; Fischer, Kimberlee M.; Sun, Peiqing; Torbett, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The human DMTF1 (DMP1) transcription factor, a DNA binding protein that interacts with cyclin D, is a positive regulator of the p14ARF (ARF) tumor suppressor. Our earlier studies have shown that three differentially spliced human DMP1 mRNAs, α, β and γ, arise from the human gene. We now show that DMP1α, β and γ isoforms differentially regulate ARF expression and promote distinct cellular functions. In contrast to DMP1α, DMP1β and γ did not activate the ARF promoter, whereas only β resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of DMP1α-induced transactivation of the ARF promoter. Ectopic expression of DMP1β reduced endogenous ARF mRNA levels in human fibroblasts. The DMP1β- and γ-isoforms share domains necessary for the inhibitory function of the β-isoform. That DMP1β may interact with DMP1α to antagonize its function was shown in DNA binding assays and in cells by the close proximity of DMP1α/β in the nucleus. Cells stably expressing DMP1β, as well as shRNA targeting all DMP1 isoforms, disrupted cellular growth arrest induced by serum deprivation or in PMA-derived macrophages in the presence or absence of cellular p53. DMP1 mRNA levels in acute myeloid leukemia samples, as compared to granulocytes, were reduced. Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia patient samples with all-trans retinoic acid promoted differentiation to granulocytes and restored DMP1 transcripts to normal granulocyte levels. Our findings imply that DMP1α- and β-ratios are tightly regulated in hematopoietic cells and DMP1β antagonizes DMP1α transcriptional regulation of ARF resulting in the alteration of cellular control with a gain in proliferation. PMID:26187004

  16. Comparison study for sub-0.13-μm lithography between ArF and KrF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seok-Kyun; Kim, YoungSik; Kim, Jin-Soo; Bok, Cheol-Kyu; Ham, Young-Mog; Baik, Ki-Ho

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we investigated the feasibility of printing sub-0.13 micrometers device patterns with ArF and KrF lithography by using experiment and simulation. To do this we evaluated various cell structures with different sizes from 0.26 micrometers to 0.20 micrometers pitch. In experiment 0.60NA ArF and 0.70NA KrF exposure tools, commercial and in house resists and bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) materials are used. To predict and compare with experimental data we also used our developed simulation tool HOST base don diffused aerial iamge model. We found that ArF lithography performance is a little bit better than KrF and therefore 0.70NA KrF lithography can be used up to 0.12 micrometers design rule device and 0.60NA ArF lithography can be used up to 0.11 micrometers . But to get more than 10 percent expose latitude, 0.13 micrometers with KrF and 0.12 micrometers with ArF are the minimum design rule size. However to obtain process margin we had to use extreme off-axis illumination (OAI) which results in large isolated- dense bias and poor linearity including isolated pattern. Using higher NA can reduce ID bias and mask error factor. For contact hole it is more effective to use KrF lithography because resist thermal flow process can be used to shrink C/H size. Our developed ArF resist and BARC shows good performance and we can reduce k1 value up to 0.34. Through this study we verified again that ArF lithography can be applied for sub-0.13 micrometers device through sub-0.10 micrometers with high contrast resist and 0.75NA exposure tool.

  17. An Arf-Egr-C/EBPβ Pathway Linked to Ras-Induced Senescence and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Salotti, Jacqueline; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Tourtellotte, Warren G.

    2014-01-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) protects normal cells from transformation by Ras, whereas cells lacking p14/p19Arf or other tumor suppressors can be transformed. The transcription factor C/EBPβ is required for OIS in primary fibroblasts but is downregulated by H-RasV12 in immortalized NIH 3T3 cells through a mechanism involving p19Arf loss. Here, we report that members of the serum-induced early growth response (Egr) protein family are also downregulated in 3T3Ras cells and directly and redundantly control Cebpb gene transcription. Egr1, Egr2, and Egr3 recognize three sites in the Cebpb promoter and associate transiently with this region after serum stimulation, coincident with Cebpb induction. Codepletion of all three Egrs prevented Cebpb expression, and serum induction of Egrs was significantly blunted in 3T3Ras cells. Egr2 and Egr3 levels were also reduced in RasV12-expressing p19Arf null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and overall Egr DNA-binding activity was suppressed in Arf-deficient but not wild-type (WT) MEFs, leading to Cebpb downregulation. Analysis of human cancers revealed a strong correlation between EGR levels and CEBPB expression, regardless of whether CEBPB was increased or decreased in tumors. Moreover, overexpression of Egrs in tumor cell lines induced CEBPB and inhibited proliferation. Thus, our findings identify the Arf-Egr-C/EBPβ axis as an important determinant of cellular responses (senescence or transformation) to oncogenic Ras signaling. PMID:25535333

  18. Development of an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of an ADP-ribosylating toxin, exo A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enríquez, Y.; Negrón, Y.; Navarreto, M.; Guadalupe, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    A free radical copolymerization of Styrene (Sty) and acrylic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (NAS) has been done in a range of 10:90 to 90:10 (Sty:NAS) molar ratios. The FT-IR spectra for all seven copolymers showed the absorption peaks for the carbonyl signals of the ester and the amide in NAS (1773 cm-1 and 1727 cm-1 respectively), the styrene aromatic signal (1494 cm-1) and the disappearance of the absorption peak for the vinyl group in both monomers (1629 cm-1). HPLC-UV results showed an increment in the average molecular weight with an increase in the molar ratio of the styrene monomer, from 1528.51 g/mol for 10:90 Sty:NAS to 7141.67 g/mol for 90:10 Sty:NAS. These copolymers will be used to generate films on carbon surfaces to anchor a β-NAD+ electroactive analog. Also, a Ferrocene-labeled NAAD (Fc-NAAD) was prepared by attaching Ferrocene Succinimide (Fc-NHS) to the primary amine in the adenine moiety of the cofactor. Osteryoung Squatre Wave Voltammetry (OSWV) of the new Fc-NAAD showed an anodic peak in 320 mV and the cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed chemical reversibility and electrochemical quasi-reversibility.

  19. Genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals novel host factors required for Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin-mediated toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Virreira Winter, Sebastian; Zychlinsky, Arturo; Bardoel, Bart W.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide variety of infections and antibiotic resistant strains are a major problem in hospitals. One of the best studied virulence factors of S. aureus is the pore-forming toxin alpha hemolysin (αHL) whose mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We performed a genome-wide loss-of-function screen using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to identify host targets required for αHL susceptibility in human myeloid cells. We found gRNAs for ten genes enriched after intoxication with αHL and focused on the top five hits. Besides a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10), the host receptor for αHL, we identified three proteins, Sys1 golgi trafficking protein (SYS1), ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARFRP1), and tetraspanin-14 (TSPAN14) which regulate the presentation of ADAM10 on the plasma membrane post-translationally. Interestingly, we also showed that cells lacking sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SGMS1) resist αHL intoxication, but have only a slightly reduced ADAM10 surface expression. SGMS1 regulates lipid raft formation, suggesting that αHL requires these membrane microdomains for attachment and cytotoxicity. PMID:27066838

  20. Genetics of Aux/IAA and ARF action in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Liscum, E; Reed, J W

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of auxin signal-response pathways have been made in recent years. Much of this new knowledge has come through the study of mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations have been identified in a wide variety of auxin-response components, including auxin transporters, protein kinases and phosphatases, components of a ubiquitin-proteosome pathway, and transcriptional regulators. This review focuses on mutations that affect auxin-modulated transcription factors, in particular those in the Aux/IAA and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) genes. Mutants in members of these related gene families exhibit phenotypes that indicate both unique localized functions, as well as overlapping redundant functions, throughout plant development - from embryogenesis to flowering. Effects of specific mutations on Aux/IAA and ARF protein functions at the biochemical and physiological levels will be discussed. We will also discuss potential mechanisms for interactions between auxin and light response pathways that are suggested by these mutants.

  1. Arf6 mediates Schwann cell differentiation and myelination.

    PubMed

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Tsumura, Hideki; Kawahara, Kazuko; Tanoue, Akito; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-09-25

    During development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells wrap neuronal axons, becoming the myelin sheaths that help axonal functions. While the intercellular signals controlling the myelination process between Schwann cells and peripheral neurons are well studied, the transduction of these signals in Schwann cells still remains elusive. Here, we show that Arf6, an Arf protein of the small GTPase family, is involved in promoting the myelination process. Knockdown of Arf6 with the small-interfering (si)RNA in primary Schwann cells markedly decreases dibutyl-cyclic AMP-induced myelin marker protein expression, indicating that Arf6 plays a role in differentiation-like phenotypic changes. To obtain in vivo evidence, we generated small-hairpin (sh)RNA transgenic mice targeting Arf6 for Schwann cells. Transgenic mice exhibited reduced myelin thickness compared to littermate controls, consistent with the defective myelin formation observed in the transgenic mouse-derived Schwann cell and neuronal culture system. Transgenic mice also exhibited decreased phosphorylation of myelination-related signaling molecules such as Akt kinase cascade proteins as well as downregulation of myelin marker proteins. These results suggest that signaling through Arf6 is required for Schwann cell myelination, adding Arf6 to the list of intracellular signaling molecules involved in the myelination process.

  2. Regulation of the p14ARF-Mdm2-p53 pathway: an overview in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anshu; Yang, Jianhui; Murphy, Richard F; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2006-10-01

    Knowledge of the roles of proteins that are abnormally suppressed or activated due to mutation in the DNA sequences of the common tumor suppressor genes, p14ARF and p53, is critical to the understanding the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Mdm2 is a mediator for the function of both p14ARF and p53. In this review article factors including Pokemon, Geminin, Twist, and Apigenin, which control the action of individual proteins in the p14ARF-Mdm2-p53 pathway in breast cancer as well the consequences of mutation 7 of p53 are discussed. The complexity of interaction of components of the pathway and the underlying development of cancer is emphasized. Opportunities for future therapeutic innovations are indicated. PMID:16919268

  3. Regulation of the p14ARF-Mdm2-p53 pathway: an overview in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anshu; Yang, Jianhui; Murphy, Richard F; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2006-10-01

    Knowledge of the roles of proteins that are abnormally suppressed or activated due to mutation in the DNA sequences of the common tumor suppressor genes, p14ARF and p53, is critical to the understanding the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Mdm2 is a mediator for the function of both p14ARF and p53. In this review article factors including Pokemon, Geminin, Twist, and Apigenin, which control the action of individual proteins in the p14ARF-Mdm2-p53 pathway in breast cancer as well the consequences of mutation 7 of p53 are discussed. The complexity of interaction of components of the pathway and the underlying development of cancer is emphasized. Opportunities for future therapeutic innovations are indicated.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide is a novel potential virulence factor of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: characterization of the unusual cysteine desulfurase/desulfhydrase HapE.

    PubMed

    Großhennig, Stephanie; Ischebeck, Till; Gibhardt, Johannes; Busse, Julia; Feussner, Ivo; Stülke, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human pathogen causing atypical pneumonia with a minimalized and highly streamlined genome. So far, hydrogen peroxide production, cytadherence, and the ADP-ribosylating CARDS toxin have been identified as pathogenicity determinants. We have studied haemolysis caused by M. pneumoniae, and discovered that hydrogen peroxide is responsible for the oxidation of heme, but not for lysis of erythrocytes. This feature could be attributed to hydrogen sulfide, a compound that has previously not been identified as virulence factor in lung pathogens. Indeed, we observed hydrogen sulfide production by M. pneumoniae. The search for a hydrogen sulfide-producing enzyme identified HapE, a protein with similarity to cysteine desulfurases. In contrast to typical cysteine desulfurases, HapE is a bifunctional enzyme: it has both the cysteine desulfurase activity to produce alanine and the cysteine desulfhydrase activity to produce pyruvate and hydrogen sulfide. Experiments with purified HapE showed that the enzymatic activity of the protein is responsible for haemolysis, demonstrating that HapE is a novel potential virulence factor of M. pneumoniae. PMID:26711628

  5. Association of increased levels of TGF-β1 and p14ARF in prostate carcinoma cell lines overexpressing Egr-1.

    PubMed

    Parra, Eduardo; Gutiérrez, Luis; Ferreira, Jorge

    2014-11-01

    The present study examined the effect of the overexpression of early growth response gene (Egr-1) on transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) and p14ARF levels, in PC-3 and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cell lines. Amplification of EGR-1, TGF-β1 and p14ARF were observed in the two cell lines treated with different stimuli and resulted in a corresponding mRNA and protein expression. The downregulation of TGF-β1 and the attenuation of p14ARF expression by siRNA against Egr-1 predominantly suggested that TGF-β1 and p14ARF may be regulated by the transcription factor EGR-1. A marginal attenuation of cell growth in PC-3 and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cell lines overexpressing p14ARF was observed. Cells transfected with Egr-1 wild-type were able to grow and avoid cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the presence or absence of p14ARF. In addition, EGR-1 stimulated the expression of TGF β-l as well as the accumulation of the p14ARF proteins. The results suggested that TGF-β1 and p14ARF activities in the presence of EGR-1 overexpression can exist independently of the presence of cells carrying a mutant p53 (PC-3 cells) or cells carrying a wild‑type p53 (LNCaP cells). Thus, the effect of EGR-1 on the growth of prostate carcinoma cells may occur through multiple mechanisms, but be independent of p53 expression control.

  6. Cancer cell specific cytotoxic gene expression mediated by ARF tumor suppressor promoter constructs

    SciTech Connect

    Kurayoshi, Kenta; Ozono, Eiko; Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Bradford, Andrew P.; Komori, Hideyuki; Ohtani, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • ARF promoter showed higher responsiveness to deregulated E2F activity than the E2F1 promoter. • ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specificity than E2F1 promoter to drive gene expression. • HSV-TK driven by ARF promoter showed higher cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity than that driven by E2F1 promoter. - Abstract: In current cancer treatment protocols, such as radiation and chemotherapy, side effects on normal cells are major obstacles to radical therapy. To avoid these side effects, a cancer cell-specific approach is needed. One way to specifically target cancer cells is to utilize a cancer specific promoter to express a cytotoxic gene (suicide gene therapy) or a viral gene required for viral replication (oncolytic virotherapy). For this purpose, the selected promoter should have minimal activity in normal cells to avoid side effects, and high activity in a wide variety of cancers to obtain optimal therapeutic efficacy. In contrast to the AFP, CEA and PSA promoters, which have high activity only in a limited spectrum of tumors, the E2F1 promoter exhibits high activity in wide variety of cancers. This is based on the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Defects in the RB pathway and activation of the transcription factor E2F, the main target of the RB pathway, are observed in almost all cancers. Consequently, the E2F1 promoter, which is mainly regulated by E2F, has high activity in wide variety of cancers. However, E2F is also activated by growth stimulation in normal growing cells, suggesting that the E2F1 promoter may also be highly active in normal growing cells. In contrast, we found that the tumor suppressor ARF promoter is activated by deregulated E2F activity, induced by forced inactivation of pRB, but does not respond to physiological E2F activity induced by growth stimulation. We also found that the deregulated E2F activity, which activates the ARF promoter, is detected only in cancer cell lines. These observations suggest that ARF promoter

  7. Nucleophosmin (B23) Targets ARF to Nucleoli and Inhibits Its Function

    PubMed Central

    Korgaonkar, Chandrashekhar; Hagen, Jussara; Tompkins, Van; Frazier, April A.; Allamargot, Chantal; Quelle, Frederick W.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2005-01-01

    The ARF tumor suppressor is a nucleolar protein that activates p53-dependent checkpoints by binding Mdm2, a p53 antagonist. Despite persuasive evidence that ARF can bind and inactivate Mdm2 in the nucleoplasm, the prevailing view is that ARF exerts its growth-inhibitory activities from within the nucleolus. We suggest ARF primarily functions outside the nucleolus and provide evidence that it is sequestered and held inactive in that compartment by a nucleolar phosphoprotein, nucleophosmin (NPM). Most cellular ARF is bound to NPM regardless of whether cells are proliferating or growth arrested, indicating that ARF-NPM association does not correlate with growth suppression. Notably, ARF binds NPM through the same domains that mediate nucleolar localization and Mdm2 binding, suggesting that NPM could control ARF localization and compete with Mdm2 for ARF association. Indeed, NPM knockdown markedly enhanced ARF-Mdm2 association and diminished ARF nucleolar localization. Those events correlated with greater ARF-mediated growth suppression and p53 activation. Conversely, NPM overexpression antagonized ARF function while increasing its nucleolar localization. These data suggest that NPM inhibits ARF's p53-dependent activity by targeting it to nucleoli and impairing ARF-Mdm2 association. PMID:15684379

  8. Mutual Regulation of FOXM1, NPM and ARF Proteins.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Bulbul; Gartel, Andrei L

    2015-01-01

    ARF, NPM and FOXM1 proteins interact with each other in mammalian cells. We showed previously that proteasome inhibitors suppress not only FOXM1 expression, but also the expression of ARF and NPM proteins. Using RNA interference we found that the depletion of each of these proteins by RNAi in human cancer HeLa cells leads to down-regulation of the two other partners, suggesting that these proteins stabilize each other in human cancer cells. Since the suppression of FOXM1 is one of hallmarks of proteasome inhibition, suppression of ARF and NPM by proteasome inhibitors may be explained in part as a secondary effect of downregulation of FOXM1 that modulate stability of ARF and NPM1 proteins.

  9. Mutual Regulation of FOXM1, NPM and ARF Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Bulbul; Gartel, Andrei L.

    2015-01-01

    ARF, NPM and FOXM1 proteins interact with each other in mammalian cells. We showed previously that proteasome inhibitors suppress not only FOXM1 expression, but also the expression of ARF and NPM proteins. Using RNA interference we found that the depletion of each of these proteins by RNAi in human cancer HeLa cells leads to down-regulation of the two other partners, suggesting that these proteins stabilize each other in human cancer cells. Since the suppression of FOXM1 is one of hallmarks of proteasome inhibition, suppression of ARF and NPM by proteasome inhibitors may be explained in part as a secondary effect of downregulation of FOXM1 that modulate stability of ARF and NPM1 proteins. PMID:26000045

  10. Molecular cloning of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) elongation factor 2 (EF-2): sequence analysis and its expression on the ovarian maturation stage.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lihua; Jiang, Shigui; Zhou, Falin; Zhang, Dianchang; Huang, Jianhua; Guo, Yihui

    2008-09-01

    The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the elongation factor 2 (EF-2) gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The full length cDNA of black tiger shrimp EF-2 (btsEF-2) contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 73 bp, an ORF of 2541 bp encoding a polypeptide of 846 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 95 kDa, and a 3( UTR of 112 bp. The searches for protein sequence similarities with BLAST analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of btsEF-2 was homological to the EF-2 of other species and even the mammalians. The conserved signature sequence of EF-2 gene family, GTPase effector domain and ADP-ribosylation domain were found in the btsEF-2 deduced amino acid sequence. The temporal expressions of gene in the different ovarian stages were measured by real time PCR. The mRNA expressions of the gene were constitutively expressed in ovary and different during the maturation stages. The result indicated that EF-2 gene was constitutively expressed and could play a critical role in the ovarian maturation stage.

  11. β-Arrestin-mediated Angiotensin II Signaling Controls the Activation of ARF6 Protein and Endocytosis in Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Charles, Ricardo; Namkung, Yoon; Cotton, Mathieu; Laporte, Stéphane A; Claing, Audrey

    2016-02-19

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasopressive hormone but is also a potent activator of cellular migration. We have previously shown that it can promote the activation of the GTPase ARF6 in a heterologous overexpressing system. The molecular mechanisms by which receptors control the activation of this small G protein remain, however, largely unknown. Furthermore, how ARF6 coordinates the activation of complex cellular responses needs to be further elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that Ang II receptors engage β-arrestin, but not Gq, to mediate ARF6 activation in HEK 293 cells. To further confirm the key role of β-arrestin proteins, we overexpressed β-arrestin2-(1-320), a dominant negative mutant known to block receptor endocytosis. We show that expression of this truncated construct does not support the activation of the GTPase nor cell migration. Interestingly, β-arrestin2 can interact with the ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARNO, although the C-terminally lacking mutant does not. We finally examined whether receptor endocytosis controlled ARF6 activation and cell migration. Although the clathrin inhibitor PitStop2 did not impact the ability of Ang II to activate ARF6, cell migration was markedly impaired. To further show that ARF activation regulates key signaling events leading to migration, we also examined MAPK activation. We demonstrate that this signaling axis is relevant in smooth muscle cells of the vasculature. Altogether, our findings show for the first time that Ang II receptor signaling to β-arrestin regulates ARF6 activation. These proteins together control receptor endocytosis and ultimately cell migration.

  12. TAS3 Genes for small ta-siARF RNAs in plants belonging to subtribe Senecioninae: occurrence of prematurely terminated RNA precursors.

    PubMed

    Ozerova, L V; Krasnikova, M S; Troitsky, A V; Solovyev, A G; Morozov, S Y

    2013-01-01

    The various classes of plant 21 - to 24-nt siRNAs derive from long dsRNA precursors that are processed by the ribonuclease Dicer-like (DCL). The species of ta-siRNA were originally discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana. Four gene families have been identified in Arabidopsis that each produces a number of ta-siRNAs: TAS1, TAS2, TAS3 and TAS4. The TAS3 genes encode tasiR-ARF species which target the mRNA of three Auxin Response Factor (ARF) genes (ARF2, ARF3/ETT and ARF4) for subsequent degradation. The function of TAS3 precursor RNA is controlled by two miR390 target sites flanking tandem of ta-siARF sequences. In this paper, we have studied the presence ofta-siARF RNA genes in the representatives of subtribe Senecioninae. Senecioneae is the largest tribe of Asteraceae, comprised of ca. 150 genera and 3,000 species which include many common succulents of greenhouses. Approximately one-third of species are placed in genus Senecio, making it one of the largest genera of flowering plants. However, there was no information on the structure of TAS genes in these plants. We revealed that the TAS3 species (TAS3-Sen1) in Senecio representatives was actively transcribed, and its homologues are distributed among many Asteracea plants and found to be similar to Arabidopsis AtTAS3a gene. We revealed several prematurely terminated transcripts of TAS3-Sen1. Finding the alternative shortened transcripts of TAS3-Sen1 lacking the 3'-terminal site cleaved by miR390 and retaining the 5'-terminal miR390 non-cleaved site suggested their using as decoys for the modulation of miR390 activity to regulate synthesis of ta-siARF RNAs in different Senecioninae species.

  13. RLIP76 regulates Arf6-dependent cell spreading and migration by linking ARNO with activated R-Ras at recycling endosomes.

    PubMed

    Wurtzel, Jeremy G T; Lee, Seunghyung; Singhal, Sharad S; Awasthi, Sanjay; Ginsberg, Mark H; Goldfinger, Lawrence E

    2015-11-27

    R-Ras small GTPase enhances cell spreading and motility via RalBP1/RLIP76, an R-Ras effector that links GTP-R-Ras to activation of Arf6 and Rac1 GTPases. Here, we report that RLIP76 performs these functions by binding cytohesin-2/ARNO, an Arf GTPase guanine exchange factor, and connecting it to R-Ras at recycling endosomes. RLIP76 formed a complex with R-Ras and ARNO by binding ARNO via its N-terminus (residues 1-180) and R-Ras via residues 180-192. This complex was present in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes and the presence of ARNO in recycling endosomes required RLIP76, and was not supported by RLIP76(Δ1-180) or RLIP76(Δ180-192). Spreading and migration required RLIP76(1-180), and RLIP76(Δ1-180) blocked ARNO recruitment to recycling endosomes, and spreading. Arf6 activation with an ArfGAP inhibitor overcame the spreading defects in RLIP76-depleted cells or cells expressing RLIP76(Δ1-180). Similarly, RLIP76(Δ1-180) or RLIP76(Δ180-192) suppressed Arf6 activation. Together these results demonstrate that RLIP76 acts as a scaffold at recycling endosomes by binding activated R-Ras, recruiting ARNO to activate Arf6, thereby contributing to cell spreading and migration.

  14. GEP100-Arf6-AMAP1-Cortactin Pathway Frequently Used in Cancer Invasion Is Activated by VEGFR2 to Promote Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ari; Hashimoto, Shigeru; Ando, Ryo; Noda, Kosuke; Ogawa, Eiji; Kotani, Hirokazu; Hirose, Mayumi; Menju, Toshi; Morishige, Masaki; Manabe, Toshiaki; Toda, Yoshinobu; Ishida, Susumu; Sabe, Hisataka

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis and cancer invasiveness greatly contribute to cancer malignancy. Arf6 and its effector, AMAP1, are frequently overexpressed in breast cancer, and constitute a central pathway to induce the invasion and metastasis. In this pathway, Arf6 is activated by EGFR via GEP100. Arf6 is highly expressed also in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and is implicated in angiogenesis. Here, we found that HUVECs also highly express AMAP1, and that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) recruits GEP100 to activate Arf6. AMAP1 functions by binding to cortactin in cancer invasion and metastasis. We demonstrate that the same GEP100-Arf6-AMAP1-cortactin pathway is essential for angiogenesis activities, including cell migration and tubular formation, as well as for the enhancement of cell permeability and VE-cadherin endocytosis of VEGF-stimulated HUVECs. Components of this pathway are highly expressed in pathologic angiogenesis, and blocking of this pathway effectively inhibits VEGF- or tumor-induced angiogenesis and choroidal neovascularization. The GEP100-Arf6-AMAP1-cortactin pathway, activated by receptor tyrosine kinases, appears to be common in angiogenesis and cancer invasion and metastasis, and provides their new therapeutic targets. PMID:21858086

  15. Phosphorylation of the Bin, Amphiphysin, and RSV161/167 (BAR) domain of ACAP4 regulates membrane tubulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuannv; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Xing; Liu, Lifang; Song, Zhenwei; Zhu, Tongge; Adams, Gregory; Gao, Xinjiao; Tian, Ruijun; Huang, Yuejia; Chen, Runhua; Wang, Fengsong; Liu, Dong; Yu, Xue; Chen, Yong; Chen, Zhengjun; Teng, Maikun; Ding, Xia; Yao, Xuebiao

    2013-07-01

    ArfGAP With Coiled-Coil, Ankyrin Repeat And PH Domains 4 (ACAP4) is an ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) GTPase-activating protein essential for EGF-elicited cell migration. However, how ACAP4 regulates membrane dynamics and curvature in response to EGF stimulation is unknown. Here, we show that phosphorylation of the N-terminal region of ACAP4, named the Bin, Amphiphysin, and RSV161/167 (BAR) domain, at Tyr34 is necessary for EGF-elicited membrane remodeling. Domain structure analysis demonstrates that the BAR domain regulates membrane curvature. EGF stimulation of cells causes phosphorylation of ACAP4 at Tyr34, which subsequently promotes ACAP4 homodimer curvature. The phospho-mimicking mutant of ACAP4 demonstrates lipid-binding activity and tubulation in vitro, and ARF6 enrichment at the membrane is associated with ruffles of EGF-stimulated cells. Expression of the phospho-mimicking ACAP4 mutant promotes ARF6-dependent cell migration. Thus, the results present a previously undefined mechanism by which EGF-elicited phosphorylation of the BAR domain controls ACAP4 molecular plasticity and plasma membrane dynamics during cell migration. PMID:23776207

  16. Cooperation of phosphoinositides and BAR domain proteins in endosomal tubulation.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki-Narikawa, Naeko; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Shibasaki, Yoshikazu

    2006-11-01

    Phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) regulate many intracellular events, including vesicular trafficking and actin remodeling, by recruiting proteins to their sites of function. PtdIns(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and related phosphoinositides are mainly synthesized by type I PtdIns-4-phosphate 5-kinases (PIP5Ks). We found that PIP5K induces endosomal tubules in COS-7 cells. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 6 has been shown to act upstream of PIP5K and regulate endocytic transport and tubulation. ARF GAP with coiled-coil, ankyrin repeat, and pleckstrin homology domains 1 (ACAP1) has guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (GAP) activity for ARF6. While there were few tubules induced by the expression of ACAP1 alone, numerous endosomal tubules were induced by coexpression of PIP5K and ACAP1. ACAP1 has a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain known to bind phosphoinositide and a Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain that has been reported to detect membrane curvature. Truncated and point mutations in the ACAP1 BAR and PH domains revealed that both BAR and PH domains are required for tubulation. These results suggest that two ARF6 downstream molecules, PIP5K and ACAP1, function together in endosomal tubulation and that phosphoinositide levels may regulate endosomal dynamics. PMID:17010122

  17. Biochemical methods for studying kinetic regulation of Arf1 activation by Sec7

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Brian C.; Fromme, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The Arf family of small GTPases regulates vesicular transport at several locations within the cell, and is in turn regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) via a conserved catalytic domain, termed the Sec7 domain. The catalytic activity of the Sec7 domain is well characterized in the context of a few GEFs acting at the periphery of the cell. This chapter describes techniques used to extend biochemical analysis of activity to the much larger GEFs acting on the Arf family in the core secretory pathway, using the activity of S. cerevisiae Sec7 on Arf1, regulating export from the trans-Golgi network (TGN), as a model. Complete methods for purification to near-homogeneity of all proteins required, including several Sec7 constructs and multiple relevant small GTPases, are detailed. These are followed by methods for quantification of the nucleotide exchange activity of Sec7 in a physiologically relevant context, including modifications required to dissect the signal integration functions of Sec7 as an effector of several other small GTPases, and methods for identifying stable Sec7-small GTPase interactions in the presence of membranes. These techniques may be extended to analysis of similar members of the Sec7 GEF subfamily in other species and acting elsewhere in the secretory pathway. PMID:26360031

  18. Human Krüppel-related 3 (HKR3) Is a Novel Transcription Activator of Alternate Reading Frame (ARF) Gene*

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Jungho; Hur, Sujin Susanne; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Hur, Man-Wook

    2014-01-01

    HKR3 (Human Krüppel-related 3) is a novel POK (POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc-finger) family transcription factor. Recently, some of the POK (POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc finger) family proteins have been shown to play roles in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and oncogenesis. We investigated whether HKR3, an inhibitor of cell proliferation and an uncharacterized POK family protein, could regulate the cell cycle by controlling expression of genes within the p53 pathway (ARF-MDM2-TP53-p21WAF/CDKN1A). HKR3 potently activated the transcription of the tumor suppressor gene ARF by acting on the proximal promoter region (bp, −149∼+53), which contains Sp1 and FBI-1 binding elements (FREs). HKR3 interacted with the co-activator p300 to activate ARF transcription, which increased the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 within the proximal promoter. Oligonucleotide pull-down assays and ChIP assays revealed that HKR3 interferes with the binding of the proto-oncogenic transcription repressor FBI-1 to proximal FREs, thus derepressing ARF transcription. PMID:24382891

  19. Four GTPases differentially regulate the Sec7 Arf-GEF to direct traffic at the trans-golgi network.

    PubMed

    McDonold, Caitlin M; Fromme, J Christopher

    2014-09-29

    Traffic through the Golgi complex is controlled by small GTPases of the Arf and Rab families. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) proteins activate these GTPases to control Golgi function, yet the full assortment of signals regulating these GEFs is unknown. The Golgi Arf-GEF Sec7 and the homologous BIG1/2 proteins are effectors of the Arf1 and Arl1 GTPases. We demonstrate that Sec7 is also an effector of two Rab GTPases, Ypt1 (Rab1) and Ypt31/32 (Rab11), signifying unprecedented signaling crosstalk between GTPase pathways. The molecular basis for the role of Ypt31/32 and Rab11 in vesicle formation has remained elusive. We find that Arf1, Arl1, and Ypt1 primarily affect the membrane localization of Sec7, whereas Ypt31/32 exerts a dramatic stimulatory effect on the nucleotide exchange activity of Sec7. The convergence of multiple signaling pathways on a master regulator reveals a mechanism for balancing incoming and outgoing traffic at the Golgi.

  20. Isolation of cucumber CsARF cDNAs and expression of the corresponding mRNAs during gravity-regulated morphogenesis of cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Yamasaki, S.; Fujii, N.; Hagen, G.; Guilfoyle, T.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber seedlings grown in a horizontal position develop a protuberance called peg on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. We have suggested that peg formation on the upper side of the gravistimulated transition zone is suppressed because cucumber seedlings grown in a vertical position or microgravity symmetrically develop two pegs on the transition zone. Plant hormone, auxin, is considered to play a crucial role in the gravity-regulated formation of peg. We have shown that the mRNAs of auxin-inducible genes (CsIAAs) isolated from cucumber accumulate more abundantly in the lower side of the transition zone than in the upper side when peg formation initiates. To reveal the mechanism of transcriptional regulation by auxin for peg formation, we isolated five cDNAs of Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) from cucumber and compared their mRNA accumulation with those of CsIAA1 and CsIAA2. The tissue specificity of mRNA accumulation of CsARF2 was similar to those of CsIAA1 and CsIAA2. The structural character of CsARF2 predicts it is transcriptional activator. These results suggest that CsARF2 may be involved in activation of the transcription of auxin-inducible genes including CsIAA1 for peg formation. Because mRNA accumulation of five CsARFs, including CsARF2, were affected by neither gravity nor auxin, transcriptional activity of CsARF2 may be regulated at post-transcriptional level to induce asymmetric mRNA accumulation of auxin-inducible genes in the transition zone.

