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Sample records for adper prompt l-pop

  1. The Effect of Temperature on Shear Bond Strength of Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Single Bond Adhesive Systems to Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Nouri, Hossein; Koohpeima, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Monomer viscosity and solvent evaporation can be affected by the adhesive system temperature. Higher temperature can elevate the vapor pressure in solution and penetration of adhesive in smear layer. Bonding mechanism may be influenced by the adhesive temperature. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-heating on shear bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives to ground bovine dentin surfaces, at temperatures of 4˚C, 25˚C and 40˚C. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 60 maxillary bovine incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). The central part of labial dentin surfaces was exposed with a diamond bur and standardized smear layer was created by using silicon carbide paper (600 grit) under water-coolant while the specimens were mounted in acrylic resin. Two adhesive systems, an etch-and-rinse (Adper single bond) and a self-etch (Clearfil SE Bond) were stored at temperatures of 4˚C, 25˚C and 40˚C for 30 minutes and were then applied on the prepared labial surface according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The composite resin (Z350) was packed in Teflon mold (5 mm in diameter) on this surface and was cured. The shear bond strength (MPa) was evaluated by universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020, Germany) at cross head speed of 1mm/min. The results were statistically analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests (p< 0.05). Results No significant difference was found between the shear bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond adhesive in different temperature and single Bond adhesive system at 25 ˚C and 40 ˚C. However, there were significant differences between 4 ˚C of Adper single bond in comparison with 25˚C and 40˚C (p= 0.0001). Conclusion Pre-heating did not affect the shear bond strength of SE Bond, but could promote the shear bond strength of Adper Single Bond. PMID:25759852

  2. Assessment of Tooth Preparation via Er:YAG Laser and Bur on Microleakage of Dentin Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Heydari, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Objective Microleakage can be responsible for tooth hypersensitivity, secondary caries, and the possibility of pathological pulp alterations in restored teeth. Recently, alternative methods for tooth preparation such as laser irradiation have been studied; but there are limited studies on primary teeth. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the degree of microleakage of composite restorations prepared by Er:YAG laser and conventional bur preparation with two adhesive systems in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Eighty primary canine teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups. Class V cavities were prepared by Er:YAG laser or diamond bur on buccal surface. The groups were as follows: group1: High speed drill + self-etching adhesive Adper Prompt-L-Pop, group 2: Er:YAG laser + etch & rinse adhesive Adper Single Bond, group 3: High speed drill + Adper Single Bond, group 4: Er:YAG laser + Adper Prompt-L-Pop. Cavities were restored with Filtek Z250 composite resin. Then all of the specimens were polished, thermocycled, immersed in 2% methylene blue solution and sectioned longitudinally. Degree of microleakage was evaluated by two evaluators who assigned the micrleakage score (0 to 3). The original data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests. Results: There were significant differences between bur-prepared cavities in the Adper Single Bond and other groups. There were no statistically significant differences between other groups. Conclusion: Laser-prepared cavities showed higher microleakage scores than cavities prepared with diamond bur with etch and rinse adhesive system. No significant difference was revealed between the laser and bur-prepared cavities using self-etch primers. PMID:24910693

  3. 78 FR 5450 - Information Collection; Prompt Payment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection... and approve an extension to a previously approved information collection requirement concerning prompt... Information Collection 9000- 0102, Prompt Payment, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  4. Prompt-gamma activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    A permenent, full-time instrument for prompt-gamma activation analysis is nearing completion as part of the Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The design of the analytical system has been optimized for high gamma detection efficiency and low background, particularly for hydrogen. Because of the purity of the neutron beam, shielding requirements are modest and the scatter-capture background is low. As a result of a compact sample-detector geometry, the sensitivity (counting rate per gram of analyte) is a factor of four better than the existing Maryland-NIST thermal-neutron instrument at the reactor. Hydrogen backgrounds of a few micrograms have already been achieved, which promises to be of value in numerous applications where quantitative nondestructive analysis of small quantities of hydrogen in materials is necessary.

  5. Say Cheese! Using Personal Photographs as Prompts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Belinda Davis

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of photographs showing students engaging in appropriate behavior to prompt students to manage their own classroom behavior more effectively. The article gives examples of appropriate photographs and explains how to teach students to use the prompts. Inserts list photography resources and suggest classroom uses for digital…

  6. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  7. Prompt fission neutron spectra of actinides

    DOE PAGES

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. -J.; Kornilov, N. V.; Lestone, J. P.; Litaize, O.; Morillon, B.; Neudecker, D.; Oberstedt, S.; Ohsawa, T.; et al

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  8. 31 CFR 904.1 - Prompt referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COLLECTION STANDARDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY-DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE) REFERRALS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE § 904.1 Prompt referral. (a) Agencies shall promptly refer to the Department of Justice for... interest and penalties, shall be referred to the Civil Division or other division responsible...

  9. 45 CFR 30.33 - Prompt referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... part and 31 CFR parts 900 through 904, debts shall be referred to Justice as early as possible, and, in... Department of Justice of any payments credited by the Department to the debtor's account. Pursuant to 31 CFR... Department of Justice § 30.33 Prompt referral. (a)(1) The Secretary promptly shall refer to Justice...

  10. 38 CFR 1.950 - Prompt referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Referrals to Gao, Department of Justice, Or Irs § 1.950 Prompt referral. (a) VA shall promptly refer debts to Department of Justice (DOJ) for litigation where aggressive collection activity has been taken in... may direct, exclusive of interest and other late payment charges, shall be referred to the...

  11. 21 CFR 1401.7 - Prompt response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prompt response. 1401.7 Section 1401.7 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.7 Prompt response... determination, the reasons for the denial, and that an appeal may be lodged within the Office of National...

  12. 45 CFR 1701.5 - Prompt response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prompt response. 1701.5 Section 1701.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION § 1701.5 Prompt response. (a) Within ten days...

  13. Generalized Instruction following with Pictorial Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Cara L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of permanent pictorial prompts in enhancing maintenance and generalization are likely dependent on their degree of stimulus control and the extent to which their use is generalized. Although several studies on the use of pictorial prompts have demonstrated their efficacy (e.g., Pierce & Schreibman, 1994; Wacker & Berg, 1983; Wacker,…

  14. 45 CFR 1701.5 - Prompt response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INFORMATION SCIENCE DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION § 1701.5 Prompt response. (a) Within ten days (excluding... be made by written notice to the requester setting forth the reason for the extension and the...

  15. 45 CFR 1701.5 - Prompt response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INFORMATION SCIENCE DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION § 1701.5 Prompt response. (a) Within ten days (excluding... be made by written notice to the requester setting forth the reason for the extension and the...

  16. 45 CFR 1701.5 - Prompt response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INFORMATION SCIENCE DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION § 1701.5 Prompt response. (a) Within ten days (excluding... be made by written notice to the requester setting forth the reason for the extension and the...

  17. 45 CFR 1701.5 - Prompt response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INFORMATION SCIENCE DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION § 1701.5 Prompt response. (a) Within ten days (excluding... ten-day period, or the last extension thereof, the requester may deem his request denied, and...

  18. GENERALIZED INSTRUCTION FOLLOWING WITH PICTORIAL PROMPTS

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Cara L; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of permanent pictorial prompts in enhancing maintenance and generalization are likely dependent on their degree of stimulus control and the extent to which their use is generalized. Although several studies on the use of pictorial prompts have demonstrated their efficacy (e.g., Pierce & Schreibman, 1994; Wacker & Berg, 1983; Wacker, Berg, Berrie, & Swatta, 1985), there is still some question regarding what ultimately controlled responding. The present study allowed an explicit examination of stimulus control by pictorial prompts. Three 4-year-old children with developmental disabilities were taught to complete 4 instructional sets (5 steps each) using pictorial prompts such that the prompts would control responding. All 3 participants showed generalization to the final set after training with 3 sets. These results suggest that training a single task sequence may not be sufficient for acquisition of generalized pictorial instruction following. However, establishing stimulus control by the pictorial prompts rather than teaching behavioral chains may facilitate acquisition of a generalized repertoire. PMID:22403448

  19. Using visual prompts to aid analgesia prescribing.

    PubMed

    Ryland, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Analgesia prescribing is fundamental to a patient's journey, affecting length of stay and patient experience. Laminated prompts are used throughout the NHS Foundation Trust to aid doctors prescribing. A baseline questionnaire was carried out to gather doctors' prescribing habits and current ability to convert opioids to their morphine equivalent. Ninety three percent of doctors said they were moderately to extremely confident when prescribing analgesia. However, when asked to carry out a simple opioid conversion only 14% answered correctly. Eighty three percent of doctors said they were prescribing laxatives alongside opioids frequently (57%) or almost all the time (25%). When actual rates were sampled only 14% of patients were prescribed a concurrent laxative. Laminated pain management guideline cards were created and distributed to doctors at sign in for weekly teaching. Doctor interviews were carried out to see if they were in possession of a prompt card and a simple opioid conversion question was asked. If they did not have a prompt card at the time of interview they were issued with one after answering the conversion question. Rates of concurrent laxative prescribing were collected from the electronic prescribing record of patients on the acute medical unit. Posters were displayed in doctors' offices and drug rooms. Laxative prescribing rates were re-collected and compared with the survey responses. Distribution of laminated prompts increased accuracy of opioid conversion by 86%. Error rates fell as prompt prevalence increased until there was 100% prevalence and 0% error. Concurrent prescribing of laxatives increased to 50% after posters were displayed around the acute medical unit. Doctors reported they were confident when prescribing analgesia. They reported that they often prescribed concurrent medications, however this did not relate to actual prescribing practices. Visual prompts improved doctors analgesia conversion knowledge and prescribing practices

  20. Advanced modeling of prompt fission neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Talou, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical studies of prompt fission neutrons are presented. The main results of the Los Alamos model often used in nuclear data evaluation work are reviewed briefly, and a preliminary assessment of uncertainties associated with the evaluated prompt fission neutron spectrum for n (0.5 MeV)+{sup 239}Pu is discussed. Advanced modeling of prompt fission neutrons is done by Monte Carlo simulations of the evaporation process of the excited primary fission fragments. The successive emissions of neutrons are followed in the statistical formalism framework, and detailed information, beyond average quantities, can be inferred. This approach is applied to the following reactions: {sup 252}Cf (sf), n{sub th} + {sup 239}Pu, n (0.5 MeV)+{sup 235}U, and {sup 236}Pu (sf). A discussion on the merits and present limitations of this approach concludes this presentation.

  1. Evaluating the Effects of a Video Prompt in a System of Least Prompts Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Katie A.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Mechling, Linda C.; Alexander, Jennifer L.; Mataras, Theologia K.; Shepley, Sally B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a system of least prompts procedure with a video prompt serving as the model in teaching office tasks to three high school students with moderate intellectual disability. A multiple probe across behaviors design replicated across participants was used to evaluate the intervention. The…

  2. Prompt Neutron Lifetime for the NBSR Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.L.; Diamond, D.

    2012-06-24

    In preparation for the proposed conversion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, certain point kinetics parameters must be calculated. We report here values of the prompt neutron lifetime that have been calculated using three independent methods. All three sets of calculations demonstrate that the prompt neutron lifetime is shorter for the LEU fuel when compared to the HEU fuel and longer for the equilibrium end-of-cycle (EOC) condition when compared to the equilibrium startup (SU) condition for both the HEU and LEU fuels.

  3. Uncertainty Quantification on Prompt Fission Neutrons Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Talou, P. Madland, D.G.; Kawano, T.

    2008-12-15

    Uncertainties in the evaluated prompt fission neutrons spectra present in ENDF/B-VII.0 are assessed in the framework of the Los Alamos model. The methodology used to quantify the uncertainties on an evaluated spectrum is introduced. We also briefly review the Los Alamos model and single out the parameters that have the largest influence on the calculated results. Using a Kalman filter, experimental data and uncertainties are introduced to constrain model parameters, and construct an evaluated covariance matrix for the prompt neutrons spectrum. Preliminary results are shown in the case of neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U from thermal up to 15 MeV incident energies.

  4. Microscopic evaluation of dentin interface obtained with 10 contemporary self-etching systems: correlation with their pH.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Geneviéve; Millas, Arlette

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated micromorphological differences in the hybridized complex formed using 10 commercially available self-etch bonding systems. In addition, the influence of the pH of the primer of these adhesives was evaluated. The self-etching systems tested were AdheSE, Adper Prompt L-Pop, Clearfil SE Bond, Etch&Prime 3.0 (Degussa, Germany), Prime & Bond NT Non Rinse Conditioner (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), One-Up Bond F, OptiBond Solo Plus Self Etch, Prompt L-Pop and Xeno III. One hundred non-carious human third molars were used. The teeth were divided into two groups of 50 and prepared for evaluation by optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The specimens in each group were further divided into 10 subgroups of five specimens each to evaluate the 10 bonding systems. The pH of the primers of the bonding systems was measured. The results demonstrated morphological differences at the interface, depending on adhesive composition. The differences mainly concerned thickness of the hybrid layer, the absence or presence of microscopic voids at the adhesive-composite interface and whether the dentinal tubuli were completely sealed. The pH was not the determining factor conditioning the action of the self-etching adhesives.

  5. Effect of 38% carbamide peroxide on the microleakage of silorane-based versus methacrylate-based composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Ghavam, Maryam; Mahinfar, Nazanin; Pourhashemi, Seyed Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the effect of 38% carbamide peroxide on the microleakage of class V cavities restored with either a silorane-based composite or two methacrylate-based composites. Materials and Methods A total of 96 class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of extracted human teeth with both enamel and dentin margins and were randomly assigned into three groups of Filtek P90 (3M-ESPE) + P90 system adhesive (3M-ESPE)(group A), Filtek Z250 (3M-ESPE) + Adper Prompt L-Pop (3M-ESPE)(group B) and Filtek Z350XT (3M-ESPE) + Adper Prompt L-Pop (group C). Half of the teeth were randomly underwent bleaching (38% carbamide peroxide, Day White, Discus Dental, applying for 15 min, twice a day for 14 day) while the remaining half (control) were not bleached. Dye penetration was measured following immersion in basic fuchsine. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at a level of 0.05. Results No significant differences were found between composites in the control groups in enamel (p = 0.171) or dentin (p = 0.094) margins. After bleaching, microleakage of Z250 (in enamel [p = 0.867] or dentin [p = 0.590] margins) and Z350 (in enamel [p = 0.445] or dentin [p = 0.591] margins) did not change significantly, but the microleakage of P90 significantly increased in both enamel (p = 0.042) and dentin (p = 0.002) margins. Conclusions No significant differences were noted between the bleached and control subgroups of two methacrylate-based composites in enamel or dentin margins. Microleakage of silorane-based composite significantly increased after bleaching. PMID:25110640

  6. Prompts versus Recasts in Dyadic Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyster, Roy; Izquierdo, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the differential effects of prompts and recasts, in the context of dyadic interaction, on the acquisition of grammatical gender by adult second language learners of French. Participants were 25 undergraduate students enrolled in an intermediate-level French course at an English-speaking university. All students were exposed…

  7. Prompting Electrical Energy Conservation in Commercial Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delprato, Dennis J.

    1977-01-01

    Self prompting techniques were used to influence people to turn off lights in bathrooms. After consumers were given a method for self monitoring their behavior there was a significant drop in the number of times lights were left on in unoccupied bathrooms. (AJ)

  8. Prompt comprehension in UNIX command production.

    PubMed

    Doane, S M; McNamara, D S; Kintsch, W; Polson, P G; Clawson, D M

    1992-07-01

    We hypothesize that a cognitive analysis based on the construction-integration theory of comprehension (Kintsch, 1988) can predict what is difficult about generating complex composite commands in the UNIX operating system. We provide empirical support for assumptions of the Doane, Kintsch, and Polson (1989, 1990) construction-integration model for generating complex commands in UNIX. We asked users whose UNIX experience varied to produce complex UNIX commands, and then provided help prompts whenever the commands that they produced were erroneous. The help prompts were designed to assist subjects with respect to both the knowledge and the memory processes that our UNIX modeling efforts have suggested are lacking in less expert users. It appears that experts respond to different prompts than do novices. Expert performance is helped by the presentation of abstract information, whereas novice and intermediate performance is modified by presentation of concrete information. Second, while presentation of specific prompts helps less expert subjects, they do not provide sufficient information to obtain correct performance. Our analyses suggest that information about the ordering of commands is required to help the less expert with both knowledge and memory load problems in a manner consistent with skill acquisition theories.

  9. Isolated prompt photon production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, P.A. )

    1992-11-01

    This note describes measurements of isolated prompt photon production at [radical]s = 1.8 TeV using the CDF experiment. The measurements are compared to recent NLO QCD calculations, including recently obtained parton distribution functions. Qualitatively, the QCD calculation with the new parton distribution functions agrees better with the data than the previous parton distribution functions.

  10. Engaging Young Students in Scientific Investigations: Prompting for Meaningful Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis; Perry, Michelle; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Grosshandler, Dean

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the verbal prompts a tutor used to promote reflection and young students' responses to these prompts. Seven children (ages 8-12) participated in 260 min of one-on-one tutoring to learn scientific concepts related to gear movement; the tutor spontaneously provided these students with 763 prompts for reflection. Prompts reliably…

  11. 12 CFR 1777.10 - Developments prompting supervisory response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Developments prompting supervisory response. 1777.10 Section 1777.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Prompt Supervisory Response § 1777.10 Developments prompting...

  12. Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and No-No Prompting in Two-Choice Discrimination Learning with Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Sheldon, Jan B.; Sherman, James A.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared no-no prompting procedures to simultaneous prompting procedures for 3 children with autism. Using a parallel treatments design, researchers taught rote math skills, receptive labels, or answers to "wh-" questions with both prompting systems. Results indicated that no-no prompting was effective in teaching all skills. By…

  13. Prompts, feedback, positive reinforcement, and potty training.

    PubMed

    Halligan, Sarah M; Luyben, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Two parents were concerned because their two young girls were delayed in learning to use the potty. In this study we obtained data on the frequency of wet diapers and use of the potty at home. Following baseline, an intervention was implemented that involved increased intake of liquids and salty foods, prompting, and positive reinforcement. Once a substantial decrease in wet diapers was achieved, together with an increase in use of the potty, the girls were offered the opportunity to wear "Princess Underwear!" as an even more powerful prompt and reinforcer. An ABC design was used with each girl. The results showed significant increases in their use of the potty and decreased incidents of wet diapers when the intervention was in effect. Although this design does not rule out possible effects of coincidences, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that the intervention produced improvements in potty training.

  14. Designing courseware: Prompts from behavioral instruction.

    PubMed

    Chase, P N

    1985-01-01

    Behavior analysis has been at the forefront of instructional design for many years. However, this leadership position is rapidly eroding as teachers, trainers and other educators insist that behavioral instruction is good only for meeting simplistic educational goals. I argue that in order for behavior analysis to continue to influence the field of instructional design, behavior analysts need to help people develop instructional programs that use advanced interactive computer systems and that are based on all the components of behavioral instruction. Therefore, this paper suggests the following strategy. First, it teaches people to select authoring systems that will enable them to design interactive computer programs. Second, in order to improve current authoring systems it provides a set of prompts that integrate the features of behavioral instruction. I claim that the integration of these prompts with an advanced authoring system will facilitate the development of complex, conceptual learning programs and minimize current criticisms of behavioral instruction. PMID:22478621

  15. Short GRB Prompt and Afterglow Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The Swift data set on short GRBs has now grown large enough to study correlations of key parameters. The goal is to compare long and short bursts to better understand similarities and differences in the burst origins. In this study we consider the both prompt and afterglow fluxes. It is found that the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray emissions are linearly correlated - stronger bursts tend to have brighter afterglows, and bursts with brighter X-ray afterglow tend to have brighter optical afterglow. Both the prompt and afterglow fluxes are, on average, lower for short bursts than for long. Although there are short GRBs with undetected optical emission, there is no evidence for "dark" short bursts with anomalously low opt/X ratios. The weakest short bursts have a low X-ray/gamma-ray ratio.

  16. Replacing overt verbal and gestural prompts with unobtrusive covert tactile prompting for students with autism.

    PubMed

    Anson, Heather M; Todd, James T; Cassaretto, Kimberley J

    2008-11-01

    Verbal responses, gestures, and other physical stimuli are often used to prompt children to pay attention to their teacher, participate in group responding, and engage in independent activities in the classroom. Prompts can be intrusive and draw attention to the problem, however. In the present study, unobtrusive vibrating pagers were used to discreetly alert children to attend directly to the teacher or the ongoing activity, thus reducing the number of disruptions the children created in their classrooms. The children were then able to learn more effectively and with less interference to others in the vicinity. Specifically, 5 male children, between 4 and 7 years old, who attended a regular education preschool or regular education first-grade classroom, participated. An alternating baseline and treatment conditions design was used, in which periods of overt traditional prompting were alternated with periods of covert tactile and overt traditional prompting. The data showed that covert tactile prompting was successful in reducing the amount of overt traditional prompting that was needed for attention to a teacher, group responding, and engagement in independent activities.

  17. Prompt GRB optical follow-up experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H-S; Williams, G; Ables, E; Band, D; Barthelmy, S; Bionta, R; Cline, T; Gehrels, N; Hartmann, D; Hurley, K; Kippen, M; Nemiroff, R; Pereira, W; Porrata, R

    2000-11-13

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are brief, randomly located, releases of gamma-ray energy from unknown celestial sources that occur almost daily. The study of GRBs has undergone a revolution in the past three years due to an international effort of follow-up observations of coordinates provided by Beppo/SAX and IPN GRB. These follow-up observations have shown that GRBs are at cosmological distances and interact with surrounding material as described by the fireball model. However, prompt optical counterparts have only been seen in one case and are therefore very rare or much dimmer than the sensitivity of the current instruments. Unlike later time afterglows, prompt optical measurements would provide information on the GRB progenitor. LOTIS is the very first automated and dedicated telescope system that actively utilizes the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN) and it attempts to measure simultaneous optical light curve associated with GRBs. After 3 years of running, LOTIS has responded to 75 GRB triggers. The lack of any optical signal in any of the LOTIS images places numerical limits on the surrounding matter density, and other physical parameters in the environment of the GRB progenitor. This paper presents LOTIS results and describes other prompt GRB follow-up experiments including the Super-LOTIS at Kitt Peak in Arizona.

  18. Prompt photon production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ashish; /SUNY, Stony Brook

    2009-07-01

    Prompt photon production has been studied by the CDF and D0{sup -} experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at the centre of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Measurements of the inclusive photon, inclusive photon plus jet, photon plus heavy flavor jet, and diphoton production cross sections are discussed. The analyses use data sample corresponding to integrated luminosity between 0.2 fb{sup -1} and 1.02 fb{sup -1}. The results are compared to the next to leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations.

  19. Prompt Emission Observations of Swift BAT Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.

  20. Prompt Emission Properties of Swift GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S.; Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J.; Fenimore, E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Palmer, D.; Parsons, A.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results from the second Swift BAT catalog of 476 gamma-ray bursts, which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. In addition to the spectral and temporal parameters extracted from the first BAT GRB catalog, 3324 time-resolved spectra have been extracted and analyzed. We show and discuss 1) the duration distribution, 2) the hardness of short GRBs, 3) Epeak distribution, 4) the line of death problem and 5) an additional power-law component in the prompt emission spectrum.

  1. Radiative Mechanisms in GRB Prompt Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pe'er, A.

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope results, in recent years immense efforts were given to understanding the mechanism that leads to the prompt emission observed. The failure of the optically thin emission models (synchrotron and synchrotron self Compton) increased interest in alternative models. Optically thick models, while having several advantages, also face difficulty in capturing several key observables. Theoretical efforts are focused in two main directions: (1) mechanisms that act to broaden the Planck spectrum; and (2) combining the optically thin and optically thick models to a hybrid model that could explain the key observables.

  2. Evaluation of Multiple-Alternative Prompts during Tact Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Mitchell, Erin; Milne, Christine; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Jeremy; Leaf, Ron; Taubman, Mitch; McEachin, John; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared 2 methods of fading prompts while teaching tacts to 3 individuals who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The 1st method involved use of an echoic prompt and prompt fading. The 2nd method involved providing multiple-alternative answers and fading by increasing the difficulty of the discrimination. An adapted…

  3. Prompting in One-to-One Problem-Solving Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Eunice J.; Gilbert, John K.

    1981-01-01

    Prompts used by mathematics teachers are categorized into the following three major orientations: 1) motivation; 2) process; and 3) product. The structure of each type of prompt is broken into sub-categories and discussed with examples. This analysis is viewed as the first step towards teacher training for prompting skills. (MP)

  4. Review of Video Prompting Studies for Persons with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Devender R.; Dogoe, Maud S.; Matuszny, Rose Marie

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed 18 video prompting studies that were conducted with persons with developmental disabilities. Results across the studies indicate that video prompting is a viable method for improving various domestic, vocational, and independent living skills. In addition, video prompting strategies facilitated maintenance and generalization of learned…

  5. Supporting Self-Regulated Hypermedia Learning through Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannert, Maria; Reimann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and evaluate tools and supports for self-regulated learning with hypertext information structures, such as Web pages. Two kinds of supports for self-regulated learning were developed and tested experimentally: Prompting and Prompting with Training. In Experiment 1, Prompting was tested with a pre-post-test…

  6. A Probe Intermix Procedure for Fading Response Prompts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Felix F.

    1987-01-01

    A prompt fading method was employed to teach an eight-year-old student with severe behavior disorders the self-paced use of a functional behavior (requesting rather than grabbing food items). Initial pairing of prompts and natural cues was followed by a mix of prompted and probe (unprompted) trials. (Author/JW)

  7. The importance of prompt blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Basile, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension affects almost one-third of adults in the United States, but blood pressure is adequately controlled in only about 50% to 60% of persons with treated hypertension. Abundant clinical trial evidence has shown that antihypertensive therapy significantly reduces the risk of vascular events, and meta-analyses of observational and clinical trials have shown that greater reductions in blood pressure are associated with greater reductions in risk. Recent trials have also suggested that prompt control of blood pressure is beneficial in high-risk patients with hypertension. A post hoc analysis of a trial comparing an angiotensin II receptor blocker-based program with a calcium channel blocker-based treatment regimen found that the blood pressure response after 1 month (regardless of the drug used) predicted the risk of vascular events and survival. Therapy with > or =2 medications given separately or as a fixed combination is more likely than monotherapy to lower blood pressure to goal in part because drugs from different classes target different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. Moreover, the likelihood of achieving blood pressure goals is greater if the time to achieve control is shortened, and prompt control of blood pressure is more likely with multiple-drug therapy than with monotherapy.

  8. Effect of reactive and un-reactive substrates on photopolymerization of self-etching adhesives with different aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of reactive (enamel) and un-reactive (glass) substrates on photo-polymerization of self-etching adhesives. Two commercial adhesives Adper Prompt L-Pop (APLP, pH~0.8) and Adper Easy Bond (AEB, pH~2.5) were applied onto prepared enamel and glass substrates using the same protocol. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine the degree of conversion (DC) and the involved mechanism. DC of APLP was dramatically enhanced from ~9.4% to ~82.0% as when changing from glass to enamel, while DC of AEB on both substrates showed no difference. The DC distributions along the adhesive layers of the APLP and AEB on enamel showed descending and constant trends, respectively. Spectral analysis disclosed that the difference in chemical reaction of the two adhesives with enamel might be associated with the results. The chemical reaction of the adhesives with enamel significantly improved the DC of the strong APLP, but not that of the mild AEB.

  9. Impact of Dilution and Polymerization on Cytotoxicity of Dentin Adhesives to Human Gingival Fibroblasts: Early Exposure Time.

    PubMed

    Banava, Sepideh; Najibfard, Kaveh; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dilution and curing methods of an etch-and-rinse adhesive and a self-etching primer from the same manufacturer at early exposure time on cytotoxicity of primary human gingival fibroblasts. Materials and methods. Primary human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to different dilutions of Adper Single Bond (ASB) and Adper Prompt L-Pop (APL) (3M ESPE, USA). They were evaluated in unpolymerized mode for 20 s, 5 min and 24 h and in polymerized mode for 24 h and 48 h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using three cytotoxic tests (MTT, cell counting and DNA condensation). Data was analyzed by a one-way ANOVA and Post Hoc Tukey HSD test. Results. Cytotoxicity tests revealed that unpolymerized APL was more cytotoxic compared to ASB after 20 s (P<0.05). By increasing the time to 5 min and 24 h, ASB was more cytotoxic than APL with lower dilutions. Polymerized ASB was more toxic than APL. Conclusion. Both adhesives were cytotoxic in different dilutions, times and curing modes. Cytotoxicity of the unpolymerized self-etching primer (APL) was more than etch-and-rinse adhesive (ASB) in 20 s, which is important clinically and dentists should be aware of the harmful effects and try to minimize it by curing and rinsing soon after composite resin insertion. ASB was more cytotoxic at 5 min and 24h. PMID:26697147

  10. Impact of Dilution and Polymerization on Cytotoxicity of Dentin Adhesives to Human Gingival Fibroblasts: Early Exposure Time

    PubMed Central

    Banava, Sepideh; Najibfard, Kaveh; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dilution and curing methods of an etch-and-rinse adhesive and a self-etching primer from the same manufacturer at early exposure time on cytotoxicity of primary human gingival fibroblasts. Materials and methods. Primary human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to different dilutions of Adper Single Bond (ASB) and Adper Prompt L-Pop (APL) (3M ESPE, USA). They were evaluated in unpolymerized mode for 20 s, 5 min and 24 h and in polymerized mode for 24 h and 48 h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using three cytotoxic tests (MTT, cell counting and DNA condensation). Data was analyzed by a one-way ANOVA and Post Hoc Tukey HSD test. Results. Cytotoxicity tests revealed that unpolymerized APL was more cytotoxic compared to ASB after 20 s (P<0.05). By increasing the time to 5 min and 24 h, ASB was more cytotoxic than APL with lower dilutions. Polymerized ASB was more toxic than APL. Conclusion. Both adhesives were cytotoxic in different dilutions, times and curing modes. Cytotoxicity of the unpolymerized self-etching primer (APL) was more than etch-and-rinse adhesive (ASB) in 20 s, which is important clinically and dentists should be aware of the harmful effects and try to minimize it by curing and rinsing soon after composite resin insertion. ASB was more cytotoxic at 5 min and 24h. PMID:26697147

  11. Comparison of Most-to-Least Prompting to Flexible Prompt Fading for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Jeremy A.; Alcalay, Aditt; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen; Dale, Stephanie; Ravid, Daniel; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    This study compared most-to-least prompting to flexible prompt fading for teaching four children with an autism spectrum disorder various expressive tasks. Using a parallel treatment design nested into a multiple probe design, researchers taught each participant how to expressively label six pictures with most-to-least prompting and six pictures…

  12. A Comparison of Static Picture Prompting and Video Prompting Simulation Strategies Using Group Instructional Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David; Alberto, Paul A.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Gama, Robert I.

    2006-01-01

    Two groups of three students with moderate mental retardation were instructed using group procedures to compare static picture and video prompting simulation strategies. An alternating treatments design was used to compare individual student task acquisition and maintenance performances of purchasing and banking skills. The results indicated that…

  13. Improved cold-neutron prompt gamma spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Paul, R.L.; Heald, A.E.; Langland, J.K.

    1996-12-31

    The cold-neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) spectrometer at the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) has been rebuilt to take advantage of the newly installed LH{sub 2} cold neutron source at the NIST reactor. The new source, a 32-cm-o.d., 2-cm-thick spherical shell of liquid hydrogen, produces a higher neutron density at longer wave-length than did the D{sub 2}O ice source that has been in use since 1987. At the PGAA spectrometer, located 41 m from the cold source on neutron guide NG7, the effective neutron fluence rate (using s, = 98.6 b for gold) was measured to be 8 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1}, a factor of 3 higher at the same reactor power (20 MW) than before.

  14. Prompt neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.; Zucker, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The direct determination of the average prompt neutron emission values is reviewed, and a method of comparing different sites of neutron emission multiplicity distribution values is described. Measured and recommended values are tabulated for these nuclides: /sup 241/Am, /sup 242/Am, /sup 242/Cm, /sup 243/Cm, /sup 244/Cm, /sup 246/Cm, /sup 247/Cm, /sup 248/Cm, /sup 250/Cm, /sup 245/Cm, /sup 249/Bk, /sup 246/Cf, /sup 249/Cf, /sup 250/Cf, /sup 252/Cf, /sup 254/Cf, /sup 251/Cf, /sup 253/Es, /sup 254/Es, /sup 244/Fm, /sup 246/Fm, /sup 255/Fm, /sup 252/No, /sup 254/Fm, /sup 256/Fm, /sup 257/Fm. 59 refs., 24 tabs. (LEW)

  15. Isolating prompt photons with narrow cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, S.; Fontannaz, M.; Guillet, J. Ph.; Pilon, E.

    2013-09-01

    We discuss the isolation of prompt photons in hadronic collisions by means of narrow isolation cones and the QCD computation of the corresponding cross sections. We reconsider the occurence of large perturbative terms with logarithmic dependence on the cone size and their impact on the fragmentation scale dependence. We cure the apparent perturbative violation of unitarity for small cone sizes, which had been noticed earlier in next-to-leading-order (NLO) calculations, by resumming the leading logarithmic dependence on the cone size. We discuss possible implications regarding the implementation of some hollow cone variants of the cone criterion, which simulate the experimental difficulty to impose isolation inside the region filled by the electromagnetic shower that develops in the calorimeter.

  16. Photohadronic Instability Model for GRB Prompt Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.

    2013-09-01

    Τhe mechanisms behind gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are not yet well understood. Here we investigate a model where a spectral energy distribution (SED) that looks surprisingly like a typical GRB prompt emission is generated starting with merely high energy protons and a magnetic field. Using a selfconsistent, time-dependent code we show that when the density of such protons exceeds a certain threshold their energy is converted explosively to lower energy photons through a series of positive feedback loops. At even higher densities, Compton scattering of cold electrons shapes the low energy part of the SED into the familiar Band function, a distinctive peak between 1-10 keV (in the comoving frame) in GRB observations. This approach, although similar to the photospheric GRB model, also allows us to investigate the neutrino emission, which can be compared with recent ICECUBE limits.

  17. Energy Correlation of Prompt Fission Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elter, Zs.; Pázsit, I.

    2016-03-01

    In all cases where neutron fluctuations in a branching process (such as in multiplicity measurements) are treated in an energy dependent description, the energy correlations of the branching itself (energy correlations of the fission neutrons) need to be known. To date, these are not known from experiments. Such correlations can be theoretically and numerically derived by modelling the details of the fission process. It was suggested earlier that the fact that the prompt neutrons are emitted from the moving fission targets, will influence their energy and angular distributions in the lab system, which possibly induces correlations. In this paper the influence of the neutron emission process from the moving targets on the energy correlations is investigated analytically and via numerical simulations. It is shown that the correlations are generated by the random energy and direction distributions of the fission fragments. Analytical formulas are derived for the two-point energy distributions, and quantitative results are obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations. The results lend insight into the character of the two-point distributions, and give quantitative estimates of the energy correlations, which are generally small.

  18. Subscale Testing of Prompt Agent Defeat Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milby, Christopher; Stamatis, Demitrios; Daniels, Amber; Svingala, Forrest; Lightstone, Jim; Miller, Kendra; Bensman, Misty; Bohmke, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    There is a need to improve the current bioagent defeat systems with formulations that produce lower peak pressure, impulse, sustained high temperatures, and release of biocidal species for prompt defeat applications. In this work, explosive charge configurations similar to fuel-air explosives were detonated in a semi-enclosed chamber configuration. Binder type and fuel-to-oxidizer ratios were varied to observe the effects on combustion performance. Thermocouple measurements and high-speed video were used to monitor the combustion of the dispersed formulation. The down-selected formulations were then tested in a sub-scale vented agent defeat system developed to evaluate performance of formulations against aerosolized Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) spores. Diagnostics such as thermocouples, piezoelectric pressure gauges, and pyrometry were utilized to characterize the detonation event. Biological sampling with surface coupons, liquid impingement, and filters of the post detonation environment were utilized to determine spore survivability and rank the relative effectiveness of each formulation. Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited

  19. Ionization Chamber for Prompt Fission Neutron Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalov, Sh.; Zeynalova, O.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Sedyshev, P.; Shvetsov, V.

    In this work we report recent achievements in design of twin back-to-back ionization chamber (TIC) for fission fragment (FF) mass and kinetic energy measurement. Correlated FF kinetic energies, their masses and the angle of FF in respect to the axes in 3D Cartesian coordinates can be determined from analysis of the heights and shapes of the pulses induced by the fission fragments on the anodes of TIC. Anodes of TIC were designed as consisting of isolated strips each having independent electronic circuitry and special multi-channel pulse processing apparatus. Mathematical formulae provided for FF angles measured in respect to the coordinate axes. It was shown how the point of fission fragments origin on the target plane may be determined using the same measured data. The last feature made the TIC a rather powerful tool for prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission investigation in event-by-event analysis of individual fission reactions from non- point fissile source. Position sensitive neutron induced fission detector for neutron-imaging applications with both thermal and low energy neutrons was found as another possible implementation of the designed TIC.

  20. Prompt Planetesimal Formation beyond the Snow Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Philip J.; Eisner, Josh A.; Simon, Jacob B.

    2016-09-01

    We develop a simple model to predict the radial distribution of planetesimal formation. The model is based on the observed growth of dust to millimeter-sized particles, which drift radially, pile-up, and form planetesimals where the stopping time and dust-to-gas ratio intersect the allowed region for streaming instability-induced gravitational collapse. Using an approximate analytic treatment, we first show that drifting particles define a track in metallicity–stopping time space whose only substantial dependence is on the disk’s angular momentum transport efficiency. Prompt planetesimal formation is feasible for high particle accretion rates (relative to the gas, {\\dot{M}}p/\\dot{M}≳ 3× {10}-2 for α ={10}-2), which could only be sustained for a limited period of time. If it is possible, it would lead to the deposition of a broad and massive belt of planetesimals with a sharp outer edge. Numerically including turbulent diffusion and vapor condensation processes, we find that a modest enhancement of solids near the snow line occurs for centimeter-sized particles, but that this is largely immaterial for planetesimal formation. We note that radial drift couples planetesimal formation across radii in the disk, and suggest that considerations of planetesimal formation favor a model in which the initial deposition of material for giant planet cores occurs well beyond the snow line.

