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Sample records for adper easy bond

  1. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo; Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M.; Bonfim, Marlio; Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters.

  2. Influence of salivary contamination on the dentin bond strength of two different seventh generation adhesive systems: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Taranjeet Kaur; Asrani, Hemant; Banga, Harpreet; Jain, Aditi; Rawlani, Sudhir S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of salivary contamination on the bond strength of two different seventh generation adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Sixty caries-free human premolars with flat dentin surfaces were randomly divided into six groups of 10 teeth each and bonding was done using seventh-generation bonding agents Adper Easy One (3M ESPE) and Xeno V (Dentsply). Following the bonding procedure, resin composite was bonded to the surfaces using a plastic mould. The prepared specimen with composite cylinders attached were placed in 37°C distilled water for 24 h and then subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) with 0 h universal testing machine and the data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and unpaired t-test. Results: Statistical significant difference between the Groups I, II and III in which Adper Easy One was used and similarly for Groups IV, V, and VI in which Xeno V was used. When an intergroup comparison was made using unpaired t-test Group II and Group V showed the nonsignificant difference. Conclusion: Salivary contamination significantly affects the SBS of both the seventh generation dentin bonding agents. However, 2-hydroxyethyl methacryate based adhesive has higher bond strength. PMID:26752841

  3. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser at Different Output Powers on the Micromorphology and the Bond Property of Non-Carious Sclerotic Dentin to Resin Composites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiguo; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Wanshan; Yang, Yanwei; Wei, Jingjing; Shen, Lijuan; Chen, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiated at different powers on the micromorphology and the bonding property of non-carious sclerotic dentin to resin composites. Methods Two hundred bovine incisors characterized by non-carious sclerotic dentin were selected, and the seventy-two teeth of which for surface morphological analysis were divided into nine groups according to various treatments (A: the control group, B: only treated with the adhesive Adper Easy One, C: diamond bur polishing followed by Adper Easy One, D-I: Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiating at 1W, 2W, 3W, 4W, 5W, 6W output power, respectively, followed by Adper Easy One). The surface roughness values were measured by the non-contact three-dimensional morphology scanner, then the surface micromorphologies of surfaces in all groups were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); meanwhile, Image Pro-Plus 6.0 software was used to measure the relative percentage of open tubules on SEM images. The rest, one hundred twenty-eight teeth for bond strength test, were divided into eight groups according to the different treatments (A: only treated with the adhesive Adper Easy One, B: diamond bur polishing followed by the above adhesive, C-H: Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiating at 1 W, 2 W, 3 W, 4 W, 5 W, 6 W output power, respectively, followed by the above adhesive), and each group was subsequently divided into two subgroups according to whether aging is performed (immediately tested and after thermocycling). Micro-shear bond strength test was used to evaluate the bond strength. Results The 4W laser group showed the highest roughness value (30.84±1.93μm), which was statistically higher than the control group and the diamond bur groups (p<0.05). The mean percentages ((27.8±1.8)%, (28.0±2.2)%, (30.0±1.9)%) of open tubules area in the 4W, 5W, 6W group were higher than other groups (p<0.05). The 4W laser group showed the highest micro-shear bond strength not

  4. Comparison of tensile bond strengths of four one-bottle self-etching adhesive systems with Er:YAG laser-irradiated dentin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qianzhou; Chen, Minle; Ding, Jiangfeng

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction of current one-bottle self-etching adhesives and Er:YAG laser with dentin using a tensile bond strength (TBS) test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in vitro. Two hundred and thirteen dentin discs were randomly distributed to the Control Group using bur cutting and to the Laser Group using an Er:YAG laser (200 mJ, VSP, 20 Hz). The following adhesives were investigated: one two-step total-etch adhesive [Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply)] and four one-step self-etch adhesives [G-Bond plus (GC), XENO V (Dentsply), iBond Self Etch (Heraeus) and Adper Easy One (3 M ESPE)]. Samples were restored with composite resin, and after 24-hour storage in distilled water, subjected to the TBS test. For morphological analysis, 12 dentin specimens were prepared for SEM. No significant differences were found between the control group and laser group (p = 0.899); dentin subjected to Prime & Bond NT, XENOV and Adper Easy One produced higher TBS. In conclusion, this study indicates that Er:YAG laser-prepared dentin can perform as well as bur on TBS, and some of the one-step one-bottle adhesives are comparable to the total-etch adhesives in TBS on dentin.

  5. A thiophosphinidene complex as a vehicle in phosphinidene transmetalation: easy formation and cleavage of a P-S bond.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Belén; Alvarez, M Angeles; Amor, Inmaculada; García, M Esther; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2011-11-07

    A method for the generation of transition metal-phosphorus multiple bonds has been developed using the reactions of a novel thiophosphinidene-bridged dimolybdenum complex with different metal carbonyls. The overall process could be considered as a transmetalation of the phosphinidene ligand involving the activation of P-S and P-Mo bonds.

  6. First-order superfluid to valence-bond solid phase transitions in easy-plane SU (N ) magnets for small N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Emidio, Jonathan; Kaul, Ribhu K.

    2016-02-01

    We consider the easy-plane limit of bipartite SU (N ) Heisenberg Hamiltonians, which have a fundamental representation on one sublattice and the conjugate to fundamental on the other sublattice. For N =2 the easy plane limit of the SU(2) Heisenberg model is the well-known quantum X Y model of a lattice superfluid. We introduce a logical method to generalize the quantum X Y model to arbitrary N , which keeps the Hamiltonian sign-free. We show that these quantum Hamiltonians have a world-line representation as the statistical mechanics of certain tightly packed loop models of N colors in which neighboring loops are disallowed from having the same color. In this loop representation we design an efficient Monte Carlo cluster algorithm for our model. We present extensive numerical results for these models on the two dimensional square lattice, where we find the nearest neighbor model has superfluid order for N ≤5 and valence-bond order for N >5 . By introducing SU (N ) easy-plane symmetric four-spin couplings we are able to tune across the superfluid-VBS phase boundary for all N ≤5 . We present clear evidence that this quantum phase transition is first order for N =2 and N =5 , suggesting that easy-plane deconfined criticality runs away generically to a first-order transition for small N .

  7. Rapid bonding and easy debonding of orthodontic appliances with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin using thermal heating.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    4-Methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride/methyl methacrylate-tri-n-butylborane (4-META/MMA-TBB) resin is widely used as a direct bonding adhesive for orthodontic appliances because of its strong bonding ability. However, its clinical disadvantages include long setting times and difficult debonding with subsequent residual adhesive left on the enamel surface. To resolve these problems, thermal heating was applied to orthodontic appliances. The setting time was dramatically reduced by thermal heating (160°C for 5 s), with the shear bond strength remaining the same as that stated in the manufacturer's instructions. Debonding of appliances following thermal heating (160°C for 20 s) could be easily performed, decreasing the amount of adhesive left on enamel. These conditions were not accompanied by an increase in the heat pain threshold of pulpal dentin. These results suggest that the use of thermal heating in the bonding/debonding of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin may resolve its clinical weaknesses, making its ease of use similar to light-cured resin.

  8. Easy activation of two C-H bonds of an N-heterocyclic carbene N-methyl group.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Javier A; del Río, Ignacio; Miguel, Daniel; Sánchez-Vega, M Gabriela

    2005-08-21

    The first trinuclear clusters containing NHC ligands are described; the compound [Ru3(Me2Im)(CO)11](Me2Im=1,3-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene) is easily converted into [Ru3(mu-H)2(mu3-MeImCH)(CO)9] by a process involving the activation of two C-H bonds of a methyl group that is an example of degradation of a metal-coordinated NHC ligand under mild conditions.

  9. Effect of thermal aging on the tensile bond strength at reduced areas of seven current adhesives.

    PubMed

    Baracco, Bruno; Fuentes, M Victoria; Garrido, Miguel A; González-López, Santiago; Ceballos, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the micro-tensile bond strength (MTBS) to dentin of seven adhesive systems (total and self-etch adhesives) after 24 h and 5,000 thermocycles. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were exposed and bonded with two total-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and XP Bond), two two-step self-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond SE and Filtek Silorane Adhesive System) and three one-step self-etch adhesives (G-Bond, Xeno V and Bond Force). All adhesive systems were applied following manufacturers' instructions. Composite buildups were constructed and the bonded teeth were then stored in water (24 h, 37 °C) or thermocycled (5,000 cycles) before being sectioned and submitted to MTBS test. Two-way ANOVA and subsequent comparison tests were applied at α = 0.05. Characteristic de-bonded specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 24 h water storage, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, Filtek Silorane Adhesive System and Adper Scotchbond SE and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. After thermocycling, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, followed by Filtek Silorane Adhesive System, Adper Scotchbond SE and Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. Thermal aging induced a significant decrease in MTBS values with all adhesives tested. The resistance of resin-dentin bonds to thermal-aging degradation was material dependent. One-step self-etch adhesives obtained the lowest MTBS results after both aging treatments, and their adhesive capacity was significantly reduced after thermocycling.

  10. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Janaina Barros; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Guglielmi, Camila de Almeida Brandão; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva) and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days). Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM) or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250). Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×). Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001). For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested.

  11. The Effect of Different Disinfecting Agents on Bond Strength of Resin Composites

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed Hassan, Ahmed; Ali Goda, Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different disinfectant agents on bond strength of two types of resin composite materials. Methods. A total of 80 sound posterior teeth were used. They were divided into four groups (n = 20) according to the dentin surface pretreatment (no treatment, chlorhexidine gluconate 2%, sodium hypochlorite 4%, and EDTA 19%). Each group was divided into two subgroups according to the type of adhesive (prime and bond 2.1 and Adper easy one). Each subgroup was further divided into two subgroups according to the type of resin composite (TPH spectrum and Tetric EvoCeram). Shear bond strength between dentin and resin composite was measured using Universal Testing Machine. Data collected were statistically analyzed by t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results. It was found that dentin treated with EDTA recorded the highest shear bond strength values followed by sodium hypochlorite and then chlorhexidine groups while the control group showed the lowest shear bond strength. Conclusions. The surface treatment of dentin before bonding application has a great effect on shear bond strength between resin composite and dentin surface. PMID:25477961

  12. Easy Meal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  13. Micro-tensile bond strength of different adhesive systems on sound dentin and resin-based composite: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Rashmirekha; Sarangi, Priyanka; Mohanty, Sandhyarani; Behera, Subasish; Nanda, Soumyaranjan; Satapathy, Sukanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the difference in the micro-tensile bond strength of specimens made with two different adhesive systems and compare them with two homogenous substrates. Materials and Methods: Sixty permanent mandibular molars were mounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned with exposed dentin surfaces. Samples were then divided into four groups. To Group-I Adper Single Bond 2 and to Group-II Adper Self-Etch plus bonding agents were applied. For Group-I and Group-II beams consisted of resin composite in the upper half and dentin in the lower half. In Group-III beams were made of only dentin. In Group-IV beams were made of only composite. Fifteen specimens of each group were taken for the micro-tensile bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: The results are analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Critical Difference test. Results: The interface bonded with the two adhesive systems had lower micro-tensile bond strength than those of dentin and resin composite and the self-etching adhesive Adper Self-Etch plus had comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesive Adper Single Bond 2. Conclusion: The bond strength values for current adhesive systems cannot be compared to the micro-tensile bond strength of dentin and resin composite, and self-etching adhesives have comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesives. PMID:26430301

  14. Addition of quadricyclane to C[sub 60]: Easy access to fullerene derivatives bearing a reactive double bond in the side chain

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, M. ); Maggini, M.; Scorrano, G. ); Lucchini, V. )

    1993-07-02

    The reaction of C[sub 60] with quadricyclane gives a stable 6,6 adduct which has been spectroscopically characterized. The double bond of the [2.2.1]bicycloheptene moiety reacts readily with electrophiles (e.g., PhSCl). Soon after the isolation and characterization of fullerene C[sub 60], the electrophilic character of this carbon cluster was disclosed by both experimental and theoretical results. Additions of several electrophiles to C[sub 60] have also been reported, but the conditions necessary for these reactions to occur led often to inseparable mixtures of products of multiple addition. In order to allow a controlled addition of electrophiles and to enrich the chemistry of functionalization, C[sub 60] has to be structurally modified. Herein the authors report a simple cycloaddition approach to a stable and characterizable C[sub 60] derivative, in which the incorporated olefinic moiety shows high reactivity toward electrophiles. 3 figs.

  15. The effect of cavity disinfectants on the micro-shear bond strength of dentin adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Elkassas, Dina Wafik; Fawzi, Elham Mostafa; El Zohairy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was carried out to examine the effect of application of four different disinfecting agents on the micro-shear bond strength (μ-SBS) of an etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: One hundred flat dentin surfaces of human molars were produced by wet grinding the buccal surfaces. Specimens were randomly assigned to five groups according to the disinfectant used: Group I: Control (no disinfectant); Group II: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite based; Group III: 2% chlorhexidine based (Consepsis), Group IV: 0.1% benzalkoniumchloride based (Tubulicid red) and Group V: 3% doxycycline based (Biopure, MTAD). Specimens were bonded using either Adper Single Bond 2 or Clearfil S3 Bond, which were employed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Resin composite microcylinders were bonded using Tygon® tubes for μ-SBS testing. The modes of failure were noted after visual examination using a binocular stereomicroscope at ×25 magnification. Failures were classified as adhesive, or mixed. μ-SBS results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Results: Dentin disinfectants tested significantly negated the bonding of Adper Single bond 2 and the groups were ranked; Group I > Group V = Group IV > Group II = Group III, meanwhile they enhanced significantly the μ-SBS values upon using Clearfil S3 Bond and were ranked; Group II > Group III = Group IV = Group V > Group I. Most failures were adhesive with the Adper single bond adhesive system. Mixed modes of failure were evident with Clearfil S3 bond. Conclusions: The disinfectants tested should not be used with Adper Single Bond 2 when applied before the etching step, However they could be used safely prior to bonding with Clearfil S3 Bond. PMID:24966768

  16. Bond Strength of Silorane- and Methacrylate-Based Composites to Resin-Modified Glass Ionomers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-13

    Mine et al., 2010). Yaman et al. (2010) examined premolars marked for extraction due to orthodontics , bonded either Filtek Supreme XT with Adper...337-44. Li Y, Lee S, Zhang W, Zunt S, Rohrer M. Dentin/ Pulp Biocompatibility of an Adhesive System for Silorane Restorative. IADR 2008, abstract

  17. Effects of endodontic tri-antibiotic paste on bond strengths of dentin adhesives to coronal dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mirzakoucheki, Parvin; Walter, Ricardo; Jahromi, Maryam Zare; Mirsattari, Sanaz; Akbarzadeh, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tri-antibiotic paste (TAP) on microtensile bond strengths (MTBS) of dental adhesives to dentin. Materials and Methods Sixty extracted molars had their occlusal surfaces flattened to expose dentin. They were divided into two groups, i.e., control group with no dentin treatment and experimental group with dentin treatment with TAP. After 10 days, specimens were bonded using self-etch (Filtek P90 adhesive) or etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond Plus) adhesives and restored with composite resin. Teeth were sectioned into beams, and the specimens were subjected to MTBS test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between dentin treatment and adhesive on MTBS to coronal dentin (p = 0.003). Despite a trend towards worse MTBS being noticed in the experimental groups, TAP application showed no significant effect on MTBS (p = 0.064). Conclusions The etch-and-rinse adhesive Adper Single Bond Plus presented higher mean bond strengths than the self-etch adhesive Filtek P90, irrespective of the group. The superior bond performance for Adper Single Bond when compared to Filtek P90 adhesive was confirmed by a fewer number of adhesive failures. The influence of TAP in bond strength is insignificant. PMID:25984475

  18. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT ADHESIVE SYSTEMS ON THE PULL-OUT BOND STRENGTH OF GLASS FIBER POSTS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Andrade, Andréa Mello; Machuca, Melissa Fernanda Garcia; da Silva, Paulo Maurício Batista; da Silva, Ricardo Virgolino C.; Veronezi, Maria Cecília

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts (Reforpost – Angelus-Brazil) cemented to root dentin with a resin cement (RelyX ARC – 3M/ESPE) associated with two different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond - 3M/ESPE and Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP) Plus – 3M/ESPE), using the pull-out test. Twenty single-rooted human teeth with standardized root canals were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=10): G1- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (3M/ESPE) + Adper Single Bond + #1 post (Reforpost – Angelus) + four #1 accessory posts (Reforpin – Angelus) + resin cement; G2- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel + Adper Scotchbond MP Plus + #1 post + four #1 accessory posts + resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days and submitted to the pull-out test in a universal testing machine (EMIC) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength (kgf) and standard deviation were: G1- 29.163 ± 7.123; G2- 37.752 ±13.054. Statistical analysis (Student's t-test; α=0.05 showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. Adhesive bonding failures between resin cement and root canal dentin surface were observed in both groups, with non-polymerized resin cement in the apical portion of the post space when Single Bond was used (G1). The type of adhesive system employed on the fiber post cementation did not influence the pull-out bond strength. PMID:19089224

  19. In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Tensile Bond Strength of 6th, 7th and 8th Generation Dentin Bonding Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kamble, Suresh S; Kandasamy, Baburajan; Thillaigovindan, Ranjani; Goyal, Nitin Kumar; Talukdar, Pratim; Seal, Mukut

    2015-01-01

    Background: Newer dentin bonding agents were developed to improve the quality of composite restoration and to reduce time consumption in its application. The aim of the present study was to evaluate tensile bond strength of 6th, 7th and 8th generation bonding agents by in vitro method. Materials and Methods: Selected 60 permanent teeth were assigned into 20 in each group (Group I: 6th generation bonding agent-Adper SE plus 3M ESPE, Group II: 7th generation bonding agent-G-Bond GC Corp Japan and Group III: 8th generation dentin adhesives-FuturaBond, DC, Voco, Germany). With high-speed diamond disc, coronal dentin was exposed, and selected dentin bonding agents were applied, followed by composite restoration. All samples were saved in saline for 24 h and tensile bond strength testing was done using a universal testing machine. The obtained data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The tensile bond strength readings for 6th generation bonding agent was 32.2465, for 7th generation was 31.6734, and for 8th-generation dentine bonding agent was 34.74431. The highest tensile bond strength was seen in 8th generation bonding agent compared to 6th and 7th generation bonding agents. Conclusion: From the present study it can be conclude that 8th generation dentine adhesive (Futura DC, Voco, Germany) resulted in highest tensile bond strength compared to 6th (Adper SE plus, 3M ESPE) and 7th generation (G-Bond) dentin bonding agents. PMID:26028901

  20. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios ... all the running around we do counts as exercise. (It does. But if it's the only exercise ...

  1. Self-etch bonding agent beneath sealant: Bond strength for laser-irradiated enamel

    PubMed Central

    Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Giuntini, Jackelline de Lemes; Contente, Marta Maria Martins Giamatei; Gomes-Silva, Jaciara Miranda; Torres, Carolina Paes; Galo, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the in vitro shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin-based pit-and-fissure sealant (Fluroshield [F], Dentsply/Caulk) associated with either an etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB], 3M/ESPE) or a two-step self-etch adhesive system (Adper SE Plus [SE], 3M/ESPE) on Er: YAG laser-irradiated enamel. Materials and Methods: Seventeen sound third molar crowns were embedded in acrylic resin, and the mesial–distal enamel surfaces were flattened. The enamel sites were irradiated with a 2.94-μm wavelength Er: YAG laser (120 mJ, 4 Hz, noncontact mode/17 mm, 20 s). The specimens were randomly assigned to three groups according to the bonding technique: I - 37% phosphoric acid etching + SB + F; II - SE + F and III - F applied to acid-etched enamel, without an intermediate layer of bonding agent. In all of the groups, a 3-mm diameter enamel-bonding site was demarcated and the sealant cylinders were bonded. After 24 hours in distilled water, the shear bond strength was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. The debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope to assess the failure modes. Results: The mean SBS values in MPa were I = 6.39 (±1.44); II = 9.50 (±2.79); and III = 5.26 (±1.82). No statistically significant differences were observed between groups I and III; SE/F presented a significantly higher SBS than that of the other groups (P = 0.001). With regard to the failure mode, groups I (65%) and II (75%) presented adhesive failures, while group III showed 50% adhesive failure. Cohesive failure did not occur. Conclusion: The application of the two-step self-etch bonding agent (Adper SE Plus) beneath the resin pit-and-fissure sealant placement resulted in a significantly higher bond strength for the Er:YAG laser-irradiated enamel. PMID:24926208

  2. Bonding aluminum beam leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkett, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    Report makes it relatively easy for hybrid-circuit manufacturers to convert integrated circuit chips with aluminum bead leads. Report covers: techniques for handling tiny chips; proper geometries for ultrasonic bonding tips; best combinations of pressure, pulse time, and ultrasonic energy for bonding; and best thickness for metal films to which beam leads are bonded.

  3. Easy PC Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1996-11-01

    Easy PC Astronomy is the perfect book for everyone who wants to make easy and accurate astronomical calculations. The author supplies a simple but powerful script language called AstroScript on a disk, ready to use on any IBM PC-type computer. Equipped with this software, readers can compute complex but interesting astronomical results within minutes: from the time of moonrise or moonset anywhere in the world on any date, to the display of a lunar or solar eclipse on the computer screen--all within a few minutes of opening the book! The Sky Graphics feature of the software displays a detailed image of the sky as seen from any point on earth--at any time in the future or past--showing the constellations, planets, and a host of other features. Readers need no expert knowledge of astronomy, math or programming; the author provides full details of the calculations and formulas, which the reader can absorb or ignore as desired, and a comprehensive glossary of astronomical terms. Easy PC Astronomy is of immediate practical use to beginning and advanced amateur astronomers, students at all levels, science teachers, and research astronomers. Peter Duffett-Smith is at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge and is the author of Astronomy with Your Personal Computer (Cambridge University Press, 1990) and Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator (Cambridge University Press, 1989).

  4. Impact of oxalate desensitizer combined with ethylene-diamine tetra acetic acid-conditioning on dentin bond strength of one-bottle adhesives during dry bonding

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Doozandeh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elimination of water entrapment in hybrid layer during bonding procedure would increase bonding durability. Aims: This study evaluated the effect of oxalate desensitizer (OX) pretreatment on bond strength of three one-bottle adhesives to ethylene-diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA)-conditioned dentin under dry bonding. Materials and Methods: Three adhesive systems, One-Step Plus (OS), Optibond Solo Plus (OP) and Adper Single Bond (SB) were bonded on dentin surfaces under four bonding conditions: (1) Wet-bonding on acid-etched dentin, (2) wet bonding on EDTA-conditioned dentin, (3) dry bonding on EDTA-conditioned dentin, (4) dry bonding associated with OX on the EDTA-conditioned dentin. After storage and thermo cycling, shear bond strength test was performed. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Results: Wet bonding with EDTA or acid etching showed similar bond strength for test adhesives. Dry bonding with EDTA significantly decreased the bond strength of OS, but it had no effect on the bonding of OP and SB. OX application in the forth bonding condition, in comparison with the third condition, had a negative effect on the bond strength of OP, but not influence on OS and SB. Conclusions: The use of an OX on EDTA-conditioned dentin compromised the bonding efficacy of OS and OP under dry bonding but compatible for SB. PMID:23833461

  5. Effect of chlorhexidine application on the bond strength of resin core to axial dentin in endodontic cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX) on the microtensile bonds strength (µTBS) of resin core with two adhesive systems to dentin in endodontic cavities. Materials and Methods Flat dentinal surfaces in 40 molar endodontic cavities were treated with self-etch adhesive system, Contax (DMG) and total-etch adhesive system, Adper Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE) after the following surface treatments: (1) Priming only (Contax), (2) CHX for 15 sec + rinsing + priming (Contax), (3) Etching with priming (Adper Single Bond 2), (4) Etching + CHX for 15 sec + rinsing + priming (Adper Single Bond 2). Resin composite build-ups were made with LuxaCore (DMG) using a bulk method and polymerized for 40 sec. For each condition, half of specimens were submitted to µTBS after 24 hr storage and half of them were submitted to thermocycling of 10,000 cycles between 5℃ and 55℃ before testing. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and independent t-test at a significance level of 95%. Results CHX pre-treatment did not affect the bond strength of specimens tested at the immediate testing period, regardless of dentin surface treatments. However, after 10,000 thermocycling, all groups showed reduced bond strength. The amount of reduction was greater in groups without CHX treatments than groups with CHX treatment. These characteristics were the same in both self-etch adhesive system and total-etch adhesive system. Conclusions 2% CHX application for 15 sec proved to alleviate the decrease of bond strength of dentin bonding systems. No significant difference was shown in µTBS between total-etching system and self-etching system. PMID:23429851

  6. Effect of thermocycling on the durability of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives on dentin.

    PubMed

    Sangwichit, Ketkamon; Kingkaew, Ruksaphon; Pongprueksa, Pong; Senawongse, Pisol

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to compare bond strengths of adhesives with/without thermocycling and to analyze the micromorphology of resindentin interfaces. Flat dentin surfaces were prepared and divided into eight groups to bond with four etch-and-rinse adhesives (Optibond FL, Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, Optibond Solo Plus, and Single Bond 2) and four self-etch adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Adper SE Plus, Clearfil S(3) Bond and Adper Easy Bond). Specimens were further divided into two subgroups subjected for with/without thermocycling and then subjected to both micro-tensile test and resin-dentin interface evaluation. The results revealed that there were significant differences in bond strength between the groups with and without thermocycling for all etch-and-rinse groups and for the Adper Easy Bond self-etch group (p<0.01). Clearfil SE Bond demonstrated highly durable bond strengths. Furthermore, more silver ion uptake was observed at the resin-dentin interfaces for all etch-and-rinse adhesives and Adper SE Plus and Adper Easy Bond after thermocycling.

  7. Easy plane baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäykkä, Juha; Speight, Martin

    2010-12-01

    The baby Skyrme model is studied with a novel choice of potential, V=(1)/(2)ϕ32. This “easy plane” potential vanishes at the equator of the target two-sphere. Hence, in contrast to previously studied cases, the boundary value of the field breaks the residual SO(2) internal symmetry of the model. Consequently, even the unit charge Skyrmion has only discrete symmetry and consists of a bound state of two half lumps. A model of long-range inter-Skyrmion forces is developed wherein a unit Skyrmion is pictured as a single scalar dipole inducing a massless scalar field tangential to the vacuum manifold. This model has the interesting feature that the two-Skyrmion interaction energy depends only on the average orientation of the dipoles relative to the line joining them. Its qualitative predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations. Global energy minimizers of charges B=1,…,14,18,32 are found numerically. Up to charge B=6, the minimizers have 2B half lumps positioned at the vertices of a regular 2B-gon. For charges B≥7, rectangular or distorted rectangular arrays of 2B half lumps are preferred, as close to square as possible.

  8. Spectroscopy Made Easy: Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, Nikolai; Valenti, Jeff A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) package has become a popular tool for analyzing stellar spectra, often in connection with large surveys or exoplanet research. SME has evolved significantly since it was first described in 1996, but many of the original caveats and potholes still haunt users. The main drivers for this paper are complexity of the modeling task, the large user community, and the massive effort that has gone into SME. Aims: We do not intend to give a comprehensive introduction to stellar atmospheres, but will describe changes to key components of SME: the equation of state, opacities, and radiative transfer. We will describe the analysis and fitting procedure and investigate various error sources that affect inferred parameters. Methods: We review the current status of SME, emphasizing new algorithms and methods. We describe some best practices for using the package, based on lessons learned over two decades of SME usage. We present a new way to assess uncertainties in derived stellar parameters. Results: Improvements made to SME, better line data, and new model atmospheres yield more realistic stellar spectra, but in many cases systematic errors still dominate over measurement uncertainty. Future enhancements are outlined.

  9. Effect of silorane-based adhesive system on bond strength between composite and dentin substrate

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Júnior, Lindomar Corrêa; de Souza Almeida, Mauro; do Valle, Accácio Lins; Honório, Heitor Marques; Vidotti, Hugo Alberto; De Souza, Grace Mendonca

    2015-01-01

    Context: The complexities of the oral environment, the dentin substrate, and the different bond and composite resin systems represent a challenge to the maintenance of reasonable bond between the composite resin and the tooth structure. Aims: To evaluate the effect of the adhesive system on bond strength between silorane-based composite resin and dentin. Materials and Methods: Fourteen human molars extracted were selected and vertically cut into 3 dentin fragments, randomly divided among the experimental groups and restored with Z250 and P90 composite resin using different adhesive protocols (Adper Single Bond 2, Silorano primer, Adper SE Plus, and Scotchbond Multiuse). Two composite resin cylinders were built up on each dentin surface (n = 10) and subjected to a micro-shear bond strength test. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (P = 0.05). Results: According to the results, Kruskal–Wallis test evidenced at least one statistical significant difference (P = 0.001). The Tukey test showed statistically significant differences among the group (P < 0.05). Group PSM8 (P90 + SM) showed statically significant higher results when compared with groups PSP4 (P90 + SP), PSB2 (P90 + SB), and ZSE5 (Z250 + SE). Conclusion: The results evidenced that the monomer of the adhesive system has an effect on bond strength between the composite resin and dentin. PMID:26752846

  10. Shear bond strength of seventh generation bonding agents on dentin of primary teeth--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Geoffrey; Rich, Alfred P; Finkelman, Matthew D; Defuria, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This controlled, randomized, in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of several seventh generation bonding agents on the dentin of primary teeth. Six different adhesives were used: Xeno IV, Clearfil S3 Bond, Adper Prompt-L-Pop, AdheSE One, Bond Force, and Optibond (control). Ninety primary teeth were prepared by wet grinding with a 320-grit silicon carbide paper on a polishing wheel running at 110 RPM. After 24 hours of storage in water, shear bond strengths of each group were determined. The mean shear bond strength of the tested adhesive systems to primary dentin was 12.27 MPa. One-way ANOVA testing showed a statistically significant difference between adhesive products (P < 0.001). Tukey HSD post hoc tests were used to assess which means were significantly different from one another. There was no statistically significant difference between the fifth generation adhesive system (Optibond) and the two seventh generation systems (Xeno IV and Bond Force), with Optibond exhibiting a lower mean shear bond strength compared to Bond Force. Within the limitations of this study, there is a significant difference between seventh generation bonding materials. Bond Force and Optibond appear to exhibit higher shear bond strengths than the other products.

  11. Effects of silver nanoparticles on the bonding of three adhesive systems to fluorotic enamel.

    PubMed

    Torres-Méndez, Fernando; Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel-Alejandro; Torres-Gallegos, Iranzihuatl; Zavala-Alonso, Norma-Verónica; Patiño-Marin, Nuria; Niño-Martínez, Nereyda; Ruiz, Facundo

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of adding silver nanoparticles into three commercial adhesive systems (Excite™, Adper Prompt L-Pop™ and AdheSE™). Nanoparticles were prepared by a chemical method then mixed with the commercial adhesive systems. This was later applied to the fluorotic enamel, and then micro-tensile bond strength, contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy observations were conducted. The commercial adhesive systems achieved the lowest micro-tensile bond strength (Excite™: 11.0±2.1, Adper Prompt L-Pop™: 14.0±5.4 and AdheSE™: 16.0±3.0 MPa) with the highest adhesive failure mode related with the highest contact angle (46.0±0.6º, 30.0±0.5º and 28.0±0.4º respectively). The bond strength achieved in all the experimental adhesive systems (19.0±5.4, 20.0±4.0 and 19.0±3.5 MPa respectively) was statistically higher (p<0.05) than the control and showed the highest cohesive failures related to the lowest contact angle. Adding silver nanoparticles in order to decrease the contact angle improve the adhesive system wetting and its bond strength.

  12. BOND STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY OF ENAMEL USING SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVE SYSTEMS WITH DIFFERENT ACIDITIES

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Sandra Kiss; Reis, Alessandra; Pelizzaro, Arlete; Dal-Bianco, Karen; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the bond strength and the morphology of enamel after application of self-etching adhesive systems with different acidities. The tested hypothesis was that the performance of the self-etching adhesive systems does not vary for the studied parameters. Material and methods: Composite resin (Filtek Z250) buildups were bonded to untreated (prophylaxis) and treated (burcut or SiC-paper) enamel surfaces of third molars after application of four self-etching and two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems (n=6/condition): Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch (OP); AdheSe (AD); Tyrian Self Priming Etching (TY), Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (SBMP) and Adper Single Bond (SB). After storage in water (24 h/37°C), the bonded specimens were sectioned into sticks with 0.8 mm2 cross-sectional area and the microtensile bond strength was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean bond strength values (MPa) were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The etching patterns of the adhesive systems were also observed with a scanning electron microscope. Results: The main factor adhesive system was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean bond strength values (MPa) and standard deviations were: CSE (20.5±3.5), OP (11.3±2.3), AD (11.2±2.8), TY (11.1±3.0), SBMP (21.9±4.0) and SB (24.9±3.0). Different etching patterns were observed for the self-etching primers depending on the enamel treatment and the pH of the adhesive system. Conclusion: Although there is a tendency towards using adhesive systems with simplified application procedures, this may compromise the bonding performance of some systems to enamel, even when the prismless enamel is removed. PMID:19668991

  13. Effect of sodium ascorbate on the bond strength of all-in-one adhesive systems to NaOCl-treated dentin

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi-Chaharom, Mohammad-Esmaeel; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Mohammadi, Narmin; Oskoee, Parnian-Alizadeh; Daneshpuy, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background Ascorbic acid and its salts are low-toxicity products, which are routinely used in food industries as antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 10% sodium ascorbate on the bond strength of two all-in-one adhesive systems to NaOCl-treated dentin. Material and Methods After exposing the dentin on the facial surface of 90 sound human premolars and mounting in an acrylic resin mold, the exposed dentin surfaces were polished with 600-grit SiC paper under running water. Then the samples were randomly divided into 6 groups of 15. Groups 1 and 4 were the controls, in which no surface preparation was carried out. In groups 2 and 5 the dentin surfaces were treated with 5.25% NaOCl alone for 10 minutes and in groups 3 and 6 with 5.25% NaOCl for 10 minutes followed by 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes. Then composite resin cylinders, measuring 2 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height, were bonded on the dentin surfaces in groups 1, 2 and 3 with Clearfil S3 Bond and in groups 4, 5 and 6 with Adper Easy One adhesive systems according to manufacturers’ instructions. The samples were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and then thermocycled. Finally, the samples underwent shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine at a strain rate of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests at α=0.05. Results The differences between groups 1 and 2 (P=0.01), 1 and 5 (P=0.003). 1 and 6 (P=0.03) and 4 and 5 (P=0.03) were statistically significant. Two-by-two comparisons did not reveal any significant difference between other groups (P>0.05). Conclusions Use of 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes restored the decreased bond strength of the adhesive systems to that of the control groups. Key words:Sodium ascorbate, adhesive systems, all-in-one, bond strength, sodium hypochlorite. PMID:26644835

  14. ON THE DURABILITY OF RESIN-DENTIN BONDS: IDENTIFYING THE WEAKEST LINKS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zihou; Beitzel, Dylan; Mutluay, Mustafa; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.; Arola, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue of resin-dentin adhesive bonds is critical to the longevity of resin composite restorations. Objectives The objectives were to characterize the fatigue and fatigue crack growth resistance of resin-dentin bonds achieved using two different commercial adhesives and to identify apparent “weak-links”. Methods Bonded interface specimens were prepared using Adper Single Bond Plus (SB) or Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) adhesives and 3M Z100 resin composite according to the manufacturers instructions. The stress-life fatigue behavior was evaluated using the twin bonded interface approach and the fatigue crack growth resistance was examined using bonded interface Compact Tension (CT) specimens. Fatigue properties of the interfaces were compared to those of the resin-adhesive, resin composite and coronal dentin. Results The fatigue strength of the SBMP interface was significantly greater than that achieved by SB (p≤0.01). Both bonded interfaces exhibited significantly lower fatigue strength than that of the Z100 and dentin. Regarding the fatigue crack growth resistance, the stress intensity threshold (ΔKth) of the SB interface was significantly greater (p≤0.01) than that of the SBMP, whereas the ΔKth of the interfaces was more than twice that of the parent adhesives. Significance Collagen fibril reinforcement of the resin adhesive is essential to the fatigue crack growth resistance of resin-dentin bonds. Resin tags that are not well hybridized into the surrounding intertubular dentin and/or poor collagen integrity are detrimental to the bonded interface durability. PMID:26169318

  15. Regional bond strengths to root canal dentin of fiber posts luted with three cementation systems.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Giovana Mongruel; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel; Reis, Alessandra; Gomes, João Carlos; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the cementation system on the regional push-out bond strength and failure pattern of fiber posts to radicular dentin. The roots of 48 extracted human incisors were prepared and divided into 3 groups (n = 16), according to the cementation system: AdperScotchbond Multi-Purpose + resin cement RelyX ARC (SBMP+ARC); Adper SingleBond 2 + RelyX ARC (SB+ARC) and; RelyX U100 self-adhesive resin cement (U100). The posts were cemented as per manufacturer's instructions for each cementation system. After 1 week, the roots were sectioned transversely into 6 discs. Two discs were obtained from the cervical, middle and apical thirds and the push-out test was carried out. The failure pattern was examined on all debonded specimens. The data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test. When U100 was used, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was observed among the different root regions. Statistically higher push-out bond strength values were detected in the cervical third for SBMP+ARC and SB+ARC (p<0.05). The U100 showed significantly more mixed failures than SBMP+ARC in the apical third (p<0.05). In conclusion, the self-adhesive cement RelyX U100 was the only cement not sensitive to the root canal region.

  16. Testing Adhesive Bonds to Cloths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, David G.

    1987-01-01

    Nondestructive tool simple and inexpensive. Easy-to-use tool nondestructively tests strength of adhesive bond between cloth and straight rigid edge. Developed for testing advanced flexible reusable surface insulation.

  17. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resin Bonded to Resin-Modified Glass-ionomer Containing Micro- and Nano-hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Moradian, Marzie; Motamedi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The adhesion of resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) to composite resin has a very important role in the durability of sandwich restorations. Hydroxyapatite is an excellent candidate as a filler material for improving the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cement. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding micro- and nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) powder to RMGI on the shear bond strength (SBS) of nanofilled and silorane-based composite resins bonded to RMGI containing micro- and nano-HA. Materials and Method Sixty cylindrical acrylic blocks containing a hole of 5.5×2.5 mm (diameter × height) were prepared and randomly divided into 6 groups as Group 1 with RMGI (Fuji II LC) plus Adper Single Bond/Z350 composite resin (5.5×3.5 mm diameter × height); Group 2 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of micro-HA plus Adper Single Bond/Z350 composite resin; Group3 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of nano-HA plus Adper Single Bond/Z350 composite resin; Group 4 with RMGI plus P90 System Adhesive/P90 Filtek composite resin (5.5×3.5 mm diameter × height); Group 5 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of micro-HA plus P90 System Adhesive/P90Filtek composite resin; and Group 6 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of nano-HA plus P90 System Adhesive/P90 Filtek composite resin. The specimens were stored in water (37° C, 1 week) and subjected to 1000 thermal cycles (5°C/55°C). SBS test was performed by using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0.05). Results There were significant differences between groups 1 and 4 (RMGI groups, p= 0.025), and groups 3 and 6 (RMGI+ nano-HA groups, p= 0.012). However, among Z350 and P90 specimens, no statistically significant difference was detected in the SBS values (p= 0.19, p= 0.083, respectively). Conclusion RMGI containing HA can improve the bond strength to methacrylate-based in comparison to silorane-based composite resins. Meanwhile, RMGI

  18. Easy-to-use interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  19. Easy-to-Make Cryophoruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2008-01-01

    The cryophorus dramatically demonstrates the cooling effect of evaporation. This article describes some simple and easy-to-make cryophoruses, ideal for demonstrating evaporative cooling to students at all levels. The most dramatic effects occurred with cyclohexane and benzene, with water generally freezing more slowly. (Contains 4 notes, 2 tables,…

  20. Quick and Easy Classroom Makeover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2006-01-01

    This article offers simple design ideas on classroom transformation that are easy on the pocketbook and will make the biggest difference to teachers and their students. These include: (1) Go with a splash of color; (2) Use bright fabrics; (3) Stick with blues and greens; (4) Use color to create nooks; (5) Buddy up with a shop class; (6) Hide the…

  1. W7 - Optics Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richburg, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Optics Made Easy! Whether you are teaching optics in elementary or for the high school Physics EOC, this workshop will break down the concepts for you, give you a hands on understanding of how to conduct optic labs, and brush you up on making lens calculations.