  1. Immunolocalization of human p14(ARF) to the granular component of the interphase nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Lindström, M S; Klangby, U; Inoue, R; Pisa, P; Wiman, K G; Asker, C E

    2000-05-01

    The human p14(ARF) protein is encoded by an alternative transcript from the INK4a/ARF locus on chromosome 9p21, a locus frequently afflicted in human tumors. By use of two novel specific antisera against p14(ARF) we show that the protein is localized mainly in nucleoli but also in the nucleoplasm. Transfection of full-length and deletion mutant GFP-p14(ARF) fusion proteins confirmed this subcellular localization and assigned the nucleolar localization signal to the exon 2-encoded C-terminal region. In order to determine p14(ARF) expression in human tumor cells, we examined p14(ARF) in 32 tumor cell lines by immunofluorescence staining. Nucleolar p14(ARF) was detected in 10 lines, all of which lacked functional p53. Double immunostaining with p14(ARF) and B23/nucleophosmin or fibrillarin antibodies using 3D microscopy revealed that p14(ARF) is located mainly in the granular component of the nucleolus. p14(ARF) was also found in distinct granular aggregates scattered throughout the nucleoplasm. RNase digestion or selective inhibition of rRNA transcription by low doses of actinomycin D caused nucleoplasmic translocation of p14(ARF). This indicates that the nucleolar localization of p14(ARF) is dependent on ongoing transcriptional activity in intact functional nucleoli.

  2. Identification and characterization of novel senescence-associated genes from barley (Hordeum vulgare) primary leaves.

    PubMed

    Ay, N; Clauss, K; Barth, O; Humbeck, K

    2008-09-01

    Leaf senescence is the final developmental stage of a leaf. The progression of barley primary leaf senescence was followed by measuring the senescence-specific decrease in chlorophyll content and photosystem II efficiency. In order to isolate novel factors involved in leaf senescence, a differential display approach with mRNA populations from young and senescing primary barley leaves was applied. In this approach, 90 senescence up-regulated cDNAs were identified. Nine of these clones were, after sequence analyses, further characterized. The senescence-associated expression was confirmed by Northern analyses or quantitative RealTime-PCR. In addition, involvement of the phytohormones ethylene and abscisic acid in regulation of these nine novel senescence-induced cDNA fragments was investigated. Two cDNA clones showed homologies to genes with a putative regulatory function. Two clones possessed high homologies to barley retroelements, and five clones may be involved in degradation or transport processes. One of these genes was further analysed. It encodes an ADP ribosylation factor 1-like protein (HvARF1) and includes sequence motifs representing a myristoylation site and four typical and well conserved ARF-like protein domains. The localization of the protein was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy of onion epidermal cells after particle bombardment with chimeric HvARF1-GFP constructs. Possible physiological roles of these nine novel SAGs during barley leaf senescence are discussed. PMID:18721317

  3. Deletion of MP/ARF5 domains III and IV reveals a requirement for Aux/IAA regulation in Arabidopsis leaf vascular patterning.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Naden T; Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Marcos, Danielle; Caragea, Adriana E; Berleth, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Combinatorial interactions of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins through their common domains III and IV regulate auxin responses, but insight into the functions of individual proteins is still limited. As a new tool to explore this regulatory network, we generated a gain-of-function ARF genotype by eliminating domains III and IV from the functionally well-characterized ARF MONOPTEROS(MP)/ARF5. This truncated version of MP, termed MPΔ, conferred complementing MP activity, but also displayed a number of semi-dominant traits affecting auxin signaling and organ patterning. In MPΔ, the expression levels of many auxin-inducible genes, as well as rooting properties and vascular tissue abundance, were enhanced. Lateral organs were narrow, pointed and filled with parallel veins. This effect was epistatic over the vascular hypotrophy imposed by certain Aux/IAA mutations. Further, in MPΔ leaves, failure to turn off the procambium-selecting gene PIN1 led to the early establishment of oversized central procambial domains and very limited subsequent lateral growth of the leaf lamina. We conclude that MPΔ can selectively uncouple a single ARF from regulation by Aux/IAA proteins and can be used as a genetic tool to probe auxin pathways and explore leaf development. PMID:22320407

  4. IGFBP2 is a candidate biomarker for Ink4a-Arf status and a therapeutic target for high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lynette M.; Holmes, Kristen M.; Smith, Sarah M.; Wu, Ying; Tchougounova, Elena; Uhrbom, Lene; Sawaya, Raymond; Bruner, Janet M.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Zhang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) are elevated during progression of many human cancers. By using a glial-specific transgenic mouse system (RCAS/Ntv-a), we reported previously that IGFBP2 is an oncogenic factor for glioma progression in combination with platelet-derived growth factor-β (PDGFB). Because the INK4a-ARF locus is often deleted in high-grade gliomas (anaplastic oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma), we investigated the effect of the Ink4a-Arf-null background on IGFBP2-mediated progression of PDGFB-initiated oligodendroglioma. We demonstrate here that homozygous deletion of Ink4a-Arf bypasses the requirement of exogenously introduced IGFBP2 for glioma progression. Instead, absence of Ink4a-Arf resulted in elevated endogenous tumor cell IGFBP2. An inverse relationship between p16INK4a and IGFBP2 expression was also observed in human glioma tissue samples and in 90 different cancer cell lines by using Western blotting and reverse-phase protein lysate arrays. When endogenous IGFBP2 expression was attenuated by an RCAS vector expressing antisense IGFBP2 in our mouse model, a decreased incidence of anaplastic oligodendroglioma as well as prolonged survival was observed. Thus, p16INK4a is a negative regulator of the IGFBP2 oncogene. Loss of Ink4a-Arf results in increased IGFBP2, which contributes to glioma progression, thereby implicating IGFBP2 as a marker and potential therapeutic target for Ink4a-Arf-deleted gliomas. PMID:19805356

  5. Integration considerations for 130-nm device patterning using ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Levinson, Harry J.; Yang, Chih-Yuh; Pangrle, Suzette K.; Schefske, Jeff A.; Kent, Eric

    2000-07-01

    With the delivery of ful field ArF steppers and scanners to the leading edge IC manufacturers in 1999 for process development work, the industry is poised to implement ArF lithography in volume production in a few years from now. The introduction of ArF lithography in large volume deice manufacturing will be at the 130-nm technology node, with a k1-factor of roughly 0.4. This will represent the first time in the history of the semiconductor industry when the critical feature size of first generation devices for a given technology node is significantly smaller than the lithographic wavelength used in the patterning. Accordingly, there are a number of integration issues that must be resolved to ensure the successful implement of this technology. Such issues include antireflection coatings issues like reflectivity control and thickness, and the tradeoffs between using organic and inorganic ARCs; resist material issues like optical absorption, feature profile, CD uniformity and line edge roughness; and etch issues like resist loss, line edge roughening, endcap pullback, etc. For instance, one of the major problems with most currently available 193-nm resists is their high optical absorption at the exposure wavelength. This necessitates the use of significantly thinner 193-nm resist films than have been the case in earlier lithographic regimes, but etch considerations preclude this option as these materials do not have bey good etch stability. A balance between absorption and etch requirements must therefore be struck to ensure the successful implementation of this lithography. The above outlined integration issues involved in striking this balance are the subject of this paper, and they will be presented from a patterning perspective. Our exposures are made with ASML/900 full field scanner.

  6. Effects of botulinum toxin type D on secretion of tumor necrosis factor from human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, K.; Spriggs, D.; Ohno, T.; Kufe, D.

    1989-05-01

    Botulinum toxins are potent neurotoxins which block the release of neurotransmitters. The effects of these toxins on hematopoietic cells, however, are unknown. Monocytes secrete a variety of polypeptide growth factors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In the study reported here, the effects of botulinum toxin type D on the secretion of TNF from human monocytes were examined. The results demonstrate that biotulinum toxin type D inhibits the release of TNF from monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Botulinum toxin type D had no detectable effect on intracellular TNF levels in LPS-treated monocytes, indicating that the effects of this toxin involve the secretory process. This inhibitory effect of botulinum toxin type D on TNF secretion from LPS-treated monocytes was partially reversed by treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or introduction of guanosine 5'-(/gamma/-thio)t-riphosphate into these cells. The results demonstrate that TNF secretion is regulated by at least two distinct guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, one responsible for the activation of phospholiphase C and another which acts as a substrate for botulinum toxin type D. ADP-ribosylation of monocyte membranes by botulinum toxin type D demonstrated the presence of three substrates with M/sub r/s of 45,000, 21,000, and 17,000. While the role of these substrates in exocytosis is unknown, the results suggest that the M/sub r/ 21,000 substrate is involved in a process other than TNF secretion.

  7. Disruption and overexpression of auxin response factor 8 gene of Arabidopsis affect hypocotyl elongation and root growth habit, indicating its possible involvement in auxin homeostasis in light condition.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chang-En; Muto, Hideki; Higuchi, Kanako; Matamura, Tomoyuki; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2004-11-01

    Auxin response factor (ARF) family genes play a central role in controlling sensitivity to the plant hormone auxin. We characterized the function of ARF8 in Arabidopsis by investigating a T-DNA insertion line (arf8-1) and overexpression lines (ARF8 OX) of ARF8. arf8-1 showed a long-hypocotyl phenotype in either white, blue, red or far-red light conditions, in contrast to ARF8 OX that displayed short hypocotyls in the light. Stronger and weaker apical dominance, and promotion and inhibition of lateral root formation were observed in arf8-1 and ARF8 OX respectively. Sensitivity to auxin was unaltered in arf8-1 hypocotyls with respect to growth inhibition caused by exogenously applied auxin and growth promotion induced by higher temperatures. ARF8 expression was observed constitutively in shoot and root apexes, and was induced in the light condition in hypocotyls. Free IAA contents were approximately 30% reduced in light-grown hypocotyls of ARF8 OX, but were similar between those of arf8-1 and wild type. Expression of the three GH3 genes was reduced in arf8-1 and increased in ARF8 OX, indicating that they are targets of ARF8 transcriptional control. Because the three GH3 proteins may be involved in the conjugation of IAA as suggested by Staswick et al. (2002), and because two of the three GH3 genes are auxin inducible, ARF8 may control the free IAA level in a negative feedback fashion by regulating GH3 gene expression. ARF family genes seem to control both auxin sensitivity and homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

  8. Molecular Evolution and Association of Natural Variation in ZmARF31 with Low Phosphorus Tolerance in Maize.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengkai; Liu, Zuoming; Xu, Jie; Gao, Shibin; Lin, Haijian; Liu, Ling; Liu, Yaxi; Lu, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    Low-phosphorus (P) stress is one of the major factors constraining plant growth and yield. Improving plant tolerance to P starvation through molecular breeding is an efficient alternative to increase grain production. In the study, 331 diverse maize inbreds were used to detect nucleotide diversity and favorable alleles of ZmARF31, which plays a key role in low P responses and root architecture regulation. Significant phenotypic variation was found in each of 11 tested traits under both P and no-P treatments, and 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 14 insertion-deletions (InDels) were detected in ZmARF31 among the 331 maize inbreds. The 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of ZmARF31 showed a small linkage disequilibrium (LD) block under significant purifying selection, whereas the 3'-UTR showed the most abundant diversity and a larger LD block. Thirty, fourteen, and nine natural variations were identified in ZmARF31 that were associated with P-deficiency-tolerance traits (P ≤ 0.01) by using the general linear model (GLM), GLM incorporated with population structure, and mixed linear model, respectively. Four SNPs were significantly associated with the total dry weight (TDW) in the three models, of which SNPs S410 and S462 were located in a complete LD block. A further verification conducted in a recombinant inbred line population revealed that favorable allele G/G of non-synonymous mutation S410 and favorable allele with a 38 bp insertion of InDel S1442 exhibited positive genetic effects on the TDW and total root tips, respectively. Expression analysis further confirmed that ZmARF31 was highly expressed in the roots of low-P-tolerant inbred 178. The protein encoded by ZmARF31 was located both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Haplotypes carrying more favorable alleles showed a greater effect on phenotypic variation than single loci. Such haplotypes should be helpful to develop valuable genetic markers and perform maize molecular breeding. PMID:27493655

  9. Molecular Evolution and Association of Natural Variation in ZmARF31 with Low Phosphorus Tolerance in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fengkai; Liu, Zuoming; Xu, Jie; Gao, Shibin; Lin, Haijian; Liu, Ling; Liu, Yaxi; Lu, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    Low-phosphorus (P) stress is one of the major factors constraining plant growth and yield. Improving plant tolerance to P starvation through molecular breeding is an efficient alternative to increase grain production. In the study, 331 diverse maize inbreds were used to detect nucleotide diversity and favorable alleles of ZmARF31, which plays a key role in low P responses and root architecture regulation. Significant phenotypic variation was found in each of 11 tested traits under both P and no-P treatments, and 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 14 insertion–deletions (InDels) were detected in ZmARF31 among the 331 maize inbreds. The 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of ZmARF31 showed a small linkage disequilibrium (LD) block under significant purifying selection, whereas the 3′-UTR showed the most abundant diversity and a larger LD block. Thirty, fourteen, and nine natural variations were identified in ZmARF31 that were associated with P-deficiency-tolerance traits (P ≤ 0.01) by using the general linear model (GLM), GLM incorporated with population structure, and mixed linear model, respectively. Four SNPs were significantly associated with the total dry weight (TDW) in the three models, of which SNPs S410 and S462 were located in a complete LD block. A further verification conducted in a recombinant inbred line population revealed that favorable allele G/G of non-synonymous mutation S410 and favorable allele with a 38 bp insertion of InDel S1442 exhibited positive genetic effects on the TDW and total root tips, respectively. Expression analysis further confirmed that ZmARF31 was highly expressed in the roots of low-P-tolerant inbred 178. The protein encoded by ZmARF31 was located both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Haplotypes carrying more favorable alleles showed a greater effect on phenotypic variation than single loci. Such haplotypes should be helpful to develop valuable genetic markers and perform maize molecular breeding. PMID:27493655

  10. Interaction of brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (BIG) 1 and kinesin motor protein KIF21A

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyan; Meza-Carmen, Victor; Puxeddu, Ermanno; Wang, Guanghui; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (BIG) 1 activates human ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 1 and 3 by accelerating the replacement of ARF-bound GDP with GTP to initiate recruitment of coat proteins for membrane vesicle formation. Liquid chromatography MS/MS analysis of peptides from proteins that co-precipitated with BIG1 antibodies identified “kinesin family member 21A” (KIF21A), a plus-end-directed motor protein that moves cargo on microtubules away from the microtubule-organizing center. Reciprocal immunoprecipitation (IP) of endogenous proteins and microscopically apparent overlap of immunoreactive BIG1 with overexpressed GFP-KIF21A in the perinuclear region were consistent with an interaction of KIF21A–BIG1. Overexpression of full-length KIF21A and BIG1 and their fragments in HEK293 cells followed by reciprocal IP revealed that the C-terminal tail of KIF21A, with seven WD-40 repeats, may interact with structure in the C-terminal region of BIG1. Interfering with cyclic activation and inactivation of ARF1 by overexpressing constitutively active ARF1(Q71L) or dominant inactive ARF1(T31N) altered the distribution of BIG1 as well as its interaction with KIF21A. A requirement for ARF1 was confirmed by its selective depletion with siRNA. Unlike disruption of microtubules with nocodazole, selective inhibition of transport by depletion of KIF21A with specific siRNA altered BIG1 distribution without changing that of intrinsic Golgi membrane proteins. These newly recognized interactions of BIG1 and KIF21A should enable us to understand better the mechanisms through which, acting together, they may integrate local events in membrane trafficking with longer-range transport processes and to relate those processes to the diverse signaling and scaffold functions of BIG1. PMID:19020088

  11. Association of genetic polymorphisms in GADD45A, MDM2, and p14{sup ARF} with the risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Pin; Zhang Zhongbin; Wan Junxiang; Zhao Naiqing; Jin Xipeng; Xia Zhaolin

    2009-10-01

    Benzene reactive metabolites can lead to DNA damage and trigger the p53-dependent defense responses to maintain genomic stability. We hypothesized that the p53-dependent genes may play a role in the development of chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). In a case-control study of 303 patients with benzene poisoning and 295 workers occupationally exposed to benzene in south China, we investigated associations between the risk of CBP and polymorphisms in three p53-dependent genes. Potential interactions of these polymorphisms with lifestyle factors were also explored. We found p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 polymorphism was associated with risk of CBP (P = 0.014). Compared with those carrying the GG genotype, individuals carrying p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 GA+AA genotypes had a reduced risk of CBP ([adjusted odds ratio (OR{sub adj}) = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.36-0.89]. Further analysis showed p14{sup ARF} TGA/TAG diplotype was associated with an increased risk of CBP (P = 0.0006), whereas p14{sup ARF} TGG/TAA diplotype was associated with a decreased risk of CBP (P = 0.0000001). In addition, we found individuals carrying both MDM2 Del1518 WW genotype and p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 GA+AA genotypes had a lower risk of CBP (OR{sub adj} = 0.25; 95%CI = 0.10-0.62; P = 0.003). Although these results require confirmation and extension, our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in p14{sup ARF} may have an impact on the risk of CBP in the study population.

  12. ARF Impedes NPM/B23 Shuttling in an Mdm2-Sensitive Tumor Suppressor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Suzanne N.; Yu, Yue; Maggi, Leonard B.; Weber, Jason D.

    2004-01-01

    The ARF tumor suppressor is widely regarded as an upstream activator of p53-dependent growth arrest and apoptosis. However, recent findings indicate that ARF can also regulate the cell cycle in the absence of p53. In search of p53-independent ARF targets, we isolated nucleophosmin (NPM/B23), a protein we show is required for proliferation, as a novel ARF binding protein. In response to hyperproliferative signals, ARF is upregulated, resulting in the nucleolar retention of NPM and concomitant cell cycle arrest. The Mdm2 oncogene outcompetes NPM/B23 for ARF binding, and introduction of Mdm2 reverses ARF's p53-independent properties: in vitro, NPM is released from ARF-containing protein complexes, and in vivo S phase progression ensues. ARF induction by oncogenes or replicative senescence does not alter NPM/B23 protein levels but rather prevents its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling without inhibiting rRNA processing. By actively sequestering NPM in the nucleolus, ARF utilizes an additional mechanism of tumor suppression, one that is readily antagonized by Mdm2. PMID:15485902

  13. SlARF2a plays a negative role in mediating axillary shoot formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Xin; Wang, Rong; Dong, Xiufen; Guan, Xiaoxi; Wang, Yanling; Jiang, Yun; Shi, Zihang; Qi, Mingfang; Li, Tianlai

    2016-01-01

    SlARF2a is expressed in most plant organs, including roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. A detailed expression study revealed that SlARF2a is mainly expressed in the leaf nodes and cross-sections of the nodes indicated that SlARF2a expression is restricted to vascular organs. Decapitation or the application of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) can initially promote axillary shoots, during which SlARF2a expression is significantly reduced. Down-regulation of SlARF2a expression results in an increased frequency of dicotyledons and significantly increased lateral organ development. Stem anatomy studies have revealed significantly altered cambia and phloem in tomato plants expressing down-regulated levels of ARF2a, which is associated with obvious alterations in auxin distribution. Further analysis has revealed that altered auxin transport may occur via altered pin expression. To identify the interactions of AUX/IAA and TPL with ARF2a, four axillary shoot development repressors that are down-regulated during axillary shoot development, IAA3, IAA9, SlTPL1 and SlTPL6, were tested for their direct interactions with ARF2a. Although none of these repressors are directly involved in ARF2a activity, similar expression patterns of IAA3, IAA9 and ARF2a implied they might work tightly in axillary shoot formation and other developmental processes. PMID:27645097

  14. SlARF2a plays a negative role in mediating axillary shoot formation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Xin; Wang, Rong; Dong, Xiufen; Guan, Xiaoxi; Wang, Yanling; Jiang, Yun; Shi, Zihang; Qi, Mingfang; Li, Tianlai

    2016-01-01

    SlARF2a is expressed in most plant organs, including roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. A detailed expression study revealed that SlARF2a is mainly expressed in the leaf nodes and cross-sections of the nodes indicated that SlARF2a expression is restricted to vascular organs. Decapitation or the application of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) can initially promote axillary shoots, during which SlARF2a expression is significantly reduced. Down-regulation of SlARF2a expression results in an increased frequency of dicotyledons and significantly increased lateral organ development. Stem anatomy studies have revealed significantly altered cambia and phloem in tomato plants expressing down-regulated levels of ARF2a, which is associated with obvious alterations in auxin distribution. Further analysis has revealed that altered auxin transport may occur via altered pin expression. To identify the interactions of AUX/IAA and TPL with ARF2a, four axillary shoot development repressors that are down-regulated during axillary shoot development, IAA3, IAA9, SlTPL1 and SlTPL6, were tested for their direct interactions with ARF2a. Although none of these repressors are directly involved in ARF2a activity, similar expression patterns of IAA3, IAA9 and ARF2a implied they might work tightly in axillary shoot formation and other developmental processes. PMID:27645097

  15. Regulation of Myogenesis by Fibroblast Growth Factors Requires Beta-Gamma Subunits of Pertussis Toxin-Sensitive G Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Yuri V.; Jones, Nathan C.; Olwin, Bradley B.

    1998-01-01

    Terminal differentiation of skeletal muscle cells in culture is inhibited by a number of different growth factors whose subsequent intracellular signaling events are poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the role of heterotrimeric G proteins in mediating fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-dependent signals that regulate myogenic differentiation. Pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivates susceptible G proteins, promotes terminal differentiation in the presence of FGF-2, suggesting that Gα or Gβγ subunits or both are involved in transducing the FGF-dependent signal(s) that inhibits myogenesis. We found that Gβγ subunits are likely to be involved since the expression of the C terminus of β-adrenergic receptor kinase 1, a Gβγ subunit-sequestering agent, promotes differentiation in the presence of FGF-2, and expression of the free Gβγ dimer can replace FGF-2, rescuing cells from pertussis toxin-induced differentiation. Addition of pertussis toxin also blocked FGF-2-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Ectopic expression of dominant active mutants in the Ras/MAPK pathway rescued cells from pertussis toxin-induced terminal differentiation, suggesting that the Gβγ subunits act upstream of the Ras/MAPK pathway. It is unlikely that the pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway is activated by other, as yet unidentified FGF receptors since PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor)-stimulated MM14 cells expressing a chimeric receptor containing the FGF receptor-1 intracellular domain and the PDGF receptor extracellular domain were sensitive to pertussis toxin. Our data suggest that FGF-mediated signals involved in repression of myogenic differentiation are transduced by a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled mechanism. This signaling pathway requires the action of Gβγ subunits and activation of MAPKs to repress skeletal muscle differentiation. PMID:9742095

  16. Comparison of star and linear ArF resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Drew C.; Wieberger, Florian; Gröschel, Andre; Müller, Axel H. E.; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Ober, Christopher K.

    2010-04-01

    Linear and star-shaped ArF photoresists were prepared and preliminary lithographic comparison was performed using electron-beam exposure. An oligo-initiator based on saccharose forms the core of the star shaped photoresist from which three standard ArF photoresist monomers, α-gamma butyrolactone methacrylate (GBLMA), methyl adamantyl methacrylate (MAMA) and hydroxyl adamantyl methacrylate (HAMA) were polymerized. Conditions were adjusted to obtain a low polydispersity, 6 kg/mol star polymer with a degree of polymerization of approximately five mers per arm. For comparison, a linear photoresist control was prepared using the same scheme. The star resist architecture was found to improve roughness without reducing sensitivity or resolution.

  17. Intercomparison of selected fixed-area areal reduction factor methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Sandra; Perica, Sanja; St Laurent, Michael; Mejía, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    The areal reduction factor (ARF) is a concept used in many hydrologic designs to transform a point precipitation frequency estimate of a given duration and frequency to a corresponding areal estimate. Various methods have been proposed in the literature to calculate ARFs. Proposed ARFs could vary significantly, and it is unclear if discrepancies are primarily due to differences in methodologies, the dissimilar datasets used to calculate ARFs, or if they originate from regional uniqueness. Our goal in this study is to analyze differences among ARFs derived from different types of fixed-area ARF methods, which are suitable for use with precipitation frequency estimates. For this intercomparison, all the ARFs were computed using the same, high-quality rainfall-radar merged dataset for a common geographic region. The selected ARFs methods represent four commonly used approaches: empirical methods, methods that are based on the spatial correlation structure of rainfall, methods that rely on the scaling properties of rainfall in space and time, and methods that utilize extreme value theory. The state of Oklahoma was selected as the study area, as it has a good quality radar data and a dense network of rain gauges. Results indicate significant uncertainties in the ARF estimates, regardless of the method used. Even when calculated from the same dataset and for the same geographic area, the ARF estimates from the selected methods differ. The differences are more pronounced for the shorter durations and larger areas. Results also indicate some ARF dependence on the average recurrence intervals.

  18. ArF pellicle degradation mechanism for resolving CD variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyungseok; Ahn, Yohan; Ryu, Jua; Lee, Yangkoo; An, Bumhyun; Lee, Seokryeol

    2007-03-01

    With the introduction of ArF laser, a binary mask is preferred because a PSM mask is still weak to the crystal defect called as photomask haze although extensive studies trying to resolve the haze impact to a photomask have been performed by various researchers in company and school. However, a new problem was happened after a binary mask introduction that CD variation in an exposure shot is appeared and is gradually increased. And finally, CD variation considerably causes defects in wafer level. It was proven that CD variation is closely related to the change of the reticle transmittance by a lot of researches. In this study, the mechanism of ArF pellicle degradation is focused on because the pellicle degradation affects a reticle transmittance in direct. The components outgassed from a pellicle by the high photon energy of ArF laser, for example carbon or fluorine, are absorbed on the surface of the reticle, so that the transmittance of the reticle is decreased. The phenomena of the pellicle degradation have been studied by the various viewpoints, theoretical background, experiment and results tested in mass production line in this study. Therefore, this study has the important meaning by providing the substantial clues to resolve CD variation problem in a near future.

  19. STAT3 regulated ARF expression suppresses prostate cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Pencik, Jan; Schlederer, Michaela; Gruber, Wolfgang; Unger, Christine; Walker, Steven M.; Chalaris, Athena; Marié, Isabelle J.; Hassler, Melanie R.; Javaheri, Tahereh; Aksoy, Osman; Blayney, Jaine K.; Prutsch, Nicole; Skucha, Anna; Herac, Merima; Krämer, Oliver H.; Mazal, Peter; Grebien, Florian; Egger, Gerda; Poli, Valeria; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Eferl, Robert; Esterbauer, Harald; Kennedy, Richard; Fend, Falko; Scharpf, Marcus; Braun, Martin; Perner, Sven; Levy, David E.; Malcolm, Tim; Turner, Suzanne D.; Haitel, Andrea; Susani, Martin; Moazzami, Ali; Rose-John, Stefan; Aberger, Fritz; Merkel, Olaf; Moriggl, Richard; Culig, Zoran; Dolznig, Helmut; Kenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer in men. Hyperactive STAT3 is thought to be oncogenic in PCa. However, targeting of the IL-6/STAT3 axis in PCa patients has failed to provide therapeutic benefit. Here we show that genetic inactivation of Stat3 or IL-6 signalling in a Pten-deficient PCa mouse model accelerates cancer progression leading to metastasis. Mechanistically, we identify p19ARF as a direct Stat3 target. Loss of Stat3 signalling disrupts the ARF–Mdm2–p53 tumour suppressor axis bypassing senescence. Strikingly, we also identify STAT3 and CDKN2A mutations in primary human PCa. STAT3 and CDKN2A deletions co-occurred with high frequency in PCa metastases. In accordance, loss of STAT3 and p14ARF expression in patient tumours correlates with increased risk of disease recurrence and metastatic PCa. Thus, STAT3 and ARF may be prognostic markers to stratify high from low risk PCa patients. Our findings challenge the current discussion on therapeutic benefit or risk of IL-6/STAT3 inhibition. PMID:26198641

  20. The auxin response factor gene family in banana: genome-wide identification and expression analyses during development, ripening, and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zuo, Jiao; Hou, Xiaowan; Yan, Yan; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Auxin signaling regulates various auxin-responsive genes via two types of transcriptional regulators, Auxin Response Factors (ARF) and Aux/IAA. ARF transcription factors act as critical components of auxin signaling that play important roles in modulating various biological processes. However, limited information about this gene family in fruit crops is currently available. Herein, 47 ARF genes were identified in banana based on its genome sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of the ARFs from banana, rice, and Arabidopsis suggested that the ARFs could be divided into four subgroups, among which most ARFs from the banana showed a closer relationship with those from rice than those from Arabidopsis. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified MaARFs had typical DNA-binding and ARF domains, but 12 members lacked the dimerization domain. Gene structure analysis showed that the number of exons in MaARF genes ranged from 5 to 21, suggesting large variation amongst banana ARF genes. The comprehensive expression profiles of MaARF genes yielded useful information about their involvement in diverse tissues, different stages of fruit development and ripening, and responses to abiotic stresses in different varieties. Interaction networks and co-expression assays indicated the strong transcriptional response of banana ARFs and ARF-mediated networks in early fruit development for different varieties. Our systematic analysis of MaARFs revealed robust tissue-specific, development-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaARF genes for further functional assays in planta. These findings could lead to potential applications in the genetic improvement of banana cultivars, and yield new insights into the complexity of the control of MaARF gene expression at the transcriptional level. Finally, they support the hypothesis that ARFs are a crucial component of the auxin signaling pathway, which regulates a wide range of physiological processes. PMID:26442055

  1. The auxin response factor gene family in banana: genome-wide identification and expression analyses during development, ripening, and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Zuo, Jiao; Hou, Xiaowan; Yan, Yan; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Auxin signaling regulates various auxin-responsive genes via two types of transcriptional regulators, Auxin Response Factors (ARF) and Aux/IAA. ARF transcription factors act as critical components of auxin signaling that play important roles in modulating various biological processes. However, limited information about this gene family in fruit crops is currently available. Herein, 47 ARF genes were identified in banana based on its genome sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of the ARFs from banana, rice, and Arabidopsis suggested that the ARFs could be divided into four subgroups, among which most ARFs from the banana showed a closer relationship with those from rice than those from Arabidopsis. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified MaARFs had typical DNA-binding and ARF domains, but 12 members lacked the dimerization domain. Gene structure analysis showed that the number of exons in MaARF genes ranged from 5 to 21, suggesting large variation amongst banana ARF genes. The comprehensive expression profiles of MaARF genes yielded useful information about their involvement in diverse tissues, different stages of fruit development and ripening, and responses to abiotic stresses in different varieties. Interaction networks and co-expression assays indicated the strong transcriptional response of banana ARFs and ARF-mediated networks in early fruit development for different varieties. Our systematic analysis of MaARFs revealed robust tissue-specific, development-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaARF genes for further functional assays in planta. These findings could lead to potential applications in the genetic improvement of banana cultivars, and yield new insights into the complexity of the control of MaARF gene expression at the transcriptional level. Finally, they support the hypothesis that ARFs are a crucial component of the auxin signaling pathway, which regulates a wide range of physiological processes. PMID:26442055

  2. Serum and urinary insulin-like growth factor-1 and tumor necrosis factor in neonates with and without acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Kornhauser, Carlos; Dubey, Luis-Antonio; Garay, M-Eugenia; Pérez-Luque, Elva-Leticia; Malacara, Juan-Manuel; Vargas-Origel, Arturo

    2002-05-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) in neonates may occur after renal ischemia. Growth factors participate in the tubular regeneration process. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is produced in the kidney during the recovery phase of ARF. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) may play a role in renal apoptosis. We examined serum and urinary IGF-1 and TNFalpha in neonates with or without ARF after asphyxia, in order to assess their possible use as markers of renal damage and recovery. We studied 20 full-term asphyxiated neonates, 10 with ARF and 10 without ARF, and compared them with 13 normal newborns for 7 days after birth. Blood urea, creatinine, pH, base deficit, and serum and urine IGF-1 and TNFalpha were assessed. Neonates with ARF had more-severe acidosis than patients without ARF. All patients had lower serum IGF-1 values immediately after birth than control children. Serum IGF-1 remained low in the ARF patients. The initial urinary IGF-1 was higher in all patients compared with control newborns, and remained elevated for the rest of the study only in the ARF neonates. Serum and urinary TNFalpha concentrations were similar for all healthy and diseased neonates. Measurement of serum and urinary IGF-1 levels in ARF neonates might be of additional value for clinical assessment of ARF.