  1. Automated Detection of Activity Transitions for Prompting

    PubMed Central

    Feuz, Kyle D.; Cook, Diane J.; Rosasco, Cody; Robertson, Kayela; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with cognitive impairment can benefit from intervention strategies like recording important information in a memory notebook. However, training individuals to use the notebook on a regular basis requires a constant delivery of reminders. In this work, we design and evaluate machine learning-based methods for providing automated reminders using a digital memory notebook interface. Specifically, we identify transition periods between activities as times to issue prompts. We consider the problem of detecting activity transitions using supervised and unsupervised machine learning techniques, and find that both techniques show promising results for detecting transition periods. We test the techniques in a scripted setting with 15 individuals. Motion sensors data is recorded and annotated as participants perform a fixed set of activities. We also test the techniques in an unscripted setting with 8 individuals. Motion sensor data is recorded as participants go about their normal daily routine. In both the scripted and unscripted settings a true positive rate of greater than 80% can be achieved while maintaining a false positive rate of less than 15%. On average, this leads to transitions being detected within 1 minute of a true transition for the scripted data and within 2 minutes of a true transition on the unscripted data. PMID:27019791

  2. Prompt Planetesimal Formation beyond the Snow Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Philip J.; Eisner, Josh A.; Simon, Jacob B.

    2016-09-01

    We develop a simple model to predict the radial distribution of planetesimal formation. The model is based on the observed growth of dust to millimeter-sized particles, which drift radially, pile-up, and form planetesimals where the stopping time and dust-to-gas ratio intersect the allowed region for streaming instability-induced gravitational collapse. Using an approximate analytic treatment, we first show that drifting particles define a track in metallicity-stopping time space whose only substantial dependence is on the disk’s angular momentum transport efficiency. Prompt planetesimal formation is feasible for high particle accretion rates (relative to the gas, {\\dot{M}}p/\\dot{M}≳ 3× {10}-2 for α ={10}-2), which could only be sustained for a limited period of time. If it is possible, it would lead to the deposition of a broad and massive belt of planetesimals with a sharp outer edge. Numerically including turbulent diffusion and vapor condensation processes, we find that a modest enhancement of solids near the snow line occurs for centimeter-sized particles, but that this is largely immaterial for planetesimal formation. We note that radial drift couples planetesimal formation across radii in the disk, and suggest that considerations of planetesimal formation favor a model in which the initial deposition of material for giant planet cores occurs well beyond the snow line.

  3. Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R; Chen, Y J; Hambsch, F J; Kornilov, N V; Lestone, J P; Litaize, O; Morillon, B; Neudecker, D; Oberstedt, S; Ohsawa, T; Smith, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) “Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides”was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei. The following technical areas were addressed: (i) experiments and uncertainty quantification (UQ): New data for neutron-induced fission of 233U, 235U, 238U, and 239Pu have been measured, and older data have been compiled and reassessed. There is evidence from the experimental work of this CRP that a very small percentage of neutrons emitted in fission are actually scission neutrons; (ii) modeling: The Los Alamos model (LAM) continues to be the workhorse for PFNS evaluations. Monte Carlo models have been developed that describe the fission phenomena microscopically, but further development is needed to produce PFNS evaluations meeting the uncertainty targets; (iii) evaluation methodologies: PFNS evaluations rely on the use of the least-squares techniques for merging experimental and model data. Considerable insight was achieved on how to deal with the problem of too small uncertainties in PFNS evaluations. The importance of considering that all experimental PFNS data are “shape” data was stressed; (iv) PFNS evaluations: New evaluations, including covariance data, were generated for major actinides including 1) non-model GMA evaluations of the 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f), and 233U(nth,f) PFNS based exclusively on experimental data (0.02 ≤ E ≤ 10 MeV), which resulted in PFNS average energies E of 2.00±0.01, 2.073±0.010, and 2.030±0.013 MeV, respectively; 2) LAM evaluations of neutron-induced fission spectra on uranium and plutonium targets with improved UQ for incident energies from thermal up to 30 MeV; and 3) Point-by-Point calculations for 232Th, 234U and 237Np targets; and (v) data

  4. 77 FR 76624 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt... on June 30, 2013, the prompt payment interest rate is 1-3/8 per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments... service by the required payment date shall pay the business concern an interest penalty. 31 U.S.C....

  5. 78 FR 39063 - Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Fiscal Service Prompt Payment Interest Rate; Contract Disputes Act AGENCY: Bureau of the Fiscal Service..., the prompt payment interest rate is 1\\3/4\\ per centum per annum. ADDRESSES: Comments or inquiries may... service by the required payment date shall pay the business concern an interest penalty. 31 U.S.C....

  6. Effects of Reflection Prompts when Learning with Hypermedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannert, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In this study the assumption was tested experimentally, whether prompting for reflection will enhance hypermedia learning and transfer. Students of the experimental group were prompted at each navigation step in a hypermedia system to say the reasons why they chose this specific information node out loud whereas the students of the control group…

  7. 42 CFR 422.520 - Prompt payment by MA organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prompt payment by MA organization. 422.520 Section... Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.520 Prompt payment by MA organization. (a) Contract between CMS and the MA organization. (1) The contract between CMS and the MA organization must provide that the...

  8. 48 CFR 52.232-25 - Prompt payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Office of Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR part 1315. (i) For the sole... regulations at 5 CFR 1315.10(c) do not require the Government to pay interest penalties if payment delays are... will calculate the interest penalty in accordance with the prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR...

  9. 48 CFR 52.232-25 - Prompt payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Office of Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR part 1315. (i) For the sole... regulations at 5 CFR 1315.10(c) do not require the Government to pay interest penalties if payment delays are... will calculate the interest penalty in accordance with the prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR...

  10. 29 CFR 102.96 - Issuance of complaint promptly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of complaint promptly. 102.96 Section 102.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure in Cases Under Section 10(j), (l), and (m) of the Act § 102.96 Issuance of complaint promptly. Whenever...

  11. 42 CFR 422.520 - Prompt payment by MA organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prompt payment by MA organization. 422.520 Section... Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.520 Prompt payment by MA organization. (a) Contract between CMS and the MA organization. (1) The contract between CMS and the MA organization must provide that the...

  12. Simultaneous Prompting: An Instructional Strategy for Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Rebecca E.; Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Errorless learning is an instructional approach designed to eliminate and/or reduce the number of errors students produce in traditional trial-and-error approaches (Mueller, Palkovic, & Maynard, 2007). Various response prompting strategies are employed to produce errorless learning. Simultaneous prompting is an errorless learning strategy that has…

  13. 29 CFR 102.96 - Issuance of complaint promptly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Issuance of complaint promptly. 102.96 Section 102.96 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure in Cases Under Section 10(j), (l), and (m) of the Act § 102.96 Issuance of complaint promptly. Whenever...

  14. 12 CFR 226.10 - Prompt crediting of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prompt crediting of payments. 226.10 Section 226.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.10 Prompt crediting of payments. (a)...

  15. A Flipped Spoon and Chin Prompt to Increase Mouth Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Jack; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Groff, Rebecca A.; Kozisek, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    We treated the liquid refusal of a 15-month-old girl using 2 antecedent manipulations: flipped spoon and chin prompt. Use of the chin prompt in the absence of the flipped spoon failed to produce increases in mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing). By contrast, modest increases in mouth clean resulted from the implementation of the flipped…

  16. Scaffolding Students' Knowledge Integration: Prompts for Reflection in KIE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2000-01-01

    Encouraging students to be autonomous is an important goal of the Scaffolded Knowledge Integration (SKI) framework. Investigates learning and design questions. Indicates that prompting students to reflect significantly increases knowledge integration in science projects. Shows that self-monitoring prompts, which encourage planning for and…

  17. 48 CFR 52.232-8 - Discounts for Prompt Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... include discounts for prompt payment on individual invoices. (b) In connection with any discount offered for prompt payment, time shall be computed from the date of the invoice. If the Contractor has not placed a date on the invoice, the due date shall be calculated from the date the designated...

  18. 48 CFR 52.232-8 - Discounts for Prompt Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... include discounts for prompt payment on individual invoices. (b) In connection with any discount offered for prompt payment, time shall be computed from the date of the invoice. If the Contractor has not placed a date on the invoice, the due date shall be calculated from the date the designated...

  19. 48 CFR 52.232-8 - Discounts for Prompt Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... include discounts for prompt payment on individual invoices. (b) In connection with any discount offered for prompt payment, time shall be computed from the date of the invoice. If the Contractor has not placed a date on the invoice, the due date shall be calculated from the date the designated...

  20. 48 CFR 52.232-8 - Discounts for Prompt Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... include discounts for prompt payment on individual invoices. (b) In connection with any discount offered for prompt payment, time shall be computed from the date of the invoice. If the Contractor has not placed a date on the invoice, the due date shall be calculated from the date the designated...

  1. Randomized Trial Evaluating Ranibizumab Plus Prompt or Deferred Laser or Triamcinolone Plus Prompt Laser for Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Elman, Michael J.; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Beck, Roy W.; Bressler, Neil M.; Bressler, Susan B.; Edwards, Allison R.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Friedman, Scott M.; Glassman, Adam R.; Miller, Kellee M.; Scott, Ingrid U.; Stockdale, Cynthia R.; Sun, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Evaluate intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab or 4 mg triamcinolone combined with focal/grid laser compared with focal/grid laser alone for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Design Multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Participants A total of 854 study eyes of 691 participants with visual acuity (approximate Snellen equivalent) of 20/32 to 20/320 and DME involving the fovea. Methods Eyes were randomized to sham injection + prompt laser (n=293), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + prompt laser (n=187), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + deferred (≥24 weeks) laser (n=188), or 4 mg triamcinolone + prompt laser (n=186). Retreatment followed an algorithm facilitated by a web-based, real-time data-entry system. Main Outcome Measures Best-corrected visual acuity and safety at 1 year. Results The 1-year mean change (±standard deviation) in the visual acuity letter score from baseline was significantly greater in the ranibizumab + prompt laser group (+9±11, P<0.001) and ranibizumab + deferred laser group (+9±12, P<0.001) but not in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group (+4±13, P=0.31) compared with the sham + prompt laser group (+3±13). Reduction in mean central subfield thickness in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group was similar to both ranibizumab groups and greater than in the sham + prompt laser group. In the subset of pseudophakic eyes at baseline (n=273), visual acuity improvement in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group appeared comparable to that in the ranibizumab groups. No systemic events attributable to study treatment were apparent. Three eyes (0.8%) had injection-related endophthalmitis in the ranibizumab groups, whereas elevated intraocular pressure and cataract surgery were more frequent in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group. Two-year visual acuity outcomes were similar to 1-year outcomes. Conclusions Intravitreal ranibizumab with prompt or deferred laser is more effective through at least 1 year compared with prompt laser alone for the treatment of DME

  2. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of Kapton.

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Eric F.; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Stringer, Thomas Arthur

    2010-10-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Kapton (polyimide) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil samples were irradiated with a 0.5 {mu}s pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E10 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 6E-17 and 2E-16 mhos/m per rad/s, depending on the dose rate and the pulse width.

  3. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity in Teflon (PTFE).

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, E.

    2013-05-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of Teflon (PTFE) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil (76.2 microns) samples were irradiated with a 0.5 %CE%BCs pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E11 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Details of the experimental apparatus and analysis are reported in this report on prompt RIC in Teflon.

  4. 7 CFR 81.14 - Offset, assignment, and prompt payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... under the provisions of 7 CFR part 1404. (c) Prompt payment interest from AMS will not be applicable. ... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.14 Offset, assignment, and...

  5. 7 CFR 81.14 - Offset, assignment, and prompt payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under the provisions of 7 CFR part 1404. (c) Prompt payment interest from AMS will not be applicable. ... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.14 Offset, assignment, and...

  6. 7 CFR 81.14 - Offset, assignment, and prompt payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under the provisions of 7 CFR part 1404. (c) Prompt payment interest from AMS will not be applicable. ... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.14 Offset, assignment, and...

  7. 7 CFR 81.14 - Offset, assignment, and prompt payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... under the provisions of 7 CFR part 1404. (c) Prompt payment interest from AMS will not be applicable. ... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.14 Offset, assignment, and...

  8. 7 CFR 81.14 - Offset, assignment, and prompt payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under the provisions of 7 CFR part 1404. (c) Prompt payment interest from AMS will not be applicable. ... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.14 Offset, assignment, and...

  9. A flipped spoon and chin prompt to increase mouth clean.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Jack; Piazza, Cathleen C; Groff, Rebecca A; Kozisek, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    We treated the liquid refusal of a 15-month-old girl using 2 antecedent manipulations: flipped spoon and chin prompt. Use of the chin prompt in the absence of the flipped spoon failed to produce increases in mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing). By contrast, modest increases in mouth clean resulted from the implementation of the flipped spoon alone. The greatest increases in mouth clean resulted from the combination of the 2 manipulations. PMID:22219548

  10. Modelling of reaction cross sections and prompt neutron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Tudora, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-10-01

    Accurate nuclear data concerning reaction cross sections and the emission of prompt fission neutrons (i.e. multiplicity and spectra) as well as other fission fragment data are of great importance for reactor physics design, especially for the new Generation IV nuclear energy systems. During the past years for several actinides (238U(n, f) and 237Np(n, f)) both the reaction cross sections and prompt neutron multiplicities and spectra have been calculated within the frame of the EFNUDAT project.

  11. APPLICATION OF JITTER RADIATION: GAMMA-RAY BURST PROMPT POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jirong; Wang, Jiancheng

    2013-10-10

    A high degree of polarization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission has been confirmed in recent years. In this paper, we apply jitter radiation to study the polarization feature of GRB prompt emission. In our framework, relativistic electrons are accelerated by turbulent acceleration. Random and small-scale magnetic fields are generated by turbulence. We further determine that the polarization property of GRB prompt emission is governed by the configuration of the random and small-scale magnetic fields. A two-dimensional compressed slab, which contains a stochastic magnetic field, is applied in our model. If the jitter condition is satisfied, the electron deflection angle in the magnetic field is very small and the electron trajectory can be treated as a straight line. A high degree of polarization can be achieved when the angle between the line of sight and the slab plane is small. Moreover, micro-emitters with mini-jet structures are considered to be within a bulk GRB jet. The jet 'off-axis' effect is intensely sensitive to the observed polarization degree. We discuss the depolarization effect on GRB prompt emission and afterglow. We also speculate that the rapid variability of GRB prompt polarization may be correlated with the stochastic variability of the turbulent dynamo or the magnetic reconnection of plasmas.

  12. Prompt Emission in Fission Induced with Fast Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. N.; Lebois, M.; Halipré, P.; Oberstedt, S.; Oberstedt, A.

    Prompt gamma-ray and neutron emission data in fission integrates a large amount of information on the fission process and can shed light on the partition of energy. Measured emission spectra, average energies and multiplicities also provide important information for energy applications. While current reactors mostly use thermal neutron spectra, the future reactors of Generation IV will use fast neutron spectra for which little experimental prompt emission data exist. Initial investigations on prompt emission in fast neutron induced fission have recently been carried out at the LICORNE facility at the IPN Orsay, which exploits inverse reactions to produce naturally collimated, intense beams of neutrons. We report on first results with LICORNE to measure prompt fission gamma-ray spectra, average energies and multiplicities for 235U and 238U. Current improvements and upgrades being carried out on the LICORNE facility will also be described, including the development of a H2 gas target to reduce parasitic backgrounds and increase intensities, and the deployment of 11B beams to extend the effective LICORNE neutron energy range up to 12 MeV. Prospects for future experimental studies of prompt gamma-ray and neutron emission in fast neutron induced fission will be presented.

  13. Prompt Fission Gamma-ray Studies at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Keksis, A. L.; Mosby, S. M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Stoyer, M. A.; Haslett, R. J.; Henderson, R. A.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.

    Measurements of correlated data on prompt-fission γ-rays (PFG) have been carried out for various actinide isotopes in recent years using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a model that conveniently parametrizes the correlated data of γ-ray multiplicity and energy. New results on two- dimensional prompt-fission γ-ray multiplicity versus energy distributions from spontaneous fission on 252Cf and neutron-induced fission on 242mAm are presented together with previously obtained results on 233,235U and 239Pu. Correlated PFG data from 252Cf are also compared to results of the detailed theoretical model developed at LANL, for different thresholds of PFG energies. Future plans to measure correlated data on fission fragments, prompt fission neutrons and γ-rays at DANCE are presented.

  14. The Prompt and High Energy Emission of Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, P.

    2009-05-25

    I discuss some recent developments concerning the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts, in particular the jet properties and radiation mechanisms, as exemplified by the naked-eye burst GRB 080319b, and the prompt X-ray emission of XRB080109/SN2008d, where the progenitor has, for the first time, been shown to contribute to the prompt emission. I discuss then some recent theoretical calculations of the GeV/TeV spectrum of GRB in the context of both leptonic SSC models and hadronic models. The recent observations by the Fermi satellite of GRB 080916C are then reviewed, and their implications for such models are discussed, together with its interesting determination of a bulk Lorentz factor, and the highest lower limit on the quantum gravity energy scale so far.

  15. Prompt fission gamma-ray studies at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M.. M; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Keksis, A. L.; Mosby, S. M.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Stoyer, M. A.; Haslett, R. J.; Henderson, R. A.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-11-26

    Measurements of correlated data on prompt-fission γ-rays (PFG) have been carried out for various actinide isotopes in recent years using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a model that conveniently parametrizes the correlated data of γ-ray multiplicity and energy. New results on two- dimensional prompt-fission γ-ray multiplicity versus energy distributions from spontaneous fission on ²⁵²Cf and neutron-induced fission on 242mAm are presented together with previously obtained results on 233,235U and ²³⁹Pu. Correlated PFG data from ²⁵²Cf are also compared to results of the detailed theoretical model developed at LANL, for different thresholds of PFG energies. Future plans to measure correlated data on fission fragments, prompt fission neutrons and γ-rays at DANCE are presented.

  16. Prompt Fission γ-ray Spectra Characteristics - A First Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Billnert, R.; Gatera, A.; Geerts, W.; Halipré, P.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Lebois, M.; Oberstedt, A.; Marini, P.; Vidali, M.; Wilson, J. N.

    In this work we give an overview of our investigations of prompt γ-ray emission in nuclear fission. This work was conducted during the last five years in response to a high priority nuclear data request formulated by the OECD/NEA. The aim was to reveal data deficiencies responsible for a severe under-prediction of the prompt γ heating in nuclear reactor cores. We obtained new prompt fission γ-ray spectral (PFGS) data for 252Cf(SF) as well as for thermal-neutron induced fission on 235U(nth,f) and 241Pu(nth,f). In addition, first PFGS measurements with a fast-neutron beam were accomplished, too. The impact of the new data and future data needs are discussed.

  17. Role of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities on prompt striation evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, J. L.

    1982-12-01

    It is suggested that a Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by ion inertia is a source of additional growth for prompt striations following the saturation of the seed, kinetic, loss cone instability. The destabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor modes on the prompt striation scale size is seen as implying a simultaneous excitation of large scale size Rayleigh-Taylor modes. The long-term influence of prompt striations on large scale fluid turbulence and on the outer scale of the power spectral density may be minimal. The kinetic loss cone and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are treated in an asymptotic sense, with the kinetic loss cone instability being driven by an ion loss cone distribution function and possibly a density gradient and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (the result of a simultaneous density gradient and an electric polarization drift).

  18. PROMPT for COSTAR—A Clinical Reminder System

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Naomi J.; Rose, Peter G.; Palmer, R. Heather

    1989-01-01

    The PROMPT reminder system was developed to enable physicians to write their own computerized reminders to assist them in ambulatory care. PROMPT is a public domain module for the COSTAR medical information system. Patients are enrolled in site-specific clinical protocols created by practitioners using interactive routines. Reminders of tests to be ordered or actions to be taken are printed at clinic visits and at times between visits if previously specified by the clinician. Clinical data and instructions for reminder control are fed back into the system for future use. PROMPT reminders can function even if the COSTAR records module is not used to replace paper medical records. The system is currently being evaluated in five practices.

  19. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of alumina and sapphire.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2011-04-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Alumina and Sapphire at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Five mil thick samples were irradiated with pulses of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E7 to 1E9 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 1 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 1E10 and 1E9 mho/m/(rad/s), depending on the dose rate and the pulse width for Alumina and 1E7 to 6E7 mho/m/(rad/s) for Sapphire.

  20. Prompting a consumer behavior for pollution control1

    PubMed Central

    Geller, E. Scott; Farris, John C.; Post, David S.

    1973-01-01

    A field application of behavior modification studied the relative effectiveness of different prompting procedures for increasing the probability that customers entering a grocery store would select their soft drinks in returnable rather than nonreturnable containers. Six different 2-hr experimental conditions during which bottle purchases were recorded were (1) No Prompt (i.e., control), (2) one student gave incoming customers a handbill urging the purchase of soft drinks in returnable bottles, (3) distribution of the handbill by one student and public charting of each customer's bottle purchases by another student, (4) handbill distribution and charting by a five-member group, (5) handbills distributed and purchases charted by three females. The variant prompting techniques were equally effective, and in general increased the percentage of returnable-bottle customers by an average of 25%. PMID:16795418

  1. Can earning prompt-payment discounts really save money?

    PubMed

    Lane, M R

    1997-09-01

    Healthcare financial managers should determine whether to take advantage of the discounts vendors offer for prompt payment of invoices. Prompt-payment discounts offered by vendors can result in substantial savings, but this benefit may be offset by the costs of acquiring the funds necessary for faster payment. The best results are achieved when the cost of funds is less than the discount savings that can be achieved, vendor discounts are available for a high percentage of the provider's purchase base, the provider is able to negotiate with vendors to increase discount levels, and the provider has an efficient system for processing invoices.

  2. Physical basis for prompt-neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The technique called prompt ..gamma..-ray neutron activation analysis has been applied to rapid materials analysis. The radiation following the neutron radiation capture is prompt in the sense that the nuclear decay time is on the order of 10/sup -15/ second, and thus the technique is not strictly activation, but should be called radiation neutron capture spectroscopy or neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. This paper reviews the following: sources and detectors, theory of radiative capture, nonstatistical capture, giant dipole resonance, fast neutron capture, and thermal neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectra. 14 figures.

  3. Super_Prompt Crit excursions in Sph Geometry

    2000-03-17

    AX-TNT solves (a) the coupled hydrodynamic, thermodynamical neutronic equations which describe a spherical, super prompt critical reactor system during an excursion. (b) the coupled equations of motion, and ideal gas equation of state for the detonation of a spherical charge in a gas.

  4. Proton range verification through prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Joost M.; Seco, Joao

    2014-12-01

    We present an experimental study of a novel method to verify the range of proton therapy beams. Differential cross sections were measured for 15 prompt gamma-ray lines from proton-nuclear interactions with 12C and 16O at proton energies up to 150 MeV. These cross sections were used to model discrete prompt gamma-ray emissions along proton pencil-beams. By fitting detected prompt gamma-ray counts to these models, we simultaneously determined the beam range and the oxygen and carbon concentration of the irradiated matter. The performance of the method was assessed in two phantoms with different elemental concentrations, using a small scale prototype detector. Based on five pencil-beams with different ranges delivering 5 × 108 protons and without prior knowledge of the elemental composition at the measurement point, the absolute range was determined with a standard deviation of 1.0-1.4 mm. Relative range shifts at the same dose level were detected with a standard deviation of 0.3-0.5 mm. The determined oxygen and carbon concentrations also agreed well with the actual values. These results show that quantitative prompt gamma-ray measurements enable knowledge of nuclear reaction cross sections to be used for precise proton range verification in the presence of tissue with an unknown composition.

  5. Proton range verification through prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Joost M; Seco, Joao

    2014-12-01

    We present an experimental study of a novel method to verify the range of proton therapy beams. Differential cross sections were measured for 15 prompt gamma-ray lines from proton-nuclear interactions with (12)C and (16)O at proton energies up to 150 MeV. These cross sections were used to model discrete prompt gamma-ray emissions along proton pencil-beams. By fitting detected prompt gamma-ray counts to these models, we simultaneously determined the beam range and the oxygen and carbon concentration of the irradiated matter. The performance of the method was assessed in two phantoms with different elemental concentrations, using a small scale prototype detector. Based on five pencil-beams with different ranges delivering 5 × 10(8) protons and without prior knowledge of the elemental composition at the measurement point, the absolute range was determined with a standard deviation of 1.0-1.4 mm. Relative range shifts at the same dose level were detected with a standard deviation of 0.3-0.5 mm. The determined oxygen and carbon concentrations also agreed well with the actual values. These results show that quantitative prompt gamma-ray measurements enable knowledge of nuclear reaction cross sections to be used for precise proton range verification in the presence of tissue with an unknown composition.

  6. Teaching Vocational Skills with a Faded Auditory Prompting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Schuster, John W.; Collins, Belva C.; Gassaway, Linda J.

    2000-01-01

    Three students (ages 14-16) with mild mental retardation were taught to use an auditory prompting system to complete the vocational tasks of cleaning a bathroom in a classroom setting. Students acquired the skills and generalized them to a novel setting. There were mixed results concerning maintenance of the skills. (Contains 10 references.)…

  7. 26 CFR 301.6231(c)-8 - Prompt assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., see § 301.6231(c)-8T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prompt assessment. 301.6231(c)-8 Section 301... AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6231(c)-8...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6231(c)-8 - Prompt assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., see § 301.6231(c)-8T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prompt assessment. 301.6231(c)-8 Section 301... AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6231(c)-8...

  9. Building Substantive Engagement through the Use of Connection Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamar, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Conversation is a strategy that helps students build reading skills and improve reading comprehension. This study describes the implementation of connection prompts in a 2nd-grade classroom to support students in making predictions, questioning the text, and initiating further conversation. Research suggests that once conversation is initiated,…

  10. Enhancing Learning from Different Visualizations by Self-Explanation Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lijia; Atkinson, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the two experiments was to investigate the potential effects of different types of visualizations and self-explanation prompts on learning human cardiovascular system in a multimedia environment. In Experiments 1 and 2, 70 and 44 college students were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in a 2 × 2 factorial design with…

  11. Single transverse spin asymmetry of prompt photon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberg, Leonard; Kang, Zhong-Bo

    2012-11-01

    We study the single transverse spin asymmetry of prompt photon production in high energy proton-proton scattering. We include the contributions from both the direct and fragmentation photons. While the asymmetry for direct photon production receives only the Sivers type of contribution, the asymmetry for fragmentation photons receives both the Sivers and Collins types of contributions. We make a model calculation for quark-to-photon Collins function, which is then used to estimate the Collins asymmetry for fragmentation photons. We find that the Collins asymmetry for fragmentation photons is very small, thus the single transverse spin asymmetry of prompt photon production is mainly coming from the Sivers asymmetry in direct and fragmentation photons. We make predictions for the prompt photon spin asymmetry at RHIC energy, and emphasize the importance of such a measurement. The asymmetry of prompt photon production can provide a good measurement for the important twist-three quark-gluon correlation function, which is urgently needed in order to resolve the "sign mismatch" puzzle.

  12. Constructing an Essay Prompt Bank Using the Partial Credit Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steven; Walker-Bartnick, Leslie

    The viability of the Partial Credit Model (PCM) of G. N. Masters (1982) for scaling and banking individual essay prompts from a statewide writing assessment program was investigated. Preliminary analyses indicated the feasibility of using the PCM, the general polychotomous form of the Rasch model, with essay data from the Maryland Writing Test…

  13. Players' Deaths Prompt Questions about "Balance" in Athletes' Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2001-01-01

    Explores how the recent deaths of several college football players have prompted questions about whether athletes should be participating in sports to the exclusion of almost every other activity. Offers the example of Virginia Tech and discusses regulations on practice from the National Collegiate Athletic Association. (EV)

  14. Meeting the Needs of Distance Students: Feedback, Support, and Promptness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Judith A.

    1987-01-01

    All distance instructors are regularly evaluated by students of Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College. The article reviews 388 evaluation forms to determine what qualities and teaching behaviors are most appreciated by adult women students in the program. High ratings were given to (1) providing feedback, (2) promptness, and (3) helpfulness. (CH)

  15. Investigating Prompt Difficulty in an Automatically Scored Speaking Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Troy L.

    2013-01-01

    Speaking assessments for second language learners have traditionally been expensive to administer because of the cost of rating the speech samples. To reduce the cost, many researchers are investigating the potential of using automatic speech recognition (ASR) as a means to score examinee responses to open-ended prompts. This study examined the…

  16. Total prompt γ-ray emission in fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.; Kwan, E.; Henserson, R. A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    The total prompt γ-ray energy distributions for the neutron-induced fission of 235U, 239,241Pu at incident neutron energy of 0.025 eV ‒ 100 keV, and the spontaneous fission of 252Cf were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) array in coincidence with the detection of fission fragments by a parallel-plate avalanche counter. DANCE is a highly segmented, highly efficient 4π γ-ray calorimeter. Corrections were made to the measured distribution by unfolding the two-dimension spectrum of total γ-ray energy vs multiplicity using a simulated DANCE response matrix. The mean values of the total prompt γ-ray energy, determined from the unfolded distributions, are ~ 20% higher than those derived from measurements using single γ-ray detector for all the fissile nuclei studied. This raises serious concern on the validity of the mean total prompt γ-ray energy obtained from the product of mean values for both prompt γ-ray energy and multiplicity.

  17. Comparability of TOEFL CBT Essay Prompts: Response-Mode Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Hunter; Lee, Yong-Won; Muraki, Eiji

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-three Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) writing prompts administered via computer-based testing between July 1998 and August 2000 were examined for differences attributable to the response mode (handwriting or word processing) chosen by examinees. Differences were examined statistically using polytomous logistic regression. A…

  18. Video Modeling and Prompting in Practice: Teaching Cooking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellems, Ryan O.; Mourra, Kjerstin; Morgan, Robert L.; Riesen, Tim; Glasgow, Malinda; Huddleston, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the creation of video modeling (VM) and video prompting (VP) interventions for teaching novel multi-step tasks to individuals with disabilities. This article reviews factors to consider when selecting skills to teach, and students for whom VM/VP may be successful, as well as the difference between VM and VP and circumstances…

  19. Establishing Mirror-Image Discriminations with Progressively Delayed Extra-Stimulus Prompts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeets, Paul M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Progressively delayed extra-stimulus prompts were used to help kindergarten children discriminate left-right mirror-image stimuli in four experiments. Results showed that most subjects rapidly learned to respond to the orientation prompts; delayed orientation prompting was always successful regardless of how the prompts were eliminated; and the…

  20. Examination of a Regressive Prompt-Delay Procedure for Improving Sight-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Edward J., III.; Hess, Polly M.; Sommerhalder, Mackenzie; Strong, Whitney; Johnsen, Mallory; O'Connor, Maureen A.; Young, Nicholas D.

    2016-01-01

    The current two-experiment study examined the effects of a regressive prompt-delay procedure on sight-word reading of four elementary school students. In contrast to traditional progressive prompt-delay procedures in which the latency of prompts is increased, the regressive prompt-delay latency is decreased over time. Data indicate that…

  1. Prompting Safety Belt Use: Comparative Impact on the Target Behavior and Relevant Body Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Matthew G.; Geller, E. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Researchers used two behavioral prompts to compare increases in safety belt use: a Click It or Ticket prompt or a Flash-for-Life prompt. Participants were 1,822 unbuckled drivers exiting two student parking lots of a large university. Research assistants identified unbuckled drivers, flashed one of the two prompts, and recorded whether drivers…

  2. A revised analysis of gamma-ray bursts' prompt efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniamini, Paz; Nava, Lara; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-09-01

    The prompt gamma-ray bursts' (GRBs) efficiency is an important clue on the emission mechanism producing the γ-rays. Previous estimates of the kinetic energy of the blast waves, based on the X-ray afterglow luminosity LX, suggested that this efficiency is large, with values above 90 per cent in some cases. This poses a problem to emission mechanisms and in particular to the internal shocks model. These estimates are based, however, on the assumption that the X-ray emitting electrons are fast cooling and that their Inverse Compton (IC) losses are negligible. The observed correlations between LX (and hence the blast wave energy) and Eγ, iso, the isotropic equivalent energy in the prompt emission, has been considered as observational evidence supporting this analysis. It is reasonable that the prompt gamma-ray energy and the blast wave kinetic energy are correlated and the observed correlation corroborates, therefore, the notion LX is indeed a valid proxy for the latter. Recent findings suggest that the magnetic field in the afterglow shocks is significantly weaker than was earlier thought and its equipartition fraction, ɛB, could be as low as 10-4 or even lower. Motivated by these findings we reconsider the problem, taking now IC cooling into account. We find that the observed LX - Eγ, iso correlation is recovered also when IC losses are significant. For small ɛB values the blast wave must be more energetic and we find that the corresponding prompt efficiency is significantly smaller than previously thought. For example, for ɛB ˜ 10-4 we infer a typical prompt efficiency of ˜15 per cent.

  3. Identifying Nuclear Material via Prompt Photo-Neutron Multiplicity Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hausladen, Paul; Mihalczo, John T; Blackburn, Brandon; Watson, Scott; Jones, James L.; Hunt, Alan W

    2009-01-01

    Proof-of-principle measurements are reported demonstrating that multiplicity techniques can be used to identify prompt fission neutrons from photonuclear interrogation under circumstances where the fission neutrons may be accompanied by photodissociated neutrons of an identical energy spectrum, and where the emitted neutrons are naturally bunched in time by the pulsed nature of the interrogating photon beam. The technique shows promise as a method for the detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) compared to techniques based on delayed neutrons because prompt neutrons are orders of magnitude more abundant, and compared to passive multiplicity techniques because actively induced fission rates are orders of magnitude higher than spontaneous fission rates in HEU. The technique also shows promise in that multiplicity signatures can be used to distinguish HEU from other fissionable material.

  4. Velocimetry studies on the prompt initiation of PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Wackerle, J.; Stacy, H.L.; Seitz, W.L.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, a description is given for the extension and refinement of the methods used for the investigation of the reaction-rate evolution in the prompt initiation of PBX9502 (95 wt percent TATB/5 wt percent Kel F 800). A further improvement was realized in the experimental configuration of 9SD, which already was sufficient to resolve considerable detail in the detonation reaction zones. In this study, the interface velocity histories where obtained on specimens with thicknesses less that the approximately 3-mm run distance needed to establish a nearly steady detonation reaction zone with the driving system. Within this experimental range, an initally rounded character was observed in velocity histories, and the quantitative measurements of the evolution of this feature during the prompt initiation buildup process provide the significant new experimental information of this paper.

  5. The Supercritical Pile Model: Prompt Emission Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos; Mastichiadis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" GRB model is an economical model that provides the dissipation necessary to convert explosively the energy stored in relativistic protons in the blast wave of a GRB into radiation; at the same time it produces spectra whose luminosity peaks at 1 MeV in the lab frame, the result of the kinematics of the proton-photon - pair production reaction that effects the conversion of proton energy to radiation. We outline the fundamental notions behind the "Supercritical Pile" model and discuss the resulting spectra of the prompt emission from optical to gamma-ray energies of order Gamma^2 m_ec^2, (Gamma is the Lorentz factor of the blast wave) present even in the absence of an accelerated particle distribution and compare our results to bursts that cover this entire energy range. Particular emphasis is given on the emission at the GLAST energy range both in the prompt and the afterglow stages of the burst.

  6. Analyses of Oxyanion Materials by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Leung, K.-N.; Garabedian, G.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-03-24

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to analyze metal ion oxyanion materials that have multiple applications, including medicine, materials, catalysts, and electronics. The significance for the need for accurate, highly sensitive analyses for the materials is discussed in the context of quality control of end products containing the parent element in each material. Applications of the analytical data for input to models and theoretical calculations related to the electronic and other properties of the materials are discussed.

  7. Using Textual Prompts to Teach Mands for Information Using "Who?".

    PubMed

    Shillingsburg, M Alice; Gayman, Cassondra M; Walton, William

    2016-06-01

    Recent research on teaching mands for information to children with language deficits has focused on manipulating establishing operations (EOs). However, only a few of those studies have programmed both EO conditions (in which information is needed) and abolishing operation (AO) conditions (in which information has already been provided) to ensure functional use of the mand for information. Shillingsburg, Bowen, Valentino, and Pierce (Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 136-150, 2014) provided a successful demonstration of differential responding between EO and AO conditions demonstrating control of the response by the relevant EO. Echoic prompts resulted in successful mands for information "Who?" One limitation of this study was that the participants did not re-issue the initial mand upon approaching the named adult to retrieve the item. This may be problematic in the natural environment as it is unlikely that the named adult would know what the child was looking for. The current study sought to replicate and expand previous research by using textual prompts to teach the mand "Who?" in four children diagnosed with autism (Phase 1) and by requiring the mand for the item be re-issued upon approaching the named adult (Phase 2). Textual prompts resulted in differential use of the mand for information during EO and AO conditions for all of the participants. Additionally, three of the four participants who did not re-issue the mand to the named adult during the Phase 2 baseline did so following the intervention. Overall, results support the use of textual prompts to teach mands for information to children with autism. PMID:27606218

  8. PROMPT DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, H; Dauffy, L; Sitaraman, S; Brereton, S

    2008-09-23

    Detailed 3-D modeling of the NIF facility is developed to accurately understand the prompt radiation environment within NIF. Prompt dose values are calculated for different phases of NIF operation. Results of the analysis were used to determine the final thicknesses of the Target Bay (TB) and secondary doors as well as the required shield thicknesses for all unused penetrations. Integrated dose values at different locations within the facility are needed to formulate the personnel access requirements within different parts of the facility. The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) The current NIF facility model includes all important features of the Target Chamber, shielding system, and building configuration; (2) All shielding requirements for Phase I operation are met; (3) Negligible dose values (a fraction of mrem) are expected in normally occupied areas during Phase I; (4) In preparation for the Ignition Campaign and Phase IV of operation, all primary and secondary shield doors will be installed; (5) Unused utility penetrations in the Target Bay and Switchyard walls ({approx}50%) will be shielded by 1 foot thick concrete to reduce prompt dose inside and outside the NIF facility; (6) During Phase IV, a 20 MJ shot will produce acceptable dose levels in the occupied areas as well as at the nearest site boundary; (7) A comprehensive radiation monitoring plan will be put in place to monitor dose values at large number of locations; and (8) Results of the dose monitoring will be used to modify personnel access requirements if needed.