  2. Effects of etching and adhesive applications on the bond strength between composite resin and glass-ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    PAMIR, Tijen; ŞEN, Bilge Hakan; EVCIN, Özgür

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study determined the effects of various surface treatment modalities on the bond strength of composite resins to glass-ionomer cements. Material and Methods Conventional (KetacTM Molar Quick ApplicapTM) or resin-modified (PhotacTM Fil Quick AplicapTM) glass-ionomer cements were prepared. Two-step etch-rinse & bond adhesive (AdperTM Single Bond 2) or single-step self-etching adhesive (AdperTM PromptTM L-PopTM) was applied to the set cements. In the etch-rinse & bond group, the sample surfaces were pre-treated as follows: (1) no etching, (2) 15 s of etching with 35% phosphoric acid, (3) 30 s of etching, and (4) 60 s of etching. Following the placement of the composite resin (FiltekTM Z250), the bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine and the data obtained were analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey's HSD post hoc analysis (p=0.05). Then, the fractured surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results The bond strength of the composite resin to the conventional glass-ionomer cement was significantly lower than that to the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (p<0.001). No significant differences were determined between the self-etching and etch-rinse & bond adhesives at any etching time (p>0.05). However, a greater bond strength was obtained with 30 s of phosphoric acid application. Conclusions The resin-modified glass-ionomer cement improved the bond strength of the composite resin to the glass-ionomer cement. Both etch-rinse & bond and self-etching adhesives may be used effectively in the lamination of glass-ionomer cements. However, an etching time of at least 30 s appears to be optimal. PMID:23329245

  3. Bond Strength of One-Step Adhesives under Different Substrate Moisture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luís; Fabião, Mayra Melo; Sfalcin, Ravana Angelini; de Souza Meneses, Murilo; Santos-Filho, Paulo César Freitas; Soares, Paulo Vinícius; Martins, Luís Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of one-step adhesive systems to dry or moist dental substrate. Methods Thirty human third molars were sectioned into two halves, in the mesio-distal direction, parallel to the long axis of the tooth. Each half was embedded in a polystyrene resin cylinder so that the buccal/lingual surface remained exposed. This exposed surface was abraded to obtain both flat exposed enamel and dentin. The samples were randomly allocated according to the adhesive system (Xeno III, Adper Prompt and iBond) and moisture condition (dry and moist). The substrates were air-dried for 30 s for dry condition, while the moist substrates were re-wet with 2.5 μl of distilled water after drying. After the adhesive procedures, two resin composite cylinders were build-up on dentin and enamel substrates, totaling four per sample. A shear load was applied to the samples at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Data were statistically analyzed by three-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (α=0.05). Results The evaluated one-step adhesives showed higher bond strength to dentin than enamel. The iBond presented better bond performance to moist substrate and Xeno III to dry substrate. The moisture condition did not interfere in the performance of Adper Prompt. The Xeno III and iBond presented higher bond strength than the other adhesives to both dry and moist substrates. Conclusions The moisture condition of substrate interfered in the performance of one-step self-etching adhesives and the best moisture condition was material dependent. PMID:19826601

  4. Hybridization quality and bond strength of adhesive systems according to interaction with dentin

    PubMed Central

    Salvio, Luciana Andrea; Hipólito, Vinicius Di; Martins, Adriano Luis; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hybridization quality and bond strength of adhesives to dentin. Materials and Methods: Ten human molars were ground to expose the dentin and then sectioned in four tooth-quarters. They were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the adhesive used: Two single-step self-etch adhesives – Adper Prompt (ADP) and Xeno III (XE), two two-step self-etching primer systems – Clearfil SE Bond (SE) and Adhe SE (ADSE), and one one-step etch-and-rinse system – Adper Single Bond (SB). Resin composite (Filtek Z250) crown buildups were made on the bonded surfaces and incrementally light-cured for 20 s. The restored tooth-quarters were stored in water at 37°C for 24 h and then sectioned into beams (0.8 mm2 in cross-section). Maximal microtensile bond strength (μ-TBS) was recorded (0.5 mm/min in crosshead speed). The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Thirty additional teeth were used to investigate the hybridization quality by SEM using silver methenamine or ammoniacal silver nitrate dyes. Results: SE reached significantly higher μ-TBS (P < 0.05); no significance was found between ADSE and XE (P > 0.05), and between SB and ADP (P > 0.05); ADSE and XE were significantly higher than SB and ADP (P < 0.05). The bonding interface of SB showed the most intense silver uptake. SE and ADSE showed more favorable hybridization quality than that observed for ADP and XE. Conclusions: The bond strength and hybridization quality were affected by the interaction form of the adhesives with dentin. The hybridization quality was essential to improve the immediate μ-TBS to dentin. PMID:24926212

  5. Making Difficult Things Easy and Easy Things Difficult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Arthur; Bent, Henry A.

    1982-01-01

    Suggestions are offered to illustrate concepts and processes by using simple materials such as paper, paper clip, rubber band (bonding, entropy, endothermic processes). Also suggests using basic terminology: elementary ratios, percent, reaction chemistry for entropy function; equilibrium constants for Gibbs energies; and chemical mechanics for…

  6. EASI - EQUILIBRIUM AIR SHOCK INTERFERENCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    New research on hypersonic vehicles, such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), has raised concerns about the effects of shock-wave interference on various structural components of the craft. State-of-the-art aerothermal analysis software is inadequate to predict local flow and heat flux in areas of extremely high heat transfer, such as the surface impingement of an Edney-type supersonic jet. EASI revives and updates older computational methods for calculating inviscid flow field and maximum heating from shock wave interference. The program expands these methods to solve problems involving the six shock-wave interference patterns on a two-dimensional cylindrical leading edge with an equilibrium chemically reacting gas mixture (representing, for example, the scramjet cowl of the NASP). The inclusion of gas chemistry allows for a more accurate prediction of the maximum pressure and heating loads by accounting for the effects of high temperature on the air mixture. Caloric imperfections and specie dissociation of high-temperature air cause shock-wave angles, flow deflection angles, and thermodynamic properties to differ from those calculated by a calorically perfect gas model. EASI contains pressure- and temperature-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties to determine heating rates, and uses either a calorically perfect air model or an 11-specie, 7-reaction reacting air model at equilibrium with temperatures up to 15,000 K for the inviscid flowfield calculations. EASI solves the flow field and the associated maximum surface pressure and heat flux for the six common types of shock wave interference. Depending on the type of interference, the program solves for shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction, expansion-fan/boundary-layer interaction, attaching shear layer or supersonic jet impingement. Heat flux predictions require a knowledge (from experimental data or relevant calculations) of a pertinent length scale of the interaction. Output files contain flow

  7. Interaction morphology and bond strength of nanofilled simplified-step adhesives to acid etched dentin

    PubMed Central

    Di Hipólito, Vinicius; Reis, André Figueiredo; Mitra, Sumita B.; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of nanofillers incorporated into adhesives on the microtensile bond strength (μ-TBS) and interfacial micromorphology to dentin. Methods: The occlusal enamel of 5 human molars was removed and each tooth sectioned into four quarters. The exposed dentin was treated with one of the following adhesives: Adper Single Bond (SB-unfilled), OptiBond Solo Plus (OS-barium aluminoborosilicate, 400nm Ø), Prime & Bond NT (NT-colloidal silica, 7–40 nm Ø) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2-colloidal silica, 5nm Ø). Cylinders of resin-based composite were constructed on the adhesive layers. After 24-hour storage, the restored tooth-quadrants were sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens (0.8 mm2, cross-sectional area) and submitted to μ-TBS at a cross-speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (alpha = .05). Twenty-eight additional teeth were used for interfacial micro-morphologic analysis by SEM (16-teeth) and TEM (12-teeth). The dentin surfaces of 32 discs were treated with the adhesives (8 discs for adhesive) and laminated to form disc-pairs using a flowable resin composite for SEM/EDS analysis. For TEM, 90nm-thick nondemineralized unstained sections were processed. Results: SB2 showed significant higher bond strength than SB, OS and NT. The SEM/EDS and TEM analysis revealed nanofillers infiltrated within the interfibrillar spaces of the SB2-hybrid layer. Fillers were concentrated around patent tubular orifices and in the adhesive layer for OS and NT. Conclusion: The presence of nanofillers within the interfibrillar spaces of the SB2-hybrid layer suggests its importance in the improvement of the μ-TBS. PMID:23077413

  8. Easy Projection of Stereo Movies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    stereo films . This apparatus is easily portable and has been tsted over the past few years with a large variety of commercial movie projectors. It C...transparency of even black frames of film in the infrared, the unit remains synchronized throughout the movie . P. The voltage required for the PI.ZT wafer is...7D-W6 99 EASY PROJECTION OF STEREO MOVIES (U) CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN Il1 DIEGO LA JOLLA DEPT OF CHEMISTRY N BARTLETT ET AL. S1 NAY 86 N99914-?8-C-1325

  9. Effect of Bleaching and Thermocycling on Resin-Enamel Bond Strength

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Horieh; Mohammadipour, Hamideh Sadat; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh; Alizadeh, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bleaching and thermocycling on microshear bond strength of bonded resin composites to enamel. Enamel slices were prepared from ninety-six intact human premolars and resin composite cylinders were bonded by using Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z350 or Filtek silorane adhesive and resin composite. Each essential group was randomly subdivided to two subgroups: control and bleaching. In bleaching group, 35% hydrogen peroxide was applied on samples. Thermocycling procedure was conducted between 5°C and 55°C, for 3.000 cycles on the half of each subgroup specimen. Then microshear bond strength was tested. Methacrylate-based resin composite had higher bond strength than silorane-based one. The meyhacrylate-based group without bleaching along with thermocycling showed the most bond strength, while bleaching with 35% carbamide peroxide on silorane-based group without thermocycling showed the least microshear bond strength. Bleaching caused a significant degradation on shear bond strength of silorane-based resin composites that bonded using self-etch adhesive resin systems. PMID:26839550

  10. Evaluation of the Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Wet and Dry Enamel Using Dentin Bonding Agents Containing Various Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Ramarao, Sathyanarayanan; John, Bindu Meera; Rajesh, Praveen; Swatha, S

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Bonding of composite resin to dentin mandates a wet substrate whereas, enamel should be dry. This may not be easily achievable in intracoronal preparations where enamel and dentin are closely placed to each other. Therefore, Dentin Bonding Agents (DBA) are recommended for enamel and dentinal bonding, where enamel is also left moist. A research question was raised if the “enamel-only” preparations will also benefit from wet enamel bonding and contemporary DBA. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strengths of composite resin, bonded to dry and wet enamel using fifth generation DBA (etch and rinse system) containing various solvents such as ethanol/water, acetone and ethanol. Materials and Methods The crowns of 120 maxillary premolars were split into buccal and lingual halves. They were randomly allocated into four groups of DBA: Group 1-water/ethanol based, Group 2-acetone based, Group 3-ethanol based, Group 4-universal bonding agent (control group). The buccal halves and lingual halves were bonded using the wet bonding and dry bonding technique respectively. After application of the DBAs and composite resin build up, shear bond strength testing was done. Results Group 1 (ethanol/water based ESPE 3M, Adper Single Bond) showed highest bond strength of (23.15 MPa) in dry enamel. Group 2 (acetone based Denstply, Prime and Bond NT, showed equal bond strength in wet and dry enamel condition (18.87 MPa and 18.02 MPa respectively). Conclusion Dry enamel bonding and ethanol/water based etch and rinse DBA can be recommended for “enamel-only” tooth preparations. PMID:28274042

  11. Nanomechanical properties of biochemically modified dentin bonded interfaces

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Paulo H; Karol, Sachin; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina B

    2014-01-01

    Summary The effect of biomodification of dentin matrices using collagen cross-linkers, glutaraldehyde (GD) and grape seed extract (GSE), on the reduced modulus of elasticity (Er) and nanohardness (H) of the hybrid layer and underlying dentin was investigated at the dentin-resin bonded interface. The coronal dentin of nine molars were exposed and divided into groups: 5% GD, 6.5% GSE and control. Control samples were etched, bonded with Adper Single Bond Plus and Premise composite. GD and GSE were applied for 1 hour prior to bonding procedures. After 24 hours, samples were sectioned, and resin-dentin beams were either kept in distilled water or exposed to collagenase treatment for 24 hours. Nano-indentations were performed at the hybrid layer and underlying dentin. GD and GSE treatment increased the Er and H of resin-dentin interface structures when compared to the control group (p < 0.05), particularly the hybrid layer, and may be a promising novel approach to strengthen the dentin-resin bonded interface structures when using these adhesive system and resin-based composite. PMID:21058972

  12. Adhesive bond strengths to enamel and dentin using recommended and extended treatment times.

    PubMed

    Kimmes, Nicole S; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of different enamel and dentin conditioning times on the shear bond strength of a resin composite using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were determined following treatment of flat ground human enamel and dentin surfaces (4000 grit) with 11 adhesive systems: 1) AdheSE One Viva Pen-(ASE), 2) Adper Prompt L-Pop-(PLP), 3) Adper Single Bond Plus-(SBP), 4) Clearfil SE Bond-(CSE), 5) Clearfil S3 Bond-(CS3), 6) OptiBond All-In-One-(OBA), 7) OptiBond Solo Plus-(OBS), 8) Peak SE-(PSE), 9) Xeno IV-(X4), 10) Xeno V-(X5) and 11) XP Bond-(XPB) using recommended treatment times and an extended treatment time of 60 seconds (n = 10/group). Composite (Z100) to enamel and dentin bond strengths (24 hours) were determined using Ultradent fixtures and debonded with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The data were analyzed with a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's LSD post hoc test. The highest shear bond strengths (MPa) to enamel were achieved by the three etch-and-rinse systems at both the recommended treatment time (SBP-40.5 +/- 6.1; XPB-38.7 +/- 3.7; OBS- 35.2 +/- 6.2) and the extended treatment time (SBP-44.5 +/- 8.1; XPB-40.9 +/- 5.7; OBS-35.0 +/- 4.5). Extending the enamel treatment time did not produce a significant change (p > 0.05) in bond strength for the 11 adhesive systems tested. OBS generated the highest (46.2 +/- 7.9) bond strengths to dentin at the recommended treatment time. At the extended treatment time X4 (42.2 +/- 11.7), PSE (42.1 +/- 9.7) and OBS (41.4 +/- 8.0) produced the highest bond strengths to dentin. The bond strength change between recommend and extended treatment times was significant (p < 0.05) for PSE, but the other 10 systems did not exhibit any significant change.

  13. Bent Bonds and Multiple Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of Pauling's bent bond model, which allows direct calculation of double and triple bonds from the length of a CC single bond. Lengths of these multiple bonds are estimated from direct measurements on "bent-bond" models constructed of plastic tubing and standard kits. (CS)

  14. Effects of simplified ethanol-wet bonding technique on immediate bond strength with normal versus caries-affected dentin

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Sharma, Ritu; Miglani, Sanjay; Bhasin, Saranjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the use of simplified ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) technique improved the immediate microtensile bond strength (μTBS) between resin composite and caries-affected dentin (CAD). Materials and Methods: Twenty-four extracted carious human permanent molars were sectioned to expose the carious lesion. The carious dentin was excavated until CAD was exposed. The samples were divided into two groups: water-wet bonding with Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and a simplified EWB (three 100% ethanol applications for 30 s each), followed by application of an experimental hydrophobic primer and restoration. The samples were vertically sectioned to produce 1 mm × 1 mm thick slabs. The normal dentin (ND) slabs and CAD slabs were identified and were subjected to μTBS evaluation. Slabs from four teeth (two from each group) were evaluated under microscope. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Holm–Sidak test at P < 0.05. Results: EWB improved the μTBS in ND but not in CAD group. The dentinal tubules in CAD group showed sclerotic activity with minimal or no hybrid layer. Conclusions: Simplified ethanol bonding does not improve the bond strength in CAD. PMID:27656059

  15. Effect of ethanol-wet bonding with hydrophobic adhesive on caries-affected dentine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xueqing; Li, Li; Huang, Cui; Du, Xijin

    2011-08-01

    Frequently encountered in clinical practice, caries-affected dentine (CAD) is the most challenging bonding substrate. This study evaluated the effect of ethanol-wet bonding with hydrophobic adhesive to sound dentine and to CAD. In the control groups, prepared sound dentine and CAD were bonded with Adper Single Bond 2 using a traditional water-wet bonding technique. In the experimental groups, the specimens were treated as follows: Group 1, rinsed with stepwise ethanol dehydration; Group 2, immersion in 100% ethanol, three times, for 20 s each time; and Group 3, immersion in 100% ethanol for 20 s. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing was used to evaluate the effects of the different protocols on bonding. The microhardness of debonded dentine surfaces was measured to ensure the presence of CAD. Interfacial nanoleakage was evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Treatment significantly improved the μTBS in CAD in Groups 1 and 2, but had no effect on Group 3. Conversely, treatment significantly reduced the μTBS in sound dentine in Groups 2 and 3, but had no effect in Group 1. The presence of nanoleakage varied with the ethanol-wet protocol used. In conclusion, ethanol-wet bonding can potentially improve bond efficacy to CAD when an appropriate protocol is used.

  16. Effect of Self-etching Adhesives on the Bond Strength of Glass-Ionomer Cements

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Panahandeh, Narges; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Zahra Sadat; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Statement of Problem: Adequate bond strength between glass ionomer cements and composite resin is necessary for the success of the sandwich technique. Purpose of Study: This study assessed the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to glass-ionomer cements (GIC) using self-etch adhesives with different pH values. Materials and Methods: One hundred specimens (6×4×2 mm) were made using Fuji II and Fuji II LC GICs and treated with different adhesives as follows: Group 1:Fuji II+ Adper Prompt L-Pop, Group-2: Fuji II+SE bond, Group-3: Fuji II + AdheSE, Group-4:Fuji II+ Protect bond, Group-5: Fuji II + Single bond, Group-6:Fuji II LC+ Adper Prompt LPop, Group-7: Fuji II LC+SE bond, Group-8:Fuji II LC+ AdheSE, Group-9: Fuji II LC+ Protect bond, and Group-10: Fuji II LC+ Single bond. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. A cylinder of Z100 composite resin was placed on each sample and light cured. After 24 hours of water storage (37°C), the specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength tests (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The mean micro-shear bond strength of groups 1–10 was 11.66±1.79, 16.50±1.85, 18.47±1.77, 13.95±1.77, 15.27±1.49, 15.14±0.90, 20.03±1.19, 17.48±3.00, 16.24±1.98 and 16.03±1.49 MPa, respectively. There were significant differences between groups 1 and 7 (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups (P>0.05). Fuji II LC showed higher bond strength than Fuji II (P<0.05). Conclusion: Type of self-etch adhesive had no significant effect on micro-shear bond strength of glass-ionomer to composite resin. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) exhibited higher bond strength than the conventional GIC. PMID:25628698

  17. Easy Bruising: Common as You Age

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Healthy aging If you're experiencing easy bruising, you might have questions about what's causing the ... 04, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/easy-bruising/art-20045762 . ...

  18. Comparison of enamel and dentin microshear bond strengths of a two-step self-etching priming system with five all-in-one systems.

    PubMed

    Burrow, Michael F; Kitasako, Yuichi; Thomas, C David; Tagami, Junji

    2008-01-01

    Data on the adhesive strength of new all-in-one adhesives are still relatively limited. This study compared the microshear bond strengths of five recent all-in-one self-etching priming systems (G-Bond, One-Up Bond-F Plus, Clearfil S3 Bond, Adper Prompt L-Pop and Go!) with a widely used two-step self-etching priming system (Clearfil SE Bond). Human molars were sectioned and finished with 600-grit SiC paper. Both enamel and dentin were bonded using adhesives with a 0.7 mm bonding diameter. Bond strengths were tested using a microshear bond test method at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The mean bond strengths and standard deviations were calculated and analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey's HSD test. Results showed the two-step self-etching system had significantly higher bond strengths to dentin. However, for enamel bond strength, Clearfil SE Bond showed no statistical difference to G-Bond and Go!; however, all of the other materials were statistically lower. It is necessary to examine these new materials clinically to determine their efficacy.

  19. Effect of 10% Sodium Ascorbate on Shear Bond Strength of Bleached Teeth - An in-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ponnappa, K C; Nitin, Mirdha; Ramesh, Sachhi; Sharanappa, Kambale; Nishant, Ajgaonkar

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient often requires some additional interventions such as replacement of old restorations, laminates and veneers after bleaching, for aesthetic purposes. The residual oxygen inhibits polymerization of resin based materials which results in reduced bond strength of the restorations. Some techniques are available to solve the clinical problems related to the post bleach compromised bond strength. Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate, the role of 10% sodium ascorbate on reversing the compromised bond strength and compare enamel shear bond strength of 5th and 6th generation dentine bonding agents on bleached and unbleached teeth. Materials and Methods Eighty freshly extracted human anterior teeth were assigned in to Group A and Group B of 40 teeth each. Samples in both groups were subdivided in to 4 subgroups of 10 teeth each. In Group A composite resins was bonded using 5th generation dentine bonding agent (3M Single Bond) and Group B was bonded using 6th generation (3M ESPE Adper SE Plus). Subgroups were subjected to the procedure as, A1;B1 etching and bonding (control), A2; B2 bleaching, etching and immediate bonding, A3; B3 bleaching,10% ascorbic acid treatment for 10 minutes after that etching and bonding immediately, A4; B4 bleaching, storage in artificial saliva for 4 days and then etching and bonding. Pola office, in office bleach (SDI (082216) was used for bleaching. The specimens were subjected to shear load in a Universal testing machine to evaluate bond strength. Results A decrease in bond strength was seen with 6th generation adhesive system compared to 5th generation bonding system, which is statistically significant, p<0.001. Conclusion Treating the bleached enamel surfaces when treated with 10% sodium ascorbate, which reverses the compromised bond strength and is a good alternative to delayed bonding. PMID:26393201

  20. “Evaluation of shear bond strength of a composite resin to white mineral trioxide aggregate with three different bonding systems”-An in vitro analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anand C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biomaterial that has been investigated for endodontic applications. With the increased use of MTA in pulp capping, pulpotomy, perforation repair, apexification and obturation, the material that would be placed over MTA as a final restoration is an important matter. As composite resins are one of the most widely used final restorative materials, this study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of a composite resin to white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) using three different bonding systems namely the two-step etch and rinse adhesive, the self-etching primer and the All-in-one system. Material and Methods Forty five specimens of white MTA (Angelus) were prepared and randomly divided into three groups of 15 specimens each depending on the bonding systems used respectively. In Group A, a Two-step etch and rinse adhesive or ‘total-etch adhesive’, Adper Single Bond 2 (3M/ESPE) and Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) were placed over WMTA. In group B, a Two-step self-etching primer system, Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Medical Inc) and Filtek Z350 were used. In Group C, an All-in-one system, G Bond (GC corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and Filtek Z350 were used. The shear bond strength was measured for all the specimens. The data obtained was subjected to One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe’s post hoc test. Results The results suggested that the Two-step etch and rinse adhesive when used to bond a composite resin to white MTA gave better bond strength values and the All-in-one exhibited the least bond strength values. Conclusions The placement of composite used with a Two-step etch and rinse adhesive over WMTA as a final restoration may be appropriate. Key words:Composite resins, dentin bonding agents, mineral trioxide aggregate, shear bond strength. PMID:27398177

  1. Influence of Erosive and Abrasive Cycling on Bonding of Different Adhesive Systems to Enamel: An In situ Study.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Marina Ciccone; Casas-Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Machado, Camila Moreira; Freitas, Maria Cristina Carvalho de Almendra; Atta, Maria Teresa; Wang, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of orange juice on the bond strength (BS) of dentin bonding systems (DBSs) to enamel surface after simulation with an in situ/ ex vivo erosive cycling. One hundred and ninety two bovine enamel fragments (4x4x2mm) were obtained and randomized regarding superficial microhardness and distributed to palatal devices for 8 volunteers, in three phases (one for each DBS), containing 8 blocks, which were, allocated in 4 pairs. Daily, these pairs were subjected extraorally to the following conditions: CONT- neither erosive nor abrasive challenge; ERO- erosive challenge only; ABR- abrasive challenge only and ERO + ABR- with erosive and abrasive challenges. Erosive cycles (immersion in orange juice, 3 times/day/5 min/5 days) or/and abrasive challenges (electric toothbrush, 3 times/day/1 min/5 days) were performed. After these cycles, all specimens were restored with the adhesive systems Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP), Adper Single Bond 2 (SB) or Clearfil SE Bond (SE), and the composite resin Filtek Z250. After 7 days, sticks (area ≅1 mm2) were obtained and subjected to the microtensile bond strength test (μTBS) at 0.5 mm/min. Data was statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests (a=0.05). Failure modes were determined using a digital microscope (40´). DBS was the only statistical significant factor. SE was the unique DBS not affected in any challenge, whereas MP and SB performed according to the scenario. The adhesive and mixed failures were predominant in all groups. Overall performance suggested that BS to enamel after erosive /abrasive challenged by orange juice was not affected and it was material-dependent.

  2. Assessment of the Shear Bond Strength between Nanofilled Composite Bonded to Glass-ionomer Cement Using Self-etch Adhesive with Different pHs and Total-Etch Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Choobineh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem In the sandwich technique, the undesirable bond between the composite resin and glass-ionomer cement (GIc) is one of the most important factors which lead to the failure of restoration. Total-etch and self-etch adhesives may improve the bond strength based on their pH. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between the nanofilled composite resin and GIc using different adhesives. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 40 specimens (6×6mm) in 4 groups (n=10) were prepared in acrylic mold. Each specimen contained conventional GI ChemFil Superior with a height of 3mm, bonded to Z350 composite resin with a height measured 3mm. In order to bond the composite to the GI, the following adhesives were used, respectively: A: mild Clearfil SE Bond self-etch (pH=2), B: intermediate OptiBond self-etch (pH=1.4), C: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=1), and D: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch (pH=7.2). The shear bond strength was measured by using universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used to analyze the data (p< 0.05). Results The shear bond strength in group A was significantly higher than group B (p= 0.002), C (p< 0.001), and D (p< 0.001). Moreover, the shear bond strength of groups A and B (self-etch) was significantly different from group D (total-etch) (p< 0.001); and C (self-etch) with D (p= 0.024). Conclusion The results of this study showed that applying the mild self-etch adhesive between the composite and the GIc results in stronger shear bond strength compared to intermediate and strong self-etch adhesives. Moreover, the self-etch adhesive increased the shear bond strength between composite resin and GIc more significantly than total-etch adhesive. PMID:26966701

  3. Sticker Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Laura Corbin

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a science activity on the bonding of chemical compounds. Assigns students the role of either a cation or anion and asks them to write the ions they may bond with. Assesses students' understanding of charge, bonding, and other concepts. (YDS)

  4. Bonding efficacy of etch-and-rinse adhesives after dentin biomodification using ethanol saturation and collagen cross-linker pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pallavi; Nagpal, Rajni; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Manuja, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate whether the application of two simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives to biomodified dentin using ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) and collagen cross-linker (CCL) pretreatment improves their sealing ability. Materials and Methods: In 176 extracted human molars, the pulp-chambers were deroofed, and teeth were sectioned horizontally. Samples were randomly divided into eight groups according to four bonding techniques using two simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives; Adper Single Bond 2 (ASB) and XP Bond (XPB). The bonding protocols included: (a) Water-wet bonding (WWB); (b) EWB; (c) WWB and CCL application; (d) EWB and CCL application. After composite resin restorations, dye leakage evaluation and scanning electron microscope analysis were done. Leakage scores were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Result: For both ASB and XPB adhesives, least dye leakage was observed in EWB groups (b and d) (P = 0.918 and P = 0.399 respectively) which showed no significant difference, while maximum leakage scores were seen in WWB groups (a and c). Regardless of CCL application and adhesives used, EWB technique depicted (P = 0.003 and P = 0.004) significantly greater sealing ability than WWB. Conclusion: Bonding of ASB and XPB using EWB significantly improved their sealing ability. Biomodification using CCL pretreatment had no significant effect on the sealing ability of adhesives bonded with either WWB or EWB. PMID:26180421

  5. Easy Games for the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Linda

    1977-01-01

    The following easy games for the German classroom are described: around Germany, map identifications, fast response, bingo, memory training, geography college bowl, find the object, descriptions, pronunciation perfection, acrostics, simple board games, art lesson, treasure hunt, and miscellaneous games. (SW)

  6. Effect of Different Bonding Strategies on Adhesion to Deep and Superficial Permanent Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Pegado, Rafael Eduardo Fernandes; do Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of different bonding strategies on the microtensile bond strength to deep and superficial permanent dentin. Methods: Forty-eight teeth were randomly flattened according to the dentin depth: superficial dentin (SD) and deep dentin (DD). Subsequently, three adhesive systems were applied (n=8): an etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2 - SB), a “mild” two-step self-etching (Clearfil SE Bond - SE) and a one-step self-etching adhesive system (Futurabond – FB). Each specimen was restored with a composite resin and sectioned into 1.0-mm2 thick slabs. After 24 hours, resin-dentin sticks were submitted to tensile stress in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test at a level of 0.05%. Results: Superficial dentin showed the highest microtensile bond strength values, which differed statistically from those obtained in the deep dentin, irrespective of the adhesive system used. FB yielded the highest bond strength values, which were statistically similar to the bond strength values of SE, but statistically different from those obtained when the SB adhesive was used. Conclusions: Bond strength obtained in superficial dentin was significantly higher than in deep dentin, for all adhesive systems tested. Adhesion was affected by the different bonding strategies: the one-step, low pH, acetone-based self-etching adhesive promoted the higher bond strength values, which were statistically similar to those obtained with the two-step, water-based self-etching adhesive. PMID:20396440

  7. Effect of Intermediate Agents and Preheated Composites on Repair Bond Strength of Silorane-Based Composites

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Daryadar, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Repairing composite restorations is a challenging procedure especially when two different types of composites are used. This study aimed to compare the repair strength of silorane-based composite (SC) (Filtek P90) with that of preheated SC, methacrylate composite (MC)(Z250), flowable MC (Filtek Supreme Plus) and different adhesive/composite combinations. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four SC specimens were fabricated and randomly divided into seven groups (G). In the control group (G7), SC was bonded immediately to SC. The other specimens were water-aged for two months and were then roughened, etched and repaired with the following materials: G1) Silorane Adhesive Bond (SAB)/SC; G2) Preheated SC; G3) SAB/MC; G4) Adper Single Bond (SB)/MC; G5) Flowable MC/MC; G6) Preheated MC. After water storage and thermocycling, the repaired specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Preheated SC and MC, flowable MC and SAB/SC resulted in bond strength comparable to that of the control group. Preheated SC showed significantly higher bond strength when compared to SAB/MC (P=0.04) and SB/MC (P<0.001). Bond strength of SB/MC was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05), except for SAB/SC and SAB/MC. Conclusion: All repairing materials except for SB/MC resulted in bond strength values comparable to that of the control group. Repair with preheated SC yielded the highest bond strength. PMID:27148378

  8. Development of an easy-debonding orthodontic adhesive using thermal heating.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, Takashi; Namura, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2007-01-01

    We produced experimentally a new bonding material that consisted of a mixture of a base resin (4-META/MMA-TBB resin adhesive) and thermoexpandable microcapsules for safe, easy debonding. Microcapsules in the base resin would start expansion at 80 degrees C, leading to a remarkable decrease in bond strength. Stainless steel brackets were bonded to bovine permanent mandibular incisors using bonding materials containing the microcapsules at different contents. After thermal cycling or heating, the shear bond strength of the brackets was measured. Shear bond strength of the bonding materials containing 30-40 wt% microcapsules decreased to about one-third or one-fifth that of the base resin on heating. Heating the brackets for eight seconds increased the temperature in the pulp chamber by 2 degrees C, which should not induce pulp damage. Results obtained suggested that the new bonding material should prove useful for removing brackets easily at the time of bracket debonding without any pain or enamel cracks, while maintaining the bonding strength during active orthodontic treatment.

  9. Phosphoric acid esters cannot replace polyvinylphosphonic acid as phosphoprotein analogs in biomimetic remineralization of resin-bonded dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Sui; Kim, Young Kyung; Toledano, Manuel; Breschi, Lorenzo; Ling, Jun Qi; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2009-01-01

    Polyvinylphosphonic acid (PVPA), a biomimetic analog of phosphoproteins, is crucial for recruiting polyacrylic acid (PAA)-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors during biomimetic remineralization of dentin collagen matrices. This study tested the null hypothesis that phosphoric acid esters of methacrylates in dentin adhesives cannot replace PVPA during bimimetic remineralization of resin-dentin interfaces. Human dentin specimens were bonded with: I) XP Bond, an etch-and-rinse adhesive using moist bonding; II) XP Bond using dry bonding; and III) Adper Prompt L-Pop, a self-etching adhesive. The control medium contained only set Portland cement and a simulated body fluid (SBF) without any biomimetic analog. Two experimental Portland cement/SBF remineralization media were evaluated: the first contained PAA as the sole biomimetic analog, the second contained PAA and PVPA as dual biomimetic analogs. No remineralization of the resin-dentin interfaces could be identified from specimens immersed in the control medium. After 2–4 months in the first experimental medium, specimens exhibited either no remineralization or large crystal formation within hybrid layers. Only specimens immersed in the second remineralization medium produced nanocrystals that accounted for intrafibrillar remineralization within hybrid layers. The null hypothesis could not be rejected; phosphoric acid esters in dentin adhesives cannot replace PVPA during biomimetic remineralization of adhesive-bonded dentin. PMID:19481792

  10. Reference Five. Five Easy games of Referencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Jamie-Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Presents five easy games of referencing in academic writing: Risk--the art of assembling powerful coalitions; Poker--using citations to finesse a bluff; Dominoes and the logic of citations; Monopoly--using citations to create an empire; and Trivial Pursuit. (Author/VWL)

  11. Interpreting Histograms. As Easy as It Seems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Histograms are widely used, but recent studies have shown that they are not as easy to interpret as it might seem. In this article, we report on three studies on the interpretation of histograms in which we investigated, namely, (1) whether the misinterpretation by university students can be considered to be the result of heuristic reasoning, (2)…

  12. Schoolyard Science: 101 Easy and Inexpensive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Thomas R.; Travis, Holly J.

    2011-01-01

    With 101 easy and inexpensive activities to do on school grounds, "Schoolyard Science" can help students develop their observation and inquiry skills as well as an appreciation of their outdoor environment. Covering topics such as lower plants, gardens, insects and other invertebrates, energy, and Earth science, Thomas Lord and Holly Travis…

  13. Teaching is Easy Courseware Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huehner, David R.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a narrative review of a teacher microcomputer authoring system called Teaching is Easy (National Collegiate Software Clearing House, 1983). This simplified menu-driven authoring system allows the teacher to create class-specific drill and practice exercises on IBM PC or 100% compatible clones. Reported cost is $20, and learning time is…

  14. Six Easy Steps to Online Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Against his better instincts, the author, an educator at West Texas A&M University, shares his school's recipe for developing a successful online learning program. He discusses six easy steps to online success. These include: (1) clean up one's act; (2) answers in 24 hours; (3) plenty of structure; (4) format phone conferences at midterm; (5) do…

  15. Push-Out Bond Strength of Restorations with Bulk-Fill, Flow, and Conventional Resin Composites

    PubMed Central

    Caixeta, Rodrigo Vieira; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Kaneshima, Edmilson Nobumitu; Barbosa, Aline Silvestre; Picolotto, Cassiana Pedrotti; Lima, Ana Eliza de Souza; Gonini Júnior, Alcides; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strengths of composite restorations made with different filler amounts and resin composites that were photoactivated using a light-emitting diode (LED). Thirty bovine incisors were selected, and a conical cavity was prepared in the facial surface of each tooth. All preparations were etched with Scotchbond Etching Gel, the Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus adhesive system was applied followed by photoactivation, and the cavities were filled with a single increment of Filtek Z350 XT, Filtek Z350 XT Flow, or bulk-fill X-tra fil resin composite (n = 10) followed by photoactivation. A push-out test to determine bond strength was conducted using a universal testing machine. Data (MPa) were submitted to Student's t-test at a 5% significance level. After the test, the fractured specimens were examined using an optical microscope under magnification (10x). Although all three composites demonstrated a high prevalence of adhesive failures, the bond strength values of the different resin composites photoactivated by LED showed that the X-tra fil resin composite had a lower bond strength than the Filtek Z350 XT and Filtek Z350 XT Flow resin composites. PMID:26457322

  16. [The application of universal adhesives in dental bonding].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingmei; Lei, Wenlong; Yang, Hongye; Huang, Cui

    2016-03-01

    The bonding restoration has become an important clinical technique for the development of dental bonding technology. Because of its easy operation and the maximum preservation of tooth tissues, bonding repair is widely used in dental restoration. The recent multi-mode universal adhesives have brought new progress in dental bonding restoration. In this article the universal adhesives were reviewed according to its definition, development, improvement, application features and possible problems.