  3. Pdlim7 Regulates Arf6-Dependent Actin Dynamics and Is Required for Platelet-Mediated Thrombosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kaylie P.; Krcmery, Jennifer; Simon, Hans-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Upon vessel injury, platelets become activated and rapidly reorganize their actin cytoskeleton to adhere to the site of endothelial damage, triggering the formation of a fibrin-rich plug to prevent further blood loss. Inactivation of Pdlim7 provides the new perspective that regulation of actin cytoskeletal changes in platelets is dependent on the encoded PDZ-LIM protein. Loss-of-function of Pdlim7 triggers hypercoagulopathy and causes significant perinatal lethality in mice. Our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that Pdlim7 is dynamically distributed along actin fibers, and lack of Pdlim7 leads to a marked inability to rearrange the actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, the absence of Pdlim7 prevents platelets from bundling actin fibers into a concentric ring that defines the round spread shape of activated platelets. Similarly, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, loss of Pdlim7 abolishes the formation of stress fibers needed to adopt the typical elongated fibroblast shape. In addition to revealing a fundamental cell biological role in actin cytoskeletal organization, we also demonstrate a function of Pdlim7 in regulating the cycling between the GTP/GDP-bound states of Arf6. The small GTPase Arf6 is an essential factor required for actin dynamics, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and platelet activation. Consistent with our findings of significantly elevated initial F-actin ratios and subsequent morphological aberrations, loss of Pdlim7 causes a shift in balance towards an increased Arf6-GTP level in resting platelets. These findings identify a new Pdlim7-Arf6 axis controlling actin dynamics and implicate Pdlim7 as a primary endogenous regulator of platelet-dependent hemostasis. PMID:27792740

  4. High yield production of myristoylated Arf6 small GTPase by recombinant N-myristoyl transferase

    PubMed Central

    Padovani, Dominique; Zeghouf, Mahel; Traverso, José A.; Giglione, Carmela; Cherfils, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Small GTP-binding proteins of the Arf family (Arf GTPases) interact with multiple cellular partners and with membranes to regulate intracellular traffic and organelle structure. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms requires in vitro biochemical assays to test for regulations and functions. Such assays should use proteins in their cellular form, which carry a myristoyl lipid attached in N-terminus. N-myristoylation of recombinant Arf GTPases can be achieved by co-expression in E. coli with a eukaryotic N-myristoyl transferase. However, purifying myristoylated Arf GTPases is difficult and has a poor overall yield. Here we show that human Arf6 can be N-myristoylated in vitro by recombinant N-myristoyl transferases from different eukaryotic species. The catalytic efficiency depended strongly on the guanine nucleotide state and was highest for Arf6-GTP. Large-scale production of highly pure N-myristoylated Arf6 could be achieved, which was fully functional for liposome-binding and EFA6-stimulated nucleotide exchange assays. This establishes in vitro myristoylation as a novel and simple method that could be used to produce other myristoylated Arf and Arf-like GTPases for biochemical assays. PMID:23319116

  5. Gbf1

    PubMed Central

    Claude, Alejandro; Zhao, Bao-Ping; Kuziemsky, Craig E.; Dahan, Sophie; Berger, Scott J.; Yan, Jian-Ping; Armold, Adrian D.; Sullivan, Eric M.; Melançon, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Expression cloning from a cDNA library prepared from a mutant CHO cell line with Golgi-specific resistance to Brefeldin A (BFA) identified a novel 206-kD protein with a Sec7 domain termed GBF1 for Golgi BFA resistance factor 1. Overexpression of GBF1 allowed transfected cells to maintain normal Golgi morphology and grow in the presence of BFA. Golgi- enriched membrane fractions from such transfected cells displayed normal levels of ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) activation and coat protein recruitment that were, however, BFA resistant. Hexahistidine-tagged–GBF1 exhibited BFA-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange activity that appears specific towards ARF5 at physiological Mg2+concentration. Characterization of cDNAs recovered from the mutant and wild-type parental lines established that transcripts in these cells had identical sequence and, therefore, that GBF1 was naturally BFA resistant. GBF1 was primarily cytosolic but a significant pool colocalized to a perinuclear structure with the β-subunit of COPI. Immunogold labeling showed highest density of GBF1 over Golgi cisternae and significant labeling over pleiomorphic smooth vesiculotubular structures. The BFA-resistant nature of GBF1 suggests involvement in retrograde traffic. PMID:10402461

  6. An early secretory pathway mediated by GNOM-LIKE 1 and GNOM is essential for basal polarity establishment in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Siamsa M; Haeger, Ash; Vain, Thomas; Rigal, Adeline; Viotti, Corrado; Łangowska, Małgorzata; Ma, Qian; Friml, Jiří; Raikhel, Natasha V; Hicks, Glenn R; Robert, Stéphanie

    2015-02-17

    Spatial regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, or auxin) is essential for plant development. Auxin gradient establishment is mediated by polarly localized auxin transporters, including PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Their localization and abundance at the plasma membrane are tightly regulated by endomembrane machinery, especially the endocytic and recycling pathways mediated by the ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) GNOM. We assessed the role of the early secretory pathway in establishing PIN1 polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana by pharmacological and genetic approaches. We identified the compound endosidin 8 (ES8), which selectively interferes with PIN1 basal polarity without altering the polarity of apical proteins. ES8 alters the auxin distribution pattern in the root and induces a strong developmental phenotype, including reduced root length. The ARF-GEF-defective mutants gnom-like 1 (gnl1-1) and gnom (van7) are significantly resistant to ES8. The compound does not affect recycling or vacuolar trafficking of PIN1 but leads to its intracellular accumulation, resulting in loss of PIN1 basal polarity at the plasma membrane. Our data confirm a role for GNOM in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi trafficking and reveal that a GNL1/GNOM-mediated early secretory pathway selectively regulates PIN1 basal polarity establishment in a manner essential for normal plant development.

  7. Role of protein kinase D2 phosphorylation on Tyr in modulation by ghrelin of Helicobacter pylori-induced up-regulation in gastric mucosal matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion.

    PubMed

    Slomiany, B L; Slomiany, A

    2016-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinas-9 (MMP-9) is a glycosylated endopeptidase associated with host reaction to microbial endotoxins and also characterizes gastric mucosal inflammatory response to H. pylori infection. Here, we report on the factors involved in gastric mucosal MMP-9 secretion in response to H. pylori LPS, and the effect of hormone, ghrelin. We show that both the LPS-elicited induction in MMP-9 secretion and also the modulatory influence of ghrelin occur at the level of MMP-9 processing between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi. Further, we demonstrate that the LPS effect is associated with up-regulation in the activation of Arf1, a small GTPase of the ADP-ribosylation factor family, and the recruitment and phosphorylation of protein kinase D2 (PKD2), involved in the secretory cargo processing in the Golgi. Moreover, we reveal that the LPS-induced up-regulation in MMP-9 secretion is reflected in a marked increase in PKCδ-mediated PKD2 phosphorylation on Ser, while the modulatory effect of ghrelin is manifested by the SFK-PTKs-dependent phosphorylation of PKD2 on Tyr. Thus, our findings demonstrate the role of Arf1/PKD2 in mediation of H. pylori LPS-induced up-regulation in gastric mucosal MMP-9 secretion and suggest the modulatory mechanism of ghrelin action. PMID:27209313

  8. An early secretory pathway mediated by GNOM-LIKE 1 and GNOM is essential for basal polarity establishment in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Siamsa M.; Haeger, Ash; Vain, Thomas; Rigal, Adeline; Viotti, Corrado; Łangowska, Małgorzata; Ma, Qian; Friml, Jiří; Raikhel, Natasha V.; Hicks, Glenn R.; Robert, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Spatial regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, or auxin) is essential for plant development. Auxin gradient establishment is mediated by polarly localized auxin transporters, including PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Their localization and abundance at the plasma membrane are tightly regulated by endomembrane machinery, especially the endocytic and recycling pathways mediated by the ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) GNOM. We assessed the role of the early secretory pathway in establishing PIN1 polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana by pharmacological and genetic approaches. We identified the compound endosidin 8 (ES8), which selectively interferes with PIN1 basal polarity without altering the polarity of apical proteins. ES8 alters the auxin distribution pattern in the root and induces a strong developmental phenotype, including reduced root length. The ARF-GEF–defective mutants gnom-like 1 (gnl1-1) and gnom (van7) are significantly resistant to ES8. The compound does not affect recycling or vacuolar trafficking of PIN1 but leads to its intracellular accumulation, resulting in loss of PIN1 basal polarity at the plasma membrane. Our data confirm a role for GNOM in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi trafficking and reveal that a GNL1/GNOM-mediated early secretory pathway selectively regulates PIN1 basal polarity establishment in a manner essential for normal plant development. PMID:25646449

  9. Somatotropinomas, but not nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, maintain a functional apoptotic RET/Pit1/ARF/p53 pathway that is blocked by excess GDNF.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Rodriguez, Esther; Garcia-Rendueles, Angela R; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Gutierrez-Pascual, Ester; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montserrat; Leal, Alfonso; Japon, Miguel A; Soto, Alfonso; Venegas, Eva; Tinahones, Francisco J; Garcia-Arnes, Juan A; Benito, Pedro; Angeles Galvez, Maria; Jimenez-Reina, Luis; Bernabeu, Ignacio; Dieguez, Carlos; Luque, Raul M; Castaño, Justo P; Alvarez, Clara V

    2014-11-01

    Acromegaly is caused by somatotroph cell adenomas (somatotropinomas [ACROs]), which secrete GH. Human and rodent somatotroph cells express the RET receptor. In rodents, when normal somatotrophs are deprived of the RET ligand, GDNF (Glial Cell Derived Neurotrophic Factor), RET is processed intracellularly to induce overexpression of Pit1 [Transcription factor (gene : POUF1) essential for transcription of Pituitary hormones GH, PRL and TSHb], which in turn leads to p19Arf/p53-dependent apoptosis. Our purpose was to ascertain whether human ACROs maintain the RET/Pit1/p14ARF/p53/apoptosis pathway, relative to nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Apoptosis in the absence and presence of GDNF was studied in primary cultures of 8 ACROs and 3 NFPAs. Parallel protein extracts were analyzed for expression of RET, Pit1, p19Arf, p53, and phospho-Akt. When GDNF deprived, ACRO cells, but not NFPAs, presented marked level of apoptosis that was prevented in the presence of GDNF. Apoptosis was accompanied by RET processing, Pit1 accumulation, and p14ARF and p53 induction. GDNF prevented all these effects via activation of phospho-AKT. Overexpression of human Pit1 (hPit1) directly induced p19Arf/p53 and apoptosis in a pituitary cell line. Using in silico studies, 2 CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (cEBPα) consensus-binding sites were found to be 100% conserved in mouse, rat, and hPit1 promoters. Deletion of 1 cEBPα site prevented the RET-induced increase in hPit1 promoter expression. TaqMan qRT-PCR (real time RT-PCR) for RET, Pit1, Arf, TP53, GDNF, steroidogenic factor 1, and GH was performed in RNA from whole ACRO and NFPA tumors. ACRO but not NFPA adenomas express RET and Pit1. GDNF expression in the tumors was positively correlated with RET and negatively correlated with p53. In conclusion, ACROs maintain an active RET/Pit1/p14Arf/p53/apoptosis pathway that is inhibited by GDNF. Disruption of GDNF's survival function might constitute a new therapeutic route in

  10. Somatotropinomas, but not nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, maintain a functional apoptotic RET/Pit1/ARF/p53 pathway that is blocked by excess GDNF.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Rodriguez, Esther; Garcia-Rendueles, Angela R; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Gutierrez-Pascual, Ester; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montserrat; Leal, Alfonso; Japon, Miguel A; Soto, Alfonso; Venegas, Eva; Tinahones, Francisco J; Garcia-Arnes, Juan A; Benito, Pedro; Angeles Galvez, Maria; Jimenez-Reina, Luis; Bernabeu, Ignacio; Dieguez, Carlos; Luque, Raul M; Castaño, Justo P; Alvarez, Clara V

    2014-11-01

    Acromegaly is caused by somatotroph cell adenomas (somatotropinomas [ACROs]), which secrete GH. Human and rodent somatotroph cells express the RET receptor. In rodents, when normal somatotrophs are deprived of the RET ligand, GDNF (Glial Cell Derived Neurotrophic Factor), RET is processed intracellularly to induce overexpression of Pit1 [Transcription factor (gene : POUF1) essential for transcription of Pituitary hormones GH, PRL and TSHb], which in turn leads to p19Arf/p53-dependent apoptosis. Our purpose was to ascertain whether human ACROs maintain the RET/Pit1/p14ARF/p53/apoptosis pathway, relative to nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Apoptosis in the absence and presence of GDNF was studied in primary cultures of 8 ACROs and 3 NFPAs. Parallel protein extracts were analyzed for expression of RET, Pit1, p19Arf, p53, and phospho-Akt. When GDNF deprived, ACRO cells, but not NFPAs, presented marked level of apoptosis that was prevented in the presence of GDNF. Apoptosis was accompanied by RET processing, Pit1 accumulation, and p14ARF and p53 induction. GDNF prevented all these effects via activation of phospho-AKT. Overexpression of human Pit1 (hPit1) directly induced p19Arf/p53 and apoptosis in a pituitary cell line. Using in silico studies, 2 CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (cEBPα) consensus-binding sites were found to be 100% conserved in mouse, rat, and hPit1 promoters. Deletion of 1 cEBPα site prevented the RET-induced increase in hPit1 promoter expression. TaqMan qRT-PCR (real time RT-PCR) for RET, Pit1, Arf, TP53, GDNF, steroidogenic factor 1, and GH was performed in RNA from whole ACRO and NFPA tumors. ACRO but not NFPA adenomas express RET and Pit1. GDNF expression in the tumors was positively correlated with RET and negatively correlated with p53. In conclusion, ACROs maintain an active RET/Pit1/p14Arf/p53/apoptosis pathway that is inhibited by GDNF. Disruption of GDNF's survival function might constitute a new therapeutic route in

  11. Genome-wide analysis of auxin response factor gene family members in medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhichao; Ji, Aijia; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Auxin response factors (ARFs) can function as transcriptional activators or repressors to regulate the expression of auxin response genes by specifically binding to auxin response elements (AuxREs) during plant development. Based on a genome-wide strategy using the medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, 25 S. miltiorrhiza ARF (SmARF) gene family members in four classes (class Ia, IIa, IIb and III) were comprehensively analyzed to identify characteristics including gene structures, conserved domains, phylogenetic relationships and expression patterns. In a hybrid analysis of the phylogenetic tree, microRNA targets, and expression patterns of SmARFs in different organs, root tissues, and methyl jasmonate or indole-3-acetic acid treatment conditions, we screened for candidate SmARFs involved in various developmental processes of S. miltiorrhiza. Based on this analysis, we predicted that SmARF25, SmARF7, SmARF16 and SmARF20 are involved in flower, leaf, stem and root development, respectively. With the further insight into the targets of miR160 and miR167, specific SmARF genes in S. miltiorrhiza might encode products that participate in biological processes as described for ARF genes in Arabidopsis. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis and regulatory mechanisms of SmARFs in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27230647

  12. Genome-wide analysis of auxin response factor gene family members in medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhichao; Ji, Aijia; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) can function as transcriptional activators or repressors to regulate the expression of auxin response genes by specifically binding to auxin response elements (AuxREs) during plant development. Based on a genome-wide strategy using the medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, 25 S. miltiorrhiza ARF (SmARF) gene family members in four classes (class Ia, IIa, IIb and III) were comprehensively analyzed to identify characteristics including gene structures, conserved domains, phylogenetic relationships and expression patterns. In a hybrid analysis of the phylogenetic tree, microRNA targets, and expression patterns of SmARFs in different organs, root tissues, and methyl jasmonate or indole-3-acetic acid treatment conditions, we screened for candidate SmARFs involved in various developmental processes of S. miltiorrhiza Based on this analysis, we predicted that SmARF25, SmARF7, SmARF16 and SmARF20 are involved in flower, leaf, stem and root development, respectively. With the further insight into the targets of miR160 and miR167, specific SmARF genes in S. miltiorrhiza might encode products that participate in biological processes as described for ARF genes in Arabidopsis Our results provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis and regulatory mechanisms of SmARFs in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27230647

  13. Structural Basis for the Specific Recognition of RhoA by the Dual GTPase-activating Protein ARAP3.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hongyu; Li, Fudong; Wang, Chongyuan; Wang, Na; Jiang, Yiyang; Tang, Yajun; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu

    2016-08-01

    ARAP3 (Arf-GAP with Rho-GAP domain, ANK repeat, and PH domain-containing protein 3) is unique for its dual specificity GAPs (GTPase-activating protein) activity for Arf6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) and RhoA (Ras homolog gene family member A) regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and a small GTPase Rap1-GTP and is involved in regulation of cell shape and adhesion. However, the molecular interface between the ARAP3-RhoGAP domain and RhoA is unknown, as is the substrates specificity of the RhoGAP domain. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of RhoA in complex with the RhoGAP domain of ARAP3. The structure of the complex presented a clear interface between the RhoGAP domain and RhoA. By analyzing the crystal structure and in combination with in vitro GTPase activity assays and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments, we identified the crucial residues affecting RhoGAP activity and substrates specificity among RhoA, Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1), and Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42 homolog). PMID:27311713

  14. Exit from the Golgi Is Required for the Expansion of the Autophagosomal Phagophore in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    van der Vaart, Aniek; Griffith, Janice

    2010-01-01

    The delivery of proteins and organelles to the vacuole by autophagy involves membrane rearrangements that result in the formation of large vesicles called autophagosomes. The mechanism underlying autophagosome biogenesis and the origin of the membranes composing these vesicles remains largely unclear. We have investigated the role of the Golgi complex in autophagy and have determined that in yeast, activation of ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)1 and Arf2 GTPases by Sec7, Gea1, and Gea2 is essential for this catabolic process. The two main events catalyzed by these components, the biogenesis of COPI- and clathrin-coated vesicles, do not play a critical role in autophagy. Analysis of the sec7 strain under starvation conditions revealed that the autophagy machinery is correctly assembled and the precursor membrane cisterna of autophagosomes, the phagophore, is normally formed. However, the expansion of the phagophore into an autophagosome is severely impaired. Our data show that the Golgi complex plays a crucial role in supplying the lipid bilayers necessary for the biogenesis of double-membrane vesicles possibly through a new class of transport carriers or a new mechanism. PMID:20444982

  15. Role of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in cellular transformation and ARF repression.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takahiro; Hobbs, Robin M; Merghoub, Taha; Guernah, Ilhem; Zelent, Arthur; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2005-01-20

    Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodelling and histone deacetylation has been postulated to represent a driving force underlying tumorigenesis because histone deacetylase inhibitors have been found to be effective in cancer treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms by which transcriptional derepression would be linked to tumour suppression are poorly understood. Here we identify the transcriptional repressor Pokemon (encoded by the Zbtb7 gene) as a critical factor in oncogenesis. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking Zbtb7 are completely refractory to oncogene-mediated cellular transformation. Conversely, Pokemon overexpression leads to overt oncogenic transformation both in vitro and in vivo in transgenic mice. Pokemon can specifically repress the transcription of the tumour suppressor gene ARF through direct binding. We find that Pokemon is aberrantly overexpressed in human cancers and that its expression levels predict biological behaviour and clinical outcome. Pokemon's critical role in cellular transformation makes it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:15662416

  16. Role of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in cellular transformation and ARF repression.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takahiro; Hobbs, Robin M; Merghoub, Taha; Guernah, Ilhem; Zelent, Arthur; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2005-01-20

    Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodelling and histone deacetylation has been postulated to represent a driving force underlying tumorigenesis because histone deacetylase inhibitors have been found to be effective in cancer treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms by which transcriptional derepression would be linked to tumour suppression are poorly understood. Here we identify the transcriptional repressor Pokemon (encoded by the Zbtb7 gene) as a critical factor in oncogenesis. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking Zbtb7 are completely refractory to oncogene-mediated cellular transformation. Conversely, Pokemon overexpression leads to overt oncogenic transformation both in vitro and in vivo in transgenic mice. Pokemon can specifically repress the transcription of the tumour suppressor gene ARF through direct binding. We find that Pokemon is aberrantly overexpressed in human cancers and that its expression levels predict biological behaviour and clinical outcome. Pokemon's critical role in cellular transformation makes it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.

  17. AKT regulates NPM dependent ARF localization and p53mut stability in tumors.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Garth; Abraham, Aswin G; Morton, Jennifer; Sampson, Oliver; Pefani, Dafni E; Khoronenkova, Svetlana; Grawenda, Anna; Papaspyropoulos, Angelos; Jamieson, Nigel; McKay, Colin; Sansom, Owen; Dianov, Grigory L; O'Neill, Eric

    2014-08-15

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is known to regulate ARF subcellular localization and MDM2 activity in response to oncogenic stress, though the precise mechanism has remained elusive. Here we describe how NPM and ARF associate in the nucleoplasm to form a MDM2 inhibitory complex. We find that oligomerization of NPM drives nucleolar accumulation of ARF. Moreover, the formation of NPM and ARF oligomers antagonizes MDM2 association with the inhibitory complex, leading to activation of MDM2 E3-ligase activity and targeting of p53. We find that AKT phosphorylation of NPM-Ser48 prevents oligomerization that results in nucleoplasmic localization of ARF, constitutive MDM2 inhibition and stabilization of p53. We also show that ARF promotes p53 mutant stability in tumors and suppresses p73 mediated p21 expression and senescence. We demonstrate that AKT and PI3K inhibitors may be effective in treatment of therapeutically resistant tumors with elevated AKT and carrying gain of function mutations in p53. Our results show that the clinical candidate AKT inhibitor MK-2206 promotes ARF nucleolar localization, reduced p53(mut) stability and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation in a xenograft model of pancreatic cancer. Analysis of human tumors indicates that phospho-S48-NPM may be a useful biomarker for monitoring AKT activity and in vivo efficacy of AKT inhibitor treatment. Critically, we propose that combination therapy involving PI3K-AKT inhibitors would benefit from a patient stratification rationale based on ARF and p53(mut) status.

  18. Tissue-specific p19Arf regulation dictates the response to oncogenic K-ras.

    PubMed

    Young, Nathan P; Jacks, Tyler

    2010-06-01

    The ability of oncogenes to engage tumor suppressor pathways represents a key regulatory mechanism that can limit the outgrowth of incipient tumor cells. For example, in a number of settings oncogenic Ras strongly activates the Ink4a/Arf locus, resulting in cell cycle arrest or senescence. The capacity of different cell types to execute tumor suppressor programs following expression of endogenous K-ras(G12D) in vivo has not been examined. Using compound mutant mice containing the Arf(GFP) reporter and the spontaneously activating K-ras(LA2) allele, we have uncovered dramatic tissue specificity of K-ras(G12D)-dependent p19(Arf) up-regulation. Lung tumors, which can arise in the presence of functional p19(Arf), rarely display p19(Arf) induction. In contrast, sarcomas always show robust activation, which correlates with genetic evidence, suggesting that loss of the p19(Arf)-p53 pathway is a requisite event for sarcomagenesis. Using constitutive and inducible RNAi systems in vivo, we highlight cell type-specific chromatin regulation of Ink4a/Arf as a critical determinant of cellular responses to oncogenic K-ras. Polycomb-group complexes repress the locus in lung tumors, whereas the SWI/SNF family member Snf5 acts as an important mediator of p19(Arf) induction in sarcomas. This variation in tumor suppressor induction might explain the inherent differences between tissues in their sensitivity to Ras-mediated transformation. PMID:20479239

  19. AKT regulates NPM dependent ARF localization and p53mut stability in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Jennifer; Sampson, Oliver; Pefani, Dafni E.; Khoronenkova, Svetlana; Grawenda, Anna; Papaspyropoulos, Angelos; Jamieson, Nigel; McKay, Colin; Sansom, Owen; Dianov, Grigory L.; O'Neill, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is known to regulate ARF subcellular localization and MDM2 activity in response to oncogenic stress, though the precise mechanism has remained elusive. Here we describe how NPM and ARF associate in the nucleoplasm to form a MDM2 inhibitory complex. We find that oligomerization of NPM drives nucleolar accumulation of ARF. Moreover, the formation of NPM and ARF oligomers antagonizes MDM2 association with the inhibitory complex, leading to activation of MDM2 E3-ligase activity and targeting of p53. We find that AKT phosphorylation of NPM-Ser48 prevents oligomerization that results in nucleoplasmic localization of ARF, constitutive MDM2 inhibition and stabilization of p53. We also show that ARF promotes p53 mutant stability in tumors and suppresses p73 mediated p21 expression and senescence. We demonstrate that AKT and PI3K inhibitors may be effective in treatment of therapeutically resistant tumors with elevated AKT and carrying gain of function mutations in p53. Our results show that the clinical candidate AKT inhibitor MK-2206 promotes ARF nucleolar localization, reduced p53mut stability and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation in a xenograft model of pancreatic cancer. Analysis of human tumors indicates that phospho-S48-NPM may be a useful biomarker for monitoring AKT activity and in vivo efficacy of AKT inhibitor treatment. Critically, we propose that combination therapy involving PI3K-AKT inhibitors would benefit from a patient stratification rationale based on ARF and p53mut status. PMID:25071014

  20. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 Interacts with Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1 (NRF-1) and Plays a Role in NRF-1 Transcriptional Regulation*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad B.; Ji, Ping; Anish, Ramakrishnan; Jacobson, Raymond H.; Takada, Shinako

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) is one of the key transcriptional activators for nuclear-coded genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as for many housekeeping genes. A transcriptional co-activator PGC-1 and its related family member PRC have previously been shown to interact with NRF-1 and co-activate NRF-1. We show here that NRF-1 can also directly interact with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and co-purify the PARP-1·DNA-PK·Ku80·Ku70·topoisomerase IIβ-containing protein complex. Our in vitro binding experiments show that DNA-binding/dimerization domain of NRF-1 and the N-terminal half of PARP-1, which contains two Zinc fingers and the auto-modification domain, are responsible for the interaction, and that this interaction occurs with or without PARP-1 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation). DNA-bound NRF-1 can form a complex with PARP-1, suggesting that NRF-1 can recruit the PARP-1·DNA-PK·Ku80·Ku70·topoisomerase IIβ-containing protein complex to the promoter. PARP-1 can also PARylate the DNA-binding domain of NRF-1 and negatively regulate NRF-1·PARP-1 interaction. Transient transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that PARP-1 plays a role during transcriptional activation by NRF-1. Our finding identifies a new aspect of transcriptional regulation used by NRF-1. PMID:19181665

  1. Transient inactivation of Rb and ARF yields regenerative cells from postmitotic mammalian muscle.

    PubMed

    Pajcini, Kostandin V; Corbel, Stephane Y; Sage, Julien; Pomerantz, Jason H; Blau, Helen M

    2010-08-01

    An outstanding biological question is why tissue regeneration in mammals is limited, whereas urodele amphibians and teleost fish regenerate major structures, largely by cell cycle reentry. Upon inactivation of Rb, proliferation of postmitotic urodele skeletal muscle is induced, whereas in mammalian muscle this mechanism does not exist. We postulated that a tumor suppressor present in mammals but absent in regenerative vertebrates, the Ink4a product ARF (alternative reading frame), is a regeneration suppressor. Concomitant inactivation of Arf and Rb led to mammalian muscle cell cycle reentry, loss of differentiation properties, and upregulation of cytokinetic machinery. Single postmitotic myocytes were isolated by laser micro-dissection-catapulting, and transient suppression of Arf and Rb yielded myoblast colonies that retained the ability to differentiate and fuse into myofibers upon transplantation in vivo. These results show that differentiation of mammalian cells is reversed by inactivation of Arf and Rb and support the hypothesis that Arf evolved at the expense of regeneration. PMID:20682446

  2. Photomask cleaning process improvement to minimize ArF haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Michael; McDonald, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Growth of "haze" defects on photomasks exposed in ArF lithography is recognized as a serious problem. Haze defects that have grown to detectable sizes can be analysed in situ by techniques such as EDX or Raman, but to analyze at the photomask manufacturing stage requires extraction of residues by solution in DI water. The effect of extraction conditions, including surface area and material, water volume, time, and temperature, has been studied. A standard method to compare residual ion levels is proposed. Various methods for reducing residual ion levels from the photomask cleaning process have been published. These include SPM reduction, oxygen plasma, SC1 dilution, Megasonic agitation, hot rinse, UV exposure, thermal bake, ozone water, ozone gas, and hydrogenated water. Critical parameters for the cleaning process, besides residual ion levels and contamination removal efficiency, include CD shift, AR/chrome damage, scatter bar damage, and on phase shift masks, the change in phase and transmission. An optimized process combining conventional and novel techniques is described. Data is presented to show the importance of controlling all resist strip and clean processes, not just the final clean. It has achieved sulphate levels of 0.2ng/cm2 (well below the critical level for haze growth), as well as improved results for the other critical parameters. This process has been demonstrated to allow ArF exposure of large numbers of wafers without the appearance of haze defects.

  3. The Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Enzyme Tankyrase Antagonizes Activity of the β-Catenin Destruction Complex through ADP-ribosylation of Axin and APC2.

    PubMed

    Croy, Heather E; Fuller, Caitlyn N; Giannotti, Jemma; Robinson, Paige; Foley, Andrew V A; Yamulla, Robert J; Cosgriff, Sean; Greaves, Bradford D; von Kleeck, Ryan A; An, Hyun Hyung; Powers, Catherine M; Tran, Julie K; Tocker, Aaron M; Jacob, Kimberly D; Davis, Beckley K; Roberts, David M

    2016-06-10

    Most colon cancer cases are initiated by truncating mutations in the tumor suppressor, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). APC is a critical negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway that participates in a multi-protein "destruction complex" to target the key effector protein β-catenin for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Prior work has established that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme Tankyrase (TNKS) antagonizes destruction complex activity by promoting degradation of the scaffold protein Axin, and recent work suggests that TNKS inhibition is a promising cancer therapy. We performed a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen and uncovered TNKS as a putative binding partner of Drosophila APC2, suggesting that TNKS may play multiple roles in destruction complex regulation. We find that TNKS binds a C-terminal RPQPSG motif in Drosophila APC2, and that this motif is conserved in human APC2, but not human APC1. In addition, we find that APC2 can recruit TNKS into the β-catenin destruction complex, placing the APC2/TNKS interaction at the correct intracellular location to regulate β-catenin proteolysis. We further show that TNKS directly PARylates both Drosophila Axin and APC2, but that PARylation does not globally regulate APC2 protein levels as it does for Axin. Moreover, TNKS inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases β-catenin signaling, which we find cannot be explained solely through Axin stabilization. Instead, our findings suggest that TNKS regulates destruction complex activity at the level of both Axin and APC2, providing further mechanistic insight into TNKS inhibition as a potential Wnt pathway cancer therapy. PMID:27068743

  4. Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in skeletal muscle tissue of pediatric patients with severe burn injury: prevention by propranolol treatment.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Gábor; Finnerty, Celeste C; Sbrana, Elena; Elijah, Itoro; Gerö, Domokos; Herndon, David N; Szabó, Csaba

    2011-07-01

    Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has been shown to promote cellular energetic collapse and cellular necrosis in various forms of critical illness. Most of the evidence implicating the PARP pathway in disease processes is derived from preclinical studies. With respect to PARP and burns, studies in rodent and large animal models of burn injury have demonstrated the activation of PARP in various tissues and the beneficial effect of its pharmacological inhibition. The aims of the current study were to measure the activation of PARP in human skeletal muscle biopsies at various stages of severe pediatric burn injury and to identify the cell types where this activation may occur. Another aim of the study was to test the effect of propranolol (an effective treatment of patients with burns) on the activation of PARP in skeletal muscle biopsies. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation was measured by Western blotting for its product, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The localization of PARP activation was determined by PAR immunohistochemistry. The results showed that PARP becomes activated in the skeletal muscle tissue after burns, with the peak of the activation occurring in the middle stage of the disease (13-18 days after burns). Even at the late stage of the disease (69-369 days after burn), an elevated degree of PARP activation persisted in some of the patients. Immunohistochemical studies localized the staining of PAR primarily to vascular endothelial cells and occasionally to resident mononuclear cells. There was a marked suppression of PARP activation in the skeletal muscle biopsies of patients who received propranolol treatment. We conclude that human burn injury is associated with the activation of PARP. We hypothesize that this response may contribute to the inflammatory responses and cell dysfunction in burns. Some of the clinical benefit of propranolol in burns may be related to its inhibitory effect on PARP activation.