  9. Prompt Earthquake Detection based on Transient Gravity Signals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhel, K.; Montagner, J. P.; Barsuglia, M.; Ampuero, J. P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Harms, J.; Whiting, B. F.; Bernard, P.; Clevede, E.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    The deformation caused by an earthquake induces changes in the Earth's gravitational field known as coseismic gravity changes, especially during mega-earthquakes. So far, only static gravity changes have been detected, considerably after the end of the rupture. Since gravity changes propagate at the speed of light, a dynamic gravity signal is produced everywhere on Earth during the rupture, even before the arrival of seismic waves. Here we confirm the evidence of this prompt gravity signal. We have analyzed, with a statistical blind method, the data recorded during the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake by a superconducting gravimeter in the underground Kamioka observatory, about 500 km away from the earthquake centroid. We find that a gravity signal is present before the P wave arrival, with a statistical significance of more than 99%. The signal amplitude is a fraction of μGal, consistent in sign and order-of-magnitude with theoretical predictions. A similar analysis is being conducted on data recorded by the broadband seismometers of the japanese network Fnet. Numerical simulations based on normal-mode method and an analytical model of dynamic gravity signals are used to compute synthetic seismograms, and thus characterize the prompt gravity signal. The robust detection of this prompt gravity signal with instruments more immune to the background seismic noise could, in principle, open new directions in earthquake seismology and overcome limitations of current earthquake early-warning systems imposed by the propagation speed of seismic waves.

  10. Prompt Fission Neutron Emission in Resonance Fission of 239Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Varapai, Natallia; Serot, Olivier

    2005-05-24

    The prompt neutron emission probability from neutron-induced fission in the resonance region is being investigated at the time-of-flight facility GELINA of the IRMM. A double Frisch-gridded ionization chamber is used as a fission-fragment detector. For the data acquisition of both the fission-fragment signals as well as the neutron detector signals the fast digitization technique has been applied. For the neutron detection, large-volume liquid scintillation detectors from the DEMON collaboration are used. A specialized data analysis program taking advantage of the digital filtering technique has been developed to treat the acquired data.Neutron multiplicity investigations for actinides, especially in resonance neutron-induced fission, are rather scarce. They are, however, important for reactor control and safety issues as well as for understanding the basic physics of the fission process. Fission yield measurements on both 235U and 239Pu without prompt neutron emission coincidence have shown that fluctuation of the fission-fragment mass distribution exists from resonance to resonance, larger in the case of 235U. To possibly explain these observations, the question now is whether the prompt neutron multiplicity shows similar fluctuations with resonance energy.

  11. Measuring gluon shadowing with prompt photons at RHIC and LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arleo, François; Gousset, Thierry

    2008-02-01

    The possibility to observe the nuclear modification of the gluon distribution at small-x (gluon shadowing) using high-p⊥ prompt photon production at RHIC and at LHC is discussed. The per-nucleon ratio, σ (p + A → γ + X) / (A × σ (p + p → γ + X)), is computed for both inclusive and isolated prompt photons in perturbative QCD at NLO using different parameterizations of nuclear parton densities, in order to assess the visibility of the shadowing signal. The production of isolated photons turns out to be a promising channel which allows for a reliable extraction of the gluon density, RGA, and the structure function, RF2A, in a nucleus over that in a proton. Moreover, the production ratio of prompt photons at forward-over-backward rapidity in p-A collisions provides an estimate of RGA (at small x) over RF2A (at large x), without the need of p- p reference data at the same energy.

  12. Prompt identification of tsunamigenic earthquakes from 3-component seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Ajit; Bhadauria, Y. S.; Basu, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2016-10-01

    An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based algorithm for prompt identification of shallow focus (depth < 70 km) tsunamigenic earthquakes at a regional distance is proposed in the paper. The promptness here refers to decision making as fast as 5 min after the arrival of LR phase in the seismogram. The root mean square amplitudes of seismic phases recorded by a single 3-component station have been considered as inputs besides location and magnitude. The trained ANN has been found to categorize 100% of the new earthquakes successfully as tsunamigenic or non-tsunamigenic. The proposed method has been corroborated by an alternate mapping technique of earthquake category estimation. The second method involves computation of focal parameters, estimation of water volume displaced at the source and eventually deciding category of the earthquake. The method has been found to identify 95% of the new earthquakes successfully. Both the methods have been tested using three component broad band seismic data recorded at PALK (Pallekele, Sri Lanka) station provided by IRIS for earthquakes originating from Sumatra region of magnitude 6 and above. The fair agreement between the methods ensures that a prompt alert system could be developed based on proposed method. The method would prove to be extremely useful for the regions that are not adequately instrumented for azimuthal coverage.

  13. Prompt fission gamma-ray studies at DANCE

    DOE PAGES

    Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M.. M; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Keksis, A. L.; et al

    2014-11-26

    Measurements of correlated data on prompt-fission γ-rays (PFG) have been carried out for various actinide isotopes in recent years using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a model that conveniently parametrizes the correlated data of γ-ray multiplicity and energy. New results on two- dimensional prompt-fission γ-ray multiplicity versus energy distributions from spontaneous fission on ²⁵²Cf and neutron-induced fission on 242mAm are presented together with previously obtained results on 233,235U and ²³⁹Pu. Correlated PFG data from ²⁵²Cf are also compared to results of the detailed theoretical model developed at LANL,more » for different thresholds of PFG energies. Future plans to measure correlated data on fission fragments, prompt fission neutrons and γ-rays at DANCE are presented.« less

  14. Correlation Analysis of Prompt Emission from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothapragada, Sriharsha

    Prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibits very rapid, complicated temporal and spectral evolution. This diverse variability in the light-curves reflects the complicated nature of the underlying physics, in which inter-penetrating relativistic shells in the outflow are believed to generate strong magnetic fields that vary over very small scales. We use the theory of jitter radiation to model the emission from such regions and the resulting overall prompt gamma ray emission from a series of relativistic collisionless shocks. We present simulated GRB light-curves developed as a series of "pulses" corresponding to instantaneously illuminated "thin-shell" regions emitting via the jitter radiation mechanism. The effects of various geometries, viewing angles, and bulk Lorentz factor profiles of the radiating outflow jets on the spectral features and evolution of these light-curves are explored. Our results demonstrate how an anisotropic jitter radiation pattern, in conjunction with relativistic shock kinematics, can produce certain features observed in the GRB prompt emission spectra, such as the occurrence of hard, synchrotron violating spectra, the "tracking" of observed flux with spectral parameters, and spectral softening below peak energy within individual episodes of the light curve. We highlight predictions in the light of recent advances in the observational sphere of GRBs.

  15. GRB Prompt Optical Observations by Master and Lomonosov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbovskoy, Evgeny

    We present the results of the prompt, early and afterglow optical observations of five γ-ray bursts (GRBs): GRB 100901A, GRB 100902A, GRB 100905A, GRB 100906A and GRB 101020A. These observations were made with the Mobile Astronomical System of TElescope-Robots in Russia (MASTER-II Net), the 1.5-m telescope of the Sierra Nevada Observatory and the 2.56-m Nordic Optical Telescope. For two sources, GRB 100901A and GRB 100906A, we detected optical counterparts and obtained light curves starting before the cessation of γ-ray emission, at 113 and 48 s after the trigger, respectively. Observations of GRB 100906A were conducted in two polarizing filters. Observations of the other three bursts gave the upper limits on the optical flux; their properties are briefly discussed. A more detailed analysis of GRB 100901A and GRB 100906A, supplemented by Swift data, provides the following results and indicates different origins for the prompt optical radiation in the two bursts. The light-curve patterns and spectral distributions suggest that there is a common production site for the prompt optical and high-energy emission in GRB 100901A. The results of the spectral fits for GRB 100901A in the range from optical to X-ray favour power-law energy distributions and a consistent value of the optical extinction in the host galaxy. GRB 100906A produced a smoothly peaking optical light curve, suggesting that the prompt optical radiation in this GRB originated in a front shock. This is supported by a spectral analysis. We have found that the Amati and Ghirlanda relations are satisfied for GRB 100906A. We obtain an upper limit on the value of the optical extinction on the host of GRB 100906A. Also we consider prompt observation of dark gamma ray bursts for which on very widefield cameras MASTER-VWF and MASTER-II telescopes upper limits were received. We represent SHOCK experiment onboard the spacecraft Lomonosov.

  16. Prompt and non-prompt J/psi production in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2011-03-01

    The production of J/psi mesons is studied in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurement is based on a dimuon sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 314 inverse nanobarns. The J/psi differential cross section is determined, as a function of the J/psi transverse momentum, in three rapidity ranges. A fit to the decay length distribution is used to separate the prompt from the non-prompt (b hadron to J/psi) component. Integrated over J/psi transverse momentum from 6.5 to 30 GeV/c and over rapidity in the range |y| < 2.4, the measured cross sections, times the dimuon decay branching fraction, are 70.9 \\pm 2.1 (stat.) \\pm 3.0 (syst.) \\pm 7.8(luminosity) nb for prompt J/psi mesons assuming unpolarized production and 26.0 \\pm 1.4 (stat.) \\pm 1.6 (syst.) \\pm 2.9 (luminosity) nb for J/psi mesons from b-hadron decays.

  17. Prompt gamma-ray imaging for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Libai

    Small animal imaging is recognized as a powerful discovery tool for small animal modeling of human diseases, which is providing an important clue to complete understanding of disease mechanisms and is helping researchers develop and test new treatments. The current small animal imaging techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US). A new imaging modality called prompt gamma-ray imaging (PGI) has been identified and investigated primarily by Monte Carlo simulation. Currently it is suggested for use on small animals. This new technique could greatly enhance and extend the present capabilities of PET and SPECT imaging from ingested radioisotopes to the imaging of selected non-radioactive elements, such as Gd, Cd, Hg, and B, and has the great potential to be used in Neutron Cancer Therapy to monitor neutron distribution and neutron-capture agent distribution. This approach consists of irradiating small animals in the thermal neutron beam of a nuclear reactor to produce prompt gamma rays from the elements in the sample by the radiative capture (n, gamma) reaction. These prompt gamma rays are emitted in energies that are characteristic of each element and they are also produced in characteristic coincident chains. After measuring these prompt gamma rays by surrounding spectrometry array, the distribution of each element of interest in the sample is reconstructed from the mapping of each detected signature gamma ray by either electronic collimations or mechanical collimations. In addition, the transmitted neutrons from the beam can be simultaneously used for very sensitive anatomical imaging, which provides the registration for the elemental distributions obtained from PGI. The primary approach is to use Monte Carlo simulation methods either with the specific purpose code CEARCPG, developed at NC State University or with the general purpose

  18. Teaching intraverbal behavior to children with autism: a comparison of textual and echoic prompts.

    PubMed

    Vedora, Joseph; Meunier, Laura; Mackay, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Although echoic prompts may be effective for teaching intraverbal behavior to children with autism, the performance of some children may become dependent on such prompts (i.e., the prompts cannot be eliminated). Recent research suggests that visual rather than echoic prompts may be used to teach children with autism a variety of skills and may facilitate independent performance. In the present study, an adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of using visual (textual) and echoic prompts on acquisition of intraverbal responses (answering questions) by 2 children with autism. The results indicated that the textual prompts were more effective than the echoic prompts. Implications for the use of visual prompts during instruction with children with autism are discussed.

  19. The Supercritical Pile GRB Model: The Prompt to Afterglow Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2008-01-01

    The 'Supercritical Pile' is a very economical gamma ray burst (GRB) model that provides for the efficient conversion of the energy stored in the protons of a Relativistic Blast Wave (RBW) into radiation and at the same time produces - in the prompt GRB phase, even in the absence of any particle acceleration - a spectral peak at an energy sim 1 MeV. We extend this model to include also the evolution of the RBW Lorentz factor Gamma and thus follow the spectral and temporal features of this model into the early GRB afterglow stage. One of the novel features of the present treatment is the inclusion of the feedback of the GRB produced radiation on the evolution of Gamma with radius. This feedback and the presence of kinematic and dynamic thresholds in the model can be the sources of rich time evolution which we have begun to explore. In particular, one can this way obtain afterglow light curves with steep decays followed by the more conventional flatter afterglow slopes, while at the same time preserving the desirable features of the model, i.e. the well defined relativistic electron source and radiative processes that produce the proper peak in the nu F spectra. Furthermore, the existence of a kinematic threshold in this model provides for a operational distinction of the prompt and afterglow GRB stages; in fact, the afterglow stage sets in when the RBW Lorentz factor cannot anymore fulfill the kinematic condition for pair formation in the photon - proton pair production reactions that constitute the fundamental process for the dissipation of the blast wave kinetic energy. We present the results of a specific set of parameters of this model with emphasis on the multiwavelength prompt emission and transition to the early afterglow.

  20. Prompt radiochemistry at the National Ignition Facility (invited).

    PubMed

    Grim, G P; Bradley, P A; Bredeweg, T A; Keksis, A L; Fowler, M M; Hayes, A C; Jungman, G; Obst, A W; Rundberg, R S; Vieira, D J; Wilhelmy, J B; Bernstein, L A; Cerjan, C J; Fortner, R J; Moody, K J; Schneider, D H; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, M A

    2008-10-01

    Understanding mix in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility requires the diagnosis of charged-particle reactions within an imploded target. Radiochemical diagnostics of these reactions are currently under study by scientists at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Measurement of these reactions requires assay of activated debris and tracer gases from the target. Presented below is an overview of the prompt radiochemistry diagnostic development efforts, including a discussion of the reactions of interest as well as the progress being made to collect and count activated material.

  1. Prompt radiochemistry at the National Ignition Facility (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, G. P.; Bradley, P. A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Keksis, A. L.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, G.; Obst, A. W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Bernstein, L. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Fortner, R. J.; Moody, K. J.; Schneider, D. H.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoeffl, W.; Stoyer, M. A.

    2008-10-01

    Understanding mix in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility requires the diagnosis of charged-particle reactions within an imploded target. Radiochemical diagnostics of these reactions are currently under study by scientists at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Measurement of these reactions requires assay of activated debris and tracer gases from the target. Presented below is an overview of the prompt radiochemistry diagnostic development efforts, including a discussion of the reactions of interest as well as the progress being made to collect and count activated material.

  2. A survey of nuclear-explosive prompt diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, P.J.

    1986-03-25

    Nuclear-explosive prompt diagnostics techniques and equipment are surveyed. These techniques and equipment have been developed to answer nuclear-explosive performance questions. The techniques and equipment must be selective in radiation sensitivity, linear in calibration, fast, insensitive to strong signals, wide in dynamic range, and reliable. Diagnostic techniques and equipment measure neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray emissions, as well as aid in the determination of the physical location of the production of radiation through imaging. The high cost of nuclear experiments will continue to encourage the development of sophisticated techniques to gain as much information as possible from each experiment.

  3. The sharpness of gamma-ray burst prompt emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hoi-Fung; van Eerten, Hendrik J.; Greiner, Jochen; Sari, Re'em; Narayana Bhat, P.; von Kienlin, Andreas; Paciesas, William S.; Preece, Robert D.

    2015-11-01

    Context. We study the sharpness of the time-resolved prompt emission spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Aims: We aim to obtain a measure of the curvature of time-resolved spectra that can be compared directly to theory. This tests the ability of models such as synchrotron emission to explain the peaks or breaks of GBM prompt emission spectra. Methods: We take the burst sample from the official Fermi GBM GRB time-resolved spectral catalog. We re-fit all spectra with a measured peak or break energy in the catalog best-fit models in various energy ranges, which cover the curvature around the spectral peak or break, resulting in a total of 1113 spectra being analyzed. We compute the sharpness angles under the peak or break of the triangle constructed under the model fit curves and compare them to the values obtained from various representative emission models: blackbody, single-electron synchrotron, synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian or power-law electron distribution. Results: We find that 35% of the time-resolved spectra are inconsistent with the single-electron synchrotron function, and 91% are inconsistent with the Maxwellian synchrotron function. The single temperature, single emission time, and location blackbody function is found to be sharper than all the spectra. No general evolutionary trend of the sharpness angle is observed, neither per burst nor for the whole population. It is found that the limiting case, a single temperature Maxwellian synchrotron function, can only contribute up to % of the peak flux. Conclusions: Our results show that even the sharpest but non-realistic case, the single-electron synchrotron function, cannot explain a large fraction of the observed GRB prompt spectra. Because any combination of physically possible synchrotron spectra added together will always further broaden the spectrum, emission mechanisms other than optically thin

  4. Prompt determination of evacuee radiation dose from a nuclear event

    SciTech Connect

    Bachelor, Paula P.; Friese, Judah I.; Aalseth, Craig E.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Perkins, Richard W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2008-05-01

    In anticipation of a nuclear terrorist attack, techniques to quickly assess the radiation exposure of evacuees have been developed. Based on past experience relating neutron radiation exposures to activation products, quick measurement of activation products (counting time of a few seconds) in personal items exposed to significant levels of radiation should allow a neutron dose assessment. This approach allows prompt collection of important data on human exposure following a terrorist attack. Data collected will facilitate triage decisions for timely emergency medical treatment to ameliorate the radiation effects on exposed individuals. Experiments with ubiquitous items exposed to a neutron source will be outlined and presented.

  5. Introducing Nuclear Data Evaluations of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Neudecker, Denise

    2015-06-17

    Nuclear data evaluations provide recommended data sets for nuclear data applications such as reactor physics, stockpile stewardship or nuclear medicine. The evaluated data are often based on information from multiple experimental data sets and nuclear theory using statistical methods. Therefore, they are collaborative efforts of evaluators, theoreticians, experimentalists, benchmark experts, statisticians and application area scientists. In this talk, an introductions is given to the field of nuclear data evaluation at the specific example of a recent evaluation of the outgoing neutron energy spectrum emitted promptly after fission from 239Pu and induced by neutrons from thermal to 30 MeV.

  6. Contactless prompt tumbling rebound of drops from a sublimating slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Carlo; Jung, Stefan; Wetzel, Andreas; Heer, Emmanuel; Schoch, Philippe; Moqaddam, Ali Mazloomi; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Ilya; Marengo, Marco; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-05-01

    We have uncovered a drop rebound regime, characteristic of highly viscous liquids impacting tilted sublimating surfaces. Here the drops, rather than showing a slide, spread, recoil, and rebound behavior, exhibit a prompt tumbling rebound. As a result, glycerol surprisingly rebounds faster than three orders of magnitude less viscous water. When a viscous drop impacts a sublimating surface, part of its initial linear momentum is converted into angular momentum: Lattice Boltzmann simulations confirmed that tumbling owes its appearance to the rapid transition of the internal angular velocity prior to rebound to a constant value, as in a tumbling solid body.

  7. A library of prompt detonation reaction zone data

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P. C., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    Tables are given listing literature data that allows calculation of sonic reaction zones at or near steady-state for promptly detonating explosive cylinders. The data covers homogeneous, heterogeneous, composite, inorganic and binary explosives and allows comparison across the entire explosive field. Table 1 lists detonation front curvatures. Table 2 lists Size Effect data, i.e. the change of detonation velocity with cylinder radius. Table 3 lists failure radii and detonation velocities. Table 4 lists explosive compositions. A total of 51 references dating back into the 1950`s are given. Calculated reaction zones, radii of curvature and growth rate coefficients are listed.

  8. Learning from instructional explanations: effects of prompts based on the active-constructive-interactive framework.

    PubMed

    Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active < constructive learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active < constructive learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive < interactive

  9. Learning from Instructional Explanations: Effects of Prompts Based on the Active-Constructive-Interactive Framework

    PubMed Central

    Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active < constructive learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active < constructive learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive < interactive

  10. Periodic Email Prompts to Re-Use an Internet-Delivered Computer-Tailored Lifestyle Program: Influence of Prompt Content and Timing

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Hein; Candel, Math; van de Kar, Angelique; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to Internet-delivered lifestyle interventions using multiple tailoring is suboptimal. Therefore, it is essential to invest in proactive strategies, such as periodic email prompts, to boost re-use of the intervention. Objective This study investigated the influence of content and timing of a single email prompt on re-use of an Internet-delivered computer-tailored (CT) lifestyle program. Methods A sample of municipality employees was invited to participate in the program. All participants who decided to use the program received an email prompting them to revisit the program. A 2×3 (content × timing) design was used to test manipulations of prompt content and timing. Depending on the study group participants were randomly assigned to, they received either a prompt containing standard content (an invitation to revisit the program), or standard content plus a preview of new content placed on the program website. Participants received this prompt after 2, 4, or 6 weeks. In addition to these 6 experimental conditions, a control condition was included consisting of participants who did not receive an additional email prompt. Clicks on the uniform resource locator (URL) provided in the prompt and log-ins to the CT program were objectively monitored. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether prompt content and/or prompt timing predicted clicking on the URL and logging in to the CT program. Results Of all program users (N=240), 206 participants received a subsequent email prompting them to revisit the program. A total of 53 participants (25.7%) who received a prompt reacted to this prompt by clicking on the URL, and 25 participants (12.1%) actually logged in to the program. There was a main effect of prompt timing; participants receiving an email prompt 2 weeks after their first visit clicked on the URL significantly more often compared with participants that received the prompt after 4 weeks (odds ratio [OR] 3.069, 95% CI 1

  11. 48 CFR 52.232-26 - Prompt payment for fixed-price architect-engineer contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Delivery and payment terms (e.g., discount for prompt payment terms). (vi) Name and address of Contractor... Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR part 1315. (i) For the sole purpose of computing an... designated billing office receives the Contractor estimates. (ii) The prompt payment regulations at 5...

  12. 48 CFR 52.232-26 - Prompt payment for fixed-price architect-engineer contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Delivery and payment terms (e.g., discount for prompt payment terms). (vi) Name and address of Contractor... interest penalty in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR... Contractor estimates. (ii) The prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR 1315.10(c) do not require the...

  13. 48 CFR 52.232-26 - Prompt payment for fixed-price architect-engineer contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Delivery and payment terms (e.g., discount for prompt payment terms). (vi) Name and address of Contractor... interest penalty in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR... Contractor estimates. (ii) The prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR 1315.10(c) do not require the...

  14. 48 CFR 52.232-26 - Prompt payment for fixed-price architect-engineer contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Delivery and payment terms (e.g., discount for prompt payment terms). (vi) Name and address of Contractor... interest penalty in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR... Contractor estimates. (ii) The prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR 1315.10(c) do not require the...

  15. 48 CFR 52.232-26 - Prompt payment for fixed-price architect-engineer contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Delivery and payment terms (e.g., discount for prompt payment terms). (vi) Name and address of Contractor... Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR part 1315. (i) For the sole purpose of computing an... designated billing office receives the Contractor estimates. (ii) The prompt payment regulations at 5...

  16. Comparison of Self-Prompting of Cooking Skills via Picture-Based Cookbooks and Video Recipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Stephens, Erin

    2009-01-01

    This investigation compared the use of static picture prompting, in a cookbook format, and video prompting to self-prompt four students with moderate intellectual disabilities to independently complete multi-step cooking tasks. An adapted alternating treatments design (AATD) with baseline, alternating treatments, and final treatment condition, was…

  17. A Prompting Procedure for Increasing Sales in a Small Pet Store

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Jacqueline; Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    A simple prompting procedure involving index cards was used to increase suggestive selling by the owner/operator of a small pet grooming business. Over a year of baseline data revealed that no sales prompts were given and few pet products were sold. When the owner was prompted by an index card to ask customers if they wanted to purchase pet…

  18. A Comparison of Flexible Prompt Fading and Constant Time Delay for Five Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soluaga, Doris; Leaf, Justin B.; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Leaf, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Given the increasing rates of autism, identifying prompting procedures that can assist in the development of more optimal learning opportunities for this population is critical. Extensive empirical research exists supporting the effectiveness of various prompting strategies. Constant time delay (CTD) is a highly implemented prompting procedure…

  19. The Use of Visual Prompts to Increase the Cleanliness of Restrooms on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Michael C.; Blaskewicz, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Prompting procedures have been used in community settings to change many public health related behaviors. The current study took place on a college campus and used a multiple baseline across settings design to evaluate the effectiveness of visual prompts to decrease urinal splatter on men's restroom floors. Results indicate that prompts were…

  20. A Bulk Comptonization Model for the Prompt GRM Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos; Mastichiadis, A.

    2010-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" is a very economical GRB model that provides for the efficient conversion of the energy stored in the protons of a Relativistic Blast Wave (RBW) into radiation and at the same time produces - in the prompt GRB phase, even in the absence of any particle acceleration - a spectral peak at energy approximately 1 MeV. We extend this model to include the evolution of the RBW Lorentz factor F and thus follow its spectral and temporal features into the early GRB afterglow stage. One of the novel features of the present treatment is the inclusion of the feedback of the GRB produced radiation on the evolution of Gamma with radius. This feedback and the presence of kinematic and dynamic thresholds in the model are sources of potentially very rich time evolution which we have began to explore. In particular, one can this way obtain afterglow light curves with steep decays followed by the more conventional flatter afterglow slopes, while at the same time preserving the desirable features of the model, i.e. the well defined relativistic electron source and radiative processes that produce the proper peak in the nu F(sub nu) spectra. In this note we present the results of a specific set of parameters of this model with emphasis on the multiwavelength prompt emission and transition to the early afterglow.

  1. The Supercritical Pile GRB Model: The Prompt to Afterglow Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastichiadis, A.; Kazanas, D.

    2009-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" is a very economical GRB model that provides for the efficient conversion of the energy stored in the protons of a Relativistic Blast Wave (RBW) into radiation and at the same time produces - in the prompt GRB phase, even in the absence of any particle acceleration - a spectral peak at energy approx. 1 MeV. We extend this model to include the evolution of the RBW Lorentz factor Gamma and thus follow its spectral and temporal features into the early GRB afterglow stage. One of the novel features of the present treatment is the inclusion of the feedback of the GRB produced radiation on the evolution of Gamma with radius. This feedback and the presence of kinematic and dynamic thresholds in the model can be the sources of rich time evolution which we have began to explore. In particular. one can this may obtain afterglow light curves with steep decays followed by the more conventional flatter afterglow slopes, while at the same time preserving the desirable features of the model, i.e. the well defined relativistic electron source and radiative processes that produce the proper peak in the (nu)F(sub nu), spectra. In this note we present the results of a specific set of parameters of this model with emphasis on the multiwavelength prompt emission and transition to the early afterglow.

  2. Decreased mortality associated with prompt Gram staining of blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Barenfanger, Joan; Graham, Donald R; Kolluri, Lavanya; Sangwan, Gaurav; Lawhorn, Jerry; Drake, Cheryl A; Verhulst, Steven J; Peterson, Ryan; Moja, Lauren B; Ertmoed, Matthew M; Moja, Ashley B; Shevlin, Douglas W; Vautrain, Robert; Callahan, Charles D

    2008-12-01

    Gram stains of positive blood cultures are the most important factor influencing appropriate therapy. The sooner appropriate therapy is initiated, the better. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that the sooner Gram stains are performed, the better. To determine the value of timely Gram stains and whether improvement in Gram stain turnaround time (TAT) is feasible, we compared data for matched pairs of patients with cultures processed promptly (<1 hour TAT) with data for patients with cultures not processed promptly (> or =1 hour TAT) and then monitored TAT by control charting.In 99 matched pairs, average difference in time to detection of positive blood cultures within a pair of patients was less than 0.1 hour. For the less than 1 hour TAT group, the average TAT and crude mortality were 0.1 hour and 10.1%, respectively; for the 1 hour or longer TAT group, they were 3.3 hours and 19.2%, respectively (P < .0001 and P = .0389, respectively). After multifaceted efforts, we achieved significant improvement in the TAT for Gram stains.

  3. A New Method of Prompt Fission Neutron Energy Spectrum Unfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynalova, O. V.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-11-25

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics along with associated digital signal processing algorithms. The goal was to find out the reasons of a long time existing discrepancy between theoretical calculations and the measurements of prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission dependence on the total kinetic energy (TKE) of fission fragments (FF). On the one hand the {sup 252}Cf(sf) reaction is one of the main references for nuclear data, on the other hand the understanding of PFN emission mechanism is very important for nuclear fission theory. Using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber for fission fragment (FF) detection and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in total about 10{sup 7} fission fragment-neutron coincidences have been registered. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. For the first time the dependence of the number of emitted neutrons as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations in the range of TKE from 140-220 MeV.

  4. Shear bond strength of seventh generation bonding agents on dentin of primary teeth--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Geoffrey; Rich, Alfred P; Finkelman, Matthew D; Defuria, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This controlled, randomized, in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of several seventh generation bonding agents on the dentin of primary teeth. Six different adhesives were used: Xeno IV, Clearfil S3 Bond, Adper Prompt-L-Pop, AdheSE One, Bond Force, and Optibond (control). Ninety primary teeth were prepared by wet grinding with a 320-grit silicon carbide paper on a polishing wheel running at 110 RPM. After 24 hours of storage in water, shear bond strengths of each group were determined. The mean shear bond strength of the tested adhesive systems to primary dentin was 12.27 MPa. One-way ANOVA testing showed a statistically significant difference between adhesive products (P < 0.001). Tukey HSD post hoc tests were used to assess which means were significantly different from one another. There was no statistically significant difference between the fifth generation adhesive system (Optibond) and the two seventh generation systems (Xeno IV and Bond Force), with Optibond exhibiting a lower mean shear bond strength compared to Bond Force. Within the limitations of this study, there is a significant difference between seventh generation bonding materials. Bond Force and Optibond appear to exhibit higher shear bond strengths than the other products.

  5. Shear bond strength of seventh generation bonding agents on dentin of primary teeth--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Geoffrey; Rich, Alfred P; Finkelman, Matthew D; Defuria, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This controlled, randomized, in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of several seventh generation bonding agents on the dentin of primary teeth. Six different adhesives were used: Xeno IV, Clearfil S3 Bond, Adper Prompt-L-Pop, AdheSE One, Bond Force, and Optibond (control). Ninety primary teeth were prepared by wet grinding with a 320-grit silicon carbide paper on a polishing wheel running at 110 RPM. After 24 hours of storage in water, shear bond strengths of each group were determined. The mean shear bond strength of the tested adhesive systems to primary dentin was 12.27 MPa. One-way ANOVA testing showed a statistically significant difference between adhesive products (P < 0.001). Tukey HSD post hoc tests were used to assess which means were significantly different from one another. There was no statistically significant difference between the fifth generation adhesive system (Optibond) and the two seventh generation systems (Xeno IV and Bond Force), with Optibond exhibiting a lower mean shear bond strength compared to Bond Force. Within the limitations of this study, there is a significant difference between seventh generation bonding materials. Bond Force and Optibond appear to exhibit higher shear bond strengths than the other products. PMID:22313979

  6. Evaluation of a Portable DVD Player and System of Least Prompts to Self-Prompt Cooking Task Completion by Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Gast, David L.; Fields, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a portable DVD player plus the system of least prompts (SLP) for DVD player use as a self-prompting device to teach cooking tasks to three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities. A multiple probe design across three cooking tasks and replicated across three students was used to evaluate the…

  7. Novel Scintillation Detectors for Prompt Fission γ-Ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billnert, R.; Andreotti, E.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Hult, M.; Karlsson, J.; Marissens, G.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    In this work we present first results from measurements of prompt fission γ-rays from the spontaneous fission in 252Cf. New and accurate data on corresponding γ-rays from the reactions 235U(nth,f) and 239Pu(nth,f) are highly demanded for the modeling of new Generation-IV nuclear reactor systems. For these experiments we employed scintillation detectors made out of new materials (LaBr3, LaCl3 and CeBr3), whose properties were necessary to know in order to obtain reliable results. Hence, we have characterized these detectors. In all the important properties these detectors outshine sodium-iodine detectors that where used in the 1970s, when the existing data had been acquired. Our finding is that the new generation of scintillation detectors is indeed promising, as far as an improved precision of the demanded data is concerned.

  8. Prompt merger collapse and the maximum mass of neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Bauswein, A; Baumgarte, T W; Janka, H-T

    2013-09-27

    We perform hydrodynamical simulations of neutron-star mergers for a large sample of temperature-dependent nuclear equations of state and determine the threshold mass above which the merger remnant promptly collapses to form a black hole. We find that, depending on the equation of state, the threshold mass is larger than the maximum mass of a nonrotating star in isolation by between 30 and 70 percent. Our simulations also show that the ratio between the threshold mass and maximum mass is tightly correlated with the compactness of the nonrotating maximum-mass configuration. We speculate on how this relation can be used to derive constraints on neutron-star properties from future observations.

  9. GABI: a compact detector for GRB prompt emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Federici, M.; Fiocchi, M. T.; Lotti, S.; Grindlay, J. E.; Gehrels, N.; Uslenghi, M.; Fiorini, M.; Perotti, F.

    Triggering on sky transient events can be efficiently accomplished by coded mask instruments, which can also provide positions with arcmin or sub-arcmin accuracy, but at the expense of weight and power. On the other hand good broadband spectroscopy is possible using much lighter systems, that could also provide a coarse positioning capability (˜ degrees). We present the concept of a compact, light detector based on NaI(Tl) scintillator, that can be used to complement other soft X-ray or IR/optical telescopes in detecting transients and characterizing them. The Gamma-Ray Burst Imager (GABI) will operate in the energy range 8-1000 keV that is optimal for the detection of the prompt emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB). GABI is being proposed for accomodation on board Lobster, a candidate mission of the NASA Explorer Program.

  10. Relativistic corrections to prompt J/ψ photo- and hadroproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhi-Guo; Kniehl, Bernd A.

    2014-07-01

    We systematically calculate the relativistic corrections to prompt J/ψ photoproduction and hadroproduction using the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic QCD. Specifically, we include the S31[1] and P3J[1] color-singlet and the S31[8], S10[8], and P3J[8] color-octet channels as well as the effects due to the mixing between the S31[8] and D31[8] channels. We provide all the squared hard-scattering amplitudes in analytic form. Assuming the nonrelativistic-QCD long-distance matrix elements to satisfy the velocity scaling rules, we find the relativistic corrections to be appreciable, except in the S31[1] color-singlet channel of hadroproduction. We also observe significant differences in the line shapes of the relativistic corrections between photoproduction and hadroproduction.

  11. Monte Carlo prompt dose calculations for the National Ingition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J.F.; Phillips, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    During peak operation, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will conduct as many as 600 experiments per year and attain deuterium- tritium fusion yields as high as 1200 MJ/yr. The radiation effective dose equivalent (EDE) to workers is limited to an average of 03 mSv/yr (30 mrem/yr) in occupied areas of the facility. Laboratory personnel determined located outside the facility will receive EDEs <= 0.5 mSv/yr (<= 50 mrem/yr). The total annual occupational EDE for the facility will be maintained at <= 0.1 person-Sv/yr (<= 10 person- rem/yr). To ensure that prompt EDEs meet these limits, three- dimensional Monte Carlo calculations have been completed.

  12. Optomechanical design of a prompt gamma reaction history diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, Hans W; Kaufman, Morris I; Malone, Robert M; Frogget, Brent C; Tunnell, Thomas W; Cox, Brian; Frayer, Daniel K; Ali, Zaheer; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility and the Omega Laser Facility both have a need for measuring prompt gamma radiation as part of a nuclear diagnostic program. A new gamma-detection diagnostic using off-axis-parabolic mirrors has been built. Some new techniques were used in the design, construction, and tolerancing of this gamma ray diagnostic. Because of the wavelength requirement (250-700 nm), the optical element surface finishes were a key design consideration. The optical enclosure had to satisfy pressure safety concerns and shielding against electromagnetic interference induced by gammas and neutrons. Structural finite element analysis was needed to meet rigorous optical and safety requirements. The optomechanical design is presented. Alignment issues are also discussed.

  13. A Compton camera prototype for prompt gamma medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Aldawood, S.; Böhmer, M.; Bortfeldt, J.; Castelhano, I.; Dedes, G.; Fiedler, F.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golnik, C.; Helmbrecht, S.; Hueso-González, F.; Kolff, H. v. d.; Kormoll, T.; Lang, C.; Liprandi, S.; Lutter, R.; Marinšek, T.; Maier, L.; Pausch, G.; Petzoldt, J.; Römer, K.; Schaart, D.; Parodi, K.

    2016-05-01

    Compton camera prototype for a position-sensitive detection of prompt γ rays from proton-induced nuclear reactions is being developed in Garching. The detector system allows to track the Comptonscattered electrons. The camera consists of a monolithic LaBr3:Ce scintillation absorber crystal, read out by a multi-anode PMT, preceded by a stacked array of 6 double-sided silicon strip detectors acting as scatterers. The LaBr3:Ce crystal has been characterized with radioactive sources. Online commissioning measurements were performed with a pulsed deuteron beam at the Garching Tandem accelerator and with a clinical proton beam at the OncoRay facility in Dresden. The determination of the interaction point of the photons in the monolithic crystal was investigated.