  17. Shear bond strength of resin cement to an acid etched and a laser irradiated ceramic surface

    PubMed Central

    Motro, Pelin Fatma Karagoz; Yurdaguven, Haktan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric acid etching and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of resin cement to lithium disilicate ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty-five ceramic blocks (5 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm) were fabricated and embedded in acrylic resin. Their surfaces were finished with 1000-grit silicon carbide paper. The blocks were assigned to five groups: 1) 9.5% hydrofluoric-acid etching for 60 s; 2-4), 1.5-, 2.5-, and 6-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser applications for 60 seconds, respectively; and 5) no treatment (control). One specimen from each group was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Ceramic primer (Rely X ceramic primer) and adhesive (Adper Single Bond) were applied to the ceramic surfaces, followed by resin cement to bond the composite cylinders, and light curing. Bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37℃ for 24 hours. Shear bond strengths were determined by a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (α=0.05). RESULTS Adhesion was significantly stronger in Group 2 (3.88 ± 1.94 MPa) and Group 3 (3.65 ± 1.87 MPa) than in Control group (1.95 ± 1.06 MPa), in which bonding values were lowest (P<.01). No significant difference was observed between Group 4 (3.59 ± 1.19 MPa) and Control group. Shear bond strength was highest in Group 1 (8.42 ± 1.86 MPa; P<.01). CONCLUSION Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at 1.5 and 2.5 W increased shear bond strengths between ceramic and resin cement compared with untreated ceramic surfaces. Irradiation at 6 W may not be an efficient ceramic surface treatment technique. PMID:23755333

  18. Effect of MTAD on the shear bond strength of self-etch adhesives to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Khademi, Abbasali; Khosravi, Kazem; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Ebrahimi–Chaharom, Mohammadesmaeil; Shahnaseri, Shirin; Khalighinejad, Navid; Badrian, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: As the use of different irrigants to eliminate residual debris and smear layer in the field of endodontic is unavoidable, by considering the effect of irrigants on the bond strength of resin composite restorations, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of a mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid, and a detergent (MTAD) on the shear bond strength of two self-etch adhesives, Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Prompt L- Pop to dentin. Materials and Methods: The crowns of 80 extracted premolars were transversally sectioned to expose dentin. Flat dentin surfaces were wet abraded with 320-grit abrasive paper and randomly assigned to eight groups according to two self-etch adhesive and four dentin surface treatments: direct application over smear layer (no treatment), etching with 35% phosphoric acid for 15s, 1 min 5.25% NaOCl/1 min MTAD and 20min 1.3% NaOCl/5min MTAD. Shear bond strength was tested 24 h after storage in distilled water at 37°C in incubator. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by duncan post-hoc (α=0.05). Results: Phosphoric acid etching prior to SE Bond application significantly decreased the shear bond strength to dentin (P<0.05). Application of MTAD clinical protocol (20min 1.3% NaOCl/5min MTAD) did not significantly decrease the shear bond strength of self-etch adhesives to dentin (P=0.745) Conclusions: Based on the results of present investigation, it seems that the use of clinical protocol of 1.3% NaOCl as a root canal irrigant and a 5-min application of MTAD as a final rinse to remove the smear layer has no adverse effect on the shear bond strength of self-etch adhesives to dentin. PMID:22363359

  19. How erosive drinks and enzyme inhibitors impact bond strength to dentin.

    PubMed

    Machado, Camila Moreira; Zamuner, Aline Cristina; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Wang, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been raised about the bonding of restorative procedures to an erosive lesion, given the change in organic and inorganic composition and structure of this substrate. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of erosive drinks and an enzyme inhibitor (2% chlorhexidine digluconate - 2% CHX) on bond strength to dentin. Sixty sound human third molars were selected, and the occlusal enamel was flattened, exposing the dentin surface. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups: AS-Artificial saliva (control group), RC- Regular Cola and ZC- Zero Cola. Twenty specimens were immersed in their respective solution for 1 minute, 3 times a day, over the course of 5 days. After acid etching and before bonding with Adper Single Bond 2, half of the samples of each group (n = 10) were treated with 2% CHX, whereas the other half (n = 10) were not, forming the control group (CONV). All the specimens were restored with Filtek Z250 composite resin filled in Tygon tubes (0.48 mm2), yielding six microcylinders for microshear bond strength testing. Three composite resin microcylinders of each specimen were tested after 1 month, and the remaining microcylinders were tested after 6 months. Failure modes were determined using a stereomicroscope (40x). The data were statistically analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). Overall bonding was reduced after 6 months, regardless of treatment. The 2% CHX enhanced bond strength after 1 month only in the ZC group, and did not enhance bonding performance to demineralized dentin by erosive protocol after 6 months in any group.

  20. Planar graphical models which are easy

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Chernyak, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rich family of binary variables statistical mechanics models on planar graphs which are equivalent to Gaussian Grassmann Graphical models (free fermions). Calculation of partition function (weighted counting) in the models is easy (of polynomial complexity) as reduced to evaluation of determinants of matrixes linear in the number of variables. In particular, this family of models covers Holographic Algorithms of Valiant and extends on the Gauge Transformations discussed in our previous works.

  1. Yankee bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, P. )

    1993-10-01

    Yankee and Euromarket bonds may soon find their way into the financing of power projects in Latin America. For developers seeking long-term commitments under build, own, operate, and transfer (BOOT) power projects in Latin America, the benefits are substantial.

  2. Shear bond strength and ultrastructural interface analysis of different adhesive systems to Er:YAG laser-prepared dentin.

    PubMed

    Guven, Yeliz; Aktoren, Oya

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of a microhybrid composite resin bonded with three different adhesive systems to Er:YAG laser- (EL) or bur-prepared dentin surfaces and to analyze the quality and ultrastructure of the adhesive-dentin interfaces by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specimens prepared for SBS test and SEM analysis were randomly assigned to eight groups (G1-G8): G1, EL (Fidelis PlusIII, Fotona) + Clearfil S3 Bond (C3S); G2, EL + AdperSE Plus (SE); G3, EL + laser etch + Adper Single Bond2 (SB2); G4, EL + acid etch + SB2; G5, EL + SB2 (no etching); G6, bur + acid etch + SB2; G7, bur + S3; G8, bur + SE. Laser was used in very short pulse mode at a setting of 200 mJ/20 Hz for dentin preparation and at 80 mJ/10 Hz for dentin etching. Bond strength test: 3.5 × 2.0 mm cylindrical molds were placed onto adhesives and filled with the composites. After 24 h in distilled water, SBS was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. SEM analysis: The dentin-adhesive interfaces were evaluated for the ultrastructure of hybrid layer. Data of SBS (MPa) were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey HSD. ER:YAG laser-prepared dentin has demonstrated significantly more SBS (p < 0.01) for SE when compared to bur-prepared dentin. No significancies (p > 0.05) in SBS have been determined between the total-etch adhesive applied groups with regard to etching types. SEM analysis revealed that hybrid layers obtained in Er:YAG laser-irradiated dentin exhibited more irregular and non-homogeneous pattern than the conventionally prepared dentin. In conclusion, SE Bond demonstrated superior results in Er:YAG laser-ablated dentin compared to bur-prepared dentin.

  3. A simple technique for bonding lingual retainer.

    PubMed

    Hattarki, Rohan S; Rastogi, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    The present article describes an easy method to place a bonded lingual retainer. This technique is also helpful in limiting the flow of the acid etchant used for etching and also limiting the flow of the adhesive on to the lingual surfaces of the teeth.

  4. Shear Bond Strengths of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resins to Feldspathic Porcelain using Different Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Shakur Shahabi, Maryam; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournagi Azar, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Use of porcelain as inlays, laminates and metal-ceramic and all-ceramic crowns is common in modern dentistry. The high cost of ceramic restorations, time limitations and difficulty of removing these restorations result in delays in replacing fractured restorations; therefore, their repair is indicated. The aim of the present study was to compare the shear bond strengths of two types of composite resins (methacrylate-based and silorane-based) to porcelain, using three adhesive types. Materials and methods. A total of 156 samples of feldspathic porcelain surfaces were prepared with air-abrasion and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=26). In groups 1-3, Z250 composite resin was used to repair porcelain samples with Ad-per Single Bond 2 (ASB), Clearfil SE Bond (CSB) and Silorane Adhesive (SA) as the bonding systems, afterapplication of silane, respectively. In groups 4-6, the same adhesives were used in the same manner with Filtek Silorane composite resin. Finally, the shear bond strengths of the samples were measured. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used to compare bond strengths between the groups with different adhesives at P<0.05. Results. There were significant differences in the mean bond strength values in terms of the adhesive type (P<0.001). In addition, the interactive effect of the adhesive type and composite resin type had no significant effect on bond strength (P=0.602). Conclusion. The results of the present study showed the highest repair bond strength values to porcelain with both composite resin types with the application of SA and ASB. PMID:26697151

  5. Cytotoxicity of one-step dentin-bonding agents toward dental pulp and odontoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Y; Inuyama, H; Maeda, H; Akamine, A; Nör, J E; Saito, T

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of five one-step dentin-bonding agents on human dental pulp and odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23). Photopolymerized and unpolymerized samples of these dentin-bonding agents were prepared and incubated with dental pulp or MDPC-23 cells. After 24 or 72 h of incubation, the number of unstained cells with trypan blue was counted. The staining of cells with trypan blue stands for a cytotoxicity. The pulp cell and MDPC-23 cytotoxicity of polymerized sample treatment increased in the order of AQ Bond Plus (AQ)Bond (TS)=G-bond (GB)Adper Prompt (AP) for 24 and 72 h. The pulp cell cytotoxicity of unpolymerized sample treatment for 24 h increased in the order of AQbonding agents exhibited lower cytotoxicity by 2-65% than their unpolymerized counterparts. The appearance of the cytotoxicity of dentin-bonding agents was time-dependent, and cell viability was lower at 72 h by 2-46% than at 24 h. The cytotoxicity to MDPC-23 cells was about 5-24% higher than that to pulp cells. These results indicate that one-step dentin-bonding agents differ markedly in their cytotoxicity. Differential cytotoxic effects of one-step dentin-bonding agents should be considered during clinical application of operative restoration.

  6. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  7. Effect of increased dwell times for solvent evaporation on the bond strength and degree of conversion of an ethanol-based adhesive system.

    PubMed

    Argolo, Saryta; Oliveira, Denise C; Fontes, Céres M; Lima, Adriano F; de Freitas, Anderson P; Cavalcanti, Andrea N

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the prolonged setting time of an ethanol-based adhesive system on the dentin bond strength and degree of conversion. Labial and lingual surfaces of fifteen human third molars were flattened until the dentin was exposed and randomly allocated to 3 groups (n = 10), according to the dwell time between the application of two consecutive layers of the adhesive system (Adper Single Bond Plus, 3M ESPE) and light activation: G1--control (no extra dwell time); G2 and G3--dwell time of 30 seconds and 60 seconds, respectively. After light curing, two cylinders (1.4 x 1 mm) of composite resin (Filtek Flow, 3M ESPE) were bonded to each surface and submitted to micro-shear testing, 24 hours after light curing. A similar adhesive procedure was used for the degree of conversion evaluation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Significant differences between bond strength values (p = 0.0003) and degrees of conversion (p = 0.0004) were detected. The bond strength of G3 (60-second dwell time) was statistically higher than that of other groups. G1 (control) and G2 (30-second dwell time) presented similar results. Values of degree of conversion indicated that both the 30-second and 60-second dwell times resulted in similar and greater percentages of conversion. The use of a longer dwell time (60 seconds) might provide better solvent volatilization and monomer infiltration; bringing benefits to dentin bonding using simplified etch & rinse adhesive systems.

  8. Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin, Fuxing

    2008-01-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for bcc structure metals to bond compared with fcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. PMID:27877949

  9. Progress in cold roll bonding of metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin, Fuxing

    2008-04-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for bcc structure metals to bond compared with fcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described.

  10. Pi Bond Orders and Bond Lengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, William C.; Parkanyi, Cyril

    1976-01-01

    Discusses three methods of correlating bond orders and bond lengths in unsaturated hydrocarbons: the Pauling theory, the Huckel molecular orbital technique, and self-consistent-field techniques. (MLH)

  11. Bonded Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

  12. The effect of various primers on shear bond strength of zirconia ceramic and resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Sanohkan, Sasiwimol; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Larpboonphol, Narongrit; Sae-Yib, Taewalit; Jampa, Thibet; Manoppan, Satawat

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine the in vitro shear bond strengths (SBS) of zirconia ceramic to resin composite after various primer treatments. Materials and Methods: Forty zirconia ceramic (Zeno, Wieland Dental) specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were prepared, sandblasted with 50 μm alumina, and divided into four groups (n = 10). Three experimental groups were surface treated with three primers; CP (RelyX Ceramic Primer, 3M ESPE), AP (Alloy Primer, Kuraray Medical), and MP (Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent AG). One group was not treated and served as the control. All specimens were bonded to a resin composite (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE) cylinder with an adhesive system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus Adhesive, 3M ESPE) and then stored in 100% humidity at 37°C for 24 h before SBS testing in a universal testing machine. Mean SBS (MPa) were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = 0.05). Results: Group AP yielded the highest mean and standard deviation (SD) value of SBS (16.8 ± 2.5 MPa) and Group C presented the lowest mean and SD value (15.4 ± 1.6 MPa). The SBS did not differ significantly among the groups (P = 0.079). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the SBS values between zirconia ceramic to resin composite using various primers and untreated surface were not significantly different. PMID:24347881

  13. 76 FR 3679 - Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... involving the sale of Marketing Mail Made Easy. This document describes the proposed test, addresses... experimental market dominant product, Marketing Mail Made Easy (MMME).\\1\\ The market test will begin on...

  14. Visualization of Large Terrains Made Easy

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, P; Pascucci, V

    2001-08-07

    We present an elegant and simple to implement framework for performing out-of-core visualization and view-dependent refinement of large terrain surfaces. Contrary to the recent trend of increasingly elaborate algorithms for large-scale terrain visualization, our algorithms and data structures have been designed with the primary goal of simplicity and efficiency of implementation. Our approach to managing large terrain data also departs from more conventional strategies based on data tiling. Rather than emphasizing how to segment and efficiently bring data in and out of memory, we focus on the manner in which the data is laid out to achieve good memory coherency for data accesses made in a top-down (coarse-to-fine) refinement of the terrain. We present and compare the results of using several different data indexing schemes, and propose a simple to compute index that yields substantial improvements in locality and speed over more commonly used data layouts. Our second contribution is a new and simple, yet easy to generalize method for view-dependent refinement. Similar to several published methods in this area, we use longest edge bisection in a top-down traversal of the mesh hierarchy to produce a continuous surface with subdivision connectivity. In tandem with the refinement, we perform view frustum culling and triangle stripping. These three components are done together in a single pass over the mesh. We show how this framework supports virtually any error metric, while still being highly memory and compute efficient.

  15. Erosive cola-based drinks affect the bonding to enamel surface: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    CASAS-APAYCO, Leslie Caroll; DREIBI, Vanessa Manzini; HIPÓLITO, Ana Carolina; GRAEFF, Márcia Sirlene Zardin; RIOS, Daniela; MAGALHÃES, Ana Carolina; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; WANG, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of in vitro erosion provoked by different cola-based drinks (Coke types), associated or not with toothbrushing, to bonding to enamel. Material and Methods Fifty-six bovine enamel specimens were prepared and randomly assigned into seven groups (N=8): C- Control (neither eroded nor abraded), ERO-RC: 3x/1-minute immersion in Regular Coke (RC), ERO-LC: 3x/1-minute immersion in Light Coke (LC), ERO-ZC: 3x/1-minute immersion in Zero Coke (ZC) and three other eroded groups, subsequently abraded for 1-minute toothbrushing (EROAB-RC, EROAB-LC and EROAB-ZC, respectively). After challenges, they were stored overnight in artificial saliva for a total of 24 hours and restored with Adper Single Bond 2/Filtek Z350. Buildup coronal surfaces were cut in 1 mm2 -specimens and subjected to a microtensile test. Data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni tests (α=0.05). Failure modes were assessed by optical microscopy (X40). The interface of the restorations were observed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Results All tested cola-based drinks significantly reduced the bond strength, which was also observed in the analyses of interfaces. Toothbrushing did not have any impact on the bond strength. CLSM showed that except for Zero Coke, all eroded specimens resulted in irregular hybrid layer formation. Conclusions All cola-based drinks reduced the bond strength. Different patterns of hybrid layers were obtained revealing their impact, except for ZC. PMID:24918663

  16. Can green tea be used to reverse compromised bond strength after bleaching?

    PubMed

    Berger, Sandrine B; De Souza Carreira, Renata P; Guiraldo, Ricardo D; Lopes, Murilo B; Pavan, Sabrina; Giannini, Marcelo; Bedran-Russo, Ana K

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of green tea on microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to bleached enamel. Forty-two human third molars were randomly divided into six experimental groups (n = 7 each group): group 1, no treatment; group 2, bleaching (10% carbamide peroxide); group 3, bleaching + 10% sodium ascorbate gel (SA); group 4, bleaching + 10% green tea gel (GT); group 5, SA; and group 6, GT. In groups 2, 3, and 4, bleach was applied onto the enamel surface for 6 h, every day for 14 d. In groups 3 and 5, SA was applied for 1 h; and in groups 4 and 6, GT was applied for 1 h. Immediately after treatment, the specimens were bonded with Adper Single Bond 2 and Filtek Z350 XT. The μTBS of the specimens was tested using a universal testing machine. Fracture mode analysis of the bonded enamel surface was performed using scanning electron microscopy. The mean μTBS values for each group were: group 1, 33.2 ± 5.8 MPa; group 2, 22.6 ± 5.5 MPa; group 3, 30.0 ± 5.2 MPa; group 4, 31.6 ± 3.8 MPa; group 5, 29.1 ± 4.2 MPa; and group 6, 32.2 ± 4.5 MPa. All groups had a higher percentage of mixed failures. In conclusion, green tea can be used as an alternative antioxidant on bleached enamel before bonding procedures.

  17. Evaluation of plasma treatment effects on improving adhesive/dentin bonding by using the same tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Ritts, Andy Charles; Staller, Corey; Yu, Qingsong; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and verify the effectiveness of plasma treatment for improving adhesive/dentin interfacial bonding by performing micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) test using the same-tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns to expose the dentin surface. For each dentin surface, one half of it was treated with a non-thermal argon plasma brush, while another half was shielded with glass slide and used as untreated control. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were then applied as directed. The teeth thus prepared were further cut into micro-bar specimens with cross-sectional size of 1×1 mm2, 1×2 mm2 and 1×3 mm2 for μTBS test. The test results showed that plasma treated specimens gave substantially stronger adhesive/dentin bonding than their corresponding same tooth controls. As compared with their untreated controls, plasma treatment gave statistically significant higher bonding strength for specimens having cross-sectional area of 1×1 mm2 and 1×2 mm2, with mean increases of 30.8% and 45.1%, respectively. Interface examination using optical and electron microscopy verified that plasma treatment improved the quality of the adhesive/dentin interface by reducing defects/voids and increasing the resin tag length in dentin tubules. PMID:23841788

  18. Effect of indirect composite treatment microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, Nuria; Baracco, Bruno; Romero, Martin; Ceballos, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background No specific indications about the pre-treatment of indirect composite restorations is provided by the manufacturers of most self-adhesive resin cements. The potential effect of silane treatment to the bond strength of the complete tooth/indirect restoration complex is not available.The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of different surface treatments on microtensile bond strength of composite overlays to dentin using several self-adhesive resin cements and a total-etch one. Material and Methods Composite overlays were fabricated and bonding surfaces were airborne-particle abraded and randomly assigned to two different surface treatments: no treatment or silane application (RelyX Ceramic Primer) followed by an adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT). Composite overlays were luted to flat dentin surfaces using the following self-adhesive resin cements: RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, Speedcem, Maxcem Elite or Smartcem2, and the total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC. After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into sticks 1 mm thick and stressed in tension until failure. Two-way ANOVA and SNK tests were applied at α=0.05. Results Bond strength values were significantly influenced by the resin cement used (p<0.001). However, composite surface treatment and the interaction between the resin cement applied and surface treatment did not significantly affect dentin bond strength (p>0.05). All self-adhesive resin cements showed lower bond strength values than the total-etch RelyX ARC. Among self-adhesive resin cements, RelyX Unicem and G-Cem attained statistically higher bond strength values. Smartcem2 and Maxcem Elite exhibited 80-90% of pre-test failures. Conclusions The silane and adhesive application after indirect resin composite sandblasting did not improve the bond strength of dentin-composite overlay complex. Selection of the resin cement seems to be a more relevant factor when bonding indirect composites to dentin than its surface treatment. Key words:Bond

  19. EZID: Long term identifiers made easy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scholarly research is producing ever increasing amounts of digital research data, and this data should be managed throughout the research life cycle both as part of good scientific practice, but also to comply with funder mandates, such as the 2013 OSTP Public Access Memo (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf). By assigning unique and persistent identifiers to data objects, data managers can gain control and flexibility over what can be a daunting task. This is due to the fact that the objects can be moved to new locations without disruption to links, as long as the identifier target is maintained. EZID is a tool that makes assigning and maintaining unique, persistent identifiers easy. It was designed and built by California Digital Library (CDL) and has both a user interface and a RESTful API. EZID currently offers services for two globally unique, persistent identifier schemes: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). DOIs are identifiers originating from the publishing world and are in widespread use for journal articles. CDL is able to offer DOIs because of being a founding member of DataCite (http://www.datacite.org/), an international consortium established to provide easier access to scientific research data on the Internet. ARKs are identifiers originating from the library, archive and museum community. Like DOIs, they become persistent when the objects and identifier forwarding information is maintained. DOIs and ARKs have a key role in data management and, therefore, in data management plans. DOIs are the recommended identifier for use in data citation, and ARKs provide the maximum flexibility needed for data documentation and management throughout the early phases of a project. The two identifier schemes are able to be used together, and EZID is made to work with both. EZID clients, coming from education, research, government, and the private sector, are utilizing the

  20. Estimation on the individual hydrogen-bond strength in molecules with multiple hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Hua, Weijie; Li, Shuhua

    2007-04-19

    A simple atom-replacement approach is proposed for estimating the individual contributions of each intermolecular hydrogen bond (HB) in multiple hydrogen-bonded systems. The approach is validated by calculations on the homodimer of formylformamide and then applied to nucleic acid base pairs (adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine) and some quadruply hydrogen-bonded dimers. With the help of this method, it is easy to distinguish the relative strength of each HB, and identify the main factors contributing to the total binding energies of multiple HBs.

  1. Influence of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin bonding*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun; Zheng, Wei-ying; Liu, Peng-ruo-feng; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Hui-ping; Fan, Yi-jing; Gu, Xin-hua; Vollrath, Oliver; Mehl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of Tooth Mousse (TM) application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS). Dentin specimens were divided into two groups: (1) smear layer covered; (2) smear layer removed using 15% EDTA for 90 s. In each group, half the specimens were treated once with TM for 60 min. After bonding procedures using a two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); Kuraray Medical, Tokyo, Japan), an all-in-one adhesive (G-Bond (GB); GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan), and a total-etch adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 (SB); 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), the specimens were stored for 3 d or 6 months in deionized water at 37 °C, and μTBS was tested and analyzed. With the exception of SB (no TM application) and GB, the μTBS was significantly increased for CSE and SB using EDTA pre-conditioning and 3 d of storage (P≤0.001). Bond strength of GB decreased significantly when using EDTA (3 d storage, P<0.05). TM application only increased the μTBS of GB (no EDTA) and SB (with EDTA) after 3 d (P≤0.02). Comparing the adhesives after 3 d of storage, CSE exhibited the greatest μTBS values followed by GB and SB (P≤0.02). The factors of adhesive, EDTA, and TM did not show any significant impact on μTBS when specimens were stored for 6 months (P>0.05). The additional application of TM and EDTA for cavity preparation seems only to have a short-term effect, and no influence on μTBS of dentin bonds after a period of 6 months. PMID:25001224

  2. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Bond Strength of a Self-Etch Primer and an Etch and Rinse Adhesive to Surface and Deep Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Salehi, Raha; Feizi, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Composite bond to dentin is crucial in many clinical conditions particularly in deep cavities without enamel margins due to insufficient penetration of adhesive into demineralized dentin. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the shear bond strength (SBS) of a methacrylate-based and a silorane-based composite resin to surface and deep dentin after pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Materials and Method: Eighty extracted human premolars were randomly divided into two groups of flat occlusal dentin with different cuts as A: surface group (sections just below the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and B: deep group (2 mm below DEJ). Each group was randomly assigned to 4 subgroups and their samples were restored with Adper Single bond (ASB) and Filtek Z350 or Silorane system Adhesive (SA) and Filtek P90 composite resins, using a 3×3mm cylindrical plastic mold. following these steps , the subgroups were assigned as SubgroupA1: surface dentin+ Silorane System Primer (SSP)+ Silorane System Bonding (SSB)+ P90; Subgroup A2: surface dentin+ 37% etchant (E37%) + Adper Single Bond (ASB)+ Z350; Subgroup A3: surface dentin+ DMSO+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup A4: surface dentin+ E37%+ DMSO+ ASB+ Z350; Subgroup B1: deep dentin+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup B2: deep dentin+ E37%+ ASB+ Z350; Subgroup B3: deep dentin+ DMSO+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup B4:dentin +E37% +DMSO +ASB +Z350. The specimens were thermocycled at 5± 2/55± 2°C for 1000 cycles and then tested for SBS. Results: Using DMSO as dentin conditioner increased SBS of ASB to deep dentin (p< 0.001) and SBS of SA to surface dentin (p= 0.003) but had no effect on SBS of SA to deep dentin (p= 1.00). Conclusion: The ability of DMSO to increase SBS of ASB to deep dentin provides a basis for improving bonding of this composite resin in deep cavities. PMID:27840836

  3. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Shear Bond Strength of Adhesives to Primary Teeth Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Farokh Gisovar, Elham; Hedayati, Nassim; Shadman, Niloofar; Shafiee, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: CPP-ACP (Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate) has an important role in caries prevention in pediatric patients. This study was done, because of the great use of CPP-ACP and the need for restoration for teeth treated with CPP-ACP as well as the importance of shear bond strength of adhesives in the success of restorations. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel of primary teeth molars. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was conducted on 180 extracted primary molars. They were randomly divided into 6 groups and each group was divided into 2 subgroups (treated with CPP-ACP and untreated). In subgroups with CPP-ACP, enamel was treated with CPP-ACP paste 1 h/d for 5 days. Types of adhesives that were evaluated in this study were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE, AdheSE One F, single Bond 2, SE Bond, and Adper Prompt L-Pop. Shear bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine and mode of failure was evaluated under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by T test, 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey and Fisher exact test using SPSS18. P < 0.05 was considered as significance level. Results: Shear bond strengths of different adhesive systems to enamel of primary teeth treated and untreated with CPP-ACP showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Mode of failure in all groups regardless of CPP-ACP administration was mainly adhesive type. Our results indicated that CPP-ACP did not affect shear bond strength of studied adhesives to primary teeth enamel. Conclusions: To have a successful and durable composite restoration, having a high strength bonding is essential. Considering the wide use of CPP-ACP in preventing tooth decay and the role of adhesive shear bond strength (SBS) in success of composite restoration, we conducted the present study to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP on the SBS of adhesives to primary teeth

  4. Shear bond strength of bulk-fill and nano-restorative materials to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Colak, Hakan; Ercan, Ertugrul; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Bulk-fill composite materials are being developed for preparation depths of up to 4 mm in an effort to simplify and improve the placement of direct composite posterior restorations. The aim of our study was to compare shear-bond strength of bulk-fill and conventional posterior composite resins. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 caries free extracted human molars were used and sectioned parallel to occlusal surface to expose midcoronal dentin. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups. Total-etch dentine bonding system (Adper Scotchbond 1XT, 3M ESPE) was applied to dentin surface in all the groups to reduce variability in results. Then, dentine surfaces covered by following materials. Group I: SonicFill Bulk-Fill, Group II: Tetric EvoCeram (TBF), Group III: Herculite XRV Ultra, and Group IV: TBF Bulk-Fill, 2 mm × 3 mm cylindrical restorations were prepared by using application apparatus. Shear bond testing was measured by using a universal testing machine. Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-tests were performed to evaluate the data. Results: The highest value was observed in Group III (14.42 ± 4.34) and the lowest value was observed in Group IV (11.16 ± 2.76) and there is a statistically significant difference between these groups (P = 0.046). However, there is no statistically significant difference between the values of other groups. In this study, Group III was showed higher strength values. Conclusion: There is a need for future studies about long-term bond strength and clinical success of these adhesive and bulk-fill systems. PMID:27011738

  5. Influence of additional adhesive application on the microtensile bond strength of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    de Silva, André Luís Faria; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; de Souza, Grace Mendonça Dias; dos Santos, Carlos Tadeu Dias; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated microtensile bond strength (pTBS) when an additional adhesive layer was applied to the dentin surface. Thirty-five human third molars were flattened to expose the occlusal dentin surface. The teeth were randomly assigned to 7 experimental groups: G1-Single Bond (SB); G2-additional layer of SB; G3--a layer of Scotchbond Multi-purpose (SMP) adhesive applied over SB; G4-Clearfil SE Bond (CE); G5-additional layer of CE; G6-Adper Prompt (AP) and G7-additional layer of AP. For the G2, G3, G5 and G7 groups, the first adhesive layer was light-cured before application of the additional layer. After bonding procedures, 5-mm high composite crowns were incrementally built up. The samples were sectioned to obtain 0.9 x 0.9 beams, which were tested under tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5-mm/minute until failure. The failure mode and adhesive thickness were evaluated under SEM. The pTBS data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and post-hoc Ducan's Test (a=0.05). Mean adhesive thickness was analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test (a=0.05). The results indicated that G3 presented the highest microTBS and the thickest adhesive layer. G6 and G7 presented the lowest microTBS values. When solvent-free adhesives systems were used, microTBS values were not affected by the thicker layer.

  6. Effect of EDTA and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment on the Bonding Effectiveness of Self-Etch Adhesives to Ground Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ihab M.; Elkassas, Dina W.; Yousry, Mai M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study determined the effect of enamel pretreatment with phosphoric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the bond strength of strong, intermediary strong, and mild self-etching adhesive systems. Methods: Ninety sound human premolars were used. Resin composite cylinders were bonded to flat ground enamel surfaces using three self-etching adhesive systems: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=0.9–1.0), intermediary strong AdheSE (pH=1.6–1.7), and mild Frog (pH=2). Adhesive systems were applied either according to manufacturer instructions (control) or after pretreatment with either phosphoric acid or EDTA (n=10). After 24 hours, shear bond strength was tested using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Ultra-morphological characterization of the surface topography and resin/enamel interfaces as well as representative fractured enamel specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Neither surface pretreatment statistically increased the mean shear bond strength values of either the strong or the intermediary strong self-etching adhesive systems. However, phosphoric acid pretreatment significantly increased the mean shear bond strength values of the mild self-etching adhesive system. SEM examination of enamel surface topography showed that phosphoric acid pretreatment deepened the same etching pattern of the strong and intermediary strong adhesive systems but converted the irregular etching pattern of the mild self-etching adhesive system to a regular etching pattern. SEM examination of the resin/enamel interface revealed that deepening of the etching pattern was consistent with increase in the length of resin tags. EDTA pretreatment had a negligible effect on ultra-morphological features. Conclusions: Use of phosphoric acid pretreatment can be beneficial with mild self-etching adhesive systems for bonding to enamel. PMID:20922162

  7. Chemical Bonds II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    The continuation of a paper discussing chemical bonding from a bond energy viewpoint, with a number of examples of single and multiple bonds. (Part I appeared in volume 1 number 3, pages 16-23, February 1972.) (AL)

  8. What Determines Bond Costs. Municipal Bonds Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Douglas; And Others

    Public officials in small towns who participate infrequently in the bond market need information about bond financing. This publication, one in a series of booklets published by the Western Rural Development Center using research gathered between 1967-77, discusses factors influencing the marketability and cost of bond financing for towns and…

  9. Kinetics of pulpal temperature rise during light curing of 6 bonding agents from different generations, using light emitting diode and quartz-tungsten-halogen units: An in-vitro simulation

    PubMed Central

    Khaksaran, Najmeh Khatoon; Kashi, Tahereh Jafarzadeh; Rakhshan, Vahid; Zeynolabedin, Zahra Sadat; Bagheri, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Application of bonding agents (BA) into deep cavities and light curing them might increase pulpal temperature and threaten its health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate temperature rise of pulp by light curing six BA using two different light curing units (LCU), through a dent in wall of 0.5 mm. Materials and Methods: This in vitro experiment was carried out on 96 slices of the same number of human third molars (6 BAs × 2 LCUs × 8 specimens in each group). There were 6 groups of BAs: N Bond, G-Bond, OptiBond XTR, Clearfil SE, Adper Single Bond 2 and V Bond. Each group of BA (n = 16) had two subgroups of light emitting diode (LED) and quartz-tungsten-halogen light cure units (n = 8). Each of these 16 specimens were subjected to light emitting for 20 s, once without any BAs (control) and later when a BA was applied to surface of disk. Temperature rises in 140 s were evaluated. Their mean temperature change in first 20 s were calculated and analyzed using two-way repeated-measures and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey (α = 0.05). Furthermore rate of temperature increase was calculated for each material and LCU. Results: Minimum and maximum temperature rises in all subgroups were 1.7 and 2.8°C, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that both of adhesive and LCU types had significant effect on temperature rise after application of adhesives. Tukey post-hoc analysis showed Clearfil SE showed significantly higher temperature rise in comparison with Adper Single bond 2 (P = 0.047) and N Bond (P = 0.038). Temperature rose in a linear fashion during first 30-40 s and after that it was non-linear. Conclusion: 20 s of light curing seems safe for pulpal health (with critical threshold of 5.5°C). However, in longer durations and especially when using LED units, the process should be broken to two sessions. PMID:25878684

  10. Outdoor Education Equipment: Plans for Easy-to-Make Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachert, Russel E., Jr.; Snooks, Emerson L.

    The document is a versatile publication providing an outdoor education aid for teaching elementary (beginning with grade 4), high school, and college students. The process is one of learning by doing; i.e., the students construct their own instruments for field studies. The book presents over 100 ideas in an easy-to-follow, easy-to-use format.…

  11. Characteristics and Conceptual Framework of the Easy-Play Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chunlei; Steele, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    The Easy-Play Model offers a defined framework to organize games that promote an inclusive and enjoyable sport experience. The model can be implemented by participants playing sports in educational, recreational or social contexts with the goal of achieving an active lifestyle in an inclusive, cooperative and enjoyable environment. The Easy-Play…

  12. Effect of postoperative peroxide bleaching on the marginal seal of composite restorations bonded with self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Roubickova, A; Dudek, M; Comba, L; Housova, D; Bradna, P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of peroxide bleaching on the marginal seal of composite restorations bonded with several adhesive systems. Combined cylindrical Class V cavities located half in enamel and half in dentin were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of human molars. The cavities were bonded with the self-etch adhesives Clearfil SE-Bond (CLF), Adper Prompt (ADP), and iBond (IBO) and an etch-and-rinse adhesive Gluma Comfort Bond (GLU) and restored with a microhybrid composite Charisma. Experimental groups were treated 25 times for eight hours per day with a peroxide bleaching gel Opalescence PF 20, while the control groups were stored in distilled water for two months and then subjected to a microleakage test using a dye penetration method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the etching and penetration abilities of the adhesives and morphology of debonded restoration-enamel interfaces after the microleakage tests. Statistical analyses were performed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests at p=0.05. The microleakage of all GLU groups was low and not significantly affected by peroxide bleaching. Low microleakage was recorded for CLF control groups, but after bleaching, a small but significant increase in microleakage at the enamel margin indicated its sensitivity to peroxide bleaching. For ADP and IBO control groups, the microleakage at the enamel margins was significantly higher than for GLU and CLF and exceeded that at the dentin margins. Bleaching did not induce any significant changes in the microleakage. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that in our experimental setup, decreased adhesion and mechanical resistance of the ADP- and IBO-enamel interfaces could be more important than the chemical degradation effects induced by the peroxide bleaching gel.

  13. Using Multiple Bonding Strategies.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    There are many ways to bond to tooth structure, some micro-mechanical some chemical, some a combination. Different dentin bonding materials have different bonding strengths to differently prepared surfaces, and because of differences in their nature, different areas of tooth structure present peculiar bonding challenges. This paper will review a variety of material types, elucidating their particular bonding strengths and commenting on improved bonding strategies to increase durability, strength, and favorable pulpal response. In this discussion, resin dentin bonding systems, glass ionomers, Gluma, resin cements, and newer combined products will br reviewed.

  14. Metal-free oxidative olefination of primary amines with benzylic C-H bonds through direct deamination and C-H bond activation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Liang; Xing, Li-Juan; Xu, Tong; Zhu, Xue-Ping; Zhou, Wen; Kang, Ning; Wang, Bin

    2014-09-14

    An oxidative olefination reaction between aliphatic primary amines and benzylic sp(3) C-H bonds has been achieved using N-bromosuccinimide as catalyst and tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidant. The olefination proceeds under mild metal-free conditions through direct deamination and benzylic C-H bond activation, and provides easy access to biologically active 2-styrylquinolines with (E)-configuration.

  15. Perimeter ring currents in benzenoids from Pauling bond orders.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Patrick W; Myrvold, Wendy; Jenkinson, Daniel; Bird, William H

    2016-04-28

    It is shown that the ring currents in perimeter hexagonal rings of Kekulean benzenoids, as estimated within the Randić conjugated-circuit model, can be calculated directly without tedious pairwise comparison of Kekulé structures or Kekulé counting for cycle-deleted subgraphs. Required are only the Pauling bond orders of perimeter bonds and the number of Kekulé structures of the benzenoid, both readily available from the adjacency matrix of the carbon skeleton. This approach provides easy calculation of complete current maps for benzenoids in which every face has at least one bond on the perimeter (as in the example of cata-condensed benzenoids), and allows qualitative evaluation of the main ring-current contributions to (1)H chemical shifts in general benzenoids. A combined Randić-Pauling model for correlation of ring current and bond length through bond order is derived and shown to be consistent with resilience of current under bond alternation.

  16. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  17. Animal Behavior: Electric Eels Amp Up for an Easy Meal.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bruce A

    2015-11-16

    The high voltage discharge generated by electric eels is a powerful predatory weapon. A new study shows that eels exploit basic physics to increase the voltage delivered to prey, inducing muscle fatigue that turns challenging prey items into easy targets.

  18. An Easy-to-Make Instructional Materials File

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, LaMond F.

    1978-01-01

    Cardboard crates for shipping fruit can be made into attractive containers for the storage of instructional materials. A simplified cataloging and classification system is suggested for easy retrieval. (Author/STS)

  19. An Easy Classroom Experiment on the Supercooling of Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianino, Concetto

    2007-01-01

    The change from the state of supercooling to the solid state of ice is called superfreezing. This process is not uncommon and takes place in domestic freezers. It is also easy to reproduce in the laboratory. (Contains 6 figures.)

  20. What Makes Mathematics Lessons Easy to Follow, Understand, and Remember?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    1983-01-01

    Described is a teaching method explored in the author's doctoral dissertation, as well as some findings from the study. Lesson organization and clarity are stressed, with the qualities that make a lesson easy to follow, understand, and remember discussed. (MNS)

  1. New package for Belleville spring permits rate change, easy disassembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Glashan, W. F.

    1964-01-01

    A spring package, with grooves to hold the spring washers at the inner and outer edges, reduces hysteresis to a minimum. Three-segment retainers permit easy disassembly so that the spring rate can be changed.

  2. MedlinePlus FAQ: Easy-to-Read Documents

    MedlinePlus

    ... faq/easytoread.html Question: How can I locate materials on MedlinePlus that are easy to read and ... public, not for health professionals. But, not all materials on MedlinePlus are at the same reading level. ...

  3. Analysis of fluid/mechanical systems using EASY5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Robert W., Jr.; Arndt, Scott D.; Hurlbert, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper illustrates how the use of a general analysis package can simplify modeling and analyzing fluid/mechanical systems. One such package is EASY5, a Boeing Computer Services product. The basic transmission line equations for modeling piped fluid systems are presented, as well as methods of incorporating these equations into the EASY5 environment. The paper describes how this analysis tool has been used to model several fluid subsystems of the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  4. Influence of chlorhexidine concentration on the durability of etch-and-rinse dentin bonds: a 12-month in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Breschi, Lorenzo; Cammelli, Federica; Visintini, Erika; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Vita, Francesca; Carrilho, Marcela; Cadenaro, Milena; Foulger, Stephen; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David; Di Lenarda, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of 0.2% and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) used as a therapeutic primer on the long-term bond strengths of two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Methods Adper Scotchbond 1XT (SB1) and XP-Bond (XPB) were evaluated. Etched dentin substrates were assigned to six treatment groups: (1) 0.2% CHX + SB1; (2) 2% CHX + SB1; (3) SB1 (control); (4) 0.2% CHX + XPB; (5) 2% CHX + XPB; (6) XPB (control). Composite build-ups were made and beams prepared for microtensile bond strength test. Beams were divided in three subgroups and either immediately pulled to failure or stored in artificial saliva for 6 or 12 months prior to testing. Data were evaluated by three-way ANOVA. Additional adhesive interfaces were prepared to investigate nanoleakage expression by TEM. Results SB1 and XPB showed similar immediate bond strength values with or without CHX pre-treatment (p>0.05). After 12 months, bonds fell from 43.9 ± 9.5 MPa to 20.1 ± 5.4 MPa and from 39.6 ± 9.4 MPa to 14.2 ± 5.0 MPa in control specimens for SB1 and XPB respectively, while bond fell only from 41.9±9.6MPa to 33.2 ± 8.3 MPa and 38.3 ± 8.9 MPa to 26.5 ± 10.9 (for SB1 and XPB respectively) when 0.2% CHX was previously used. CHX concentration did not affect bond strength values (0.2% vs 2%, p>.05). Nanoleakage increased during aging in controls, but reduced silver deposits were found in CHX-treated specimens. Conclusions Chlorhexidine significantly reduced the loss of bond strength seen in control bonds. Since no bacterial growth was present in the aging conditions, the results of this study suggest that endogenous factors thought to degrade the adhesive interface can be inhibited by CHX. Further in vivo trials should confirm the role of CHX in bond durability. PMID:19603582

  5. AFOSR Wafer Bonding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-31

    cleanliness (foreign particles) and surface morphology (roughness). Two silicon wafers, when properly cleaned, can easily bond at room temperature because of...4 Figure IV data for nSi-nGaN bond. Structure is similar to that shown in Figure Difficulties and Knowledge Added Surface Morphology and...Particles One of the most important features of materials in determining whether they will bond is the quality of the bonding surfaces , in both

  6. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  7. Acrylic mechanical bond tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.