  5. The ADP-ribosylation domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS is required for membrane bleb niche formation and bacterial survival within epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Angus, Annette A; Evans, David J; Barbieri, Joseph T; Fleiszig, Suzanne M J

    2010-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can establish a niche within the plasma membrane of epithelial cells (bleb niches) within which bacteria can survive, replicate, and swim at speeds detectable by real-time phase-contrast imaging. This novel virulence strategy is dependent on the bacterial type three secretion system (T3SS), since mutants lacking the T3SS needle or known T3SS effectors localize to perinuclear vacuoles and fail to replicate. Here, we determined which of the three effectors (ExoS, ExoT, or ExoY) were required for bleb niche formation and intracellular replication. PAO1 strains with mutations in exoS, exoT, exoY, or combinations thereof were compared to wild-type and complemented strains. P. aeruginosa exoS mutants, but not exoT or exoY mutants, lost the capacity for bleb niche formation and intracellular replication. Complementation with exoS rescued both phenotypes, either in the background of an exoS mutant or in a mutant lacking all three known effectors. Complementation with activity domain mutants of exoS revealed that the ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADP-r) activity of ExoS, but not the Rho-GAP activity nor the membrane localization domain (MLD) of ExoS, was required to elicit this phenotype. Membrane bleb niches that contained P. aeruginosa also bound annexin V-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), a marker of early apoptosis. These data show that P. aeruginosa bleb niches and intracellular survival involve ExoS ADP-r activity and implicate a connection between bleb niche formation and the known role(s) of ExoS-mediated apoptosis and/or Rab GTPase inactivation.

  6. Single molecule detection of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with DNA strand breaks and their poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation using high-resolution AFM imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sukhanova, Maria V.; Abrakhi, Sanae; Joshi, Vandana; Pastre, David; Kutuzov, Mikhail M.; Anarbaev, Rashid O.; Curmi, Patrick A.; Hamon, Loic; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2016-01-01

    PARP1 and PARP2 are implicated in the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) after detection of DNA damage. The specificity of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with long DNA fragments containing single- and/or double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging in combination with biochemical approaches. Our data show that PARP1 localizes mainly on DNA breaks and exhibits a slight preference for nicks over DSBs, although the protein has a moderately high affinity for undamaged DNA. In contrast to PARP1, PARP2 is mainly detected at a single DNA nick site, exhibiting a low level of binding to undamaged DNA and DSBs. The enhancement of binding affinity of PARP2 for DNA containing a single nick was also observed using fluorescence titration. AFM studies reveal that activation of both PARPs leads to the synthesis of highly branched PAR whose size depends strongly on the presence of SSBs and DSBs for PARP1 and of SSBs for PARP2. The initial affinity between the PARP1, PARP2 and the DNA damaged site appears to influence both the size of the PAR synthesized and the time of residence of PARylated PARP1 and PARP2 on DNA damages. PMID:26673720

  7. Single molecule detection of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with DNA strand breaks and their poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation using high-resolution AFM imaging.

    PubMed

    Sukhanova, Maria V; Abrakhi, Sanae; Joshi, Vandana; Pastre, David; Kutuzov, Mikhail M; Anarbaev, Rashid O; Curmi, Patrick A; Hamon, Loic; Lavrik, Olga I

    2016-04-01

    PARP1 and PARP2 are implicated in the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) after detection of DNA damage. The specificity of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with long DNA fragments containing single- and/or double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging in combination with biochemical approaches. Our data show that PARP1 localizes mainly on DNA breaks and exhibits a slight preference for nicks over DSBs, although the protein has a moderately high affinity for undamaged DNA. In contrast to PARP1, PARP2 is mainly detected at a single DNA nick site, exhibiting a low level of binding to undamaged DNA and DSBs. The enhancement of binding affinity of PARP2 for DNA containing a single nick was also observed using fluorescence titration. AFM studies reveal that activation of both PARPs leads to the synthesis of highly branched PAR whose size depends strongly on the presence of SSBs and DSBs for PARP1 and of SSBs for PARP2. The initial affinity between the PARP1, PARP2 and the DNA damaged site appears to influence both the size of the PAR synthesized and the time of residence of PARylated PARP1 and PARP2 on DNA damages.

  8. Inhibition of potentially lethal radiation damage repair in normal and neoplastic human cells by 3-aminobenzamide: an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribosylation)

    SciTech Connect

    Thraves, P.J.; Mossman, K.L.; Frazier, D.T.; Dritschilo, A.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of 3-aminobenzamide (3AB), an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, on potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) was investigated in normal human fibroblasts and four human tumor cell lines from tumors with varying degrees of radiocurability. The tumor lines selected were: Ewing's sarcoma, a bone tumor considered radiocurable and, human lung adenocarcinoma, osteosarcoma, and melanoma, three tumors considered nonradiocurable. PLDR was measured by comparing cell survival when cells were irradiated in a density-inhibited state and replated at appropriate cell numbers at specified times following irradiation to cell survival when cells were replated immediately following irradiation. 3AB was added to cultures 2 hr prior to irradiation and removed at the time of replating. Different test radiation doses were used for the various cell lines to obtain equivalent levels of cell survival. In the absence of inhibitor, PLDR was similar in all cell lines tested. In the presence of 8 mM 3AB, differential inhibition of PLDR was observed. PLDR was almost completely inhibited in Ewing's sarcoma cells and partially inhibited in normal fibroblast cells and osteosarcoma cells. No inhibition of PLDR was observed in the lung adenocarcinoma or melanoma cells. Except for the osteosarcoma cells, inhibition of PLDR by 3AB correlated well with radiocurability.

  9. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 Regulates Arabidopsis Petal Growth by Interacting with the bHLH Transcription Factor BIGPETALp[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Varaud, Emilie; Brioudes, Florian; Szécsi, Judit; Leroux, Julie; Brown, Spencer; Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Bendahmane, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Plant organ growth and final size are determined by coordinated cell proliferation and expansion. The BIGPETALp (BPEp) basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor was shown to limit Arabidopsis thaliana petal growth by influencing cell expansion. We demonstrate here that BPEp interacts with AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 (ARF8) to affect petal growth. This interaction is mediated through the BPEp C-terminal domain (SDBPEp) and the C-terminal domain of ARF8. Site-directed mutagenesis identified an amino acid consensus motif in SDBPEp that is critical for mediating BPEp-ARF8 interaction. This motif shares sequence similarity with motif III of ARF and AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID proteins. Petals of arf8 mutants are significantly larger than those of the wild type due to increased cell number and increased cell expansion. bpe arf8 double mutant analyses show that during early petal development stages, ARF8 and BPEp work synergistically to limit mitotic growth. During late stages, ARF8 and BPEp interact to limit cell expansion. The alterations in cell division and cell expansion observed in arf8 and/or bpe mutants are associated with a change in expression of early auxin-responsive genes. The data provide evidence of an interaction between an ARF and a bHLH transcription factor and of its biological significance in regulating petal growth, with local auxin levels likely influencing such a biological function. PMID:21421811

  10. The auxin response factor transcription factor family in soybean: genome-wide identification and expression analyses during development and water stress.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chien Van; Le, Dung Tien; Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Sulieman, Saad; Tran, Uyen Thi; Mochida, Keiichi; Dong, Nguyen Van; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2013-10-01

    In plants, the auxin response factor (ARF) transcription factors play important roles in regulating diverse biological processes, including development, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stimuli. An exhaustive search of soybean genome revealed 51 GmARFs, many of which were formed by genome duplications. The typical GmARFs (43 members) contain a DNA-binding domain, an ARF domain and an auxin/indole acetic acid (AUX/IAA) dimerization domain, whereas the remaining eight members lack the dimerization domain. Phylogenetic analysis of the ARFs from soybean and Arabidopsis revealed both similarity and divergence between the two ARF families, as well as enabled us to predict the functions of the GmARFs. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and available soybean Affymetrix array and Illumina transcriptome sequence data, a comprehensive expression atlas of GmARF genes was obtained in various organs and tissues, providing useful information about their involvement in defining the precise nature of individual tissues. Furthermore, expression profiling using qRT-PCR and microarray data revealed many water stress-responsive GmARFs in soybean, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Our systematic analysis has identified excellent tissue-specific and/or stress-responsive candidate GmARF genes for in-depth in planta functional analyses, which would lead to potential applications in the development of genetically modified soybean cultivars with enhanced drought tolerance. PMID:23810914

  11. The ARF2-ANT-COR15A gene cascade regulates ABA-signaling-mediated resistance of large seeds to drought in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lai-Sheng; Wang, Zhi-Bo; Yao, Shun-Qiao; Liu, Aizhong

    2015-11-01

    Seedlings of large-seeded plants are considered to be able to withstand abiotic stresses efficiently. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the involved signaling crosstalk between the large-seeded trait and abiotic tolerance are, however, largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate the molecular link that integrates plant abscisic acid (ABA) responses to drought stress into the regulation of seed mass. Both loss-of-function mutants of the Auxin Response Factor 2 (ARF2 encoding a transcription factor) and lines overexpressing AINTEGUMENTA (ANT; a transcription factor) under the 35S promoter exhibited large seed and drought-tolerant phenotypes as a result of abnormal ABA-auxin crosstalk signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. The target gene COLD-REGULATED15A (COR15a) was identified as participating in the regulation of seed development with ABA signaling through a negative regulation mechanism that is mediated by ANT. The molecular and genetic evidence presented indicate that ARF2, ANT and COR15A form an ABA-mediated signaling pathway to link modulation of seed mass with drought tolerance. These observations indicate that the ARF2 transcription factor serves as a molecular link that integrates plant ABA responses to drought stress into the regulation of seed mass. PMID:26395398

  12. Elimination of p19ARF-expressing cells enhances pulmonary function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Michihiro; Asai, Azusa; Kawagishi, Hiroyuki; Mikawa, Ryuta; Iwashita, Yuji; Kanayama, Kazuki; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Sato, Tadashi; Maruyama, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells accumulate in many tissues as animals age and are considered to underlie several aging-associated pathologies. The tumor suppressors p19ARF and p16INK4a, both of which are encoded in the CDKN2A locus, play critical roles in inducing and maintaining permanent cell cycle arrest during cellular senescence. Although the elimination of p16INK4a-expressing cells extends the life span of the mouse, it is unclear whether tissue function is restored by the elimination of senescent cells in aged animals and whether and how p19ARF contributes to tissue aging. The aging-associated decline in lung function is characterized by an increase in compliance as well as pathogenic susceptibility to pulmonary diseases. We herein demonstrated that pulmonary function in 12-month-old mice was reversibly restored by the elimination of p19ARF-expressing cells. The ablation of p19ARF-expressing cells using a toxin receptor-mediated cell knockout system ameliorated aging-associated lung hypofunction. Furthermore, the aging-associated gene expression profile was reversed after the elimination of p19ARF. Our results indicate that the aging-associated decline in lung function was, at least partly, attributed to p19ARF and was recovered by eliminating p19ARF-expressing cells. PMID:27699227

  13. The human ARF tumor suppressor senses blastema activity and suppresses epimorphic tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Robert G; Kouklis, Gayle K; Ahituv, Nadav; Pomerantz, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    The control of proliferation and differentiation by tumor suppressor genes suggests that evolution of divergent tumor suppressor repertoires could influence species’ regenerative capacity. To directly test that premise, we humanized the zebrafish p53 pathway by introducing regulatory and coding sequences of the human tumor suppressor ARF into the zebrafish genome. ARF was dormant during development, in uninjured adult fins, and during wound healing, but was highly expressed in the blastema during epimorphic fin regeneration after amputation. Regenerative, but not developmental signals resulted in binding of zebrafish E2f to the human ARF promoter and activated conserved ARF-dependent Tp53 functions. The context-dependent activation of ARF did not affect growth and development but inhibited regeneration, an unexpected distinct tumor suppressor response to regenerative versus developmental environments. The antagonistic pleiotropic characteristics of ARF as both tumor and regeneration suppressor imply that inducing epimorphic regeneration clinically would require modulation of ARF –p53 axis activation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07702.001 PMID:26575287

  14. Elimination of p19ARF-expressing cells enhances pulmonary function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Michihiro; Asai, Azusa; Kawagishi, Hiroyuki; Mikawa, Ryuta; Iwashita, Yuji; Kanayama, Kazuki; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Sato, Tadashi; Maruyama, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells accumulate in many tissues as animals age and are considered to underlie several aging-associated pathologies. The tumor suppressors p19ARF and p16INK4a, both of which are encoded in the CDKN2A locus, play critical roles in inducing and maintaining permanent cell cycle arrest during cellular senescence. Although the elimination of p16INK4a-expressing cells extends the life span of the mouse, it is unclear whether tissue function is restored by the elimination of senescent cells in aged animals and whether and how p19ARF contributes to tissue aging. The aging-associated decline in lung function is characterized by an increase in compliance as well as pathogenic susceptibility to pulmonary diseases. We herein demonstrated that pulmonary function in 12-month-old mice was reversibly restored by the elimination of p19ARF-expressing cells. The ablation of p19ARF-expressing cells using a toxin receptor-mediated cell knockout system ameliorated aging-associated lung hypofunction. Furthermore, the aging-associated gene expression profile was reversed after the elimination of p19ARF. Our results indicate that the aging-associated decline in lung function was, at least partly, attributed to p19ARF and was recovered by eliminating p19ARF-expressing cells.

  15. Proteobacterial ArfA peptides are synthesized from non-stop messenger RNAs.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Ryan E; Poole, Stephen J; Garza-Sánchez, Fernando; Benbow, Sarah; Hayes, Christopher S

    2012-08-24

    The translation of non-stop mRNA (which lack in-frame stop codons) represents a significant quality control problem for all organisms. In eubacteria, the transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) system facilitates recycling of stalled ribosomes from non-stop mRNA in a process termed trans-translation or ribosome rescue. During rescue, the nascent chain is tagged with the tmRNA-encoded ssrA peptide, which promotes polypeptide degradation after release from the stalled ribosome. Escherichia coli possesses an additional ribosome rescue pathway mediated by the ArfA peptide. The E. coli arfA message contains a hairpin structure that is cleaved by RNase III to produce a non-stop transcript. Therefore, ArfA levels are controlled by tmRNA through ssrA-peptide tagging and proteolysis. Here, we examine whether ArfA homologues from other bacteria are also regulated by RNase III and tmRNA. We searched 431 arfA coding sequences for mRNA secondary structures and found that 82.8% of the transcripts contain predicted hairpins in their 3'-coding regions. The arfA hairpins from Haemophilus influenzae, Proteus mirabilis, Vibrio fischeri, and Pasteurella multocida are all cleaved by RNase III as predicted, whereas the hairpin from Neisseria gonorrhoeae functions as an intrinsic transcription terminator to generate non-stop mRNA. Each ArfA homologue is ssrA-tagged and degraded when expressed in wild-type E. coli cells, but accumulates in mutants lacking tmRNA. Together, these findings show that ArfA synthesis from non-stop mRNA is a conserved mechanism to regulate the alternative ribosome rescue pathway. This strategy ensures that ArfA homologues are only deployed when the tmRNA system is incapacitated or overwhelmed by stalled ribosomes. PMID:22791716

  16. Neon reduction program on Cymer ArF light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanawade, Dinesh; Roman, Yzzer; Cacouris, Ted; Thornes, Josh; O'Brien, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    In response to significant neon supply constraints, Cymer has responded with a multi-part plan to support its customers. Cymer's primary objective is to ensure that reliable system performance is maintained while minimizing gas consumption. Gas algorithms were optimized to ensure stable performance across all operating conditions. The Cymer neon support plan contains four elements: 1. Gas reduction program to reduce neon by >50% while maintaining existing performance levels and availability; 2. short-term containment solutions for immediate relief. 3. qualification of additional gas suppliers; and 4. long-term recycling/reclaim opportunity. The Cymer neon reduction program has shown excellent results as demonstrated through the comparison on standard gas use versus the new >50% reduced neon performance for ArF immersion light sources. Testing included stressful conditions such as repetition rate, duty cycle and energy target changes. No performance degradation has been observed over typical gas lives.

  17. MicroRNA390-Directed TAS3 Cleavage Leads to the Production of tasiRNA-ARF3/4 During Somatic Embryogenesis in Dimocarpus longan Lour

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuling; Lin, Lixia; Lai, Ruilian; Liu, Weihua; Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Zihao; XuHan, Xu; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2015-01-01

    Trans-acting short-interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) originate from TAS3 families through microRNA (miRNA) 390-guided cleavage of primary transcripts and target auxin response factors (ARF3/-4), which are involved in the normal development of lateral roots and flowers in plants. However, their roles in embryo development are still unclear. Here, the pathway miR390-TAS3-ARF3/-4 was identified systematically for the first time during somatic embryo development in Dimocarpus longan. We identified the miR390 primary transcript and promoter. The promoter contained cis-acting elements responsive to stimuli such as light, salicylic acid, anaerobic induction, fungal elicitor, circadian control, and heat stress. The longan TAS3 transcript, containing two miR390-binding sites, was isolated; the miR390- guided cleavage site located near the 3′ end of the TAS3 transcript was verified. Eight TAS3-tasiRNAs with the 21-nucleotides phase were found among longan small RNA data, further confirming that miR390-directed TAS3 cleavage leads to the production of tasiRNA in longan. Among them, TAS3_5′D5+ and 5′D6+ tasiRNAs were highly abundant, and verified to target ARF3 and -4, implying that miR390-guided TAS3 cleavage with 21-nucleotides phase leading to the production of tasiRNA-ARF is conserved in plants. Pri-miR390 was highly expressed in friable-embryogenic callus (EC), and less expressed in incomplete compact pro-embryogenic cultures, while miR390 showed its lowest expression in EC and highest expression in torpedo-shaped embryos (TEs). DlTAS3 and DlARF4 both exhibited their lowest expressions in EC, and reached their peaks in the globular embryos stage, which were mainly inversely proportional to the expression of miR390, especially at the globular embryos to cotyledonary embryos (CEs) stages. While DlARF3 showed little variation from the EC to TEs stages, and exhibited its lowest expression in the CEs stage. There was a general lack of correlation between the expressions of DlARF

  18. MicroRNA390-Directed TAS3 Cleavage Leads to the Production of tasiRNA-ARF3/4 During Somatic Embryogenesis in Dimocarpus longan Lour.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuling; Lin, Lixia; Lai, Ruilian; Liu, Weihua; Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Zihao; XuHan, Xu; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2015-01-01

    Trans-acting short-interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) originate from TAS3 families through microRNA (miRNA) 390-guided cleavage of primary transcripts and target auxin response factors (ARF3/-4), which are involved in the normal development of lateral roots and flowers in plants. However, their roles in embryo development are still unclear. Here, the pathway miR390-TAS3-ARF3/-4 was identified systematically for the first time during somatic embryo development in Dimocarpus longan. We identified the miR390 primary transcript and promoter. The promoter contained cis-acting elements responsive to stimuli such as light, salicylic acid, anaerobic induction, fungal elicitor, circadian control, and heat stress. The longan TAS3 transcript, containing two miR390-binding sites, was isolated; the miR390- guided cleavage site located near the 3' end of the TAS3 transcript was verified. Eight TAS3-tasiRNAs with the 21-nucleotides phase were found among longan small RNA data, further confirming that miR390-directed TAS3 cleavage leads to the production of tasiRNA in longan. Among them, TAS3_5'D5+ and 5'D6+ tasiRNAs were highly abundant, and verified to target ARF3 and -4, implying that miR390-guided TAS3 cleavage with 21-nucleotides phase leading to the production of tasiRNA-ARF is conserved in plants. Pri-miR390 was highly expressed in friable-embryogenic callus (EC), and less expressed in incomplete compact pro-embryogenic cultures, while miR390 showed its lowest expression in EC and highest expression in torpedo-shaped embryos (TEs). DlTAS3 and DlARF4 both exhibited their lowest expressions in EC, and reached their peaks in the globular embryos stage, which were mainly inversely proportional to the expression of miR390, especially at the globular embryos to cotyledonary embryos (CEs) stages. While DlARF3 showed little variation from the EC to TEs stages, and exhibited its lowest expression in the CEs stage. There was a general lack of correlation between the expressions of DlARF3

  19. Virulence factors of Clostridium difficile and their role during infection.

    PubMed

    Janoir, Claire

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is the prominent etiological agent of healthcare-associated diarrhea. The disease symptoms range from mild diarrhea to life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. The main risk factor for developing an infection after contamination by the resistant spores is the disruption of the gut microbiota, allowing the spores to germinate. The colonization of the gut is likely to be governed by the bacterial resistance to the host response and the bacterial adhesion to the mucosa. To date, several putative adhesins have been identified, most of them displaying MSCRAMM function, and studies of adhesin mutants have clearly underlined the multi-factorial feature of C. difficile adhesion to the host. Flagella have also been involved in the colonisation process, but their role depends on the tested strains. The clinical signs are mainly due to two large glucosylating toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which are essential for the disease manifestations. The importance of each toxin differs according to strains and experimental conditions, but TcdB seems to be the prominent one, as showed by mutant studies and the natural occurrence of pathogenic strains that do not produce TcdA. The role of the ADP ribosylating binary toxin expressed by some strains, including epidemic lineages, is not clearly established, although it has been related to higher morbidity and mortality. Production of low level of the glucosylating toxins and of the binary toxin seems to promote adhesion to host cells. Expression of the tcdA and tcdB genes is under the control of the second messenger c-di-GMP. This is also the case for other virulence factors, in particular for flagellar, pili type IV and some adhesin genes. Indeed, several studies using knock-out mutants suggest that C. difficile may undergo a switch between the adhesion phenotype and the motility phenotype during the course of infection, regulated by the c-di-GMP intracellular level. In vivo, this could result in biofilm formation that

  20. Data supporting Arf6 regulation of Schwann cell differentiation and myelination.

    PubMed

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Tsumura, Hideki; Kawahara, Kazuko; Tanoue, Akito; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-12-01

    The data is related to the research article entitled "Arf6 mediates Schwann cell differentiation and myelination" [1]. To further investigate the role of Arf6 in promoting myelination by Schwann cells in vivo, we have characterized an another line (#2) of small-hairpin (sh)RNA transgenic mice targeting Arf6. The number of transgenes per one allele in this line was very low (2 transgenes), comparing with high copies in the previous line (#1, 20 transgenes) [1]. In 4 days of neonatal age, transgenic mice exhibited decreased myelin thickness; however, decreased levels were not as much as those in the line #1, likely depending on transgene copy number. In 60-day-old mice, the difference became smaller. On the other hand, transgene׳s effect was not related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. These data support the key role of Arf6 in Schwann cell myelination, especially in the initiation.

  1. ARF-B2: A Protein Complex that Specifically Binds to Part of the Anaerobic Response Element of Maize Adh 11

    PubMed Central

    Ferl, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Crude whole cell extracts from maize (Zea mays L.) suspension cells were examined for DNA binding proteins that specifically interact with a portion of the maize Adh 1 promoter that was previously shown to be in contact with a trans-acting factor in vivo. A 17 base pair, double-stranded oligonucleotide probe was constructed that centered around a strong in vivo dimethylsulfate footprint (B2) that coincides with part of the anaerobic response element (ARE). Gel retardation assays were used to characterize a major, specific DNA binding protein activity found in the crude extracts. The activity is present in both aerobic and hypoxically treated cultures and has been designated ARF-B2 (ARE binding factor). ARF-B2 appears to be a multicomponent complex, with a 54 kilodalton subunit termed ARF-B2α in primary contact with the target DNA. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:16667563

  2. Evaluation of ArF lithography for 45-nm node implant layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, T. C.; Maynollo, J.; Perez, J. J.; Popova, I.; Zhang, B.

    2007-03-01

    Scaling of designs to the 45nm or future nodes presents challenges for KrF lithography. The purpose of this work was to explore several aspects of ArF lithography for implant layers. A comparison of dark loss seen in a KrF resist and TARC system to that seen in an ArF system showed significant differences. While the KrF resist yielded dark loss that varied with CD and pitch, the ArF resist showed very little dark loss and no significant variation through the design space. ArF resist were observed to have marginal adhesion to various substrates. Improvements in adhesion performance were shown by pre-treating the substrate with various processes, of which an ozone clean provided the best results. Optimization of the HMDS priming conditions also improved adhesion, and it was observed that the HMDS reaction proceeds at different rates on different subsatrates, which is particularly important for implant layers where the resist must adhere to both Si and SiO II. The effect of ArF resist profile with varying reflectivity swing position is shown, and some investigation into reflectivity optimization techniques was performed. Low-index ArF TARC was shown to reduce the CD variation over polysilicon topography, and wet developable BARC was demonstrated to provide consistent profiles on both Si and SiO II substrates. Finally, a comparison of ArF and KrF resists after As implant indicates that the ArF resist showed similar shrinkage performance to the KrF resist.

  3. P53- and mevalonate pathway–driven malignancies require Arf6 for metastasis and drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ari; Oikawa, Tsukasa; Hashimoto, Shigeru; Sugino, Hirokazu; Yoshikawa, Ayumu; Otsuka, Yutaro; Handa, Haruka; Onodera, Yasuhito; Nam, Jin-Min; Oneyama, Chitose; Okada, Masato; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance, metastasis, and a mesenchymal transcriptional program are central features of aggressive breast tumors. The GTPase Arf6, often overexpressed in tumors, is critical to promote epithelial–mesenchymal transition and invasiveness. The metabolic mevalonate pathway (MVP) is associated with tumor invasiveness and known to prenylate proteins, but which prenylated proteins are critical for MVP-driven cancers is unknown. We show here that MVP requires the Arf6-dependent mesenchymal program. The MVP enzyme geranylgeranyl transferase II (GGT-II) and its substrate Rab11b are critical for Arf6 trafficking to the plasma membrane, where it is activated by receptor tyrosine kinases. Consistently, mutant p53, which is known to support tumorigenesis via MVP, promotes Arf6 activation via GGT-II and Rab11b. Inhibition of MVP and GGT-II blocked invasion and metastasis and reduced cancer cell resistance against chemotherapy agents, but only in cells overexpressing Arf6 and components of the mesenchymal program. Overexpression of Arf6 and mesenchymal proteins as well as enhanced MVP activity correlated with poor patient survival. These results provide insights into the molecular basis of MVP-driven malignancy. PMID:27044891

  4. Expression of p14ARF, MDM2, and MDM4 in human retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Pajovic, Sanja; Gallie, Brenda L

    2008-10-10

    It is still not clear whether the p53 pathway is altered in retinoblastoma development. We assessed the expression of the p53 pathway genes p14(ARF), mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), and mouse double minute 4 (MDM4) in human retinoblastoma compared to normal retina. Primary human retinoblastomas, retinoblastoma cell lines and normal retinas were assessed for p14(ARF) and MDM4 mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR. p14(ARF), MDM2, and MDM4 protein were measured by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. Compared to retina, p14(ARF) mRNA expression was notably increased in retinoblastoma but p14(ARF) protein was undetectable. MDM2 and MDM4 proteins were expressed in 22/22 retinoblastomas. MDM2 was expressed in 3/10 retinas tested, and MDM4 in 10/10 retinas. The expression level of MDM2 protein in retinoblastomas and retina was comparable, while MDM4 protein was overexpressed in one retinoblastoma cell line Y79 and two primary retinoblastomas. We observe that overexpression of MDM2 and MDM4 is not a necessary step in retinoblastoma development. However, loss of detectable p14(ARF) protein and resultant lack of functional inactivation of these p53 inhibitors may contribute to retinoblastoma development by constitutive inhibition of p53. PMID:18644346

  5. PI3K regulates endocytosis after insulin secretion by mediating signaling crosstalk between Arf6 and Rab27a.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ando, Tomomi; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Takei, Masahiro; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Matsunaga, Kohichi; Ishizaki, Ray; Izumi, Tetsuro; Niki, Ichiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    In secretory cells, endocytosis is coupled to exocytosis to enable proper secretion. Although endocytosis is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis before and after secretion, knowledge about secretagogue-induced endocytosis in secretory cells is still limited. Here, we searched for proteins that interacted with the Rab27a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) EPI64 (also known as TBC1D10A) and identified the Arf6 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (also known as CYTH2) in pancreatic β-cells. We found that the insulin secretagogue glucose promotes phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), thereby recruiting ARNO to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Peripheral ARNO promotes clathrin assembly through its GEF activity for Arf6 and regulates the early stage of endocytosis. We also found that peripheral ARNO recruits EPI64 to the same area and that the interaction requires glucose-induced endocytosis in pancreatic β-cells. Given that GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate exocytosis and the late stage of endocytosis, our results indicate that the glucose-induced activation of PI3K plays a pivotal role in exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, and that ARNO and EPI64 regulate endocytosis at distinct stages.

  6. Characterization of Shikonin Derivative Secretion in Lithospermum erythrorhizon Hairy Roots as a Model of Lipid-Soluble Metabolite Secretion from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Kanade; Yano, Mariko; Kaminade, Kenta; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Aoyama, Takashi; Sato, Fumihiko; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2016-01-01

    Shikonin derivatives are specialized lipophilic metabolites, secreted in abundant amounts from the root epidermal cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Because they have anti-microbial activities, these compounds, which are derivatives of red naphthoquinone, are thought to serve as a chemical barrier for plant roots. The mechanism by which they are secreted from cells is, however, largely unknown. The shikonin production system in L. erythrorhizon is an excellent model for studying the mechanism by which lipophilic compounds are secreted from plant cells, because of the abundant amounts of these compounds produced by L. erythrorhizon, the 0 to 100% inducibility of their production, the light-specific inhibition of production, and the visibility of these products as red pigments. To date, many factors regulating shikonin biosynthesis have been identified, but no mechanism that regulates shikonin secretion without inhibiting biosynthesis has been detected. This study showed that inhibitors of membrane traffic strongly inhibit shikonin secretion without inhibiting shikonin production, suggesting that the secretion of shikonin derivatives into the apoplast utilizes pathways common to the ADP-ribosylation factor/guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF/GEF) system and actin filament polymerization, at least in part. These findings provide clues about the machinery involved in secreting lipid-soluble metabolites from cells. PMID:27507975

  7. Characterization of Shikonin Derivative Secretion in Lithospermum erythrorhizon Hairy Roots as a Model of Lipid-Soluble Metabolite Secretion from Plants.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Kanade; Yano, Mariko; Kaminade, Kenta; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Aoyama, Takashi; Sato, Fumihiko; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2016-01-01

    Shikonin derivatives are specialized lipophilic metabolites, secreted in abundant amounts from the root epidermal cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Because they have anti-microbial activities, these compounds, which are derivatives of red naphthoquinone, are thought to serve as a chemical barrier for plant roots. The mechanism by which they are secreted from cells is, however, largely unknown. The shikonin production system in L. erythrorhizon is an excellent model for studying the mechanism by which lipophilic compounds are secreted from plant cells, because of the abundant amounts of these compounds produced by L. erythrorhizon, the 0 to 100% inducibility of their production, the light-specific inhibition of production, and the visibility of these products as red pigments. To date, many factors regulating shikonin biosynthesis have been identified, but no mechanism that regulates shikonin secretion without inhibiting biosynthesis has been detected. This study showed that inhibitors of membrane traffic strongly inhibit shikonin secretion without inhibiting shikonin production, suggesting that the secretion of shikonin derivatives into the apoplast utilizes pathways common to the ADP-ribosylation factor/guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF/GEF) system and actin filament polymerization, at least in part. These findings provide clues about the machinery involved in secreting lipid-soluble metabolites from cells. PMID:27507975

  8. DNA double-strand breaks cooperate with loss of Ink4 and Arf tumor suppressors to generate glioblastomas with frequent Met amplification

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Cristel V.; Todorova, Pavlina K.; Gillam, Molly C.; Tomimatsu, Nozomi; del Alcazar, Carlos R Gil; Ilcheva, Mariya; Mukherjee, Bipasha; McEllin, Brian; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Hatanpaa, Kimmo; Story, Michael D.; Habib, Amyn A.; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Bachoo, Robert; Burma, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBM) are highly radioresistant and lethal brain tumors. Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a risk factor for the development of GBM. In this study, we systematically examined the contribution of IR-induced DSBs to GBM development using transgenic mouse models harboring brain-targeted deletions of key tumor suppressors frequently lost in GBM, namely Ink4a, Ink4b, Arf, and/or PTEN. Using low linear energy transfer (LET) X-rays to generate simple breaks or high LET Fe ions to generate complex breaks, we found that DSBs induce high-grade gliomas in these mice which, otherwise, do not develop gliomas spontaneously. Loss of Ink4a and Arf was sufficient to trigger IR-induced glioma development but additional loss of Ink4b significantly increased tumor incidence. We analyzed IR-induced tumors for copy number alterations (CNAs) to identify oncogenic changes that were generated and selected for as a consequence of stochastic DSB events. We found Met amplification to be the most significant oncogenic event in these radiation-induced gliomas. Importantly, Met activation resulted in expression of Sox2, a GBM cancer stem cell (CSC) marker, and was obligatory for tumor formation. In sum, these results indicate that radiation-induced DSBs cooperate with loss of Ink4 and Arf tumor suppressors to generate high-grade gliomas that are commonly driven by Met amplification and activation. PMID:24632607

  9. The Ink4/Arf locus is a barrier for iPS reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Collado, Manuel; Villasante, Aranzazu; Strati, Katerina; Ortega, Sagrario; Cañamero, Marta; Blasco, Maria A.; Serrano, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the reprogramming of differentiated cells into induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells by Oct4, Klf4 and Sox2 (3F) remain poorly understood 1. The Ink4/Arf tumour suppressor locus encodes three potent inhibitors of proliferation, namely p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b and Arf, which are basally expressed in differentiated cells and upregulated by aberrant mitogenic signals 2-4. We show here that the locus is completely silenced in iPS cells, as well as in embryonic stem (ES) cells, acquiring the epigenetic marks of a bivalent chromatin domain, and retaining the ability to be reactivated upon differentiation. Cell culture conditions during reprogramming enhance the expression of the Ink4/Arf locus, further highlighting the importance of silencing the locus to allow proliferation and reprogramming. Indeed, the 3F together repress the Ink4/Arf locus soon after their expression and concomitant with the appearance of the first molecular markers of stemness. This downregulation also occurs in cells carrying the oncoprotein large-T, which functionally inactivates the pathways regulated by the Ink4/Arf locus, thus implying that the silencing of the locus is intrinsic to reprogramming and not the result of a selective process. Genetic inhibition of the Ink4/Arf locus has a profound positive impact on the efficiency of iPS generation, increasing both the kinetics of reprogramming and the number of emerging iPS colonies. In murine cells, Arf, rather than Ink4a, is the main barrier to reprogramming through activation of p53 and p21; whereas, in human fibroblasts, INK4a is more important than ARF. Finally, organismal aging upregulates the Ink4/Arf locus 2,5 and, accordingly, reprogramming is less efficient in cells from old organisms, but this defect can be rescued by inhibiting the locus with an shRNA. All together, we conclude that the silencing of Ink4/Arf locus is rate limiting for reprogramming, and its transient inhibition may significantly improve the

  10. Acute renal failure in patients following bone marrow transplantation: prevalence, risk factors and outcome.

    PubMed

    Gruss, E; Bernis, C; Tomas, J F; Garcia-Canton, C; Figuera, A; Motellón, J L; Paraiso, V; Traver, J A; Fernandez-Rañada, J M

    1995-01-01

    To assess the prevalence, risk factors, clinical causes and outcome of acute renal failure (ARF) following bone marrow transplantation (BMT), a retrospective analysis of 275 patients was undertaken. ARF was diagnosed in 72 patients (26%) and occurred in 81.9% within the first month. The three main clinical causes were multifactorial (36%), nephrotoxic (29%), and veno-occlusive disease of the liver (VOD) 15%. The prevalence was higher in allogeneic BMT (36%) than in autologous BMT (6.5%). Risk factors related to the development of ARF wee preexisting VOD and age older than 25 years. Logistic regression in allogeneic BMT confirmed this association (VOD, odds ratio 3.8; age offer than 25, odds ratio 1.9). Underlying disease, graft-versus-host disease, sepsis, conditioning therapy, and sex were not associated with ARF. Seventeen cases of ARF required hemodialysis (24%) mainly in association with VOD (70.5%). The overall morality from ARF was 45.8%, the dialyzed group having the highest mortality (88%). Survival in the ARF group was continuously worse up to 3 months and the actuarial survival at 10 years was 29.7 versus 53.2%. We conclude that ARF is a common complication mainly in allogeneic BMT and carries a grave prognosis. VOD and age were risk factors for ARF.