  14. Confronting GRB prompt emission with a model for subphotospheric dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlgren, Björn; Larsson, Josefin; Nymark, Tanja; Ryde, Felix; Pe'er, Asaf

    2015-11-01

    The origin of the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still an unsolved problem and several different mechanisms have been suggested. Here, we fit Fermi GRB data with a photospheric emission model which includes dissipation of the jet kinetic energy below the photosphere. The resulting spectra are dominated by Comptonization and contain no significant contribution from synchrotron radiation. In order to fit to the data, we span a physically motivated part of the model's parameter space and create DREAM (Dissipation with Radiative Emission as A table Model), a table model for XSPEC. We show that this model can describe different kinds of GRB spectra, including GRB 090618, representing a typical Band function spectrum, and GRB 100724B, illustrating a double peaked spectrum, previously fitted with a Band+blackbody model, suggesting they originate from a similar scenario. We suggest that the main difference between these two types of bursts is the optical depth at the dissipation site.

  15. Effect of enamel etching time on roughness and bond strength.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Kimmes, Nicole S; Latta, Mark A; Wilwerding, Terry M

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of different enamel conditioning times on surface roughness and bond strength using an etch-and-rinse system and four self-etch adhesives. Surface roughness (Ra) and composite to enamel shear bond strengths (SBS) were determined following the treatment of flat ground human enamel (4000 grit) with five adhesive systems: (1) Adper Single Bond Plus (SBP), (2) Adper Prompt L-Pop (PLP), (3) Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), (4) Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3) and (5) Xeno IV (X4), using recommended treatment times and an extended treatment time of 60 seconds (n = 10/group). Control groups were also included for Ra (4000 grit surface) and SBS (no enamel treatment and Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive). For surface roughness measurements, the phosphoric acid conditioner of the SBP etch-and-rinse system was rinsed from the surface with an air-water spray, and the other four self-etch adhesive agents were removed with alternating rinses of water and acetone. A Proscan 2000 non-contact profilometer was used to determine Ra values. Composite (Z100) to enamel bond strengths (24 hours) were determined using Ultradent fixtures and they were debonded with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The data were analyzed with ANOVA and Fisher's LSD post-hoc test. The etch-and- rinse system (SBP) produced the highest Ra (microm) and SBS (MPa) using both the recommended treatment time (0.352 +/- 0.028 microm and 40.5 +/- 6.1 MPa) and the extended treatment time (0.733 +/- 0.122 microm and 44.2 +/- 8.2 MPa). The Ra and SBS of the etch-and-rinse system were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than all the self-etch systems and controls. Increasing the treatment time with phosphoric acid (SBP) and PLP produced greater surface roughness (p < 0.05) but did not result in significantly higher bond strengths (p > 0.05). PMID:19363978

  16. A FURTHER EVALUATION OF PICTURE PROMPTS DURING AUDITORY-VISUAL CONDITIONAL DISCRIMINATION TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    Carp, Charlotte L.; Peterson, Sean P.; Arkel, Amber J.; Petursdottir, Anna I.; Ingvarsson, Einar T.

    2012-01-01

    This study was a systematic replication and extension of Fisher, Kodak, and Moore (2007), in which a picture prompt embedded into a least-to-most prompting sequence facilitated acquisition of auditory-visual conditional discriminations. Participants were 4 children who had been diagnosed with autism; 2 had limited prior receptive skills, and 2 had more advanced receptive skills. We used a balanced design to compare the effects of picture prompts, pointing prompts, and either trial-and-error learning or a no-reinforcement condition. In addition, we assessed the emergence of vocal tacts for the 2 participants who had prior tact repertoires. Picture prompts enhanced acquisition for all participants, but there were no differential effects on tact emergence. The results support a generality of the effect reported by Fisher et al. and suggest that a variety of learners may benefit from the incorporation of picture prompts into auditory-visual conditional discrimination training. PMID:23322929

  17. A Comparison of Prompting Tactics for Teaching Intraverbals to Young Adults with Autism.

    PubMed

    Vedora, Joseph; Conant, Erin

    2015-10-01

    Several researchers have compared the effectiveness of tact or textual prompts to echoic prompts for teaching intraverbal behavior to young children with autism. We extended this line of research by comparing the effectiveness of visual (textual or tact) prompts to echoic prompts to teach intraverbal responses to three young adults with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used with 2 to 3 comparisons for each participant. The results were mixed and did not reveal a more effective prompting procedure across participants, suggesting that the effectiveness of a prompting tactic may be idiosyncratic. The role of one's learning history and the implications for practitioners teaching intraverbal behavior to individuals with autism are discussed. PMID:27606216

  18. A further evaluation of picture prompts during auditory-visual conditional discrimination training.

    PubMed

    Carp, Charlotte L; Peterson, Sean P; Arkel, Amber J; Petursdottir, Anna I; Ingvarsson, Einar T

    2012-01-01

    This study was a systematic replication and extension of Fisher, Kodak, and Moore (2007), in which a picture prompt embedded into a least-to-most prompting sequence facilitated acquisition of auditory-visual conditional discriminations. Participants were 4 children who had been diagnosed with autism; 2 had limited prior receptive skills, and 2 had more advanced receptive skills. We used a balanced design to compare the effects of picture prompts, pointing prompts, and either trial-and-error learning or a no-reinforcement condition. In addition, we assessed the emergence of vocal tacts for the 2 participants who had prior tact repertoires. Picture prompts enhanced acquisition for all participants, but there were no differential effects on tact emergence. The results support a generality of the effect reported by Fisher et al. and suggest that a variety of learners may benefit from the incorporation of picture prompts into auditory-visual conditional discrimination training.

  19. Sensitivity of Measured Fission Yields on Prompt-neutron Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Adili, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Pomp, S.; Oberstedt, S.

    2014-05-01

    Although the number of emitted prompt neutrons from the fission fragments increases as a function of excitation energy, it is not fully understood whether the increase in νbar (A) as a function of En is mass dependent. The share of excitation energies among the fragments is still under debate, but there are reasons to believe that the excess in neutron emission originates only from the heavy fragments, leaving νbarlight (A) almost unchanged. We have investigated the consequences of a mass-dependent increase in νbar (A) on the final mass and energy distributions. The analysis have been performed on experimentally measured data on 234U (n, f). The assumptions concerning νbar (A) are essential when analysing measurements based on the 2E-technique, and impact significantly on the measured observables. For example, the post-neutron emission mass yield distribution revealed changes up to 10-30 %. The outcome of this work pinpoints the urgent need to determine νbar (A) experimentally, and in particular, how νbar (A) changes as a function of incident neutron energy. Many fission yields in the data libraries could be largely affected, since their analysis is based on a different assumption concerning the neutron emission.

  20. Coincidence Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. gandner; C.W. Mayo; W.A. Metwally; W. Zhang; W. Guo; A. Shehata

    2002-11-10

    The normal prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis for either bulk or small beam samples inherently has a small signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio due primarily to the neutron source being present while the sample signal is being obtained. Coincidence counting offers the possibility of greatly reducing or eliminating the noise generated by the neutron source. The present report presents our results to date on implementing the coincidence counting PGNAA approach. We conclude that coincidence PGNAA yields: (1) a larger signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, (2) more information (and therefore better accuracy) from essentially the same experiment when sophisticated coincidence electronics are used that can yield singles and coincidences simultaneously, and (3) a reduced (one or two orders of magnitude) signal from essentially the same experiment. In future work we will concentrate on: (1) modifying the existing CEARPGS Monte Carlo code to incorporate coincidence counting, (2) obtaining coincidence schemes for 18 or 20 of the common elements in coal and cement, and (3) optimizing the design of a PGNAA coincidence system for the bulk analysis of coal.

  1. CMS centres for control, monitoring, offline operations and prompt analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, L.; Gottschalk, E.; Maeshima, K.; McBride, P.

    2008-07-01

    The CMS experiment is about to embark on its first physics run at the LHC. To maximize the effectiveness of physicists and technical experts at CERN and worldwide and to facilitate their communications, CMS has established several dedicated and inter-connected operations and monitoring centres. These include a traditional 'Control Room' at the CMS site in France, a 'CMS Centre' for up to fifty people on the CERN main site in Switzerland, and remote operations centres, such as the 'LHC@FNAL' centre at Fermilab. We describe how this system of centres coherently supports the following activities: (1) CMS data quality monitoring, prompt sub-detector calibrations, and time-critical data analysis of express-line and calibration streams; and (2) operation of the CMS computing systems for processing, storage and distribution of real CMS data and simulated data, both at CERN and at offsite centres. We describe the physical infrastructure that has been established, the computing and software systems, the operations model, and the communications systems that are necessary to make such a distributed system coherent and effective.

  2. Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, V.; Wilson, T. L.; Pinsky, L. S.

    2004-01-01

    The subject of conducting fundamental physics and astronomy experiments on the lunar surface continues to be of interest in the planetary science community. Such an inquiry necessarily requires an analysis of the backscatter albedos produced by Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) when they directly impact the lunar regolith. Unlike the Earth, this happens because the Moon has only a tenuous exosphere. Such secondary radiation constitutes a background that obscures and interferes with measurements conducted in the normal sense of laboratory physics on Earth. Our previous investigations using recent enhancements in the Monte Carlo program known as FLUKA included the production of charged particles, neutrons, photons, and neutrinos by the impact of Galactic protons. That investigation is extended here to include the effect of ionized helium, He-4, or a particles. Because high-energy GCRs excite planetary regoliths into giving rise to charmed mesons, neutrinos are produced. Thus a connection is established for the GCR helium production of prompt neutrinos on the Moon using the physics of charm.

  3. WIDGET: System Performance and GRB Prompt Optical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Yuji; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Tamagawa, Toru; Usui, Fumihiko; Kuwahara, Makoto; Lin, Hungmiao; Kageyama, Shoichi; Iwakiri, Wataru; Sugasahara, Takako; Takahara, Kazuki; Kodaka, Natsuki; Abe, Keiichi; Masuno, Keisuke; Onda, Kaori

    2011-02-01

    The WIDeField telescope for Gamma-ray burst Early Timing (WIDGET) is used for a fully automated, ultra-wide-field survey aimed at detecting the prompt optical emission associated with Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs). WIDGET surveys the HETE-2 and Swift/BAT pointing directions, covering a total field of view of 62° × 62° every 10 secounds using a unfiltered system. This monitoring survey allows the exploration of optical emission before the γ-ray trigger. The unfiltered magnitude is well converted to the SDSS r' system at a 0.1 mag level. Since 2004, WIDGET has made a total of ten simultaneous and one pre-trigger GRB observations. The efficiency of synchronized observations with HETE-2 is four-times better than that of Swift. There has been no bright optical emission similar to that from GRB 080319B. A statistical analysis implies that GRB 080319B is a rare event. This paper summarizes the design and operation of the WIDGET system and the simultaneous GRB observations obtained with this instrument.

  4. A prompt start: Implementing the framework convention on climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Chayes, A.; Skolnikoff, E.B.; Victor, D.G.

    1992-12-01

    A Framework Convention on Climate Change is under active negotiation in the United Nations with the expectation it will be ready for Signature at the Rio Conference this June. Under the most optimistic projections, a Convention will not come into force and be an effective instrument for months, probably years. In recognition of the several institutional tasks that will be of crucial importance whatever the detailed content of the Convention a small group of high international organizations involved in the negotiations was convened at the Rockefeller Foundation`s Conference Center at Bellagio in January. The discussions at Bellagio on the need for a Prompt Start on these institutional tasks benefitted from earlier meetings at Harvard in March and at Bermuda in May, 1991, that the co-organizers convened to discuss these and related aspects of the negotiations on a Climate Convention. Those meetings were attended by members of the academic community, officials from the United Nations, and representatives of governments involved in the negotiations.

  5. A prompt start: Implementing the framework convention on climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Chayes, A. . Law School); Skolnikoff, E.B. . Center for International Studies); Victor, D.G. Dept. of Political Science)

    1992-01-01

    A Framework Convention on Climate Change is under active negotiation in the United Nations with the expectation it will be ready for Signature at the Rio Conference this June. Under the most optimistic projections, a Convention will not come into force and be an effective instrument for months, probably years. In recognition of the several institutional tasks that will be of crucial importance whatever the detailed content of the Convention a small group of high international organizations involved in the negotiations was convened at the Rockefeller Foundation's Conference Center at Bellagio in January. The discussions at Bellagio on the need for a Prompt Start on these institutional tasks benefitted from earlier meetings at Harvard in March and at Bermuda in May, 1991, that the co-organizers convened to discuss these and related aspects of the negotiations on a Climate Convention. Those meetings were attended by members of the academic community, officials from the United Nations, and representatives of governments involved in the negotiations.

  6. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  7. Prompt gamma analysis of chlorine in concrete for corrosion study.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Nagadi, M M; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2006-02-01

    Measurement of chlorine in concrete is very important for studying of corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete. Corrosion of reinforcing steel is primarily ascribed to the penetration of chloride ions to the steel surface. Preventive measures for avoiding concrete structure reinforcement corrosion requires monitoring the chloride ion concentration in concrete so that its concentration does not exceed a threshold limit to initiate reinforcement concrete corrosion. An accelerator based prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup has been developed for non-destructive analysis of elemental composition of concrete samples. The setup has been used to measure chlorine concentration in concrete samples over a 1-3 wt% concentration range. Although a strong interference has been observed between the chlorine gamma-rays and calcium gamma-rays from concrete, the chlorine concentration in concrete samples has been successfully measured using the 1.164 and 7.643 MeV chlorine gamma-rays. The experimental data were compared with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations. An excellent agreement has been achieved between the experimental data and results of Monte Carlo simulations. The study has demonstrated the successful use of the accelerator-based PGNAA setup in non-destructive analysis of chlorine in concrete samples. PMID:16129605

  8. Super-LOTIS/LOTIS/LITE: Prompt GRB Followup Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H S; Ables, E; Barthelmy, S; Bradshaw, M; Cline, T; Gehrels, N; Hartmann, D; Hurley, K; Nemiroff, R; Pereira, W; Perez-Ramirez, D; Williams, G G; Ziock, K

    2001-06-25

    LOTIS (Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System) and Super-LOTIS are automatic telescope systems that measure very prompt optical emission occurring within seconds of the gamma-ray energy release during a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB). Unlike hour-to-days delayed afterglow measurements, very early measurements will contain information about the GRB progenitor. To accomplish this, we developed and have been operating automated telescopes that rapidly image GRB coordinate error boxes in response to triggers distributed by the GRB Coordinate Distribution Network (GCN). LOTIS, located in California, consists of 4 cameras each with a different astronomical filter (B, V, R, open) that can respond to GRB triggers within 5 s. Super-LOTIS can point to any part of the sky within 30 s upon receipt of a GCN trigger and its sensitivity is as deep as V = 17-19 depending on the integration times. Since the shutdown of the CGRO, there has been no real-time GRE3 triggers that enable the LOTIS systems to measure real-time GRE3 counterpart fluxes as of May 2001. This paper describes performance of these systems. We also present our plan to replace the current optical CCD camera on the Super-LOTIS to a near infrared camera to be able to probe dusty GRB environment.

  9. Contracting, prompting and reinforcing substance use disorder continuing care.

    PubMed

    Lash, Steven J; Burden, Jennifer L; Parker, Jefferson D; Stephens, Robert S; Budney, Alan J; Horner, Ronnie D; Datta, Santanu; Jeffreys, Amy S; Grambow, Steven C

    2013-04-01

    The contracting, prompting and reinforcing (CPR) aftercare intervention has improved treatment adherence and outcomes in a number of clinical trials. In multisite randomized clinical trial 92 graduates of two intensive substance use disorder programs who received CPR were compared to 91 who received standard treatment (STX). The CPR group evidenced increased frequency of aftercare group therapy attendance and near significant findings suggested that more CPR than STX participants completed 3 months (76 vs. 64%), 6 months (48 vs. 35%), and 9 months (35 vs. 22%) of aftercare. However, the groups did not differ on the majority of attendance measures and had similar abstinence rates at the 3-month (67% CPR vs. 71% STX), 6-month (52% CPR vs. 51% STX), and 12-month (the primary outcome measure; 48% CPR vs. 49% STX) follow-up points. Exploratory analyses suggest that CPR might be more effective among participants not required to attend aftercare. The incremental capital and labor cost of CPR compared to STX was $98.25 per participant.

  10. U, Np, Pu and Am Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov, Vladimir M.

    2008-05-12

    Prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) components due to soft and hard pre-fission neutrons are revealed in PFNS data of {sup 232}Th(n,F), {sup 238}U(n,F), {sup 235}U(n,F) and {sup 239}Pu(n,F) reactions for E{sub n}{<=}20 MeV. Average energies of these PFNS are systematically shifted to higher values, so that Th fission fragments look least heated, while those of Pu--most heated. The average energy is correlated with the emissive fission chances contributions to the observed fission cross sections. The predicted contribution of (n,xnf) neutrons is most pronounced in case of {sup 232}Th(n,F) reaction. The approach, based on the consistent description of {sup 237}Np(n,F), {sup 237}Np(n,2n){sup 236s}Np and {sup 241}Am(n,F), {sup 241}Am(n,2n) is used to predict the PFNS of the {sup 237}Np(n,F) and {sup 241}Am(n,F) reactions.

  11. Testing The High-Energy Prompt Neutron Signature At Low Beam Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Scott J.; Kinlaw, Mathew T.; Hunt, Alan W.

    2011-06-01

    Prompt fission neutrons continue to be examined as a signature for detecting the presence of fissionable material. This technique exploits the neutron energy limitations inherent with photonuclear emissions from non-fissionable material, allowing prompt fission neutrons to be identified and engaged for detecting nuclear material. Prompt neutron signal measurements were acquired with bremsstrahlung endpoint energies of 6 MeV for 18 targets comprised of both fissionable and non-fissionable material; delayed neutron measurements were also collected as a reference. The {sup 238}U target was also shielded with increasing thicknesses of lead or borated polyethylene to compare the resulting detection rates of the prompt and delayed fission neutron signals.

  12. Differential analysis of selected prompts and neurological variables in motor assessment of moderately mentally retarded children.

    PubMed

    Ilmer, S; Drews, J

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to elevate the specificity of gross-motor assessment strategies presently used with moderately mentally retarded children by measuring voluntary motor performance as a function of level of reflex development, level of orthopedic functioning, and type of prompts used in test instructions. After clinically assessing subjects' levels of reflex and orthopedic functioning, we randomly assigned subjects to multisensory-, physical-, modeling-, and verbal-prompt treatment groups. Multisensory prompts and differential use of selected prompts were effective with younger and older children, respectively. A significant interrelationship was found between subjects' levels of reflex development and voluntary motor performance.

  13. On the Prompt Signals of Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.

    2013-07-01

    We introduce a new model of gamma ray burst (GRB) that explains its observed prompt signals, namely, its primary quasi-thermal spectrum and high energy tail. This mechanism can be applied to either assumption of GRB progenitor: coalescence of compact objects or hypernova explosion. The key ingredients of our model are: (1) The initial stage of a GRB is in the form of a relativistic quark-gluon plasma lava; (2) The expansion and cooling of this lava results in a QCD phase transition that induces a sudden gravitational stoppage of the condensed non-relativistic baryons and form a hadrosphere; (3) Acoustic shocks and Alfven waves (magnetoquakes) that erupt in episodes from the epicenter efficiently transport the thermal energy to the hadrospheric surface and induce a rapid detachment of leptons and photons from the hadrons; (4) The detached e + e - and γ form an opaque, relativistically hot leptosphere, which expands and cools to T ~ mc2, or 0.5 MeV, where e + e - → 2γ and its reverse process becomes unbalanced, and the GRB photons are finally released; (5) The mode-conversion of Alfven waves into electromagnetic waves in the leptosphere provides a snowplow acceleration and deceleration that gives rise to both the high energy spectrum of GRB and the erosion of its thermal spectrum down to a quasi-thermal distribution. According to this model, the observed GRB photons should have a redshifted peak frequency at Ep ~ Γ(1 + β/2)mc2/(1 + z), where Γ ~ O(1) is the Lorentz factor of the bulk flow of the lava, which may be determined from the existing GRB data.

  14. Interferences in Prompt γ Analysis of corrosive contaminants in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, A. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.

    2006-12-01

    An accelerator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup has been developed to measure the concentration of corrosive chloride and sulfate contaminants in concrete. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) limit of chlorine and sulfur in the concrete depends upon the γ-ray used for elemental analysis. For more interfering γ-rays, the MDC limit is higher than that for less interfering γ-rays. The MDC limit of sulfur in concrete measured for the KFUPM PGNAA setup was calculated to be 0.60±0.19 wt%. The MDC limit is equal to the upper limit of sulfur concentration in concrete set by the British Standards. The MDC limit of chlorine in concrete for the KFUPM PGNAA setup, which was calculated for less interfering 1.165 MeV γ-rays, was found to be 0.075±0.025 wt%. The lower limits of the MDC of chlorine in concrete was 73% higher than the limit set by American Concrete Institute. The limit of the MDC can be improved to the desired standard by increasing the intensity of neutron source. For moreinterfering 5.715 and 6.110 MeV chlorine γ-rays the MDC limit was found to be 2-3 times larger than that of 1.165 MeV γ-rays. When normalized to the same intensity of the neutron source, the MDC limits of chlorine and sulfur in concrete from the KFUPM PGNAA setup are better than MDC limits of chlorine in concrete obtained with the 241Am-Be source-based PGNAA setup. This study has shown that an accelerator-based PGNAA setup can be used in chlorine and sulfur analysis of concrete samples.

  15. Type Ia supernovae from merging white dwarfs. I. Prompt detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Moll, R.; Woosley, S. E.; Raskin, C.; Kasen, D.

    2014-04-20

    Merging white dwarfs are a possible progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Numerical models suggest that a detonation might be initiated before the stars have coalesced to form a single compact object. Here we study such prompt detonations by means of numerical simulations, modeling the disruption and nucleosynthesis of the stars until the ejecta reach the coasting phase, and generating synthetic light curves and spectra. Three models are considered with primary masses 0.96 M {sub ☉}, 1.06 M {sub ☉}, and 1.20 M {sub ☉}. Of these, the 0.96 M {sub ☉} dwarf merging with a 0.81 M {sub ☉} companion, with an {sup 56}Ni yield of 0.58 M {sub ☉}, is the most promising candidate for reproducing common SNe Ia. The more massive mergers produce unusually luminous SNe Ia with peak luminosities approaching those attributed to 'super-Chandrasekhar' mass SNe Ia. While the synthetic light curves and spectra of some of the models resemble observed SNe Ia, the significant asymmetry of the ejecta leads to large orientation effects. The peak bolometric luminosity varies by more than a factor of two with the viewing angle, and the velocities of the spectral absorption features are lower when observed from angles where the light curve is brightest. The largest orientation effects are seen in the ultraviolet, where the flux varies by more than an order of magnitude. The set of three models roughly obeys a width-luminosity relation, with the brighter light curves declining more slowly in the B band. Spectral features due to unburned carbon from the secondary star are also seen in some cases.

  16. The Effects of Prompting and Reinforcement on Safe Behavior of Bicycle and Motorcycle Riders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was…

  17. Writer's Workshop vs. Writing Prompts: The Effect on First Graders' Writing Ability and Attitude towards Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Stacy; Feng, Jay

    2010-01-01

    In the county schools, students are assessed every nine weeks based on a writing prompt using a rubric supplied by the county, but the students are often taught using Writer's Workshop. This action research attempted to determine if Writer's Workshop and the use of writing prompts have different effects on first graders' writing ability and…

  18. Effects of Prompting Multiple Solutions for Modelling Problems on Students' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Krug, André; Rakoczy, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Prompting students to construct multiple solutions for modelling problems with vague conditions has been found to be an effective way to improve students' performance on interest-oriented measures. In the current study, we investigated the influence of this teaching element on students' performance. To assess the impact of prompting multiple…

  19. 12 CFR 308.201 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Directives to take prompt corrective action. 308.201 Section 308.201 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF... Action Provisions of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act § 308.201 Directives to take prompt...

  20. Absorbed dose rates in tissue from prompt gamma emissions from near-thermal neutron absorption

    DOE PAGES

    Schwahn, Scott O.

    2015-10-01

    Prompt gamma emission data from the International Atomic Energy Agency s Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis database are analyzed to determine the absorbed dose rates in tissue to be expected when natural elements are exposed in a near-thermal neutron environment.

  1. 17 CFR 201.601 - Prompt payment of disgorge-ment, interest and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prompt payment of disgorge-ment, interest and penalties. 201.601 Section 201.601 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... § 201.601 Prompt payment of disgorge-ment, interest and penalties. (a) Timing of payments....

  2. 17 CFR 201.601 - Prompt payment of disgorge-ment, interest and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prompt payment of disgorge-ment, interest and penalties. 201.601 Section 201.601 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... § 201.601 Prompt payment of disgorge-ment, interest and penalties. (a) Timing of payments....

  3. Using Self-Directed Video Prompting to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Brooks, David G.; Tullis, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of self-directed video prompting presented via an iPod Touch on teaching four adolescents with moderate-to-severe intellectual and developmental disabilities two daily living tasks. Students were taught to wash a table using instructor-delivered video prompts. After reaching 80% correct for at least three…

  4. 48 CFR 52.232-27 - Prompt payment for construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... number). (iv) Description of work or services performed. (v) Delivery and payment terms (e.g., discount... interest penalty in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR... fulfilling their responsibilities. (ii) The prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR 1315.10(c) do not require...

  5. 48 CFR 52.232-27 - Prompt payment for construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... number). (iv) Description of work or services performed. (v) Delivery and payment terms (e.g., discount... interest penalty in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR... fulfilling their responsibilities. (ii) The prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR 1315.10(c) do not require...

  6. 48 CFR 52.232-27 - Prompt payment for construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... number). (iv) Description of work or services performed. (v) Delivery and payment terms (e.g., discount... interest penalty in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR... fulfilling their responsibilities. (ii) The prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR 1315.10(c) do not require...

  7. Naturalistic assessment of everyday activities and prompting technologies in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Seelye, Adriana M; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron

    2013-04-01

    Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often have difficulty performing complex instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), which are critical to independent living. In this study, amnestic multi-domain MCI (N = 29), amnestic single-domain MCI (N = 18), and healthy older participants (N = 47) completed eight scripted IADLs (e.g., cook oatmeal on the stove) in a smart apartment testbed. We developed and experimented with a graded hierarchy of technology-based prompts to investigate both the amount of prompting and type of prompts required to assist individuals with MCI in completing the activities. When task errors occurred, progressive levels of assistance were provided, starting with the lowest level needed to adjust performance. Results showed that the multi-domain MCI group made more errors and required more prompts than the single-domain MCI and healthy older adult groups. Similar to the other two groups, the multi-domain MCI group responded well to the indirect prompts and did not need a higher level of prompting to get back on track successfully with the tasks. Need for prompting assistance was best predicted by verbal memory abilities in multi-domain amnestic MCI. Participants across groups indicated that they perceived the prompting technology to be very helpful. PMID:23351284

  8. A Further Evaluation of Picture Prompts during Auditory-Visual Conditional Discrimination Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carp, Charlotte L.; Peterson, Sean P.; Arkel, Amber J.; Petursdottir, Anna I.; Ingvarsson, Einar T.

    2012-01-01

    This study was a systematic replication and extension of Fisher, Kodak, and Moore (2007), in which a picture prompt embedded into a least-to-most prompting sequence facilitated acquisition of auditory-visual conditional discriminations. Participants were 4 children who had been diagnosed with autism; 2 had limited prior receptive skills, and 2 had…

  9. 76 FR 42074 - Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity During...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    .... Background The NRC recently published the Decommissioning Planning Rule (DPR) (76 FR 33512; June 17, 2011... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 20 Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity... rulemaking to address prompt remediation of residual radioactivity during the operational phase of...

  10. Comparison of Constant Time Delay and the System of Least Prompts in Teaching Chained Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four students (ages 10-14) with moderate mental retardation learned chained tasks with constant time delay and with the system of least prompts. Both strategies produced criterion-level performance; however, constant time delay was more efficient than least prompts in terms of number of sessions, percent of errors, and direct instructional time to…

  11. Time Delay and System of Least Prompts: A Comparison in Teaching Manual Sign Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Diana L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of two instructional prompting procedures, progressive time delay and the system of least prompts, in teaching manual signs was evaluated with three moderately or severely retarded adolescents with additional handicaps. Results indicated both procedures were effective though the time delay method appeared to be…

  12. A Comparison of Time Delay and System of Least Prompts in Teaching Object Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godby, Stephanie; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of two response prompting procedures--progressive time delay and system of least prompts--to teach three severely handicapped students (ages 8-16) identification of functional objects indicated that both procedures were effective but that the time delay procedure required fewer sessions, trials, errors to criterion, and minutes of…

  13. Teaching Spelling through Prompting and Review Procedures Using Computer-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Kristin H.; Glenn, Irene M.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Computer-based instruction (CBI) was used to teach 3 sets of 20 spelling words to two 6th graders in a multiple baseline design. The CBI presented a voice recording of each spelling word and prompted the students to type the word. If they spelled the word incorrectly, a training procedure was initiated that included prompt fading and systematic…

  14. 20 CFR 1002.181 - How is “prompt reemployment” defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How is âprompt reemploymentâ defined? 1002.181 Section 1002.181 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT... regularly scheduled working day. On the other hand, prompt reinstatement following several years of...

  15. The Effectiveness of Using a Video iPod as a Prompting Device in Employment Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Laarhoven, Toni; Johnson, Jesse W.; Van Laarhoven-Myers, Traci; Grider, Kristin L.; Grider, Katie M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a video iPod as a prompting device for teaching three job-related tasks to a young man with developmental disabilities in a community-based employment setting. The effectiveness of the prompting device was evaluated using a multiple probe across behaviors design. Results…

  16. Nondirective prompting and noncontingent reinforcement in the treatment of destructive behavior during hygiene routines.

    PubMed

    Piazza, C C; Contrucci, S A; Hanley, G P; Fisher, W W

    1997-01-01

    The escape-maintained destructive behavior of a girl with mental retardation persisted during hygiene routines with directive prompting, differential reinforcement for compliance, and extinction as treatment. Using nondirective prompting and noncontingent reinforcement, destructive behavior was reduced to near-zero levels during the hygiene routine.

  17. Using Progressive Video Prompting to Teach Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability to Shoot a Basketball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Ya-yu; Burk, Bradley; Burk, Bradley; Anderson, Adrienne L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of a modified video prompting procedure, namely progressive video prompting, to increase technique accuracy of shooting a basketball in the school gymnasium of three 11th-grade students with moderate intellectual disability. The intervention involved participants viewing video clips of an adult model who…

  18. 9 CFR 201.44 - Market agencies to render prompt accounting for purchases on order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accounting for purchases on order. 201.44 Section 201.44 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... prompt accounting for purchases on order. Each market agency shall, promptly following the purchase of... Management and Budget under control number 0580-0015) (7 U.S.C. 181 et seq.)...

  19. 9 CFR 201.44 - Market agencies to render prompt accounting for purchases on order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accounting for purchases on order. 201.44 Section 201.44 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... prompt accounting for purchases on order. Each market agency shall, promptly following the purchase of... Management and Budget under control number 0580-0015) (7 U.S.C. 181 et seq.)...

  20. 9 CFR 201.44 - Market agencies to render prompt accounting for purchases on order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accounting for purchases on order. 201.44 Section 201.44 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... prompt accounting for purchases on order. Each market agency shall, promptly following the purchase of... Management and Budget under control number 0580-0015) (7 U.S.C. 181 et seq.)...

  1. 9 CFR 201.44 - Market agencies to render prompt accounting for purchases on order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accounting for purchases on order. 201.44 Section 201.44 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... prompt accounting for purchases on order. Each market agency shall, promptly following the purchase of... Management and Budget under control number 0580-0015) (7 U.S.C. 181 et seq.)...

  2. 9 CFR 201.44 - Market agencies to render prompt accounting for purchases on order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accounting for purchases on order. 201.44 Section 201.44 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... prompt accounting for purchases on order. Each market agency shall, promptly following the purchase of... Management and Budget under control number 0580-0015) (7 U.S.C. 181 et seq.)...

  3. Flipping the Classroom: Embedding Self-Regulated Learning Prompts in Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel C.; Bonde, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of embedding self-regulated learning (SRL) prompts in a video designed for the flipped class model. The sample included 32 undergraduate participants who were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: control (video) or experimental (video + SRL prompts). Prior knowledge was measured with a pre-test, SRL was…

  4. An Evaluation of Prompting and Reinforcement for Training Visual Analysis Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nicholas D.; Daly, Edward J., III.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the use of an instructional package consisting of structured criteria, extrastimulus prompts, prompt delay, and reinforcement contingencies to improve decision making based on visual analysis of case-study (A/B) design data. Four participants without backgrounds in behavior analysis received training under two experimental…

  5. Agent Prompts: Scaffolding for Productive Reflection in an Intelligent Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Longkai; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of reflection for students in intelligent learning environments. This study tries to investigate whether agent prompts, acting as scaffolding, can promote students' reflection when they act as tutor through teaching the agent tutee in a learning-by-teaching environment. Two types of agent prompts are…

  6. 25 CFR 160.4 - Prompt payment of irrigation charges by lessees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Prompt payment of irrigation charges by lessees. 160.4 Section 160.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INCLUSION OF LIENS IN ALL PATENTS AND INSTRUMENTS EXECUTED § 160.4 Prompt payment of irrigation charges by...

  7. Increasing Activity Attendance and Engagement in Individuals with Dementia Using Descriptive Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenske, Shasta; Rudrud, Eric H.; Schulze, Kimberly A.; Rapp, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of providing descriptive prompts to increase activity attendance and engagement in 6 individuals with dementia were evaluated using a reversal design. The results showed that providing descriptive prompts increased activity attendance and engagement for all participants. The results support the use of antecedent interventions for…

  8. Increasing Pizza Box Assembly Using Task Analysis and a Least-to-Most Prompting Hierarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabnow, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to use a task analysis and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy to teach students with cognitive disabilities pizza box assembly skills. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a least-to-most prompting hierarchy was effective in teaching students with cognitive disabilities to increase the number of task-analyzed…

  9. 25 CFR 160.4 - Prompt payment of irrigation charges by lessees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prompt payment of irrigation charges by lessees. 160.4 Section 160.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INCLUSION OF LIENS IN ALL PATENTS AND INSTRUMENTS EXECUTED § 160.4 Prompt payment of irrigation charges by...

  10. 25 CFR 160.4 - Prompt payment of irrigation charges by lessees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prompt payment of irrigation charges by lessees. 160.4 Section 160.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INCLUSION OF LIENS IN ALL PATENTS AND INSTRUMENTS EXECUTED § 160.4 Prompt payment of irrigation charges by...

  11. 25 CFR 160.4 - Prompt payment of irrigation charges by lessees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prompt payment of irrigation charges by lessees. 160.4 Section 160.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INCLUSION OF LIENS IN ALL PATENTS AND INSTRUMENTS EXECUTED § 160.4 Prompt payment of irrigation charges by...

  12. 25 CFR 160.4 - Prompt payment of irrigation charges by lessees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prompt payment of irrigation charges by lessees. 160.4 Section 160.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INCLUSION OF LIENS IN ALL PATENTS AND INSTRUMENTS EXECUTED § 160.4 Prompt payment of irrigation charges by...

  13. Comparability of TOEFL CBT Writing Prompts for Different Native Language Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won; Breland, Hunter; Muraki, Eiji

    2005-01-01

    This study has investigated the comparability of computer-based testing writing prompts in the Test of English as a Foreign LanguageTM (TOEFL) for examinees of different native language backgrounds. A total of 81 writing prompts introduced from July 1998 through August 2000 were examined using a 3-step logistic regression procedure for ordinal…

  14. Using Prompts to Increase Attendance at Groups for Survivors of Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Katherine K.; Wong, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the effects of multiple prompts, telephone calls, and written reminders on attendance at group support meetings in a long-term residential facility for survivors of domestic violence. Methods: Participants were 15 Hispanic women who were residing in the facility at the time of the study. Prompts to attend the…

  15. Nondirective Prompting and Noncontingent Reinforcement in the Treatment of Destructive Behavior during Hygiene Routines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Cathleen C.; Contrucci, Stephanie A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    1997-01-01

    The escape-maintained destructive behavior of an 8-year-old girl with mental retardation persisted during hygiene routines with directive prompting, differential reinforcement for compliance, and extinction as treatment. Using nondirective prompting and noncontingent reinforcement, destructive behavior was reduced to near-zero levels during the…

  16. Prompting and Stimulus Shaping Procedures for Teaching Visual-Motor Skills to Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosk, Mark D.; Bucher, Bradley

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the relative effectiveness of stimulus shaping and "traditional" prompting procedures with six low-functioning retarded children (one-six years old). Stimulus shaping procedures required less training time than to criterion, resulted in fewer errors, required fewer and less intrusive therapist's prompts,…

  17. Teaching multi-step math skills to adults with disabilities via video prompting.

    PubMed

    Kellems, Ryan O; Frandsen, Kaitlyn; Hansen, Blake; Gabrielsen, Terisa; Clarke, Brynn; Simons, Kalee; Clements, Kyle

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching multi-step math skills to nine adults with disabilities in an 18-21 post-high school transition program using a video prompting intervention package. The dependent variable was the percentage of steps completed correctly. The independent variable was the video prompting intervention, which involved several multi-step math calculation skills: (a) calculating a tip (15%), (b) calculating item unit prices, and (c) adjusting a recipe for more or fewer people. Results indicated a functional relationship between the video prompting interventions and prompting package and the percentage of steps completed correctly. 8 out of the 9 adults showed significant gains immediately after receiving the video prompting intervention. PMID:27589151

  18. Investigating Prompt Fission Neutron Emission from 235U(n,f) in the Resolved Resonance Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göök, Alf; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Investigations of prompt emission in fission is of importance in understanding the fission process in general and the sharing of excitation energy among the fission fragments in particular. Experimental activities at IRMM on prompt neutron emission from fission in response to OECD/NEA nuclear data requests is presented in this contribution. Main focus lies on currently on-going investigations of prompt neutron emission from the reaction 235U(n,f) in the region of the resolved resonances. For this reaction strong fluctuations of fission fragment mass distributions and mean total kinetic energy have been observed [Nucl. Phys. A 491, 56 (1989)] as a function of incident neutron energy in the resonance region. In addition fluctuations of prompt neutron multiplicities were also observed [Phys. Rev. C 13, 195 (1976)]. The goal of the present study is to verify the current knowledge of prompt neutron multiplicity fluctuations and to study correlations with fission fragment properties.