    1991-02-01

    The tensile strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of bond joint thickness. 0.125 in. thick bond joints were found to posses the maximum strength while the acceptable range of joints varied from 0.063 in. to almost 0.25 in. Such joints are used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  8. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin, Fuxing

    2008-04-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  10. Evaluation of composite adhesive bonds using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Shashi Shekhar

    Advanced composite materials are widely used for many structural applications in the aerospace/aircraft industries today. Joining of composite structures using adhesive bonding offers several advantages over traditional fastening methods. However, this technique is not yet employed for fastening the primary structures of aircrafts or space vehicles. There are several reasons for this: There are not any reliable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can quantify the strength of the bonds, and there are no certifications of quality assurance for inspecting the bond quality. Therefore, there is a significant need for an effective, reliable, easy to use NDE method for the analysis of composite adhesive joints. This research aimed to investigate an adhesively bonded composite-aluminum joints of variable bond strength using digital image correlation (DIC). There are many future possibilities in continuing this research work. As the application of composite materials and adhesive bond are increasing rapidly, the reliability of the composite structures using adhesive bond should quantified. Hence a lot of similar research using various adhesive bonds and materials can be conducted for characterizing the behavior of adhesive bond. The results obtained from this research will set the foundation for the development of ultrasonic DIC as a nondestructive approach for the evaluation of adhesive bond line.

  11. Bonding thermoplastic polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wallow, Thomas I.; Hunter, Marion C.; Krafcik, Karen Lee; Morales, Alfredo M.; Simmons, Blake A.; Domeier, Linda A.

    2008-06-24

    We demonstrate a new method for joining patterned thermoplastic parts into layered structures. The method takes advantage of case-II permeant diffusion to generate dimensionally controlled, activated bonding layers at the surfaces being joined. It is capable of producing bonds characterized by cohesive failure while preserving the fidelity of patterned features in the bonding surfaces. This approach is uniquely suited to production of microfluidic multilayer structures, as it allows the bond-forming interface between plastic parts to be precisely manipulated at micrometer length scales. The bond enhancing procedure is easily integrated in standard process flows and requires no specialized equipment.

  12. Simple Bond Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold

    2005-08-01

    Simple bond cleavage is a class of fragmentation reactions in which a single bond is broken, without formation of new bonds between previously unconnected atoms. Because no bond making is involved, simple bond cleavages are endothermic, and activation energies are generally higher than for rearrangement eliminations. The rate of simple bond cleavage reactions is a strong function of the internal energy of the molecular ion, which reflects a loose transition state that resembles reaction products, and has a high density of accessible states. For this reason, simple bond cleavages tend to dominate fragmentation reactions for highly energized molecular ions. Simple bond cleavages have negligible reverse activation energy, and hence they are used as valuable probes of ion thermochemistry, since the energy dependence of the reactions can be related to the bond energy. In organic mass spectrometry, simple bond cleavages of odd electron ions can be either homolytic or heterolytic, depending on whether the fragmentation is driven by the radical site or the charge site. Simple bond cleavages of even electron ions tend to be heterolytic, producing even electron product ions and neutrals.

  13. Hydrogen multicentre bonds.

    PubMed

    Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a chemical bond stands out as a major development in the process of understanding how atoms are held together in molecules and solids. Lewis' classical picture of chemical bonds as shared-electron pairs evolved to the quantum-mechanical valence-bond and molecular-orbital theories, and the classification of molecules and solids in terms of their bonding type: covalent, ionic, van der Waals and metallic. Along with the more complex hydrogen bonds and three-centre bonds, they form a paradigm within which the structure of almost all molecules and solids can be understood. Here, we present evidence for hydrogen multicentre bonds-a generalization of three-centre bonds-in which a hydrogen atom equally bonds to four or more other atoms. When substituting for oxygen in metal oxides, hydrogen bonds equally to all the surrounding metal atoms, becoming fourfold coordinated in ZnO, and sixfold coordinated in MgO. These multicentre bonds are remarkably strong despite their large hydrogen-metal distances. The calculated local vibration mode frequency in MgO agrees with infrared spectroscopy measurements. Multicoordinated hydrogen also explains the dependence of electrical conductivity on oxygen partial pressure, resolving a long-standing controversy on the role of point defects in unintentional n-type conductivity of ZnO (refs 8-10).

  14. Easy fabrication of a tunable high-pass birdcage resonator.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Tang, P

    1997-07-01

    A practical design for a high-pass birdcage resonator is presented. Precision seamless telescoping tubes were used for easy tuning of resonant frequency by adjusting the length of the coils. Three probes, of 4.4, 5.0, and 25.0 cm in diameter, respectively, were constructed and tested. An empirical formula is given that can be used to calculate the capacitance needed for a given frequency when the desired physical dimension and the number of elements of the coll are specified. A simple three-step procedure is suggested for easy fabrication of resonators that are routinely tunable over tens of megahertz.

  15. Shear bond strength and microleakage of a self-etching adhesive for fissure sealing after different types of aging.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Christoph; Birlbauer, Sebastian; Pitchika, Vinay; Crispin, Alexander; Hickel, Reinhard; Kühnisch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) and microleakage of a self-etching adhesive (Adper Prompt L-Pop) in comparison to acid etching prior fissure sealing. Each procedure was tested with 3 aging procedures (1-day water storage, 3-month water storage and 1-day water storage/5,000× thermocycling). SBS was determined according to ISO standard 29022. Additional 30 third molars were utilized for the microleakage analyses. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney-U-Test and multiple linear regression models. The SBS of the self-etching adhesive were significantly lower (14.9, 11.9, and 13.0 MPa) than those of conventional fissure sealing (19.1, 18.2, and 15.6 MPa). Multiple linear regression models predicted that material and alteration significantly influenced SBS. The microleakage revealed no difference between both groups (1.3% vs. 1.2%). It can be concluded that the selfetching adhesive might be a pre-treatment alternative for fissure sealing in terms of the easier and shorter clinical workflow.

  16. Sulfide bonded atomic radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, G. V.; Ross, N. L.; Cox, D. F.

    2017-03-01

    The bonded radius, r b(S), of the S atom, calculated for first- and second-row non-transition metal sulfide crystals and third-row transition metal sulfide molecules and crystals indicates that the radius of the sulfur atom is not fixed as traditionally assumed, but that it decreases systematically along the bond paths of the bonded atoms with decreasing bond length as observed in an earlier study of the bonded radius of the oxygen atom. When bonded to non-transition metal atoms, r b(S) decreases systematically with decreasing bond length from 1.68 Å when the S atom is bonded to the electropositive VINa atom to 1.25 Å when bonded to the more electronegative IVP atom. In the case of transition metal atoms, rb(S) likewise decreases with decreasing bond length from 1.82 Å when bonded to Cu and to 1.12 Å when bonded to Fe. As r b(S) is not fixed at a given value but varies substantially depending on the bond length and the field strength of the bonded atoms, it is apparent that sets of crystal and atomic sulfide atomic radii based on an assumed fixed radius for the sulfur atom are satisfactory in that they reproduce bond lengths, on the one hand, whereas on the other, they are unsatisfactory in that they fail to define the actual sizes of the bonded atoms determined in terms of the minima in the electron density between the atoms. As such, we urge that the crystal chemistry and the properties of sulfides be studied in terms of the bond lengths determined by adding the radii of either the atomic and crystal radii of the atoms but not in terms of existing sets of crystal and atomic radii. After all, the bond lengths were used to determine the radii that were experimentally determined, whereas the individual radii were determined on the basis of an assumed radius for the sulfur atom.

  17. Miscue Analysis Made Easy: Building on Student Strengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Sandra

    Beginning with a series of interactive exercises, this book leads readers through the thinking processes and linguistic systems that students use to build their understanding of text. Through a review of these systems, the book then shows how to assess students' reading ability. It then presents an easy-to-use, step-by-step diagnostic procedure,…

  18. FeatureExtract—extraction of sequence annotation made easy

    PubMed Central

    Wernersson, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    Work on a large number of biological problems benefits tremendously from having an easy way to access the annotation of DNA sequence features, such as intron/exon structure, the contents of promoter regions and the location of other genes in upsteam and downstream regions. For example, taking the placement of introns within a gene into account can help in a phylogenetic analysis of homologous genes. Designing experiments for investigating UTR regions using PCR or DNA microarrays require knowledge of known elements in UTR regions and the positions and strandness of other genes nearby on the chromosome. A wealth of such information is already known and documented in databases such as GenBank and the NCBI Human Genome builds. However, it usually requires significant bioinformatics skills and intimate knowledge of the data format to access this information. Presented here is a highly flexible and easy-to-use tool for extracting feature annotation from GenBank entries. The tool is also useful for extracting datasets corresponding to a particular feature (e.g. promoters). Most importantly, the output data format is highly consistent, easy to handle for the user and easy to parse computationally. The FeatureExtract web server is freely available for both academic and commercial use at . PMID:15980537

  19. EASY MONEY: An Exploration of Trust in Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    1997-01-01

    Cash games are simulation activities which feature real cash prizes and explore interpersonal skills and concepts. EASY MONEY is one such game, featuring an investment activity which focuses on trust among team members in ambiguous decision-making situations. Directions for administering the game and suggestions for applying a standard six-phase…

  20. Fast and Easy Searching of Files in Unisys 2200 Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been written to enable (1) fast and easy searching of symbolic files for one or more strings of characters, dates, or numerical values in specific fields or columns and (2) summarizing results of searching other fields or columns.

  1. 75 Quick and Easy Solutions to Common Classroom Disruptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Bryan; Goldberg, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    This very well organized book is packed with practical solutions to the most common classroom problems--side talk, rude behavior, calling out, students losing focus, and students refusing even to try. Every solution is classroom-tested, highly effective, and quick and easy to implement! Use this book to help make your classroom a happier, more…

  2. An Easy-to-Assemble Three-Part Galvanic Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Skaugrud, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The galvanic cell presented in this article is made of only three parts, is easy to assemble, and can light a red light emitting diode (LED). The three cell components consist of a piece of paper with copper sulfate, a piece of paper with sodium sulfate, and a piece of magnesium ribbon. Within less than 1 h, students have time to discuss the…

  3. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  4. Technical Manual: easyCBM. Technical Report #1408

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald; Farley, Dan; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Saven, Jessica L.; Wray, Kraig A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the easyCBM© learning system was first published in 2006, over $8 million of federal funding (both from the Office of Special Education Programs and more recently from the Institute of Education Sciences) has been used to develop, study, and refine the assessments available on the system. This Technical Manual summarizes the ongoing research…

  5. Software Updates: Web Design--Software that Makes It Easy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattridge, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses Web design software that provides an easy-to-use interface. The "Netscape Communicator" is highlighted for beginning Web page construction and step-by-step instructions are provided for starting out, page colors and properties, indents, bulleted lists, tables, adding links, navigating long documents, creating e-mail links,…

  6. Attentional Capacity Allocation while Reading Easy and Difficult Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Kevin K.; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

    To examine the difference in attention capacity when reading difficult or easy text, a study presented text that varied in difficulty to 22 subjects via a computer monitor. The text was presented in a self-paced manner, one word at a time. Reading times for each word were obtained by computing latencies between key presses. Whenever a flashing…

  7. The Rocker (An Easy Anharmonic Oscillator for Classroom Demonstration)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Every instructor should know some easy examples of anharmonic oscillations. The rocking of an empty wine bottle or a slender beer glass is one of those: The angle is not a sinusoidal function of time and the period is not independent of the amplitude, not even for small amplitudes. But care has to be taken that the glass does not slip or rotate…

  8. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration. PMID:27698988

  9. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  10. Children's Reading Comprehension and Oral Reading Fluency in Easy Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear-Swerling, Louise

    2006-01-01

    This study explored third-graders' oral reading fluency (ORF) in easy text in relation to their third- and fourth-grade reading comprehension. It also examined the children's performance on two different measures of text exposure, a self-report questionnaire and a title-recognition test. Although third-graders' ORF related significantly to their…

  11. Myopia Glasses and Optical Power Estimation: An Easy Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-02-01

    Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.

  12. Pheromone Caterpillar Trails: An Easy Lab Exercise for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Lab activities using live specimens always seem to catch students' attention faster than those using inanimate materials. For example, many teachers are familiar with the activities using goldfish to study the effect of temperature on respiration rate. Insects are particularly useful because they are cheap, easy to find, and have a certain "yuck"…

  13. Gel Electrophoresis--The Easy Way for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanRooy, Wilhelmina; Sultana, Khalida

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a simple, inexpensive, easy to conduct gel-electrophoresis activity using food dyes. It is an alternative to the more expensive counterparts which require agarose gel, DNA samples, purchased chamber and Tris-borate-EDTA buffer. We suggest some learning activities for senior biology students along with comments on several…

  14. Myopia Glasses and Optical Power Estimation: An Easy Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-01-01

    Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.

  15. EASY AT-Food for Thought: The Minibook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonover, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Not all technology requires plugs, batteries, or software updates. Sometimes the simplest tools can make all the difference in the world, and open doors (and minds) to other possibilities. One such tool is a minibook constructed by a single sheet of cleverly folded paper. A minibook is a cost-effective, easy to revise and replace,…

  16. Effect of dentin biomodification using naturally derived collagen cross-linkers: one-year bond strength study.

    PubMed

    Castellan, Carina S; Bedran-Russo, Ana K; Antunes, Alberto; Pereira, Patricia N R

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigated the long-term resin-dentin bond strength of dentin biomodified by proanthocyanidin-rich (PA) agents. Materials and Methods. Forty molars had their coronal dentin exposed, etched, and treated for 10 minutes with 6.5% grape seed extract (GSE), 6.5% cocoa seed extract ethanol-water (CSE-ET), 6.5% cocoa seed extract acetone-water (CSE-AC), and distilled water (CO). Samples were restored either with One-Step Plus (OS) or Adper Single-Bond Plus (SB). Bond strength test was performed immediately or after 3, 6, and 12 months. Results. Higher μ TBS were observed for GSE immediately (SB- 62.9 MPa; OS- 51.9 MPa) when compared to CSE-ET (SB- 56.95 MPa; OS- 60.28 MPa), CSE-AC (SB- 49.97 MPa; OS- 54.44 MPa), and CO (SB- 52.0 MPa; OS- 44.0 MPa) (P < 0.05). CSE outcomes were adhesive system and solvent dependant. After 12 months storage SB results showed no difference among treatment types (GSE- 57.15 MPa; CSE/ET- 54.04 MPa; CSE/AC- 48.22 MPa; CO- 51.68 MPa; P = 0.347),while OS results where treatment dependent (GSE- 42.62 MPa; CSE/ET- 44.06 MPa; CSE/AC- 41.30 MPa; CO- 36.85 MPa; P = 0.036). Conclusions. GSE and CSE-ET agents provided enhanced immediate adhesion and stabilization to demineralized dentin after long-term storage, depending on adhesive system.

  17. Bonded semiconductor substrate

    DOEpatents

    Atwater, Jr.; Harry A. , Zahler; James M.

    2010-07-13

    Ge/Si and other nonsilicon film heterostructures are formed by hydrogen-induced exfoliation of the Ge film which is wafer bonded to a cheaper substrate, such as Si. A thin, single-crystal layer of Ge is transferred to Si substrate. The bond at the interface of the Ge/Si heterostructures is covalent to ensure good thermal contact, mechanical strength, and to enable the formation of an ohmic contact between the Si substrate and Ge layers. To accomplish this type of bond, hydrophobic wafer bonding is used, because as the invention demonstrates the hydrogen-surface-terminating species that facilitate van der Waals bonding evolves at temperatures above 600.degree. C. into covalent bonding in hydrophobically bound Ge/Si layer transferred systems.

  18. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    DOEpatents

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  19. Chemical bonding technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plueddemann, E.

    1986-01-01

    Primers employed in bonding together the various material interfaces in a photovoltaic module are being developed. The approach develops interfacial adhesion by generating actual chemical bonds between the various materials bonded together. The current status of the program is described along with the progress toward developing two general purpose primers for ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), one for glass and metals, and another for plastic films.

  20. Changes in Water Sorption and Solubility of Dental Adhesive Systems after Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Vitória, Lívia Andrade; Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Santos, Poliana Ramos Braga; Cavalcanti, Andrea Nóbrega

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effect of cigarette smoke on water sorption and solubility of four adhesive systems. Materials and Methods. Sixteen disks of each adhesive system were prepared (Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Adhesive (SA); Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Adhesive System (Adhesive + Primer) (SAP); Adper Single Bond Plus (SB); Adper Easy One (EO)). Specimens were desiccated until a constant mass was obtained and divided into two groups (n = 8). One-half of the specimens were immersed in deionized water, while the other half were also immersed, but with daily exposure to tobacco smoke. After 21 days, disks were measured again and stored in desiccators until constant mass was achieved. Data were calculated according to ISO specifications and statistically analyzed. Results. The tobacco smoke only significantly affected the water sorption and solubility of EO. There were significant differences in both analyses among materials tested. The SB exhibited the highest water sorption, followed by EO, which demonstrated significantly higher solubility values than SB. The SA and SAP showed low water sorption and solubility, and there were no significant differences between the two. Conclusion. Regardless of smoke exposure, both simplified adhesive systems presented an inferior performance that could be related to the complex mixture of components in such versions. PMID:23984078

  1. Resin bond strength to water versus ethanol-saturated human dentin pretreated with three different cross-linking agents

    PubMed Central

    Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Jyothi, Pinnamreddy; Kamishetty, Shekhar; Reddy, Smitha; Cherukupalli, Ravi Chandra; Reddy, Depa Arun

    2016-01-01

    Context: Resin-dentin bonds are unstable owing to hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation. Several approaches such as collagen cross-linking and ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) have been developed to overcome this problem. Collagen cross-linking improves the intrinsic properties of the collagen matrix. However, it leaves a water-rich collagen matrix with incomplete resin infiltration making it susceptible to fatigue degradation. Since EWB is expected to overcome the drawbacks of water-wet bonding (WWB), a combination of collagen cross-linking with EWB was tested. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of pretreatment with different cross-linking agents such as ultraviolet A (UVA)-activated 0.1% riboflavin, 1 M carbodiimide, and 6.5 wt% proanthocyanidin on the immediate and long-term bond strengths of an etch and rinse adhesive system to water- versus ethanol-saturated dentin within clinically relevant application time periods. Settings and Design: Long-term in vitro study evaluating the microtensile bond strength of adhesive-dentin interface after different surface pretreatments. Subjects and Methods: Eighty freshly extracted human molars were prepared to expose dentin, etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s rinsed, and grouped randomly. They were blot-dried and pretreated with different cross-linkers: 0.1% riboflavin for 2 min followed by UVA activation for 2 min; 1 M carbodiimide for 2 min; 6.5 wt% proanthocyanidin for 2 min and rinsed. They were then bonded with Adper Single Bond Adhesive (3M ESPE), by either WWB or EWB, followed by resin composite build-ups (Filtek Z350, 3M ESPE). Bonded specimens in each group were then sectioned and divided into two halves. Microtensile bond strength was tested in one half after 24 h and the other after 6 months storage in artificial saliva. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis was done using SPSS version 18 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Intergroup comparison of bond strength was done using ANOVA with post hoc

  2. EasyBowling: a virtual bowling system for small space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhigeng; Huang, Jin; Xu, Weiwei; Zhou, Kun; Shi, Jiaoying

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we describe a virtual bowling game machine called EasyBowling Machine, which is designed and implemented based on techniques such as Virtual Reality, animation, and image processing. To introduce Virtual Reality technique into this virtual bowling game, our system provides a real game mode: players play the game by throwing a real bowling ball, and then the EasyBowling system uses a PC Camera to detect the motion of the real bowling ball. After the motion parameters (ball direction, ball force, et al.) are computed, the movement of the bowling ball and its collision with pins are simulated on a large display screen. The most obvious advantage of such bowling game machine over other existing bowling games is that the system integrates body exercise into game playing. The implementation techniques are discussed in detail, and the prototype system illustrates the feasibility and efficiency of our method.

  3. The Rocker (An Easy Anharmonic Oscillator for Classroom Demonstration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Every instructor should know some easy examples of anharmonic oscillations. The rocking of an empty wine bottle or a slender beer glass is one of those: The angle is not a sinusoidal function of time and the period is not independent of the amplitude, not even for small amplitudes. But care has to be taken that the glass does not slip or rotate around a vertical axis. LEGO rockers (see Fig. 1) are much more reliable and versatile.

  4. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  5. Interfacial bonding stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boerio, J.

    1984-01-01

    Interfacial bonding stability by in situ ellipsometry was investigated. It is found that: (1) gamma MPS is an effective primer for bonding ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) to aluminum; (2) ellipsometry is an effective in situ technique for monitoring the stability of polymer/metal interfaces; (3) the aluminized back surface of silicon wafers contain significant amounts of silicon and may have glass like properties.

  6. Chemical Bonds I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical bonding is discussed from a bond energy, rather than a wave mechanics, viewpoint. This approach is considered to be more suitable for the average student. (The second part of the article will appear in a later issue of the journal.) (AL)

  7. Tetrel Bonding Interactions.

    PubMed

    Bauzá, Antonio; Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Frontera, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Tetrel (Tr) bonding is first placed into perspective as a σ-hole bonding interaction with atoms of the Tr family. An sp(3) R4Tr unit has four σ-holes with which a Lewis base can form a complex. We then highlight some inspiring crystal structures where Tr bonding is obvious, followed by an account of our own work. We have shown that Tr bonding is ubiquitous in the solid state and we have highlighted that Tr bonding with carbon is possible when C is placed in the appropriate chemical context. We hope that this account serves as an initial guide and source of inspiration for others wishing to exploit this vastly underexplored interaction.

  8. Wood Bond Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  9. Shape Bonding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.

  10. Rapid prototyping of an adaptive light-source for mobile manipulators with EasyKit and EasyLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtczyk, Martin; Barner, Simon; Geisinger, Michael; Knoll, Alois

    2008-08-01

    While still not common in day-to-day business, mobile robot platforms form a growing market in robotics. Mobile platforms equipped with a manipulator for increased flexibility have been used successfully in biotech laboratories for sample management as shown on the well-known ESACT meetings. Navigation and object recognition is carried out by the utilization of a mounted machine vision camera. To cope with the different illumination conditions in a large laboratory, development of an adaptive light source was indispensable. We present our approach of rapid developing a computer controlled, adaptive LED light within one single business day, by utilizing the hardware toolbox EasyKit and our appropriate software counterpart EasyLab.

  11. Evaluation of microshear bond strength of resin composites to enamel of dental adhesive systems associated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassimiro-Silva, Patricia F.; Zezell, Denise M.; Monteiro, Gabriela Q. d. M.; Benetti, Carolina; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of resin composite to enamel etching by Er,Cr:YSGG laser with the use of two differents adhesives systems. Fifty freshly extracted human molars halves were embedded in acrylic resin before preparation for the study, making a total of up to 100 available samples. The specimens were randomly assigned into six groups (η=10) according to substrate pre-treatment and adhesive system on the enamel. A two-step self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond) and a universal adhesive used as an etch-andrinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond Universal) were applied to the nonirradiated enamel surface according to manufacturer's instructions, as control groups (Control CF and Control SB, respectively). For the other groups, enamel surfaces were previously irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with 0.5 W, 75 mJ and 66 J/cm2 (CF 5 Hz and SB 5 Hz) and 1.25 W, 50 mJ and 44 J/cm2 (CF 15 Hz and SB 15 Hz). Irradiation was performed under air (50%) and water (50%) cooling. An independent t-test was performed to compare the adhesive systems. Mean μSBS ± sd (MPa) for each group was 16.857 +/- 2.61, 17.87 +/- 5.83, 12.23 +/- 2.02, 9.88 +/- 2.26, 15.94 +/- 1.98, 17.62 +/- 2.10, respectively. The control groups and the 50 mJ laser groups showed no statistically significant differences, regardless of the adhesive system used. The results obtained lead us to affirm that the bonding interaction of adhesives to enamel depends not only on the morphological aspects of the dental surface, but also on the characteristics of the adhesive employed and the parameters of the laser.

  12. Water interaction and bond strength to dentin of dye-labelled adhesive as a function of the addition of rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Linda; BIM, Odair; LOPES, Adolfo Coelho de Oliveira; FRANCISCONI-DOS-RIOS, Luciana Fávaro; MAENOSONO, Rafael Massunari; D’ALPINO, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; ATTA, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This study investigated the effect of the fluorescent dye rhodamine B (RB) for interfacial micromorphology analysis of dental composite restorations on water sorption/solubility (WS/WSL) and microtensile bond strength to dentin (µTBS) of a 3-step total etch and a 2-step self-etch adhesive system. Material and Methods The adhesives Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (MP) and Clearfil SE Bond (SE) were mixed with 0.1 mg/mL of RB. For the WS/WSL tests, cured resin disks (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm thick) were prepared and assigned into four groups (n=10): MP, MP-RB, SE, and SE-RB. For µTBS assessment, extracted human third molars (n=40) had the flat occlusal dentin prepared and assigned into the same experimental groups (n=10). After the bonding and restoration procedures, specimens were sectioned in rectangular beams, stored in water and tested after seven days or after 12 months. The failure mode of fractured specimens was qualitatively evaluated under optical microscope (x40). Data from WS/WSL and µTBS were assessed by one-way and three-way ANOVA, respectively, and Tukey’s test (α=5%). Results RB increased the WSL of MP and SE. On the other hand, WS of both MP and SE was not affected by the addition of RB. No significance in µTBS between MP and MP-RB for seven days or one year was observed, whereas for SE a decrease in the µTBS means occurred in both storage times. Conclusions RB should be incorporated into non-simplified DBSs with caution, as it can interfere with their physical-mechanical properties, leading to a possible misinterpretation of bonded interface. PMID:27556201

  13. The Halogen Bond.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Milani, Roberto; Pilati, Tullio; Priimagi, Arri; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo

    2016-02-24

    The halogen bond occurs when there is evidence of a net attractive interaction between an electrophilic region associated with a halogen atom in a molecular entity and a nucleophilic region in another, or the same, molecular entity. In this fairly extensive review, after a brief history of the interaction, we will provide the reader with a snapshot of where the research on the halogen bond is now, and, perhaps, where it is going. The specific advantages brought up by a design based on the use of the halogen bond will be demonstrated in quite different fields spanning from material sciences to biomolecular recognition and drug design.

  14. The Halogen Bond

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The halogen bond occurs when there is evidence of a net attractive interaction between an electrophilic region associated with a halogen atom in a molecular entity and a nucleophilic region in another, or the same, molecular entity. In this fairly extensive review, after a brief history of the interaction, we will provide the reader with a snapshot of where the research on the halogen bond is now, and, perhaps, where it is going. The specific advantages brought up by a design based on the use of the halogen bond will be demonstrated in quite different fields spanning from material sciences to biomolecular recognition and drug design. PMID:26812185

  15. Mind wandering while reading easy and difficult texts.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi; D'Mello, Sidney; Graesser, Arthur C

    2013-06-01

    Mind wandering is a phenomenon in which attention drifts away from the primary task to task-unrelated thoughts. Previous studies have used self-report methods to measure the frequency of mind wandering and its effects on task performance. Many of these studies have investigated mind wandering in simple perceptual and memory tasks, such as recognition memory, sustained attention, and choice reaction time tasks. Manipulations of task difficulty have revealed that mind wandering occurs more frequently in easy than in difficult conditions, but that it has a greater negative impact on performance in the difficult conditions. The goal of this study was to examine the relation between mind wandering and task difficulty in a high-level cognitive task, namely reading comprehension of standardized texts. We hypothesized that reading comprehension may yield a different relation between mind wandering and task difficulty than has been observed previously. Participants read easy or difficult versions of eight passages and then answered comprehension questions after reading each of the passages. Mind wandering was reported using the probe-caught method from several previous studies. In contrast to the previous results, but consistent with our hypothesis, mind wandering occurred more frequently when participants read difficult rather than easy texts. However, mind wandering had a more negative influence on comprehension for the difficult texts, which is consistent with the previous data. The results are interpreted from the perspectives of the executive-resources and control-failure theories of mind wandering, as well as with regard to situation models of text comprehension.

  16. MYRaf: An Easy Aperture Photometry GUI for IRAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaei, M. S.; KiliÇ, Y.; Özeren, F. F.

    2015-07-01

    We describe the design and development of MYRaf, a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that aims to be completely open-source under General Public License (GPL). MYRaf is an easy to use, reliable, and a fast IRAF aperture photometry GUI tool for those who are conversant with text-based software and command-line procedures in GNU/Linux OSs. MYRaf uses IRAF, PyRAF, matplotlib, ginga, alipy, and SExtractor with the general-purpose and high-level programming language Python, and uses the Qt framework.

  17. Superfluid Spin Transport Through Easy-Plane Ferromagnetic Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2014-06-01

    Superfluid spin transport—dissipationless transport of spin—is theoretically studied in a ferromagnetic insulator with easy-plane anisotropy. We consider an open geometry where the spin current is injected into the ferromagnet from one side by a metallic reservoir with a nonequilibrium spin accumulation and ejected into another metallic reservoir located downstream. Spin transport is studied using a combination of magnetoelectric circuit theory, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, and microscopic linear-response theory. We discuss how spin superfluidity can be probed in a magnetically mediated negative electron-drag experiment.

  18. Easy creation of polymeric systems for molecular dynamics with Assemble!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiacomi, Matteo T.; Erastova, Valentina; Wilson, Mark R.

    2016-05-01

    We present Assemble!, a program greatly simplifying the preparation of molecular dynamics simulations of polymeric systems. The program is controlled either via command line or an intuitive Graphical User Interface, and runs on all major operating systems. Assemble! allows the creation of a desired system of polymer chains from constituent monomers, packs the chains into a box according to the required concentration and returns all the files needed for simulation with Gromacs. We illustrate the capabilities of Assemble! by demonstrating the easy preparation of a 300 monomers-long polyisoprene in hexane, and a heterogeneous mixture of polybutadiene.

  19. Expanding global forest management: An easy first' proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Winjum, J.K. ); Meganck, R.A. ); Dixon, R.K.

    1993-04-01

    World leaders have become increasingly aware of the contributions of sustainable forest resources to political, social, economic, and environmental health. As a result, interest is growing for a world treaty or protocol on forest management and protection. This article focuses on global forest management. The first section discusses the current situtation in global forest management (10-12% of the total). Benefits of global benefit to management included sustained and even increased yield, slowing of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and conservation of biodiversity and increase sustainable use options. The Noordwijk Goal is discussed as one example of concrete global action. Finally, the easy first approach is presented in detail. It involves starting in areas where the obstacles are minimal to develop early momentum and a can do outlook for implementation. Difficulties of this approach involve dealing with the political, social, and economic aspects of resource constraints that many nations face daily. But the easy first approach attempts to demonstrate that not all financial commitments, political agreements and forest management techniques must be in place for work to start.

  20. BrailleEasy: One-handed Braille Keyboard for Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Šepić, Barbara; Ghanem, Abdurrahman; Vogel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of mobile technology is moving at a very fast pace. Smartphones are currently considered a primary communication platform where people exchange voice calls, text messages and emails. The human-smartphone interaction, however, is generally optimized for sighted people through the use of visual cues on the touchscreen, e.g., typing text by tapping on a visual keyboard. Unfortunately, this interaction scheme renders smartphone technology largely inaccessible to visually impaired people as it results in slow typing and higher error rates. Apple and some third party applications provide solutions specific to blind people which enables them to use Braille on smartphones. These applications usually require both hands for typing. However, Brailling with both hands while holding the phone is not very comfortable. Furthermore, two-handed Brailling is not possible on smartwatches, which will be used more pervasively in the future. Therefore, we develop a platform for one-handed Brailing consisting of a custom keyboard called BrailleEasy to input Arabic or English Braille codes within any application, and a BrailleTutor application for practicing. Our platform currently supports Braille grade 1, and will be extended to support contractions, spelling correction, and more languages. Preliminary analysis of user studies for blind participants showed that after less than two hours of practice, participants were able to type significantly faster with the BrailleEasy keyboard than with the standard QWERTY keyboard.

  1. That Sounds Easy Enough: An Exploration of Data Management Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, A.; Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data; Information Service (Acadis)

    2013-05-01

    Creating an infrastructure that is not ad hoc or ephemeral when much of technology today is itself ad hoc and ephemeral is not an easy task. This paper examines the collaboration process between various stakeholders within the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) in order to provide insight into data management, data preservation, and data discovery. Specifically, this paper addresses the partnership of Arctic Research Mapping Application Program (ARMAP) and ACADIS. This partnership shows that what may seem like an easy or straight forward request can, in fact, prove challenging. These challenges can only be met through collaboration and good communication. The ACADIS project fosters scientific synthesis and discovery by providing services that make data freely available for access and analysis across multiple disciplines. The goals of ACADIS are to bring together experts to create tools at the forefront of how science will be done. Essentially, we improve the usability and interdisciplinary reuse of arctic data. ACADIS is a joint effort by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), Unidata, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to provide data archival services, preservation, and access for all projects funded by the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Arctic Science Program (ARC).

  2. 30 CFR 281.33 - Bonds and bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bonds and bonding requirements. 281.33 Section 281.33 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.33 Bonds and bonding requirements. (a) When the leasing...

  3. 30 CFR 281.33 - Bonds and bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bonds and bonding requirements. 281.33 Section 281.33 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF... Bonds and bonding requirements. (a) When the leasing notice specifies that payment of a portion of...

  4. 27 CFR 24.147 - Operations bond or unit bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Bonds and Consents of Surety § 24.147 Operations bond or unit bond. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 24.146, each person intending to commence or to continue business as the proprietor of a bonded wine premises with an...

  5. Fundamentals of fiber bonding in thermally point-bonded nonwovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram, Aparna

    Thermal point bonding (TPB) uses heat and pressure to bond a web of fibers at discrete points imparting strength to the manufactured fabric. This process significantly reduces the strength and elongation of the bridging fibers between bond points while strengthening the web. Single fiber experiments were performed with four structurally different polypropylene fibers to analyze the inter-relationships between fiber structure, fiber properties and bonding process. Two fiber types had a low birefringence sheath or surface layer while the remaining had uniform birefringence profiles through their thickness. Bonds were formed between isolated pairs of fibers by subjecting the fibers to a calendering process and simulating TPB process conditions. The dependence of bond strength on bonding temperature and on the type of fiber used was evaluated. Fiber strengths before and after bonding were measured and compared to understand the effect of bonding on fiber strength. Additionally, bonded fiber strength was compared to the strength of single fibers which had experienced the same process conditions as the bonded pairs. This comparison estimated the effect of mechanical damage from pressing fibers together with steel rolls while creating bonds in TPB. Interfiber bond strength increased with bonding temperature for all fiber types. Fiber strength decreased with increasing bonding temperature for all fiber types except for one type of low birefringent sheath fibers. Fiber strength degradation was unavoidable at temperatures required for successful bonding. Mechanical damage from compression of fibers between rolls was an insignificant factor in this strength loss. Thermal damage during bonding was the sole significant contributor to fiber strength degradation. Fibers with low birefringence skins formed strong bonds with minimal fiber strength loss and were superior to fibers without such surface layers in TPB performance. A simple model to predict the behavior of a two-bond

  6. Strength of Chemical Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Jerry D.

    1973-01-01

    Students are not generally made aware of the extraordinary magnitude of the strengths of chemical bonds in terms of the forces required to pull them apart. Molecular bonds are usually considered in terms of the energies required to break them, and we are not astonished at the values encountered. For example, the Cl2 bond energy, 57.00 kcal/mole, amounts to only 9.46 x 10(sup -20) cal/molecule, a very small amount of energy, indeed, and impossible to measure directly. However, the forces involved in realizing the energy when breaking the bond operate over a very small distance, only 2.94 A, and, thus, f(sub ave) approx. equals De/(r - r(sub e)) must be very large. The forces involved in dissociating the molecule are discussed in the following. In consideration of average forces, the molecule shall be assumed arbitrarily to be dissociated when the atoms are far enough separated so that the potential, relative to that of the infinitely separated atoms, is reduced by 99.5% from the potential of the molecule at the equilibrium bond length (r(sub e)) for Cl2 of 1.988 A this occurs at 4.928 A.

  7. When students can choose easy, medium, or hard homework problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Seaton, Daniel T.; Cardamone, Caroline N.; Rayyan, Saif; Abbott, Jonathan E.; Barrantes, Analia; Pawl, Andrew; Pritchard, David E.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate student-chosen, multi-level homework in our Integrated Learning Environment for Mechanics [1] built using the LON-CAPA [2] open-source learning system. Multi-level refers to problems categorized as easy, medium, and hard. Problem levels were determined a priori based on the knowledge needed to solve them [3]. We analyze these problems using three measures: time-per-problem, LON-CAPA difficulty, and item difficulty measured by item response theory. Our analysis of student behavior in this environment suggests that time-per-problem is strongly dependent on problem category, unlike either score-based measures. We also found trends in student choice of problems, overall effort, and efficiency across the student population. Allowing students choice in problem solving seems to improve their motivation; 70% of students worked additional problems for which no credit was given.

  8. Learning about having a baby in easy English.

    PubMed

    Hansford, Judith; Forsdike, Joanne

    2013-06-01

    Limited English ability hampers communication between pregnant women and midwives and can leave the pregnant woman anxious and put the mother or baby at risk. This article describes a new antenatal course called Learn about having a baby in easy English which has been successfully used with women who have very little English or are only moderately fluent. The 12-hour programme is designed to help women understand essential antenatal information, learn key English vocabulary and gain confidence in communicating in English with health professionals. It is co-taught by a midwife and English teacher and uses simple handouts. After running for three years, indicators suggest that it is playing a useful part in equipping women for labour and motherhood.

  9. Differential algebras without differentials: An easy C++ implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Automated differentiation can be motivated and explained rather plainly without any reference to infinitesimals or differentials whatsoever. We shall describe one possible approach in this paper. The method which we shall use will suggest its own implementation. However, FORTRAN is not the most natural language in which to carry it out. In the second section we shall describe an almost trivial implementation using C++. (Indeed, one of the motivations for writing this paper is to persuade militant FORTRAN extremists to invest the four or five days necessary to learn this powerful and easy language.) Take heed, however, that what we describe below is only a stripped-down implementation, written in three days, of differential algebra's most essential features; it is not as robust as and does not contain the battery of tools available in Berz's DA package, the product of a significant amount of work. 10 refs.