  11. Aldolase directly interacts with ARNO and modulates cell morphology and acidic vesicle distribution

    PubMed Central

    Merkulova, Maria; Hurtado-Lorenzo, Andrés; Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Zhuang, Zhenjie; Brown, Dennis; Ausiello, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) a2-subunit functions as an endosomal pH sensor that interacts with the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) guanine nucleotide exchange factor, ARNO. In the present study, we showed that ARNO directly interacts not only with the a2-subunit but with all a-isoforms (a1–a4) of the V-ATPase, indicating a widespread regulatory interaction between V-ATPase and Arf GTPases. We then extended our search for other ARNO effectors that may modulate V-ATPase-dependent vesicular trafficking events and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Pull-down experiments using cytosol of mouse proximal tubule cells (MTCs) showed that ARNO interacts with aldolase, but not with other enzymes of the glycolytic pathway. Direct interaction of aldolase with the pleckstrin homology domain of ARNO was revealed by pull-down assays using recombinant proteins, and surface plasmon resonance revealed their high avidity interaction with a dissociation constant: KD = 2.84 × 10−10 M. MTC cell fractionation revealed that aldolase is also associated with membranes of early endosomes. Functionally, aldolase knockdown in HeLa cells produced striking morphological changes accompanied by long filamentous cell protrusions and acidic vesicle redistribution. However, the 50% knockdown we achieved did not modulate the acidification capacity of endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Finally, a combination of small interfering RNA knockdown and overexpression revealed that the expression of aldolase is inversely correlated with gelsolin levels in HeLa cells. In summary, we have shown that aldolase forms a complex with ARNO/Arf6 and the V-ATPase and that it may contribute to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and/or the trafficking and redistribution of V-ATPase-dependent acidic compartments via a combination of protein-protein interaction and gene expression mechanisms. PMID:21307348

  12. The Capping Domain in RalF Regulates Effector Functions

    PubMed Central

    Alix, Eric; Chesnel, Laurent; Bowzard, Brad J.; Tucker, Aimee M.; Delprato, Anna; Cherfils, Jacqueline; Wood, David O.; Kahn, Richard A.; Roy, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    The Legionella pneumophila effector protein RalF functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates the host small GTPase protein ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf), and recruits this host protein to the vacuoles in which this pathogen resides. GEF activity is conferred by the Sec7 domain located in the N-terminal region of RalF. Structural studies indicate that the C-terminal region of RalF makes contacts with residues in the Sec7 domain important for Arf interactions. Theoretically, the C-terminal region of RalF could prevent nucleotide exchange activity by blocking the ability of Arf to interact with the Sec7 domain. For this reason, the C-terminal region of RalF has been termed a capping domain. Here, the role of the RalF capping domain was investigated by comparing biochemical and effector activities mediated by this domain in both the Legionella RalF protein (LpRalF) and in a RalF ortholog isolated from the unrelated intracellular pathogen Rickettsia prowazekii (RpRalF). These data indicate that both RalF proteins contain a functional Sec7 domain and that the capping domain regulates RalF GEF activity. The capping domain has intrinsic determinants that mediate localization of the RalF protein inside of host cells and confer distinct effector activities. Localization mediated by the capping domain of LpRalF enables the GEF to modulate membrane transport in the secretory pathway, whereas, the capping domain of RpRalF enables this bacterial GEF to modulate actin dynamics occurring near the plasma membrane. Thus, these data reveal that divergence in the function of the C-terminal capping domain alters the in vivo functions of the RalF proteins. PMID:23166491

  13. The phytoplasmal virulence factor TENGU causes plant sterility by downregulating of the jasmonic acid and auxin pathways

    PubMed Central

    Minato, Nami; Himeno, Misako; Hoshi, Ayaka; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Yusa, Akira; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Kamiya, Yuji; Namba, Shigetou

    2014-01-01

    Despite plants infected by pathogens are often unable to produce offspring, it remains unclear how sterility is induced in host plants. In this study, we demonstrate that TENGU, a phytoplasmal virulence peptide known as a dwarfism inducer, acts as an inducer of sterility. Transgenic expression of TENGU induced both male and female sterility in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers similar to those observed in double knockout mutants of auxin response factor 6 (ARF6) and ARF8, which are known to regulate floral development in a jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent manner. Transcripts of ARF6 and ARF8 were significantly decreased in both tengu-transgenic and phytoplasma-infected plants. Furthermore, JA and auxin levels were actually decreased in tengu-transgenic buds, suggesting that TENGU reduces the endogenous levels of phytohormones by repressing ARF6 and ARF8, resulting in impaired flower maturation. TENGU is the first virulence factor with the effects on plant reproduction by perturbation of phytohormone signaling. PMID:25492247

  14. Azidothymidine and cisplatin increase p14ARF expression in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Vaskivuo, Liisa; Rysae, Jaana; Koivuperae, Johanna; Myllynen, Paeivi; Vaskivuo, Tommi; Chvalova, Katerina; Serpi, Raisa; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Puistola, Ulla; Vaehaekangas, Kirsi . E-mail: kirsi.vahakangas@uku.fi

    2006-10-01

    p14{sup ARF} tumor suppressor protein regulates p53 by interfering with mdm2-p53 interaction. p14{sup ARF} is activated in response to oncogenic stimuli but little is known of the responses of endogenous p14{sup ARF} to different types of cellular stress or DNA damage. Azidothymidine (AZT) is being tested in several clinical trials as an enhancer of anticancer chemotherapy. However, the knowledge of the relationship between AZT and cellular pathways, e.g. p53 pathway, is very limited. In this study, we show that AZT, cisplatin (CDDP) and docetaxel (DTX) all induce unique molecular responses in OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cells carrying a mutated p53, while in A2780, ovarian carcinoma and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells with wild type p53, all of these drugs cause similar p53 responses. We found that endogenous p14{sup ARF} protein in OVCAR-3 cells is down-regulated by DTX but induced by AZT and a short CDDP pulse treatment. In HT-29 colon carcinoma cells with a mutated p53, all treatments down-regulated p14{sup ARF} protein. Both CDDP and AZT increased the expression of p14ARF mRNA in OVCAR-3 cells. Differences in cell death induced by these drugs did not explain the differences in protein and mRNA expressions. No increase in the level of either c-Myc or H-ras oncoproteins was seen in OVCAR-3 cells after AZT or CDDP-treatment. These results suggest that p14{sup ARF} can respond to DNA damage without oncogene activation in cell lines without functional p53.

  15. Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Balla, Jozef; Luschnig, Christian; Wisniewska, Justyna; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jirí; Benková, Eva

    2006-10-15

    Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants.

  16. Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Balla, Jozef; Luschnig, Christian; Wisniewska, Justyna; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jirí; Benková, Eva

    2006-10-15

    Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants. PMID:17043314

  17. Partial 13C isotopic enrichment of nucleoside monophosphates: useful reporters for NMR structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Anita I.; Mayer, Michael R.; Prestegard, James H.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the 13C isotopic labeling patterns of nucleoside monophosphates (NMPs) extracted from Escherichia coli grown in a mixture of C-1 and C-2 glucose is presented. By comparing our results to previous observations on amino acids grown in similar media, we have been able to rationalize the labeling pattern based on the well-known biochemistry of nucleotide biosynthesis. Except for a few notable absences of label (C4 in purines and C3′ in ribose) and one highly enriched site (C1′ in ribose), most carbons are randomly enriched at a low level (an average of 13%). These sparsely labeled NMPs give less complex NMR spectra than their fully isotopically labeled analogs due to the elimination of most 13C–13C scalar couplings. The spectral simplicity is particularly advantageous when working in ordered systems, as illustrated with guanosine diphosphate (GDP) bound to ADP ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) aligned in a liquid crystalline medium. In this system, the absence of scalar couplings and additional long-range dipolar couplings significantly enhances signal to noise and resolution. PMID:16254075

  18. GGA3 mediates TrkA endocytic recycling to promote sustained Akt phosphorylation and cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuezhi; Lavigne, Pierre; Lavoie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although TrkA postendocytic sorting significantly influences neuronal cell survival and differentiation, the molecular mechanism underlying TrkA receptor sorting in the recycling or degradation pathways remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Golgi-localized, γ adaptin-ear–containing ADP ribosylation factor-binding protein 3 (GGA3) interacts directly with the TrkA cytoplasmic tail through an internal DXXLL motif and mediates the functional recycling of TrkA to the plasma membrane. We find that GGA3 depletion by siRNA delays TrkA recycling, accelerates TrkA degradation, attenuates sustained NGF-induced Akt activation, and reduces cell survival. We also show that GGA3’s effect on TrkA recycling is dependent on the activation of Arf6. This work identifies GGA3 as a key player in a novel DXXLL-mediated endosomal sorting machinery that targets TrkA to the plasma membrane, where it prolongs the activation of Akt signaling and survival responses. PMID:26446845

  19. A rac-like small G-protein from Brassica campestris activates a PKC-dependent phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoyeon; Nahm, Minyeop; Lim, Chaeoh; Yun, Daejin; Cho, Mooje; Bahk, Jeongdong

    2004-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a rac-like small GTP binding protein was isolated from a cDNA library of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) flower buds and named Brac1. The Brac1 cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding 198 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass of 21,690 Da and this coding region has conserved residues and motifs unique to the Rho subfamily of proteins. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Brac1 protein is closely related to that of Arabidopsis thaliana Arac3 (91%), but it shares relatively little homology with other members of the Ras superfamily (about 30% identity). To further characterize Brac1, a pGBrac1 expression vector consisting of PCR-amplified Brac1 cDNA plus glutathione S-transferase (GST) and pBKS(+)II was used to purify the protein. Using a PEI-cellulose/TLC plate, GTPase activity of this protein was confirmed and competition binding studies, using the guanine nucleotides, ATP, UTP and CTP, revealed that the di- and triphosphate forms of guanine nucleotides strongly bind Brac1. Membrane-bound PLD activity was synergistically enhanced by Brac1 in the presence of protein kinase C, but not in the presence of ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor). Genomic analysis indicated that Brac1 belongs to a multigene family. Brac1 transcripts were expressed in all the organs of Brassica, but were especially prevalent in flower buds.

  20. Molecular Machines Determining the Fate of Endocytosed Synaptic Vesicles in Nerve Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Fassio, Anna; Fadda, Manuela; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The cycle of a synaptic vesicle (SV) within the nerve terminal is a step-by-step journey with the final goal of ensuring the proper synaptic strength under changing environmental conditions. The SV cycle is a precisely regulated membrane traffic event in cells and, because of this, a plethora of membrane-bound and cytosolic proteins are devoted to assist SVs in each step of the journey. The cycling fate of endocytosed SVs determines both the availability for subsequent rounds of release and the lifetime of SVs in the terminal and is therefore crucial for synaptic function and plasticity. Molecular players that determine the destiny of SVs in nerve terminals after a round of exo-endocytosis are largely unknown. Here we review the functional role in SV fate of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of SV proteins and of small GTPases acting on membrane trafficking at the synapse, as they are emerging as key molecules in determining the recycling route of SVs within the nerve terminal. In particular, we focus on: (i) the cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (cdk5) and calcineurin (CN) control of the recycling pool of SVs; (ii) the role of small GTPases of the Rab and ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) families in defining the route followed by SV in their nerve terminal cycle. These regulatory proteins together with their synaptic regulators and effectors, are molecular nanomachines mediating homeostatic responses in synaptic plasticity and potential targets of drugs modulating the efficiency of synaptic transmission. PMID:27242505

  1. Molecular Machines Determining the Fate of Endocytosed Synaptic Vesicles in Nerve Terminals.

    PubMed

    Fassio, Anna; Fadda, Manuela; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The cycle of a synaptic vesicle (SV) within the nerve terminal is a step-by-step journey with the final goal of ensuring the proper synaptic strength under changing environmental conditions. The SV cycle is a precisely regulated membrane traffic event in cells and, because of this, a plethora of membrane-bound and cytosolic proteins are devoted to assist SVs in each step of the journey. The cycling fate of endocytosed SVs determines both the availability for subsequent rounds of release and the lifetime of SVs in the terminal and is therefore crucial for synaptic function and plasticity. Molecular players that determine the destiny of SVs in nerve terminals after a round of exo-endocytosis are largely unknown. Here we review the functional role in SV fate of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of SV proteins and of small GTPases acting on membrane trafficking at the synapse, as they are emerging as key molecules in determining the recycling route of SVs within the nerve terminal. In particular, we focus on: (i) the cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (cdk5) and calcineurin (CN) control of the recycling pool of SVs; (ii) the role of small GTPases of the Rab and ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) families in defining the route followed by SV in their nerve terminal cycle. These regulatory proteins together with their synaptic regulators and effectors, are molecular nanomachines mediating homeostatic responses in synaptic plasticity and potential targets of drugs modulating the efficiency of synaptic transmission.

  2. cDNA sequence and mapping of the mouse Copb gene encoding the beta subunit of the COPI coatomer complex.

    PubMed

    LI, W; Elliott, R W; Novak, E K; Swank, R T

    1999-05-01

    COPI-coated vesicles are involved in retrograde-directed selective transport of proteins from the Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as mediate anterograde transport of cargo proteins within the Golgi or in endosomal trafficking. The COPI protein complex contains an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF1) and seven coatamer subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta-COP). The localization and function of human beta subunit of coatamer (COPB) suggests it is likely a candidate gene of ruby-eye-2 (ru2), which is a mouse model of human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome characterized by the dysfunction of several subcellular organelles. In this study, we determined the entire coding sequence of mouse (Copb) cDNA by combining an overlapping mouse EST contig with EST walking. beta-COP was found highly conserved in mouse, rat, and human, and it is ubiquitously expressed in mouse. The Copb gene was mapped to mouse Chr 7 at a position of 53.3 cM by radiation hybrid mapping. Our RH mapping data, sequencing of RT-PCR products, and Western blotting exclude the Copb gene as a candidate for ru2.

  3. Molecular Machines Determining the Fate of Endocytosed Synaptic Vesicles in Nerve Terminals.

    PubMed

    Fassio, Anna; Fadda, Manuela; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The cycle of a synaptic vesicle (SV) within the nerve terminal is a step-by-step journey with the final goal of ensuring the proper synaptic strength under changing environmental conditions. The SV cycle is a precisely regulated membrane traffic event in cells and, because of this, a plethora of membrane-bound and cytosolic proteins are devoted to assist SVs in each step of the journey. The cycling fate of endocytosed SVs determines both the availability for subsequent rounds of release and the lifetime of SVs in the terminal and is therefore crucial for synaptic function and plasticity. Molecular players that determine the destiny of SVs in nerve terminals after a round of exo-endocytosis are largely unknown. Here we review the functional role in SV fate of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of SV proteins and of small GTPases acting on membrane trafficking at the synapse, as they are emerging as key molecules in determining the recycling route of SVs within the nerve terminal. In particular, we focus on: (i) the cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (cdk5) and calcineurin (CN) control of the recycling pool of SVs; (ii) the role of small GTPases of the Rab and ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) families in defining the route followed by SV in their nerve terminal cycle. These regulatory proteins together with their synaptic regulators and effectors, are molecular nanomachines mediating homeostatic responses in synaptic plasticity and potential targets of drugs modulating the efficiency of synaptic transmission. PMID:27242505

  4. Structural basis for the binding of tryptophan-based motifs by δ-COP

    PubMed Central

    Suckling, Richard J.; Poon, Pak Phi; Travis, Sophie M.; Majoul, Irina V.; Hughson, Frederick M.; Evans, Philip R.; Duden, Rainer; Owen, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Coatomer consists of two subcomplexes: the membrane-targeting, ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1):GTP-binding βγδζ-COP F-subcomplex, which is related to the adaptor protein (AP) clathrin adaptors, and the cargo-binding αβ’ε-COP B-subcomplex. We present the structure of the C-terminal μ-homology domain of the yeast δ-COP subunit in complex with the WxW motif from its binding partner, the endoplasmic reticulum-localized Dsl1 tether. The motif binds at a site distinct from that used by the homologous AP μ subunits to bind YxxΦ cargo motifs with its two tryptophan residues sitting in compatible pockets. We also show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Arf GTPase-activating protein (GAP) homolog Gcs1p uses a related WxxF motif at its extreme C terminus to bind to δ-COP at the same site in the same way. Mutations designed on the basis of the structure in conjunction with isothermal titration calorimetry confirm the mode of binding and show that mammalian δ-COP binds related tryptophan-based motifs such as that from ArfGAP1 in a similar manner. We conclude that δ-COP subunits bind Wxn(1–6)[WF] motifs within unstructured regions of proteins that influence the lifecycle of COPI-coated vesicles; this conclusion is supported by the observation that, in the context of a sensitizing domain deletion in Dsl1p, mutating the tryptophan-based motif-binding site in yeast causes defects in both growth and carboxypeptidase Y trafficking/processing. PMID:26578768

  5. Structural basis for the binding of tryptophan-based motifs by δ-COP.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Richard J; Poon, Pak Phi; Travis, Sophie M; Majoul, Irina V; Hughson, Frederick M; Evans, Philip R; Duden, Rainer; Owen, David J

    2015-11-17

    Coatomer consists of two subcomplexes: the membrane-targeting, ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1):GTP-binding βγδζ-COP F-subcomplex, which is related to the adaptor protein (AP) clathrin adaptors, and the cargo-binding αβ'ε-COP B-subcomplex. We present the structure of the C-terminal μ-homology domain of the yeast δ-COP subunit in complex with the WxW motif from its binding partner, the endoplasmic reticulum-localized Dsl1 tether. The motif binds at a site distinct from that used by the homologous AP μ subunits to bind YxxΦ cargo motifs with its two tryptophan residues sitting in compatible pockets. We also show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Arf GTPase-activating protein (GAP) homolog Gcs1p uses a related WxxF motif at its extreme C terminus to bind to δ-COP at the same site in the same way. Mutations designed on the basis of the structure in conjunction with isothermal titration calorimetry confirm the mode of binding and show that mammalian δ-COP binds related tryptophan-based motifs such as that from ArfGAP1 in a similar manner. We conclude that δ-COP subunits bind Wxn(1-6)[WF] motifs within unstructured regions of proteins that influence the lifecycle of COPI-coated vesicles; this conclusion is supported by the observation that, in the context of a sensitizing domain deletion in Dsl1p, mutating the tryptophan-based motif-binding site in yeast causes defects in both growth and carboxypeptidase Y trafficking/processing.

  6. Small GTPases in peroxisome dynamics.

    PubMed

    Just, Wilhelm W; Peränen, Johan

    2016-05-01

    In this review article, we summarize current knowledge on peroxisome biogenesis/functions and the role that small GTPases may play in these processes. Precise intracellular distribution of cell organelles requires their regulated association to microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton. In this respect, RhoGDP/RhoGTP favor binding of peroxisomes to microtubules and actin filaments. In its GTP-bound form, RhoA activates a regulatory cascade involving Rho kinaseII and non-muscle myosinIIA. Such interactions frequently depend on phosphoinositides (PIs) of which PI4P, PI(4,5)P2, and PI(3,5)P2 were found to be present in the peroxisomal membrane. PIs are pivotal determinants of intracellular signaling and known to regulate a wide range of cellular functions. In many of these functions, small GTPases are implicated. The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1), for example, is known to stimulate synthesis of PI4P and PI(4,5)P2 on the Golgi to regulate protein and lipid sorting. In vitro binding assays localized Arf1 and the COPI complex to peroxisomes. In light of the recent discussion of pre-peroxisomal vesicle generation at the ER, peroxisomal Arf1-COPI vesicles may serve retrograde transport of ER-resident components. A mass spectrometric screen localized various Rab proteins to peroxisomes. Overexpression of these proteins in combination with laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy co-localized Rab6, Rab8, Rab10, Rab14, and Rab18 with peroxisomal structures. By analogy to the role these proteins play in other organelle dynamics, we may envisage what the function of these proteins may be in relation to the peroxisomal compartment.

  7. Delocalization and destabilization of the Arf tumor suppressor by the leukemia-associated NPM mutant.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Emanuela; Martinelli, Paola; Zamponi, Raffaella; Shing, Danielle C; Bonetti, Paola; Luzi, Lucilla; Volorio, Sara; Bernard, Loris; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Alcalay, Myriam; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2006-03-15

    One third of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) are characterized by the aberrant cytoplasmic localization of nucleophosmin (NPM) due to mutations within its putative nucleolar localization signal. NPM mutations are mutually exclusive with major AML-associated chromosome rearrangements and are frequently associated with a normal karyotype, suggesting that they are critical during leukemogenesis. The underlying molecular mechanisms are, however, unknown. NPM is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that has been implicated in several cellular processes, including ribosome biogenesis, centrosome duplication, cell cycle progression, and stress response. It has been recently shown that NPM is required for the stabilization and proper nucleolar localization of the tumor suppressor p19(Arf). We report here that the AML-associated NPM mutant localizes mainly in the cytoplasm due to an alteration of its nucleus-cytoplasmic shuttling equilibrium, forms a direct complex with p19(Arf), but is unable to protect it from degradation. Consequently, cells or leukemic blasts expressing the NPM mutant have low levels of cytoplasmic Arf. Furthermore, we show that expression of the NPM mutant reduces the ability of Arf to initiate a p53 response and to induce cell cycle arrest. Inactivation of p19(Arf), a key regulator of the p53-dependent cellular response to oncogene expression, might therefore contribute to leukemogenesis in AMLs with mutated NPM.

  8. MASSUGU2 encodes Aux/IAA19, an auxin-regulated protein that functions together with the transcriptional activator NPH4/ARF7 to regulate differential growth responses of hypocotyl and formation of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Kumagai, Satoshi; Muto, Hideki; Sato, Atsuko; Watahiki, Masaaki K; Harper, Reneé M; Liscum, Emmanuel; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2004-02-01

    We have isolated a dominant, auxin-insensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, massugu2 (msg2), that displays neither hypocotyl gravitropism nor phototropism, fails to maintain an apical hook as an etiolated seedling, and is defective in lateral root formation. Yet other aspects of growth and development of msg2 plants are almost normal. These characteristics of msg2 are similar to those of another auxin-insensitive mutant, non-phototropic hypocotyl4 (nph4), which is a loss-of-function mutant of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7 (ARF7) (Harper et al., 2000). Map-based cloning of the MSG2 locus reveals that all four mutant alleles result in amino acid substitutions in the conserved domain II of an Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid protein, IAA19. Interestingly, auxin inducibility of MSG2/IAA19 gene expression is reduced by 65% in nph4/arf7. Moreover, MSG2/IAA19 protein binds to the C-terminal domain of NPH4/ARF7 in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) two-hybrid assay and to the whole latter protein in vitro by pull-down assay. These results suggest that MSG2/IAA19 and NPH4/ARF7 may constitute a negative feedback loop to regulate differential growth responses of hypocotyls and lateral root formation.

  9. Gibberellin Application at Pre-Bloom in Grapevines Down-Regulates the Expressions of VvIAA9 and VvARF7, Negative Regulators of Fruit Set Initiation, during Parthenocarpic Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chan Jin; Hur, Youn Young; Yu, Hee-Ju; Noh, Jung-Ho; Park, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Hee Jae

    2014-01-01

    Fruit set is initiated only after fertilization and is tightly regulated primarily by gibberellins (GAs) and auxins. The application of either of these hormones induces parthenocarpy, fruit set without fertilization, but the molecular mechanism underlying this induction is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that the parthenocarpic fruits induced by GA application at pre-bloom result from the interaction of GA with auxin signaling. The transcriptional levels of the putative negative regulators of fruit set initiation, including Vitis auxin/indole-3-acetic acid transcription factor 9 (VvIAA9), Vitis auxin response factor 7 (VvARF7), and VvARF8 were monitored during inflorescence development in seeded diploid ‘Tamnara’ grapevines with or without GA application. Without GA application, VvIAA9, VvARF7, and VvARF8 were expressed at a relatively high level before full bloom, but decreased thereafter following pollination. After GA application at 14 days before full bloom (DBF); however, the expression levels of VvIAA9 and VvARF7 declined at 5 DBF prior to pollination. The effects of GA application on auxin levels or auxin signaling were also analyzed by monitoring the expression patterns of auxin biosynthesis genes and auxin-responsive genes with or without GA application. Transcription levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes Vitis anthranilate synthase β subunit (VvASB1-like), Vitis YUCCA2 (VvYUC2), and VvYUC6 were not significantly changed by GA application. However, the expressions of Vitis Gretchen Hagen3.2 (VvGH3.2) and VvGH3.3, auxin-responsive genes, were up-regulated from 2 DBF to full bloom with GA application. Furthermore, the Vitis GA signaling gene, VvDELLA was up-regulated by GA application during 12 DBF to 7 DBF, prior to down-regulation of VvIAA9 and VvARF7. These results suggest that VvIAA9 and VvARF7 are negative regulators of fruit set initiation in grapevines, and GA signaling is integrated with auxin signaling via VvDELLA during

  10. Gibberellin application at pre-bloom in grapevines down-regulates the expressions of VvIAA9 and VvARF7, negative regulators of fruit set initiation, during parthenocarpic fruit development.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chan Jin; Hur, Youn Young; Yu, Hee-Ju; Noh, Jung-Ho; Park, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Hee Jae

    2014-01-01

    Fruit set is initiated only after fertilization and is tightly regulated primarily by gibberellins (GAs) and auxins. The application of either of these hormones induces parthenocarpy, fruit set without fertilization, but the molecular mechanism underlying this induction is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that the parthenocarpic fruits induced by GA application at pre-bloom result from the interaction of GA with auxin signaling. The transcriptional levels of the putative negative regulators of fruit set initiation, including Vitis auxin/indole-3-acetic acid transcription factor 9 (VvIAA9), Vitis auxin response factor 7 (VvARF7), and VvARF8 were monitored during inflorescence development in seeded diploid 'Tamnara' grapevines with or without GA application. Without GA application, VvIAA9, VvARF7, and VvARF8 were expressed at a relatively high level before full bloom, but decreased thereafter following pollination. After GA application at 14 days before full bloom (DBF); however, the expression levels of VvIAA9 and VvARF7 declined at 5 DBF prior to pollination. The effects of GA application on auxin levels or auxin signaling were also analyzed by monitoring the expression patterns of auxin biosynthesis genes and auxin-responsive genes with or without GA application. Transcription levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes Vitis anthranilate synthase β subunit (VvASB1-like), Vitis YUCCA2 (VvYUC2), and VvYUC6 were not significantly changed by GA application. However, the expressions of Vitis Gretchen Hagen3.2 (VvGH3.2) and VvGH3.3, auxin-responsive genes, were up-regulated from 2 DBF to full bloom with GA application. Furthermore, the Vitis GA signaling gene, VvDELLA was up-regulated by GA application during 12 DBF to 7 DBF, prior to down-regulation of VvIAA9 and VvARF7. These results suggest that VvIAA9 and VvARF7 are negative regulators of fruit set initiation in grapevines, and GA signaling is integrated with auxin signaling via VvDELLA during

  11. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pauklin, Siim . E-mail: spauklin@ut.ee; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-08-26

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, {beta}-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

  12. ARF6 Is an Actionable Node that Orchestrates Oncogenic GNAQ Signaling in Uveal Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Hyuk; Shi, Dallas S; Grossmann, Allie H; Sorensen, Lise K; Tong, ZongZhong; Mleynek, Tara M; Rogers, Aaron; Zhu, Weiquan; Richards, Jackson R; Winter, Jacob M; Zhu, Jie; Dunn, Christine; Bajji, Ashok; Shenderovich, Mark; Mueller, Alan L; Woodman, Scott E; Harbour, J William; Thomas, Kirk R; Odelberg, Shannon J; Ostanin, Kirill; Li, Dean Y

    2016-06-13

    Activating mutations in Gαq proteins, which form the α subunit of certain heterotrimeric G proteins, drive uveal melanoma oncogenesis by triggering multiple downstream signaling pathways, including PLC/PKC, Rho/Rac, and YAP. Here we show that the small GTPase ARF6 acts as a proximal node of oncogenic Gαq signaling to induce all of these downstream pathways as well as β-catenin signaling. ARF6 activates these diverse pathways through a common mechanism: the trafficking of GNAQ and β-catenin from the plasma membrane to cytoplasmic vesicles and the nucleus, respectively. Blocking ARF6 with a small-molecule inhibitor reduces uveal melanoma cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in a mouse model, confirming the functional relevance of this pathway and suggesting a therapeutic strategy for Gα-mediated diseases. PMID:27265506

  13. PML IV/ARF interaction enhances p53 SUMO-1 conjugation, activation, and senescence.

    PubMed

    Ivanschitz, Lisa; Takahashi, Yuki; Jollivet, Florence; Ayrault, Olivier; Le Bras, Morgane; de Thé, Hugues

    2015-11-17

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) recruit multiple partners, including p53 and many of its regulators. NBs are believed to facilitate several posttranslational modifications and are key regulators of senescence. PML, the organizer of NBs, is expressed as a number of splice variants that all efficiently recruit p53 partners. However, overexpression of only one of them, PML IV, triggers p53-driven senescence. Here, we show that PML IV specifically binds ARF, a key p53 regulator. Similar to ARF, PML IV enhances global SUMO-1 conjugation, particularly that of p53, resulting in p53 stabilization and activation. ARF interacts with and stabilizes the NB-associated UBC9 SUMO-conjugating enzyme, possibly explaining PML IV-enhanced SUMOylation. These results unexpectedly link two key tumor suppressors, highlighting their convergence for global control of SUMO conjugation, p53 activation, and senescence induction.