  19. A Comparison of the Effects of Two Prompt-Fading Strategies on Skill Acquisition in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cengher, Mirela; Shamoun, Kimberly; Moss, Patricia; Roll, David; Feliciano, Gina; Fienup, Daniel M

    2016-06-01

    Research has demonstrated that most-to-least (MTL) and least-to-most (LTM) prompting are effective in helping children with Autism Spectrum Disorders acquire a variety of new skills. However, when directly compared to one another, the efficiency and efficacy of the prompting procedures have been variable. The inconsistencies in the literature could be due to selecting prompt topographies that do not promote correct responding. To address this, the present study began by assessing different prompt topographies and then compared most-to-least (MTL) and least-to-most (LTM) prompt-fading with only prompt topographies that were potent enough to promote correct responding. The subsequent comparison of prompt-fading procedures revealed that MTL prompting was more effective and efficient than LTM prompting for all three participants. Further implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:27606243

  20. The effects of a personal phone call prompt on blood donor commitment.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, J R; Barone, R C; Jason, L A; Rose, T

    1985-07-01

    There is a need to investigate procedures that can motivate individuals to attend blood drives. Low rates of attendance are partly due to the failure of many to fulfill their pledges to donate blood. This study examined the use of personal phone calls to prompt college-age blood donors to fulfill their commitments. The results indicated that a remainder call was effective in prompting pledged donors to attend a college drive. The phone call prompt might have been effective because of the social pressure which the recruiter exerted on the donors. Implications of these findings for blood donor recruitment efforts as well as the field of community psychology are discussed. PMID:10272405

  1. A NEW CORRELATION BETWEEN GRB X-RAY FLARES AND THE PROMPT EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Sonbas, E.; MacLachlan, G. A.; Shenoy, A.; Dhuga, K. S.; Parke, W. C.

    2013-04-20

    From a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift missions, we have extracted the minimum variability timescales for temporal structures in the light curves associated with the prompt emission and X-ray flares. A comparison of this variability timescale with pulse parameters such as rise times, determined via pulse-fitting procedures, and spectral lags, extracted via the cross-correlation function, indicates a tight correlation between these temporal features for both the X-ray flares and the prompt emission. These correlations suggest a common origin for the production of X-ray flares and the prompt emission in GRBs.

  2. An Investigation of Luria's Hypothesis on Prompting in Aphasic Naming Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Edith Chin; Canter, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    The study investigated A. R. Luria's hypothesis that aphasic subgroups (Broca's, conduction, Wernicke's, and anomic aphasics) would respond differentially to phonemic prompts. Results, with the exception of the anomic aphasic group, supported Luria's predictions. (Author/DB)

  3. Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for Elemental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Robin P. Gardner

    2006-04-11

    This research project was to improve the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) measurement approach for bulk analysis, oil well logging, and small sample thermal enutron bean applications.

  4. Effect of Self-etching Adhesives on the Bond Strength of Glass-Ionomer Cements

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Panahandeh, Narges; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Zahra Sadat; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Statement of Problem: Adequate bond strength between glass ionomer cements and composite resin is necessary for the success of the sandwich technique. Purpose of Study: This study assessed the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to glass-ionomer cements (GIC) using self-etch adhesives with different pH values. Materials and Methods: One hundred specimens (6×4×2 mm) were made using Fuji II and Fuji II LC GICs and treated with different adhesives as follows: Group 1:Fuji II+ Adper Prompt L-Pop, Group-2: Fuji II+SE bond, Group-3: Fuji II + AdheSE, Group-4:Fuji II+ Protect bond, Group-5: Fuji II + Single bond, Group-6:Fuji II LC+ Adper Prompt LPop, Group-7: Fuji II LC+SE bond, Group-8:Fuji II LC+ AdheSE, Group-9: Fuji II LC+ Protect bond, and Group-10: Fuji II LC+ Single bond. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. A cylinder of Z100 composite resin was placed on each sample and light cured. After 24 hours of water storage (37°C), the specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength tests (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The mean micro-shear bond strength of groups 1–10 was 11.66±1.79, 16.50±1.85, 18.47±1.77, 13.95±1.77, 15.27±1.49, 15.14±0.90, 20.03±1.19, 17.48±3.00, 16.24±1.98 and 16.03±1.49 MPa, respectively. There were significant differences between groups 1 and 7 (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups (P>0.05). Fuji II LC showed higher bond strength than Fuji II (P<0.05). Conclusion: Type of self-etch adhesive had no significant effect on micro-shear bond strength of glass-ionomer to composite resin. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) exhibited higher bond strength than the conventional GIC. PMID:25628698

  5. Comparison of multiple prompt γ-ray analysis and prompt γ-ray analysis for the elemental analysis of geological and cosmochemical samples.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Toh, Yosuke; Harada, Hideo

    2011-10-01

    Multiple prompt γ-ray analysis (MPGA) and conventional neutron-induced prompt γ-ray analysis (PGA) are nondestructive analytical methods for bulk chemical compositions, and their analytical capabilities were compared for elemental analyses of geological and cosmochemical samples. Detection sensitivities of PGA are often restricted by poor signal-to-noise ratios and interferences from different origins. MPGA can substantially reduce the background level, especially for hydrogenous samples, relative to PGA, which opens up a possibility to use lower energy prompt γ-rays of some trace elements. Although it is one of the major constituent elements of rock samples, Mg is hard to be determined by PGA. With MPGA, Mg contents could be determined with reasonable consistency with their corresponding recommended values in geological and cosmochemical samples by carefully selecting suitable coincident prompt γ-ray energy pairs without interference correction. MPGA was applied to a hydrogenous meteorite, Ivuna, which contains H at 2% mass level. MPGA detection limits for most of the elements studied can be reduced up to 1 order of magnitude when compared with PGA detection limits under the present experimental conditions. PMID:21823645

  6. The effects of prompting and reinforcement on safe behavior of bicycle and motorcycle riders.

    PubMed

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was effective at increasing safe behavior exhibited by bicycle and motorcycle riders. No differences were observed between vehicle type or gender with regard to engagement in safe behavior.

  7. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Joost M.; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm-2 in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF PROMPTING AND REINFORCEMENT ON SAFE BEHAVIOR OF BICYCLE AND MOTORCYCLE RIDERS

    PubMed Central

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was effective at increasing safe behavior exhibited by bicycle and motorcycle riders. No differences were observed between vehicle type or gender with regard to engagement in safe behavior. PMID:21941403

  9. Towards accurate kinetic modeling of prompt NO formation in hydrocarbon flames via the NCN pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Jeffrey A.; Fleming, James W.

    2008-08-15

    A basic kinetic mechanism that can predict the appropriate prompt-NO precursor NCN, as shown by experiment, with relative accuracy while still producing postflame NO results that can be calculated as accurately as or more accurately than through the former HCN pathway is presented for the first time. The basic NCN submechanism should be a starting point for future NCN kinetic and prompt NO formation refinement.

  10. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Joost M; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-21

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm(-2) in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  11. The Use of Auditory Prompting Systems for Increasing Independent Performance of Students with Autism in Employment Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joyce; Storey, Keith; Post, Michal; Lemley, Jacky

    2011-01-01

    In this study a self-operated auditory prompting system is introduced to determine if it can increase the on-task behavior for two students with autism participating in an employment training program. In addition, the amount of prompts provided by support staff is measured. The self-operated auditory prompting system consisted of tape recordings…

  12. An Evaluation of Constant Time Delay and Simultaneous Prompting Procedures in Skill Acquisition for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Julie A. Ackerlund; Weinkauf, Sara; Zeug, Nicole; Klatt, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that various prompting procedures are effective in teaching skills to children and adults with developmental disabilities. Simultaneous prompting includes proving a prompt immediately following an instruction; whereas constant time-delay procedures include a set time delay (i.e., 5 s or 10 s) prior to delivering a…

  13. Effects of Prompting in Reflective Learning Tools: Findings from Experimental Field, Lab, and Online Studies

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Bettina; Prilla, Michael; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Reflective learning is an important type of learning both in formal and informal situations—in school, higher education, at the workplace, and in everyday life. People may benefit from technical support for reflective learning, in particular when supporting each other by reflecting not only upon their own but also upon other people’s problems. We refer to this collective approach where people come together to think about experiences and find solutions to problems as “collaborative reflection.” We present three empirical studies about the effects of prompting in reflective learning tools in such situations where people reflect on others’ issues. In Study 1 we applied a three-stage within-group design in a field experiment, where 39 participants from two organizations received different types of prompts while they used a reflection app. We found that prompts that invited employees to write down possible solutions led to more comprehensive comments on their colleagues’ experiences. In Study 2 we used a three-stage between-group design in a laboratory experiment, where 78 university students were invited to take part in an experiment about the discussion of problems at work or academic studies in online forums. Here we found that short, abstract prompts showed no superiority to a situation without any prompts with respect to quantity or quality of contributions. Finally, Study 3 featured a two-stage between-group design in an online experiment, where 60 participants received either general reflection instructions or detailed instructions about how to reflect on other people’s problems. We could show that detailed reflection instructions supported people in producing more comprehensive comments that included more general advice. The results demonstrate that to increase activity and to improve quality of comments with prompting tools require detailed instructions and specific wording of the prompts. PMID:27303361

  14. Effects of Prompting in Reflective Learning Tools: Findings from Experimental Field, Lab, and Online Studies.

    PubMed

    Renner, Bettina; Prilla, Michael; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Reflective learning is an important type of learning both in formal and informal situations-in school, higher education, at the workplace, and in everyday life. People may benefit from technical support for reflective learning, in particular when supporting each other by reflecting not only upon their own but also upon other people's problems. We refer to this collective approach where people come together to think about experiences and find solutions to problems as "collaborative reflection." We present three empirical studies about the effects of prompting in reflective learning tools in such situations where people reflect on others' issues. In Study 1 we applied a three-stage within-group design in a field experiment, where 39 participants from two organizations received different types of prompts while they used a reflection app. We found that prompts that invited employees to write down possible solutions led to more comprehensive comments on their colleagues' experiences. In Study 2 we used a three-stage between-group design in a laboratory experiment, where 78 university students were invited to take part in an experiment about the discussion of problems at work or academic studies in online forums. Here we found that short, abstract prompts showed no superiority to a situation without any prompts with respect to quantity or quality of contributions. Finally, Study 3 featured a two-stage between-group design in an online experiment, where 60 participants received either general reflection instructions or detailed instructions about how to reflect on other people's problems. We could show that detailed reflection instructions supported people in producing more comprehensive comments that included more general advice. The results demonstrate that to increase activity and to improve quality of comments with prompting tools require detailed instructions and specific wording of the prompts. PMID:27303361

  15. Evaluation of proton inelastic reaction models in Geant4 for prompt gamma production during proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyasugiththan, Jeyasingam; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2015-10-01

    During proton beam radiotherapy, discrete secondary prompt gamma rays are induced by inelastic nuclear reactions between protons and nuclei in the human body. In recent years, the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit has played an important role in the development of a device for real time dose range verification purposes using prompt gamma radiation. Unfortunately the default physics models in Geant4 do not reliably replicate the measured prompt gamma emission. Determining a suitable physics model for low energy proton inelastic interactions will boost the accuracy of prompt gamma simulations. Among the built-in physics models, we found that the precompound model with a modified initial exciton state of 2 (1 particle, 1 hole) produced more accurate discrete gamma lines from the most important elements found within the body such as 16O, 12C and 14N when comparing them with the available gamma production cross section data. Using the modified physics model, we investigated the prompt gamma spectra produced in a water phantom by a 200 MeV pencil beam of protons. The spectra were attained using a LaBr3 detector with a time-of-flight (TOF) window and BGO active shield to reduce the secondary neutron and gamma background. The simulations show that a 2 ns TOF window could reduce 99% of the secondary neutron flux hitting the detector. The results show that using both timing and active shielding can remove up to 85% of the background radiation which includes a 33% reduction by BGO subtraction.

  16. Adult participation in children's word searches: on the use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model.

    PubMed

    Radford, Julie

    2010-02-01

    Although word searching in children is very common, very little is known about how adults support children in the turns following the child's search behaviours, an important topic because of the social, educational, and clinical implications. This study characterizes, in detail, teachers' use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model. From a classroom dataset of 53 instances, several distinctive patterns emerged. A prompted completion sequence is initiated by a 'word retrieval elicitor' ('fishing::') and is interpreted as a request to complete the phrase. Non-verbal prompting is accomplished through a combination of gaze and gesture and, also, as a series of prompts. Hinting supplies a verbal clue, typically via a wh-question, or by specifying the nature of the repairable. In contrast, the strategies that supply a linguistic model include both embedded and exposed corrections and offers of candidates. A sequential relationship was found between prompting, hinting, and supplying a model which has implications for how clinicians and teachers can foster self-repair.

  17. Characterization of scintillator crystals for usage as prompt gamma monitors in particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemer, K.; Pausch, G.; Bemmerer, D.; Berthel, M.; Dreyer, A.; Golnik, C.; Hueso-González, F.; Kormoll, T.; Petzoldt, J.; Rohling, H.; Thirolf, P.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Weinberger, D.; Fiedler, F.

    2015-10-01

    Particle therapy in oncology is advantageous compared to classical radiotherapy due to its well-defined penetration depth. In the so-called Bragg peak, the highest dose is deposited; the tissue behind the cancerous area is not exposed. Different factors influence the range of the particle and thus the target area, e.g. organ motion, mispositioning of the patient or anatomical changes. In order to avoid over-exposure of healthy tissue and under-dosage of cancerous regions, the penetration depth of the particle has to be monitored, preferably already during the ongoing therapy session. The verification of the ion range can be performed using prompt gamma emissions, which are produced by interactions between projectile and tissue, and originate from the same location and time of the nuclear reaction. The prompt gamma emission profile and the clinically relevant penetration depth are correlated. Various imaging concepts based on the detection of prompt gamma rays are currently discussed: collimated systems with counting detectors, Compton cameras with (at least) two detector planes, or the prompt gamma timing method, utilizing the particle time-of-flight within the body. For each concept, the detection system must meet special requirements regarding energy, time, and spatial resolution. Nonetheless, the prerequisites remain the same: the gamma energy region (2 to 10 MeV), high counting rates and the stability in strong background radiation fields. The aim of this work is the comparison of different scintillation crystals regarding energy and time resolution for optimized prompt gamma detection.

  18. Longitude and IMF By Effects on Stormtime Low-Latitude Prompt-Penetration Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiro, R. W.; Sazykin, S.; Song, Y.; Toffoletto, F.; Wolf, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    During geomagnetically disturbed periods, transient large-scale electric fields of magnetospheric origin, known as prompt penetration electric fields, are known to strongly affect ionospheric dynamics. We examine storm-associated prompt-penetration electric fields in the low-latitude ionosphere using a recently reformulated version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM), a numerical model of the inner magnetosphere and its coupling to the ionosphere. This reformulated version of the RCM was designed to accept an arbitrary intrinsic geomagnetic field and to represent the lack of symmetry in the magnetospheric magnetic field due to the partial penetration of IMF By. In this study we assume an IGRF internal magnetic field together with an event-driven storm-time Tsyganenko external field to investigate the longitudinal dependence of the prompt penetration electric field pattern and the effects of IMF By penetration.

  19. Analysis of Godiva-IV delayed-critical and static super-prompt-critical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, Russell D; Goda, Joetta M

    2009-01-01

    Super-prompt-critical burst experiments were conducted on the Godiva-IV assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory from the 1960s through 2005. Detailed and simplified benchmark models have been constructed for four delayed-critical experiments and for the static phase of a super-prompt-critical burst experiment. In addition, a two-dimensional cylindrical model has been developed for the super-prompt-critical condition. Criticality calculations have been performed for all of those models with four modern nuclear data libraries: ENDFIB-VI, ENDF/8-VII.0, JEFF-3.1 , and JENDL-3.3. Overall, JENDL-3.3 produces the best agreement with the reference values for k{sub eff}.

  20. Effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime of Tehran research reactor mixed-core.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, A; Khalafi, H; Kazeminejad, H

    2013-05-01

    In this work, kinetic parameters of Tehran research reactor (TRR) mixed cores have been calculated. The mixed core configurations are made by replacement of the low enriched uranium control fuel elements with highly enriched uranium control fuel elements in the reference core. The MTR_PC package, a nuclear reactor analysis tool, is used to perform the analysis. Simulations were carried out to compute effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime. Calculation of kinetic parameters is necessary for reactivity and power excursion transient analysis. The results of this research show that effective delayed neutron fraction decreases and prompt neutron lifetime increases with the fuels burn-up. Also, by increasing the number of highly enriched uranium control fuel elements in the reference core, the prompt neutron lifetime increases, but effective delayed neutron fraction does not show any considerable change. PMID:24976672

  1. Effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime of Tehran research reactor mixed-core.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, A; Khalafi, H; Kazeminejad, H

    2013-05-01

    In this work, kinetic parameters of Tehran research reactor (TRR) mixed cores have been calculated. The mixed core configurations are made by replacement of the low enriched uranium control fuel elements with highly enriched uranium control fuel elements in the reference core. The MTR_PC package, a nuclear reactor analysis tool, is used to perform the analysis. Simulations were carried out to compute effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime. Calculation of kinetic parameters is necessary for reactivity and power excursion transient analysis. The results of this research show that effective delayed neutron fraction decreases and prompt neutron lifetime increases with the fuels burn-up. Also, by increasing the number of highly enriched uranium control fuel elements in the reference core, the prompt neutron lifetime increases, but effective delayed neutron fraction does not show any considerable change.

  2. Global Evaluation of Prompt Dose Rates in ITER Using Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, A.; Sawan, M.; Mosher, Scott W; Evans, Thomas M; Peplow, Douglas E.; Wilson, P.; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    The hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques - Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) and Forward Weighted CADIS (FW-CADIS) - enable the full 3-D modeling of very large and complicated geometries. The ability of performing global MC calculations for nuclear parameters throughout the entire ITER reactor was demonstrated. The 2 m biological shield (bioshield) reduces the total prompt operational dose by six orders of magnitude. The divertor cryo-pump port results in a peaking factor of 120 in the prompt operational dose rate behind the bioshield by a factor of 47. The peak values of the prompt dose rates at the back surface of the bioshield were 240 uSv/hr and 94 uSv/hr corresponding to the regions behind the divertor cryo-pump port and the equatorial port, respectively.

  3. Automated operator procedure prompting for startup of Experimental Breeder Reactor-2

    SciTech Connect

    Renshaw, A.W.; Ball, S.J.; Ford, C.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the development of an operator procedure prompting aid for startup of a nuclear reactor. This operator aid is a preliminary design for a similar aid that eventually will be used with the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) presently in the design stage. Two approaches were used to develop this operator procedure prompting aid. One method uses an expert system software shell, and the other method uses database software. The preliminary requirements strongly pointed toward features traditionally associated with both database and expert systems software. Database software usually provides data manipulation flexibility and user interface tools, and expert systems tools offer sophisticated data representation and reasoning capabilities. Both methods, including software and associated hardware, are described in this report. Proposals for future enhancements to improve the expert system approach to procedure prompting and for developing other operator aids are also offered. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Method for on-line evaluation of materials using prompt gamma ray analysis

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2009-12-08

    A method for evaluating a material specimen comprises: Mounting a neutron source and a detector adjacent the material specimen; bombarding the material specimen with neutrons from the neutron source to create prompt gamma rays within the material specimen, some of the prompt gamma rays being emitted from the material specimen, some of the prompt gamma rays resulting in the formation of positrons within the material specimen by pair production; collecting positron annihilation data by detecting with the detector at least one emitted annihilation gamma ray resulting from the annihilation of a positron; storing the positron annihilation data on a data storage system for later retrieval and processing; and continuing to collect and store positron annihilation data, the continued collected and stored positron annihilation data being indicative of an accumulation of lattice damage over time.

  5. Collimated prompt gamma TOF measurements with multi-slit multi-detector configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimmer, J.; Chevallier, M.; Constanzo, J.; Dauvergne, D.; De Rydt, M.; Dedes, G.; Freud, N.; Henriquet, P.; La Tessa, C.; Létang, J. M.; Pleskač, R.; Pinto, M.; Ray, C.; Reithinger, V.; Richard, M. H.; Rinaldi, I.; Roellinghoff, F.; Schuy, C.; Testa, E.; Testa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal prompt-gamma ray profiles have been measured with a multi-slit multi-detector configuration at a 75 MeV/u 13C beam and with a PMMA target. Selections in time-of-flight and energy have been applied in order to discriminate prompt-gamma rays produced in the target from background events. The ion ranges which have been extracted from each individual detector module agree amongst each other and are consistent with theoretical expectations. In a separate dedicated experiment with 200 MeV/u 12C ions the fraction of inter-detector scattering has been determined to be on the 10%-level via a combination of experimental results and simulations. At the same experiment different collimator configurations have been tested and the shielding properties of tungsten and lead for prompt-gamma rays have been measured.

  6. Effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime of Tehran research reactor mixed-core

    PubMed Central

    Lashkari, A.; Khalafi, H.; Kazeminejad, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, kinetic parameters of Tehran research reactor (TRR) mixed cores have been calculated. The mixed core configurations are made by replacement of the low enriched uranium control fuel elements with highly enriched uranium control fuel elements in the reference core. The MTR_PC package, a nuclear reactor analysis tool, is used to perform the analysis. Simulations were carried out to compute effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime. Calculation of kinetic parameters is necessary for reactivity and power excursion transient analysis. The results of this research show that effective delayed neutron fraction decreases and prompt neutron lifetime increases with the fuels burn-up. Also, by increasing the number of highly enriched uranium control fuel elements in the reference core, the prompt neutron lifetime increases, but effective delayed neutron fraction does not show any considerable change. PMID:24976672

  7. Utilization of Actively-induced, Prompt Radiation Emission for Nonproliferation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    F. W. Blackburn; J. L. Jones; C. E. Moss; J. T. Mihalzco; A. W. Hunt; F. Harmon

    2006-08-01

    The pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technique, which has demonstrated the ability to detect shielded nuclear material, is based on utilizing delayed neutrons and photons between accelerator pulses. While most active interrogation systems have focused on delayed neutron and gamma-ray signatures, the current requirements of various agencies necessitate bringing faster detection and acquisition capabilities to field inspection applications. This push for decreased interrogation times, increased sensitivity and mitigation of false positives requires that detection systems take advantage of all available information. Collaborative research between Idaho National Lab (INL), Idaho State University’s Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has focused on exploiting actively-induced, prompt radiation signatures from nuclear material within a pulsed photonuclear environment. To date, these prompt emissions have not been effectively exploited due to difficulties in detection and signal processing inherent in the prompt regime as well as an overall poor understanding of the magnitude and yields of these emissions. Exploitation of prompt radiation (defined as during an accelerator pulse/(photo) fission event and/or immediately after (< l ms)) has the potential to dramatically reduce interrogation times since the yields are more than two orders of magnitude greater than delayed emissions. Recent preliminary experiments conducted at the IAC suggest that it is indeed possible to extract prompt neutron information within a pulsed photon environment. Successful exploitation of prompt emissions is critical for the development of an improved robust, high-throughput, low target dose inspection system for detection of shielded nuclear materials.

  8. Panchromatic Observations of the Textbook GRB 110205A: Constraining Physical Mechanisms of Prompt Emission and Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Zhang, B.; Pozanenko, A.; Nissinen, M.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E.; Volnova, A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Anto, P.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Breeveld, A.; Carsenty, U.; Gehrels, N.; Sonbas, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long duration (T(sub 90) approx. 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb and BOOTES telescopes when the GRB was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. Thanks to its long duration, nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray to gamma-ray (1 eV - 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution across 6 orders of magnitude in energy during the prompt emission phase. In particular, by fitting the time resolved prompt spectra, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard GRB synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Although the prompt optical emission is brighter than the extrapolation of the best fit X/ -ray spectra, it traces the -ray light curve shape, suggesting a relation to the prompt high energy emission. The synchrotron + synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario is disfavored by the data, but the models invoking a pair of internal shocks or having two emission regions can interpret the data well. Shortly after prompt emission (approx. 1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ( alpha approx. 5.5) was observed which we interpret as the emission from the reverse shock. It is the first time that the rising phase of a reverse shock component has been closely observed.

  9. Modeling Longitude Dependence of Stormtime Low-Latitude Prompt-Penetration Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiro, R. W.; Sazykin, S.; Wolf, R. A.; Toffoletto, F.

    2011-12-01

    Transient large-scale electric fields of magnetospheric origin, known as prompt penetration electric fields, can strongly affect low-latitude ionospheric dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. We present results from a study of computed prompt penetration electric fields associated with rising solar cycle storms using a reformulated version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM), generalized to include arbitrary internal geomagnetic field. In this study we assume an IGRF internal magnetic field and an event-driven storm-time Tsyganenko external field to investigate longitude and By effects on the resulting pattern of low-latitude electric field penetration during periods of modest magnetic storms.

  10. SEARCH FOR PROMPT NEUTRINO EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH ICECUBE

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; BenZvi, S.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; and others

    2015-05-20

    We present constraints derived from a search of four years of IceCube data for a prompt neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). A single low-significance neutrino, compatible with the atmospheric neutrino background, was found in coincidence with one of the 506 observed bursts. Although GRBs have been proposed as candidate sources for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, our limits on the neutrino flux disfavor much of the parameter space for the latest models. We also find that no more than ∼1% of the recently observed astrophysical neutrino flux consists of prompt emission from GRBs that are potentially observable by existing satellites.

  11. Search for Prompt Neutrino Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Penke, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zoll, M.

    2015-05-01

    We present constraints derived from a search of four years of IceCube data for a prompt neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). A single low-significance neutrino, compatible with the atmospheric neutrino background, was found in coincidence with one of the 506 observed bursts. Although GRBs have been proposed as candidate sources for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, our limits on the neutrino flux disfavor much of the parameter space for the latest models. We also find that no more than ˜1% of the recently observed astrophysical neutrino flux consists of prompt emission from GRBs that are potentially observable by existing satellites.

  12. Development of Monte Carlo code for coincidence prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaogang

    Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) offers a non-destructive, relatively rapid on-line method for determination of elemental composition of bulk and other samples. However, PGNAA has an inherently large background. These backgrounds are primarily due to the presence of the neutron excitation source. It also includes neutron activation of the detector and the prompt gamma rays from the structure materials of PGNAA devices. These large backgrounds limit the sensitivity and accuracy of PGNAA. Since most of the prompt gamma rays from the same element are emitted in coincidence, a possible approach for further improvement is to change the traditional PGNAA measurement technique and introduce the gamma-gamma coincidence technique. It is well known that the coincidence techniques can eliminate most of the interference backgrounds and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. A new Monte Carlo code, CEARCPG has been developed at CEAR to simulate gamma-gamma coincidence spectra in PGNAA experiment. Compared to the other existing Monte Carlo code CEARPGA I and CEARPGA II, a new algorithm of sampling the prompt gamma rays produced from neutron capture reaction and neutron inelastic scattering reaction, is developed in this work. All the prompt gamma rays are taken into account by using this new algorithm. Before this work, the commonly used method is to interpolate the prompt gamma rays from the pre-calculated gamma-ray table. This technique works fine for the single spectrum. However it limits the capability to simulate the coincidence spectrum. The new algorithm samples the prompt gamma rays from the nucleus excitation scheme. The primary nuclear data library used to sample the prompt gamma rays comes from ENSDF library. Three cases are simulated and the simulated results are benchmarked with experiments. The first case is the prototype for ETI PGNAA application. This case is designed to check the capability of CEARCPG for single spectrum simulation. The second

  13. The use of auditory prompting systems for increasing independent performance of students with autism in employment training.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joyce; Storey, Keith; Post, Michal; Lemley, Jacky

    2011-12-01

    In this study a self-operated auditory prompting system is introduced to determine if it can increase the on-task behavior for two students with autism participating in an employment training program. In addition, the amount of prompts provided by support staff is measured. The self-operated auditory prompting system consisted of tape recordings of music interspersed with prompts of self-evaluation and encouragement related to the job tasks being performed in the employment setting. The results of the study indicated a potential positive relationship between the self-operated auditory prompting system and the on-task behavior of the participants as well as a positive relationship between the decreased amounts of prompts used by support staff.

  14. Exploring the Impacts of Cognitive and Metacognitive Prompting on Students' Scientific Inquiry Practices Within an E-Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Yu-Ting

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the effects of metacognitive and cognitive prompting on the scientific inquiry practices of students with various levels of initial metacognition. Two junior high school classes participated in this study. One class, the experimental group (n = 26), which received an inquiry-based curriculum with a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts, was compared to the other class, the comparison group (n = 25), which received only cognitive prompts in the same curriculum. Data sources included a test of inquiry practices, a questionnaire of metacognition, and worksheets. The results showed that the mixed cognitive and metacognitive prompts had significant impacts on the students' inquiry practices, especially their planning and analyzing abilities. Furthermore, the mixed prompts appeared to have a differential effect on those students with lower level metacognition, who showed significant improvement in their inquiry abilities. A combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts during an inquiry cycle was found to promote students' inquiry practices.

  15. Assessment of the Shear Bond Strength between Nanofilled Composite Bonded to Glass-ionomer Cement Using Self-etch Adhesive with Different pHs and Total-Etch Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Choobineh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem In the sandwich technique, the undesirable bond between the composite resin and glass-ionomer cement (GIc) is one of the most important factors which lead to the failure of restoration. Total-etch and self-etch adhesives may improve the bond strength based on their pH. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between the nanofilled composite resin and GIc using different adhesives. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 40 specimens (6×6mm) in 4 groups (n=10) were prepared in acrylic mold. Each specimen contained conventional GI ChemFil Superior with a height of 3mm, bonded to Z350 composite resin with a height measured 3mm. In order to bond the composite to the GI, the following adhesives were used, respectively: A: mild Clearfil SE Bond self-etch (pH=2), B: intermediate OptiBond self-etch (pH=1.4), C: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=1), and D: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch (pH=7.2). The shear bond strength was measured by using universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used to analyze the data (p< 0.05). Results The shear bond strength in group A was significantly higher than group B (p= 0.002), C (p< 0.001), and D (p< 0.001). Moreover, the shear bond strength of groups A and B (self-etch) was significantly different from group D (total-etch) (p< 0.001); and C (self-etch) with D (p= 0.024). Conclusion The results of this study showed that applying the mild self-etch adhesive between the composite and the GIc results in stronger shear bond strength compared to intermediate and strong self-etch adhesives. Moreover, the self-etch adhesive increased the shear bond strength between composite resin and GIc more significantly than total-etch adhesive. PMID:26966701

  16. Effects of Reflection Prompts on Learning Outcomes and Learning Behaviour in Statistics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Robin; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Starting from difficulties that students display when they deal with correlation analysis, an e-learning environment ("Koralle") was developed. The design was inspired by principles of situated and example-based learning. In order to facilitate reflective processes and thus enhance learning outcomes, reflection prompts were integrated into the…

  17. Interactivity of Question Prompts and Feedback on Secondary Students' Science Knowledge Acquisition and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Kun; Chen, Ching-Huei; Wu, Wen-Shiuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how question prompts and feedback influenced knowledge acquisition and cognitive load when learning Newtonian mechanics within a web-based multimedia module. Participants were one hundred eighteen 9th grade students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, forming a 2 x 2 factorial design with the…

  18. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrimond, Samantha J.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin. (Contains 1…

  19. How Can I Help? Prompting Procedures to Support Children's Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Snodgrass, Melinda R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of prompting a child is to prevent him or her from making errors while learning a new skill, and to decrease the amount of time it takes to learn the new skill. As a child shows improvement in performing the skill, adults can fade the amount of assistance provided until the child reaches his or her level of independence. Several prompting…

  20. The effect of longitudinal conductance variations on the ionospheric prompt penetration electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazykin, S.; Wolf, R.; Spiro, R.; Fejer, B.

    Ionospheric prompt penetration electric fields of magnetospheric origin, together with the atmospheric disturbance dynamo, represent the most important parameters controlling the storm-time dynamics of the low and mid-latitude ionosphere. These prompt penetration fields result from the disruption of region-2 field-aligned shielding currents during geomagnetically disturbed conditions. Penetration electric fields con- trol, to a large extent, the generation and development of equatorial spread-F plasma instabilities as well as other dynamic space weather phenomena in the ionosphere equatorward of the auroral zone. While modeling studies typically agree with average patterns of prompt penetration fields, experimental results suggest that longitudinal variations of the ionospheric con- ductivities play a non-negligible role in controlling spread-F phenomena, an effect that has not previously been modeled. We present first results of modeling prompt pene- tration electric fields using a version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM) that allows for longitudinal variations in the ionospheric conductance tensor. The RCM is a first- principles numerical ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling model that solves for the electric fields, field-aligned currents, and particle distributions in the ionosphere and inner/middle magnetosphere. We compare these new theoretical results with electric field observations.

  1. The Impact of Prompted Narrative Writing during Internship on Reflective Practice: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Rachel B.; Kern, David E.; Wright, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Narrative writing has been used to promote reflection and increased self-awareness among physicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prompted narrative writing on reflection. Thirty-two interns at 9 internal medicine residency programs participated in a year-long qualitative study about personal growth beginning in July of…

  2. Assessment of Geant4 Prompt-Gamma Emission Yields in the Context of Proton Therapy Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marco; Dauvergne, Denis; Freud, Nicolas; Krimmer, Jochen; Létang, Jean M; Testa, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo tools have been long used to assist the research and development of solutions for proton therapy monitoring. The present work focuses on the prompt-gamma emission yields by comparing experimental data with the outcomes of the current version of Geant4 using all applicable proton inelastic models. For the case in study and using the binary cascade model, it was found that Geant4 overestimates the prompt-gamma emission yields by 40.2 ± 0.3%, even though it predicts the prompt-gamma profile length of the experimental profile accurately. In addition, the default implementations of all proton inelastic models show an overestimation in the number of prompt gammas emitted. Finally, a set of built-in options and physically sound Geant4 source code changes have been tested in order to try to improve the discrepancy observed. A satisfactory agreement was found when using the QMD model with a wave packet width equal to 1.3 fm(2). PMID:26858937

  3. Self-Operated Auditory Prompting Systems: Creating and Using Them to Support Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Melissa N.

    2014-01-01

    Some students with disabilities develop a dependence on others for support and can benefit from self-management strategies to increase independence. Self-operated auditory prompting systems are an effective self-management intervention used to increase independence for students with disabilities while continuing to provide the support that they…

  4. Cool Headphones for Effective Prompts: Supporting Students and Adults in Work and Community Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Michal; Storey, Keith; Karabin, Michele

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a case study that investigated the effectiveness of an auditory prompting system, using earphones and a cassette, to improve on-task job performance of an adult with mild mental retardation. Guidelines for working with adults and student to improve job and task performance are provided. (Contains references.)…

  5. 41 CFR 109-38.402-50 - Prompt disposal of replaced motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... replaced motor vehicles. 109-38.402-50 Section 109-38.402-50 Public Contracts and Property Management... REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.4-Use and Replacement Standards § 109-38.402-50 Prompt disposal of replaced motor vehicles. A replaced motor...

  6. The Effects of Prompting and Feedback on Drivers' Stopping at Stop Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, John; Hackett, Stacey; Gravina, Nicole; Lebbon, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Complete stops at a high-traffic intersection on the campus of a public university were increased with a prompting and consequence intervention. Data were collected at two opposing stop signs (Stop A and Stop B); however, the intervention was implemented only at Stop A. During the intervention, a volunteer stood next to Stop A holding a poster…

  7. Assisting Persons with Multiple Disabilities to Move through Simple Occupational Activities with Automatic Prompting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca; Groeneweg, Jop

    2008-01-01

    The present study assessed the possibility of assisting four persons with multiple disabilities to move through and perform simple occupational activities arranged within a room with the help of automatic prompting. The study involved two multiple probe designs across participants. The first multiple probe concerned the two participants with…

  8. Computer-Presented Video Prompting for Teaching Microwave Oven Use to Three Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark; Cannella, Helen; Upadhyaya, Megha; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Hundley, Anna; Andrews, Alonzo; Garver, Carolyn; Young, David

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the use of a video prompting procedure for teaching three adults with developmental disabilities to make popcorn using a microwave oven. Training, using a 10-step task analysis, was conducted in the kitchen of the participant's vocational training program. During baseline, participants were instructed to make popcorn, but were given…

  9. Upgrade of the NIST Thermal Neutron Prompt-Gamma-Ray Activation Analysis Facility

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Mackey; D. L. Anderson; G. Lamaze; R. M. Lindstrom; P. J. Liposky

    2000-11-12

    The thermal neutron prompt-gamma-ray activation analysis facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was designed and built in the late 1970s. An upgrade of the facility to reduce background and enhance analytical sensitivities is in progress, and is described in this report.

  10. Self-Regulation of Student Epistemic Thinking in Science: The Role of Metacognitive Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Erin E.; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the effectiveness of a metacognitive prompts intervention-science (MPI-S), which is based on the nature of science with 162 eighth-grade science students. It was hypothesised that students exposed to the intervention will show higher levels of content knowledge and knowledge about the nature of…

  11. The effect of automated monitoring and real-time prompting on nurses' hand hygiene performance.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

    2013-10-01

    Adequate hand hygiene compliance by healthcare staff is considered an effective method to reduce hospital-acquired infections. The electronic system developed at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute automatically detects hand hygiene opportunities and records hand hygiene actions. It includes an optional visual hand hygiene status indication, generates real-time hand hygiene prompting signals, and enables automated monitoring of individual and aggregated hand hygiene performance. The system was installed on a complex continuous care unit at the entrance to 17 patient rooms and a utility room. A total of 93 alcohol gel and soap dispensers were instrumented and 14 nurses were provided with the personal wearable electronic monitors. The study included three phases with the system operating in three different modes: (1) an inactive mode during the first phase when hand hygiene opportunities and hand hygiene actions were recorded but prompting and visual indication functions were disabled, (2) only hand hygiene status indicators were enabled during the second phase, and (3) both hand hygiene status and real-time hand hygiene prompting signals were enabled during the third phase. Data collection was performed automatically during all of the three phases. The system indicated significantly higher hand hygiene activity rates and compliance during the third phase, with both hand hygiene indication and real-time prompting functions enabled. To increase the efficacy of the technology, its use was supplemented with individual performance reviews of the automatically collected data.