  10. Superfluid Spin Transport through Easy-Plane Ferromagnetic Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, So; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2014-03-01

    Superfluid spin transport | dissipationless transport of spin | is theoretically studied in a ferromagnetic insulator with easy-plane anisotropy. We consider an open geometry where spin current is injected into the ferromagnet from one side by a metallic reservoir with a nonequilibrium spin accumulation, and ejected into another metallic reservoir located downstream. Spin transport through the device is studied using a combination of magnetoelectric circuit theory, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, and microscopic linear-response theory. We discuss how spin superfluidity can be probed using a magnetically-mediated electron-drag experiment. This work was supported in part by FAME (an SRC STARnet center sponsored by MARCO and DARPA), the NSF under Grant No. DMR-0840965, and Grant No. 228481 from the Simons Foundation.

  11. Easy mounting interface for compact instruments at TNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedina, Adriano; Riverol Rodriguez, A. Luis

    2016-08-01

    The Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) is able to offer an F/11 Nasmyth focal station with an easy mount for small devices or compact instruments. The slit masks at the focal plane of the LRS spectrograph can be removed in few minutes from the selector stage. A FoV of 9x9arcmin2 is available and a small instrument can be mounted instead of the slit on a mechanical interface of 240x125mm. The size of the instrument along the optical axis is limited by the support of the collimation lens of the spectrograph. This solution has already been used for small devices like a CCD camera or a SH sensor and a compact Hamamatsu photometer. Furthermore from 2016 it will host the folding optical relay for the GIARPS Instrument. This interface is an opportunity to test new instruments, prototypes or demonstrators in a not invasive or time consuming manner at a 4m class telescope.

  12. An easy to compare tool for more readable (physics) textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorecova, I.; Teleki, A.; Lacsny, B.; Zelenicky, L.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we show the easy way to compare the readability of two physics school texts written in the same language. We show that the readability of scholar texts depends on the frequency of terms. We compare the readability of texts from two physics textbooks written in Slovak. In these comparisons, we used the frequency of words and terms with a given length (probability distribution) instead of using a readability formula. The concept of analysing the frequency of words in a text agrees with our observations made by eye tracking systems. We verified our results by cloze tests. The method comparing the probability distribution of words and terms of two texts (written in the same language) is very simple, intuitive as well as language independent (in contrary to readability formulae).

  13. Easy Extraction of Terms and Definitions with OWL2TL.

    PubMed

    Judkins, John; Utecht, Joseph; Brochhausen, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    Facilitating good communication between semantic web specialists and domain experts is necessary to efficient ontology development. This development may be hindered by the fact that domain experts tend to be unfamiliar with tools used to create and edit OWL files. This is true in particular when changes to definitions need to be reviewed as often as multiple times a day. We developed "OWL to Term List" (OWL2TL) with the goal of allowing domain experts to view the terms and definitions of an OWL file organized in a list that is updated each time the OWL file is updated. The tool is available online and currently generates a list of terms, along with additional annotation properties that are chosen by the user, in a format that allows easy copying into a spreadsheet.

  14. Easy Extraction of Terms and Definitions with OWL2TL

    PubMed Central

    Judkins, John; Utecht, Joseph; Brochhausen, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Facilitating good communication between semantic web specialists and domain experts is necessary to efficient ontology development. This development may be hindered by the fact that domain experts tend to be unfamiliar with tools used to create and edit OWL files. This is true in particular when changes to definitions need to be reviewed as often as multiple times a day. We developed "OWL to Term List" (OWL2TL) with the goal of allowing domain experts to view the terms and definitions of an OWL file organized in a list that is updated each time the OWL file is updated. The tool is available online and currently generates a list of terms, along with additional annotation properties that are chosen by the user, in a format that allows easy copying into a spreadsheet. PMID:28035214

  15. EasyPanorama: a new panorama authoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xianyong; Yan, Wen; Pan, Zhigeng; Xu, Dan; Chen, Mingwei

    2004-03-01

    Although panorama has been intensively researched in recent years and there are many tools on panorama creation, existing methods still can't cope with ghosting effectively and almost all the tools can't create an image with a large vertical field of view. By modifying the sobel operator, we present an improved algorithm to deghost based on dynamic programming. Our new algorithm is simple and robust. This algorithm has been used in our new panorama authoring system, EasyPanorama. This paper describes the architecture, the interactive authoring and publishing process of this system. The system treats panorama as a type of wide angle image, and can vertically mosaic the source images to create an image with a large vertical field of view. With this system, the user first creates a wide angle image, then edits the walkthrough of the panorama if the wide angle image is mosaiced to be a panorama and finally publishes the result to the web.

  16. Insulation bonding test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, J. M.; Johnston, G. D.; Coleman, A. D.; Portwood, J. N.; Saunders, J. M.; Redmon, J. W.; Porter, A. C. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and a system for testing the bonding of foam insulation attached to metal is described. The system involves the use of an impacter which has a calibrated load cell mounted on a plunger and a hammer head mounted on the end of the plunger. When the impacter strikes the insulation at a point to be tested, the load cell measures the force of the impact and the precise time interval during which the hammer head is in contact with the insulation. This information is transmitted as an electrical signal to a load cell amplifier where the signal is conditioned and then transmitted to a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyzer. The FFT analyzer produces energy spectral density curves which are displayed on a video screen. The termination frequency of the energy spectral density curve may be compared with a predetermined empirical scale to determine whether a igh quality bond, good bond, or debond is present at the point of impact.

  17. Biomolecular halogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Ho, P Shing

    2015-01-01

    Halogens are atypical elements in biology, but are common as substituents in ligands, including thyroid hormones and inhibitors, which bind specifically to proteins and nucleic acids. The short-range, stabilizing interactions of halogens - now seen as relatively common in biology - conform generally to halogen bonds characterized in small molecule systems and as described by the σ-hole model. The unique properties of biomolecular halogen bonds (BXBs), particularly in their geometric and energetic relationship to classic hydrogen bonds, make them potentially powerful tools for inhibitor design and molecular engineering. This chapter reviews the current research on BXBs, focusing on experimental studies on their structure-energy relationships, how these studies inform the development of computational methods to model BXBs, and considers how BXBs can be applied to the rational design of more effective inhibitors against therapeutic targets and of new biological-based materials.

  18. Cooperativity in beryllium bonds.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

    2014-03-07

    A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds.

  19. Cast Aluminum Bonding Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    fabricated using P?-’r;est11 bur)ld II19 te(hnll I Oly with 6 cIsL nqs. The cast a lumi num alloy used was A357 . The sur- face preparation was phosphoric acid...from a cast aluminum alloy designated A357 . The bonding surfaces of the adherends were prepared using PAA. One primer and two adhesives considered...System, Cast Aluminum Lap Shear 18 11 Bond Area of 350°F Adhesive System, Cast Aluminum Lap Shear 19 vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 A357 Chemical

  20. Metallic Adhesion and Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Although metallic adhesion has played a central part in much tribological speculation, few quantitative theoretical calculations are available. This is in part because of the difficulties involved in such calculations and in part because the theoretical physics community is not particularly involved with tribology. The calculations currently involved in metallic adhesion are summarized and shown that these can be generalized into a scaled universal relationship. Relationships exist to other types of covalent bonding, such as cohesive, chemisorptive, and molecular bonding. A simple relationship between surface energy and cohesive energy is offered.

  1. 29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580.412-20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules § 2580.412-20 Use of existing...

  2. 29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580.412-20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules § 2580.412-20 Use of existing...

  3. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Total- and Self-etching Adhesive Systems after Application of Chlorhexidine to Dentin Contaminated with a Hemostatic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Farhadpour, Hajar

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Hemostatic agents may influence the bond strength of different bonding agents. Also, chlorhexidine has shown positive effects on bond strength values and their combination effect has not been reported yet. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of contamination with a hemostatic agent on shear bond strength (SBS) of total- and self-etching adhesive systems and the effect of chlorhexidine application after removal of the hemostatic agent. Materials and Method In this experimental study, the occlusal enamel of each sixty caries-free mandibular molars was removed and their midcoronal dentin was exposed. The specimens were then mounted in auto-polymerizing resin 1mm apical to CEJ. Then, the specimens were divided into 6 groups (n=10) based on contamination with a hemostatic agent (H), application of chlorhexidine (CHX) and the adhesive system used; and then were classified as Group 1: Adper Single Bond (ASB); Group 2: H+ASB; Group 3: H+0.2% CHX+ASB; Group 4: Clearfil SE Bond (CSB); Group 5: H+CSB; Group 6: H+0.2% CHX+CSB. Then, composite resin rods (4×2 mm) were built up on the dentin surfaces and after thermocycling, the SBS (MPa) was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (p< 0.05). Results There were statistically significant differences between bond strength values of group 1 (ASB) and group 2 (H+ASB) (p< 0.001) and group 1 (ASB) and group 3 (H+CHX+ASB) (p< 0.001). Similarly, significant differences were seen between group 4 (CSB) and group 5 (H+CSB) (p< 0.001) and between group 4 (CSB) and group 6 (H+CHX+CSB) (p< 0.001). Conclusion Contamination with hemostatic agent reduced the SBS of both total- and self-etching adhesive systems. In addition, application of chlorhexidine after the removal of hemostatic agent had a negative effect on SBS of total- and self-etching adhesive systems. PMID:26331146

  4. Bonding with the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common Ground: Archeology and Ethnography in the Public Interest, 1998

    1998-01-01

    An interview with Linda Mayro, archaeologist and cultural resources manager for Pima County, Arizona, discusses efforts of local groups to preserve local Native-American and Mexican cultural-heritage sites in oppositon to commercial land developers. A public information campaign led to passage of a $6.4 million historic preservation bond. (SAS)

  5. GRAPHITE BONDING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1964-02-25

    A process for bonding or joining graphite members together in which a thin platinum foil is placed between the members, heated in an inert atmosphere to a temperature of 1800 deg C, and then cooled to room temperature is described. (AEC)

  6. Bonding with Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... can take nearly all of your attention and energy — especially for a breastfeeding mom. Bonding will be much easier if you aren't exhausted by all of the other things going on at home, such as housework, meals, and laundry. It's helpful ...

  7. Photochemical tissue bonding

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, Robert W [Brookline, MA; Kochevar, Irene E [Charlestown, MA

    2012-01-10

    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  8. Bonding without Tears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Discusses merits of using sigma-pi model of ethylene as a teaching aid in introductory organic chemistry. The nonmathematical treatment of sigma-pi bonding is then extended to such phenomena as conjugation, hyperconjugation, Markovnikoff addition, aromaticity, and aromatic substitution. (SK)

  9. Growing perovskite into polymers for easy-processable optoelectronic devices

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Sofia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Roiati, Vittoria; Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we conceive an innovative nanocomposite to endow hybrid perovskites with the easy processability of polymers, providing a tool to control film quality and material crystallinity. We verify that the employed semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), controls the self-assembly of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) crystalline domains and favors the deposition of a very smooth and homogenous layer in one straightforward step. This idea offers a new paradigm for the implementation of polymer/perovskite nanocomposites towards versatile optoelectronic devices combined with the feasibility of mass production. As a proof-of-concept we propose the application of such nanocomposite in polymer solar cell architecture, demonstrating a power conversion efficiency up to 3%, to date the highest reported for MEH-PPV. On-purpose designed polymers are expected to suit the nanocomposite properties for the integration in diverse optoelectronic devices via facile processing condition. PMID:25579988

  10. Growing perovskite into polymers for easy-processable optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Sofia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Roiati, Vittoria; Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we conceive an innovative nanocomposite to endow hybrid perovskites with the easy processability of polymers, providing a tool to control film quality and material crystallinity. We verify that the employed semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), controls the self-assembly of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) crystalline domains and favors the deposition of a very smooth and homogenous layer in one straightforward step. This idea offers a new paradigm for the implementation of polymer/perovskite nanocomposites towards versatile optoelectronic devices combined with the feasibility of mass production. As a proof-of-concept we propose the application of such nanocomposite in polymer solar cell architecture, demonstrating a power conversion efficiency up to 3%, to date the highest reported for MEH-PPV. On-purpose designed polymers are expected to suit the nanocomposite properties for the integration in diverse optoelectronic devices via facile processing condition.

  11. An easy-to-use diagnostic system development shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, L. C.; Ross, J. B.; Han, C. Y.; Wee, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic System Development Shell (DSDS), an expert system development shell for diagnostic systems, is described. The major objective of building the DSDS is to create a very easy to use and friendly environment for knowledge engineers and end-users. The DSDS is written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. It runs on a VAX/VMS system. A set of domain independent, generalized rules is built in the DSDS, so the users need not be concerned about building the rules. The facts are explicitly represented in a unified format. A powerful check facility which helps the user to check the errors in the created knowledge bases is provided. A judgement facility and other useful facilities are also available. A diagnostic system based on the DSDS system is question driven and can call or be called by other knowledge based systems written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. A prototype diagnostic system for diagnosing a Philips constant potential X-ray system has been built using the DSDS.

  12. The IBA Easy-E-Beam Integrated Processing System

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    2011-06-01

    IBA Industrial Inc., (formerly known as Radiation Dynamics, Inc.) has been making high-energy and medium-energy, direct-current proton and electron accelerators for research and industrial applications for many years. Some industrial applications of high-power electron accelerators are the crosslinking of polymeric materials and products, such as the insulation on electrical wires, multi-conductor cable jackets, heat-shrinkable plastic tubing and film, plastic pipe, foam and pellets, the partial curing of rubber sheet for automobile tire components, and the sterilization of disposable medical devices. The curing (polymerization and crosslinking) of carbon and glass fiber-reinforced composite plastic parts, the preservation of foods and the treatment of waste materials are attractive possibilities for future applications. With electron energies above 1.0 MeV, the radiation protection for operating personnel is usually provided by surrounding the accelerator facility with thick concrete walls. With lower energies, steel and lead panels can be used, which are substantially thinner and more compact than the equivalent concrete walls. IBA has developed a series of electron processing systems called Easy-e-Beam for the medium energy range from 300 keV to 1000 keV. These systems include the shielding as an integral part of a complete radiation processing facility. The basic concepts of the electron accelerator, the product processing equipment, the programmable control system, the configuration of the radiation shielding and some performance characteristics are described in this paper.

  13. Metal bead crystals for easy heating by direct current.

    PubMed

    Voigtländer, Bert; Cherepanov, Vasily; Elsaesser, Christa; Linke, Udo

    2008-03-01

    The preparation of metal bead crystals with two wires attached to the crystal is described. These crystals allow for a very easy and efficient method to heat metal single crystals by direct current heating through the connecting wires of the bead crystal. This heating of the bead crystal is sufficient to clean metal surfaces such as the surfaces of Pt and Au as confirmed by Auger spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). There is no need for any ion sputtering which is conventionally used to clean metal single crystal surfaces. The bead crystals with two leads fabricated from a wide range metals and metal alloys such as Cu, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ta, W, Re, Ir, Pt, Au, PtPd, PtRh, AuAg, and PtIr can be used as general purpose metal substrates for surface science studies and other applications. Additionally, these bead crystals can be used to reshape STM tips by indentation of the tip into the soft metal in order to recover atomic resolution imaging on hard substrates.

  14. The IBA Easy-E-Beam™ Integrated Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    2011-06-01

    IBA Industrial Inc., (formerly known as Radiation Dynamics, Inc.) has been making high-energy and medium-energy, direct-current proton and electron accelerators for research and industrial applications for many years. Some industrial applications of high-power electron accelerators are the crosslinking of polymeric materials and products, such as the insulation on electrical wires, multi-conductor cable jackets, heat-shrinkable plastic tubing and film, plastic pipe, foam and pellets, the partial curing of rubber sheet for automobile tire components, and the sterilization of disposable medical devices. The curing (polymerization and crosslinking) of carbon and glass fiber-reinforced composite plastic parts, the preservation of foods and the treatment of waste materials are attractive possibilities for future applications. With electron energies above 1.0 MeV, the radiation protection for operating personnel is usually provided by surrounding the accelerator facility with thick concrete walls. With lower energies, steel and lead panels can be used, which are substantially thinner and more compact than the equivalent concrete walls. IBA has developed a series of electron processing systems called Easy-e-Beam™ for the medium energy range from 300 keV to 1000 keV. These systems include the shielding as an integral part of a complete radiation processing facility. The basic concepts of the electron accelerator, the product processing equipment, the programmable control system, the configuration of the radiation shielding and some performance characteristics are described in this paper.

  15. Easy Long-Term Identifiers and the "Data Paper"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, John

    2011-05-01

    A new publishing paradigm is needed to cope with the deluge of data artifacts produced by data-intensive science, many of which are vital to data re-use and verification of published scientific conclusions. Due to the limitations of traditional publishing, most of these artifacts are not usually disseminated, cited, or preserved. At the California Digital Library (CDL), one promising approach to the problem is to wrap these artifacts in the metaphor of a "data paper", assigning and managing data citations with our EZID (easy-eye-dee) identifier service. A data paper is a somewhat unfamiliar bundle of scholarly output with a familiar facade: minimally, a set of links to archived artifacts and a cover sheet containing familiar elements such as title, authors, date, abstract, and persistent identifier _ just enough to create basic citations, build "overlay journals", and enable discovery of data by internet search engines. Over time, we expect to add elements that permit deeper domain-specific discovery and re-use, such as variable names, methods, etc. At the same time, for data and identifiers that we manage, we will leverage as much domain-agnosticism data and identifier as possible.

  16. Shear bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives: pH influence

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values to enamel and dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 200 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used. Four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values were tested both on enamel and on dentin: Adper™ Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive (pH = 0.8-1), Futurabond NR (pH=2), G-aenial Bond (pH = 1.5), Clearfil S3 Bond (pH = 2.7). After adhesive systems application, a nanohybrid composite resin was inserted into the bonded surface. The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine. The shear bond strength was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min until the sample rupture. The shear bond strength values (MPa) of the different groups were compared with analysis of variance after that Kolmogorov and Smirnov tests were applied to assess normality of distributions. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In enamel shear bond strength, the highest shear bond strength values were reported with Futurabond NR (P < 0.01); however, no significant differences were found with Clearfil S3 Bond. The others adhesive systems showed lower shear bond strength values with significant differences between them (P < 0.05). When comparing the dentin shear bond strength, the lowest shear bond strength values were reported with Clearfil S3 Bond (P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences among the other three products (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The pH values of adhesive systems did not influence significantly their shear bond strength to enamel or dentin. PMID:26005459

  17. "The Dendritic Bonding Technique": A Newly-devised Technique for the Fixation of Mesh Skin Graft.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-07-01

    We describe a newly designed technique for the quick, easy, and cost-effective fixation of mesh skin grafts in a range of skin conditions and patients. We fixed the skin graft using octyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon), which was termed "Dendritic bonding." This technique exhibits several advantages over surgical stapling and suturing with absorbable sutures.

  18. J-Earth: Remote Sensing Analysis Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickenshied, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Prashad, L. C.; Noss, D.; Anwar, S.; Cheeseman, S.; Dunn, S.; Rupp, J.

    2011-12-01

    A wealth of terrestrial remote sensing data has been collected and made public over the years from a variety of missions, but accessing this data and performing analysis on it has often been a time consuming and problematic task. J-Earth is a geospatial application that provides a quick and consistent means of accessing many terrestrial datasets which can then be analyzed and compared with each other. In addition to providing direct access to a number of preprocessed products based off of MODIS, ASTER, and TIMS datasets, J-Earth also makes it easy for a user to import their own data and work with it in an identical fashion. Users can easily work with both graphical and numeric datasets as well as vector/shapefile data. Numeric data can be viewed for a particular location through multiple datasets or plotted across an arbitrary profile line. Shapes can be used to find intersections with other shapefiles or to perform analytical calculations (mean, max, min, etc) upon numeric data within the bounds of a shape. These tools allow a user to quickly assess the geologic parameters of the area, including mineralogy, chemistry, surface temperature, topography and elevation. Additionally, J-Earth allows for temporal comparisons of regions for instruments which have repeat coverage over multiple years. J-Earth is part of the JMARS (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) suite of geospatial applications developed by the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. This suite of software is used for mission planning and scientific data analysis by active NASA missions to Mars, the Moon, and Vesta. It is used by scientists, researchers and students of all ages from more than 40 countries around the world.

  19. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Bionta, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    The joining technique requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process.

  20. The concept of bond order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Robert J.; Richards, W. Graham

    A method for obtaining precise charge densities in defined regions of space from ab initio molecular wavefunctions is employed to place the concept of bond order on a firm theoretical footing. The bond orders obtained for carbon—carbon bonds in a range of organic compounds are assessed: those for buta-1,3-diene confirm that it consists of essentially localised double and single bonds.

  1. IMPROVED BONDING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Padgett, E.V. Jr.; Warf, D.H.

    1964-04-28

    An improved process of bonding aluminum to aluminum without fusion by ultrasonic vibrations plus pressure is described. The surfaces to be bonded are coated with an aqueous solution of alkali metal stearate prior to assembling for bonding. (AEC) O H19504 Present information is reviewed on steady state proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of blood cells in mammals. Data are cited from metabolic tracer studies, autoradiographic studies, cytologic studies, studies of hematopoietic response to radiation injuries, and computer analyses of blood cell production. A 3-step model for erythropoiesis and a model for granulocyte kinetics are presented. New approaches to the study of lymphocytopoiesis described include extracorporeal blood irradiation to deplete lymphocytic tissue without direct injury to the formative tissues as a means to study the stressed system, function control, and rates of proliferation. It is pointed out that present knowledge indicates that lymphocytes comprise a mixed family, with diverse life spans, functions, and migration patterns with apparent aimless recycling from modes to lymph to blood to nodes that has not yet been quantitated. Areas of future research are postulated. (70 references.) (C.H.)

  2. Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Lawrence J.

    1986-01-01

    Compares the coulumbic point charge model for hydrogen chloride with the valence bond model. It is not possible to assign either a nonpolar or ionic canonical form of the valence bond model, while the covalent-ionic bond distribution does conform to the point charge model. (JM)

  3. Rapid Adhesive Bonding of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Fox, R. L.; Sterling, S. Elmo, Jr.; Buckley, J. D.; Inge, Spencer V., Jr.; Burcher, L. G.; Wright, Robert E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Strong bonds created in less time and with less power than use of conventional bonding methods. Rapid adhesive bonding (RAB) technique for composites uses high-frequency induction heating toroids to quickly heat metallic susceptor impregnated with thermoplastic adhesive or sandwiched between thermoset or thermoplastic adhesive cloths or films. Susceptor steel screen or perforated steel foil.

  4. Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Patricia A; Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P

    2015-03-07

    Ionic liquids (IL) and hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) are two diverse fields for which there is a developing recognition of significant overlap. Doubly ionic H-bonds occur when a H-bond forms between a cation and anion, and are a key feature of ILs. Doubly ionic H-bonds represent a wide area of H-bonding which has yet to be fully recognised, characterised or explored. H-bonds in ILs (both protic and aprotic) are bifurcated and chelating, and unlike many molecular liquids a significant variety of distinct H-bonds are formed between different types and numbers of donor and acceptor sites within a given IL. Traditional more neutral H-bonds can also be formed in functionalised ILs, adding a further level of complexity. Ab initio computed parameters; association energies, partial charges, density descriptors as encompassed by the QTAIM methodology (ρBCP), qualitative molecular orbital theory and NBO analysis provide established and robust mechanisms for understanding and interpreting traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds. In this review the applicability and extension of these parameters to describe and quantify the doubly ionic H-bond has been explored. Estimating the H-bonding energy is difficult because at a fundamental level the H-bond and ionic interaction are coupled. The NBO and QTAIM methodologies, unlike the total energy, are local descriptors and therefore can be used to directly compare neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. The charged nature of the ions influences the ionic characteristics of the H-bond and vice versa, in addition the close association of the ions leads to enhanced orbital overlap and covalent contributions. The charge on the ions raises the energy of the Ylp and lowers the energy of the X-H σ* NBOs resulting in greater charge transfer, strengthening the H-bond. Using this range of parameters and comparing doubly ionic H-bonds to more traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds it is clear that doubly ionic H-bonds cover the full range of weak

  5. Evaluation of composite bonded joints

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, H.A.; Othieno, M.; Yin, S.W.

    1995-12-31

    The present investigation evaluates the influence of joining technique on the static and fatigue behavior of composite bonded joints. Specimens used in this investigation were LDF AS4/PEKK graphite/thermoplastic composites and IM6/3501-6 graphite/poxy composite laminates. Joints were made by either adhesive bonding or fusing bonding. For the adhesive bonded joints, in some cases specimens were bonded without any surface pretreatment while in other cases the surfaces were either grit blast or corona. treated prior to bonding. For the fusion bonded joints, joints were prepared by either induction welding or thermabonding. In addition, some specimens were conditioned in a wet environment for thirty days in order to observe the influence of moisture on the static strengths. During fatigue testing, the residual stiffness was continually monitored in order to assess the extent of fatigue damage development.

  6. Bond strength of direct and indirect bonded brackets after thermocycling.

    PubMed

    Daub, Jacob; Berzins, David W; Linn, Brandon James; Bradley, Thomas Gerard

    2006-03-01

    Thermocycling simulates the temperature dynamics in the oral environment. With direct bonding, thermocycling reduces the bond strength of orthodontic adhesives to tooth structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strengths (SBS) of one direct and two indirect bonding methods/adhesives after thermocycling. Sixty human premolars were divided into three groups. Teeth in group 1 were bonded directly with Transbond XT. Teeth in group 2 were indirect bonded with Transbond XT/Sondhi Rapid Set, which is chemically cured. Teeth in group 3 were indirect bonded with Enlight LV/Orthosolo and light cured. Each sample was thermocycled between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 500 cycles. Mean SBS in groups 1, 2, and 3 were not statistically significantly different (13.6 +/- 2.9, 12.3 +/- 3.0, and 11.6 +/- 3.2 MPa, respectively; P > .05). However, when these values were compared with the results of a previous study using the same protocol, but without thermocycling, the SBS was reduced significantly (P = .001). Weibull analysis further showed that group 3 had the lowest bonding survival rate at the minimum clinically acceptable bond-strength range. The Adhesive Remnant Index was also determined, and group 2 had a significantly (P < .05) higher percentage of bond failures at the resin/enamel interface.

  7. High Pressure Experimental Deformation in Talc Assemblies: Cheap, Easy, Wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, E. D.; Holyoke, C. W.; Kronenberg, A. K.; Newman, J.

    2011-12-01

    Early methods of applying high pressures in the Griggs piston-cylinder triaxial deformation apparatus employed solid confining media thought to be weak compared with the silicate samples under investigation. Griggs apparatus sample assemblies with talc as the confining medium have been used in large numbers of experimental studies of rock deformation at pressures of 1.0 to 2.0 GPa. Modern methods now use solid and molten salts as confining media, with flow strengths that are low for solid salts (at elevated temperatures) and zero for molten salts; yet, talc continues to be used when deformation microstructures are used to infer differential stress. Recent comparison experiments conducted in the Griggs apparatus and gas apparatus have yielded calibrations that enable accurate stress measurements using solid and molten salt assemblies. These calibrations demonstrate that differential stresses measured at high confining pressures using the Griggs apparatus are systematically high, yet they are correctable. They also indicate that a significant portion of the required stress correction is due to friction in the nested loading column of the apparatus. No other correction is required for molten salt assemblies and the offset in stress measurements using solid salt assemblies, due to the strength of solid salt, is considerably smaller than previously thought. Encouraged by these calibrations for solid and molten salt assemblies, we performed similar comparison experiments in the Griggs apparatus using traditional, easy-to-use talc assemblies with the goal of developing another calibration for high-pressure stress measurements. Following the same procedures as used in our earlier calibrations, we deformed molybdenum and TZM alloy cylinders using a talc assembly at the same temperatures and strain rates (600-1000{circ}C and 1{ast}10^{-4}/s) as used in gas apparatus experiments. The apparent strengths of the samples deformed below the talc dehydration temperature were at

  8. Comparison of Bond in Roll-bonded and Adhesively Bonded Aluminums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwensfeir, R. J., Jr.; Trenkler, G.; Delagi, R. G.; Forster, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Lap-shear and peel test measurements of bond strength have been carried out as part of an investigation of roll bonding of 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys. Shear strengths of the bonded material in the F temper are in the range of 14 to 16 ksi. Corresponding peel strengths are 120 to 130 lb/inch. These values, which are three to five times those reported in the literature for adhesively bonded 2024 and 7075, are a result of the true metallurgical bond achieved. The effects of heat-treating the bonded material are described and the improvements in bond strength discussed relative to the shear strength of the parent material. The significance of the findings for aerospace applications is discussed.

  9. [SIBSytem: innovation for bracket bonding?].

    PubMed

    Moreau, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    The orthodontic bracket placement has known two major improvements these last fifty years: first with the ability of bonding brackets directly on the enamel (Newmann 1965); second with the indirect bonding procedure introduced by Silvermann and Cohen in 1972. If we put aside the technological evolutions of bonding materials (brackets and adhesives), few refinements have occurred regarding the protocols in this period of time. Furthermore, direct bonding procedure seems to be used by a majority of orthodontists despite the rapidity, accuracy and ergonomics promised by indirect bonding protocol. The main originality of the system detailed in this article is to bond orthodontic brackets in a virtually predetermined position with indirect bonding advantages but with the efficiency of direct bonding because the adhesive is applied directly on the bracket base without pre-bonding necessity. This innovation has been allowed by the use of up-to-date CFAO technology. The article first describes the two components of the SIBSystem (SIBClip and SIBTray) and details the manufacturing stages. The clinical use is then evoked as well as the cautions and limits of this innovative bonding system.

  10. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to... of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  11. Solder extrusion pressure bonding process and bonded products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Beavis, Leonard C.; Karnowsky, Maurice M.; Yost, Frederick G.

    1992-01-01

    Production of soldered joints which are highly reliable and capable of surviving 10,000 thermal cycles between about -40.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. Process involves interposing a thin layer of a metal solder composition between the metal surfaces of members to be bonded and applying heat and up to about 1000 psi compression pressure to the superposed members, in the presence of a reducing atmosphere, to extrude the major amount of the solder composition, contaminants including fluxing gases and air, from between the members being bonded, to form a very thin, strong intermetallic bonding layer having a thermal expansion tolerant with that of the bonded members.

  12. Solder extrusion pressure bonding process and bonded products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Beavis, L.C.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Yost, F.G.

    1992-06-16

    Disclosed is a process for production of soldered joints which are highly reliable and capable of surviving 10,000 thermal cycles between about [minus]40 C and 110 C. Process involves interposing a thin layer of a metal solder composition between the metal surfaces of members to be bonded and applying heat and up to about 1000 psi compression pressure to the superposed members, in the presence of a reducing atmosphere, to extrude the major amount of the solder composition, contaminants including fluxing gases and air, from between the members being bonded, to form a very thin, strong intermetallic bonding layer having a thermal expansion tolerant with that of the bonded members.

  13. Carbon-to-metal bonds: Electrochemical reduction of 2-butenenitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniau, Guy; Azoulay, Laurent; Jégou, Pascale; Le Chevallier, Gilles; Palacin, Serge

    2006-02-01

    2-Butenenitrile belongs to the large family of electron deficient vinylic monomers that usually form 100 to 500 nm thick grafted polymer films by electroreduction. However, 2-butenenitrile exhibits a slightly acidic hydrogen atom on its CH 3 group that inhibits the anionic polymerization usually observed with 'classical' organic monomers such as its isomer methacrylonitrile. 2-Butenenitrile thus gives nanometer thick grafted film by electroreduction, essentially composed of a mixture of monomers, dimers and trimers and in the same way, allows an easy observation by XPS of the chemical signature of the grafting, i.e. the carbon-to-nickel bond, observed at 283.6 eV.

  14. Bond Sensitivity to Silicone Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, G. A.; Hudson, W. D.; Hudson, W. D.; Cash, Stephen F. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Currently during fabrication of the Space Shuttle booster rocket motors, the use of silicone and silicone-containing products is prohibited in most applications. Many shop aids and other materials containing silicone have the potential, if they make contact with a bond surface, to transfer some of the silicone to the substrates being bonded. Such transfer could result in a reduction of the bond strength or even failure of the subsequent bonds. This concern is driving the need to understand the effect of silicones and the concentration needed to affect a given bond-line strength. Additionally, as silicone detection methods used for materials acceptance improve what may have gone unnoticed earlier is now being detected. Thus, realistic silicone limits for process materials (below which bond performance is satisfactory) are needed rather than having an absolute no silicone permitted policy.

  15. Better Bonded Ethernet Load Balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Gabler, Jason

    2006-09-29

    When a High Performance Storage System's mover shuttles large amounts of data to storage over a single Ethernet device that single channel can rapidly become saturated. Using Linux Ethernet channel bonding to address this and similar situations was not, until now, a viable solution. The various modes in which channel bonding could be configured always offered some benefit but only under strict conditions or at a system resource cost that was greater than the benefit gained by using channel bonding. Newer bonding modes designed by various networking hardware companies, helpful in such networking scenarios, were already present in their own switches. However, Linux-based systems were unable to take advantage of those new modes as they had not yet been implemented in the Linux kernel bonding driver. So, except for basic fault tolerance, Linux channel bonding could not positively combine separate Ethernet devices to provide the necessary bandwidth.

  16. Push-out bond strengths of two fiber post types bonded with different dentin bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Topcu, Fulya Toksoy; Erdemir, Ugur; Sahinkesen, Gunes; Mumcu, Emre; Yildiz, Esra; Uslan, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional push-out bond strengths for two fiber-reinforced post types using three different dentin bonding agents. Sixty single-rooted extracted human first premolar teeth were sectioned below the cemento-enamel junction, and the roots were endodontically treated. Following standardized post space preparations, the roots were divided into two fiber-post groups (Glassix and Carbopost), and further divided into three subgroups of 10 specimens each for the bonding systems self-etching dentin bonding agents (Clearfil SE Bond and Optibond all-in-one), and total-etching dentin bonding agent (XP Bond). A dual-cure resin luting cement (Maxcem) was then placed in the post spaces and posts were then seated into the root canals polymerized through the cervical portion. The roots were then cut into 3-mm thick sections. Push-out tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed with multivariate ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). The morphology of interface between different dentin bonding agents from the cervical sections were analyzed with SEM. Glass fiber-reinforced posts demonstrated significantly higher push-out bond strengths than carbon fiber-reinforced posts (p < 0.001). Bond strength values decreased significantly from the cervical to the apical root canal regions (p < 0.001). Self-etching dentin adhesive Clearfil SE Bond and total-etching dentin adhesive XP Bond demonstrated similar bond strengths values and this was significantly higher compared with the Optibond all-in-one in cervical root canal region. In conclusion, in all root segments, the glass fiber-reinforced posts provided significantly increased post retention than the carbon fiber-reinforced posts, regardless of the adhesive used.

  17. Influence of irradiation by a novel CO2 9.3-μm short-pulsed laser on sealant bond strength.

    PubMed

    Rechmann, P; Sherathiya, K; Kinsel, R; Vaderhobli, R; Rechmann, B M T

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether irradiation of enamel with a novel CO2 9.3-μm short-pulsed laser using energies that enhance caries resistance influences the shear bond strength of composite resin sealants to the irradiated enamel. Seventy bovine and 240 human enamel samples were irradiated with a 9.3-μm carbon dioxide laser (Solea, Convergent Dental, Inc., Natick, MA) with four different laser energies known to enhance caries resistance or ablate enamel (pulse duration from 3 μs at 1.6 mJ/pulse to 43 μs at 14.9 mJ/pulse with fluences between 3.3 and 30.4 J/cm(2), pulse repetition rate between 4.1 and 41.3 Hz, beam diameter of 0.25 mm and 1-mm spiral pattern, and focus distance of 4-15 mm). Irradiation was performed "freehand" or using a computerized, motor-driven stage. Enamel etching was achieved with 37% phosphoric acid (Scotchbond Universal etchant, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN). As bonding agent, Adper Single Bond Plus was used followed by placing Z250 Filtek Supreme flowable composite resin (both 3M ESPE). After 24 h water storage, a single-plane shear bond test was performed (UltraTester, Ultradent Products, Inc., South Jordan, UT). All laser-irradiated samples showed equal or higher bond strength than non-laser-treated controls. The highest shear bond strength values were observed with the 3-μs pulse duration/0.25-mm laser pattern (mean ± SD = 31.90 ± 2.50 MPa), representing a significant 27.4% bond strength increase over the controls (25.04 ± 2.80 MPa, P ≤ 0.0001). Two other caries-preventive irradiation (3 μs/1 mm and 7 μs/0.25 mm) and one ablative pattern (23 μs/0.25 mm) achieved significantly increased bond strength compared to the controls. Bovine enamel also showed in all test groups increased shear bond strength over the controls. Computerized motor-driven stage irradiation did not show superior bond strength values over the clinically more relevant freehand irradiation. Enamel

  18. Easy Information about Research: Getting the Message out to People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Julian; Mason, Victoria; Williams, Val; Townsley, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the provision of easy information about research to people with learning disabilities, their families and supporters. We explore some different ways we have used over the past 25 years, to make sure that research has the greatest impact both in the UK and abroad. We discuss first the process of providing easy-read versions of…

  19. Diagnostic Efficiency of easyCBM[R] Math: Washington State. Technical Report #1008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    easyCBM[R] is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention framework. Educators using easyCBM[R] are often interested in using the results to predict students' state test performance. In the following technical document, we report diagnostic efficiency statistics using a sample…

  20. Diagnostic Efficiency of easyCBM[R] Math: Oregon. Technical Report #1009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The easyCBM[R] assessment system is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention framework. Educators using easyCBM[R] are often interested in using the results to predict students' state test performance. In the following technical document, we report diagnostic efficiency…

  1. New Database Manipulation Tools in the Easy-Learning On-Line Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radescu, Radu; Davidescu, Andrei; Pupezescu, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    The present paper deals with the new ORM (object-relational mapping) tool introduced in the easy-learning platform. Propel 1.5 is the latest version of Propel, one of the ORMs fully compatible with the Symfony framework, and in comparison with the older versions and it has drastically improved the way the easy-learning platform can manipulate its…

  2. easyCBM[R] Mathematics Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Washington State Test. Technical Report #1010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    easyCBM[R] is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention (RTI) framework. Part of the purpose of easyCBM[R] is to help educators identify students who may be at risk for failure. Often, students deemed at-risk are those who would be predicted to not pass the state test. Previous…

  3. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades 2-5. Technical Report #1310

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic…

  4. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1. Technical Report #1309

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  5. The Effectiveness of SpeechEasy during Situations of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Jennifer J.; Armson, Joy; Kiefte, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple single-subject design was used to examine the effects of SpeechEasy on stuttering frequency in the laboratory and in longitudinal samples of speech produced in situations of daily living (SDL). Seven adults who stutter participated, all of whom had exhibited at least 30% reduction in stuttering frequency while using SpeechEasy during…

  6. easyCBM[R] Mathematics Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Oregon State Test. Technical Report #1011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study examining the relation between the math measures available on the easyCBM[R] online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system and the Oregon statewide assessment of mathematics. Designed for use within a response to intervention (RTI) framework, easyCBM[R] is intended to help…

  7. Pauling bond strength, bond length and electron density distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Spackman, M. A.