  14. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process. PMID:26959229

  15. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Breitel, Dario A; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process. PMID:26959229

  16. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 is a negative regulator of fruit initiation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Marc; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Johnson, Susan D; Koltunow, Anna M

    2006-08-01

    Fruit and seed formation in plants is normally initiated after pollination and fertilization, and, in the absence of fertilization, flowers senesce. In the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant fruit without fertilization, a mutation in AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 (ARF8) results in the uncoupling of fruit development from pollination and fertilization and gives rise to seedless (parthenocarpic) fruit. Parthenocarpy was confirmed in two additional recessive alleles and was caused by mutations within the coding region of ARF8. Genetic experiments indicate that ARF8 acts as an inhibitor to stop further carpel development in the absence of fertilization and the generation of signals required to initiate fruit and seed development. Expression of ARF8 was found to be regulated at multiple levels, and transcriptional autoregulation of ARF8 was observed. Analysis of plants transformed with a transcriptional P(ARF8):beta-glucuronidase (GUS) construct or a translational ARF8:GUS fusion construct displayed distinct developmental regulation of the reporter in floral tissues involved in pollination and fertilization and in the carpel wall. After fertilization, the level of GUS activity declined in the developing seed, while in unfertilized ovules that are destined to senesce, ARF8:GUS expression spread throughout the ovule. This is consistent with a proposed role for ARF8 in restricting signal transduction processes in ovules and growth in pistils until the fruit initiation cue. PMID:16829592

  17. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Breitel, Dario A; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process.

  18. Annealing of induced absorption in quartz glasses by ArF laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sergeev, P B; Sergeev, A P

    2010-11-13

    Annealing of individual bands of electron-beam-induced absorption (IA) in the region of 150 - 400 nm in KS-4V, KU-1, and Corning 7980 (ArF Grade) quartz glasses by ArF laser radiation is studied. It is shown that the phototransformation of the IA spectra occurs mainly due to a significant decrease in the amplitudes of bands at {lambda} = 183.5, 213, and 260 nm. The role played by interstitial oxygen, hydrogen, and chlorine in the formation and relaxation of glass defects is considered. (effects of laser radiation on matter. laser plasma)

  19. Down-regulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS 6 and 8 by microRNA 167 leads to floral development defects and female sterility in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Clarke, Thomas H.; van der Knaap, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Auxin regulates the expression of diverse genes that affect plant growth and development. This regulation requires AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (ARFs) that bind to the promoter regions of these genes. ARF6 and ARF8 in Arabidopsis thaliana are required to promote inflorescence stem elongation and late stages of petal, stamen, and gynoecium development. All seed plants studied thus far have ARF6 and ARF8 orthologues as well as the microRNA miR167, which targets ARF6 and ARF8. Whether these genes have broadly conserved roles in flower development is not known. To address this question, the effects of down-regulation of ARF6 and ARF8 were investigated through transgenic expression of Arabidopsis MIR167a in tomato, which diverged from Arabidopsis before the radiation of dicotyledonous plants approximately 90–112 million years ago. The transgenic tomato plants overexpressing MIR167a exhibited reductions in leaf size and internode length as well as shortened petals, stamens, and styles. More significantly, the transgenic plants were female-sterile as a result of failure of wild-type pollen to germinate on the stigma surface and/or to grow through the style. RNA-Seq analysis identified many genes with significantly altered expression patterns, including those encoding products with functions in ‘transcription regulation’, ‘cell wall’ and ‘lipid metabolism’ categories. Putative orthologues of a subset of these genes were also differentially expressed in Arabidopsis arf6 arf8 mutant flowers. These results thus suggest that ARF6 and ARF8 have conserved roles in controlling growth and development of vegetative and flower organs in dicots. PMID:24723401

  20. Down-regulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS 6 and 8 by microRNA 167 leads to floral development defects and female sterility in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wu, Shan; Van Houten, Jason; Wang, Ying; Ding, Biao; Fei, Zhangjun; Clarke, Thomas H; Reed, Jason W; van der Knaap, Esther

    2014-06-01

    Auxin regulates the expression of diverse genes that affect plant growth and development. This regulation requires AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (ARFs) that bind to the promoter regions of these genes. ARF6 and ARF8 in Arabidopsis thaliana are required to promote inflorescence stem elongation and late stages of petal, stamen, and gynoecium development. All seed plants studied thus far have ARF6 and ARF8 orthologues as well as the microRNA miR167, which targets ARF6 and ARF8. Whether these genes have broadly conserved roles in flower development is not known. To address this question, the effects of down-regulation of ARF6 and ARF8 were investigated through transgenic expression of Arabidopsis MIR167a in tomato, which diverged from Arabidopsis before the radiation of dicotyledonous plants approximately 90-112 million years ago. The transgenic tomato plants overexpressing MIR167a exhibited reductions in leaf size and internode length as well as shortened petals, stamens, and styles. More significantly, the transgenic plants were female-sterile as a result of failure of wild-type pollen to germinate on the stigma surface and/or to grow through the style. RNA-Seq analysis identified many genes with significantly altered expression patterns, including those encoding products with functions in 'transcription regulation', 'cell wall' and 'lipid metabolism' categories. Putative orthologues of a subset of these genes were also differentially expressed in Arabidopsis arf6 arf8 mutant flowers. These results thus suggest that ARF6 and ARF8 have conserved roles in controlling growth and development of vegetative and flower organs in dicots.

  1. ZEB1 induces EPB41L5 in the cancer mesenchymal program that drives ARF6-based invasion, metastasis and drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, A; Hashimoto, S; Sugino, H; Yoshikawa, A; Onodera, Y; Handa, H; Oikawa, T; Sabe, H

    2016-01-01

    Onset of the cancer mesenchymal program is closely associated with cancer malignancy and drug resistance. Among the different epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated transcriptional factors, ZEB1 has a key role in inducing the mesenchymal phenotypes and stem cell-like properties of different breast cancer cells. ARF6 and its effector AMAP1 are frequently overexpressed in breast cancer cells, and promote invasion, metastasis and drug resistance. EPB41L5 is induced during EMT, and mediates the disruption of E-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion and the promotion of focal adhesion dynamics. Here we show that EPB41L5 is an integral component of the ARF6-based pathway, which is induced by ZEB1. We found that EPB41L5 is expressed at high levels in malignant breast cancer cells and binds to AMAP1. ZEB1 induced EPB41L5 both in cancer cells and normal cells. This relationship was recaptured with The Cancer Genome Atlas RNASeq data set, and correlated with the poor outcome of the patients. In contrast, diversified events, such as tumor growth factor β1 stimulation, expression of SNAI1 and TP53 mutation, can each cause the induction of ZEB1 and EPB41L5, depending on the cellular context. Our results demonstrated that the ZEB1-EPB41L5 axis is at the core of the cancer mesenchymal program that drives ARF6-based invasion, metastasis and drug resistance of significant populations of primary breast cancers, and is tightly correlated with the poor outcomes of patients. PMID:27617643

  2. ZEB1 induces EPB41L5 in the cancer mesenchymal program that drives ARF6-based invasion, metastasis and drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, A; Hashimoto, S; Sugino, H; Yoshikawa, A; Onodera, Y; Handa, H; Oikawa, T; Sabe, H

    2016-01-01

    Onset of the cancer mesenchymal program is closely associated with cancer malignancy and drug resistance. Among the different epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated transcriptional factors, ZEB1 has a key role in inducing the mesenchymal phenotypes and stem cell-like properties of different breast cancer cells. ARF6 and its effector AMAP1 are frequently overexpressed in breast cancer cells, and promote invasion, metastasis and drug resistance. EPB41L5 is induced during EMT, and mediates the disruption of E-cadherin-based cell–cell adhesion and the promotion of focal adhesion dynamics. Here we show that EPB41L5 is an integral component of the ARF6-based pathway, which is induced by ZEB1. We found that EPB41L5 is expressed at high levels in malignant breast cancer cells and binds to AMAP1. ZEB1 induced EPB41L5 both in cancer cells and normal cells. This relationship was recaptured with The Cancer Genome Atlas RNASeq data set, and correlated with the poor outcome of the patients. In contrast, diversified events, such as tumor growth factor β1 stimulation, expression of SNAI1 and TP53 mutation, can each cause the induction of ZEB1 and EPB41L5, depending on the cellular context. Our results demonstrated that the ZEB1-EPB41L5 axis is at the core of the cancer mesenchymal program that drives ARF6-based invasion, metastasis and drug resistance of significant populations of primary breast cancers, and is tightly correlated with the poor outcomes of patients. PMID:27617643

  3. PARP1 enhances inflammatory cytokine expression by alteration of promoter chromatin structure in microglia

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Zamudio, Ricardo Iván; Ha, Hyo Chol

    2014-01-01

    Background Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is a chromatin-associated enzyme that participates in processes such as transcription and DNA repair through the regulation of chromatin structure. Accumulating evidence suggests an important role for PARP1 enzymatic activity in promoting CNS inflammation by facilitating the expression of inflammatory cytokines in glial cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PARP1 enzymatic activity mediates this process are not well understood. In this report we sought to determine the molecular mechanisms by which PARP1 enzymatic activity facilitates the expression of Il1β and TNF in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Methods PARP1 enzymatic activity and histone ADP-ribosylation were measured in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells by radioactive labelling with 32P-NAD+. To assess the effect of histone ADP-ribosylation on nucleosome structure, in vitro nucleosome remodeling, nuclease accessibility and binding assays were performed. These studies were complemented by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in resting and LPS-stimulated BV2 cells in order to determine the occupancy of PARP1, nucleosomes and the RelA subunit of NF-κB, as well as ADP-ribosylation, at the Il1β and Tnf promoters. Finally, we determined the effect of pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 enzymatic activity on the LPS stimulation-dependent induction of Il1β and Tnf mRNA. Results Our results indicate that LPS stimulation induces PARP1 enzymatic activity and histone ADP-ribosylation in the chromatin compartment of BV2 cells. In vitro studies show that nucleosome-bound PARP1 disrupts nucleosome structure histone ADP-ribosylation, increasing the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA. Consistent with this PARP1 is constitutively associated with at the Il1β and Tnf promoters in resting BV2 cells. Upon stimulation with LPS, ADP-ribosylation is observed at these promoters, and this is correlated with increased recruitment of the transcription factor NF-κB, resulting in robust

  4. The Area Resource File (ARF). A Health Professions Planning and Research Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This report presents a description and sample products of the Area Resource File (ARF), a computer-based county-specific health resources information system which consolidates U.S. data on the health professions, hospital and nursing home facilities, hospital utilization levels, health professions training, hospital expenditures, Medicare…

  5. A dose-dependent tug of war involving the NPM1 leukaemic mutant, nucleophosmin, and ARF.

    PubMed

    Bolli, N; De Marco, M F; Martelli, M P; Bigerna, B; Pucciarini, A; Rossi, R; Mannucci, R; Manes, N; Pettirossi, V; Pileri, S A; Nicoletti, I; Falini, B

    2009-03-01

    In acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), nucleophosmin-1 (NPM1) mutations create a nuclear export signal (NES) motif and disrupt tryptophans at NPM1 C-terminus, leading to nucleophosmin accumulation in leukaemic cell cytoplasm. We investigated how nucleophosmin NES motifs (two physiological and one created by the mutation) regulate traffic and interaction of mutated NPM1, NPM1wt and p14(ARF). Nucleophosmin export into cytoplasm was maximum when the protein contained all three NES motifs, as naturally occurs in NPM1-mutated AML. The two physiological NES motifs mediated NPM1 homo/heterodimerization, influencing subcellular distribution of NPM1wt, mutated NPM1 and p14(ARF) in a 'dose-dependent tug of war' fashion. In transfected cells, excess doses of mutant NPM1 relocated completely NPM1wt (and p14(ARF)) from the nucleoli to the cytoplasm. This distribution pattern was also observed in a proportion of NPM1-mutated AML patients. In transfected cells, excess of NPM1wt (and p14(ARF)) relocated NPM1 mutant from the cytoplasm to the nucleoli. Notably, this distribution pattern was not observed in AML patients where the mutant was consistently cytoplasmic restricted. These findings reinforce the concept that NPM1 mutants are naturally selected for most efficient cytoplasmic export, pointing to this event as critical for leukaemogenesis. Moreover, they provide a rationale basis for designing small molecules acting at the interface between mutated NPM1 and other interacting proteins. PMID:19005479

  6. Lysophosphatidic acid activates Arf6 to promote the mesenchymal malignancy of renal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shigeru; Mikami, Shuji; Sugino, Hirokazu; Yoshikawa, Ayumu; Hashimoto, Ari; Onodera, Yasuhito; Furukawa, Shotaro; Handa, Haruka; Oikawa, Tsukasa; Okada, Yasunori; Oya, Mototsugu; Sabe, Hisataka

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of mesenchymal properties by cancer cells is critical for their malignant behaviour, but regulators of the mesenchymal molecular machinery and how it is activated remain elusive. Here we show that clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) frequently utilize the Arf6-based mesenchymal pathway to promote invasion and metastasis, similar to breast cancers. In breast cancer cells, ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinases employ GEP100 to activate Arf6, which then recruits AMAP1; and AMAP1 then binds to the mesenchymal-specific protein EPB41L5, which promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and focal adhesion dynamics. In renal cancer cells, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activates Arf6 via its G-protein-coupled receptors, in which GTP-Gα12 binds to EFA6. The Arf6-based pathway may also contribute to drug resistance. Our results identify a specific mesenchymal molecular machinery of primary ccRCCs, which is triggered by a product of autotaxin and it is associated with poor outcome of patients. PMID:26854204

  7. Lysophosphatidic acid activates Arf6 to promote the mesenchymal malignancy of renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shigeru; Mikami, Shuji; Sugino, Hirokazu; Yoshikawa, Ayumu; Hashimoto, Ari; Onodera, Yasuhito; Furukawa, Shotaro; Handa, Haruka; Oikawa, Tsukasa; Okada, Yasunori; Oya, Mototsugu; Sabe, Hisataka

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of mesenchymal properties by cancer cells is critical for their malignant behaviour, but regulators of the mesenchymal molecular machinery and how it is activated remain elusive. Here we show that clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) frequently utilize the Arf6-based mesenchymal pathway to promote invasion and metastasis, similar to breast cancers. In breast cancer cells, ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinases employ GEP100 to activate Arf6, which then recruits AMAP1; and AMAP1 then binds to the mesenchymal-specific protein EPB41L5, which promotes epithelial–mesenchymal transition and focal adhesion dynamics. In renal cancer cells, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activates Arf6 via its G-protein-coupled receptors, in which GTP-Gα12 binds to EFA6. The Arf6-based pathway may also contribute to drug resistance. Our results identify a specific mesenchymal molecular machinery of primary ccRCCs, which is triggered by a product of autotaxin and it is associated with poor outcome of patients. PMID:26854204

  8. The Area Resource File: ARF. A Manpower Planning and Research Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This publication describes the Area Resource File (ARF), a computer-based, county-specific health information system with broad analytical capabilities which utilizes manpower and manpower-related data that are available on a compatible basis for all counties in the United States, and which was developed to summarize statistics from many disparate…

  9. The clathrin adaptor AP-1 complex and Arf1 regulate planar cell polarity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Balmer, Sophie; Mendoza, Meg; Dussert, Aurore; Collu, Giovanna; Roman, Angel-Carlos; Weber, Ursula; Ciruna, Brian; Mlodzik, Marek

    2015-04-07

    A key step in generating planar cell polarity (PCP) is the formation of restricted junctional domains containing Frizzled/Dishevelled/Diego (Fz/Dsh/Dgo) or Van Gogh/Prickle (Vang/Pk) complexes within the same cell, stabilized via Flamingo (Fmi) across cell membranes. Although models have been proposed for how these complexes acquire and maintain their polarized localization, the machinery involved in moving core PCP proteins around cells remains unknown. We describe the AP-1 adaptor complex and Arf1 as major regulators of PCP protein trafficking in vivo. AP-1 and Arf1 disruption affects the accumulation of Fz/Fmi and Vang/Fmi complexes in the proximo-distal axis, producing severe PCP phenotypes. Using novel tools, we demonstrate a direct and specific Arf1 involvement in Fz trafficking in vivo. Moreover, we uncover a conserved Arf1 PCP function in vertebrates. Our data support a model whereby the trafficking machinery plays an important part during PCP establishment, promoting formation of polarized PCP-core complexes in vivo.

  10. The clathrin adaptor AP-1 complex and Arf1 regulate planar cell polarity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Meg; Dussert, Aurore; Collu, Giovanna; Roman, Angel-Carlos; Weber, Ursula; Ciruna, Brian; Mlodzik, Marek

    2015-01-01

    A key step in generating planar cell polarity (PCP) is the formation of restricted junctional domains containing Frizzled/Dishevelled/Diego (Fz/Dsh/Dgo) or Van Gogh/Prickle (Vang/Pk) complexes within the same cell, stabilized via Flamingo (Fmi) across cell membranes. Although models have been proposed for how these complexes acquire and maintain their polarized localization, the machinery involved in moving core PCP proteins around cells remains unknown. We describe the AP-1 adaptor complex and Arf1 as major regulators of PCP protein trafficking in vivo. AP-1 and Arf1 disruption affects the accumulation of Fz/Fmi and Vang/Fmi complexes in the proximo–distal axis, producing severe PCP phenotypes. Using novel tools, we demonstrate a direct and specific Arf1 involvement in Fz trafficking in vivo. Moreover, we uncover a conserved Arf1 PCP function in vertebrates. Our data support a model whereby the trafficking machinery plays an important part during PCP establishment, promoting formation of polarized PCP-core complexes in vivo. PMID:25849195

  11. MUC1 oncoprotein suppresses activation of the ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Deepak; Ahmad, Rehan; Chen, Dongshu; Kumar, Shailendra; Kharbanda, Surender; Kufe, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The MUC1 oncoprotein interacts with the c-Abl tyrosine kinase and blocks nuclear targeting of c-Abl in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. Mutation of the MUC1 cytoplasmic domain at Tyr-60 disrupts the MUC1-c-Abl interaction. The present results demonstrate that the MUC1(Y60F) mutant is a potent inducer of the ARF tumor suppressor. MUC1(Y60F) induces transcription of the ARF locus by a c-Abl-dependent mechanism that promotes CUL-4A-mediated nuclear export of the replication protein Cdc6. The functional significance of these findings is that MUC1(Y60F)-induced ARF expression and thereby inhibition of MDM2 results in the upregulation of p53 and the homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) serine/threonine kinase. HIPK2-mediated phosphorylation of p53 on Ser-46 was further associated with a shift from expression of the cell cycle arrest-related p21 gene to the apoptosis-related PUMA gene. We also show that the MUC1(Y60F) mutant functions as dominant negative inhibitor of tumorigenicity. These findings indicate that the oncogenic function of MUC1 is conferred by suppressing activation of the ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway. PMID:18981727

  12. ArF processing of 90-nm design rule lithography achieved through enhanced thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagerer, Markus; Miller, Daniel; Chang, Wayne; Williams, Daniel J.

    2006-03-01

    As the lithography community has moved to ArF processing on 300 mm wafers for 90 nm design rules the process characterization of the components of variance continues to highlight the thermal requirements for the post exposure bake (PEB) processing step. In particular as the thermal systems have become increasingly uniform, the transient behavior of the thermal processing system has received the focus of attention. This paper demonstrates how a newly designed and patented thermal processing system was optimized for delivering improved thermal uniformity during a typical 90 second PEB processing cycle, rather than being optimized for steady state performance. This was accomplished with the aid of a wireless temperature measurement wafer system for obtaining real time temperature data and by using a response surface model (RSM) experimental design for optimizing parameters of the temperature controller of the thermal processing system. The new units were field retrofitted seamlessly in <2 days at customer sites without disruption to process recipes or flows. After evaluating certain resist parameters such as PEB temperature sensitivity and post exposure delay (PED) - stability of the baseline process, the new units were benchmarked against the previous PEB plates by processing a split lot experiment. Additional hardware characterization included environmental factors such as air velocity in the vicinity of the PEB plates and transient time between PEB and chill plate. At the completion of the optimization process, the within wafer CD uniformity displayed a significant improvement when compared to the previous hardware. The demonstrated within wafer CD uniformity improved by 27% compared to the initial hardware and baseline process. ITRS requirements for the 90 nm node were exceeded.

  13. A novel proapoptotic gene PANO encodes a post-translational modulator of the tumor suppressor p14ARF

    SciTech Connect

    Watari, Akihiro; Li, Yang; Higashiyama, Shinji; Yutsudo, Masuo

    2012-02-01

    The protein p14ARF is a known tumor suppressor protein controlling cell proliferation and survival, which mainly localizes in nucleoli. However, the regulatory mechanisms that govern its activity or expression remain unclear. Here, we report that a novel proapoptotic nucleolar protein, PANO, modulates the expression and activity of p14ARF in HeLa cells. Overexpression of PANO enhances the stability of p14ARF protein by protecting it from degradation, resulting in an increase in p14ARF expression levels. Overexpression of PANO also induces apoptosis under low serum conditions. This effect is dependent on the nucleolar localization of PANO and inhibited by knocking-down p14ARF. Alternatively, PANO siRNA treated cells exhibit a reduction in p14ARF protein levels. In addition, ectopic expression of PANO suppresses the tumorigenicity of HeLa cells in nude mice. These results indicate that PANO is a new apoptosis-inducing gene by modulating the tumor suppressor protein, p14ARF, and may itself be a new candidate tumor suppressor gene.

  14. Mechanism for low-etching resistance and surface roughness of ArF photoresist during plasma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jinnai, Butsurin; Koyama, Koji; Kato, Keisuke; Yasuda, Atsushi; Momose, Hikaru; Samukawa, Seiji

    2009-03-01

    ArF excimer laser lithography was introduced to fabricate nanometer-scale devices and uses chemically amplified photoresist polymers including photoacid generators (PAGs). Because plasma-etching processes cause serious problems related to the use of ArF photoresists, such as line-edge roughness and low etching selectivity, we have to understand the interaction between plasma and ArF photoresist polymers. Investigating the effects of surface temperature and the irradiation species from plasma, we have found that ion irradiation by itself did not drastically increase the roughness or etching rate of ArF photoresist films unless it was combined with ultraviolet/vacuum ultraviolet (UV/VUV) photon irradiation. The structures of ArF photoresist polymers were largely unchanged by ion irradiation alone but were destroyed by combinations of ion and UV/VUV-photon irradiation. Our results suggested that PAG-mediated deprotection induced by UV/VUV-photon irradiation was amplified at surface temperatures above 100 deg. C. The etching rate and surface roughness of plasma-etched ArF photoresists are affected by the irradiation species and surface temperature during plasma etching. UV/VUV-photon irradiation plays a particularly important role in the interaction between plasma and ArF photoresist polymers.

  15. Variation in Efficacy of Isolates of the Fungus ARF Against the Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Timper, P.; Riggs, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    An unnamed fungus, designated ARF, that parasitizes eggs and sedentary stages of cyst nematodes is a potential biological control agent of Heterodera glycines. The objectives of this study were to determine whether ARF isolates differ in their ability to suppress nematode numbers in soil and to compare the efficacy of ARF in heat-treated and native soil. The effectiveness of 11 ARF isolates was compared by introducing homogenized mycelium into heat-treated soil. Soybean seedlings were transplanted into pots containing fungus-infested soil and inoculated with H. glycines. After 30 or 60 days, the number of nematodes and the percentage of parasitized eggs were determined. Three isolates (907, 908, and TN14), which were previously reported to be weak egg parasites in vitro, consistently suppressed nematode numbers by 50% to 100%. Of the isolates previously reported to be aggressive egg parasites, four (903, BG2, MS3, and TN12) reduced nematode numbers by 56% to 69% in at least one experimental trial, but the other four had no effect on nematode numbers. When the efficacy of isolate TN14 was tested in heat-treated and native soil, nematode suppression was greater in the heat-treated soil in only one of two trials. In both soil treatments, nematode numbers were reduced by more than 60%. We conclude that virulence toward nematode eggs in vitro is a poor indicator of effectiveness of an ARF isolate in soil, and that the presence of soil microbes may reduce, but does not completely inhibit, activity of isolate TN14. PMID:19274239

  16. High frequency of p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway abnormalities in relapsed neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Wilkinson, Jane; O' Toole, Kieran; Wood, Katrina M.; Challen, Christine C.; Baker, Angela G.; Board, Julian R.; Evans, Laura; Cole, Michael; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Boos, Joachim; Köhler, Gabriele; Leuschner, Ivo; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Lunec, John; Tweddle, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Most neuroblastomas initially respond to therapy but many relapse with chemoresistant disease. p53 mutations are rare in diagnostic neuroblastomas, but we have previously reported inactivation of the p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway in 9/17 (53%) neuroblastoma cell lines established at relapse. Hypothesis: Inactivation of the p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway develops during treatment and contributes to neuroblastoma relapse. Methods: Eighty-four neuroblastomas were studied from 41 patients with relapsed neuroblastoma including 38 paired neuroblastomas at different stages of therapy. p53 mutations were detected by automated sequencing, p14ARF methylation and deletion by methylation-specific PCR and duplex PCR respectively, and MDM2 amplification by fluorescent in-situ hybridisation. Results: Abnormalities in the p53 pathway were identified in 20/41(49%) cases. Downstream defects due to inactivating missense p53 mutations were identified in 6/41 (15%) cases, 5 following chemotherapy and/or at relapse and 1 at diagnosis, post chemotherapy and relapse. The presence of a p53 mutation was independently prognostic for overall survival (hazard ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2, 9.9; p = 0.02). Upstream defects were present in 35% cases: MDM2 amplification in 3 cases, all at diagnosis & relapse and p14ARF inactivation in 12/41 (29%) cases: 3 had p14ARF methylation, 2 after chemotherapy, and 9 had homozygous deletions, 8 at diagnosis and relapse. Conclusions: These results show that a high proportion of neuroblastomas which relapse have an abnormality in the p53 pathway. The majority have upstream defects suggesting that agents which reactivate wild-type p53 would be beneficial, in contrast to those with downstream defects where p53 independent therapies are indicated. PMID:20145180

  17. Characterization of the intracellular signalling pathways that underlie growth-factor-stimulated glucose transport in Xenopus oocytes: evidence for ras- and rho-dependent pathways of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, F J; Jess, T J; Moyes, C; Plevin, R; Gould, G W

    1997-01-01

    The stimulation of glucose transport is one of the early cellular responses to growth factors and is essential for cell proliferation, yet the molecular processes that underlie this response are poorly defined. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of the low-molecular-mass G-proteins, Ras and Rho, and their downstream targets, Raf protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, in the regulation of glucose transport in Xenopus oocytes by two distinct growth-factor receptors: the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) tyrosine kinase receptor and the heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor. Microinjection of a neutralizing anti-Ras antibody partially blocked IGF-I-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake but was without effect on LPA-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake. In contrast, microinjection of the C3 coenzyme of botulinum toxin, which selectively ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho, inhibited LPA-stimulated, but not IGF-I-stimulated, deoxyglucose uptake. Similarly, LPA- but not IGF-I-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake was attenuated in oocytes expressing a dominant negative rho construct. Cells expressing a dominant negative mutant of Raf protein kinase exhibited markedly reduced sensitivity to both LPA and IGF-I, consistent with a role for endogenous Raf in glucose uptake by both growth factors. Furthermore, expression of a constitutively activated form of raf-1 resulted in a growth-factor-independent increase in deoxyglucose uptake. Measurements of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in microinjected cells support the hypothesis that the IGF-I receptor stimulates glucose transport by a Ras-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, whereas the G-protein-coupled LPA receptor controls this response by a pathway that involves Rho-dependent activation of a distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Thus we provide evidence for clear differences in the signalling pathways that control glucose transport by G

  18. GNOM/FEWER ROOTS is required for the establishment of an auxin response maximum for arabidopsis lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Ken-ichi; Goh, Tatsuaki; Toyokura, Koichi; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Mimura, Tetsuro; Kamiya, Yuji; Fukaki, Hidehiro

    2013-03-01

    Lateral root (LR) formation in vascular plants is regulated by auxin. The mechanisms of LR formation are not fully understood. Here, we have identified a novel recessive mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana, named fewer roots (fwr), that drastically reduces the number of LRs. Expression analyses of DR5::GUS, an auxin response reporter, and pLBD16::GUS, an LR initiation marker, suggested that FWR is necessary for the establishment of an auxin response maximum in LR initiation sites. We further identified that the fwr phenotypes are caused by a missense mutation in the GNOM gene, encoding an Arf-GEF (ADP ribosylation factor-GDP/GTP exchange factor), which regulates the recycling of PINs, the auxin efflux carriers. The fwr roots showed enhanced sensitivity to brefeldin A in a root growth inhibition assay, indicating that the fwr mutation reduces the Arf-GEF activity of GNOM. However, the other developmental processes except for LR formation appeared to be unaffected in the fwr mutant, indicating that fwr is a weaker allele of gnom compared with the other gnom alleles with pleiotropic phenotypes. The localization of PIN1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) appeared to be unaffected in the fwr roots but the levels of endogenous IAA were actually higher in the fwr roots than in the wild type. These results indicate that LR initiation is one of the most sensitive processes among GNOM-dependent developmental processes, strongly suggesting that GNOM is required for the establishment of the auxin response maximum for LR initiation, probably through the regulation of local and global auxin distribution in the root.

  19. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation through the epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by phospholipid metabolites derived by activation of phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Malik, Kafait U

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), phospholipase D (PLD), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Akt activation by Ang II and other signaling molecules in rat VSMC. Ang II-induced Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced by the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol, but not by its inactive analog 2-butanol, and by brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the PLD cofactor ADP-ribosylation factor, and in cells infected with retrovirus containing PLD(2) siRNA or transfected with PLD(2) antisense but not control LacZ or sense oligonucleotide. Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor II diminished Ang II-induced and diC8-phosphatidic acid (PA)-increased Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that PLD-dependent Akt activation is mediated by PA. Ang II-induced EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by 1-butanol and PLD(2) siRNA and also by cPLA(2) siRNA. In addition, the inhibitor of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) reduced both Ang II- and AA-induced EGFR transactivation. Furthermore, ETYA, cPLA(2) antisense, and cPLA(2) siRNA attenuated Ang II-elicited PLD activation. p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 [4-(4-flurophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole] reduced PLD activity and EGFR and Akt phosphorylation elicited by Ang II. Pyrrolidine-1, a cPLA(2) inhibitor, and cPLA(2) siRNA decreased p38 MAPK activity. These data indicate that Ang II-stimulated Akt activity is mediated by cPLA(2)-dependent, p38 MAPK regulated PLD(2) activation and EGFR transactivation. We propose the following scheme of the sequence of events leading to activation of Akt in VSMC by Ang II: Ang II-->cPLA(2)-->AA-->p38 MAPK-->PLD(2)-->PA-->EGFR-->Akt. PMID:15525798

  20. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation through the epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by phospholipid metabolites derived by activation of phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Malik, Kafait U

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), phospholipase D (PLD), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Akt activation by Ang II and other signaling molecules in rat VSMC. Ang II-induced Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced by the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol, but not by its inactive analog 2-butanol, and by brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the PLD cofactor ADP-ribosylation factor, and in cells infected with retrovirus containing PLD(2) siRNA or transfected with PLD(2) antisense but not control LacZ or sense oligonucleotide. Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor II diminished Ang II-induced and diC8-phosphatidic acid (PA)-increased Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that PLD-dependent Akt activation is mediated by PA. Ang II-induced EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by 1-butanol and PLD(2) siRNA and also by cPLA(2) siRNA. In addition, the inhibitor of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) reduced both Ang II- and AA-induced EGFR transactivation. Furthermore, ETYA, cPLA(2) antisense, and cPLA(2) siRNA attenuated Ang II-elicited PLD activation. p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 [4-(4-flurophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole] reduced PLD activity and EGFR and Akt phosphorylation elicited by Ang II. Pyrrolidine-1, a cPLA(2) inhibitor, and cPLA(2) siRNA decreased p38 MAPK activity. These data indicate that Ang II-stimulated Akt activity is mediated by cPLA(2)-dependent, p38 MAPK regulated PLD(2) activation and EGFR transactivation. We propose the following scheme of the sequence of events leading to activation of Akt in VSMC by Ang II: Ang II-->cPLA(2)-->AA-->p38 MAPK-->PLD(2)-->PA-->EGFR-->Akt.