  12. Effects of Teaching Simultaneous Prompting through Visual Supports to Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batu, Sema

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effectiveness of visual supports on teaching simultaneous prompting procedure to mothers to provide home-based instruction to their children with developmental disabilities. Three preschool-aged children with moderate developmental disabilities and their mothers were the participants. A multiple probe…

  13. 48 CFR 52.232-27 - Prompt payment for construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulations at 5 CFR 1315.10(c) do not require the Government to pay interest penalties if payment delays are... number). (iv) Description of work or services performed. (v) Delivery and payment terms (e.g., discount... Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR part 1315. (i) For the sole purpose of computing...

  14. 48 CFR 52.232-27 - Prompt payment for construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... regulations at 5 CFR 1315.10(c) do not require the Government to pay interest penalties if payment delays are... number). (iv) Description of work or services performed. (v) Delivery and payment terms (e.g., discount... Management and Budget prompt payment regulations at 5 CFR part 1315. (i) For the sole purpose of computing...

  15. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use While Driving

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads to 2,600 U.S. fatalities each year. An active prompting procedure was employed to increase seat belt use and decrease cell phone use among drivers exiting a university parking lot. A multiple baseline with reversal design was used to evaluate the presentation of two signs: “Please Hang Up, I Care” and “Please Buckle Up, I Care.” The proportion of drivers who complied with the seat belt prompt was high and in line with previous research. The proportion of drivers who hung up their cell phones in response to the prompt was about equal to that of the seat belt prompt. A procedure that reduces cell phone use among automobile drivers is a significant contribution to the behavioral safety literature. PMID:17020214

  16. Increasing Following Headway with Prompts, Goal Setting, and Feedback in a Driving Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Michelle L.; Van Houten, Ron

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of prompting, goal setting, and feedback on following headway of young drivers in a simulated driving environment and assessed whether changes produced in following headway were associated with reductions in hard braking when drivers were and were not using cell phones. Participants were 4 university students. During…

  17. Comparison of Direct Instruction and Simultaneous Prompting Procedure on Teaching Concepts to Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Semiha; Vuran, Sezgin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency, effectiveness, maintenance effects and social validity of two instructional methods, Direct Instruction and Simultaneous Prompting Procedure, on teaching concepts (long, old, few and thick) using a parallel treatments design. All sessions were conducted at a private special education center…

  18. The Effects of Rapid Assessments and Adaptive Restudy Prompts in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renkl, Alexander; Skuballa, Irene T.; Schwonke, Rolf; Harr, Nora; Leber, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of rapid assessment tasks and different adaptive restudy prompts in multimedia learning. The adaptivity was based on rapid assessment tasks that were interspersed throughout a multimedia learning environment. In Experiment 1 (N = 52 university students), we analyzed to which extent rapid assessment tasks were reactive…

  19. Verbal Prompting, Hand-over-Hand Instruction, and Passive Observation in Teaching Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, G. B.; Fairhall, J. L.; Raven, K. A.; Davey, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving six children (ages 5-13) with mental retardation found that overall passive modeling was significantly more effective than hand-over-hand modeling in teaching skills, and that passive modeling was significantly more effective than hand-over-hand modeling with response-contingent verbal prompting. (Author/CR)

  20. A Method for Estimating the Probability of Floating Gate Prompt Charge Loss in a Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    Because advancing technology has been producing smaller structures in electronic circuits, the floating gates in modern flash memories are becoming susceptible to prompt charge loss from ionizing radiation environments found in space. A method for estimating the risk of a charge-loss event is given.

  1. Effects of Picture Prompts Delivered by a Video iPod on Pedestrian Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Kelly R.; Test, David W.; Cooke, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Transportation access is a major contributor to independence, productivity, and societal inclusion for individuals with intellectual and development disabilities (IDD). This study examined the effects of pedestrian navigation training using picture prompts displayed through a video iPod on travel route completion with 4 adults and IDD. Results…

  2. The Effects of Student Question-Generation with Online Prompts on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Fu-Yun; Pan, Kuan-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the effects of student-question generation with online prompts on student academic achievement, question-generation performance, learning satisfaction and learning anxiety. This study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. Two classes of eighth grade students (N = 64) from one middle school…

  3. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading,...

  4. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer, swine contractor and live poultry dealer must exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to...

  5. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading,...

  6. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading,...

  7. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading,...

  8. The influence of a verbal prompt on school lunch fruit consumption: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Marlene B

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated an environmental intervention intended to increase consumption of the fruit serving among elementary school children participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Methods: Children's fruit consumption was measured in two schools by observation. In the intervention school, cafeteria workers provided the verbal prompt, "Would you like fruit or juice with your lunch?" as the children stood in line in front of the fruit serving options. The control school had the same fruit and 100% juice options available, but the cafeteria workers did not provide a verbal prompt to take a fruit serving. Two variables were assessed: (1) Did children leave the lunch line with a fruit serving on their trays? and (2) Did they subsequently eat the fruit serving? Results: The average percentage of children who took a fruit serving was 60% in the control school and 90% in the intervention school. In both schools, approximately 80% of children ate the fruit on their tray. As a result, nearly 70% of the children in the intervention school consumed a fruit serving at lunch, while fewer than 40% did so in the control school. Conclusion: A simple verbal prompt appears to have a significant impact on the likelihood that children will take, and subsequently consume, a fruit serving as part of their purchased school lunch. If these findings are replicated, policymakers may consider adding verbal prompts to the serving policy of the NSLP in an effort to increase fruit consumption among school children. PMID:17338812

  9. Common Threads in Behavior Checklists, Task Analysis, Prompting, Operations Training, and Chaining Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.

    The paper reviews studies on performance objectives, task analysis, and prompting and instruction sequences as they relate to the education of handicapped students. The initial section, on performance objectives, reviews the development of the Vocational Behavior Checklist and the Subsequent Independent Living Behavior Checklist. The next step in…

  10. Prompt-Type Frequency, Auditory Pattern Discrimination, and EFL Learners' Production of "WH"-Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; De Vleeschauwer, Jindarat

    2012-01-01

    Recently researchers have suggested that syntactic priming may facilitate the production of "wh"-questions with obligatory auxiliary verbs, particularly when learners are prompted to produce those questions with a wide variety of lexical items (McDonough & Kim, 2009; McDonough & Mackey, 2008). However, learners' ability to benefit from syntactic…

  11. Use of Prompt Sentences to Scaffold Language Growth in Lower Level Chinese Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong-an, Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the use of Prompt Sentences (PSs) in lower level Chinese classes. By asking three types of PSs to students and quantitatively analyzing their responses, the author tried to answer the questions: (1) whether it is effective to use PS in the beginning Chinese class, and (2) when to apply which type of PS to which group of…

  12. The Varied Circumstances Prompting Requests for Emergency Contraception at School-Based Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidebottom, Abbey; Harrison, Patricia A.; Amidon, Donna; Finnegan, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the circumstances that prompt teenagers to request emergency contraception (EC). This evaluation was designed to refine the EC clinical protocol and improve pregnancy prevention efforts in high school-based clinics by analyzing information on EC use and subsequent contraception use of EC patients. Methods: Sites…

  13. Comparison of Response Prompting Procedures in Teaching Numeral Identification to Autistic Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Melinda Jones; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study compared the effectiveness and efficiency of constant time delay and system of least prompts in teaching two eight-year-old students with autism to name numerals. Results indicated that both procedures were effective but the constant time-delay procedure was more efficient with these two subjects. (Author/DB)

  14. Some Consequences of Prompting Novice Physics Students to Construct Force Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckler, Andrew F.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the extent to which prompting the construction of a force diagram affects student solutions to simple mechanics problems. A total of 891 university introductory physics students were given typical force and motion problems under one of the two conditions: when a force diagram was or was not…

  15. Cultural Storytelling as a Motivational Writing Prompt for English Language Learners: A Collaborative Research Endeavor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Carolyn L.; Taylor, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study addresses the question "Does the use of storytelling motivate English language learners to engage in literacy practices more, or in a better way, and if so, how?". Storytelling of cultural tales related to fifth grade students' home cultures was introduced to provide a prompt for resultant student discussion and writing. All…

  16. Content-Free Computer Supports for Self-Explaining: Modifiable Typing Interface and Prompting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Liang, Hung-Ta

    2009-01-01

    Self-explaining, which asks students to generate explanations while reading a text, is a self-constructive activity and is helpful for students' learning. Studies have revealed that prompts by a human tutor promote students' self-explanations. However, most studies on self-explaining focus on spoken self-explanations. This study investigates the…

  17. Effects of Visual Cues and Self-Explanation Prompts: Empirical Evidence in a Multimedia Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lijia; Atkinson, Robert K.; Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Nelson, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of visual cues and different types of self-explanation prompts on learning, cognitive load, and intrinsic motivation in an interactive multimedia environment that was designed to deliver a computer-based lesson about the human cardiovascular system. A total of 126 college students were…

  18. 12 CFR 702.203 - Prompt corrective action for “significantly undercapitalized” credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), or into liquidation pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1787(a)(3)(A)(i). (c) Discretionary conservatorship or.... 1787(a)(3)(A)(i), provided that the credit union has no reasonable prospect of becoming “adequately... § 702.203 Prompt corrective action for “significantly undercapitalized” credit unions. (a)...

  19. Investigating the Effects of Prompts on Argumentation Style, Consensus and Perceived Efficacy in Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, Owen M.; Hogan, Michael J.; Broome, Benjamin; Hall, Tony; Ryan, Cormac

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of task-level versus process-level prompts on levels of perceived and objective consensus, perceived efficacy, and argumentation style in the context of a computer-supported collaborative learning session using Interactive Management (IM), a computer facilitated thought and action mapping methodology. Four…

  20. 42 CFR 423.520 - Prompt payment by Part D sponsors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prompt payment by Part D sponsors. 423.520 Section 423.520 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Application Procedures and Contracts with Part D plan sponsors §...

  1. Assessment of Geant4 Prompt-Gamma Emission Yields in the Context of Proton Therapy Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Marco; Dauvergne, Denis; Freud, Nicolas; Krimmer, Jochen; Létang, Jean M.; Testa, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo tools have been long used to assist the research and development of solutions for proton therapy monitoring. The present work focuses on the prompt-gamma emission yields by comparing experimental data with the outcomes of the current version of Geant4 using all applicable proton inelastic models. For the case in study and using the binary cascade model, it was found that Geant4 overestimates the prompt-gamma emission yields by 40.2 ± 0.3%, even though it predicts the prompt-gamma profile length of the experimental profile accurately. In addition, the default implementations of all proton inelastic models show an overestimation in the number of prompt gammas emitted. Finally, a set of built-in options and physically sound Geant4 source code changes have been tested in order to try to improve the discrepancy observed. A satisfactory agreement was found when using the QMD model with a wave packet width equal to 1.3 fm2. PMID:26858937

  2. Was that CT? Assessing Computational Thinking Patterns through Video-Based Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Krista Sekeres

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate student understanding and application of computational thinking patterns to novel situations. Over 500 students, who had just designed and programmed a Frogger-style game using the AgentSheets platform, responded to a newly developed video-prompt survey instrument administered in the Fall 2010 semester.…

  3. Using Simultaneous Prompting to Teach Independent Living and Leisure Skills to Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, Chad A.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Alberto, Paul A.; Luke, Jaye K.

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of independent living and leisure skills enables adults to experience an enhanced quality of life by increasing competence, self-reliance, and the development of autonomy. This study examined the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting to teach behavior chains (i.e., independent living and leisure skills) to adults with SID…

  4. A Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and Constant Time Delay Procedures in Teaching State Capitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Kenneth David; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.; Ault, Melinda Jones

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compared the effectiveness and efficiency of constant time delay (CTD) and simultaneous prompting (SP) procedures in teaching discrete social studies facts to 4 high school students with learning and behavior disorders using an adapted alternating treatments design nested within a multiple probe design. The results indicated…

  5. Teaching Paragraph Composition to Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders Using the Simultaneous Prompting Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Tina Marlene; Hinkson-Lee, Kim; Collins, Belva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the simultaneous prompting procedure in teaching paragraph composition to 4, 5th grade students identified with emotional behavioral disorder (EBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The instructor taught students how to construct and proofread a 5-sentence paragraph…

  6. Facilitating Task Acquisition through the Use of a Self-Operated Auditory Prompting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberto, Paul A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Four moderately to severely mentally retarded adolescents used a cassette player to self-administer auditory prompts in two of three task areas: vocational assembly, use of a washing machine, and food preparation. The procedure included acquisition, faded assistance, and maintenance phases. All four students learned and maintained performance of…

  7. Using Response-Prompting Procedures during Small-Group Direct Instruction: Outcomes and Procedural Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Lane, Justin D.; Elam, Katherine L.; Wolery, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Research was reviewed on small-group instruction for learners with disabilities. The review was conducted for articles published between 1990 and 2010 on the application of small-group direct instruction to teach discrete skills using prompting procedures. A total of 47 articles with 197 participants and 687 replications of effects was located.…

  8. Using Video Prompting to Teach Cooking Skills to Secondary Students with Moderate Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Tara B.; Collins, Belva C.; Schuster, John W.; Kleinert, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Three secondary students with moderate disabilities acquired cooking skills through a constant time delay procedure used with video prompting. A multiple probe design was used to evaluate effectiveness of the procedure to teach preparation of a food item (a) on a stove, (b) in a microwave, and (c) on a counter top. The procedure was effective for…

  9. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    PubMed Central

    Farrimond, Samantha J; Leland, Louis S

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin. PMID:16813047

  10. A Method for Estimating the Probability of Floating Gate Prompt Charge Loss in a Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    Since advancing technology has been producing smaller structures in electronic circuits, the floating gates in modern flash memories are becoming susceptible to prompt charge loss from ionizing radiation environments found in space. A method for estimating the risk of a charge-loss event is given.

  11. Episodic Development in Preschool Children's Play-Prompted and Direct-Elicited Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgaz, Hande; Aksu-Koc, Ayhan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the premise that action, manifested here through pretend play, is a semiotic arena that can enhance narrative development. It was hypothesized that children would produce structurally more complex narratives in play-prompted elicitation than in direct elicitation conditions, and that this competence would increase with age.…

  12. Increasing Seat Belt Use on a College Campus: An Evaluation of Two Prompting Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Michael C.; Helms, Bridgett P.

    2009-01-01

    Seat belt use is an important factor in the prevention of automobile accidents involving injuries and fatalities. The current study used a multielement design to compare the "Click It or Ticket" and "Please Buckle Up--I Care" procedures. Results indicate that the Click It or Ticket prompt resulted in a 20-percentage-point increase in seat belt…

  13. Three Procedures for Increasing Vocal Response to Therapist Prompt in Infants and Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drash, Philip W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of three procedures for increasing vocal response to prompt in 15 preschool children with Down Syndrome was compared. Light-dimming and visual screening, when combined with positive reinforcement, were both found to be significantly more effective than positive reinforcement alone. (Author/JDD)

  14. 41 CFR 105-55.031 - Prompt referral to the Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Justice. 105-55.031 Section 105-55.031 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Department of Justice. (a) The General Services Administration (GSA) will promptly refer to the Department of Justice (DOJ) for litigation debts on which aggressive collection activity has been taken in...

  15. 41 CFR 105-55.031 - Prompt referral to the Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Department of Justice. 105-55.031 Section 105-55.031 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Department of Justice. (a) The General Services Administration (GSA) will promptly refer to the Department of Justice (DOJ) for litigation debts on which aggressive collection activity has been taken in...

  16. 41 CFR 105-55.031 - Prompt referral to the Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Department of Justice. 105-55.031 Section 105-55.031 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Department of Justice. (a) The General Services Administration (GSA) will promptly refer to the Department of Justice (DOJ) for litigation debts on which aggressive collection activity has been taken in...

  17. 41 CFR 105-55.031 - Prompt referral to the Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department of Justice. 105-55.031 Section 105-55.031 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Department of Justice. (a) The General Services Administration (GSA) will promptly refer to the Department of Justice (DOJ) for litigation debts on which aggressive collection activity has been taken in...

  18. 41 CFR 105-55.031 - Prompt referral to the Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Department of Justice. 105-55.031 Section 105-55.031 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Department of Justice. (a) The General Services Administration (GSA) will promptly refer to the Department of Justice (DOJ) for litigation debts on which aggressive collection activity has been taken in...

  19. Using Structured Examples and Prompting Reflective Questions to Correct Misconceptions about Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olakanmi, E. O.; Doyoyo, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of using "structured examples in concert with prompting reflective questions" to address misconceptions held by mechanical engineering students about thermodynamic principles by employing pre-test and post-test design, a structured questionnaire, lecture room observation, and participants'…

  20. Solicited versus Unsolicited Metacognitive Prompts for Fostering Mathematical Problem Solving Using Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramarski, Bracha; Friedman, Sheli

    2014-01-01

    The study examined how student control over metacognitive prompts in a multimedia environment affects students' ability to solve mathematical problems in immediate comprehension tasks using a multimedia program and a delayed-transfer test. It also examined the effect on metacognitive discourse, mental effort, and engagement with multimedia-based…

  1. Support for Learning from Multimedia Explanations. A Comparison of Prompting, Signaling, and Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Rodicio, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    In one experiment 97 undergraduate students learned about plate tectonics from a multimedia presentation involving narrated animations and support in one of four forms. Support in the prompting condition included hints inducing participants to self-explain critical information. The signaling condition included overviews recapping critical…

  2. Comparison of Methods for Demonstrating Passage of Time When Using Computer-Based Video Prompting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Spencer, Galen P.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Two different video-based procedures for presenting the passage of time (how long a step lasts) were examined. The two procedures were presented within the framework of video prompting to promote independent multi-step task completion across four young adults with moderate intellectual disability. The two procedures demonstrating passage of the…

  3. Using Video Prompting with Different Fading Procedures to Teach Daily Living Skills: A Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Fang; Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Wheaton, Joe E.; Tullis, Chris A.

    2016-01-01

    Two students with developmental disabilities were taught two daily living skills using video prompting with error correction presented on an iPod Touch, and two different fading procedures were implemented. In one fading procedure, individual video clips were merged into multiple larger clips following acquisition of the entire skill. In the…

  4. Teaching Students with Cognitive Impairment Chained Mathematical Task of Decimal Subtraction Using Simultaneous Prompting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Shaila; Kane, Martha T.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed effectiveness of simultaneous prompting procedure in teaching two middle school students with cognitive impairment decimal subtraction using regrouping. A multiple baseline, multiple probe design replicated across subjects successfully taught two students with cognitive impairment at middle school level decimal subtraction…

  5. Training Behavior Modifiers: Videotape Self-Monitoring Versus Remote Auditory Prompting. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, John D.; And Others

    The separate and comparative effectiveness of two procedures, remote auditory prompting (RAP) and videotape self-monitoring (VSM), for training 14 adult aides to use behavior modification with institutionalized retarded children were examined. A two-group, multiple baseline design with baseline, training, and followup phases was employed with…

  6. Using Simultaneous Prompting to Teach Computer-Based Story Writing to a Student with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Robert C.; Stenhoff, Donald M.; Gibson, Jason; Ballou, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Writing is a critical skill because it is used to access reinforcement in a variety of contexts. Unfortunately, there has been little research on writing skills instruction for students with intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects simultaneous prompting and computer-assisted…

  7. Using Simultaneous Prompting and Computer-Assisted Instruction to Teach Story Writing to Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Robert C.; Ault, Melinda Jones; Schuster, John W.; Sanders, Ann

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, the researchers evaluated the effects of simultaneous prompting and computer-assisted instruction on the story-writing responses of 3 males with autism, 7 to 10 ears of age. Classroom teachers conducted all probe and training sessions. The researchers used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the…

  8. Effects of Most to Least Prompting on Teaching Simple Progression Swimming Skill for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Konukman, Ferman; Birkan, Binyamin; Yanardag, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    Effects of most to least prompting on teaching simple progression swimming skill for children with autism were investigated. A single subject multiple baseline model across subjects with probe conditions was used. Participants were three boys, 9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week with session three times a week period using the single…

  9. 41 CFR 109-38.402-50 - Prompt disposal of replaced motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... replaced motor vehicles. 109-38.402-50 Section 109-38.402-50 Public Contracts and Property Management... REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.4-Use and Replacement Standards § 109-38.402-50 Prompt disposal of replaced motor vehicles. A replaced motor...

  10. Shortening the Tail: A Critical Look at the Prompts New Zealand Teachers Use in Teaching Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coogan, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests New Zealand has the biggest gap between its highest and lowest achievers, and this is known as the "long tail". The debate over whole language and phonics approaches to reading is unfinished, but must now focus on where the point of difference lies. While reading involves a range of skills, teachers need to model the prompts that…

  11. Convincing Students They Can Learn to Read: Crafting Self-Efficacy Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Patrick P.

    2006-01-01

    The self-defeating behavior of some students can often make even the most persistent of teachers to feel discouraged. The purpose of this article is to explain and provide a research-based rationale for the use of teacher verbal feedback prompts that convince students of their ability to succeed on a task. He discusses how to understand the…

  12. A Prompt/Reward Technique to Elicit Socially Acceptable Behavior with Chicano Gang Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Alan C.

    The effect of general and subject-specific prompts in eliciting a zero- or low-probability behavior in three Hispanic gang members, selected because of their artistic or writing abilities, was examined by monitoring their behavior in submitting any original work, written or pictorial, that could be published in a community newsletter. Dependent…

  13. The Effects of Simultaneous Prompting on Teaching Expressive Identification of Objects: An Instructive Feedback Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Acar, Gazi; Kurt, Onur

    2003-01-01

    This study with three adolescents with mental retardation examined whether the use of a simultaneous prompting procedure would result in improved performance when expressively identifying first aid materials. All three students learned the identifications and maintained them after training. Students also acquired and maintained some of the…

  14. A FAILURE TO TEACH A SIGHT VOCABULARY BY VANISHING LITERAL PROMPTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, RICHARD C.; DUELL, ORPHA K.

    A STUDY BY TABER AND GLASER WHICH TAUGHT SIGHT VOCABULARY BY THE VANISHING LITERAL PROMPTS METHOD WAS REPLICATED IN AN EXPERIMENT WITH 14 PRESCHOOL, KINDERGARTEN, AND BEGINNING FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN. MATERIALS USED WERE EIGHT LOWER CASE COLOR WORDS PRINTED ON 3 BY 5 CARDS. AFTER PRETESTS TO IDENTIFY COLOR KNOWLEDGE AND CONFIRM LACK OF WORD…

  15. The Effects of Textual Prompting and Reading Fluency on the Acquisition of Intraverbals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmick, Jill R.; Cihon, Traci M.; Eshleman, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of textual prompt fading on the acquisition of intraverbals in 3 individuals with developmental disabilities. An alternating treatments design was used to assess the two independent variables. The first independent variable was transfer of stimulus control without component skill fluency. The second independent…

  16. Comparison of LSO and BGO block detectors for prompt gamma imaging in ion beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, F.; Biegun, A. K.; Dendooven, P.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Golnik, C.; Heidel, K.; Kormoll, T.; Petzoldt, J.; Römer, K. E.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Pausch, G.

    2015-09-01

    A major weakness of ion beam therapy is the lack of tools for verifying the particle range in clinical routine. The application of the Compton camera concept for the imaging of prompt gamma rays, a by-product of the irradiation correlated to the dose distribution, is a promising approach for range assessment and even three-dimensional in vivo dosimetry. Multiple position sensitive gamma ray detectors arranged in scatter and absorber planes, together with an imaging algorithm, are required to reconstruct the prompt gamma emission density map. Conventional block detectors deployed in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which are based on Lu2SiO5:Ce (LSO) and Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) scintillators, are suitable candidates for the absorber of a Compton camera due to their high density and absorption efficiency with respect to the prompt gamma energy range (several MeV). We compare experimentally LSO and BGO block detectors in clinical-like radiation fields in terms of energy, spatial and time resolution. The high energy range compensates for the low light yield of the BGO material and boosts significantly its performance compared to the PET scenario. Notwithstanding the overall superiority of LSO, BGO catches up in the field of prompt gamma imaging and can be considered as a competitive alternative to LSO for the absorber plane due to its lower price and the lack of intrinsic radioactivity.

  17. 42 CFR 423.520 - Prompt payment by Part D sponsors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prompt payment by Part D sponsors. 423.520 Section 423.520 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Application Procedures and Contracts with Part D...

  18. Effectiveness of Visual and Verbal Prompts in Training Visuospatial Processing Skills in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabani, Ellahe; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a growing interest in intervention-based assessment to promote and enhance children's learning. In this study, we explored the potential effect of an experimental visual-spatial intervention procedure and possible training benefits of two prompting modalities: one group received training with verbal and visual…

  19. Measurements of Prompt Radiation-Induced Conductivity of Pyralux®

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; McLain, Michael Lee; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.; Stringer, Thomas Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In this report, measurements of the prompt radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in 3 mil samples of Pyralux® are presented as a function of dose rate, pulse width, and applied bias. The experiments were conducted with the Medusa linear accelerator (LINAC) located at the Little Mountain Test Facility (LMTF) near Ogden, UT. The nominal electron energy for the LINAC is 20 MeV. Prompt conduction current data were obtained for dose rates ranging from ~2 x 109 rad(Si)/s to ~1.1 x 1011 rad(Si)/s and for nominal pulse widths of 50 ns and 500 ns. At a given dose rate, the applied bias across the samples was stepped between -1500 V and 1500 V. Calculated values of the prompt RIC varied between 1.39x10-8 Ω-1 · m-1 and 2.67x10-7 Ω-1 · m-1 and the prompt RIC coefficient varied between 1.25x10-18 Ω-1 · m-1/rad/s and 1.93x10-17 Ω-1 · m-1/rad/s.

  20. Stability evaluation and correction of a pulsed neutron generator prompt gamma activation analysis system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Source output stability is important for accurate measurement in prompt gamma neutron activation. This is especially true when measuring low-concentration elements such as in vivo nitrogen (~2.5% of body weight). We evaluated the stability of the compact DT neutron generator within an in vivo nitrog...

  1. Using Video Modeling and Video Prompting to Teach Core Academic Content to Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellems, Ryan O.; Edwards, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Practitioners are constantly searching for evidence-based practices that are effective in teaching academic skills to students with learning disabilities (LD). Video modeling (VM) and video prompting have become popular instructional interventions for many students across a wide range of different disability classifications, including those with…

  2. Adult Participation in Children's Word Searches: On the Use of Prompting, Hinting, and Supplying a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Although word searching in children is very common, very little is known about how adults support children in the turns following the child's search behaviours, an important topic because of the social, educational, and clinical implications. This study characterizes, in detail, teachers' use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model. From a…

  3. Use of Static Picture Prompts Versus Video Modeling during Simulation Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberto, Paul A.; Cihak, David F.; Gama, Robert I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of static picture prompts and video modeling as classroom simulation strategies in combination with in vivo community instruction. Students with moderate intellectual disabilities were instructed in the tasks of withdrawing money from an ATM and purchasing items using a…

  4. Learning New Grammatical Structures in Task-Based Language Learning: The Effects of Recasts and Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Guchte, Marrit; Braaksma, Martine; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bimmel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examine the effects of prompts and recasts on the acquisition of two new and different grammar structures in a task-based learning environment. Sixty-four 14-year-old 9th grade students (low intermediate) learning German as a foreign language were randomly assigned to three conditions: two experimental groups (one…

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of prompt γ-ray emission in proton therapy using a specific track length estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kanawati, W.; Létang, J. M.; Dauvergne, D.; Pinto, M.; Sarrut, D.; Testa, É.; Freud, N.

    2015-10-01

    A Monte Carlo (MC) variance reduction technique is developed for prompt-γ emitters calculations in proton therapy. Prompt-γ emitted through nuclear fragmentation reactions and exiting the patient during proton therapy could play an important role to help monitoring the treatment. However, the estimation of the number and the energy of emitted prompt-γ per primary proton with MC simulations is a slow process. In order to estimate the local distribution of prompt-γ emission in a volume of interest for a given proton beam of the treatment plan, a MC variance reduction technique based on a specific track length estimator (TLE) has been developed. First an elemental database of prompt-γ emission spectra is established in the clinical energy range of incident protons for all elements in the composition of human tissues. This database of the prompt-γ spectra is built offline with high statistics. Regarding the implementation of the prompt-γ TLE MC tally, each proton deposits along its track the expectation of the prompt-γ spectra from the database according to the proton kinetic energy and the local material composition. A detailed statistical study shows that the relative efficiency mainly depends on the geometrical distribution of the track length. Benchmarking of the proposed prompt-γ TLE MC technique with respect to an analogous MC technique is carried out. A large relative efficiency gain is reported, ca. 105.

  6. Differential reinforcement of correct responses to probes and prompts in picture-name training with severely retarded children.

    PubMed

    Olenick, D L; Pear, J J

    1980-01-01

    A systematic sequence of prompt and probe trials was used to teach picture names to three severely retarded children. On prompt trials the experimenter presented a picture and said the picture name for the child to imitate; on probe trials the experimenter did not name the picture. A procedure whereby correct responses to prompts and probes were nondifferentially reinforced was compared with procedures whereby correct responses to prompts and probes were differentially reinforced according to separate and independent schedules of primary reinforcement. In Phase 1, correct responses to prompts and probes were reinforced nondifferentially on a fixed ratio (FR) 6 or 8 schedule; in Phase 2, correct responses to prompts were reinforced on the FR schedule and correct responses to probes were reinforced on an FR schedule of the same value; in Phase 3, correct responses to prompts were reinforced on the FR schedule and correct responses to probes were reinforced on a continuous reinforcement (CRF; every correct response reinforced) schedule; in Phase 4, correct responses to prompts were reinforced on a CRF schedule and correct responses to probes were reinforced on the FR schedule; in Phase 5, a reversal to the conditions of Phase 3 was conducted. For all three children, the FR schedule for correct responses to prompts combined with the CRF schedule for correct responses to probes (Phases 3 and 5) generated the highest number of correct responses to probes, the highest accuracy (correct responses relative to correct responses plus errors) on probe trials, and the highest rate of learning to name pictures.

  7. The Effects of Prompts and a Group-Oriented Contingency on Out-of-School Physical Activity in Elementary School-Aged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; van der Mars, Hans; Layne, Todd; Wadsworth, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of three conditions in which 48 fourth-grade students were prompted to be physically active out of school. Using an alternating treatments design (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007) the three intervention conditions included: (a) Baseline: No prompting of students, (b) Teacher Prompts: Verbal prompt to "remember…

  8. Absolute prompt-gamma yield measurements for ion beam therapy monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Bajard, M; Brons, S; Chevallier, M; Dauvergne, D; Dedes, G; De Rydt, M; Freud, N; Krimmer, J; La Tessa, C; Létang, J M; Parodi, K; Pleskač, R; Prieels, D; Ray, C; Rinaldi, I; Roellinghoff, F; Schardt, D; Testa, E; Testa, M

    2015-01-21

    Prompt-gamma emission detection is a promising technique for hadrontherapy monitoring purposes. In this regard, obtaining prompt-gamma yields that can be used to develop monitoring systems based on this principle is of utmost importance since any camera design must cope with the available signal. Herein, a comprehensive study of the data from ten single-slit experiments is presented, five consisting in the irradiation of either PMMA or water targets with lower and higher energy carbon ions, and another five experiments using PMMA targets and proton beams. Analysis techniques such as background subtraction methods, geometrical normalization, and systematic uncertainty estimation were applied to the data in order to obtain absolute prompt-gamma yields in units of prompt-gamma counts per incident ion, unit of field of view, and unit of solid angle. At the entrance of a PMMA target, where the contribution of secondary nuclear reactions is negligible, prompt-gamma counts per incident ion, per millimetre and per steradian equal to (124 ± 0.7stat ± 30sys) × 10(-6) for 95 MeV u(-1) carbon ions, (79 ± 2stat ± 23sys) × 10(-6) for 310 MeV u(-1) carbon ions, and (16 ± 0.07stat ± 1sys) × 10(-6) for 160 MeV protons were found for prompt gammas with energies higher than 1 MeV. This shows a factor 5 between the yields of two different ions species with the same range in water (160 MeV protons and 310 MeV u(-1) carbon ions). The target composition was also found to influence the prompt-gamma yield since, for 300/310 MeV u(-1) carbon ions, a 42% greater yield ((112 ± 1stat ± 22sys) × 10(-6) counts ion(-1) mm(-1) sr(-1)) was obtained with a water target compared to a PMMA one. PMID:25548833

  9. Prompt Emission of GRB 121217A from Gamma-Rays to the Near-Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, J.; Yu, H.-F.; Schmidl, S.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Oates, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Zhang, B.; Cummings, J. R.; Filgas, R.; Gehrels, N.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism that causes the prompt-emission episode of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still widely debated despite there being thousands of prompt detections. The favoured internal shock model relates this emission to synchrotron radiation. However, it does not always explain the spectral indices of the shape of the spectrum, which is often fit with empirical functions, such as the Band function. Multi-wavelength observations are therefore required to help investigate the possible underlying mechanisms that causes the prompt emission. We present GRB 121217A, for which we were able to observe its near-infrared (NIR) emission during a secondary prompt-emission episode with the Gamma-Ray burst Optical Near-infrared Detector (GROND) in combination with the Swift and Fermi satellites, which cover an energy range of 5 orders of magnitude (10(exp -3) keV to 100 keV). We determine a photometric redshift of z = 3.1 +/- 0.1 with a line-of-sight with little or no extinction (AV approx. 0 mag) utilising the optical/NIR SED. From the afterglow, we determine a bulk Lorentz factor of Gamma(sub 0) approx. 250 and an emission radius of R < 1018 cm. The prompt-emission broadband spectral energy distribution is well fit with a broken power law with beta1 = -0.3 +/- 0.1 and beta2 = 0.6 +/- 0.1 that has a break at E = 6.6 +/- 0.9 keV, which can be interpreted as the maximum injection frequency. Self-absorption by the electron population below energies of Ea < 6 keV suggest a magnetic field strength of B approx. 10(exp 5) G. However, all the best fit models underpredict the flux observed in the NIR wavelengths, which also only rebrightens by a factor of approx. 2 during the second prompt emission episode, in stark contrast to the X-ray emission, which rebrightens by a factor of approx. 100. This suggests an afterglow component is dominating the emission. We present GRB 121217A, one of the few GRBs that has multi-wavelength observations of the prompt-emission period and shows that it can

  10. Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva.

    PubMed

    Pinzon, Lilliam M; Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M; Marshall, Grayson W

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker's and non-smoker's saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPHSpectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers' instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher's protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker's and nonsmoker's saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker's or nonsmoker's saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group.