    2014-01-18

    A power law regression equation, = 1.46(<ρ(rc)>/r)-0.19, connecting the average experimental bond lengths, , with the average accumulation of the electron density at the bond critical point, <ρ(rc)>, between bonded metal M and oxygen atoms, determined at ambient conditions for oxide crystals, where r is the row number of the M atom, is similar to the regression equation R(M-O) = 1.39(ρ(rc)/r)-0.21 determined for three perovskite crystals for pressures as high as 80 GPa. The two equations are also comparable with those, = 1.43(/r)-0.21, determined for a large number of oxide crystals at ambient conditions and = 1.39(/r)-0.22, determined for geometry optimized hydroxyacid molecules, that connect the bond lengths to the average Pauling electrostatic bond strength, , for the M-O bonded interactions. On the basis of the correspondence between the two sets of equations connecting ρ(rc) and the Pauling bond strength s with bond length, it appears that Pauling’s simple definition of bond strength closely mimics the accumulation of the electron density between bonded pairs of atoms. The similarity of the expressions for the crystals and molecules is compelling evidence that the M-O bonded interactions for the crystals and molecules 2 containing the same bonded interactions are comparable. Similar expressions, connecting bond lengths and bond strength, have also been found to hold for fluoride, nitride and sulfide molecules and crystals. The Brown-Shannon bond valence, σ, power law expression σ = [R1/(R(M-O)]N that has found wide use in crystal chemistry, is shown to be connected to a more universal expression determined for oxides and the perovskites, <ρ(rc)> = r[(1.41)/]4.76, demonstrating that the bond valence for a bonded interaction is likewise closely connected to the accumulation of the electron density between the bonded atoms. Unlike the Brown-Shannon expression, it is universal in that it holds for the M

  8. Weld-bonded titanium structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Creedon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Structurally stronger titanium articles are produced by a weld-bonding technique comprising fastening at least two plates of titanium together using spotwelding and curing an adhesive interspersed between the spot-weld nuggets. This weld-bonding may be employed to form lap joints or to stiffen titanium metal plates.

  9. Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Lawrence J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a bonding theory which provides a framework for the description of a wide range of substances and provides quantitative information of remarkable accuracy with far less computational effort than that required of other approaches. Includes applications, such as calculation of bond energies of two binary hydrides (methane and diborane).…

  10. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  11. Microwave bonding of MEMS component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Mai, John D. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor); Budraa, Nasser K. (Inventor); Pike, William T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bonding of MEMs materials is carried out using microwave. High microwave absorbing films are placed within a microwave cavity, and excited to cause selective heating in the skin of the material. This causes heating in one place more than another. Thereby minimizing the effects of the bonding microwave energy.

  12. Ultrasonic Bonding to Metalized Plastic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, B. L.; Cruzan, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    New technique makes it possible to bond wires ultrasonically to conductor patterns on such soft substrates as plain or ceramic-filled polytetrafluoroethylene. With ultrasonic bonding, unpackaged chips attached to soft circuit boards. Preferred because chips require substrate area and better matched electrically to circuit board at high frequencies.

  13. Ultrasonic phosphate bonding of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bassett, David C; Merle, Geraldine; Lennox, Bruce; Rabiei, Reza; Barthelat, François; Grover, Liam M; Barralet, Jake E

    2013-11-06

    Low intensity ultrasound-induced radicals interact with surface adsorbed orthophosphate to bond nanoparticles with high mechanical strength and surface area. Dissimilar materials could be bonded to form robust metallic, ceramic, and organic composite microparticles. 3D nanostructures of a hydrated and amorphous electrocatalyst with carbon nanotubes were also constructed which exceeded the resistance-limited efficiency of 2D electrodes.

  14. Effects of interface edge configuration on residual stress in the bonded structures for a divertor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, K.; Nagata, K.; Shibui, M.; Tachikawa, N.; Araki, M.

    1998-10-01

    Residual stresses in the interface region, that developed at the cool down during the brazing, were evaluated for several bonded structures to assess the mechanical strength of the bonded interface, using thermoelasto-plastic stress analysis. Normal stress components of the residual stresses around the interface edge of graphite-copper (C-Cu) bonded structures were compared for three types of bonded features such as flat-type, monoblock-type and saddle-type. The saddle-type structure was found to be favorable for its relatively low residual stress, easy fabrication accuracy on bonded interface and armor replacement. Residual stresses around the interface edge in three armor materials/copper bonded structures for a divertor plate were also examined for the C-Cu, tungsten-copper (W-Cu) and molybdenum alloy-copper (TZM-Cu), varying the interface wedge angle from 45° to 135°. An optimal bonded configuration for the least value of residual stress was found to have a wedge angle of 45° for the C-Cu, and 135° for both the W-Cu and TZM-Cu bonded ones.

  15. Social bonding: regulation by neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Zuoxin

    2014-01-01

    Affiliative social relationships (e.g., among spouses, family members, and friends) play an essential role in human society. These relationships affect psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. As positive and enduring bonds are critical for the overall well-being of humans, it is not surprising that considerable effort has been made to study the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie social bonding behaviors. The present review details the involvement of the nonapeptides, oxytocin (OT), and arginine vasopressin (AVP), in the regulation of social bonding in mammals including humans. In particular, we will discuss the role of OT and AVP in the formation of social bonds between partners of a mating pair as well as between parents and their offspring. Furthermore, the role of OT and AVP in the formation of interpersonal bonding involving trust is also discussed. PMID:25009457

  16. Halogen bonding (X-bonding): A biological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Scholfield, Matthew R; Zanden, Crystal M Vander; Carter, Megan; Ho, P Shing

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the halogen bond (or X-bond) has become recognized as contributing significantly to the specificity in recognition of a large class of halogenated compounds. The interaction is most easily understood as primarily an electrostatically driven molecular interaction, where an electropositive crown, or σ-hole, serves as a Lewis acid to attract a variety of electron-rich Lewis bases, in analogous fashion to a classic hydrogen bonding (H-bond) interaction. We present here a broad overview of X-bonds from the perspective of a biologist who may not be familiar with this recently rediscovered class of interactions and, consequently, may be interested in how they can be applied as a highly directional and specific component of the molecular toolbox. This overview includes a discussion for where X-bonds are found in biomolecular structures, and how their structure–energy relationships are studied experimentally and modeled computationally. In total, our understanding of these basic concepts will allow X-bonds to be incorporated into strategies for the rational design of new halogenated inhibitors against biomolecular targets or toward molecular engineering of new biological-based materials. PMID:23225628

  17. Overview of the regulation of disulfide bond formation in Peptide and protein folding.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Yuji

    2014-04-01

    Disulfide bonds play a critical role in the maintenance of the native conformation of proteins under thermodynamic control. In general, disulfide bond formation is associated with protein folding, and this restricts the formation of folding intermediates such as misbridged disulfide isomers or kinetically trapped conformations, which provide important information related to how proteins fold into their native conformation. Therefore, numerous studies have focused on the structural analysis of folding intermediates in vitro. However, isolating or trapping folding intermediates, as well as the entire proteins, including mutant proteins, is not an easy task. Several chemical methods have recently been developed for examining peptide and protein folding and for producing, e.g., intact, post-translationally modified, or kinetically trapped proteins, or proteins with misbridged disulfide bonds. This overview introduces chemical methods for regulating the formation of disulfide bonds of peptides and proteins in the context of the thermodynamic and kinetic control of peptide and protein folding.

  18. 27 CFR 25.95 - New bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New bond. 25.95 Section 25... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.95 New bond. The appropriate TTB officer may at any time, at his or her discretion, require a new bond. A new bond is required immediately in the case...

  19. 27 CFR 25.95 - New bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false New bond. 25.95 Section 25... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.95 New bond. The appropriate TTB officer may at any time, at his or her discretion, require a new bond. A new bond is required immediately in the case...

  20. 21 CFR 1005.23 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS Bonding and Compliance Procedures § 1005.23 Bonds. The bond required under section 360(b) of the Act shall be executed by the owner or consignee on the appropriate form of a customs single-entry bond, customs Form 7551 or term bond, customs Form 7553 or 7595, containing a condition...

  1. 27 CFR 24.153 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Strengthening bonds. In any instance where the penal sum of the bond on file becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum or give a... limiting the amount of either bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds will show...

  2. 27 CFR 19.246 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Strengthening bonds. In all cases when the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new... amount of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  3. Copper-catalyzed cyanation of aryl iodides with α-cyanoacetates via C-CN bond activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-Lin; Huang, Lu

    2015-10-21

    A Cu(I)-catalyzed cyanation reaction of aryl iodides with α-cyanoacetates is reported herein, which uses α-cyanoacetates as the nontoxic and easy-handling CN source through copper-mediated C-CN bond cleavage. This reaction enables access to aryl nitriles with an array of functional groups on the aromatic ring in good to excellent yields.

  4. Hydroperoxides as Hydrogen Bond Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, Kristian H.; Tram, Camilla M.; Hansen, Anne S.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2016-06-01

    Hydroperoxides are formed in the atmosphere following autooxidation of a wide variety of volatile organics emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources. This raises the question of whether they can form hydrogen bonds that facilitate aerosol formation and growth. Using a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FT-IR, and ab initio calculations, we have compared the gas phase hydrogen bonding ability of tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBuOOH) to that of tert-butanol (tBuOH) for a series of bimolecular complexes with different acceptors. The hydrogen bond acceptor atoms studied are nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur. Both in terms of calculated redshifts and binding energies (BE), our results suggest that hydroperoxides are better hydrogen bond donors than the corresponding alcohols. In terms of hydrogen bond acceptor ability, we find that nitrogen is a significantly better acceptor than the other three atoms, which are of similar strength. We observe a similar trend in hydrogen bond acceptor ability with other hydrogen bond donors including methanol and dimethylamine.

  5. Method of bonding

    DOEpatents

    Saller, deceased, Henry A.; Hodge, Edwin S.; Paprocki, Stanley J.; Dayton, Russell W.

    1987-12-01

    1. A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors, comprising providing an assembly comprising a plurality of fuel units; each fuel unit consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, said cladding sheets being of greater width and length than said core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of said core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in said recesses, the assembly further comprising a plurality of second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and a plurality of filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000.degree. F., each filler plate being arranged between a pair of said second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units, the filler plates having the same thickness as the second side pieces; the method further comprising enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through said envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of said envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, whereby the envelope is pressed against the assembly and integral bonds are formed between plates, sheets, first side pieces, and end pieces and between the sheets and the second side pieces; slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal.

  6. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  7. Hydrogen bonded arrays: the power of multiple hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Alireza; Schmidt, Jacob; Wang, Xue-Bin; Kass, Steven R

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen bond interactions in small covalent model compounds (i.e., deprotonated polyhydroxy alcohols) were measured by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimentally determined vertical and adiabatic electron detachment energies for (HOCH(2)CH(2))(2)CHO(-)(2a), (HOCH(2)CH(2))(3)CO(-) (3a), and (HOCH(2)CH(2)CH(OH)CH(2))(3)CO(-) (4a)reveal that hydrogen-bonded networks can provide enormous stabilizations and that a single charge center not only can be stabilized by up to three hydrogen bonds but also can increase the interaction energy between noncharged OH groups by 5.8 kcal mol(-1) or more per hydrogen bond. This can lead to pK(a) values that are very different from those in water and can provide some of the impetus for catalytic processes.

  8. Hydrogen Bonded Arrays: The Power of Multiple Hydrogen Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Shokri, Alireza; Schmidt, Jacob C.; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen bond interactions in small covalent model compounds (i.e. deprotonated polyhydroxy alcohols) were measured by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimentally determined vertical and adiabatic electron detachment energies for (HOCH2CH2)2CHO (2a), (HOCH2CH2) 3CO (3a) and (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2)3CO (4a) reveal that hydrogen-bonded networks can provide enormous stabilizations, and that a single charge center not only can be stabilized by up to 3 hydrogen bonds but it can increase the interaction energy between non-charged OH groups by 5.8 kcal mol1 or more per hydrogen bond. This can lead to pKa values that are very different than in water, and provide some of the impetus for catalytic processes.

  9. Method of bond strength evaluation for silicon direct wafer bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, Alexander; Avagyan, Avag; Davies, Brady R.

    2001-09-01

    A crack-opening method used for characterization of silicon direct wafer bonding (DWB) techniques was analyzed. Mathematical model describing the influence of the pattern shape on the wafer pair resistance curve, so-called the R-curve, was developed. Two-dimensional patterns were created on a mirror-polished silicon wafer surface by a combination of photolithography, deposition and etching steps. Experimental observations did show that structured wafers can be used for large bond energy measurements. We propose utilization of structured wafers for bond energy measurements. It allows R-curve shape manipulation, increases the method sensitivity, and reduces probability of wafer failure. The resulting theory can also be used for developing new experimental methods for large bond energy measurements.

  10. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  11. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  12. Tailoring of Magnetic Easy Axis of Nickel Nanowires by Varying Diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Sidra; Sharif, Rehana; Shah, Zaheer Hussain

    2016-03-01

    Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates with an average diameter of D1˜20nm and D2˜200nm are synthesized by two-step anodization. Nickel nanowires are fabricated by AC electro deposition with less microstructure defects at low voltage in AAO templates. Magnetic properties of compact nickel (Ni) nanowires show that easy axis is parallel to nanowire axis for diameter D1˜20nm while by varying diameter from D1˜20nm to D2˜200nm, easy axis shifts to perpendicular direction of nanowire axis. This shifting of magnetic easy axis from parallel to perpendicular direction is mainly due to shape anisotropy and interactive fields between the wires. The competition between shape anisotropy (due to individual wire) and interactive fields by varying diameter of nanowires could result in tailoring of the direction of magnetic easy axis of nanowires.

  13. Life After Juvenile Detention Isn't Easy, Especially for Minorities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162625.html Life After Juvenile Detention Isn't Easy, Especially for Minorities Only ... lives back on track after being released from juvenile detention, especially those from racial and ethnic minorities, ...

  14. Easy Leaf Area: Automated digital image analysis for rapid and accurate measurement of leaf area1

    PubMed Central

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Bloom, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. • Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. • Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images. PMID:25202639

  15. 27 CFR 19.245 - Bonds and penal sums of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds and penal sums of... Bonds and penal sums of bonds. The bonds, and the penal sums thereof, required by this subpart, are as follows: Penal Sum Type of bond Basis Minimum Maximum (a) Operations bond: (1) One plant bond—...

  16. 77 FR 553 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; Western Bonding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; Western Bonding Company AGENCY... Company (NAIC 13191) under 31 U.S.C. 9305 to qualify as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds is... bonds, including continuous bonds, currently in force with above listed Company, bond-approving...

  17. 27 CFR 25.94 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Requirement. When the penal sum of the brewer's bond (calculated as provided in § 25.93) in effect is not... strengthening bond in sufficient penal sum if the surety is the same as on the bond in effect. If the surety is... bond may not in any way release a former bond or limit a bond to less than the full penal sum. (c)...

  18. A conceptual framework of bonding.

    PubMed

    Gay, J

    1981-01-01

    Nurses involved in maternal-infant child care should objectively analyze any tools that purport to measure attachment and/or bonding. Has the author adequately defined the terms? Are directions given for making concepts operational for the practicing nurse? What are the foundations for placing values on parental behaviors? Do deviant parental behaviors reflect poor attachment or bonding, or are such behaviors merely indicative of limited parental opportunities for acquaintance? The presentation of of any conceptual framework should not be considered complete without empirical testing. Such testing and peer critique of a framework are essential fro any theory of bonding to evolve. With further research into the parental-child relationship, nurses can learn to provide adequate care for facilitating the bonding process in families.

  19. Semiquantal analysis of hydrogen bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Koji

    2006-07-01

    The semiquantal time-dependent Hartree (SQTDH) theory is applied to the coupled Morse and modified Lippincott-Schroeder (LS) model potentials of hydrogen bond. The structural correlation between the heavy atoms distance and the proton position, the geometric isotope effect, the energy of hydrogen bond formation, and the proton vibrational frequency shift are examined in a broad range of structural parameters. In particular, the geometric isotope effect is found to depend notably on the choice of the potential model, for which the LS potential gives the isotope shift of the heavy atoms distance in the range of 0.02-0.04Å, in quantitative agreement with the experimental findings from assortment of hydrogen bonding crystals. The fourth-order expansion approximation to the semiquantal extended potential was confirmed to be highly accurate in reproducing the full SQTDH results. The approximation is computationally efficient and flexible enough to be applied to general models of hydrogen bond.

  20. Effect of alignment of easy axes on dynamic magnetization of immobilized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Matsugi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Naotaka; Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Enpuku, Keiji; Viereck, Thilo; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

    2017-04-01

    In some biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), the particles are physically immobilized. In this study, we explore the effect of the alignment of the magnetic easy axes on the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs under an AC excitation field. We prepared three immobilized MNP samples: (1) a sample in which easy axes are randomly oriented, (2) a parallel-aligned sample in which easy axes are parallel to the AC field, and (3) an orthogonally aligned sample in which easy axes are perpendicular to the AC field. First, we show that the parallel-aligned sample has the largest hysteresis in the magnetization curve and the largest harmonic magnetization spectra, followed by the randomly oriented and orthogonally aligned samples. For example, 1.6-fold increase was observed in the area of the hysteresis loop of the parallel-aligned sample compared to that of the randomly oriented sample. To quantitatively discuss the experimental results, we perform a numerical simulation based on a Fokker-Planck equation, in which probability distributions for the directions of the easy axes are taken into account in simulating the prepared MNP samples. We obtained quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation. These results indicate that the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs is significantly affected by the alignment of the easy axes.

  1. A dopant for improved sensitivity in easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jandyson M; Vendramini, Pedro H; Schwab, Nicolas V; Eberlin, Marcos N; de Morais, Damila R

    2016-01-01

    Recently, 3-nitrobenzonitrile (3-NBN) has been used to improve sensitivity of sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (EASI) is one of the simplest, gentlest and most used spray-based desorption/ionization ambient techniques, but limited sensitivity has been commonly taken as its major drawback. Herein we investigate the use of 3-NBN as a dopant in EASI-MS for improved sensitivity. Using a few typical EASI samples as test cases, the presence of 10 ppm (µg ml(-1) ) of 3-NBN in the spray solvent showed two to fourfold gains in EASI-MS sensitivity as measured both by total ion current and S/N ratios, accompanied with significant reductions in chemical noise. Sensitivity for DESI using 3-NBN as a dopant also improved and dopant DESI versus dopant EASI sensitivities were compared. The use of solvent dopants seems therefore to be a promising strategy to improve sensitivity for spray-based ambient MS techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Method to improve commercial bonded SOI material

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey John; Sadana, Devendra Kumar

    2000-07-11

    A method of improving the bonding characteristics of a previously bonded silicon on insulator (SOI) structure is provided. The improvement in the bonding characteristics is achieved in the present invention by, optionally, forming an oxide cap layer on the silicon surface of the bonded SOI structure and then annealing either the uncapped or oxide capped structure in a slightly oxidizing ambient at temperatures greater than 1200.degree. C. Also provided herein is a method for detecting the bonding characteristics of previously bonded SOI structures. According to this aspect of the present invention, a pico-second laser pulse technique is employed to determine the bonding imperfections of previously bonded SOI structures.

  3. Bond percolation in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Eric I.; Stinchcombe, Robin; Thorpe, M. F.

    2013-07-01

    We collect results for bond percolation on various lattices from two to fourteen dimensions that, in the limit of large dimension d or number of neighbors z, smoothly approach a randomly diluted Erdős-Rényi graph. We include results on bond-diluted hypersphere packs in up to nine dimensions, which show the mean coordination, excess kurtosis, and skewness evolving smoothly with dimension towards the Erdős-Rényi limit.

  4. Machine Gun Liner Bond Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    investigation does not constitute a complete analysis of liner failures in the M2 machine gun. The fact that two different liner-failure modes were...An order-of-magnitude estimate can be made of the bond strength in this case using a standard elastic analysis and some reasonable assumptions... analysis of the forces on the machine gun bullet, it was found that the measured bond strength was adequate to resist the reaction forces produced when

  5. Catalytic σ-Bond Metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznichenko, Alexander L.; Hultzsch, Kai C.

    This account summarizes information on recently reported applications of organo-rare-earth metal complexes in various catalytic transformations of small molecules. The σ-bond metathesis at d0rare-earth metal centers plays a pivotal role in carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond forming processes. Relevant mechanistic details are discussed and the focus of the review lies in practical applications of organo-rare-earth metal complexes.

  6. Easy Bruising

    MedlinePlus

    ... yourself? About Stephen J. Schueler, M.D News Advertising How It Works FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians Testimonials Site Map Terms of Use Contact Us FreeMD is provided for information purposes only and should not be used as a ...

  7. Easy Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... yourself? About Stephen J. Schueler, M.D News Advertising How It Works FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians Testimonials Site Map Terms of Use Contact Us FreeMD is provided for information purposes only and should not be used as a ...

  8. Breathing Easy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides practical information and guidance to auto refinish shops on proper ventilation of paint mixing rooms, including ventilation system basics and diagrams, risk reduction ideas, common mistakes, tips, and design considerations.

  9. Easy Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Donald R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a revised building standard, 1980 A 117.1, requiring barrier-free locksets in new and renovated buildings. The standard specifies that locksets must be designed so that the handle need not be twisted, grasped, or pinched to open the door. Lever-handle, push-type, and U-shaped handles are preferred. (TE)

  10. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  11. Breathe Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstien, Barb

    1999-01-01

    Examines the different indoor air pollutants that can be found in schools and tips for controlling them. Also discussed is building analysis for monitoring biocontaminants including allergens and molds. (GR)

  12. Influence of Er:YAG and Ti:sapphire laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength of several adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Portillo, M; Lorenzo, M C; Moreno, P; García, A; Montero, J; Ceballos, L; Fuentes, M V; Albaladejo, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) and Ti:sapphire laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of three different adhesive systems to dentin. Flat dentin surfaces from 27 molars were divided into three groups according to laser irradiation: control, Er:YAG (2,940 nm, 100 μs, 2.7 W, 9 Hz) and Ti:sapphire laser (795 nm, 120 fs, 1 W, 1 kHz). Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the adhesive system used: two-step total-etching adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, from now on XT), two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond, from now on CSE), and all-in-one self-etching adhesive (Optibond All-in-One, from now on OAO). After 24 h of water storage, beams of section at 1 mm(2) were longitudinally cut from the samples. Each beam underwent traction test in an Instron machine. Fifteen polished dentin specimens were used for the surface morphology analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Failure modes of representative debonded microbars were SEM-assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, chi-square test, and multiple linear regression (p < 0.05). In the control group, XT obtained higher MTBS than that of laser groups that performed equally. CSE showed higher MTBS without laser than that with laser groups, where Er:YAG attained higher MTBS than ultrashort laser. When OAO was used, MTBS values were equal in the three treatments. CSE obtained the highest MTBS regardless of the surface treatment applied. The Er:YAG and ultrashort laser irradiation reduce the bonding effectiveness when a two-step total-etching adhesive or a two-step self-etching adhesive are used and do not affect their effectiveness when an all-in-one self-etching adhesive is applied.

  13. Topology of electron charge density for chemical bonds from valence bond theory: a probe of bonding types.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixian; Ying, Fuming; Wu, Wei; Hiberty, Philippe C; Shaik, Sason

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the nature of bonding we derive the topological properties of the electron charge density of a variety of bonds based on ab initio valence bond methods. The electron density and its associated Laplacian are partitioned into covalent, ionic, and resonance components in the valence bond spirit. The analysis provides a density-based signature of bonding types and reveals, along with the classical covalent and ionic bonds, the existence of two-electron bonds in which most of the bonding arises from the covalent-ionic resonance energy, so-called charge-shift bonds. As expected, the covalent component of the Laplacian at the bond critical point is found to be largely negative for classical covalent bonds. In contrast, for charge-shift bonds, the covalent part of the Laplacian is small or positive, in agreement with the weakly attractive or repulsive character of the covalent interaction in these bonds. On the other hand, the resonance component of the Laplacian is always negative or nearly zero, and it increases in absolute value with the charge-shift character of the bond, in agreement with the decrease of kinetic energy associated with covalent-ionic mixing. A new interpretation of the topology of the total density at the bond critical point is proposed to characterize covalent, ionic, and charge-shift bonding from the density point of view.

  14. Halogen bonds in crystal engineering: like hydrogen bonds yet different.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arijit; Tothadi, Srinu; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2014-08-19

    The halogen bond is an attractive interaction in which an electrophilic halogen atom approaches a negatively polarized species. Short halogen atom contacts in crystals have been known for around 50 years. Such contacts are found in two varieties: type I, which is symmetrical, and type II, which is bent. Both are influenced by geometric and chemical considerations. Our research group has been using halogen atom interactions as design elements in crystal engineering, for nearly 30 years. These interactions include halogen···halogen interactions (X···X) and halogen···heteroatom interactions (X···B). Many X···X and almost all X···B contacts can be classified as halogen bonds. In this Account, we illustrate examples of crystal engineering where one can build up from previous knowledge with a focus that is provided by the modern definition of the halogen bond. We also comment on the similarities and differences between halogen bonds and hydrogen bonds. These interactions are similar because the protagonist atoms-halogen and hydrogen-are both electrophilic in nature. The interactions are distinctive because the size of a halogen atom is of consequence when compared with the atomic sizes of, for example, C, N, and O, unlike that of a hydrogen atom. Conclusions may be drawn pertaining to the nature of X···X interactions from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). There is a clear geometric and chemical distinction between type I and type II, with only type II being halogen bonds. Cl/Br isostructurality is explained based on a geometric model. In parallel, experimental studies on 3,4-dichlorophenol and its congeners shed light on the nature of halogen···halogen interactions and reveal the chemical difference between Cl and Br. Variable temperature studies also show differences between type I and type II contacts. In terms of crystal design, halogen bonds offer a unique opportunity in the strength, atom size and interaction gradation; this may be

  15. 76 FR 21849 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card and Aircraft Ground Services (DFARS Case... include purchases of marine fuel, oil, and refueling-related items using the Ships Bunkers Easy... the purchase of marine fuel using the Ships' bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card in lieu of the...

  16. 76 FR 58149 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card and Aircraft Ground Services (DFARS Case... to the simplified acquisition threshold using the Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card in lieu... fuel using the Ships' bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card in lieu of the SF44, Purchase...

  17. Transient liquid phase ceramic bonding

    DOEpatents

    Glaeser, Andreas M.

    1994-01-01

    Ceramics are joined to themselves or to metals using a transient liquid phase method employing three layers, one of which is a refractory metal, ceramic or alloy. The refractory layer is placed between two metal layers, each of which has a lower melting point than the refractory layer. The three layers are pressed between the two articles to be bonded to form an assembly. The assembly is heated to a bonding temperature at which the refractory layer remains solid, but the two metal layers melt to form a liquid. The refractory layer reacts with the surrounding liquid and a single solid bonding layer is eventually formed. The layers may be designed to react completely with each other and form refractory intermetallic bonding layers. Impurities incorporated into the refractory metal may react with the metal layers to form refractory compounds. Another method for joining ceramic articles employs a ceramic interlayer sandwiched between two metal layers. In alternative embodiments, the metal layers may include sublayers. A method is also provided for joining two ceramic articles using a single interlayer. An alternate bonding method provides a refractory-metal oxide interlayer placed adjacent to a strong oxide former. Aluminum or aluminum alloys are joined together using metal interlayers.

  18. Welding, Bonding and Fastening, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. D. (Editor); Stein, B. A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Soceity, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  19. Immediate bonding to bleached enamel.

    PubMed

    Nour El-din, Amal K; Miller, Barbara H; Griggs, Jason A; Wakefield, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This research sought to determine the shear bond strength, degree of resin infiltration and failure mode when organic solvent-based adhesives (acetone or ethanol) were used in immediate bonding to enamel bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide or 38% hydrogen peroxide systems. Seventy-two non-carious bovine incisors were randomly assigned to three groups of 24 specimens each-control group (deionized water), 38% hydrogen peroxide bleach group and 10% carbamide peroxide bleach group. Each group was further subdivided into two subgroups of 12 specimens each according to the adhesive system used to bond the resin composite to enamel surfaces. The two adhesive systems used were Single Bond, an ethanol-based adhesive, and One Step, an acetone-based adhesive. The shear bond strengths of 38% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide were significantly lower compared to the non-bleached controls. Fractography revealed an adhesive failure mode in all specimens. Qualitative comparisons of resin tags present in the bleached and unbleached specimens using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed few, thin and fragmented resin tags when 38% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide were used.

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Posting of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Posting of bond. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 4 Posting of bond. The General Agent shall retain an executed copy of each such bond in its principal...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Posting of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting of bond. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 4 Posting of bond. The General Agent shall retain an executed copy of each such bond in its principal...

  4. 43 CFR 3474.1 - Bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bonding requirements. 3474.1 Section 3474....1 Bonding requirements. (a) Before a lease may be issued, one of the following forms of lease bond... a form approved by the Director. (c) The bonding obligation for a new lease may be met by...

  5. 7 CFR 1726.27 - Contractor's bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contractor's bonds. 1726.27 Section 1726.27... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1726.27 Contractor's bonds. (a) RUS Form 168b, Contractor's Bond, shall be used when a contractor's bond is required by RUS Forms 200,...

  6. 27 CFR 25.96 - Superseding bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Superseding bond. 25.96 Section 25.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... principal submits a new bond to supersede a bond or bonds in effect, the appropriate TTB officer,...

  7. 27 CFR 25.96 - Superseding bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Superseding bond. 25.96 Section 25.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... principal submits a new bond to supersede a bond or bonds in effect, the appropriate TTB officer,...

  8. 27 CFR 26.69 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.69 Strengthening bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of... surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to cover the entire liability. Strengthening... penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date of execution and the effective date....

  9. 27 CFR 24.146 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (c) Wine vinegar plant bond. The proprietor of a wine vinegar plant who withdraws wine from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax for use in the manufacture of vinegar shall file a bond on TTB F 5510.2, Bond Covering Removal to and Use of Wine at Vinegar Plant, to ensure the payment of the tax...

  10. 27 CFR 24.146 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (c) Wine vinegar plant bond. The proprietor of a wine vinegar plant who withdraws wine from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax for use in the manufacture of vinegar shall file a bond on TTB F 5510.2, Bond Covering Removal to and Use of Wine at Vinegar Plant, to ensure the payment of the tax...

  11. 27 CFR 24.146 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (c) Wine vinegar plant bond. The proprietor of a wine vinegar plant who withdraws wine from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax for use in the manufacture of vinegar shall file a bond on TTB F 5510.2, Bond Covering Removal to and Use of Wine at Vinegar Plant, to ensure the payment of the tax...

  12. 27 CFR 24.146 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (c) Wine vinegar plant bond. The proprietor of a wine vinegar plant who withdraws wine from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax for use in the manufacture of vinegar shall file a bond on TTB F 5510.2, Bond Covering Removal to and Use of Wine at Vinegar Plant, to ensure the payment of the tax...

  13. 27 CFR 24.146 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (c) Wine vinegar plant bond. The proprietor of a wine vinegar plant who withdraws wine from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax for use in the manufacture of vinegar shall file a bond on TTB F 5510.2, Bond Covering Removal to and Use of Wine at Vinegar Plant, to ensure the payment of the tax...

  14. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkowitz, Joseph; Ellison, G. Barney; Gutman, David

    1993-03-01

    In this paper, the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies.

  15. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Ellison, G.B.; Gutman, D.

    1993-03-21

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies.

  16. Halogen Bonding in Organic Synthesis and Organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Bulfield, David; Huber, Stefan M

    2016-10-04

    Halogen bonding is a noncovalent interaction similar to hydrogen bonding, which is based on electrophilic halogen substituents. Hydrogen-bonding-based organocatalysis is a well-established strategy which has found numerous applications in recent years. In light of this, halogen bonding has recently been introduced as a key interaction for the design of activators or organocatalysts that is complementary to hydrogen bonding. This Concept features a discussion on the history and electronic origin of halogen bonding, summarizes all relevant examples of its application in organocatalysis, and provides an overview on the use of cationic or polyfluorinated halogen-bond donors in halide abstraction reactions or in the activation of neutral organic substrates.

  17. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Scott C

    2004-01-01

    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.

  18. Ultrasonic Bonding of Solar-Cell Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasch, W.

    1984-01-01

    Rolling ultrasonic spot-bonding method successfully joins aluminum interconnect fingers to silicon solar cells with copper metalization. Technique combines best features of ultrasonic rotary seam welding and ultrasonic spot bonding: allows fast bond cycles and high indexing speeds without use of solder or flux. Achieves reliable bonds at production rates without damage to solar cells. Bonding system of interest for all solar-cell assemblies and other assemblies using flat leads (rather than round wires).

  19. Molecularly imprinted polymers as analyte sequesters and selective surfaces for easy ambient sonic-spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Sanvido, Gustavo Braga; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2010-04-01

    The use of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a selective surface for ambient mass spectrometry is demonstrated. The MIP is used to sequester target analytes from urine and easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to be able to efficiently desorb the analytes from the MIP surface and then transfer them in protonated forms to the gas phase for MS analysis. A set of five phenothiazines (chlorpromazine, perphenazine, triflupromazine, thioridazine and prochlorperazine) were chosen from a proof-of-principle class of drug samples. A chlorpromazine-imprinted methacrylic polymer was synthesized and used to prepare a MIP probe. The MIP-EASI-MS technique using acidified methanol as solvent has been shown to allow quantification of all five drugs in urine with LOQ of ca. 1 micromol L(-1).

  20. Naive empiricism and dogmatism in confidence research: a critical examination of the hard-easy effect.

    PubMed

    Juslin, P; Winman, A; Olsson, H

    2000-04-01

    Two robust phenomena in research on confidence in one's general knowledge are the overconfidence phenomenon and the hard-easy effect. In this article, the authors propose that the hard-easy effect has been interpreted with insufficient attention to the scale-end effects, the linear dependency, and the regression effects in data and that the continued adherence to the idea of a "cognitive overconfidence bias" is mediated by selective attention to particular data sets. A quantitative review of studies with 2-alternative general knowledge items demonstrates that, contrary to widespread belief, there is (a) very little support for a cognitive-processing bias in these data; (b) a difference between representative and selected item samples that is not reducible to the difference in difficulty; and (c) near elimination of the hard-easy effect when there is control for scale-end effects and linear dependency.

  1. To Bond or Not to Bond? That Is the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balzer, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    This case, inspired by a real school district scenario, was developed for use in a graduate-level course in school finance. James Spencer had just been selected as the new superintendent of a low-income, 400-student, rural school district in need of many capital improvements. The previous superintendent had refused to hold a bond election because…

  2. Phosphate-Bonded Fly Ash.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-09

    FCODE OC ______________ ARLINGTON VA 22217-5660 - dis~bu~i.19~ 3 B Navy Case No. 75,787 PATENTS PHOSPHATE -BONDED FLY ASH IN’NA G. TALMY DEBORAH A. HAUGHT...2 3 , CaO. MgO, etc. with which the H.PO4 reacts to form the polymer-like phosphate bonds which hold the fly ash particles together. In the second...conventional means. The moisture (water) content of the aqueous HP0 4 /fly ash mixture is preferably from about 3 to about 5 weight percent for semidry

  3. Systematic review of EASY-care needs assessment for community-dwelling older people

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Christopher; Chadborn, Neil; Sands, Gina; Tuomainen, Helena; Gladman, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: undertaking comprehensive geriatric assessments (CGAs) combined with long-term health and social care management can improve the quality of life of older people [ 1]. The EASY-Care tool is a CGA instrument designed for assessing the physical, mental and social functioning and unmet health and social needs of older people in community settings or primary care. It has also been used as a frailty assessment tool and for gathering population-level data. Objective: to review the evidence of reliability, validity and acceptability of EASY-Care and its appropriateness for assessing the needs of community-dwelling older people. Methods: systematic search of literature databases using pre-defined search terms (January 1994—May 2014) for English language articles reporting on the reliability, validity, acceptability and implementation of EASY-Care in primary care and community settings. Eligible articles were critically reviewed. Discussion papers mapping professionals' use of the tool were also included as these could be considered an aspect of validity. Results: twenty-nine papers met the inclusion criteria and underwent data extraction. A narrative synthesis was performed, because there was a variety of quantitative and qualitative outcomes and characteristics. Reliability evidence for EASY-Care is minimal. Evidence for validity is good, and it has received numerous positive endorsements of acceptability in international settings from older people and practitioners. Conclusion: evidence supports the use of EASY-Care for individual needs assessment; further research is needed for other uses. Of the papers that made statements about who should administer EASY-Care, the majority indicated that nurses were preferable to self-completion. PMID:25911539

  4. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) version 1.0. Volume 1: Executive overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) provides a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. EASIE was designed to meet the needs of conceptual design engineers that face the task of integrating many stand-alone engineering analysis programs. Using EASIE, programs are integrated through a relational database management system. Volume 1, Executive Overview, gives an overview of the functions provided by EASIE and describes their use. Three operational design systems based upon the EASIE software are briefly described.

  5. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  6. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  7. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  8. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  9. The fish stick: an easy-to-use classroom training apparatus for fish.

    PubMed

    Miskovsky, Charles; Becker, Brittney; Hilker, Alleah; Abramson, Charles I

    2010-02-01

    The fish stick is an easy-to-use device for conditioning fish under classroom conditions. It is constructed from inexpensive plastic pipe available at most hardware stores and uses electronic components available at retail electronics outlets. Fish press a nipple for baby food which can be brought under stimulus control using lights, vibratory cues, or both. The fish stick is suitable for inquiry-based experiences in courses on the psychology of learning or comparative psychology. Data are presented using a continuous reinforcement schedule and discrimination learning. Students report that the fish are easy to train and enjoy the hands-on experience.

  10. Bubble and skyrmion crystals in frustrated magnets with easy-axis anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Satoru; Lin, Shi-Zeng; Batista, Cristian D.

    2016-05-01

    We clarify the conditions for the emergence of multiple-Q structures out of lattice and easy-axis spin anisotropy in frustrated magnets. By considering magnets whose exchange interaction has multiple global minima in momentum space, we find that both types of anisotropy stabilize triple-Q orderings. Moderate anisotropy leads to a magnetic-field-induced skyrmion crystal, which evolves into a bubble crystal for increasing spatial and spin anisotropy. The bubble crystal exhibits a quasicontinuous (devil's staircase) temperature-dependent ordering wave vector, characteristic of the competition between frustrated exchange and strong easy-axis anisotropy.

  11. Easy GROMACS: A Graphical User Interface for GROMACS Molecular Dynamics Simulation Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dizkirici, Ayten; Tekpinar, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    GROMACS is a widely used molecular dynamics simulation package. Since it is a command driven program, it is difficult to use this program for molecular biologists, biochemists, new graduate students and undergraduate researchers who are interested in molecular dynamics simulations. To alleviate the problem for those researchers, we wrote a graphical user interface that simplifies protein preparation for a classical molecular dynamics simulation. Our program can work with various GROMACS versions and it can perform essential analyses of GROMACS trajectories as well as protein preparation. We named our open source program `Easy GROMACS'. Easy GROMACS can give researchers more time for scientific research instead of dealing with technical intricacies.

  12. On the estimation of the magnetic easy axis in pipeline steels using magnetic Barkhausen noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P.; Pérez-Benitez, J. A.; Espina-Hernández, J. H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of the magnetic easy axis of the Roll Magnetic Anisotropy in API-5L steels is proposed. The method is based on the fact that the angular dependence of the energy corresponding to the main peak of the Magnetic Barkhausen signal presents uniaxial anisotropy with its easy axis parallel to the rolling direction, independently of the angular dependence of the magnetocrystalline energy in the materials. The proposal is also justified based on the analysis of the influence of microstructural changes, produced by hot-rolling on the domain wall dynamics.

  13. Bubble and skyrmion crystals in frustrated magnets with easy-axis anisotropy

    DOE PAGES

    Hayami, Satoru; Lin, Shi-Zeng; Batista, Cristian D.