  1. Endogenous target mimics down-regulate miR160 mediation of ARF10, -16, and -17 cleavage during somatic embryogenesis in Dimocarpus longan Lour

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuling; Lai, Zhongxiong; Tian, Qilin; Lin, Lixia; Lai, Ruilian; Yang, Manman; Zhang, Dongmin; Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Zihao

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA160 plays a critical role in plant development by negatively regulating the auxin response factors ARF10, -16, and -17. However, the ways in which miR160 expression is regulated at the transcriptional level, and how miR160 interacts with its targets during plant embryo development, remain unknown. Here, we studied the regulatory relationships among endogenous target mimics (eTMs), and miR160 and its targets, and their involvement in hormone signaling and somatic embryogenesis (SE) in Dimocarpus longan. We identified miR160 family members and isolated the miR160 precursor, primary transcript, and promoter. The promoter contained cis-acting elements responsive to stimuli such as light, abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and heat stress. The pri-miR160 was down-regulated in response to SA but up-regulated by gibberellic acid, ethylene, and methyl jasmonate treatment, suggesting that pri-miR160 was associated with hormone transduction. Dlo-miR160a, -a∗ and -d∗ reached expression peaks in torpedo-shaped embryos, globular embryos and cotyledonary embryos, respectively, but were barely detectable in friable-embryogenic callus. This suggests that they have expression-related and functional diversity, especially during the middle and later developmental stages of SE. Four potential eTMs for miR160 were identified. Two of them, glucan endo-1,3-beta- glucosidase-like protein 2-like and calpain-type cysteine protease DEK1, were confirmed to control the corresponding dlo-miR160a∗ expression level. This suggests that they may function to abolish the binding between dlo-miR160a∗ and its targets. These two eTMs also participated in 2,4-D and ABA signal transduction. DlARF10, -16, and -17 targeting by dlo-miR160a was confirmed; their expression levels were higher in friable-embryogenic callus and incomplete compact pro-embryogenic cultures and responded to 2,4-D, suggesting they may play a major role in the early stages of longan SE dependent on 2,4-D. The eTMs, mi

  2. Endogenous target mimics down-regulate miR160 mediation of ARF10, -16, and -17 cleavage during somatic embryogenesis in Dimocarpus longan Lour.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuling; Lai, Zhongxiong; Tian, Qilin; Lin, Lixia; Lai, Ruilian; Yang, Manman; Zhang, Dongmin; Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Zihao

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA160 plays a critical role in plant development by negatively regulating the auxin response factors ARF10, -16, and -17. However, the ways in which miR160 expression is regulated at the transcriptional level, and how miR160 interacts with its targets during plant embryo development, remain unknown. Here, we studied the regulatory relationships among endogenous target mimics (eTMs), and miR160 and its targets, and their involvement in hormone signaling and somatic embryogenesis (SE) in Dimocarpus longan. We identified miR160 family members and isolated the miR160 precursor, primary transcript, and promoter. The promoter contained cis-acting elements responsive to stimuli such as light, abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and heat stress. The pri-miR160 was down-regulated in response to SA but up-regulated by gibberellic acid, ethylene, and methyl jasmonate treatment, suggesting that pri-miR160 was associated with hormone transduction. Dlo-miR160a, -a(∗) and -d(∗) reached expression peaks in torpedo-shaped embryos, globular embryos and cotyledonary embryos, respectively, but were barely detectable in friable-embryogenic callus. This suggests that they have expression-related and functional diversity, especially during the middle and later developmental stages of SE. Four potential eTMs for miR160 were identified. Two of them, glucan endo-1,3-beta- glucosidase-like protein 2-like and calpain-type cysteine protease DEK1, were confirmed to control the corresponding dlo-miR160a(∗) expression level. This suggests that they may function to abolish the binding between dlo-miR160a(∗) and its targets. These two eTMs also participated in 2,4-D and ABA signal transduction. DlARF10, -16, and -17 targeting by dlo-miR160a was confirmed; their expression levels were higher in friable-embryogenic callus and incomplete compact pro-embryogenic cultures and responded to 2,4-D, suggesting they may play a major role in the early stages of longan SE dependent on 2,4-D. The e

  3. Purification and Properties of ArfI, an α-l-Arabinofuranosidase from Cytophaga xylanolytica†

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Michael J.; Breznak, John A.

    1998-01-01

    An α-l-arabinofuranosidase (α-l-arabinofuranoside arabinofuranohydrolase [EC 3.2.1.55]; referred to below as ArfI) from Cytophaga xylanolytica XM3 was purified 85-fold by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction column chromatography. The native enzyme had a pI of 6.1 and an apparent molecular mass of 160 to 210 kDa, and it appeared to be a trimer or tetramer consisting of 56-kDa subunits. With p-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside as the substrate, the enzyme exhibited a Km of 0.504 mM and a Vmax of 319 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1, and it had optimum activity at pH 5.8 and 45°C. ArfI was relatively stable over a pH range of 4 to 10 and at temperatures up to 45°C, and it retained nearly full activity when stored at 4°C for periods as long as 24 months. The enzyme also released arabinose from 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside, as well as from rye, wheat, corn cob, and oat spelt arabinoxylans and sugar beet arabinan, but not from arabinogalactan. ArfI showed no hydrolytic activity toward a range of p-nitrophenyl- or 4-methylumbelliferyl-glycosides other than arabinoside, for which it was entirely specific for the α-l-furanoside configuration. ArfI interacted synergistically with three partially purified endoxylanase fractions from C. xylanolytica in hydrolyzing rye arabinoxylan. However, cell fractionation studies revealed that ArfI was largely, if not entirely, cytoplasmic, so its activity in vivo is probably most relevant to hydrolysis of arabinose-containing oligosaccharides small enough to pass through the cytoplasmic membrane. Antibodies prepared against purified ArfI also cross-reacted with arabinofuranosidases from other freshwater and marine strains of C. xylanolytica, as well as with some proteins that did not possess arabinofuranosidase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first α-l-arabinofuranosidase to be purified and characterized from any gliding bacterium. PMID:9435061

  4. The multivesicular body-localized GTPase ARFA1b/1c is important for callose deposition and ROR2 syntaxin-dependent preinvasive basal defense in barley.

    PubMed

    Böhlenius, Henrik; Mørch, Sara M; Godfrey, Dale; Nielsen, Mads E; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2010-11-01

    Host cell vesicle traffic is essential for the interplay between plants and microbes. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases are required for vesicle budding, and we studied the role of these enzymes to identify important vesicle transport pathways in the plant-powdery mildew interaction. A combination of transient-induced gene silencing and transient expression of inactive forms of ARF GTPases provided evidence that barley (Hordeum vulgare) ARFA1b/1c function is important for preinvasive penetration resistance against powdery mildew, manifested by formation of a cell wall apposition, named a papilla. Mutant studies indicated that the plasma membrane-localized REQUIRED FOR MLO-SPECIFIED RESISTANCE2 (ROR2) syntaxin, also important for penetration resistance, and ARFA1b/1c function in the same vesicle transport pathway. This was substantiated by a requirement of ARFA1b/1c for ROR2 accumulation in the papilla. ARFA1b/1c is localized to multivesicular bodies, providing a functional link between ROR2 and these organelles in penetration resistance. During Blumeria graminis f sp hordei penetration attempts, ARFA1b/1c-positive multivesicular bodies assemble near the penetration site hours prior to the earliest detection of callose in papillae. Moreover, we showed that ARFA1b/1c is required for callose deposition in papillae and that the papilla structure is established independently of ARFA1b/1c. This raises the possibility that callose is loaded into papillae via multivesicular bodies, rather than being synthesized directly into this cell wall apposition.

  5. Dry etching of SiC using Ar/F2 plasma and XeF2 plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, Akihiro; Koyama, Fumio

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the SiC dry etching process using Ar/F2 plasma and XeF2 plasma. We carried out optical observation of Ar/F2 plasma and XeF2 plasma. The dominant etching species were different between Ar/F2 plasma and XeF2 plasma. The etching rates of SiC were approximately 100 nm/min at 25 sccm and 200 W for Ar/F2 plasma and 45 nm/min at 2.5 sccm and 100 W for XeF2 plasma. Vertical etching profiles and a smooth etched surface were obtained. The average roughness of the etched bottom surface was 1 nm, which satisfied the requirements for optical device fabrication. We believe that the proposed etching process using F2 of zero-global-warming-potential gases is very simple and useful for fabricating optical devices and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMSs).

  6. Irrepressible, truncated auxin response factors: natural roles and applications in dissecting auxin gene regulation pathways.

    PubMed

    Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Krogan, Naden T; Marcos, Danielle; Caragea, Adriana E; Berleth, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    The molecularly well-characterized auxin signal transduction pathway involves two evolutionarily conserved families interacting through their C-terminal domains III and IV: the Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) and their repressors the Aux/IAAs, to control auxin-responsive genes, among them genes involved in auxin transport. ( 1) (,) ( 2) We have developed a new genetic tool to study ARF function. Using MONOPTEROS (MP)/ARF5, we have generated a truncated version of MP (MPΔ), ( 3) which has lost the target domains for repression by Aux/IAA proteins. Besides exploring genetic interactions between MP and Aux/IAAs, we used this construct to trace MP's role in vascular patterning, a previously characterized auxin dependent process. ( 4) (,) ( 5) Here we summarize examples of naturally occurring truncated ARFs and summarize potential applications of truncated ARFs as analytical tools. PMID:22827953

  7. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17 is essential for pollen wall pattern formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Tian, Lei; Sun, Ming-Xi; Huang, Xue-Yong; Zhu, Jun; Guan, Yue-Feng; Jia, Qi-Shi; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2013-06-01

    In angiosperms, pollen wall pattern formation is determined by primexine deposition on the microspores. Here, we show that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17 (ARF17) is essential for primexine formation and pollen development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The arf17 mutant exhibited a male-sterile phenotype with normal vegetative growth. ARF17 was expressed in microsporocytes and microgametophytes from meiosis to the bicellular microspore stage. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that primexine was absent in the arf17 mutant, which leads to pollen wall-patterning defects and pollen degradation. Callose deposition was also significantly reduced in the arf17 mutant, and the expression of CALLOSE SYNTHASE5 (CalS5), the major gene for callose biosynthesis, was approximately 10% that of the wild type. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that ARF17 can directly bind to the CalS5 promoter. As indicated by the expression of DR5-driven green fluorescent protein, which is an synthetic auxin response reporter, auxin signaling appeared to be specifically impaired in arf17 anthers. Taken together, our results suggest that ARF17 is essential for pollen wall patterning in Arabidopsis by modulating primexine formation at least partially through direct regulation of CalS5 gene expression.

  8. Selection of Nanobodies that Block the Enzymatic and Cytotoxic Activities of the Binary Clostridium Difficile Toxin CDT

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Mandy; Eichhoff, Anna Marei; Schumacher, Lucas; Strysio, Moritz; Menzel, Stephan; Schwan, Carsten; Alzogaray, Vanina; Zylberman, Vanesa; Seman, Michel; Brandner, Johanna; Rohde, Holger; Zhu, Kai; Haag, Friedrich; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi; Goldbaum, Fernando; Aktories, Klaus; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    The spore-forming gut bacterium Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients. The major virulence factors are two large glucosylating cytotoxins. Hypervirulent strains (e.g. ribotype 027) with higher morbidity and mortality additionally produce the binary CDT toxin (Clostridium difficile transferase) that ADP-ribosylates actin and induces microtubule-based cell protrusions. Nanobodies are robust single domain antibodies derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Here we report the generation of functional nanobodies against the enzymatic CDTa and the heptameric receptor binding subunit CDTb. The nanobodies were obtained from a variable-domain repertoire library isolated from llamas immunized with recombinant CDTa or CDTb. Five CDTa-specific nanobodies blocked CDTa-mediated ADP-ribosylation of actin. Three CDTa-specific and two CDTb-specific nanobodies neutralized the cytotoxicity of CDTa+b. These nanobodies hold promise as new tools for research, diagnosis and therapy of C. difficile associated disease. PMID:25597743

  9. Rho-modifying bacterial protein toxins.

    PubMed

    Aktories, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Rho proteins are targets of numerous bacterial protein toxins, which manipulate the GTP-binding proteins by covalent modifications, including ADP ribosylation, glycosylation, adenylylation, proteolytic cleavage and deamidation. Bacterial toxins are important virulence factors but are also potent and efficient pharmacological tools to study the physiological functions of their eukaryotic targets. Recent studies indicate that amazing variations exist in the molecular mechanisms by which toxins attack Rho proteins, which are discussed here.

  10. Ectopic Expression of a Maize Hybrid Down-Regulated Gene ZmARF25 Decreases Organ Size by Affecting Cellular Proliferation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingxue; Xing, Jiewen; Wang, Tianya; Yang, Hua; Yao, Yingyin; Peng, Huiru; Hu, Zhaorong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis is associated with differential gene expression between hybrids and their parental lines, and the genes involved in cell proliferation played important roles. AtARF2 is a general cell proliferation repressor in Arabidopsis. In our previous study, two homologues (ZmARF10 and ZmARF25) of AtARF2 were identified in maize, but their relationship with heterosis was not elucidated. Here, the expression patterns of ZmARF10 and ZmARF25 in seedling leaves of maize hybrids and their parental lines were analyzed. The results of qRT-PCR exhibited that ZmARF25 was down-regulated in leaf basal region of hybrids. Moreover, overexpression of ZmARF25 led to reduced organ size in Arabidopsis, which was mainly due to the decrease in cell number, not cell size. In addition, the cell proliferation related genes AtANT, AtGIF1 and AtGRF5 were down-regulated in 35S::ZmARF25 transgenic lines. Collectively, we proposed that the down-regulation of ZmARF25 in maize hybrid may accelerate cell proliferation and promote leaf development, which, in turn, contributes to the observed leaf size heterosis in maize. PMID:24756087

  11. Vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the Octopus vulgaris brain: a regulatory factor of actin polymerization dynamic.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Anna; Natale, Emiliana; Rotondo, Sergio; Di Cosmo, Anna; Faraone-Mennella, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Our previous behavioural, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses conducted in selected regions (supra/sub oesophageal masses) of the Octopus vulgaris brain detected a cytoplasmic poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (more than 90% of total enzyme activity). The protein was identified as the vault-free form of vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. The present research extends and integrates the biochemical characterization of poly-ADP-ribosylation system, namely, reaction product, i.e., poly-ADP-ribose, and acceptor proteins, in the O. vulgaris brain. Immunochemical analyses evidenced that the sole poly-ADP-ribose acceptor was the octopus cytoskeleton 50-kDa actin. It was present in both free, endogenously poly-ADP-ribosylated form (70kDa) and in complex with V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and poly-ADP-ribose (260kDa). The components of this complex, alkali and high salt sensitive, were purified and characterized. The kind and the length of poly-ADP-ribose corresponded to linear chains of 30-35 ADP-ribose units, in accordance with the features of the polymer synthesized by the known vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. In vitro experiments showed that V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase activity of brain cytoplasmic fraction containing endogenous actin increased upon the addition of commercial actin and was highly reduced by ATP. Anti-actin immunoblot of the mixture in the presence and absence of ATP showed that the poly-ADP-ribosylation of octopus actin is a dynamic process balanced by the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeleton protein, a fundamental mechanism for synaptic plasticity.

  12. Breaking a paradigm: IL-6/STAT3 signaling suppresses metastatic prostate cancer upon ARF expression.

    PubMed

    Culig, Zoran; Pencik, Jan; Merkel, Olaf; Kenner, Lukas

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is considered to have important oncogenic functions in prostate cancer (PCa). However, a recent study highlighted the central role of IL-6/STAT3 signaling in regulation of the ARF-MDM2-p53 senescence axis. This reversal of the postulated oncogenic properties of IL-6/STAT3 signaling in PCa has important therapeutic implications. PMID:27308625

  13. 0.33-k1 ArF lithography for 100-nm DRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, Cheol-Kyu; Kim, Seok-Kyun; Kim, Hee-Bom; Oh, Jin-Sung; Ahn, Chang-Nam; Shin, Ki-Soo

    2002-07-01

    We have evaluated 0.33k1 ArF lithography using 0.63NA scanner to develop 100 nm DRAM. ArF resist problems were resist pattern shrinkage during CD SEM measurement, resist pattern collapse during wet development and poor etch resistance. Off-Site Measurement (OSM) method has been developed for decreasing pattern shrinkage. With OSM method, 8nm of CD shrinkage was down to 2nm for 100nm L/S patterns. We have found a proper BARC material that prevents resist patterns falling down. Lack of etch resistance was compensated by hard mask. With W/SiN hard mask, acrylate- type resist patterns were transferred well into W/poly-Si gate patterns. We have simulated process window of critical DRAM cell patterns (isolation, gate, bit line contact, storage node) in the simple off-axis illumination (OAI) and optical proximity correction (OPC) conditions based on single exposure. Simulation results were verified by lithography tests and it turned out that 0.33k1 process was possible with exposure latitude of above 10% and focus latitude of more than 0.4 micrometers . 0.33k1 ArF lithography was successfully implemented into 100 nm DRAM with CD uniformity of 10nm (3 (sigma) ) and overlay accuracy of 30 nm (mean +3 (sigma) ). We have also evaluated double exposure technique using dipole illumination targeting 90 nm in order to see the possibility of 0.29k1 process. 0.29k1 process was also likely to be possible, although some specific improvements were recommended for the wider process window. From the simulation and resist patterning results, we believe that 0.85 NA lens will be able to extend ArF lithography into 75 nm by single exposure technology using crosspole illumination (0.33k1 process) and 65 nm by double exposure technology using dipole and crosspole illumination (0.29k1 process).

  14. Rayleigh rejection filters for 193-nm ArF laser Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    Selected organic absorbers and their solvents are evaluated as spectral filters for the rejection of 193-nm Rayleigh light associated with the use of an ArF excimer laser for Raman spectroscopy. A simply constructed filter cell filled with 0.5 percent acetone in water and an optical path of 7 mm is shown effectively to eliminate stray Rayleigh light underlying the Raman spectrum from air while transmitting 60 percent of the Raman light scattered by O2.

  15. A reliable higher power ArF laser with advanced functionality for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosu, Akihiko; Nakano, Masaki; Yashiro, Masanori; Yoshino, Masaya; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Kumazaki, Takahito; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Okazaki, Shinji; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2012-03-01

    193nm ArF eximer lasers are expected to continue to be the main solution in photolithography, since advanced lithography tecnologies such as Multiple patterning and Self-aligned double patterning (SADP) are being developed. In order to appliy these tecnologies to high-volume semiconductor manufactureing, the key is to contain chip manufactureing costs. Therefore, improvement on Reliability, Availability and Maintainability of ArF excimer lasers is important.[1] We works on improving productivity and reducing downtime of ArF exmer lasers, which leads to Reliability, Availability and Maintainability improvemnet. First in this paper, our focus drilling tecnique, which increases depth of focus (DoF) by spectral bandwidth tuning is introdueced. This focus drilling enables to increase DoF for isolated contact holes. and it not degrades the wafer stage speed.[2] Second, a technique which eables to reduce gas refill time to zero is introduced. This technique reduces downtime so Availavility is expected to improve. In this paper, we report these tecniques by using simulation resutls and partially experimental resutls provided by a semiconductor manufacturer.

  16. Arf6 controls retromer traffic and intracellular cholesterol distribution via a phosphoinositide-based mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Marquer, Catherine; Tian, Huasong; Yi, Julie; Bastien, Jayson; Dall'Armi, Claudia; Yang-Klingler, YoungJoo; Zhou, Bowen; Chan, Robin Barry; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Small GTPases play a critical role in membrane traffic. Among them, Arf6 mediates transport to and from the plasma membrane, as well as phosphoinositide signalling and cholesterol homeostasis. Here we delineate the molecular basis for the link between Arf6 and cholesterol homeostasis using an inducible knockout (KO) model of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We find that accumulation of free cholesterol in the late endosomes/lysosomes of Arf6 KO MEFs results from mistrafficking of Niemann–Pick type C protein NPC2, a cargo of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR). This is caused by a selective increase in an endosomal pool of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) and a perturbation of retromer, which controls the retrograde transport of CI-M6PR via sorting nexins, including the PI4P effector SNX6. Finally, reducing PI4P levels in KO MEFs through independent mechanisms rescues aberrant retromer tubulation and cholesterol mistrafficking. Our study highlights a phosphoinositide-based mechanism for control of cholesterol distribution via retromer. PMID:27336679

  17. tasiRNA-ARF pathway moderates floral architecture in Arabidopsis plants subjected to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Akihiro; Mizunashi, Kayoko; Tanaka, Maho; Kaminuma, Eli; Nguyen, Anh Hai; Nakajima, Maiko; Kim, Jong-Myong; Nguyen, Dong Van; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Seki, Motoaki

    2014-01-01

    In plants, miRNAs and siRNAs, such as transacting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs), affect their targets through distinct regulatory mechanisms. In this study, the expression profiles of small RNAs (smRNAs) in Arabidopsis plants subjected to drought, cold, and high-salinity stress were analyzed using 454 DNA sequencing technology. Expression of three groups of ta-siRNAs (TAS1, TAS2, and TAS3) and their precursors was downregulated in Arabidopsis plants subjected to drought and high-salinity stress. Analysis of ta-siRNA synthesis mutants and mutated ARF3-overexpressing plants that escape the tasiRNA-ARF target indicated that self-pollination was hampered by short stamens in plants under drought and high-salinity stress. Microarray analysis of flower buds of rdr6 and wild-type plants under drought stress and nonstressed conditions revealed that expression of floral development- and auxin response-related genes was affected by drought stress and by the RDR6 mutation. The overall results of the present study indicated that tasiRNA-ARF is involved in maintaining the normal morphogenesis of flowers in plants under stress conditions through fine-tuning expression changes of floral development-related and auxin response-related genes.

  18. rac p21 is involved in insulin-induced membrane ruffling and rho p21 is involved in hepatocyte growth factor- and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced membrane ruffling in KB cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, T; Sasaki, T; Takaishi, K; Kato, M; Yaku, H; Araki, K; Matsuura, Y; Takai, Y

    1994-01-01

    Insulin and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced morphologically different membrane rufflings in KB cells. Insulin-induced membrane ruffling was inhibited by microinjection of rho GDI, an inhibitory GDP/GTP exchange regulator for both rho p21 and rac p21 small GTP-binding proteins, but not inhibited by microinjection of botulinum exoenzyme C3, known to selectively ADP-ribosylate rho p21 and to impair its function. This rho GDI action was prevented by comicroinjection with guanosine 5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S)-bound rac1 p21. In contrast, HGF-induced membrane ruffling was inhibited by microinjection of rho GDI or C3. This rho GDI action was prevented by comicroinjection with GTP gamma S-bound rhoA p21, and this C3 action was prevented by comicroinjection with GTP gamma S-bound rhoAIle-41 p21, which is resistant to C3. Microinjection of either GTP gamma S-bound rac1 p21 or rhoA p21 alone induced membrane ruffling in the absence of the growth factors. The rac1 p21-induced membrane ruffling was morphologically similar to the insulin-induced kind, whereas rhoA p21-induced ruffling was apparently different from both the insulin- and HGF-induced kinds. Membrane ruffling was also induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a protein kinase C-activating phorbol ester, but not by Ca2+ ionophore or microinjection of a dominant active Ki-ras p21 mutant (Ki-rasVal-12 p21). The phorbol ester-induced membrane ruffling was morphologically similar to the rhoA p21-induced kind and inhibited by microinjection of rho GDI or C3. These results indicate that rac p21 and rho GDI are involved in insulin-induced membrane ruffling and that rho p21 and rho GDI are involved in HGF- and phorbol ester-induced membrane rufflings. Images PMID:8139548

  19. Photomask lifetime issues in ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschbach, Florence; Coon, Peter; Greenebaum, Barbara; Mittal, Anurag; Sanchez, Peter; Tanzil, Daniel; Ng, Grace; Yun, Henry; Sengupta, Archita

    2005-06-01

    Photomask lifetime has become a challenge since the introduction of high volume manufacturing 193nm photolithograph. Photomask lifetime is being impacted by a broad range of environmental and process factors resulting in inorganics crystals and organic contaminants formation as well as pellicle lifetime issues. Extensive work has been published on strategies for reduction of inorganic crystals photoinduced defects formation mainly focusing on photomask clean process improvements. This paper will focus on identifying root causes for photoinduced contaminants forming within the pellicle space area as well as identify environmental factors which have the potential of impacting pellicle membrane longevity. Outgasing experiments coupled with 193nm laser exposure tests were conducted to decouple and rank reticle/pellicle storage materials as well as pellicle outgasing contributors to photoinduced defects and identify factors impacting pellicle membrance longevity. Analytical test were conducted to compare the relative levels of reticle storage materials and pellicle outgasing contaminants. Experiments aimed at quantifying the fab environment contribution to photoinduced defects formation and impact on pellicle membrane lifetime will be discussed. Environmental conditions minimizing external contributing factors impacting photomask front side photoinduced defects formation and pellicle membrance longevity will be suggested.

  20. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17 Is Essential for Pollen Wall Pattern Formation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Tian, Lei; Sun, Ming-Xi; Huang, Xue-Yong; Zhu, Jun; Guan, Yue-Feng; Jia, Qi-Shi; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2013-01-01

    In angiosperms, pollen wall pattern formation is determined by primexine deposition on the microspores. Here, we show that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR17 (ARF17) is essential for primexine formation and pollen development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The arf17 mutant exhibited a male-sterile phenotype with normal vegetative growth. ARF17 was expressed in microsporocytes and microgametophytes from meiosis to the bicellular microspore stage. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that primexine was absent in the arf17 mutant, which leads to pollen wall-patterning defects and pollen degradation. Callose deposition was also significantly reduced in the arf17 mutant, and the expression of CALLOSE SYNTHASE5 (CalS5), the major gene for callose biosynthesis, was approximately 10% that of the wild type. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that ARF17 can directly bind to the CalS5 promoter. As indicated by the expression of DR5-driven green fluorescent protein, which is an synthetic auxin response reporter, auxin signaling appeared to be specifically impaired in arf17 anthers. Taken together, our results suggest that ARF17 is essential for pollen wall patterning in Arabidopsis by modulating primexine formation at least partially through direct regulation of CalS5 gene expression. PMID:23580594

  1. Long noncoding RNA, polycomb, and the ghosts haunting INK4b-ARF-INK4a expression.

    PubMed

    Aguilo, Francesca; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Walsh, Martin J

    2011-08-15

    Polycomb group proteins (PcG) function as transcriptional repressors of gene expression. The important role of PcG in mediating repression of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus, by directly binding to the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcript antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL), was recently shown. INK4b-ARF-INK4a encodes 3 tumor-suppressor proteins, p15(INK4b), p14(ARF), and p16(INK4a), and its transcription is a key requirement for replicative or oncogene-induced senescence and constitutes an important barrier for tumor growth. ANRIL gene is transcribed in the antisense orientation of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene cluster, and different single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to several diseases. Although lncRNA-mediated regulation of INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene is not restricted to ANRIL, both polycomb repressive complex-1 (PRC1) and -2 (PRC2) interact with ANRIL to form heterochromatin surrounding the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus, leading to its repression. This mechanism would provide an increased advantage for bypassing senescence, sustaining the requirements for the proliferation of stem and/or progenitor cell populations or inappropriately leading to oncogenesis through the aberrant saturation of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus by PcG complexes. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the underlying epigenetic mechanisms that link PcG function with ANRIL, which impose gene silencing to control cellular homeostasis as well as cancer development. PMID:21828241

  2. Long Noncoding RNA, Polycomb, and the Ghosts Haunting INK4b-ARF-INK4a Expression

    PubMed Central

    Aguilo, Francesca; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Walsh, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb group proteins (PcG) function as transcriptional repressors of gene expression. The important role of PcG in mediating repression of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus, by directly binding to the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcript antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL), was recently shown. INK4b-ARF-INK4a encodes 3 tumor-suppressor proteins, p15INK4b, p14ARF, and p16INK4a, and its transcription is a key requirement for replicative or oncogene-induced senescence and constitutes an important barrier for tumor growth. ANRIL gene is transcribed in the antisense orientation of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene cluster, and different single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to several diseases. Although lncRNA-mediated regulation of INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene is not restricted to ANRIL, both polycomb repressive complex-1 (PRC1) and -2 (PRC2) interact with ANRIL to form heterochromatin surrounding the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus, leading to its repression. This mechanism would provide an increased advantage for bypassing senescence, sustaining the requirements for the proliferation of stem and/or progenitor cell populations or inappropriately leading to oncogenesis through the aberrant saturation of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus by PcG complexes. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the underlying epigenetic mechanisms that link PcG function with ANRIL, which impose gene silencing to control cellular homeostasis as well as cancer development. PMID:21828241

  3. Clostridium difficile toxin CDT induces formation of microtubule-based protrusions and increases adherence of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schwan, Carsten; Stecher, Bärbel; Tzivelekidis, Tina; van Ham, Marco; Rohde, Manfred; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Wehland, Jürgen; Aktories, Klaus

    2009-10-01

    Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis by production of the Rho GTPase-glucosylating toxins A and B. Recently emerging hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains additionally produce the binary ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase), which ADP-ribosylates actin and inhibits actin polymerization. Thus far, the role of CDT as a virulence factor is not understood. Here we report by using time-lapse- and immunofluorescence microscopy that CDT and other binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins, including Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin, induce redistribution of microtubules and formation of long (up to >150 microm) microtubule-based protrusions at the surface of intestinal epithelial cells. The toxins increase the length of decoration of microtubule plus-ends by EB1/3, CLIP-170 and CLIP-115 proteins and cause redistribution of the capture proteins CLASP2 and ACF7 from microtubules at the cell cortex into the cell interior. The CDT-induced microtubule protrusions form a dense meshwork at the cell surface, which wrap and embed bacterial cells, thereby largely increasing the adherence of Clostridia. The study describes a novel type of microtubule structure caused by less efficient microtubule capture and offers a new perspective for the pathogenetic role of CDT and other binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins in host-pathogen interactions.

  4. Loss of ARF sensitizes transgenic BRAFV600E mice to UV-induced melanoma via suppression of XPC

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chi; Sheng, Jinghao; Hu, Miaofen G.; Haluska, Frank G.; Cui, Rutao; Xu, Zhengping; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Hu, Guo-fu; Hinds, Philip W.

    2013-01-01

    Both genetic mutations and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can predispose individuals to melanoma. Although BRAFV600E is the most prevalent oncogene in melanoma, the BRAFV600E mutant is not sufficient to induce tumors in vivo. Mutation at the CDKN2A locus is another melanoma-predisposing event that can disrupt the function of both p16INK4a and ARF. Numerous studies have focused on the role of p16INK4a in melanoma, but the involvement of ARF, a well-known p53 activator, is still controversial. Using a transgenic BRAFV600E mouse model previously generated in our laboratory, we report that loss of ARF is able to enhance spontaneous melanoma formation and cause profound sensitivity to neonatal UVB exposure. Mechanistically, BRAFV600E and ARF deletion synergize to inhibit nucleotide excision repair by epigenetically repressing XPC and inhibiting the E2F4/DP1 complex. We suggest that the deletion of ARF promotes melanomagenesis not by abrogating p53 activation but by acting in concert with BRAFV600E to increase the load of DNA damage caused by UV irradiation. PMID:23650282

  5. Detection of specific antibodies to HCV-ARF/CORE+1 protein in patients treated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Karamitros, T; Kakkanas, A; Katsoulidou, A; Sypsa, V; Dalagiorgou, G; Mavromara, P; Hatzakis, A

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause for chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The HCV-ARF/core+1 protein is an alternative product of HCV core-encoding sequence of unknown biological function. Highly purified HCV core and ARF/core+1 recombinant proteins from HCV genotype 1a and HCV-ARF/core+1 recombinant protein from HCV genotype 3a were expressed in Escherichia coli. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we assessed the prevalence of anti-ARF/core+1 antibodies in 90 chronic hepatitis C patients infected with HCV genotypes 1a/1b or 3a, treated with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN-a-2a) plus ribavirin. Samples derived from 92 healthy blood donors were used as negative controls. All HCV-RNA-positive serum samples reacted with core 1a antigen, while 15 (37.5%) of 40 and 14 (28%) of 50 patients infected with HCV-1a/1b and HCV-3a, respectively, were found to have anti-ARF/core+1 antibodies into their serum before treatment initiation. These antibodies were persistently present during treatment follow-up and linked to elevated levels of HCV-RNA at baseline. PMID:22329372

  6. ARF6–JIP3/4 regulate endosomal tubules for MT1-MMP exocytosis in cancer invasion

    PubMed Central

    Marchesin, Valentina; Castro-Castro, Antonio; Lodillinsky, Catalina; Castagnino, Alessia; Cyrta, Joanna; Bonsang-Kitzis, Hélène; Fuhrmann, Laetitia; Irondelle, Marie; Infante, Elvira; Montagnac, Guillaume; Reyal, Fabien; Vincent-Salomon, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Invasion of cancer cells into collagen-rich extracellular matrix requires membrane-tethered membrane type 1–matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) as the key protease for collagen breakdown. Understanding how MT1-MMP is delivered to the surface of tumor cells is essential for cancer cell biology. In this study, we identify ARF6 together with c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase–interacting protein 3 and 4 (JIP3 and JIP4) effectors as critical regulators of this process. Silencing ARF6 or JIP3/JIP4 in breast tumor cells results in MT1-MMP endosome mispositioning and reduces MT1-MMP exocytosis and tumor cell invasion. JIPs are recruited by Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and scar homologue (WASH) on MT1-MMP endosomes on which they recruit dynein–dynactin and kinesin-1. The interaction of plasma membrane ARF6 with endosomal JIPs coordinates dynactin–dynein and kinesin-1 activity in a tug-of-war mechanism, leading to MT1-MMP endosome tubulation and exocytosis. In addition, we find that ARF6, MT1-MMP, and kinesin-1 are up-regulated in high-grade triple-negative breast cancers. These data identify a critical ARF6–JIP–MT1-MMP–dynein–dynactin–kinesin-1 axis promoting an invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells. PMID:26504170

  7. Design of chirped fly's eye uniformizer for ArF lithography illumination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lei; Li, Yanqiu; Wei, Lidong

    2014-11-01

    Fly's eye uniformizer is the key part of ArF lithography illumination system, whose main function is to illuminate the reticle uniformly. Due to the periodic structure of regular fly's eye uniformizer and the high coherence of the ArF laser, the output intensity distribution is modulated with equidistant sharp intensity peaks (interference speckle pattern) which disturbed the uniformity on the reticle. In this paper, we design a chirped fly's eye uniformizer which consists of chirped fly's eye and a condenser for illumination system in ArF lithography system. The chirped fly's eye consists of individually shaped micro-lenses defined by a parametric description which can be derived completely from analytical functions. The micro-lenses with different thicknesses in the chirped fly's eye have a function of delaying the optical path which reducing the laser coherence and speckle pattern on the reticle. Detailed design process of the chirped fly's eye uniformizer for numerical aperture (NA) 0.75 lithography illumination system is presented. Light intensity distribution on reticle produced by regular and chirped fly's eye uniformizer are analyzed and compared by the method of wave optics, and the results show that chirped can restrain sharp intensity peaks efficiently. Furthermore, the chirped fly's eye uniformizer has been traced in LightTools software under conventional and annual illumination modes, and the non-uniformity of the non-scan and scan direction on the reticle reached 0.75% and 1.24% respectively. The simulation results show that the chirped fly's eye uniformizer can provide high illumination uniformity and reduce the speckle pattern efficiently without additional elements.