  11. Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker’s saliva

    PubMed Central

    Oguri, Makoto; O’Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M.; Marshall, Grayson W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPH-Spectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers’ instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher’s protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker’s or nonsmoker’s saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group. PMID:20155506

  12. Effect of EDTA and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment on the Bonding Effectiveness of Self-Etch Adhesives to Ground Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ihab M.; Elkassas, Dina W.; Yousry, Mai M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study determined the effect of enamel pretreatment with phosphoric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the bond strength of strong, intermediary strong, and mild self-etching adhesive systems. Methods: Ninety sound human premolars were used. Resin composite cylinders were bonded to flat ground enamel surfaces using three self-etching adhesive systems: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=0.9–1.0), intermediary strong AdheSE (pH=1.6–1.7), and mild Frog (pH=2). Adhesive systems were applied either according to manufacturer instructions (control) or after pretreatment with either phosphoric acid or EDTA (n=10). After 24 hours, shear bond strength was tested using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Ultra-morphological characterization of the surface topography and resin/enamel interfaces as well as representative fractured enamel specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Neither surface pretreatment statistically increased the mean shear bond strength values of either the strong or the intermediary strong self-etching adhesive systems. However, phosphoric acid pretreatment significantly increased the mean shear bond strength values of the mild self-etching adhesive system. SEM examination of enamel surface topography showed that phosphoric acid pretreatment deepened the same etching pattern of the strong and intermediary strong adhesive systems but converted the irregular etching pattern of the mild self-etching adhesive system to a regular etching pattern. SEM examination of the resin/enamel interface revealed that deepening of the etching pattern was consistent with increase in the length of resin tags. EDTA pretreatment had a negligible effect on ultra-morphological features. Conclusions: Use of phosphoric acid pretreatment can be beneficial with mild self-etching adhesive systems for bonding to enamel. PMID:20922162

  13. Self-etching bonding systems: in-vitro shear bond strength evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brandt, P D; de Wet, F A; du Preez, I C

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the dentine shear bond strength of five self-etching bonding agents with that of a total-etch dentine bonding agent (used as control). Sixty recently extracted third molar teeth were mounted in acrylic resin and the occlusal surfaces ground to expose superficial dentine. A standardised smear layer was created by polishing with wet 600-grit SiC paper. Products evaluated were Xeno III (XIII), Clearfil SE Bond (SE), ABF (ABF), Optibond Solo Self-etch (OS), Adper Prompt-L-Pop (PLP) and the control, Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMP). Resin stubs were bonded to the dentine using the bonding agents according to manufacturer's instructions. Composite stubs were manufactured using an Ultradent jig and two increments of Z100, A1 shade composite. The bonds were subsequently stressed to failure with an Instron testing machine, operating at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data was statistically analysed using ANOVA (alpha < or = 0.05). The mean SBS (MPa) were: SBMP (Control) = 24.1 +/- 7.6; XIII = 17.3 +/- 4.1; SE = 26.2 +/- 7.8; ABF = 25.9 +/- 4.3; OS = 21.9 +/- 3.9 and PLP = 15.4 +/- 3.1. The shear bond strengths of both XIII and PLP to dentine were significantly lower than the control SBMP (p < 0.05). The remaining three products (SE, ABF and OS) displayed bond strengths comparable to the control (p > 0.05). Further research into cut (ground) and un-cut (un-ground) enamel shear bond strength and micro-leakage using these bonding agents are needed. PMID:16562613

  14. Effect of 30% Hydrogen Peroxide on Marginal Integrity of Silorane-Based Versus Methacrylate-Based Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Hashemikamangar, Sedighe Sadat; Ghavam, Maryam; Mahinfar, Nazanin; Kharazi Fard, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 30% hydrogen peroxide on the microleakage of class V cavities restored with either a silorane-based composite or two methacrylate-based composites. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 standard class V cavities (1.5 × 2 × 3 mm) were prepared on the buccal surface of sound extracted human premolars with both enamel and dentin margins and randomly assigned into three groups of Filtek P90 (group A) with its respective bonding (P90 system adhesive), Filtek Z250 (group B) and Filtek Z350XT (group C), both with Adper Prompt L-Pop bonding. The teeth were subjected to thermocycling (1000×, 5–55ºC) and half of them randomly underwent bleaching (30% hydrogen peroxide, 15 min, three times), while the remaining half (control) were not bleached. Dye penetration was measured following immersion in 2% basic fuchsin for 24 h. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at 95% CI. Results: No significant differences were found between the composites in the control groups in enamel (P=0.171) or dentin (P=0.094) margins. After bleaching, microleakage of Z250 (at the occlusal (P=0.696) or gingival (P=0.867) margins), Z350 (at the occlusal (P=0.323) margin) and P90 (at the occlusal (P=0.316) or gingival (P=0.281) margins) did not change significantly. Conclusion: No significant differences were noted between the bleached and control subgroups of Z250 and P90 in enamel or dentin margins. Microleakage of Z350 composite was reduced at the gingival margin compared to the control group, but no significant difference was observed at the occlusal margin. Microleakage of silorane-based composite in gingival margin was significantly more than two metacrylate-based composites. PMID:25628681

  15. PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEXTBOOK GRB 110205A: CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL MECHANISMS OF PROMPT EMISSION AND AFTERGLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Pozanenko, A.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E. E-mail: rfshen@astro.utoronto.ca; and others

    2012-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long-duration (T{sub 90} {approx} 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb, and BOOTES telescopes when the gamma-ray burst (GRB) was still radiating in the {gamma}-ray band, with optical light curve showing correlation with {gamma}-ray data. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray, to {gamma}-ray (1 eV to 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution during the prompt emission phase. In particular, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Shortly after prompt emission ({approx}1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ({alpha} {approx} 5.5) was observed, which we interpret as the reverse shock (RS) emission. It is the first time that the rising phase of an RS component has been closely observed. The full optical and X-ray afterglow light curves can be interpreted within the standard reverse shock (RS) + forward shock (FS) model. In general, the high-quality prompt and afterglow data allow us to apply the standard fireball model to extract valuable information, including the radiation mechanism (synchrotron), radius of prompt emission (R{sub GRB} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm), initial Lorentz factor of the outflow ({Gamma}{sub 0} {approx} 250), the composition of the ejecta (mildly magnetized), the collimation angle, and the total energy budget.

  16. A Correlation of Spectral Lag Evolution with Prompt Optical Emission in GRBs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatikos, Michael; Ukwatta, Tilan N.; Sakamoto, Taka; Dhuga, Kalvir S.

    2008-10-01

    We report on observations of correlated behavior between the prompt γ-ray and optical emission from GRB 080319B, which (i) strongly suggest that they occurred within the same astrophysical source region and (ii) indicate that their respective radiation mechanisms were most likely dynamically coupled. Our preliminary results, based upon a new cross-correlation function (CCF) methodology for determining the time-resolved spectral lag, are summarized as follows. First, the evolution in the arrival offset of prompt γ-ray photon counts between Swift-BAT 15-25 keV and 50-100 keV energy bands (intrinsic γ-ray spectral lag) appears to be anti-correlated with the arrival offset between prompt 15-350 keV γ-rays and the optical emission observed by TORTORA (extrinsic γ-ray/optical lag), thus effectively partitioning the burst into two main episodes at ~T+28+/-2 sec. Second, prompt optical emission is nested within intervals of both (a) trivial intrinsic γ-ray spectral lag (~T+12+/-2 and ~T+50+/-2 sec) with (b) discontinuities in the hard to soft evolution of the photon index for a power law fit to 15-150 keV Swift-BAT data (~T+8+/-2 and ~T+48+/-1 sec), both of which coincide with the rise (~T+10+/-1 sec) and decline (~T+50+/-1 sec) of prompt optical emission. This potential discovery, robust across heuristic permutations of BAT energy channels and varying temporal bin resolution, provides the first observational evidence for an implicit connection between spectral lag and the dynamics of shocks in the context of canonical fireball phenomenology.

  17. The Correlation of Spectral Lag Evolution with Prompt Optical Emission in GRB 080319B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatikos, Michael; Ukwatta, Tilan N.; Sakamoto, Takanori; Dhuga, Kalvir S.; Toma, Kenji; Pe'Er, Asaf; Mészáros, Peter; Band, David L.; Norris, Jay P.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Gehrels, Neil

    2009-05-01

    We report on observations of correlated behavior between the prompt γ-ray and optical emission from GRB 080319B, which confirm that (i) they occurred within the same astrophysical source region and (ii) their respective radiation mechanisms were dynamically coupled. Our results, based upon a new cross-correlation function (CCF) methodology for determining the time-resolved spectral lag, are summarized as follows. First, the evolution in the arrival offset of prompt γ-ray photon counts between Swift-BAT 15-25 keV and 50-100 keV energy bands (intrinsic γ-ray spectral lag) appears to be anti-correlated with the arrival offset between prompt 15-350 keV γ-rays and the optical emission observed by TORTORA (extrinsic optical/γ-ray spectral lag), thus effectively partitioning the burst into two main episodes at ~T+28+/-2 sec. Second, the rise and decline of prompt optical emission at ~T+10+/-1 sec and ~T+50+/-1 sec, respectively, both coincide with discontinuities in the hard to soft evolution of the photon index for a power law fit to 15-150 keV Swift-BAT data at ~T+8+/-2 sec and ~T+48+/-1 sec. These spectral energy changes also coincide with intervals whose time-resolved spectral lag values are consistent with zero, at ~T+12+/-2 sec and ~T+50+/-2 sec. These results, which are robust across heuristic permutations of Swift-BAT energy channels and varying temporal bin resolution, have also been corroborated via independent analysis of Konus-Wind data. This potential discovery may provide the first observational evidence for an implicit connection between spectral lags and GRB emission mechanisms in the context of canonical fireball phenomenology. Future work includes exploring a subset of bursts with prompt optical emission to probe the unique or ubiquitous nature of this result.

  18. The Luminosity Evolution Over the Equitemporal Surfaces in the Prompt Emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Massucci, Francesco Alessandro; Ruffini, Remo

    Due to the ultrarelativistic velocity of the expanding "fireshell" (Lorentz gamma factor γ ~ 102-103), photons emitted at the same time from the fireshell surface do not reach the observer at the same arrival time. In interpreting Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) it is crucial to determine the properties of the EQuiTemporal Surfaces (EQTSs): the locus of points which are source of radiation reaching the observer at the same arrival time. In the current literature this analysis is performed only in the latest phases of the afterglow. Here we study the distribution of the GRB bolometric luminosity over the EQTSs, with special attention to the prompt emission phase. We analyze as well the temporal evolution of the EQTS apparent size in the sky. We use the analytic solutions of the equations of motion of the fireshell and the corresponding analytic expressions of the EQTSs which have been presented in recent works and which are valid for both the fully radiative and the adiabatic dynamics. We find the novel result that at the beginning of the prompt emission the most luminous regions of the EQTSs are the ones closest to the line of sight. On the contrary, in the late prompt emission and in the early afterglow phases the most luminous EQTS regions are the ones closest to the boundary of the visible region. This transition in the emitting region may lead to specific observational signatures, i.e. an anomalous spectral evolution, in the rising part or at the peak of the prompt emission. We find as well an expression for the apparent radius of the EQTS in the sky, valid in both the fully radiative and the adiabatic regimes. Such considerations are essential for the theoretical interpretation of the prompt emission phase of GRBs.

  19. Inclusive, prompt and non-prompt J/ ψ production at mid-rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Chunhui, Z.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadlovska, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luz, P. H. F. N. D.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martíınez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Masui, H.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papcun, P.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seeder, K. S.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-07-01

    The transverse momentum ( p T) dependence of the nuclear modification factor R AA and the centrality dependence of the average transverse momentum < p T> for inclusive J /ψ have been measured with ALICE for Pb-Pb collisions at TeV in the e+e- decay channel at mid-rapidity (| y| < 0 .8). The < p T> is significantly smaller than the one observed for pp collisions at the same centre-of-mass energy. Consistently, an increase of R AA is observed towards low p T. These observations might be indicative of a sizable contribution of charm quark coalescence to the J /ψ production. Additionally, the fraction of non-prompt J /ψ from beauty hadron decays, f B, has been determined in the region 1 .5 < p T < 10 GeV /c in three centrality intervals. No significant centrality dependence of f B is observed. Finally, the R AA of non-prompt J /ψ is discussed and compared with model predictions. The nuclear modification in the region 4 .5 < p T < 10 GeV /c is found to be stronger than predicted by most models. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Measurement of the differential cross-sections of prompt and non-prompt production of J / ψ and ψ (2S) in pp collisions at √s = 7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; et al

    2016-05-20

    The production rates of prompt and non-prompt J/ψ and ψ(2S) mesons in their dimuon decay modes are measured using 2.1 and 11.4 fb-1 of data collected with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, in proton–proton collisions at √s=7 and 8 respectively. Production cross-sections for prompt as well as non-prompt sources, ratios of ψ(2S) to J/ψ production, and the fractions of non-prompt production for J/ψ and ψ(2S) are measured as a function of meson transverse momentum and rapidity. Lastly, the measurements are compared to theoretical predictions.

  1. Measurement of the differential cross-sections of prompt and non-prompt production of J/ψ and ψ (2{S}) in pp collisions at √{s} = 7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Grefe, C.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henkelmann, S.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Ince, T.; Introzzi, G.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Ivarsson, J.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansky, R.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jiggins, S.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneti, S.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kaplan, L. S.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karentzos, E.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Kato, C.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khoo, T. J.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kido, S.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O. M.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kivernyk, O.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M. H.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Knapik, J.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, A.; Kobayashi, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kogan, L. 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B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stabile, A.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-05-01

    The production rates of prompt and non-prompt J/ψ and ψ (2{S}) mesons in their dimuon decay modes are measured using 2.1 and 11.4 fb^{-1} of data collected with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=7 and 8 respectively. Production cross-sections for prompt as well as non-prompt sources, ratios of ψ (2{S}) to J/ψ production, and the fractions of non-prompt production for J/ψ and ψ (2{S}) are measured as a function of meson transverse momentum and rapidity. The measurements are compared to theoretical predictions.

  2. Prompt initiation of maintenance treatment following a COPD exacerbation: outcomes in a large insured population

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Anna D; Lokhandwala, Tasneem; Boggs, Robert L; Dalal, Anand A; Landsman-Blumberg, Pamela B; Priest, Julie; Stempel, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to extend previous findings and determine the value of prompt initiation of maintenance treatment (MT) following COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization or an emergency department (ED) visit. Patients and methods Administrative claims data (collected between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2012) from an employer-sponsored commercially insured population were retrospectively used to identify patients with a COPD exacerbation resulting in hospitalization or an ED visit. Patients initiating approved MT for COPD within 30 days of discharge/diagnosis (prompt) were compared with those initiating MT within 31–180 days (delayed). COPD-related total, medical, and prescription drug costs during a 1-year follow-up period were evaluated using semilog ordinary least square regressions, controlling for baseline characteristics plus COPD-related costs from the previous year. The odds and number of subsequent COPD-related exacerbations during the follow-up were compared between the prompt and delayed cohorts using logistic regression and zero-inflated negative binomial models, respectively. Results A total of 6,521 patients with a COPD-related hospitalization or an ED visit were included, of whom 4,555 received prompt MT and 1,966 received delayed MT. Adjusted COPD-related total and medical costs were significantly lower for the prompt MT than the delayed MT cohorts (US$3,931 vs US$4,857 and US$2,327 vs US$3,087, respectively; both P<0.010), as were COPD-related prescription costs (US$1,526 vs US$1,683, P<0.010) during the 1-year follow-up period. Patients receiving delayed MT were 68% more likely to have a subsequent exacerbation requiring hospitalization and 80% more likely to have an exacerbation requiring an ED visit. Conclusion Prompt initiation of MT following a COPD-related hospitalization or an ED visit was associated with a significant reduction in COPD-related costs and odds of exacerbation in the following year compared with

  3. Prompt gamma imaging of proton pencil beams at clinical dose rate.

    PubMed

    Perali, I; Celani, A; Bombelli, L; Fiorini, C; Camera, F; Clementel, E; Henrotin, S; Janssens, G; Prieels, D; Roellinghoff, F; Smeets, J; Stichelbaut, F; Vander Stappen, F

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we present experimental results of a prompt gamma camera for real-time proton beam range verification. The detection system features a pixelated Cerium doped lutetium based scintillation crystal, coupled to Silicon PhotoMultiplier arrays, read out by dedicated electronics. The prompt gamma camera uses a knife-edge slit collimator to produce a 1D projection of the beam path in the target on the scintillation detector. We designed the detector to provide high counting statistics and high photo-detection efficiency for prompt gamma rays of several MeV. The slit design favours the counting statistics and could be advantageous in terms of simplicity, reduced cost and limited footprint. We present the description of the realized gamma camera, as well as the results of the characterization of the camera itself in terms of imaging performance. We also present the results of experiments in which a polymethyl methacrylate phantom was irradiated with proton pencil beams in a proton therapy center. A tungsten slit collimator was used and prompt gamma rays were acquired in the 3-6 MeV energy range. The acquisitions were performed with the beam operated at 100 MeV, 160 MeV and 230 MeV, with beam currents at the nozzle exit of several nA. Measured prompt gamma profiles are consistent with the simulations and we reached a precision (2σ) in shift retrieval of 4 mm with 0.5 × 10(8), 1.4 × 10(8) and 3.4 × 10(8) protons at 100, 160 and 230 MeV, respectively. We conclude that the acquisition of prompt gamma profiles for in vivo range verification of proton beam with the developed gamma camera and a slit collimator is feasible in clinical conditions. The compact design of the camera allows its integration in a proton therapy treatment room and further studies will be undertaken to validate the use of this detection system during treatment of real patients. PMID:25207724

  4. Prompt gamma imaging of proton pencil beams at clinical dose rate.

    PubMed

    Perali, I; Celani, A; Bombelli, L; Fiorini, C; Camera, F; Clementel, E; Henrotin, S; Janssens, G; Prieels, D; Roellinghoff, F; Smeets, J; Stichelbaut, F; Vander Stappen, F

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we present experimental results of a prompt gamma camera for real-time proton beam range verification. The detection system features a pixelated Cerium doped lutetium based scintillation crystal, coupled to Silicon PhotoMultiplier arrays, read out by dedicated electronics. The prompt gamma camera uses a knife-edge slit collimator to produce a 1D projection of the beam path in the target on the scintillation detector. We designed the detector to provide high counting statistics and high photo-detection efficiency for prompt gamma rays of several MeV. The slit design favours the counting statistics and could be advantageous in terms of simplicity, reduced cost and limited footprint. We present the description of the realized gamma camera, as well as the results of the characterization of the camera itself in terms of imaging performance. We also present the results of experiments in which a polymethyl methacrylate phantom was irradiated with proton pencil beams in a proton therapy center. A tungsten slit collimator was used and prompt gamma rays were acquired in the 3-6 MeV energy range. The acquisitions were performed with the beam operated at 100 MeV, 160 MeV and 230 MeV, with beam currents at the nozzle exit of several nA. Measured prompt gamma profiles are consistent with the simulations and we reached a precision (2σ) in shift retrieval of 4 mm with 0.5 × 10(8), 1.4 × 10(8) and 3.4 × 10(8) protons at 100, 160 and 230 MeV, respectively. We conclude that the acquisition of prompt gamma profiles for in vivo range verification of proton beam with the developed gamma camera and a slit collimator is feasible in clinical conditions. The compact design of the camera allows its integration in a proton therapy treatment room and further studies will be undertaken to validate the use of this detection system during treatment of real patients.

  5. Prompt gamma imaging of proton pencil beams at clinical dose rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perali, I.; Celani, A.; Bombelli, L.; Fiorini, C.; Camera, F.; Clementel, E.; Henrotin, S.; Janssens, G.; Prieels, D.; Roellinghoff, F.; Smeets, J.; Stichelbaut, F.; Vander Stappen, F.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we present experimental results of a prompt gamma camera for real-time proton beam range verification. The detection system features a pixelated Cerium doped lutetium based scintillation crystal, coupled to Silicon PhotoMultiplier arrays, read out by dedicated electronics. The prompt gamma camera uses a knife-edge slit collimator to produce a 1D projection of the beam path in the target on the scintillation detector. We designed the detector to provide high counting statistics and high photo-detection efficiency for prompt gamma rays of several MeV. The slit design favours the counting statistics and could be advantageous in terms of simplicity, reduced cost and limited footprint. We present the description of the realized gamma camera, as well as the results of the characterization of the camera itself in terms of imaging performance. We also present the results of experiments in which a polymethyl methacrylate phantom was irradiated with proton pencil beams in a proton therapy center. A tungsten slit collimator was used and prompt gamma rays were acquired in the 3-6 MeV energy range. The acquisitions were performed with the beam operated at 100 MeV, 160 MeV and 230 MeV, with beam currents at the nozzle exit of several nA. Measured prompt gamma profiles are consistent with the simulations and we reached a precision (2σ) in shift retrieval of 4 mm with 0.5 × 108, 1.4 × 108 and 3.4 × 108 protons at 100, 160 and 230 MeV, respectively. We conclude that the acquisition of prompt gamma profiles for in vivo range verification of proton beam with the developed gamma camera and a slit collimator is feasible in clinical conditions. The compact design of the camera allows its integration in a proton therapy treatment room and further studies will be undertaken to validate the use of this detection system during treatment of real patients.

  6. Investigating the Impact of Optical Selection Effects on Observed Rest-frame Prompt GRB Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, D.; Heussaff, V.; Dezalay, J.-P.; Atteia, J.-L.; Klotz, A.; Dornic, D.

    2016-11-01

    Measuring gamma-ray burst (GRB) properties in their rest frame is crucial for understanding the physics at work in GRBs. This can only be done for GRBs with known redshifts. Since redshifts are usually measured from the optical spectrum of the afterglow, correlations between prompt and afterglow emissions may introduce biases into the distribution of the rest-frame properties of the prompt emission, especially considering that we measure the redshift of only one-third of Swift GRBs. In this paper, we study the optical flux of GRB afterglows and its connection to various intrinsic properties of GRBs. We also discuss the impact of the optical selection effect on the distribution of rest-frame prompt properties of GRBs. Our analysis is based on a sample of 90 GRBs with good optical follow-up and well-measured prompt emission. Seventy-six of them have a measure of redshift and 14 have no redshift. We compare the rest-frame prompt properties of GRBs with different afterglow optical fluxes in order to check for possible correlations between the promt properties and the optical flux of the afterglow. The optical flux is measured two hours after the trigger, which is a typical time for the measure of the redshift. We find that the optical flux of GRB afterglows in our sample is mainly driven by their optical luminosity and depends only slightly on their redshift. We show that GRBs with low and high afterglow optical fluxes have similar E {}{{pi}}, E {}{{iso}}, and L {}{{iso}}, indicating that the rest-frame distributions computed from GRBs with a redshift are not significantly distorted by optical selection effects. However, we found that the {T}90{rest} distribution is not immune to optical selection effects, which favor the selection of GRBs with longer durations. Finally, we note that GRBs well above the E {}{{pi}}–E {}{{iso}} relation have lower optical fluxes and we show that optical selection effects favor the detection of GRBs with bright optical afterglows

  7. Investigating the Effects of Prompt Characteristics on the Comparability of TOEFL iBT™ Integrated Writing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yeonsuk; Rijmen, Frank; Novák, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of prompt characteristics on the averages of all scores given to test taker responses on the TOEFL iBT[TM] integrated Read-Listen-Write (RLW) writing tasks for multiple administrations from 2005 to 2009. In the context of TOEFL iBT RLW tasks, the prompt consists of a reading passage and a lecture. To understand…

  8. A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated Activity Effective Index Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated Activity Effective Index Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis to manage physical activity. AAEIReminder recognizes activity levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical activity in activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer activity situations such as the amount of physical activity and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts' efficiency. PMID:27548184

  9. 41 CFR 102-75.1290 - What happens if the landholding agency requesting the property does not promptly accept custody...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landholding agency requesting the property does not promptly accept custody and accountability? 102-75.1290... not promptly accept custody and accountability? (a) The requesting agency must assume protection and... accountability for the property. (b) After notifying the requesting agency, GSA may, at its discretion,...

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.1290 - What happens if the landholding agency requesting the property does not promptly accept custody...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... landholding agency requesting the property does not promptly accept custody and accountability? 102-75.1290... not promptly accept custody and accountability? (a) The requesting agency must assume protection and... accountability for the property. (b) After notifying the requesting agency, GSA may, at its discretion,...

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.1290 - What happens if the landholding agency requesting the property does not promptly accept custody...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landholding agency requesting the property does not promptly accept custody and accountability? 102-75.1290... not promptly accept custody and accountability? (a) The requesting agency must assume protection and... accountability for the property. (b) After notifying the requesting agency, GSA may, at its discretion,...

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.1290 - What happens if the landholding agency requesting the property does not promptly accept custody...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... landholding agency requesting the property does not promptly accept custody and accountability? 102-75.1290... not promptly accept custody and accountability? (a) The requesting agency must assume protection and... accountability for the property. (b) After notifying the requesting agency, GSA may, at its discretion,...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.1290 - What happens if the landholding agency requesting the property does not promptly accept custody...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landholding agency requesting the property does not promptly accept custody and accountability? 102-75.1290... not promptly accept custody and accountability? (a) The requesting agency must assume protection and... accountability for the property. (b) After notifying the requesting agency, GSA may, at its discretion,...

  14. Assessing the Acquisition of Incidental Information by Secondary-Age Students with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Response Prompting Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, David L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study, involving four secondary-age students with moderate to severe mental retardation, found that four response prompting conditions (progressive time delay and the system of least prompts, both with and without a descriptive consequent event) were effective in teaching reading of recipe words with similar efficiency and maintenance. (JDD)

  15. Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Learn to Use Urine Alarms and Prompts to Avoid Large Urinary Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Bosco, Andrea; Zonno, Nadia; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether three patients with Alzheimer's disease could learn to use urine alarms and caregivers' prompts to eliminate large urinary accidents. As soon as the patient began to release urine, the alarm system presented auditory and vibratory signals. In relation to those signals, the caregiver would prompt/encourage the patient to…

  16. Differential Reinforcement of Correct Responses to Probes and Prompts in Picture-Name Training with Severely Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olenick, Debra L.; Pear, Joseph J.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic sequence of prompt and probe trials was used to teach picture names to three severely retarded children (aged 4). For all children the fixed ratio schedule for correct responses to prompts, combined with the every correct response reinforced schedule for correct responses to probes, generated the best results. (Author/PHR)

  17. Using Video Prompting and Constant Time Delay to Teach an Internet Search Basic Skill to Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios; Sigafoos, Jeff; Koutromanos, George

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated a video prompting and a constant time delay procedure for teaching three primary school students with moderate intellectual disabilities to access the Internet and download pictures related to participation in a classroom History project. Video clips were used as an antecedent prompt and as an error correction technique within a…

  18. Teaching Daily Living Skills to Seven Individuals with Severe Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparison of Video Prompting to Video Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Fleming, Courtney; Chung, Yi-Cheih; Wheeler, Geoffrey M.; Basbagill, Abby R.; Singh, Angella H.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic replication of Cannella-Malone et al. by comparing the effects of video prompting to video modeling for teaching seven students with severe disabilities to do laundry and wash dishes. The video prompting and video modeling procedures were counterbalanced across tasks and participants and compared in an alternating…

  19. Analysis of a Visual Prompting Procedure on Acquisition and Generalization of Coin Skills by Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Alan R.; Wacker, David P.

    1986-01-01

    A visual prompting procedure was instituted to train four mildly retarded elementary children to make purchases. Results indicated all students acquired coin skills taught during training, generalized skills to untrained items, and maintained skills over a four-week interval. Removal of visual prompts (fading) resulted in improvement for all…

  20. Using Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Promote Recall of Multiplication Facts by Middle School Students with Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Shaila; Mallow, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of simultaneous prompting system in teaching students with cognitive impairment to automate recall of multiplication facts. A multiple probes design with multiple sets of math facts and replicated across multiple subjects was used to assess effectiveness of simultaneous prompting on recall of basic multiplication…

  1. A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated Activity Effective Index Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2016-08-19

    Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated Activity Effective Index Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis to manage physical activity. AAEIReminder recognizes activity levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical activity in activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer activity situations such as the amount of physical activity and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts' efficiency.

  2. Increasing the Vocal Responses of Children with Autism and Developmental Disabilities Using Manual Sign Mand Training and Prompt Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Vincent J.; Sweeney-Kerwin, Emily J.; Attanasio, Vivian; Kasper, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of manual sign mand training combined with prompt delay and vocal prompting on the production of vocal responses in nonvocal children with developmental disabilities. A multiple baseline design across participants verified the effectiveness of this intervention. All participants showed…

  3. Increasing Independence in Self-Care Tasks for Children with Autism Using Self-Operated Auditory Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Nicole McGaha; Heflin, L. Juane

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of self-operated auditory prompting systems (SOAPs) on independent self-care task completion of elementary-school-aged children with autism and intellectual disabilities. Prerecorded verbal prompts on a student-operated tape recorder were employed to facilitate independence in washing hands and…

  4. Upper limit on the prompt muon flux derived from the LVD underground experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aglietta, M.; Alpat, B.; Alyea, E. D.; Antonioli, P.; Badino, G.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Berezinsky, V. S.; Bersani, F.; Bertaina, M.

    1999-12-01

    We present the analysis of the muon events with all muon multiplicities collected during 21804 h of operation of the first LVD tower. The measured depth-angular distribution of muon intensities has been used to obtain the normalization factor A the power index {gamma} of the primary all-nucleon spectrum, and the ratio R{sub c} of the prompt muon flux to that of {pi} mesons--the main parameters which determine the spectrum of cosmic ray muons at the sea level. The values of {gamma}=2.77{+-}0.05 (68% C.L.) and R{sub c}<2.0x10{sup -3} (95% C.L.) have been obtained. The upper limit to the prompt muon flux favors the models of charm production based on QGSM and the dual parton model. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  5. Mid- and low-latitude prompt-penetration ionospheric zonal plasma drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejer, Bela G.; Scherliess, Ludger

    We have used ion drift observations from the DE-2 satellite to determine the latitudinal variation and the temporal evolution of mid- and low-latitude prompt penetration zonal plasma drifts driven by magnetospheric electric fields. Our results indicate that sudden increases in convection lead to predominantly westward perturbation drifts which decrease equartorwards and have largest amplitudes in the dusk-midnight sector. The diurnal perturbation drift patterns shift to later local times with increasing storm time and decay to new quasi-equilibrium values in about 2 hours, as the ring current readjusts to the new polar cap potential. The daily and latitudinal variations and temporal evolution of the DE-2 prompt penetration drifts are generally in good agreement with predictions from the Rice Convection Model, although the experimental results show larger amplitudes and longer shielding time constants.

  6. INCREASING FOLLOWING HEADWAY WITH PROMPTS, GOAL SETTING, AND FEEDBACK IN A DRIVING SIMULATOR

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Michelle L; Van Houten, Ron

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of prompting, goal setting, and feedback on following headway of young drivers in a simulated driving environment and assessed whether changes produced in following headway were associated with reductions in hard braking when drivers were and were not using cell phones. Participants were 4 university students. During baseline, drivers spent half of the time talking on cell phones while driving. At the start of the intervention, drivers were prompted to increase following headway while on the cell phones and were provided a specific target for following headway. Drivers were given feedback on increasing following headway when on cell phones at the end of each session. The intervention package was associated with an increase in following headway and a decrease in hard braking when participants were on and off the cell phones. Cell phone use did not affect any of the measures. PMID:21709782

  7. Polarization for prompt J/ψ and ψ(2s) production at the Tevatron and LHC.

    PubMed

    Gong, Bin; Wan, Lu-Ping; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2013-01-25

    With nonrelativistic QCD factorization, we present the first complete next-to-leading order study on the polarization of prompt J/ψ hadroproduction by including feeddown from χ(c)((3)P(J)(1),(3)S(1)(8)) and ψ(2s) which turn out to be very important parts. By using the color-octet long-distance matrix elements obtained from a combined fit of the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC for J/ψ, ψ(2s) and χ(c), the prompt J/ψ polarization predictions are presented, and the results are in agreement with the CDF run I data (except two points), but in conflict with the CDF run II data, while they are close to the ALICE data (inclusive J/ψ). The measurements at the LHC are expected to clarify the situation.

  8. Investigation of prompt γ ray emission for online monitoring in ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinschaden, D.; Brunner, S. E.; Dichtl, H.; Fuchs, H.; Georg, D.; Hirtl, A.; Marton, J.; Pichler, A.

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the principle of using prompt γ ray emissions for the determination of the position of the Bragg peak in radiotherapy with carbon ions. Developing a system for online monitoring in ion therapy with the required accuracy is an important step for the utilization of modern accelerator facilities for medical purposes. The investigations were carried out by Monte Carlo studies in the framework of the simulation environment GATE. In the course of these investigations, production parameters of prompt γ rays, like the emission rate and energy distribution were determined as a function of the primary carbon ion energy and the penetration depth in a water target. A possible connection between these parameters and the position of the Bragg peak and the dose delivery was investigated. Within the energy spectrum an energy range was identified in which the production rate of the γ rays shows a significant drop right after the Bragg peak.

  9. Simulation of Prompt Emission from GRBs with a Photospheric Component and its Detectability By GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Battelino, Milan; Ryde, Felix; Omodei, Nicola; Longo, Francesco; /U. Trieste /INFN, Trieste

    2011-11-29

    The prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) still requires a physical explanation. Studies of time-resolved GRB spectra, observed in the keV-MeV range, show that a hybrid model consisting of two components, a photospheric and a non-thermal component, in many cases fits bright, single-pulsed bursts as well as, and in some instances even better than, the Band function. With an energy coverage from 8 keV up to 300 GeV, GLAST will give us an unprecedented opportunity to further investigate the nature of the prompt emission. In particular, it will give us the possibility to determine whether a photospheric component is the determining feature of the spectrum or not. Here we present a short study of the ability of GLAST to detect such a photospheric component in the sub-MeV range for typical bursts, using simulation tools developed within the GLAST science collaboration.

  10. Complete Study of Hadroproduction of a ϒ Meson Associated with a Prompt J/ψ.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Yu-Jie

    2016-08-01

    We present the first complete study of ϒ and prompt J/ψ production from single-parton scattering, including the complete O(α_{S}^{6}) color-singlet contribution, the O(α_{S}^{2}α^{2}) electroweak contribution, and the complete nonrelativistic S-wave and P-wave color-octet contribution as well as the feeddown contribution. Our study was motivated by the recent evidence reported by the D0 Collaboration of prompt J/ψ and ϒ simultaneous production at the Tevatron. With our complete evaluation, we are able to refine the determination of the double-parton scattering contribution made by the D0 Collaboration. We find that the effective cross section characterizing the importance of double-parton scatterings is σ_{eff}≤8.2  mb at 68% confidence level from the D0 measurement. PMID:27541462

  11. Use of borated polyethylene to improve low energy response of a prompt gamma based neutron dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyada, P.; Ashwini, U.; Sarkar, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    The feasibility of using a combined sample of borated polyethylene and normal polyethylene to estimate neutron ambient dose equivalent from measured prompt gamma emissions is investigated theoretically to demonstrate improvements in low energy neutron dose response compared to only polyethylene. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out using the FLUKA code to calculate the response of boron, hydrogen and carbon prompt gamma emissions to mono energetic neutrons. The weighted least square method is employed to arrive at the best linear combination of these responses that approximates the ICRP fluence to dose conversion coefficients well in the energy range of 10-8 MeV to 14 MeV. The configuration of the combined system is optimized through FLUKA simulations. The proposed method is validated theoretically with five different workplace neutron spectra with satisfactory outcome.

  12. A direct prompting strategy for increasing reciprocal interactions between handicapped and nonhandicapped siblings.

    PubMed

    James, S D; Egel, A L

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a sibling training procedure, consisting of direct prompting and modeling, on the occurrence of reciprocal interactions between nonhandicapped and handicapped siblings. Data were obtained for training, generalization, and follow-up. Results of a multiple-baseline design across three pairs of siblings showed that: direct prompting of interactions was an effective strategy for increasing reciprocal interactions between handicapped and nonhandicapped siblings; the training procedure resulted in increased levels of initiations and responsiveness to initiations; reciprocal interactions between siblings generalized to larger play groups or across settings; reciprocal interactions between handicapped subjects and untrained, nonhandicapped peers increased without direct training; the siblings' levels of interactions were maintained at 6 mo follow-up; and these findings were judged socially valid by the siblings' parents. PMID:3733587

  13. Prompt photon and associated heavy quark production at hadron colliders with k T -factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. V.; Malyshev, M. A.; Zotov, N. P.

    2012-05-01

    In the framework of the k T -factorization approach, the production of prompt photons in association with a heavy (charm or beauty) quarks at high energies is studied. The consideration is based on the {O}( {α α_s^2} ) off-shell amplitudes of gluon-gluon fusion and quark-(anti)quark interaction subprocesses. The unintegrated parton densities in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. The analysis covers the total and differential cross sections and extends to specific angular correlations between the produced prompt photons and muons originating from the semileptonic decays of associated heavy quarks. Theoretical uncertainties of our evaluations are studied and comparison with the results of standard NLO pQCD calculations is performed. Our numerical predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the D∅ and CDF collaborations at the Tevatron. Finally, we extend our results to LHC energies.

  14. Polarization for Prompt J/ψ and ψ(2s) Production at the Tevatron and LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Bin; Wan, Lu-Ping; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2013-01-01

    With nonrelativistic QCD factorization, we present the first complete next-to-leading order study on the polarization of prompt J/ψ hadroproduction by including feeddown from χc(PJ13,S183) and ψ(2s) which turn out to be very important parts. By using the color-octet long-distance matrix elements obtained from a combined fit of the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC for J/ψ, ψ(2s) and χc, the prompt J/ψ polarization predictions are presented, and the results are in agreement with the CDF run I data (except two points), but in conflict with the CDF run II data, while they are close to the ALICE data (inclusive J/ψ). The measurements at the LHC are expected to clarify the situation.

  15. Prompt particle acceleration around moving X-point magnetic field during impulsive phase of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakai, Jun-Ichi

    1992-01-01

    We present a model for high-energy solar flares to explain prompt proton and electron acceleration, which occurs around moving X-point magnetic field during the implosion phase of the current sheet. We derive the electromagnetic fields during the strong implosion phase of the current sheets, which is driven by the converging flow derived from the magnetohydrodynamic equations. It is shown that both protons and electrons can be promptly (within 1 second) accelerated to approximately 70 MeV and approximately 200 MeV, respectively. This acceleration mechanism can be applicable for the impulsive phase of the gradual gamma ray and proton flares (gradual GR/P flare), which have been called two-ribbon flares.

  16. Isotope identification capabilities using time resolved prompt gamma emission from epithermal neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festa, G.; Arcidiacono, L.; Pappalardo, A.; Minniti, T.; Cazzaniga, C.; Scherillo, A.; Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.

    2016-03-01

    We present a concept of integrated measurements for isotope identification which takes advantage of the time structure of spallation neutron sources for time resolved γ spectroscopy. Time resolved Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (T-PGAA) consists in the measurement of gamma energy spectrum induced by the radioactive capture as a function of incident neutron Time Of Flight (TOF), directly related with the energy of incident neutrons. The potential of the proposed concept was explored on INES (Italian Neutron Experimental Station) at the ISIS spallation neutron source (U.K.). Through this new technique we show an increase in the sensitivity to specific elements of archaeometric relevance, through incident neutron energy selection in prompt γ spectra for multicomponent samples. Results on a standard bronze sample are presented.