    2016-05-12

    We clarify the conditions for the emergence of multiple-Q structures out of lattice and easy-axis spin anisotropy in frustrated magnets. By considering magnets whose exchange interaction has multiple global minima in momentum space, we find that both types of anisotropy stabilize triple-Q orderings. Moderate anisotropy leads to a magnetic field-induced skyrmion crystal, which evolves into a bubble crystal for increasing spatial and spin anisotropy. Finally, the bubble crystal exhibits a quasi-continuous (devil’s staircase) temperature dependent ordering wave-vector, characteristic of the competition between frustrated exchange and strong easy-axis anisotropy.

  14. Disulfide Bond Formation and Activation of Escherichia coli β-Galactosidase under Oxidizing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Affentranger, Roman; Ferrer-Navarro, Mario; Daura, Xavier; Villaverde, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli β-galactosidase is probably the most widely used reporter enzyme in molecular biology, cell biology, and biotechnology because of the easy detection of its activity. Its large size and tetrameric structure make this bacterial protein an interesting model for crystallographic studies and atomic mapping. In the present study, we investigate a version of Escherichia coli β-galactosidase produced under oxidizing conditions, in the cytoplasm of an Origami strain. Our data prove the activation of this microbial enzyme under oxidizing conditions and clearly show the occurrence of a disulfide bond in the β-galactosidase structure. Additionally, the formation of this disulfide bond is supported by the analysis of a homology model of the protein that indicates that two cysteines located in the vicinity of the catalytic center are sufficiently close for disulfide bond formation. PMID:22286993

  15. Capillary flow weld-bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The invention of a weld-bonding technique for titanium plates was described. This involves fastening at least two plates of titanium together using spot-welding and applying a bead of adhesive along the edge of the resistance spot-welded joint which upon heating, flows and fills the separation between the joint components.

  16. Bonding Elastomers To Metal Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, George E.; Kelley, Henry L.

    1990-01-01

    Improved, economical method for bonding elastomers to metals prevents failures caused by debonding. In new technique, vulcanization and curing occur simultaneously in specially designed mold that acts as form for desired shape of elastomer and as container that positions and supports metal parts. Increases interface adhesion between metal, adhesive, and elastomer.

  17. Bonded polyimide fuel cell package

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan; Graff, Robert T.; Bettencourt, Kerry

    2010-06-08

    Described herein are processes for fabricating microfluidic fuel cell systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are formed by bonding layers of DuPont Kapton.TM. polyimide laminate. A microfluidic fuel cell system fabricated using this process is also described.

  18. Non-bonded ultrasonic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Eoff, J.M.

    1984-07-06

    A mechanically assembled non-bonded ultrasonic transducer includes a substrate, a piezoelectric film, a wetting agent, a thin metal electrode, and a lens held in intimate contact by a mechanical clamp. No epoxy or glue is used in the assembly of this device.

  19. Visualizing Bent Bonds in Cyclopropane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertolini, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    A two-minute overhead demonstration using a molecular model kit is employed for illustrating the unique binding of cyclopropane. It is reported that most model kits, much like an sp (super 3) hybridized carbon atom, resist forming 60-degree bond angles.

  20. Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D.

    2005-01-01

    The usefulness of the bond triangle for categorizing compounds of the main-group elements may be extended by the use of weighted average electronegativities to allow distinction between compounds of the same elements with different stoichiometries. In such cases a higher valency for the central atom leads to greater covalent character and the…

  1. Nondestructive Determination of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Although many nondestructive techniques have been applied to detect disbonds in adhesive joints, no absolutely reliable nondestructive method has been developed to detect poor adhesion and evaluate the strength of bonded joints prior to the present work which used nonlinear ultrasonic methods to investigate adhesive bond cure conditions. Previously, a variety of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling had been used to study aluminum-adhesive-aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible bond strength determination. Therefore, in the course of this research effort, a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods which could possibly differentiate various cure conditions were investigated, including normal and oblique incidence approaches based on nonlinear harmonic generation as well as several non-collinear two-wave interaction approaches. Test samples were mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer operated at several variable excitation frequencies and excitation levels. Even when powerful sample-related resonances were exploited by means of a frequency scanning approach, it was very difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of adhesive bonds. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach was quite successful and reliable. Ultrasonic tone burst signals at increasing power levels, over a wide frequency range, were transmitted through each bond specimen to determine its excitation dependent nonlinear harmonic resonance behavior. Relative amplitude changes were observed particularly in the higher harmonic spectral data and analyzed using a local displacement and strain analysis in the linear approximation. Two analysis approaches of the excitation-dependent data at specific resonances were found to be quite promising. One of these approaches may represent a very robust algorithm for classifying an adhesive bond as being properly cured or not

  2. Effect of moisture, saliva, and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with a conventional bonding system and self-etched bonding system

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Mohamed, Shamil; Nayak, Krishna; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The success of bonding brackets to enamel with resin bonding systems is negatively affected by contamination with oral fluids such as blood and saliva. The new self-etch primer systems combine conditioning and priming agents into a single application, making the procedure more cost effective. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of moisture, saliva and blood contamination on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with conventional bonding system and self-etch bonding system. Materials and Methods: Each system was examined under four enamel surface conditions (dry, water, saliva, and blood), and 80 human teeth were divided into two groups with four subgroups each of 10 according to enamel surface condition. Group 1 used conventional bonding system and Group 2 used self-etched bonding system. Subgroups 1a and 2a under dry enamel surface conditions; Subgroups 1b and 2b under moist enamel surface condition; Subgroups 3a and 3b under saliva enamel surface condition and Subgroup 4a and 4b under blood enamel surface condition. Brackets were bonded, and all the samples were then submitted to a shear bond test with a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/sec. Results: The results showed that the contamination reduced the shear bond strength of all groups. In self-etch bonding system water and saliva had significantly higher bond strength when compared to other groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the blood contamination showed lowest bond strength from both bonding systems. Self-etch bonding system resulted in higher bond strength than conventional bonding system under all conditions except the dry enamel surface. PMID:24678210

  3. Understanding Resonance Graphs Using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) and Why We Use EJS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Lee, Tat Leong; Chew, Charles; Wong, Darren; Tan, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a computer model simulation created using Easy Java Simulation (EJS) for learners to visualize how the steady-state amplitude of a driven oscillating system varies with the frequency of the periodic driving force. The simulation shows (N = 100) identical spring-mass systems being subjected to (1) a periodic driving force of…

  4. Unlocking the Easy Collection: A Key to Literature across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Susan H.; Haglund, Karen E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a project at the Harrand Creek Elementary School (Enterprise, Alabama) that used a library automation program to improve curriculum access to the easy reading collection in the school library media center. Curriculum surveys are described, and the selection of appropriate subject headings for a computerized catalog is discussed. (15…

  5. Easy Access to Firearms: Juveniles' Risks for Violent Offending and Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruback, R. Barry; Shaffer, Jennifer N.; Clark, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Keeping firearms at home may increase personal safety but it may also increase the risk of injury. This study uses data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess the extent to which adolescents' easy access to firearms at home increases the risk of violent offending and violent victimization. Access to…

  6. Effects of Gender, Load, and Backpack on Easy Standing and Vertical Jump Performance. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    D BY RICHARD C. NELSON AND PHILIP E. MARTIN BIOMECHANICS LABORATORY THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY PARK, PENNSYLVANIA MARCH...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Biomechanics Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University University Park. Pennsylvania 16802 10. PROGRAM...REFERENCES APPENDICES A. Clothing and Equipment Used in This Study B. ANOVA Summary Tables for Easy Standing C. ANOVA Summary Tables for

  7. Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Grade 2 Reading Measures. Technical Report #1004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamgochian, Elisa; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Saez, Leilani; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In this technical report, we provide reliability and validity evidence for the easyCBM[R] Reading measures for grade 2 (word and passage reading fluency and multiple choice reading comprehension). Evidence for reliability includes internal consistency and item invariance. Evidence for validity includes concurrent, predictive, and construct…

  8. 78 FR 73915 - Community Alliance, Inc., Defi Global, Inc., Easy Energy, Inc., Industry Concept Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Community Alliance, Inc., Defi Global, Inc., Easy Energy, Inc., Industry Concept Holdings, Inc... concerning the securities of Community Alliance, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  9. American History Time Lines. Grades 4-8. Big, Reproducible, Easy-To-Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Susan Washburn

    This resource is designed to enhance learning about topics in United States history. The reproducible time lines are easy to use and is designed to encourage students to research other dates and events of the era under study. Suggestions are given for classroom use. The introduction has instructional subjects, such as: "12 Great Ways To Use…

  10. The Development of the easyCBM CCSS Reading Assessments: Grade 3. Technical Report #1221

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the development and piloting of easyCBM reading measures aligned to the Common Core State Standards, designed for use in screening students at risk for reading difficulty and monitoring their progress as they develop reading skills. The measures, which assess students' ability to respond to…

  11. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 7. Technical Report #1206

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  12. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 6. Technical Report #1205

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  13. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 5. Technical Report #1204

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fifth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  14. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 3. Technical Report #1202

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the third-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  15. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 2. Technical Report #1201

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the second-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  16. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 4. Technical Report #1203

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  17. E-1 Dynamic Fluid-Flow Model Update: EASY/ROCETS Enhancement and Model Development Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follett, Randolph F.; Taylor, Robert P.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the research conducted to update computer models for dynamic fluid flow simulation of the E-1 test stand subsystems at te NASA John C. Stennis Space Center.Work also involved significant upgrades to the capabilities of EASY/ROCKETS library through the inclusion of the NIST-12 thermodynamic property database and development of new control system modules.

  18. The Characterization of an Easy-to-Operate Inexpensive Student-Built Fluorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigton, Benjamin T.; Chohan, Balwant S.; Kreuter, Rod; Sykes, Dan

    2011-01-01

    A compact, rugged, and portable fluorimeter was designed and constructed using a 460 nm light-emitting diode for the excitation and a silicon photodiode for detection. The total cost of such an instrument is less than $110, thus allowing for deployment of multiple instruments at low cost. The fluorimeter is easy to operate and has been…

  19. Hey! Somebody Read to Me! Ten Easy Ways to Include Reading Every Day. Family Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmen, Marie Christine

    2005-01-01

    If a child does not learn to read in the early grades, there are few opportunities for them to catch up. Therefore, the extent of a child's exposure to reading before the early school years is not only important, but critical. In this column, the author suggests ten easy ways to make reading a part of every young child's day: (1) Read and reread…

  20. Adaptations of the Names Test: Easy-to-Use Phonics Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Nancy; Sammons, Janice; Schwartz, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    In 1990, Cunningham developed a Names Test as a quick and easy screening tool for teachers to obtain information about a student's decoding skills. In 1994, Duffelmeyer, Kruse, Merkley, and Fyfe added 10 names to the original Names Test and developed a comprehensive scoring matrix to increase diagnostic information from the test, based on error…

  1. How to Create a 3D Model from Scanned Data in 5 Easy Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a cost effective way to generate copies of damaged parts for demonstrations. Integrating scanned data of a damaged area into an existing model may be challenging. However, using the relatively inexpensive Nettfab software (from one can generate a "watertight" model that is easy to print.

  2. The Use of Cylindrical Lenses in Easy Experiments for Physics Education and the Magic Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarek, Stanislaw; Krysiak, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the properties of cylindrical lenses and provide some examples of their use in easy school physics experiments. Such experiments could be successfully conducted in the context of science education, in fun experiments that teach physics and in science fair projects, or used to entertain an audience by…

  3. Introducing Human Population Biology through an Easy Laboratory Exercise on Mitochondrial DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardinas, Antonio F.; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustin; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of…

  4. The Three Bears and Other Plays: Six Easy Plays Especially Written for Educationally Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassie, Dhyan

    This booklet contains six easy plays written for educationally handicapped children. The plays are brief, use few characters and simple language and plots, and are based on fairy tales. Titles are: (1) "The Three Bears'" (2) "The Gingerbread Boy'" (3) "Little Red Riding Hood'" (4) "The Three Billy Goats Gruff'" (5) "Hansel and Gretel'" and (6)…

  5. Properties of easy-plane/perpendicular magnetic anisotropy bilayers with varied interlayer exchange coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Sluka, Volker; Kardasz, Bartek; Pinarbasi, Mustafa; Kent, Andrew D.

    We explore the possibility of an easy-cone ground state in coupled easy plane/easy axis magnetic bilayers. The samples consist of a Co/Ni multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a CoFe layer with easy-plane anisotropy separated by a variable thickness Ru layer. Using ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we characterize the magnetic behavior of the coupled thin films for different Ru thicknesses by determining the resonance fields for both the acoustic and optical FMR modes. In particular, we observe a gap in the resonance field opening up between the two modes in angular-dependent FMR, which is direct evidence for the presence of interlayer coupling. Quantitative comparisons with a theoretical model indicate that by varying the Ru thickness the coupling strength can be tuned continuously from ferromagnetic to the anti-ferromagnetic. These results are consistent with a canted magnetic ground state in zero field, a state of interest for applications in spin-torque devices, such as current tunable spin-torque oscillators. Supported by NSF-DMR1309202 and Spin-Transfer Technologies Inc.

  6. Easy to Make Teaching Aids for Nutrition Teaching-Learning. UNESCO Nutrition Education Series, Issue 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Ellen J., Comp.; Van der Vynckt, Susan

    This issue of the UNESCO Nutrition Education Series presents a sampling of ideas for teaching aids created from experiences in developing countries and is representative of materials currently Being compiled for Volume IV of the UNESCO Resource Pack for Nutrition Teaching-Learning, "Easy to Make Teaching Aids for Nutrition Teaching-Learning." The…

  7. Long-Term Effectiveness of the SpeechEasy Fluency-Enhancement Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallop, Ronald F.; Runyan, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    The SpeechEasy has been found to be an effective device for reduction of stuttering frequency for many people who stutter (PWS); published studies typically have compared stuttering reduction at initial fitting of the device to results achieved up to one year later. This study examines long-term effectiveness by examining whether effects of the…

  8. Teach the Way They Learn: 62 Easy, Engaging, & Effective Language Arts Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Joanne I; Vincent, Pamela J.

    2005-01-01

    This book focuses on quick and easy language arts activities to inspire and motivate students in kindergarten to sixth grades. Ingenious ideas appeal to children's enthusiasm for games, parades, race cars, their own names, and much more. The activities cost little or nothing. They engage young learners, and they work! This book is perfect for a…

  9. [Easy creation of a kit of radiologic images with Microsoft Visual Basic].

    PubMed

    Itti, E; Durand, F; Bercez, H; Ceugnart, L; Pruvo, J P

    1996-11-01

    As computer media have a well accepted role in the medical world, we suggest to residents and assistants specialized in imaging, an easy, evolutive and low-cost computer-based method, that allows to build up a picture data bank for use as a teaching tool. We join to this article, the output of our interface program.

  10. Chemical Bonding of Polymer on Carbon Nanotube

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    vetIcal displacement of CNT z dl:streched length of C-C bond in polymer .Z dLI: streching of C-C bond within polymer SdL2: streched length Of C-C...bond at interface - dL2: streching of C-C bond at intedace of B of polymer/CNT ’ n polymer-CNT at first bonding site E 1 1 I dL3: streching of C-C bond

  11. Chemical Bonding Technology: Direct Investigation of Interfacial Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, J. L.; Boerio, F. J.; Plueddemann, E. P.; Miller, J.; Willis, P. B.; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    This is the third Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project document reporting on chemical bonding technology for terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules. The impetus for this work originated in the late 1970s when PV modules employing silicone encapsulation materials were undergoing delamination during outdoor exposure. At that time, manufacturers were not employing adhesion promoters and, hence, module interfaces in common with the silicone materials were only in physical contact and therefore easily prone to separation if, for example, water were to penetrate to the interfaces. Delamination with silicone materials virtually vanished when adhesion promoters, recommended by silicone manufacturers, were used. The activities related to the direct investigation of chemically bonded interfaces are described.

  12. 76 FR 14746 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds Change in State of Incorporation; Western Bonding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Bonding Company; Western Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service... Bonding Company (NAIC 13191) and Western Insurance Company (NAIC 10008) have redomesticated from the...

  13. Easy abstraction of a hydride anion from an alkyl C-H bond of a coordinated bis(N-heterocyclic carbene).

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Javier A; Damonte, Marina; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique

    2013-04-07

    The high basicity of a trimethylene-linked bis(NHC), acting as a chelating ligand in a ruthenium(0) complex, is responsible for its involvement in a room-temperature reaction in which the metal atom to which this bis(NHC) ligand is coordinated replaces a hydride anion of the ligand trimethylene linker, which can be taken by a hydride abstractor as unusual, in that role, as [Ru3(CO)12].

  14. Complexes between hypohalous acids and phosphine derivatives. Pnicogen bond versus halogen bond versus hydrogen bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingzhong; Zhu, Hongjie; Zhuo, Hongying; Yang, Xin; Li, Wenzuo; Cheng, Jianbo

    2014-11-01

    The complexes of HOBr:PH2Y (Y = H, F, Cl, Br, CH3, NH2, OH, and NO2), HOCl:PH2F, and HOI:PH2F have been investigated with ab initio calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Four types of structures (1, 2, 3a, and 3b) were observed for these complexes. 1 is stabilized by an O⋯P pnicogen bond, 2 by a P⋯X halogen bond, 3a by a H⋯P hydrogen bond and a P⋯X pnicogen bond, and 3b by H⋯P and H⋯Br hydrogen bonds. Their relative stability is related to the halogen X of HOX and the substituent Y of PH2Y. These structures can compete with interaction energy of -10.22 ∼ -29.40 kJ/mol. The Hsbnd O stretch vibration shows a small red shift in 1, a small irregular shift in 2, but a prominent red shift in 3a and 3b. The Xsbnd O stretch vibration exhibits a smaller red shift in 1, a larger red shift in 2, but an insignificant blue shift in 3a and 3b. The Psbnd Y stretch vibration displays a red shift in 1 but a blue shift in 2, 3a, and 3b. The formation mechanism, stability, and properties of these structures have been analyzed with molecular electrostatic potentials, orbital interactions, and non-covalent interaction index.

  15. Morphological evaluation of new total etching and self etching adhesive system interfaces with dentin

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Mithra N; Hegde, Priyadarshini; Chandra, C Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resin-dentin interface, quality of the hybrid layer of total-etching and self-etching adhesive systems under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared in 40 extracted human molars. In Group I XP bond (Dentsply), in Group II Adper Single Bond II (3M ESPE), in Group III Adper Easy One (3M ESPE), and in Group IV Xeno V (Dentsply) were applied. Teeth were restored with resin composite, subjected to thermocycling, and sectioned in Buccolingual plane. The samples were demineralized using 6N HCl, for 30 sec, and deproteinized with 2.5% NaOCl for 10 min, gold sputtered, and viewed using a scanning electron microscope. Results: Among the total-etch systems used, the XP Bond showed a clear, thick hybrid layer, with long resin tags and few voids. Among the self-etch adhesive systems, the Xeno V did not show a clearly recognizable hybrid layer, but there were no voids and continuous adaptation was seen with the dentin. Conclusion: The adaptation of self-etch adhesives to the resin-dentin interface was good without voids or separation of phases; showing a thin, continuous hybrid layer. PMID:22557814

  16. Effects of Etch-and-Rinse and Self-etch Adhesives on Dentin MMP-2 and MMP-9

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, A.; Scaffa, P.; Carrilho, M.; Tjäderhane, L.; Di Lenarda, R.; Polimeni, A.; Tezvergil-Mutluay, A.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Auto-degradation of collagen matrices occurs within hybrid layers created by contemporary dentin bonding systems, by the slow action of host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study tested the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the activities of MMP-2 and -9 after treatment with different etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesives. Tested adhesives were: Adper Scotchbond 1XT (3M ESPE), PQ1 (Ultradent), Peak LC (Ultradent), Optibond Solo Plus (Kerr), Prime&Bond NT (Dentsply) (all 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesives), and Adper Easy Bond (3M ESPE), Tri-S (Kuraray), and Xeno-V (Dentsply) (1-step self-etch adhesives). MMP-2 and -9 activities were quantified in adhesive-treated dentin powder by means of an activity assay and gelatin zymography. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were found after treatment with all of the simplified etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives; however, the activation was adhesive-dependent. It is concluded that all two-step etch-and-rinse and the one-step self-etch adhesives tested can activate endogenous MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human dentin. These results support the role of endogenous MMPs in the degradation of hybrid layers created by these adhesives. PMID:23128110

  17. Ultra precision and reliable bonding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The bonding of two materials through hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration is achieved at room temperature by applying hydroxide ions to at least one of the two bonding surfaces and by placing the surfaces sufficiently close to each other to form a chemical bond between them. The surfaces may be placed sufficiently close to each other by simply placing one surface on top of the other. A silicate material may also be used as a filling material to help fill gaps between the surfaces caused by surface figure mismatches. A powder of a silica-based or silica-containing material may also be used as an additional filling material. The hydroxide-catalyzed bonding method forms bonds which are not only as precise and transparent as optical contact bonds, but also as strong and reliable as high-temperature frit bonds. The hydroxide-catalyzed bonding method is also simple and inexpensive.

  18. G. N. Lewis and the Chemical Bond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the contributions of G. N. Lewis to chemistry, focusing on his formulation of the basic principle of the chemical bond--the idea that the chemical bond consists of a pair of electrons held jointly by two atoms. (JN)

  19. 'Love Hormone' Helps Dads and Babies Bond

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163657.html 'Love Hormone' Helps Dads and Babies Bond Brain scans ... 2017 FRIDAY, Feb. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The "love hormone" oxytocin may program fathers to bond with ...

  20. 25 CFR 214.4 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.4 Bonds. Lessee shall furnish with each lease at the time it is filed... consent of the Indian landowner may authorize a bond for a lesser amount if, in his opinion,...

  1. 25 CFR 214.4 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.4 Bonds. Lessee shall furnish with each lease at the time it is filed... consent of the Indian landowner may authorize a bond for a lesser amount if, in his opinion,...

  2. 29 CFR 501.9 - Surety bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The bond must be payable to the Administrator, Wage and Hour Division, United States Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room S-3502, Washington, DC 20210. The bond must obligate...

  3. Eutectic bonding of sapphire to sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide provides new bonding technique for sapphires and rubies. Technique effectively reduces possibility of contamination. Bonding material is aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide mixture that matches coefficient of thermal expansion of sapphire.

  4. Quality control of microelectronic wire bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiel, R. A.; Schmidt, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Report evaluates ultrasonic bonding of small-diameter aluminum wire joined to ceramic substrates metalized with thin-film and thick-film gold. Quick testing technique for nondestructive location of poor wire bonds is also presented.

  5. Clarifying Chemical Bonding. Overcoming Our Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hapkiewicz, Annis

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrations to help students change their misconceptions about chemical bond breaking are presented. Students' misconceptions about chemical bonds in both biological and chemical systems are discussed. A calculation for the release of energy from respiration is presented. (KR)

  6. Study of bump bonding technology

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk Cihangir et al.

    2003-10-17

    Pixel detectors proposed for the new generation of hadron collider experiments will use bump-bonding technology based on either indium or Pb/Sn solder to connect the front-end readout chips to the silicon pixel sensors. We have previously reported large-scale tests of the yield using both indium and Pb/Sn solder bump [1]. The conclusion is that both seem to be viable for pixel detectors. We have also carried out studies of various effects (e.g. storage over long period, effect of heating and cooling, and radiation) on both types of bump bonds using daisy-chained parts on a small scale [2], [3]. Overall, these tests showed little changes in the integrity of the bump connections. Nevertheless, questions still remain on the long-term reliability of the bumps due to thermal cycle effects, attachment to a substrate with a different coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and radiation.

  7. Durability of Adhesively Bonded Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-11

    frequently. Significant technology improvements have occurred In surface treatment, primers, joint analyses, adhesives and process controls. These have...clearly established the Initial cost savings potential for adhesive bonding. While this approach addresses the adequacy of joints early in service, there...processes with those changes which occur as a result of residual stress or cyclic loading in the adhesive joint 074-2R-bh 1 To fill a small part of this

  8. Diffusion bonding of Stratapax for drill bits

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, J.N.; Finger, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    A process has been developed for the diffusion bonding of General Electric's Stratapax drill blanks to support studs for cutter assemblies in drill bits. The diffusion bonding process is described and bond strength test data are provided for a variety of materials. The extensive process details, provided in the Appendices, should be sufficient to enable others to successfully build diffusion-bonded drill bit cutter assemblies.

  9. Bond Percolation on Multiplex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, A.; Cellai, D.; Gómez, S.; Arenas, A.; Gleeson, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytical approach for bond percolation on multiplex networks and use it to determine the expected size of the giant connected component and the value of the critical bond occupation probability in these networks. We advocate the relevance of these tools to the modeling of multilayer robustness and contribute to the debate on whether any benefit is to be yielded from studying a full multiplex structure as opposed to its monoplex projection, especially in the seemingly irrelevant case of a bond occupation probability that does not depend on the layer. Although we find that in many cases the predictions of our theory for multiplex networks coincide with previously derived results for monoplex networks, we also uncover the remarkable result that for a certain class of multiplex networks, well described by our theory, new critical phenomena occur as multiple percolation phase transitions are present. We provide an instance of this phenomenon in a multiplex network constructed from London rail and European air transportation data sets.

  10. H bonds in astrophysical ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, M. E.; Baratta, G. A.; Leto, G.; Strazzulla, G.

    2010-05-01

    We have studied, by infrared absorption spectroscopy, the profile (shape and peak position) of the OH dangling bond feature in pure porous amorphous solid water (ASW) and in mixtures of water with other species (CO, CO2, O2, N2, H2O2, CH4, SO2, and CH3OH) at 12-16 K. Furthermore, we have investigated the effects of ion and UV irradiation on the morphology/porosity of amorphous water ice. Thin films (about 0.25 - 1 micrometer) of porous amorphous water ice were irradiated with 200 keV H+, 30 keV He+, and 10.2 eV Lyman al pha photons at 12-16 K. We have found that the profile of the OH dangling bond feature depends on the mixture considered and that the intensity of the OH dangling bond feature decreases after irradiation. This latter result indicates that the porosity of amorphous water ice decreases after both ion and UV irradiation.

  11. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Newer Bonding Systems on Superficial and Deep Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, R Veena; Siddaraju, Kishore; Nagaraj, Hema; Poluri, Ramya Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of nanocomposite resin to superficial dentin and deep dentin using two different dentin bonding systems. Materials and Methods: All teeth were sectioned at various levels (superficial dentin: Dentin within 0.5-1 mm of dentinoenamel junction; deep dentin: Dentin within 0.5 mm of the highest pulp horn) using a Carborundum Disc and embedded in acrylic block of specific size. Selected specimens (60 premolar teeth) were grouped randomly into three groups, the groups were differentiated into superficial dentin, deep dentin, and control group which were further divided into sub Group A and Subgroup B containing 10 teeth each, depending on the bonding agents used. In Subgroup A, Tetric N Bond, and in Subgroup B Single Bond Universal were used. In the control group no bonding agent was used. The specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles between 5°C and 55°C water bath for 40 s. Finally, the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength study under INSTRON machine (Universal Testing Machine). The maximum shear bond strengths were noted at the time of fracture (de-bonding) of the restorative material. Results were analyzed using ANOVA test, Bonferroni test, and paired t-test. Results: Bond strength values of fifth generation bonding system (Tetric N Bond) showed higher mean shear bond strength compared to seventh generation bonding system (Single Bond Universal). There was a significant fall in bond strength values as one reaches deeper levels of dentin from superficial to deep dentin. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the bond strength of fifth generation bonding system (Tetric N Bond) and seventh generation bonding system (Single Bond Universal). Decrease in the bond strength values is seen for the deeper level of dentin as compared to superficial dentin. PMID:26435613

  12. Effortless way of bonding a lingual retainer.

    PubMed

    Pai, Vikram; Pai, Ramya; Revenkar, Ameet; Jasoria, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    Post orthodontic treatment, retention is one of the most important step for prevention of relapse. Over the years many direct and indirect techniques for placing a bonded lingual retainer have been practiced clinically. Present clinical practice demands a much convenient and effortless technique for bonding a lingual retainer. This article describes a simplified technique of bonding a lingual retainer.

  13. 25 CFR 163.21 - Bonds required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bonds required. 163.21 Section 163.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.21 Bonds required. (a) Performance bonds will be required in connection with...

  14. 25 CFR 163.21 - Bonds required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds required. 163.21 Section 163.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.21 Bonds required. (a) Performance bonds will be required in connection with...

  15. 25 CFR 163.21 - Bonds required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bonds required. 163.21 Section 163.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.21 Bonds required. (a) Performance bonds will be required in connection with...

  16. 25 CFR 163.21 - Bonds required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Bonds required. 163.21 Section 163.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.21 Bonds required. (a) Performance bonds will be required in connection with...

  17. 25 CFR 163.21 - Bonds required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bonds required. 163.21 Section 163.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.21 Bonds required. (a) Performance bonds will be required in connection with...

  18. 43 CFR 3134.1 - Bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bonding. 3134.1 Section 3134.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bonding: General § 3134.1 Bonding. (a) Prior to issuance of an oil and gas lease, the successful...

  19. 43 CFR 3430.6-2 - Bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bonding. 3430.6-2 Section 3430.6-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bonding. The lease bond for a preference right lease shall be set in accordance with subpart 3474 of...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12042 - Track bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Track bonding. 57.12042 Section 57.12042 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... and Underground § 57.12042 Track bonding. Both rails shall be bonded or welded at every joint...

  1. 36 CFR 228.51 - Bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bonding. 228.51 Section 228... Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.51 Bonding. (a) Bond requirements. Before operations may begin... noted in paragraphs (a) (1) and (3) of this section, where the authorized officer may waive such...

  2. 30 CFR 57.12042 - Track bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Track bonding. 57.12042 Section 57.12042 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... and Underground § 57.12042 Track bonding. Both rails shall be bonded or welded at every joint...

  3. 36 CFR 228.51 - Bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bonding. 228.51 Section 228... Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.51 Bonding. (a) Bond requirements. Before operations may begin... noted in paragraphs (a) (1) and (3) of this section, where the authorized officer may waive such...

  4. 43 CFR 3154.2 - Additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional bonding. 3154.2 Section 3154.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Requirements § 3154.2 Additional bonding. The authorized officer may increase the amount of any bond that...

  5. Cleanliness inspection tool for RSRM bond surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattes, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Using optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE), Thiokol has monitored bond surfaces in process for contamination on the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). This technique provides process control information to help assure bond surface quality and repeatability prior to bonding. This paper will describe OSEE theory of operation and the instrumentation implemented at Thiokol Corporation since 1987. Data from process hardware will be presented.

  6. 43 CFR 16.5 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bonds. 16.5 Section 16.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONSERVATION OF HELIUM § 16.5 Bonds. The applicant shall be required to submit a bond in such amount and in such form as the Secretary may prescribe to...

  7. 43 CFR 16.5 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bonds. 16.5 Section 16.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONSERVATION OF HELIUM § 16.5 Bonds. The applicant shall be required to submit a bond in such amount and in such form as the Secretary may prescribe to...

  8. 43 CFR 16.5 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Bonds. 16.5 Section 16.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONSERVATION OF HELIUM § 16.5 Bonds. The applicant shall be required to submit a bond in such amount and in such form as the Secretary may prescribe to...

  9. 36 CFR 223.35 - Performance bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 223.35 Section 223.35 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND... Performance bond. Timber sale contracts may require the purchaser to furnish a performance bond...

  10. 43 CFR 23.9 - Performance bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance bond. 23.9 Section 23.9 Public... LANDS § 23.9 Performance bond. (a)(1) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than $2,000 with satisfactory...

  11. 25 CFR 216.8 - Performance bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance bond. 216.8 Section 216.8 Indians BUREAU OF... RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216.8 Performance bond. (a) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than...

  12. 43 CFR 23.9 - Performance bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance bond. 23.9 Section 23.9 Public... LANDS § 23.9 Performance bond. (a)(1) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than $2,000 with satisfactory...

  13. 36 CFR 9.13 - Performance bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance bond. 9.13... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.13 Performance bond. (a) Upon approval of a plan of operations the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond with satisfactory...

  14. 36 CFR 223.35 - Performance bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance bond. 223.35... Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.35 Performance bond. Timber sale contracts may require the purchaser to furnish a performance bond for satisfactory compliance with its terms....

  15. 25 CFR 216.8 - Performance bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Performance bond. 216.8 Section 216.8 Indians BUREAU OF... RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216.8 Performance bond. (a) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than...

  16. 36 CFR 9.13 - Performance bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 9.13... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.13 Performance bond. (a) Upon approval of a plan of operations the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond with satisfactory...

  17. Oregon School Bond Manual. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    To help school districts comply with Oregon's school bond laws, this manual provides guidelines for school district attorneys and personnel in the issuance and sale of school district bonds. The manual deals with the three primary types of Oregon school district borrowings: (1) general obligation bonds; (2) tax and revenue anticipation notes; and…

  18. 30 CFR 800.20 - Surety bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.20 Surety bonds....

  19. 30 CFR 800.20 - Surety bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.20 Surety bonds....

  20. 30 CFR 800.20 - Surety bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.20 Surety bonds....

  1. 30 CFR 800.20 - Surety bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.20 Surety bonds....

  2. 30 CFR 800.20 - Surety bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.20 Surety bonds....

  3. 7 CFR 1788.12 - Contractors' bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contractors' bonds. 1788.12 Section 1788.12... Insurance for Contractors, Engineers, and Architects, Electric Borrowers § 1788.12 Contractors' bonds. Electric borrowers shall require contractors to obtain contractors' bonds when required by part...

  4. 36 CFR 228.51 - Bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bonding. 228.51 Section 228.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.51 Bonding. (a) Bond requirements. Before operations may...

  5. Bonding Heat-Resistant Fabric to Tile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. W.; Smiser, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Acid etching, densification, and silica cement ensure strong bond. Key step in preparation for bonding to glazed tile is etching quartz fabric and tile with acid. This increases adhesion of silica cement used to form bond. Procedures use high-temperature materials exclusively and therefore suitable for securing flexible seals and heat barriers around doors and viewing ports in furnaces and kilns.

  6. 27 CFR 25.95 - New bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false New bond. 25.95 Section 25.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... a fiduciary capacity shall execute a new bond or obtain a consent of surety on all bonds in...

  7. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  8. 27 CFR 19.243 - Withdrawal bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to each plant covered by the bond the part of the total sum which represents the penal sum (computed in accordance with § 19.245) for each such plant. If the penal sum of the bond covering a plant, or the penal sum allocated to any plant (where the bond covers more than one plant), is in an amount...

  9. 27 CFR 19.516 - Bond account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... maximum penal sum, he shall maintain an account of his bond and he shall charge the bond with the amount... return. Where a bond in less than the maximum penal sum has been allocated among two or more plants, as... the penal sum allocated to that plant. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1356, as amended (26...

  10. 27 CFR 19.244 - Unit bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sum which represents the penal sum (computed in accordance with § 19.245) for operations at and withdrawals from each plant. If the penal sum of the bond covering a plant, or the penal sum allocated to any... reflected by the penal sum in the bond for such plant. The unit bond shall be conditioned that the...

  11. 43 CFR 16.5 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bonds. 16.5 Section 16.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONSERVATION OF HELIUM § 16.5 Bonds. The applicant shall be required to submit a bond in such amount and in such form as the Secretary may prescribe to...

  12. 43 CFR 16.5 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bonds. 16.5 Section 16.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONSERVATION OF HELIUM § 16.5 Bonds. The applicant shall be required to submit a bond in such amount and in such form as the Secretary may prescribe to...

  13. Bonding and Joining Technology: a Compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A collection of articles concerning the methods and uses of aerospace bonding and joining techniques in industrial processes is presented. Data include methods to bond and join metal components, joining techniques for adhesive materials, and shop hints for bonding and joining a variety of other items and materials.

  14. Bond Valuation for Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Bond valuation is examined to provide college administrators a more thorough understanding of the process to help them in developing their market values, or to help them in moving to a market valuation on bond holdings. Two methods presently used to value bonds, a matrix system and a trader quotation method, are described. An overview of bond…

  15. Inorganic bonding of semiconductor strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, N. L.

    1970-01-01

    Inorganic bonding materials minimize outgassing and improve electrical and mechanical properties of semiconductor strain-gage transducers in high-vacuum and high-temperature operations. The two basic methods described are ceramic-glass-bonding and metallic bond formation between the strain gage and the substrate.

  16. A Model for the Chemical Bond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnasco, Valerio

    2004-01-01

    Bond stereochemistry in polyatomic hydrides is explained in terms of the principle of bond energies maximization, which yields X-H straight bonds and suggests the formation of appropriate sp hybrids on the central atom. An introduction to the electron charge distribution in molecules is given, and atomic, overlap, gross and formal charges are…

  17. Valence-Bond Theory and Chemical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Douglas J.; Trinajstic, Nenad

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the importance of valence bond theory on the quantum-mechanical theory of chemical structure and the nature of the chemical bond. Described briefly are early VB theory, development of VB theory, modern versions, solid-state applications, models, treatment in textbooks, and flaws in criticisms of valence bond theory. (KR)

  18. Magnetization process in holmium: easy axis spin reorientation induced by the magnetostrictive basal plane distortion.

    PubMed

    Benito, L; Ciria, M; de la Fuente, C; Arnaudas, J I; Ward, R C C; Wells, M R

    2005-06-10

    We report on the change of the easy axis direction in holmium, from the a to the b axis, under the application of a magnetic field in the basal plane. This spin reorientation is observed by measuring the magnetic torque in Ho(n)/Lu(15) superlattices (n and 15 are the number of atomic planes in the Ho and Lu blocks). We also observe that, at the field H0 and temperature at which the reorientation occurs, both axes are easy directions. Based on the fact that the field H0 depends on n in the same way as the field-induced magnetoelastic distortion does, we propose that this spin reorientation originates from the strong field-induced magnetoelastic deformation within the basal plane. The modulation of the alpha strains with sixfold symmetry originates a 12-fold term in the magnetic anisotropy energy.

  19. easyPET: a novel concept for an affordable tomographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arosio, V.; Caccia, M.; Castro, I. F.; Correia, P. M. M.; Mattone, C.; Moutinho, L. M.; Santoro, R.; Silva, A. L. M.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2017-02-01

    The easyPET concept described here aims to reduce complexity and cost of preclinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners. The system, original in its principle and realisation, is based on a single pair of detectors and a rotating mechanism with two degrees of freedom reproducing the functionalities of an entire PET ring. The characterisation of a 2D imaging prototype, realised to assess the easyPET concept, is presented in this paper. In particular, a spatial resolution of 1±0.1 mm and a sensitivity of 0.1% with an energy threshold of 80 keV have been measured. These encouraging results, compared to the performances of commercial preclinical PET, motivate the feasibility study of a 3D system.

  20. sesC as a genetic marker for easy identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis from other isolates.

    PubMed

    Khodaparast, Ladan; Khodaparast, Laleh; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Shahrooei, Mohammad; Van Ranst, Marc; Van Eldere, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the major concerns with respect to hospital-acquired infections. Therefore, a rapid and easy method to identify at species level S. epidermidis isolates out of a broad range of bacteria is necessary. Based on earlier studies, the sesC gene encoding a S. epidermidis surface protein revealed to be a highly conserved gene in this species. By means of an easy and inexpensive PCR assay, the presence of sesC was checked in 438 clinical staphylococcal isolates. Results showed that sesC is specifically present in all S. epidermidis. In conclusion, the sesC gene can be exploited as a genetic marker in order to distinguish S. epidermidis from other isolates.