  8. Exclusion of Integrins from CNS Axons Is Regulated by Arf6 Activation and the AIS

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, Elske H. P.; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Koseki, Hiroaki; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Hoogenraad, Casper C.

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are adhesion and survival molecules involved in axon growth during CNS development, as well as axon regeneration after injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Adult CNS axons do not regenerate after injury, partly due to a low intrinsic growth capacity. We have previously studied the role of integrins in axon growth in PNS axons; in the present study, we investigate whether integrin mechanisms involved in PNS regeneration may be altered or lacking from mature CNS axons by studying maturing CNS neurons in vitro. In rat cortical neurons, we find that integrins are present in axons during initial growth but later become restricted to the somato-dendritic domain. We investigated how this occurs and whether it can be altered to enhance axonal growth potential. We find a developmental change in integrin trafficking; transport becomes predominantly retrograde throughout axons, but not dendrites, as neurons mature. The directionality of transport is controlled through the activation state of ARF6, with developmental upregulation of the ARF6 GEF ARNO enhancing retrograde transport. Lowering ARF6 activity in mature neurons restores anterograde integrin flow, allows transport into axons, and increases axon growth. In addition, we found that the axon initial segment is partly responsible for exclusion of integrins and removal of this structure allows integrins into axons. Changing posttranslational modifications of tubulin with taxol also allows integrins into the proximal axon. The experiments suggest that the developmental loss of regenerative ability in CNS axons is due to exclusion of growth-related molecules due to changes in trafficking. PMID:26019348

  9. The role of ARF1 and rab GTPases in polarization of the Golgi stack.

    PubMed

    Bannykh, Serguei I; Plutner, Helen; Matteson, Jeanne; Balch, William E

    2005-09-01

    The organization and sorting of proteins within the Golgi stack to establish and maintain its cis to trans polarization remains an enigma. The function of Golgi compartments involves coat assemblages that facilitate vesicle traffic, Rab-tether-SNAP receptor (SNARE) machineries that dictate membrane identity, as well as matrix components that maintain structure. We have investigated how the Golgi complex achieves compartmentalization in response to a key component of the coat complex I (COPI) coat assembly pathway, the ARF1 GTPase, in relationship to GTPases-regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit (Sar1) and targeting fusion (Rab1). Following collapse of the Golgi into the ER in response to inhibition of activation of ARF1 by Brefeldin A, we found that Sar1- and Rab1-dependent Golgi reformation took place at multiple peripheral and perinuclear ER exit sites. These rapidly converged into immature Golgi that appeared as onion-like structures composed of multiple concentrically arrayed cisternae of mixed enzyme composition. During clustering to the perinuclear region, Golgi enzymes were sorted to achieve the degree of polarization within the stack found in mature Golgi. Surprisingly, we found that sorting of Golgi enzymes into their subcompartments was insensitive to the dominant negative GTP-restricted ARF1 mutant, a potent inhibitor of COPI coat disassembly and vesicular traffic. We suggest that a COPI-independent, Rab-dependent mechanism is involved in the rapid reorganization of resident enzymes within the Golgi stack following synchronized release from the ER, suggesting an important role for Rab hubs in directing Golgi polarization. PMID:16101683

  10. Collateral damage-free debridement using 193nm ArF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, James J.; Felsenstein, Jerome M.; Trzcinski, Robert; Zupanski-Nielsen, Donna; Connors, Daniel P.

    2011-03-01

    Burn eschar and other necrotic areas of the skin and soft tissue are anhydrous compared to the underlying viable tissue. A 193 nm ArF excimer laser, emitting electromagnetic radiation at 6.4 eV at fluence exceeding the ablation threshold, will debride such necrotic areas. Because such radiation is strongly absorbed by aqueous chloride ions through the nonthermal process of electron photodetachment, debridement will cease when hydrated (with chloride ions) viable tissue is exposed, avoiding collateral damage to this tissue. Such tissue will be sterile and ready for further treatment, such as a wound dressing and/or a skin graft.

  11. Properties and Lithographic Capability of Sulfonium Salts with Aromatic Cyclic Ketone Group for ArF Chemically Amplified Resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Katsumi; Nakano, Kaichiro; Iwasa, Shigeyuki; Hasegawa, Etsuo; Shirai, Masamitsu

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated dialkylsulfonium salts with an aromatic cyclic ketone structure (a 1-indanone, 1-tetralone, or 4-chromanone unit) as a photoacid generator for ArF chemically amplified resists. The thermal stability of the salts was affected by alkyl subsitituents. Sulfonium salts with two methyl groups or a pentamethylene group exhibited a decomposition temperature of more than 200 °C. The absorption coefficients at 193 nm for the new PAGs were 1/3 to 1/4 that of the conventional triphenylsulfonium salt. The photosensitivity of sulfonium salt with the 1-oxo-2-indanyl group with an ArF laser was two times that of a phenacyl sulfonium salt with an aromatic linear ketone structure. We also analyzed the photodecomposed compounds produced by irradiation with an ArF excimer laser. A positive resist using a dimethyl(1-oxo-2-indanyl)sulfonium salt achieved a 130 nm line-and space pattern.

  12. Analysis of Arf1 GTPase-dependent membrane binding and remodeling using the exomer secretory vesicle cargo adaptor

    PubMed Central

    Paczkowski, Jon E.; Fromme, J. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Summary Protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions play a critical role in shaping biological membranes through direct physical contact with the membrane surface. This is particularly evident in many steps of membrane trafficking, in which proteins deform the membrane and induce fission to form transport carriers. The small GTPase Arf1 and related proteins have the ability to remodel membranes by insertion of an amphipathic helix into the membrane. Arf1 and the exomer cargo adaptor coordinate cargo sorting into subset of secretory vesicle carriers in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we detail the assays we used to explore the cooperative action of Arf1 and exomer to bind and remodel membranes. We expect these methods are broadly applicable to other small GTPase/effector systems where investigation of membrane binding and remodeling is of interest. PMID:27632000

  13. Analysis of Arf1 GTPase-Dependent Membrane Binding and Remodeling Using the Exomer Secretory Vesicle Cargo Adaptor.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, Jon E; Fromme, J Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions play a critical role in shaping biological membranes through direct physical contact with the membrane surface. This is particularly evident in many steps of membrane trafficking, in which proteins deform the membrane and induce fission to form transport carriers. The small GTPase Arf1 and related proteins have the ability to remodel membranes by insertion of an amphipathic helix into the membrane. Arf1 and the exomer cargo adaptor coordinate cargo sorting into subset of secretory vesicle carriers in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we detail the assays we used to explore the cooperative action of Arf1 and exomer to bind and remodel membranes. We expect these methods are broadly applicable to other small GTPase/effector systems where investigation of membrane binding and remodeling is of interest. PMID:27632000

  14. The role of NPM, p14arf and MDM2 in precursors of bronchial squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mascaux, C; Bex, F; Martin, B; Burny, A; Haller, A; Paesmans, M; Willard-Gallo, K; Ninane, V; Sculier, J-P

    2008-09-01

    Murine double minute clone 2 (MDM2), p14 alternate reading frame (p14arf), and nucleophosmin (NPM) regulate p53 activity. A total of 200 biopsies, including normal bronchial, pre-invasive and invasive tissues, were examined for changes in NPM, p14arf, MDM2 and p53 expression patterns by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy. NPM and p14arf displayed a diffuse nuclear staining in most normal bronchial tissue. The fraction of biopsies displaying an increased MDM2 staining or a nucleolar relocalisation of NPM increased at mild and moderate dysplasia, respectively. Two different modifications occurred in p14arf expression, i.e. its loss or its nucleolar relocalisation, both increasing at severe dysplasia and both being associated with high MDM2 expression. In addition, the nucleolar relocalisation of p14arf was associated with that of NPM. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that NPM and p14arf either co-localised in the nucleoplasm or in the nucleoli, before and as a result of severe dysplasia, respectively. MDM2 was not detected in the nucleoli. Thus, changes occur in murine double minute clone 2, p14 alternate reading frame and nucleophosmin level of expression and/or cellular distribution during early steps of lung carcinogenesis. Their relative localisation as determined by immunofluorescence, supports the hypothesis that p14 alternate reading frame nucleolar relocalisation impairs p14 alternate reading frame-murine double minute clone 2 complex formation and that nucleophosmin might sequester p14 alternate reading frame. The demonstration of this hypothesis requires further functional studies.

  15. Auxin response factor gene family in Brassica rapa: genomic organization, divergence, expression, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Yu, Hee-Ju; Shin, Ja Young; Oh, Mijin; Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Hee

    2012-10-01

    Completion of the sequencing of the Brassica rapa genome enabled us to undertake a genome-wide identification and functional study of the gene families related to the morphological diversity and agronomic traits of Brassica crops. In this study, we identified the auxin response factor (ARF) gene family, which is one of the key regulators of auxin-mediated plant growth and development in the B. rapa genome. A total of 31 ARF genes were identified in the genome. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses suggest that ARF genes fell into four major classes and were amplified in the B. rapa genome as a result of a recent whole genome triplication after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite its recent hexaploid ancestry, B. rapa includes a relatively small number of ARF genes compared with the 23 members in A. thaliana, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative genomic and mRNA sequencing analyses demonstrated that 27 of the 31 BrARF genes were transcriptionally active, and their expression was affected by either auxin treatment or floral development stage, although 4 genes were inactive, suggesting that the generation and pseudogenization of ARF members are likely to be an ongoing process. This study will provide a fundamental basis for the modification and evolution of the gene family after a polyploidy event, as well as a functional study of ARF genes in a polyploidy crop species.

  16. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Stultiens, Catharina L. M.; de Groot, Peter F. M.; Powers, Stephen J.; Tikunov, Yury M.; Bovy, Arnoud G.; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development. PMID:25883382

  17. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Stultiens, Catharina L M; de Groot, Peter F M; Powers, Stephen J; Tikunov, Yury M; Bovy, Arnoud G; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-06-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development.

  18. Danger-associated peptide signaling in Arabidopsis requires clathrin.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Morea, Fausto Andres; Savatin, Daniel V; Dejonghe, Wim; Kumar, Rahul; Luo, Yu; Adamowski, Maciej; Van den Begin, Jos; Dressano, Keini; Pereira de Oliveira, Guilherme; Zhao, Xiuyang; Lu, Qing; Madder, Annemieke; Friml, Jiří; Scherer de Moura, Daniel; Russinova, Eugenia

    2016-09-27

    The Arabidopsis thaliana endogenous elicitor peptides (AtPeps) are released into the apoplast after cellular damage caused by pathogens or wounding to induce innate immunity by direct binding to the membrane-localized leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases, PEP RECEPTOR1 (PEPR1) and PEPR2. Although the PEPR-mediated signaling components and responses have been studied extensively, the contributions of the subcellular localization and dynamics of the active PEPRs remain largely unknown. We used live-cell imaging of the fluorescently labeled and bioactive pep1 to visualize the intracellular behavior of the PEPRs in the Arabidopsis root meristem. We found that AtPep1 decorated the plasma membrane (PM) in a receptor-dependent manner and cointernalized with PEPRs. Trafficking of the AtPep1-PEPR1 complexes to the vacuole required neither the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE)-localized vacuolar H(+)-ATPase activity nor the function of the brefeldin A-sensitive ADP-ribosylation factor-guanine exchange factors (ARF-GEFs). In addition, AtPep1 and different TGN/EE markers colocalized only rarely, implying that the intracellular route of this receptor-ligand pair is largely independent of the TGN/EE. Inducible overexpression of the Arabidopsis clathrin coat disassembly factor, Auxilin2, which inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), impaired the AtPep1-PEPR1 internalization and compromised AtPep1-mediated responses. Our results show that clathrin function at the PM is required to induce plant defense responses, likely through CME of cell surface-located signaling components.

  19. Danger-associated peptide signaling in Arabidopsis requires clathrin.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Morea, Fausto Andres; Savatin, Daniel V; Dejonghe, Wim; Kumar, Rahul; Luo, Yu; Adamowski, Maciej; Van den Begin, Jos; Dressano, Keini; Pereira de Oliveira, Guilherme; Zhao, Xiuyang; Lu, Qing; Madder, Annemieke; Friml, Jiří; Scherer de Moura, Daniel; Russinova, Eugenia

    2016-09-27

    The Arabidopsis thaliana endogenous elicitor peptides (AtPeps) are released into the apoplast after cellular damage caused by pathogens or wounding to induce innate immunity by direct binding to the membrane-localized leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases, PEP RECEPTOR1 (PEPR1) and PEPR2. Although the PEPR-mediated signaling components and responses have been studied extensively, the contributions of the subcellular localization and dynamics of the active PEPRs remain largely unknown. We used live-cell imaging of the fluorescently labeled and bioactive pep1 to visualize the intracellular behavior of the PEPRs in the Arabidopsis root meristem. We found that AtPep1 decorated the plasma membrane (PM) in a receptor-dependent manner and cointernalized with PEPRs. Trafficking of the AtPep1-PEPR1 complexes to the vacuole required neither the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE)-localized vacuolar H(+)-ATPase activity nor the function of the brefeldin A-sensitive ADP-ribosylation factor-guanine exchange factors (ARF-GEFs). In addition, AtPep1 and different TGN/EE markers colocalized only rarely, implying that the intracellular route of this receptor-ligand pair is largely independent of the TGN/EE. Inducible overexpression of the Arabidopsis clathrin coat disassembly factor, Auxilin2, which inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), impaired the AtPep1-PEPR1 internalization and compromised AtPep1-mediated responses. Our results show that clathrin function at the PM is required to induce plant defense responses, likely through CME of cell surface-located signaling components. PMID:27651494

  20. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2016-02-01

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs. PMID:26721260

  1. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2016-02-01

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs.

  2. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs. PMID:26721260

  3. Efficacy of the Nematophagous Fungus ARF18 in Alginate-clay Pellet Formulations Against Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D. G.; Riggs, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Dry alginate-clay pellets containing mycelium of ARF18 were added to sandy soil in greenhouse tests to determine the formulation's efficacy in the suppression of Heterodera glycines. Pellet formulation variables included quantity of mycelium per pellet (0.0-3.9%), pellet size (2.3 or 8.3 mg), pellet application rate per unit soil (0.4 or 1.0% based on dry soil weight), and pellet storage (0 or 90 days). All of these variables affected efficacy. Nematode suppression was greatest (95%) with 8.3 mg pellets containing 3.9% mycelium that were not stored and applied at the rate of 1.0% of dry soil weight. Storage for 90 days reduced the efficacy of the pellets. The soybean cultivars tested were not equally good hosts of H. glycines, but reproduction of the nematode was reduced equally on all. The average suppression was 96% (range 86-99%). Similar suppression of reproduction occurred in tests with six races of H. glycines. ARF18 appeared to be nonspecific with regard to soybean cultivar and H. glycines race. PMID:19277328

  4. High-refractive-index fluids for the next-generation ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Miyamatsu, Takashi; Furukawa, Taiichi; Yamada, Kinji; Tominaga, Tetsuo; Makita, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Nakamura, Atsushi; Shima, Motoyuki; Kusumoto, Shiro; Shimokawa, Tsutomu; Hieda, Katsuhiko

    2006-03-01

    ArF immersion lithography using a high-refractive-index fluid (HIF) is considered to be a promising candidate for the 32nm node or below. At SPIE 2005 we introduced a new immersion fluid, JSR HIL-1, which has a refractive index and transmittance of 1.64 and >98%/mm (193.4nm, 23 °C), respectively. With HIL-1 immersion and a two beam interferometric exposure tool, hp32nm L/S imaging has been demonstrated. In this paper, we will report another novel immersion fluid, HIL-2, which has a transmittance of >99%/mm, which is almost as high as that of water, and a refractive index of 1.65 (193.4nm, 23 °C). Furthermore, an ArF laser irradiation study has shown that the degree of photodecomposition for both HIL-1 and HIL-2 is small enough for immersion lithography application. A "fluid puddle" defect study confirmed that HILs have less tendency to form immersion-specific photoresist defects and the refractive indices of HILs were found constant under laser irradiation. Batch-to-batch variation in refractive index during manufacture of HILs was not observed. By refining prism designs, hp30nm L/S patterns have also been successfully imaged with two interferometric exposure tools and HIL immersion.

  5. Ablation and cone formation mechanism on CR-39 by ArF laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shakeri Jooybari, B. E-mail: hafarideh@aut.ac.ir; Afarideh, H. E-mail: hafarideh@aut.ac.ir; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Ghergherehchi, M.

    2015-03-07

    In this work, chemical properties, surface modification, and micro structures formation on ablated polyallyl di-glycol carbonate (CR-39) polymer by ArF laser irradiation (λ = 193 nm) at various fluences and pulse number were investigated. CR-39 samples have been irradiated with an ArF laser (193 nm) at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Threshold fluence of ablation and effective absorption coefficient of CR-39 were determined. Conical microstructures (Taylor cone) formed on laser-ablated CR-39 exhibit: smooth, Taylor cone shape walls and sharp tips together with interference and well defined fringe-structure with a period of 230 nm, around cone base. Mechanism of cone formation and cone evolution of CR-39 ablated surface were investigated by change of fluences (at a given pulse number) and pulse number (at a given fluence). Cone height, cone base, and region of interface were increased in micrometer steps by increasing the total fluence. Depression on the base of the cone and the circular fringe were simulated. FTIR spectra were measured and energy dispersive x-ray analysis of irradiated and un-irradiated samples was performed.

  6. COPI-mediated retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER regulates EGFR nuclear transport

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying-Nai; Wang, Hongmei; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Lee, Hong-Jen; Lee, Heng-Huan; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} ARF1 activation is involved in the EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. {yields} Assembly of {gamma}-COP coatomer mediates EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. {yields} Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking regulates nuclear transport of EGFR. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates that cell surface receptors, such as the entire epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, have been shown to localize in the nucleus. A retrograde route from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is postulated to be involved in the EGFR trafficking to the nucleus; however, the molecular mechanism in this proposed model remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-embedded vesicular trafficking is involved in the nuclear transport of EGFR. Confocal immunofluorescence reveals that in response to EGF, a portion of EGFR redistributes to the Golgi and the ER, where its NH{sub 2}-terminus resides within the lumen of Golgi/ER and COOH-terminus is exposed to the cytoplasm. Blockage of the Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking by brefeldin A or dominant mutants of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor, which both resulted in the disassembly of the coat protein complex I (COPI) coat to the Golgi, inhibit EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. We further find that EGF-dependent nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER involving an association of EGFR with {gamma}-COP, one of the subunits of the COPI coatomer. Our findings experimentally provide a comprehensive pathway that nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by COPI-mediated vesicular trafficking from the Golgi to the ER, and may serve as a general mechanism in regulating the nuclear transport of other cell surface receptors.

  7. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB77 Modulates Auxin Signal Transduction[W

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ryoung; Burch, Adrien Y.; Huppert, Kari A.; Tiwari, Shiv B.; Murphy, Angus S.; Guilfoyle, Tom J.; Schachtman, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Auxin is a key plant hormone that regulates plant development, apical dominance, and growth-related tropisms, such as phototropism and gravitropism. In this study, we report a new Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor, MYB77, that is involved in auxin response. In MYB77 knockout plants, we found that auxin-responsive gene expression was greatly attenuated. Lateral root density in the MYB77 knockout was lower than the wild type at low concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and also under low nutrient conditions. MYB77 interacts with auxin response factors (ARFs) in vitro through the C terminus (domains III and IV) of ARFs and the activation domain of MYB77. A synergistic genetic interaction was demonstrated between MYB77 and ARF7 that resulted in a strong reduction in lateral root numbers. Experiments with protoplasts confirmed that the coexpression of MYB77 and an ARF C terminus enhance reporter gene expression. R2R3 MYB transcription factors have not been previously implicated in regulating the expression of auxin-inducible genes. Also it was previously unknown that ARFs interact with proteins other than those in the Aux/IAA family via conserved domains. The interaction between MYB77 and ARFs defines a new type of combinatorial transcriptional control in plants. This newly defined transcription factor interaction is part of the plant cells' repertoire for modulating response to auxin, thereby controlling lateral root growth and development under changing environmental conditions. PMID:17675404

  8. Microswelling-free negative resists for ArF excimer laser lithography utilizing acid-catalyzed intramolecular esterification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Yokoyama, Yoshiyuki; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Morisawa, Taku; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Shiraishi, Hiroshi

    1999-06-01

    We have examined alicyclic polymers with a (gamma) -hydroxy acid structure in order to investigate the properties of (gamma) -hydroxy acid and (gamma) -lactone as function groups of ArF negative resist materials. From the viewpoint of transparency and dry-etching resistance, (gamma) -hydroxy acid and (gamma) -lactone structure were found to be suitable for ArF negative resists materials. Surprisingly, the reactivity of the acid-catalyzed reaction of (gamma) -hydroxy acid is affected by the polymer structure. Using ArF excimer laser stepper, 0.20-micrometers line-and-space patterns without micro-swelling distortion were obtained from a negative resist consisting of alicyclic polymer with the (gamma) - hydroxy acid structure and a photoacid generator. Distortion was avoided because the number of carboxyl groups decreased drastically in the exposed area by the acid-catalyzed intramolecular esterification of (gamma) -hydroxy acid to (gamma) -lactone. As a result, (gamma) -hydroxy acid and (gamma) -lactone structure were found to be suitable function groups for ArF negative resist materials.

  9. Critical roles of DMP1 in HER2/neu-Arf-p53 signaling and breast cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Pankaj; Maglic, Dejan; Kai, Fumitake; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Kendig, Robert D.; Frazier, Donna P.; Willingham, Mark C.; Inoue, Kazushi

    2010-01-01

    HER2 overexpression stimulates cell growth in p53-mutated cells while it inhibits cell proliferation in those with wild-type p53, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. The Dmp1 promoter was activated by HER2/neu through the PI3K-Akt-NF-κB pathway, which in turn stimulated Arf transcription. Binding of p65 and p52 subunits of NF-κB was demonstrated to the Dmp1 promoter and that of Dmp1 to the Arf promoter upon HER2/neu overexpression. Both Dmp1 and p53 were induced in pre-malignant lesions from MMTV-neu mice and mammary tumorigenesis was significantly accelerated in both Dmp1+/− and Dmp1−/− mice. Selective deletion of Dmp1 and/or overexpression of Tbx2/Pokemon was found in >50 % of wild-type HER2/neu carcinomas while the involvement of Arf, Mdm2, or p53 was rare. Tumors from Dmp1+/−, Dmp1−/−, and wild-type neu mice with hemizygous Dmp1 deletion showed significant downregulation of Arf and p21Cip1/WAF1, showing p53 inactivity and more aggressive phenotypes than tumors without Dmp1 deletion. Notably, endogenous hDMP1 mRNA decreased when HER2 was depleted in human breast cancer cells. Our study demonstrates the pivotal roles of Dmp1 in HER2/neu-p53 signaling and breast carcinogenesis. PMID:21062982

  10. Brassinosteroids regulate the differential growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls through auxin signaling components IAA19 and ARF7.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Yi; Song, Li; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2013-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important class of phytohormones which regulates a wide range of physiological processes. Genetic and physiological studies have revealed that BR responses usually depend on an intact auxin signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that high BR concentration or enhanced BR signaling induce the differential growth of etiolated hypocotyls and result in the morphological changes, while auxin-resistant mutants, msg2 (dominant mutant of IAA19) and arf7, are insensitive to the BR effect and can partially suppress the phenotype of bzr1-D (dominant mutant of BZR1 with enhanced BR signaling). Interestingly, BZR1 protein can directly bind to the promoter regions of both IAA19 and ARF7, indicating that IAA19 and ARF7 mediate the BR-induced differential growth by serving as direct targets of BZR1. Systemic microarray analysis revealed that a number of BR-responsive genes showed reduced BR response in msg2, confirming that BR employs auxin signaling components IAA19 and ARF7 to modulate the specific downstream processes. These results provide informative clues on the crosstalk of BR-auxin signaling and the mechanisms of BR-auxin effects in regulating differential growth.

  11. Arf6-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Pasteurella multocida Toxin and pH-Dependent Translocation from Late Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Repella, Tana L.; Ho, Mengfei; Chong, Tracy P. M.; Bannai, Yuka; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2011-01-01

    The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT) is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH4Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn) and cholera toxin (CT), the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity. PMID:22053287

  12. A Novel Membrane Sensor Controls the Localization and ArfGEF Activity of Bacterial RalF

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Pampa; Duarte, Lionel V.; Delprato, Anna; Zeghouf, Mahel; Antonny, Bruno; Campanacci, Valérie; Roy, Craig R.; Cherfils, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila (Lp) evades destruction in macrophages by camouflaging in a specialized organelle, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV), where it replicates. The LCV maturates by incorporating ER vesicles, which are diverted by effectors that Lp injects to take control of host cell membrane transport processes. One of these effectors, RalF, recruits the trafficking small GTPase Arf1 to the LCV. LpRalF has a Sec7 domain related to host ArfGEFs, followed by a capping domain that intimately associates with the Sec7 domain to inhibit GEF activity. How RalF is activated to function as a LCV-specific ArfGEF is unknown. We combined the reconstitution of Arf activation on artificial membranes with cellular expression and Lp infection assays, to analyze how auto-inhibition is relieved for LpRalF to function in vivo. We find that membranes activate LpRalF by about 1000 fold, and identify the membrane-binding region as the region that inhibits the Sec7 active site. It is enriched in aromatic and positively charged residues, which establish a membrane sensor to control the GEF activity in accordance with specific lipid environments. A similar mechanism of activation is found in RalF from Rickettsia prowazekii (Rp), with a different aromatic/charged residues ratio that results in divergent membrane preferences. The membrane sensor is the primary determinant of the localization of LpRalF on the LCV, and drives the timing of Arf activation during infection. Finally, we identify a conserved motif in the capping domain, remote from the membrane sensor, which is critical for RalF activity presumably by organizing its active conformation. These data demonstrate that RalF proteins are regulated by a membrane sensor that functions as a binary switch to derepress ArfGEF activity when RalF encounters a favorable lipid environment, thus establishing a regulatory paradigm to ensure that Arf GTPases are efficiently activated at specific

  13. N-Glycomic and Microscopic Subcellular Localization Analyses of NPP1, 2 and 6 Strongly Indicate that trans-Golgi Compartments Participate in the Golgi to Plastid Traffic of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterases in Rice.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Takamatsu, Takeshi; Inomata, Takuya; Oikawa, Kazusato; Itoh, Kimiko; Hirose, Kazuko; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2016-08-01

    Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) are widely distributed N-glycosylated enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of numerous nucleotides and nucleotide sugars. In many plant species, NPPs are encoded by a small multigene family, which in rice are referred to NPP1-NPP6 Although recent investigations showed that N-glycosylated NPP1 is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi system to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway in rice cells, information on N-glycan composition and subcellular localization of other NPPs is still lacking. Computer-assisted analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from different Oryza sativa NPP-encoding cDNAs predicted all NPPs to be secretory glycoproteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy observation of cells expressing NPP2 and NPP6 fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that NPP2 and NPP6 are plastidial proteins. Plastid targeting of NPP2-GFP and NPP6-GFP was prevented by brefeldin A and by the expression of ARF1(Q71L), a dominant negative mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 that arrests the ER to Golgi traffic, indicating that NPP2 and NPP6 are transported from the ER-Golgi to the plastidial compartment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted electron microscopy analyses of transgenic rice cells ectopically expressing the trans-Golgi marker sialyltransferase fused with GFP showed the occurrence of contact of Golgi-derived membrane vesicles with cargo and subsequent absorption into plastids. Sensitive and high-throughput glycoblotting/mass spectrometric analyses showed that complex-type and paucimannosidic-type glycans with fucose and xylose residues occupy approximately 80% of total glycans of NPP1, NPP2 and NPP6. The overall data strongly indicate that the trans-Golgi compartments participate in the Golgi to plastid trafficking and targeting mechanism of NPPs.

  14. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Buddenborg, Sarah K.; Adema, Coen M.; Sullivan, John T.; Loker, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy–based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biology and may offer valuable insights into the development of better chemical control methods for snails. We used a recently developed Biomphalaria glabrata oligonucleotide microarray (31K features) to investigate the effect of sublethal exposure to niclosamide on the transcriptional responses of the snail B. glabrata relative to untreated snails. Most of the genes highly upregulated following exposure of snails to niclosamide are involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics, including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and drug transporters, notably multi-drug resistance protein (efflux transporter) and solute linked carrier (influx transporter). Niclosamide also induced stress responses. Specifically, six heat shock protein (HSP) genes from three super-families (HSP20, HSP40 and HSP70) were upregulated. Genes encoding ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and coatomer, all of which are involved in vesicle trafficking in the Golgi of mammalian cells, were also upregulated. Lastly, a hemoglobin gene was downregulated, suggesting niclosamide may affect oxygen transport. Our results show that snails mount substantial responses to sublethal concentrations of niclosamide, at least some of which appear to be protective. The topic of how niclosamide’s lethality at higher concentrations is determined requires further study. Given that niclosamide has also been used as an anthelmintic drug for decades and has

  15. N-Glycomic and Microscopic Subcellular Localization Analyses of NPP1, 2 and 6 Strongly Indicate that trans-Golgi Compartments Participate in the Golgi to Plastid Traffic of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterases in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Takamatsu, Takeshi; Inomata, Takuya; Oikawa, Kazusato; Itoh, Kimiko; Hirose, Kazuko; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) are widely distributed N-glycosylated enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of numerous nucleotides and nucleotide sugars. In many plant species, NPPs are encoded by a small multigene family, which in rice are referred to NPP1–NPP6. Although recent investigations showed that N-glycosylated NPP1 is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi system to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway in rice cells, information on N-glycan composition and subcellular localization of other NPPs is still lacking. Computer-assisted analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from different Oryza sativa NPP-encoding cDNAs predicted all NPPs to be secretory glycoproteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy observation of cells expressing NPP2 and NPP6 fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that NPP2 and NPP6 are plastidial proteins. Plastid targeting of NPP2–GFP and NPP6–GFP was prevented by brefeldin A and by the expression of ARF1(Q71L), a dominant negative mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 that arrests the ER to Golgi traffic, indicating that NPP2 and NPP6 are transported from the ER–Golgi to the plastidial compartment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted electron microscopy analyses of transgenic rice cells ectopically expressing the trans-Golgi marker sialyltransferase fused with GFP showed the occurrence of contact of Golgi-derived membrane vesicles with cargo and subsequent absorption into plastids. Sensitive and high-throughput glycoblotting/mass spectrometric analyses showed that complex-type and paucimannosidic-type glycans with fucose and xylose residues occupy approximately 80% of total glycans of NPP1, NPP2 and NPP6. The overall data strongly indicate