  1. Easy fabrication of thin membranes with through holes. Application to protein patterning.

    PubMed

    Masters, Thomas; Engl, Wilfried; Weng, Zhe L; Arasi, Bakya; Gauthier, Nils; Viasnoff, Virgile

    2012-01-01

    Since protein patterning on 2D surfaces has emerged as an important tool in cell biology, the development of easy patterning methods has gained importance in biology labs. In this paper we present a simple, rapid and reliable technique to fabricate thin layers of UV curable polymer with through holes. These membranes are as easy to fabricate as microcontact printing stamps and can be readily used for stencil patterning. We show how this microfabrication scheme allows highly reproducible and highly homogeneous protein patterning with micron sized resolution on surfaces as large as 10 cm(2). Using these stencils, fragile proteins were patterned without loss of function in a fully hydrated state. We further demonstrate how intricate patterns of multiple proteins can be achieved by stacking the stencil membranes. We termed this approach microserigraphy.

  2. Second Interim Report NASA - easyJet Collaboration on the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP) Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivistava, Ashok N.; Barton, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This is the second interim report jointly prepared by NASA and easyJet on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the factors entailed in flight and cabin-crew fatigue, and decreases in performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable procedures that aid in understanding the levels and characteristics of flight and cabin-crew fatigue factors, both latent and proximate, whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and easyJet are both interested in assessing and testing NASA s automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases; much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

  3. NASA - easyJet Collaboration on the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP) Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivistava, Ashok N.; Barton, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and easyJet on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the many factors entailed in flight - and cabin-crew fatigue and documenting the decreases in performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight - and cabin-crew fatigue factors, both latent and proximate, whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable flight crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and easyJet are both interested in assessing and testing NASA s automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases, much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

  4. Overproduction and easy recovery of biofuels from engineered cyanobacteria, autolyzing multicellular cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Satomi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Ikeda, Ayae; Fukuda, Hirofumi; Kitazaki, Chifumi; Asayama, Munehiko

    2015-06-01

    The semi-filamentous multicellular cyanobacterium Limnothrix/Pseudanabaena sp. strain ABRG5-3 undergoes autolysis, which involves the accumulation of polyphosphate compounds and disintegration of thylakoid membranes in cells, as a unique feature that occurs due to growth conditions. In this study, the overexpression and easy recovery of alkane (a saturated hydrocarbon, C17H36) as a biofuel were examined in recombinants of the cyanobacteria ABRG5-3 and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. The results obtained indicated that the accumulated mass of alkane accounted for ∼50 or 60% of the dry weight of ABRG5-3 or PCC6803 recombinant cells, respectively. Furthermore, cultivating cells in liquid medium BG11 in which the nitrogen resource had been depleted promoted the production of alkane and cell lysis, resulting in the easy recovery of target products from the supernatant.

  5. [A study of culture-based easy identification system for Malassezia].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takamasa

    2011-01-01

    Most species of this genus are lipid-dependent yeasts, which colonize the seborrheic part of the skin, and they have been reported to be associated with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Malassezia have been re-classified into 7 species based on molecular biological analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA/RNA and new Malassezia species were reported. As members of the genus Malassezia share similar morphological and biochemical characteristics, it was thought to be difficult to differentiate between them based on phenotypic features. While molecular biological techniques are the most reliable methods for identification of Malassezia, they are not available in most clinical laboratories. We studied ( i ) development of an efficient isolation media and culture based easy identification system, ( ii ) the incidence of atypical biochemical features in Malassezia species and propose a culture-based easy identification system for clinically important Malassezia species, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. furfur.

  6. Easy and direct method for calibrating atomic force microscopy lateral force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenhua; Bonin, Keith; Guthold, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We have designed and tested a new, inexpensive, easy-to-make and easy-to-use calibration standard for atomic force microscopy (AFM) lateral force measurements. This new standard simply consists of a small glass fiber of known dimensions and Young’s modulus, which is fixed at one end to a substrate and which can be bent laterally with the AFM tip at the other end. This standard has equal or less error than the commonly used method of using beam mechanics to determine a cantilever’s lateral force constant. It is transferable, thus providing a universal tool for comparing the calibrations of different instruments. It does not require knowledge of the cantilever dimensions and composition or its tip height. This standard also allows direct conversion of the photodiode signal to force and, thus, circumvents the requirement for a sensor response (sensitivity) measurement. PMID:17614616

  7. SCEW: a Microsoft Excel add-in for easy creation of survival curves.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2006-07-01

    Survival curves are frequently used for reporting survival or mortality outcomes of experimental pharmacological/toxicological studies and of clinical trials. Microsoft Excel is a simple and widely used tool for creation of numerous types of graphic presentations however it is difficult to create step-wise survival curves in Excel. Considering the familiarity of clinicians and biomedical scientists with Excel, an algorithm survival curves in Excel worksheet (SCEW) has been developed for easy creation of survival curves directly in Excel worksheets. The algorithm has been integrated in the form of Excel add-in for easy installation and usage. The program is based on modification of frequency data for binary break-up using the spreadsheet formula functions whereas a macro subroutine automates the creation of survival curves. The advantages of this program are simple data input, minimal procedural steps and the creation of survival curves in the familiar confines of Excel.

  8. The use of cylindrical lenses in easy experiments for physics education and the magic arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław; Krysiak, Jerzy

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the properties of cylindrical lenses and provide some examples of their use in easy school physics experiments. Such experiments could be successfully conducted in the context of science education, in fun experiments that teach physics and in science fair projects, or used to entertain an audience by staging tricks, effects or illusions of seemingly impossible or supernatural feats.

  9. Phase states of a 2D easy-plane ferromagnet with strong inclined anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, Yu. A. Klevets, F. N.; Gorelikov, G. A.; Meleshko, A. G.

    2012-12-15

    We investigate the spin states of a 2D film exhibiting easy-axis anisotropy and a strong single-ion inclined anisotropy whose axis forms a certain angle with the normal to the film surface. Such a system may have an angular ferromagnetic phase, a spatially inhomogeneous state, and a quadrupole phase, whose realization depends substantially on the inclined anisotropy and the orientation of the wavevector in the film plane.

  10. A set of 4D NMR experiments of enhanced resolution for easy resonance assignment in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Koźmiński, Wiktor

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents examples of techniques based on the principle of random sampling that allows acquisition of NMR spectra featuring extraordinary resolution. This is due to increased dimensionality and maximum evolution time reached. The acquired spectra of CsPin protein and maltose binding protein were analyzed statistically with the aim to evaluate each technique. The results presented include exemplary spectral cross-sections. The spectral data provided by the proposed techniques allow easy assignment of backbone and side-chain resonances.

  11. 77 FR 32128 - Cancellation of Bond Subject to Enhanced Bonding Requirements Upon CBP's Acceptance of Qualified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Cancellation of Bond Subject to Enhanced Bonding Requirements... calculated pursuant to enhanced bonding requirements (EBR bond) upon the agency's acceptance of a qualified..., kara.welty@dhs.gov , Tel. (317) 614-4614. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background I. Enhanced...

  12. 19 CFR 125.32 - Merchandise delivered to a bonded store or bonded warehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse. 125.32 Section 125.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Merchandise delivered to a bonded store or bonded warehouse. When merchandise is carried, carted or lightered to and received in a bonded store or bonded warehouse, the proprietor or his representative...

  13. 27 CFR 70.282 - Single bond in lieu of multiple bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Single bond in lieu of multiple bonds. 70.282 Section 70.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ADMINISTRATION Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Bonds § 70.282 Single bond in lieu of...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7102-1 - Single bond in lieu of multiple bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Single bond in lieu of multiple bonds. 301.7102-1 Section 301.7102-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Bonds § 301.7102-1 Single bond in...

  15. Two-center two-electron covalent bonds with deficient bonding densities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang

    2012-10-18

    Electron-deficient covalent bonds are a type of covalent bonds without electron accumulation at their bonding regions. Compared with normal covalent bonds, they are quite sensitive to chemical environments. Electron-deficient and normal covalent bonds are not isolated from each other. An electron-deficient bond may change to a normal one upon the change of substituting groups. Neither bond elongation nor atom electronegativity is directly related to the electron deficiency in an electron-deficient bond. Atoms in molecules (AIM) analyses suggest that electron-deficient bonds are characterized by positive Laplacians and small ρ(BCP) values. The positive Laplacian is caused by insignificant electron accumulation perpendicular to the bond path. On the basis of electron localization function (ELF) descriptors, electron-deficient bonds have small basin populations, low η values and high relative fluctuations. There may be one or two bond basins for an electron-deficient bond. In addition, such a bond may correlate with two more valence basins close to the two participating atoms. Electron-deficient bonds are usually weak and long. This is consistent with the low s characters in their natural bond orbitals (NBOs).

  16. Improving orthodontic bonding to silver amalgam.

    PubMed

    Zachrisson, B U; Büyükyilmaz, T; Zachrisson, Y O

    1995-01-01

    Flat rectangular tabs (n = 84) prepared from lathe-cut amalgam (ANA 2000) were subjected to aluminum oxide sandblasting or roughening with a diamond bur. Mandibular incisor edgewise brackets were bonded to these tabs using: Concise (Bis-GMA resin); one of three metal-bonding adhesives, viz., Superbond C&B (4-META resin), Panavia Ex (10-MDP Bis-GMA resin) or Geristore (composite base); and Concise after application of the intermediate resins All-Bond 2 Primers A+B, or the Scotch-Bond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) system. All specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours before tensile bond strength testing. Alignment and uniform loading during testing were secured by engaging a hook in a circular ring soldered onto the bracket slot before bonding. Similar control brackets (n = 12) were bonded with Concise to extracted caries-free mandibular incisors. Bond failure sites were classified by a modified ARI system. Mean tensile bond strengths in the experimental group ranged from 3.4 to 6.4 MPa--significantly weaker than the control sample (13.2 MPa). Bond failure generally occurred at the amalgam/adhesive interface. Superbond C&B created the strongest bonds to amalgam; according to ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple-Range test, they were significantly stronger than the bonds with Panavia Ex and Concise, with Geristore in between. However, the bond strength of Concise to sandblasted amalgam was comparable to the Superbond C&B bonds when coupled with an intermediate application of All-Bond 2 Primers A+B. The SBMP, on the other hand, was less effective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Melting of Three-Sublattice Order in Easy-Axis Antiferromagnets on Triangular and Kagome Lattices.

    PubMed

    Damle, Kedar

    2015-09-18

    When the constituent spins have an energetic preference to lie along an easy axis, triangular and kagome lattice antiferromagnets often develop long-range order that distinguishes the three sublattices of the underlying triangular Bravais lattice. In zero magnetic field, this three-sublattice order melts either in a two-step manner, i.e., via an intermediate phase with power-law three-sublattice order controlled by a temperature-dependent exponent η(T)∈(1/9,1/4), or via a transition in the three-state Potts universality class. Here, I predict that the uniform susceptibility to a small easy-axis field B diverges as χ(B)∼|B|^{-[(4-18η)/(4-9η)]} in a large part of the intermediate power-law ordered phase [corresponding to η(T)∈(1/9,2/9)], providing an easy-to-measure thermodynamic signature of two-step melting. I also show that these two melting scenarios can be generically connected via an intervening multicritical point and obtain numerical estimates of multicritical exponents.

  18. Weld bonding of titanium with polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Sheppard, C. H.; Orell, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    A conductive adhesive primer and a capillary flow adhesive were developed for weld bonding titanium alloy joints. Both formulations contained ingredients considered to be non-carcinogenic. Lap-shear joint test specimens and stringer-stiffened panels were weld bonded using a capillary flow process to apply the adhesive. Static property information was generated for weld bonded joints over the temperature range of 219K (-65 F) to 561K (550 F). The capillary flow process was demonstrated to produce weld bonded joints of equal strength to the weld through weld bonding process developed previously.

  19. Diffusion bonding of copper to niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Adrian R.

    Processes used to join metal to ceramic at low temperatures have proven to be inefficient because multiple brazing cycles with different brazing temperatures and braze filler metals are required. Even though this is reproducible and robust, it is not ideal due to the manufacturing time and cost associated with multiple brazing cycles. A more efficient and cost effective process is to utilize the diffusion bonding technique to join different metallic layers prior to joining the entire ceramic assembly in one brazing cycle. In this study, the diffusion bonding of copper to niobium was examined. To the author's knowledge, the diffusion bonding of Cu to Nb has not been researched, and the diffusion of Cu into Nb or Nb into Cu has not been observed. A series of diffusion bonding experiments were conducted to determine the optimal bonding time, temperature, and pressure for the Cu-Nb system. The diffusion bonded samples were evaluated using mechanical testing and microscopy. Results from characterization indicate that diffusion of Nb into Cu occurs, and a robust bond with no interfacial voids is formed using different combinations of bonding parameters. The diffusion of Nb into Cu and with failure occurring outside the diffusion bonded region during all mechanical testing indicate that Cu can be bonded to Nb via the diffusion bonding technique.

  20. Bonding PMMA microfluidics using commercial microwave ovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toossi, A.; Moghadas, H.; Daneshmand, M.; Sameoto, D.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel low-cost, rapid substrate-bonding technique is successfully applied to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microfluidics bonding for the first time. This technique uses a thin intermediate metallic microwave susceptor layer at the interface of the bonding site (microchannels) which produces localized heating required for bonding during microwave irradiation. The metallic susceptor pattern is designed using a multiphysics simulation model developed in ANSYS Multiphysics software (high-frequency structural simulation (HFSS) coupled with ANSYS-Thermal). In our experiments, the required microwave energy for bonding is delivered using a relatively inexpensive, widely accessible commercial microwave oven. Using this technique, simple PMMA microfluidics prototypes are successfully bonded and sealed in less than 35 seconds with a minimum measured bond strength of 1.375 MPa.

  1. The Limit of Intramolecular H-Bonding.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Thomas A; Brown, Alisdair J; Bell, Ian A W; Cockroft, Scott L

    2016-11-23

    Hydrogen bonds are ubiquitous interactions in molecular recognition. The energetics of such processes are governed by the competing influences of pre-organization and flexibility that are often hard to predict. Here we have measured the strength of intramolecular interactions between H-bond donor and acceptor sites separated by a variable linker. A striking distance-dependent threshold was observed in the intramolecular interaction energies. H-bonds were worth less than -1 kJ mol(-1) when the interacting groups were separated by ≥6 rotating bonds, but ranged between -5 and -9 kJ mol(-1) for ≤5 rotors. Thus, only very strong external H-bond acceptors were able to compete with the stronger internal H-bonds. In addition, a constant energetic penalty per rotor of ∼5-6 kJ mol(-1) was observed in less strained situations where the molecule contained ≥4 rotatable bonds.

  2. Long Range Bond-Bond Correlations in Dense Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmer, J. P.; Meyer, H.; Baschnagel, J.; Johner, A.; Obukhov, S.; Mattioni, L.; Müller, M.; Semenov, A. N.

    2004-09-01

    The scaling of the bond-bond correlation function P1(s) along linear polymer chains is investigated with respect to the curvilinear distance s along the flexible chain and the monomer density ρ via Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. Surprisingly, the correlations in dense three-dimensional solutions are found to decay with a power law P1(s)˜s-ω with ω=3/2 and the exponential behavior commonly assumed is clearly ruled out for long chains. In semidilute solutions, the density dependent scaling of P1(s)≈g-ω0(s/g)-ω with ω0=2-2ν=0.824 (ν=0.588 being Flory's exponent) is set by the number of monomers g(ρ) in an excluded volume blob. Our computational findings compare well with simple scaling arguments and perturbation calculation. The power-law behavior is due to self-interactions of chains caused by the chain connectivity and the incompressibility of the melt.

  3. Bonded and Stitched Composite Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalewski, Bart F. (Inventor); Dial, William B. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of forming a composite structure can include providing a plurality of composite panels of material, each composite panel having a plurality of holes extending through the panel. An adhesive layer is applied to each composite panel and a adjoining layer is applied over the adhesive layer. The method also includes stitching the composite panels, adhesive layer, and adjoining layer together by passing a length of a flexible connecting element into the plurality of holes in the composite panels of material. At least the adhesive layer is cured to bond the composite panels together and thereby form the composite structure.

  4. An Easy and Effective Demonstration of Enzyme Stereospecificity and Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdman, Chelsea; Dickman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme stereospecificity and equilibrium thermodynamics can be demonstrated using the coupling of two amino acid derivatives by Thermoase C160. This protease will catalyze peptide bond formation between Z-L-AspOH and L-PheOMe to form the Aspartame precursor Z-L-Asp-L-PheOMe. Reaction completion manifests itself by precipitation of the product. As…

  5. 27 CFR 19.956 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of bond. The penal sum of the bond is based on the total quantity of distilled spirits to be produced... increased, and the bond is not in the maximum penal sum, a new or strengthening bond shall be obtained....

  6. Teaching Chemical Bonding: A Resource Book for Senior Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Margaret

    This document presents an instructional strategy for teaching chemical bonding using parables and music. Games, student interactions, and worksheets are included in the lesson plans. Topics include metallic bonding, covalent bonding including molecular and network structure, and ionic bonding. (JRH)

  7. The Psychosocial Development and Increased Fluency of Users of the SpeechEasyRTM Device: A Multiple Unit Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, David James

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study explored the efficacy of the SpeechEasy[R] device for individuals who are gainfully employed stutterers and who participated in workplace education learning activities. This study attempted to fill a gap in the literature regarding efficacy of the SpeechEasy[R] device. It employed a qualitative multiple unit case study…

  8. Internal Consistency of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading Measures: Grades 3-8. Technical Report #1407

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerreiro, Meg; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    This technical report documents findings from a study of the internal consistency and split-half reliability of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading measures, grades 3-8. Data, drawn from an extant data set gathered in school year 2013-2014, include scores from over 150,000 students' fall and winter benchmark assessments. Findings suggest that the easyCBM©…

  9. Criterion Validity Evidence for the easyCBM© CCSS Math Measures: Grades 6-8. Technical Report #1402

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Rowley, Brock; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The easyCBM© CCSS Math tests were developed to help inform teachers' instructional decisions by providing relevant information on students' mathematical skills, relative to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). This technical report describes a study to explore the validity of the easyCBM© CCSS Math tests by evaluating the relation between…

  10. Making the Good Even Better: Feedback from easyCBM Focus Groups, School Year 2009/2010. Technical Report # 1001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald; Lai, Cheng-Fei

    2010-01-01

    This technical report provides a summary of feedback from teachers, administrators, and support personnel who used the easyCBM progress monitoring and benchmark assessment system during school year 2009/2010. Data were gathered from semi-structured focus groups conducted during the 2010 easyCBM August Institute at the University of Oregon. Results…

  11. Cross-Validation of easyCBM Reading Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical report presents results from a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut scores when using easyCBM[R] reading tests in Oregon. The cross-validation study analyzes data from the 2009-2010 academic year for easyCBM[R] reading measures. A sample of approximately 2,000 students per grade, randomly split into two groups of…

  12. Protonated alcohols are examples of complete charge-shift bonds.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Petit, Alban; Ho, Junming; Mitoraj, Mariusz Pawel; Coote, Michelle L; Danovich, David; Shaik, Sason; Braïda, Benoît; Ess, Daniel H

    2014-11-07

    Accurate gas-phase and solution-phase valence bond calculations reveal that protonation of the hydroxyl group of aliphatic alcohols transforms the C-O bond from a principally covalent bond to a complete charge-shift bond with principally "no-bond" character. All bonding in this charge-shift bond is due to resonance between covalent and ionic structures, which is a different bonding mechanism from that of traditional covalent bonds. Until now, charge-shift bonds have been previously identified in inorganic compounds or in exotic organic compounds. This work showcases that charge-shift bonds can occur in common organic species.

  13. Metallic bonding and cluster structure

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, Jose M.; Beltran, Marcela R.; Michaelian, Karo; Garzon, Ignacio L.; Ordejon, Pablo; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel

    2000-02-15

    Knowledge of the structure of clusters is essential to predict many of their physical and chemical properties. Using a many-body semiempirical Gupta potential (to perform global minimizations), and first-principles density functional calculations (to confirm the energy ordering of the local minima), we have recently found [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1600 (1998)] that there are many intermediate-size disordered gold nanoclusters with energy near or below the lowest-energy ordered structure. This is especially surprising because we studied ''magic'' cluster sizes, for which very compact-ordered structures exist. Here, we show how the analysis of the local stress can be used to understand the physical origin of this amorphization. We find that the compact ordered structures, which are very stable for pair potentials, are destabilized by the tendency of metallic bonds to contract at the surface, because of the decreased coordination. The amorphization is also favored by the relatively low energy associated to bondlength and coordination disorder in metals. Although these are very general properties of metallic bonding, we find that they are especially important in the case of gold, and we predict some general trends in the tendency of metallic clusters towards amorphous structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  14. Crystal engineering through halogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Rosa Daneen Bailey

    Crystal engineering has been defined as "the understanding of intermolecular interactions in the context of crystal packing and in the utilization of such understanding in the design of new solids with desired physical and chemical properties." The field of crystal engineering is growing rapidly and is generally centered on the use of hydrogen bonding or coordination polymers in the design and synthesis of new materials. Other interactions, such as halogen bonding also lend themselves to crystal design. In halogen-bonding, donation of a lone pair of electrons into the sigma and sigma* orbitals of an acceptor molecule, like elemental iodine or bromine, allows for relatively strong and highly directional interactions. Charge-transfer interactions involving aromatic nitrogen heterocycles and diiodine (I 2) will be discussed. With weaker donors, such as pyrazine, we have prepared target complexes with infinite chain structures consisting of alternating donor and acceptor molecules. But with stronger donors, such as 4,4 '-bipyridine, only simple adducts are formed. Strong donation at one end of the I2 reduces the Lewis acid character at the other end and extended interactions do not form. With some strong donors, reduction in Lewis acidity occurs to the point that the I2 exhibits amphoteric behavior. In these systems, the non-complexed end serves as a Lewis base to a second-bridging I2 molecule to form neutral polyiodine systems. To reduce electronic communication between the two iodine atoms, organoiodides, in which an organic spacer has been inserted between the two iodine atoms, have been employed. The organic spacer also offers a manifold for adjusting the Lewis acidity of the acceptors in these compounds. Acceptors involving more than two iodines provide the possibility of multidirectional extended interactions leading to interesting layered or network solids. Useful acceptors include 1,4-diiodobenzene, 4,4'-diiodobiphenyl, 1,4-diiodotetraflurobenzene, and

  15. Contribution of Hydrogen Bonds to Protein Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Nick

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss the contribution of the burial of polar groups and their hydrogen bonds to the conformational stability of proteins. We measured the change in stability, Δ(Δ G), for a series of hydrogen bonding mutants in four proteins: villin head piece subdomain (VHP) containing 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) containing 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa (RNase Sa) and T1 (RNase T1). Crystal structures were determined for three of the hydrogen bonding mutants of RNase Sa: S24A (1.1Å), Y51F(1.5Å), and T95A(1.3Å). The structures are very similar to wild type RNase Sa and the hydrogen bonding partners always form intermolecular hydrogen bonds to water in the mutants. We compare our results with previous studies of similar mutants in other proteins and reach the following conclusions: 1) Hydrogen bonds contribute favorably to protein stability. 2) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. 3) Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. 4) Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar groups are not hydrogen bonded. 5) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is similar for VHP, a small protein, and VlsE, a large protein.

  16. Silver- and gold-mediated nucleobase bonding.

    PubMed

    Acioli, Paulo H; Srinivas, Sudha

    2014-08-01

    We report the results of a density functional theory investigation of the bonding of nucleobases mediated by silver and gold atoms in the gas phase. Our calculations use the Becke exchange and Perdew-Wang correlation functional (BPW91) combined with the Stuttgart effective core potentials to represent the valence electrons of gold, silver, and platinum, and the all-electron DGTZVP basis set for C, H, N, and O. This combination was chosen based on tests on the metal atoms and tautomers of adenine, cytosine, and guanine. To establish a benchmark to understand the metal-mediated bonding, we calculated the binding energy of each of the base pairs in their canonical forms. Our calculations show rather strong bonds between the Watson-Crick base pairs when compared with typical values for N-H-N and N-H-O hydrogen bonds. The neutral metal atoms tend to bond near the nitrogen atoms. The effect of the metal atoms on the bonding of nucleobases differs depending on whether or not the metal atoms bond to one of the hydrogen-bonding sites. When the silver or gold atoms bond to a non-hydrogen-bonding site, the effect is a slight enhancement of the cytosine-guanine bonding, but there is almost no effect on the adenine-thymine pairing. The metal atoms can block one of the hydrogen-bonding sites, thus preventing the normal cytosine-guanine and adenine-thymine pairings. We also find that both silver and gold can bond to consecutive guanines in a similar fashion to platinum, albeit with a significantly lower binding energy.

  17. Predicting Trigger Bonds in Explosive Materials through Wiberg Bond Index Analysis.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lenora K; Shoaf, Ashley L; Bayse, Craig A

    2015-12-21

    Understanding the explosive decomposition pathways of high-energy-density materials (HEDMs) is important for developing compounds with improved properties. Rapid reaction rates make the detonation mechanisms of HEDMs difficult to understand, so computational tools are used to predict trigger bonds-weak bonds that break, leading to detonation. Wiberg bond indices (WBIs) have been used to compare bond densities in HEDMs to reference molecules to provide a relative scale for the bond strength to predict the activated bonds most likely to break to trigger an explosion. This analysis confirms that X-NO2 (X=N,C,O) bonds are trigger linkages in common HEDMs such as TNT, RDX and PETN, consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies. Calculations on a small test set of substituted tetrazoles show that the assignment of the trigger bond depends upon the functionality of the material and that the relative weakening of the bond correlates with experimental impact sensitivities.

  18. Shear bond strength of ceramic and metallic orthodontic brackets bonded with self-etching primer and conventional bonding adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Arash, Valiollah; Naghipour, Fatemeh; Ravadgar, Mehdi; Karkhah, Ahmad; Barati, Mohammad Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Adult patients typically require high-quality orthodontic treatment for ceramic brackets, but some clinicians remain concerned about the bond strength of these brackets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the shear bond strength and de-bonding characteristics of metallic and ceramic brackets bonded with two types of bonding agents. Methods In an experimental study done in 2013 in Babol, Iran, 120 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups as follows: HM group: metallic bracket/conventional bonding agent; SM group: metallic bracket/Transbond self-etching primer; HC group: ceramic bracket/conventional bonding agent; SC group: ceramic bracket/Transbond self-etching primer. Twenty-four hours after thermocycling (1000 cycle, 5 °C–55 °C), the shear bond strength values were measured. The amount of resin remaining on the tooth surface (adhesive remnant index: ARI) was determined under a stereomicroscope. Enamel detachment index was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. To perform statistical analysis, ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Tukey post-hoc tests were applied. The level of significance was set at p <0.05. Results The mean shear bond strength values (MPa ± SD) were group HM=12.59, group SM=11.15, group HC=7.7, and group SC=7.41. Bond strength differences between groups HM and SM (p=0.063) and between HC and SC (p=0.091) were not statistically significant. There were significant differences between HM and HC and between SM and SC groups (p < 0.05). Insignificant differences were found in ARI among all groups. Conclusion Our findings indicated that the metallic brackets had higher bond strengths in comparison with ceramic brackets. In addition, self-etching primer was able to produce fewer bonds compared with the conventional technique. Many samples showed the bracket-adhesive interface failure or failure inside the adhesive. PMID:28243410

  19. 31 CFR 353.31 - Series HH bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Series HH bonds. 353.31 Section 353... BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Interest § 353.31 Series HH bonds. (a) General. Series HH bonds are current income bonds issued at par (face amount). Interest on a Series HH bond is paid semiannually beginning...

  20. 31 CFR 353.31 - Series HH bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Series HH bonds. 353.31 Section 353.31... BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Interest § 353.31 Series HH bonds. (a) General. Series HH bonds are current income bonds issued at par (face amount). Interest on a Series HH bond is paid semiannually beginning...

  1. 31 CFR 353.31 - Series HH bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Series HH bonds. 353.31 Section 353... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Interest § 353.31 Series HH bonds. (a) General. Series HH bonds are current income bonds issued at par (face amount). Interest on a Series HH bond is paid...

  2. 31 CFR 353.31 - Series HH bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Series HH bonds. 353.31 Section 353.31... BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Interest § 353.31 Series HH bonds. (a) General. Series HH bonds are current income bonds issued at par (face amount). Interest on a Series HH bond is paid semiannually beginning...

  3. 31 CFR 353.31 - Series HH bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Series HH bonds. 353.31 Section 353.31... BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Interest § 353.31 Series HH bonds. (a) General. Series HH bonds are current income bonds issued at par (face amount). Interest on a Series HH bond is paid semiannually beginning...

  4. Chemical Bonding: The Orthogonal Valence-Bond View

    PubMed Central

    Sax, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical bonding is the stabilization of a molecular system by charge- and spin-reorganization processes in chemical reactions. These processes are said to be local, because the number of atoms involved is very small. With multi-configurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) wave functions, these processes can be calculated, but the local information is hidden by the delocalized molecular orbitals (MO) used to construct the wave functions. The transformation of such wave functions into valence bond (VB) wave functions, which are based on localized orbitals, reveals the hidden information; this transformation is called a VB reading of MCSCF wave functions. The two-electron VB wave functions describing the Lewis electron pair that connects two atoms are frequently called covalent or neutral, suggesting that these wave functions describe an electronic situation where two electrons are never located at the same atom; such electronic situations and the wave functions describing them are called ionic. When the distance between two atoms decreases, however, every covalent VB wave function composed of non-orthogonal atomic orbitals changes its character from neutral to ionic. However, this change in the character of conventional VB wave functions is hidden by its mathematical form. Orthogonal VB wave functions composed of orthonormalized orbitals never change their character. When localized fragment orbitals are used instead of atomic orbitals, one can decide which local information is revealed and which remains hidden. In this paper, we analyze four chemical reactions by transforming the MCSCF wave functions into orthogonal VB wave functions; we show how the reactions are influenced by changing the atoms involved or by changing their local symmetry. Using orthogonal instead of non-orthogonal orbitals is not just a technical issue; it also changes the interpretation, revealing the properties of wave functions that remain otherwise undetected. PMID:25906476

  5. Highly compact and easy-to-use optical chip interferometer with picometric performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzouk, W. A.; Cagneau, B.; Gardillou, F.; Hilouane, K.; Chassagne, L.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present a compact, inexpensive, and easy-to-use optical chip interferometer based on the telecom integrated waveguide technology. The measurement evaluation is focused on the resolution and the noise level of the sensor. The power spectral density of 100 fm Hz-1/2 @ 10 kHz is reached in static conditions. The same level is obtained with the standard Allan deviation for both short and long term measurements. Dynamic performances are also evaluated with sub-nanometer measurements made with piezoelectric systems. The potential bandwidth of the sensor is very high and is currently only limited by electronics (250 kHz).

  6. Preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: As easy as A, B, C

    PubMed Central

    FIGUEROA, JUAN J.; BASFORD, JEFFREY R.; LOW, PHILLIP A.

    2010-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension is a chronic, debilitating illness that is difficult to treat. The therapeutic goal is to improve postural symptoms, standing time, and function rather than to achieve upright normotension, which can lead to supine hypertension. Drug therapy alone is never adequate. Because orthostatic stress varies with circumstances during the day, a patient-oriented approach that emphasizes education and nonpharmacologic strategies is critical. We provide easy-to-remember management recommendations, using a combination of drug and non-drug treatments that have proven efficacious. PMID:20439562

  7. NASA-easyJet Collaboration on the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP) Study, Second Interim Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Barton, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This is the second interim report jointly prepared by NASA and easyJet on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the factors entailed in flight- and cabin-crew fatigue and decreases in performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable procedures that aid in understanding the levels and characteristics of flight- and cabin-crew fatigue factors, both latent and proximate, whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights.

  8. Blood oxygen content in microliter samples using an easy-to-build galvanic oxygen cell.

    PubMed

    Grubb, B R; Mills, C D

    1981-02-01

    We have designed a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-build and operate apparatus for measuring blood oxygen content. The galvanic oxygen cell (fuel cell) requires as little as 1 microliter of blood and has a measuring time of 1-3 min. It is well suited for measuring oxygen content in fluids low in oxygen inasmuch as the sensitivity of the instrument is variable. Either air or water (at a known temperature and oxygen tension) can be used for calibration. No significant differences in blood oxygen content measured with our cell or the Van Slyke manometric method were found.

  9. [Easy and reproducible technique to address tricuspid valve regurgitation with patch augmentation.

    PubMed

    Solinas, Marco; Bianchi, Giacomo; Glauber, Mattia

    2013-11-01

    We describe a patch augmentation of the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve to address tricuspid valve regurgitation due to leaflet retraction. The area of the anterior leaflet is measured using a tricuspid valve annuloplasty sizer; a glutaraldehyde-fixed autologous pericardial patch is trimmed with slight 5 mm oversize. The anterior leaflet is detached and the patch is sutured with three 5/0 running interlocked sutures, then an annuloplasty is performed with an undersized ring. This technique offers an easy and reproducible tool to address tricuspid regurgitation due to lack of leaflet coaptation.

  10. Women as easy scapegoats: witchcraft accusations and women as targets in tea plantations of India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Soma

    2012-10-01

    This article revisits a much-debated question: Why are women popular targets during witch hunts? By using in-depth interviews this article provides an answer. Women are easy targets or scapegoats for two reasons. First, it is widely believed in the community that was studied that witches do, in fact, exist, and the images of witches are always female. Second, tribal women hold lower positions than men in all social, political, and ritual matters, and this contributes to their vulnerability during the hunt for scapegoats. This article also highlights the roles that rumors play during manipulation of witchcraft accusations to gather support for witch hunts.

  11. Development of a plasmid vector for easy selection of strong promoters.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, S A; Sordelli, D O; Centrón, D

    2000-05-01

    A promoter vector pACPR33 for Escherichia coli based on the promotorless ampicillin-resistance gene from pBR322 has been constructed. The promoter of the ampicillin-resistance gene was deleted and replaced by a suitable multiple cloning site. Molecular cloning of promoters into the polylinker resulted in activation of the ampicillin resistance in E. coli. The plasmid contains a functional origin of DNA replication and a tetracycline resistance gene for E. coli, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene for S. aureus. The vector permitted direct detection of promoter activity, especially strong promoters, by easy iodometric determination of beta-lactamase activity in liquid or solid media.

  12. ORIGEN-ARP, A Fast and Easy-to-Use Source Term Generation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.; Hermann, O.W.; Leal, L.C.; Parks, C.V.

    1999-10-17

    ORIGEN-ARP is a new SCALE analytical sequence for spent fuel characterization and source term generation that serves as a faster alternative to the SAS2H sequence by using the Automatic Rapid Processing (ARP) methodology for generating problem-dependent ORIGEN-S cross-section libraries. ORIGEN-ARP provides an easy-to-use menu-driven input processor. This new sequence is two orders of magnitude faster than SAS2H while conserving the rigor and accuracy of the SAS2H methodology. ORIGEN-ARP has been validated against pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel chemical assay data.

  13. Prestressed CFRP Fabrics for Flexural Strengthening of Concrete Beams with an Easy Prestressing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şakar, G.; Tanarslan, H. M.

    2014-09-01

    It is proposed to use prestressed CFRP plates for strengthening in order to prevent their debonding and thus to increase their strengthening efficiency. For this purpose, and easy-to-use piece of equipment was created. To determine the effectiveness of this method, an experimental program was carried out, and the effect of prestressed CFRP on the behavior and ultimate strength of reinforced concrete beams was examined in threepoint bending tests. A remarkable increase in their strength with debonding was seen for every specimen to which a prestressed CFRP plate had been applied.

  14. Rapid, easy cyanation of aryl bromides and chlorides using nickel salts in conjunction with microwave promotion.

    PubMed

    Arvela, Riina K; Leadbeater, Nicholas E

    2003-11-14

    We report here a fast, easy, and efficient method for the preparation of aryl nitriles from aryl bromides and chlorides. The methodology for aryl bromides involves the use of either Ni(CN)(2) or NaCN and NiBr(2). With aryl chlorides, a mix of NaCN and NiBr(2) is used and the reaction proceeds via the in situ formation of the corresponding aryl bromide. The reaction can be performed in air and is complete within 10 min.

  15. Introducing human population biology through an easy laboratory exercise on mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Pardiñas, Antonio F; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-03-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of different sizes that can be visualized in agarose gels. The analysis of these fragments can reveal the mitochondrial haplogroup of each student. The results of the exercise can be used to provide additional insights into the genetic variation of human populations.

  16. Thermal Conductance through Sapphire-Sapphire Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Tomaru, T.; Haruyama, T.; Shintomi, T.; Uchinyama, T.; Miyoki, S.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.

    2003-07-01

    Thermal conductance on sapphire-sapphire bonded interface has been investigated. Two pieces of single crystal sapphire bar with square cross section were bonded together by adhesion free bonding. In two sections of the bar, thermal conductivity was measured between 5 K to 300K. One section contains a bonded interface and the other section measured a thermal conductivity of the sapphire as a reference. No significant thermal resistance due to bonded interface was found from this measurement. Obtained thermal conductivity reaches κ 1 × 104 [W/m·K] in temperature range of T = 20 ˜ 30 K which is a planned operating temperature of a cryogenic mirror of the Large scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave telescope. It looks promising for sapphire bonding technique to improve a heat transfer from a large cryogenic mirror to susp ension wires.

  17. Verification of surface preparation for adhesive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Rodney S.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of solid rocket booster (SRB) production operations identified potential contaminants which might adversely affect bonding operations. Lap shear tests quantified these contaminants' effects on adhesive strength. The most potent contaminants were selected for additional studies on SRB thermal protection system (TPS) bonding processes. Test panels were prepared with predetermined levels of contamination, visually inspected using white and black light, then bonded with three different TPS materials over the unremoved contamination. Bond test data showed that white and black light inspections are adequate inspection methods for TPS bonding operations. Extreme levels of contamination (higher than expected on flight hardware) had an insignificant effect on TPS bond strengths because of the apparent insensitivity of the adhesive system to contamination effects, and the comparatively weak cohesive strength of the TPS materials.

  18. 31 CFR 353.3 - Converting definitive savings bonds to book-entry bonds in New Treasury Direct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... book-entry bonds in New Treasury Direct. 353.3 Section 353.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... § 353.3 Converting definitive savings bonds to book-entry bonds in New Treasury Direct. Series EE savings bonds that were originally issued as definitive bonds may be converted to book-entry bonds...

  19. 31 CFR 360.3 - Converting definitive savings bonds to book-entry bonds in New Treasury Direct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... book-entry bonds in New Treasury Direct. 360.3 Section 360.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Converting definitive savings bonds to book-entry bonds in New Treasury Direct. Series I savings bonds that were originally issued as definitive bonds may be converted to book-entry bonds through New...

  20. A novel glucose/pH responsive low-molecular-weight organogel of easy recycling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Gao, Wenxia; Yang, Kaiwen; Xu, Long; Ding, Jinchang; Chen, Jiuxi; Liu, Miaochang; Huang, Xiaobo; Wang, Shun; Wu, Huayue

    2013-11-05

    A new phenylboronic acid based gelator was developed to prepare low-molecular-weight organogel (LMOG), which could interact with several solvents to assemble into a three-dimensional nanofiber network. (1)H NMR spectroscopy study suggests that the driving force for the gelation includes hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking. Evaluated by UV-spectroscopy, the gel showed a prompt initial response to glucose at low concentration of 0.012 mmol/mL, which is a critical concentration of venous plasma glucose for diabetes. Significantly, this organogel exhibits excellent sensitivity to glucose among seven sugars tested (i.e., mannitol, galactose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, and fructose). The proposed formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes during the glucose sensing was supported by our energy calculation. Meanwhile, this organogel exhibits pH-response. Importantly, this LMOG could be conveniently recycled and thus be reused.