  17. Heterogenic Solid Biofuel Sampling Methodology and Uncertainty Associated with Prompt Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pazó, Jose A.; Granada, Enrique; Saavedra, Ángeles; Patiño, David; Collazo, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    Accurate determination of the properties of biomass is of particular interest in studies on biomass combustion or cofiring. The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for prompt analysis of heterogeneous solid fuels with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Special care must be taken with the sampling procedure to achieve an acceptable degree of error and low statistical uncertainty. A sampling and error determination methodology for prompt analysis is presented and validated. Two approaches for the propagation of errors are also given and some comparisons are made in order to determine which may be better in this context. Results show in general low, acceptable levels of uncertainty, demonstrating that the samples obtained in the process are representative of the overall fuel composition. PMID:20559506

  18. On the photostability of peptides after selective photoexcitation of the backbone: prompt versus slow dissociation.

    PubMed

    Byskov, Camilla Skinnerup; Jensen, Frank; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2014-08-14

    Vulnerability of biomolecules to ultraviolet radiation is intimately linked to deexcitation pathways: photostability requires fast internal conversion to the electronic ground state, but also intramolecular vibrational redistribution and cooling on a time scale faster than dissociation. Here we present a protocol to disentangle slow and non-hazardous statistical dissociation from prompt cleavage of peptide bonds by 210 nm light based on experiments on protonated peptides isolated in vacuo and tagged by 18-crown-6 ether (CE). The weakest link in the system is between the charged site and CE, which is remote from the initial site of excitation. Hence loss of CE serves as direct proof that energy has reached the charge-site end, leaving the backbone intact. Our work demonstrates that excitation of tertiary amide moieties (proline linkages) results in both prompt dissociation and statistical dissociation after energy randomisation over all vibrational degrees of freedom. PMID:24945849

  19. The 235U Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum in the BR1 Reactor at SCK•CEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagemans, Jan; Malambu, Edouard; Borms, Luc; Fiorito, Luca

    2016-02-01

    The BR1 research reactor at SCK•CEN has a spherical cavity in the graphite above the reactor core. In this cavity an accurately characterised Maxwellian thermal neutron field is present. Different converters can be loaded in the cavity in order to obtain other types of neutron (and gamma) irradiation fields. Inside the so-called MARK III converter a fast 235U(n,f) prompt fission neutron field can be obtained. With the support of MCNP calculations, irradiations in MARK III can be directly related to the pure 235U(n,f) prompt fission neutron spectrum. For this purpose MARK III spectrum averaged cross sections for the most relevant fluence dosimetry reactions have been determined. A calibration factor for absolute measurements has been determined applying activation dosimetry following ISO/IEC 17025 standards.

  20. Complete Study of Hadroproduction of a ϒ Meson Associated with a Prompt J /ψ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Yu-Jie

    2016-08-01

    We present the first complete study of ϒ and prompt J /ψ production from single-parton scattering, including the complete O (αS6) color-singlet contribution, the O (αS2α2) electroweak contribution, and the complete nonrelativistic S -wave and P -wave color-octet contribution as well as the feeddown contribution. Our study was motivated by the recent evidence reported by the D0 Collaboration of prompt J /ψ and ϒ simultaneous production at the Tevatron. With our complete evaluation, we are able to refine the determination of the double-parton scattering contribution made by the D0 Collaboration. We find that the effective cross section characterizing the importance of double-parton scatterings is σeff≤8.2 mb at 68% confidence level from the D0 measurement.

  1. Complete Study of Hadroproduction of a ϒ Meson Associated with a Prompt J/ψ.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Yu-Jie

    2016-08-01

    We present the first complete study of ϒ and prompt J/ψ production from single-parton scattering, including the complete O(α_{S}^{6}) color-singlet contribution, the O(α_{S}^{2}α^{2}) electroweak contribution, and the complete nonrelativistic S-wave and P-wave color-octet contribution as well as the feeddown contribution. Our study was motivated by the recent evidence reported by the D0 Collaboration of prompt J/ψ and ϒ simultaneous production at the Tevatron. With our complete evaluation, we are able to refine the determination of the double-parton scattering contribution made by the D0 Collaboration. We find that the effective cross section characterizing the importance of double-parton scatterings is σ_{eff}≤8.2  mb at 68% confidence level from the D0 measurement.

  2. Turning off the tap: stopping tuberculosis transmission through active case-finding and prompt effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Courtney M; Amanullah, Farhana; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; Nardell, Edward A; Seddon, James A; Vasilyeva, Irina; Zhao, Yanlin; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2015-12-01

    To halt the global tuberculosis epidemic, transmission must be stopped to prevent new infections and new cases. Identification of individuals with tuberculosis and prompt initiation of effective treatment to rapidly render them non-infectious is crucial to this task. However, in settings of high tuberculosis burden, active case-finding is often not implemented, resulting in long delays in diagnosis and treatment. A range of strategies to find cases and ensure prompt and correct treatment have been shown to be effective in high tuberculosis-burden settings. The population-level effect of targeted active case-finding on reducing tuberculosis incidence has been shown by studies and projected by mathematical modelling. The inclusion of targeted active case-finding in a comprehensive epidemic-control strategy for tuberculosis should contribute substantially to a decrease in tuberculosis incidence. PMID:26515675

  3. Prompt gamma activation analysis of boron in reference materials using diffracted polychromatic neutron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, S. H.; Sun, G. M.; Choi, H. D.

    2004-01-01

    Boron concentrations were analyzed for standard reference materials by prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). The measurements were performed at the SNU-KAERI PGAA facility installed at Hanaro, the research reactor of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The facility uses a diffracted polychromatic beam with a neutron flux of 7.9 × 10 7 n/cm 2 s. Elemental sensitivity for boron was calibrated from the prompt gamma-ray spectra of boric acid samples containing 2-45 μg boron. The sensitivity of 2131 cps/mg-B was obtained from the linearity of the boron peak count rate versus the boron mass. The detection limit for boron was estimated to be 67 ng from an empty sample bag spectrum for a counting time of 10,000 s. The measured boron concentrations for standard reference materials showed good consistency with the certified or information values.

  4. GAMMA-RAY BURST PROMPT EMISSION: JITTER RADIATION IN STOCHASTIC MAGNETIC FIELD REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jirong; Wang Jiancheng

    2011-04-10

    We revisit the radiation mechanism of relativistic electrons in the stochastic magnetic field and apply it to the high-energy emissions of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We confirm that jitter radiation is a possible explanation for GRB prompt emission in the condition of a large electron deflection angle. In the turbulent scenario, the radiative spectral property of GRB prompt emission is decided by the kinetic energy spectrum of turbulence. The intensity of the random and small-scale magnetic field is determined by the viscous scale of the turbulent eddy. The microphysical parameters {epsilon}{sub e} and {epsilon}{sub B} can be obtained. The acceleration and cooling timescales are estimated as well. Due to particle acceleration in magnetized filamentary turbulence, the maximum energy released from the relativistic electrons can reach a value of about 10{sup 14} eV. The GeV GRBs are possible sources of high-energy cosmic-ray.

  5. Measurement of prompt photon cross sections in photoproduction at H1

    SciTech Connect

    Ferencei, Jozef

    2005-10-06

    Cross section measurements of isolated prompt photons, inclusively and associated with jets, have been made at the HERA ep collider with the H1 detector, using the data taken in the years 1996-2000 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 105 pb-1. The results are compared to a perturbative QCD calculations in next to leading order and to predictions of the event generators PYTHIA and HERWIG.

  6. Prompt γ-ray production in neutron-induced fission of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Hayes, A. C.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Gostic, J.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Background: The prompt gamma-ray spectrum from fission is important for understanding the physics of nuclear fission, and also in applications involving fission. Relatively few measurements of the prompt gamma spectrum from 239Pu(n,f) have been published.Purpose: This experiment measured the multiplicity, individual gamma energy spectrum, and total gamma energy spectrum of prompt fission gamma rays from 239Pu(n,f) in the neutron energy range from thermal to 30 keV, to test models of fission and to provide information for applications.Method: Gamma rays from neutron-induced fission of 239Pu were measured using the DANCE gamma-ray calorimeter. Fission events were tagged by detecting fission products in a parallel-plate avalanche counter in the center of DANCE. The measurements were corrected for detector response using a geant4 model of DANCE. A detailed analysis for the gamma rays from the 1+ resonance complex at 10.93 eV is presented.Results: A six-parameter analytical parametrization of the fission gamma-ray spectrum was obtained. A Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach calculation provided good general agreement with the data, but some differences remain to be resolved.Conclusions: An analytic parametrization can be made of the gamma-ray multiplicity, energy distribution, and total-energy distribution for the prompt gamma rays following neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. This parametrization may be useful for applications. Modern Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach calculations can do a good job of calculating the fission gamma-ray emission spectrum, although some details remain to be understood.

  7. Detection of mixed-range proton pencil beams with a prompt gamma slit camera.

    PubMed

    Priegnitz, M; Helmbrecht, S; Janssens, G; Perali, I; Smeets, J; Vander Stappen, F; Sterpin, E; Fiedler, F

    2016-01-21

    With increasing availability of proton and particle therapy centers for tumor treatment, the need for in vivo range verification methods comes more into the focus. Imaging of prompt gamma rays emitted during the treatment is one of the possibilities currently under investigation. A knife-edge shaped slit camera was recently proposed for this task and measurements proved the feasibility of range deviation detection in homogeneous and inhomogeneous targets. In the present paper, we concentrate on laterally inhomogeneous materials, which lead to range mixing situations when crossed by one pencil beam: different sections of the beam have different ranges. We chose exemplative cases from clinical irradiation and assembled idealized tissue equivalent targets. One-dimensional emission profiles were obtained by measuring the prompt gamma emission with the slit camera. It could be shown that the resulting range deviations can be detected by evaluation of the measured data with a previously developed range deviation detection algorithm. The retrieved value, however, strongly depends on the target composition, and is not necessarily in direct relation to the ranges of both parts of the beam. By combining the range deviation detection with an analysis of the slope of the distal edge of the measured prompt gamma profile, the origin of the detected range deviation, i.e. the mixed range of the beam, is also identified. It could be demonstrated that range mixed prompt gamma profiles exhibit less steep distal slopes than profiles from beams traversing laterally homogeneous material. For future application of the slit camera to patient irradiation with double scattered proton beams, situations similar to the range mixing cases are present and results could possibly apply.

  8. Detection of mixed-range proton pencil beams with a prompt gamma slit camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priegnitz, M.; Helmbrecht, S.; Janssens, G.; Perali, I.; Smeets, J.; Vander Stappen, F.; Sterpin, E.; Fiedler, F.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing availability of proton and particle therapy centers for tumor treatment, the need for in vivo range verification methods comes more into the focus. Imaging of prompt gamma rays emitted during the treatment is one of the possibilities currently under investigation. A knife-edge shaped slit camera was recently proposed for this task and measurements proved the feasibility of range deviation detection in homogeneous and inhomogeneous targets. In the present paper, we concentrate on laterally inhomogeneous materials, which lead to range mixing situations when crossed by one pencil beam: different sections of the beam have different ranges. We chose exemplative cases from clinical irradiation and assembled idealized tissue equivalent targets. One-dimensional emission profiles were obtained by measuring the prompt gamma emission with the slit camera. It could be shown that the resulting range deviations can be detected by evaluation of the measured data with a previously developed range deviation detection algorithm. The retrieved value, however, strongly depends on the target composition, and is not necessarily in direct relation to the ranges of both parts of the beam. By combining the range deviation detection with an analysis of the slope of the distal edge of the measured prompt gamma profile, the origin of the detected range deviation, i.e. the mixed range of the beam, is also identified. It could be demonstrated that range mixed prompt gamma profiles exhibit less steep distal slopes than profiles from beams traversing laterally homogeneous material. For future application of the slit camera to patient irradiation with double scattered proton beams, situations similar to the range mixing cases are present and results could possibly apply.

  9. Unfolding the fission prompt gamma-ray energy and multiplicity distribution measured by DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J; Laptev, A

    2010-10-16

    The nearly energy independence of the {gamma}-ray efficiency and multiplicity response for the DANCE array, the unusual characteristic elucidated in our early technical report (LLNL-TR-452298), gives one a unique opportunity to derive the true prompt {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution in fission from the measurement. This unfolding procedure for the experimental data will be described in details and examples will be given to demonstrate the feasibility of reconstruction of the true distribution.

  10. 45 CFR 235.70 - Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... who has been deserted or abandoned by a parent, to the parent(s) with whom the child lives, or to a... determined to be recipients under § 233.20(a)(3)(viii)(D). (4) A child who has been deserted or abandoned by... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid...

  11. 45 CFR 235.70 - Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... who has been deserted or abandoned by a parent, to the parent(s) with whom the child lives, or to a... determined to be recipients under § 233.20(a)(3)(viii)(D). (4) A child who has been deserted or abandoned by... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid...

  12. 45 CFR 235.70 - Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... who has been deserted or abandoned by a parent, to the parent(s) with whom the child lives, or to a... determined to be recipients under § 233.20(a)(3)(viii)(D). (4) A child who has been deserted or abandoned by... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid...

  13. 45 CFR 235.70 - Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... who has been deserted or abandoned by a parent, to the parent(s) with whom the child lives, or to a... determined to be recipients under § 233.20(a)(3)(viii)(D). (4) A child who has been deserted or abandoned by... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid...

  14. 45 CFR 235.70 - Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... who has been deserted or abandoned by a parent, to the parent(s) with whom the child lives, or to a... determined to be recipients under § 233.20(a)(3)(viii)(D). (4) A child who has been deserted or abandoned by... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid...

  15. Improving the quality of hospital discharge summaries utilising an electronic prompting system.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Andrew P; Chan, Samuel; Pollard, Clifford W; Kidd, Richard A; Ayre, Stephen J; Ward, Helen E; Walters, Darren L

    2014-01-01

    The discharge summary (DS) is a summary of an inpatient admission, patient's health state, and future treatment plans which is delivered to the patient's primary care provider. The DS is often incomplete, inaccurate, or unclear. The aim of this project was to improve the quality of the DS through the use of an electronic prompting system. The electronic prompting system was implemented in the acute medical and surgical wards of the hospital as an adjunct to a pre-existing, widely used hospital program that documents all the patients in a ward or belonging to a particular treating team. When using the program, a doctor enters information (with the assistance of the treating consultant) from a drop-down menu and is prompted to include common, departmental specific diagnoses, co-morbidities, complications, and procedures that were commonly missed or documented incorrectly in the DS. Fifteen DSs were randomly selected from a two month period immediately prior to the intervention period and were rated by an external, experienced general practitioner (GP) using a scoring system consistent with the Australian Medical Association Guidelines for quality DSs. Fifteen random DSs from a two month period, four months post-implementation were also rated by the same GP. The quality of the DS improved in all categories evaluated. The overall quality improved from mean (± SD) 2.86 ± 1.64 to 4.13 ± 0.92 out of 5 (p = 0.031). Additionally the implementation of the system was associated with improvements in documentation of the diagnosis, co-morbidities and other relevant clinical information. In summary, electronic prompting systems can improve the quality of DSs to ensure the information contained within the DS is more accurate and complete. PMID:27493731

  16. Cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis at NIST - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.L.; Lindstrom, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    An instrument for cold neutron capture prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (CNPGAA), located in the cold neutron research facility (CNRF) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has proven useful for the analysis of hydrogen and other elements in a wide variety of materials. The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the instrument, focusing on recent improvements and the impact of these improvement on measurements.

  17. Determination of hydrogen in titanium alloys by cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.L.; Lindstrom, R.M.; Greenberg, R.R.; Privett, H.M. III; Richards, W.J.

    1996-11-01

    Cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (CNPGAA) has proven useful for the analysis of hydrogen in titanium alloys. The analysis is nondestructive, measures the entire sample, and the results are independent of the chemical form of hydrogen present. The authors have used the technique to measure H mass fractions as low as 50 mg/kg in titanium-alloy jet-engine compressor blades and to measure hydrogen in standards for neutron tomography.

  18. Cardioembolic stroke prompting diagnosis of LMNA-associated Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Vergé, Luis; Yaou, Rabah Ben; Fernández-Recio, María; Dinca, Luminita; Richard, Pascale; Bonne, Gisèle

    2011-10-01

    The diagnosis of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is suggested by the combination of musculoskeletal weakness and wasting, joint contractures, and cardiac disease. Herein we report a patient in whom an ischemic stroke prompted the diagnosis of EDMD. A mutation in the LMNA gene (c.266G>T, p.Arg89Leu) was found. It had been reported previously exclusively with isolated cardiac disease, thus reinforcing the high phenotypic heterogeneity of laminopathies.

  19. Evaluation of the prompt alerting systems at four nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Towers, D.A.; Anderson, G.S.; Keast, D.N.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents evaluations of the prompt notification siren systems at the following four US nuclear power facilities: Trojan, Three Mile Island, Indian Point, and Zion. The objective of these evaluations was to provide examples of an analytical procedure for predicting siren-system effectiveness under specific conditions in the 10-mile emergency planning zone (EPZ) surrounding nuclear power plants. This analytical procedure is discussed in report No. PNL-4227.

  20. A new fission chamber dedicated to Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taieb, J.; Laurent, B.; Bélier, G.; Sardet, A.; Varignon, C.

    2016-10-01

    New fission chambers dedicated to Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra measurements with the time-of-flight technique have been developed. The actinide mass embedded in the chamber was maximized, while the alpha-fission discrimination and the time resolution were optimized. Moreover, to reduce the neutron background and spectra distortions, neutron scattering with the materials were minimized by the choice of material and structure. These chambers were then tested and validated during tests and in-beam experiments.

  1. The blocking effect of pictorial prompts on sight-word reading.

    PubMed

    Didden, R; Prinsen, H; Sigafoos, J

    2000-01-01

    This study replicates and extends previous work showing that pictorial prompts can interfere with the learning of sight words by students with moderate mental retardation. Effects of training with 6 students were assessed during five conditions using an alternating treatments design. In four conditions, words were presented either alone or with a corresponding picture. In a fifth condition, pictures were used to provide feedback. The results showed that acquisition was achieved fastest during the word-alone conditions with 5 students. PMID:11051573

  2. Prompts to Disrupt Sitting Time and Increase Physical Activity at Work, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Rote, Aubrianne E.; Welch, Whitney A.; Maeda, Hotaka; Hart, Teresa L.; Cho, Young Ik; Strath, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to assess change in sitting and physical activity behavior in response to a workplace intervention to disrupt prolonged sitting time. Methods Sixty office workers were randomized to either a Stand group (n = 29), which received hourly prompts (computer-based and wrist-worn) to stand up, or a Step group (n = 31), which received the same hourly prompts and an additional prompt to walk 100 steps or more upon standing. An ActivPAL monitor was used to assess sitting and physical activity behavior on the same 3 consecutive workdays during baseline and intervention periods. Mixed-effect models with random intercepts and random slopes for time were performed to assess change between groups and across time. Results Both groups significantly reduced duration of average sitting bouts (Stand group, by 16%; Step group, by 19%) and the number of sitting bouts of 60 minutes or more (Step group, by 36%; Stand group, by 54%). The Stand group significantly reduced total sitting time (by 6.6%), duration of the longest sitting bout (by 29%), and number of sitting bouts of 30 minutes or more (by 13%) and increased the number of sit-to-stand transitions (by 15%) and standing time (by 23%). Stepping time significantly increased in the Stand (by 14%) and Step (by 29%) groups, but only the Step group significantly increased (by 35%) the number of steps per workday. Differences in changes from baseline to intervention between groups were not significant for any outcome. Conclusion Interventions that focus on disrupting sitting time only in the workplace may result in less sitting. When sitting time disruptions are paired with a physical activity prompt, people may be more likely to increase their workday physical activity, but the effect on sitting time may be attenuated. PMID:24784909

  3. Limits on Optical Polarization during the Prompt Phase of GRB 140430A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Japelj, J.; Arnold, D. M.; Steele, I. A.; Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Gomboc, A.; Harrison, R. M.; Lamb, G. P.; Melandri, A.; Smith, R. J.; Virgili, F. J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Järvinen, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Oates, S. R.; Jelínek, M.

    2015-11-01

    Gamma-ray burst GRB 140430A was detected by the Swift satellite and observed promptly with the imaging polarimeter RINGO3 mounted on the Liverpool Telescope, with observations beginning while the prompt γ-ray emission was still ongoing. In this paper, we present densely sampled (10-s temporal resolution) early optical light curves (LCs) in 3 optical bands and limits to the degree of optical polarization. We compare optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray properties and present an analysis of the optical emission during a period of high-energy flaring. The complex optical LC cannot be explained merely with a combination of forward and reverse shock emission from a standard external shock, implying additional contribution of emission from internal shock dissipation. We estimate an upper limit for time averaged optical polarization during the prompt phase to be as low as P < 12% (1σ). This suggests that the optical flares and early afterglow emission in this GRB are not highly polarized. Alternatively, time averaging could mask the presence of otherwise polarized components of distinct origin at different polarization position angles.

  4. Utilization of recycled neutron source to teach prompt gamma analysis activation-PGNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Correal, Camilo; Munera, Hector

    2008-03-01

    Neutron activation analysis based on prompt gamma ray emission has significantly developed during the past twenty years. The technique is particularly suited for the identification of low atomic number elements, as nitrogen that is a main component of drugs and explosives. Identification of these substances is important in the context of humanitarian demining, and in the control of illicit traffic of drugs and explosives. As a good example of recycling of radioactive sources, a ^241Am-Be neutron source emitting 10^7neutron/s, that was not longer in use for other purposes at Ingeominas, was used to build a neutron irradiator that can be used to teach prompt gamma ray analysis, and other nuclear techniques. We irradiated individual samples, each about 4 gram, of three different elements: nitrogen in urea, silicon in milled rock, and cadmium in cadmium oxide. The prompt gamma rays emitted in the nuclear reactions ^112Cd (neutron,gamma) ^113Cd, ^28Si (neutron,gamma) ^29Si and ^14N (neutron,gamma) ^15N were identified using a well-type NaI (Tl) detector, connected to a multi-channel analyzer.

  5. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suk Suh, Tae; Jo Hong, Key; Sil Lee, Keum

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to perform the fast reconstruction of a prompt gamma ray image using a graphics processing unit (GPU) computation from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) simulations. Methods: To evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed image, a phantom including four boron uptake regions (BURs) was used in the simulation. After the Monte Carlo simulation of the BNCT, the modified ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm using the GPU computation was used to reconstruct the images with fewer projections. The computation times for image reconstruction were compared between the GPU and the central processing unit (CPU). Also, the accuracy of the reconstructed image was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The image reconstruction time using the GPU was 196 times faster than the conventional reconstruction time using the CPU. For the four BURs, the area under curve values from the ROC curve were 0.6726 (A-region), 0.6890 (B-region), 0.7384 (C-region), and 0.8009 (D-region). Conclusions: The tomographic image using the prompt gamma ray event from the BNCT simulation was acquired using the GPU computation in order to perform a fast reconstruction during treatment. The authors verified the feasibility of the prompt gamma ray image reconstruction using the GPU computation for BNCT simulations.

  6. Prompt Υ(nS) production at the LHC in the Regge limit of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedov, M. A.; Saleev, V. A.; Shipilova, A. V.

    2013-07-01

    We study prompt Υ(nS) hadroproduction (n=1, 2, 3) invoking the hypothesis of gluon Reggeization in t-channel exchanges at high energy and the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics at leading order in the strong-coupling constant αs and the relative velocity v of the bound quarks. The transverse-momentum distributions of prompt Υ(nS)-meson production measured by the ATLAS Collaboration at the CERN LHC are fitted to obtain the color-octet nonperturbative long-distance matrix elements, which are used to predict prompt Υ(nS) production spectra measured by the CMS and LHCb Collaborations. At the numerical calculation, we adopt the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription to derive unintegrated gluon distribution function of the proton from its collinear counterpart, for which we use the Martin-Roberts-Stirling-Thorne set. We find good agreement with measurements by the ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb Collaborations at the LHC at the hadronic c.m. energy S=7TeV as well as with measurements by the CDF Collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron.

  7. Prompt photon photoproduction at HERA within the framework of the quark Reggeization hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleev, V. A.

    2008-12-01

    We study the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons within the framework of the quasi-multi-Regge-kinematic approach, applying the quark Reggeization hypothesis. We describe accurately and without free parameters the transverse momentum and pseudorapidity spectra of prompt photons in the inclusive photoproduction at the HERA Collider. It is shown that the main mechanism of the inclusive prompt photon production in the γp collisions is the fusion of a Reggeized quark (antiquark) from the proton and a collinear antiquark (quark) from the photon into a photon, via the effective Reggeon-quark-gamma vertex. The fragmentation of the quark, which is produced via the gamma-Reggeon-quark and quark-Reggeon-quark vertices, into a photon is strongly suppressed by the isolation cone condition and it gives a significant contribution in the region of a large negative pseudorapidity only. At the stage of numerical calculations we use the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription for unintegrated quark and gluon distribution functions, with the following collinear parton densities as input: Martin-Roberts-Stirling-Thorne for a proton and Glück-Reya-Vogt for a photon.

  8. Effects of chill stress on prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence from leaves.

    PubMed

    Melcarek, P K; Brown, G N

    1977-12-01

    This paper describes the utilization of a portable solid state device for the simultaneous measurement of prompt and delayed fluorescence transients in leaves from a variety of species subjected to temperature lowering. The induction transients of the two phenomena were not identical as the peak in prompt fluorescence yield always preceded that of delayed fluorescence. Temperature lowering delayed the occurrence of peak fluorescence, increased prompt fluorescence yield, decreased delayed fluorescence yield, and caused the occurrence of a new, more rapid delayed fluorescence transient. Leaves from all species had qualitatively the same type of induction curves although the response to temperature differed between species. The delayed fluorescence yield of chill-sensitive species was reduced to a greater extent than that of chill-insensitive species. Cold hardening leaf material did not greatly change the fluorescence response to temperature lowering. Arrhenius plots showed a linear relationship between delayed fluorescence yield and temperature. There were no breaks that would suggest membrane lipid phase changes. The data indicate that thylakoid membranes of chill-sensitive species are less capable of maintaining a light-induced high energy state at low temperatures than are thylakoid membranes of chill-resistant species. PMID:16660193

  9. LIMITS ON OPTICAL POLARIZATION DURING THE PROMPT PHASE OF GRB 140430A

    SciTech Connect

    Kopac, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Arnold, D. M.; Steele, I. A.; Kobayashi, S.; Lamb, G. P.; Smith, R. J.; Virgili, F. J.; Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S.; Harrison, R. M.; Melandri, A.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Oates, S. R.; Jelínek, M.

    2015-11-01

    Gamma-ray burst GRB 140430A was detected by the Swift satellite and observed promptly with the imaging polarimeter RINGO3 mounted on the Liverpool Telescope, with observations beginning while the prompt γ-ray emission was still ongoing. In this paper, we present densely sampled (10-s temporal resolution) early optical light curves (LCs) in 3 optical bands and limits to the degree of optical polarization. We compare optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray properties and present an analysis of the optical emission during a period of high-energy flaring. The complex optical LC cannot be explained merely with a combination of forward and reverse shock emission from a standard external shock, implying additional contribution of emission from internal shock dissipation. We estimate an upper limit for time averaged optical polarization during the prompt phase to be as low as P < 12% (1σ). This suggests that the optical flares and early afterglow emission in this GRB are not highly polarized. Alternatively, time averaging could mask the presence of otherwise polarized components of distinct origin at different polarization position angles.

  10. Electron dynamics and prompt ablation of aluminum surface excited by intense femtosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Makarov, S. V.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Thin aluminum film homogeneously heated by intense IR femtosecond laser pulses exhibits on the excitation timescale consequent fluence-dependent rise and drop of the IR-pump self-reflectivity, followed by its final saturation at higher fluences F > 0.3 J/cm2. This prompt optical dynamics correlates with the initial monotonic increase in the accompanying laser-induced electron emission, which is succeeded by its non-linear (three-photon) increase for F > 0.3 J/cm2. The underlying electronic dynamics is related to the initial saturation of IR resonant interband transitions in this material, followed by its strong instantaneous electronic heating via intraband transitions during the pump pulse resulting in thermionic emission. Above the threshold fluence of 0.3 J/cm2, the surface electronic heating is balanced during the pump pulse by simultaneous cooling via intense plasma removal (prompt ablation). The relationship between the deposited volume energy density in the film and its prompt electronic temperature derived from the self-reflection measurements using a Drude model, demonstrates a kind of electron "liquid-vapor" phase transition, driven by strong cubic optical non-linearity of the photo-excited aluminum.

  11. University students' intention to seek medical care promptly if symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases were suspected.

    PubMed

    Godin, G; Fortin, C; Mahnès, G; Boyer, R; Nadeau, D; Duval, B; Bradet, R; Hounsa, A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors explaining intention to seek medical care promptly if STD symptoms were suspected. A random sample of 1617 undergraduate students completed a questionnaire assessing intention, attitude, perceived norm among friends, perceived behavioral control, and risk of disease, along with different socio-demographic variables. The regression of intention on all variables yielded an adjusted R2 of 0.32 (P < 0.0001). The factors explaining this variance were the perceived advantages, easiness, and social norm among friends regarding seeking medical care promptly, age, and gender. Perception of risk to delay seeking medical care and perceived personal risk of getting STDs were not significant variables. Overall, the results indicate the need to develop programs for male first-year students. These programs will have to influence the attitude, that is, the perceived advantages of seeking medical care promptly if STD symptoms are suspected. Seeking advice from students' friends, and perception of these friends as a significant reference source if STD symptoms are suspected, should also be promoted. PMID:8503056

  12. The LICORNE Neutron Source and Measurements of Prompt γ-rays Emitted in Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. N.; Lebois, M.; Halipre, P.; Oberstedt, S.; Oberstedt, A.

    The emission of prompt gamma rays is one of the least measured and least well-understood parts of the fission process. Knowledge of prompt fission gamma spectra, mean energies and multiplicities are important for reactor gamma heating and hence linked to reactor safety. At the IPN Orsay we have developed a unique, directional, fast neutron source called LICORNE, intended initially to facilitate prompt fission gamma measurements. The ability of the IPN Orsay tandem accelerator to produce intense beams of 7Li is exploited to produce quasi mono-energetic neutrons between 0.5 - 4 MeV using the p(7Li, 7Be)n inverse reaction. The available fluxes of up to 7×107 neutrons/second/steradian are comparable to existing installations, but with two added advantages: (i) The kinematic focusing produces a natural neutron beam collimation which allows placement of gamma detectors adjacent to the irradiated sample unimpeded by source neutrons. (ii) The background of scattered neutrons in the experimental hall is drastically reduced. The dedicated neutron converter was commissioned in June 2013

  13. Prompt gamma ray diagnostics and enhanced hadron-therapy using neutron-free nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffrida, L.; Margarone, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Picciotto, A.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a series of simulations about the potential use of Boron isotopes to trigger neutron-free (aneutronic) nuclear reactions in cancer cells through the interaction with an incoming energetic proton beam, thus resulting in the emission of characteristic prompt gamma radiation (429 keV, 718 keV and 1435 keV). Furthermore assuming that the Boron isotopes are absorbed in cancer cells, the three alpha-particles produced in each p-11B aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions can potentially result in the enhancement of the biological dose absorbed in the tumor region since these multi-MeV alpha-particles are stopped inside the single cancer cell, thus allowing to spare the surrounding tissues. Although a similar approach based on the use of 11B nuclei has been proposed in [Yoon et al. Applied Physics Letters 105, 223507 (2014)], our work demonstrate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the crucial importance of the use of 10B nuclei (in a solution containing also 11B) for the generation of prompt gamma-rays, which can be applied to medical imaging. In fact, we demonstrate that the use of 10B nuclei can enhance the intensity of the 718 keV gamma-ray peak more than 30 times compared to the solution containing only 11B nuclei. A detailed explanation of the origin of the different prompt gamma-rays, as well as of their application as real-time diagnostics during a potential cancer treatment, is here discussed.

  14. Prompt response on the strong earthquakes in The Caucasus (CauSER in action)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilaia, G.; Bidzinashvili, G.; Chkhaidze, D.; Sokhadze, G.; Kazimov, I.; Garaveliev, E.; Turkelli, N.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of international project: NATO SfP- 983284 "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response" (CauSER). The main goal of the project was to create, train and equip prompt response groups in the participating countries of the region: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The duty of each response team is prompt reaction in case of the strong earthquakes. Participant countries have created the special teams equipped with the 5 sets of field seismometers per country and necessary tools. The teams were trained during the annual summer field expeditions that were held in the scope of the project for the 4 last years. Acquired experience and knowledge was effectively used in practice when several strong earthquakes occurred in the region. Significant event was magnitude 6.1 earthquake in 7 September 2009 in Racha region of Georgia that is same epicenter area as the event of 1991 year. Prompt response groups planned the temporary network schema and prepared equipment for deployment. Two mobile groups have arrived to the epicenter zone in ONI on same morning. Two initial teams have installed 5 short period (QVDI, IRI, JNTS, USLT, SEVA) and 5 strong motion equipment (AMR, ONI, QORT, BJKH, JUND). Later they were joined by groups from Azerbaijan and turkey - resulting installation of 5 additional stations (KHID, JRIA, TSKH GLOL, IRI) As a result 4 groups deployed a temporary seismic network with 13 stations increasing the total number of stations to 16 for the region making more detailed data for the aftershocks. Acquired data was processed and the catalogue was created. Another prompt response was made in case of magnitude 5.7 earthquake in Imereti region (adjara-trialeti active fault) on 19 jan 2011, Actions were held by Georgian team because of lower magnitude of this event. 3 stations (TSKT, KKB, TBN) were deployed on the same day. Another moderate event with magnitude 5.5 occurred in Racha region in 18 august of 2011. For this time temporary stations (SSSI, CGRI

  15. Embedding an identity-matching task within a prompting hierarchy to facilitate acquisition of conditional discriminations in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Wayne W; Kodak, Tiffany; Moore, James W

    2007-01-01

    Least-to-most prompting hierarchies (e.g., progressing from verbal to modeled to physical prompts until the target response occurs) may be ineffective when the prompts do not cue the individual to attend to the relevant stimulus dimensions. In such cases, emission of the target response persistently requires one or more of the higher level prompts, a condition called prompt dependence (Clark & Green, 2004). Reinforcement of differential observing responses (DORs) has sometimes been used to ensure that participants attend to the relevant stimulus dimensions in matching-to-sample (MTS) tasks (e.g., Dube & McIlvane, 1999). For 2 participants with autism, we embedded an identity-matching task within a prompting hierarchy as a DOR to increase the likelihood that the participants attended to and discriminated the relevant features of the comparison stimuli in an MTS task. This procedure was compared with a traditional least-to-most prompting hierarchy and a no-reinforcement control condition in a multielement design. Results for both participants indicated that mastery-level acquisition of spoken-word-to-picture relations occurred only under the identity-matching condition. Findings are discussed relative to the use of DORs to facilitate acquisition of conditional discriminations in persons with autism or other conditions who do not attend to the comparison stimuli. PMID:17970262

  16. A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated Activity Effective Index Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated Activity Effective Index Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis to manage physical activity. AAEIReminder recognizes activity levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical activity in activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer activity situations such as the amount of physical activity and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts’ efficiency. PMID:27548184

  17. Range verification of passively scattered proton beams using prompt gamma-ray detection.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Joost M; Testa, Mauro; Seco, Joao

    2015-02-01

    We performed an experimental study to verify the range of passively scattered proton beams by detecting prompt gamma-rays emitted from proton-nuclear interactions. A method is proposed using a single scintillation detector positioned near the distal end of the irradiated target. Lead shielding was used to attenuate gamma-rays emitted along most of the entrance path of the beam. By synchronizing the prompt gamma-ray detector to the rotation of the range modulation wheel, the relation between the gamma emission from the distal part of the target and the range of the incident proton beam was determined. In experiments with a water phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom, this relation was found to be sensitive to range shifts that were introduced. The wide opening angle of the detector enabled a sufficient signal-to-background ratio to be achieved in the presence of neutron-induced background from the scattering and collimating devices. Uniform range shifts were detected with a standard deviation of 0.1 mm to 0.2 mm at a dose level of 30 cGy to 50 cGy (RBE). The detectable magnitude of a range shift limited to a part of the treatment field area was approximately proportional to the ratio between the field area and the area affected by the range shift. We conclude that it is feasible to detect changes in the range of passively scattered proton beams using a relatively simple prompt gamma-ray detection system. The method can be employed for in vivo verification of the consistency of the delivered range in fractionated treatments.

  18. Simulation and experimental verification of prompt gamma-ray emissions during proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, A.; Petzoldt, J.; Dendooven, P.; Enghardt, W.; Golnik, C.; Hueso-González, F.; Kormoll, T.; Pausch, G.; Roemer, K.; Fiedler, F.

    2015-05-01

    Irradiation with protons and light ions offers new possibilities for tumor therapy but has a strong need for novel imaging modalities for treatment verification. The development of new detector systems, which can provide an in vivo range assessment or dosimetry, requires an accurate knowledge of the secondary radiation field and reliable Monte Carlo simulations. This paper presents multiple measurements to characterize the prompt γ-ray emissions during proton irradiation and benchmarks the latest Geant4 code against the experimental findings. Within the scope of this work, the total photon yield for different target materials, the energy spectra as well as the γ-ray depth profile were assessed. Experiments were performed at the superconducting AGOR cyclotron at KVI-CART, University of Groningen. Properties of the γ-ray emissions were experimentally determined. The prompt γ-ray emissions were measured utilizing a conventional HPGe detector system (Clover) and quantitatively compared to simulations. With the selected physics list QGSP_BIC_HP, Geant4 strongly overestimates the photon yield in most cases, sometimes up to 50%. The shape of the spectrum and qualitative occurrence of discrete γ lines is reproduced accurately. A sliced phantom was designed to determine the depth profile of the photons. The position of the distal fall-off in the simulations agrees with the measurements, albeit the peak height is also overestimated. Hence, Geant4 simulations of prompt γ-ray emissions from irradiation with protons are currently far less reliable as compared to simulations of the electromagnetic processes. Deviations from experimental findings were observed and quantified. Although there has been a constant improvement of Geant4 in the hadronic sector, there is still a gap to close.

  19. The ultra-long GRB 111209A. II. Prompt to afterglow and afterglow properties

    SciTech Connect

    Stratta, G.; Gendre, B.; Boër, M.; Atteia, J. L.; Coward, D. M.; Howell, E.; De Pasquale, M.; Oates, S.; Klotz, A.; Piro, L.

    2013-12-10

    The 'ultra-long' gamma-ray burst GRB 111209A at redshift z = 0.677 is the longest GRB ever observed thus far, with a rest frame prompt emission duration of ∼4 hr. In order to explain the burst exceptional longevity, a low-metallicity blue supergiant progenitor was invoked. In this article we further constrain the phenomenology and progenitor properties of this peculiar GRB by performing a multiband temporal and spectral analysis of both the prompt and the afterglow emission. We use proprietary and publicly available data from Swift, Konus WIND, XMM-Newton, and TAROT, as well as from other ground-based optical and radio telescopes. We find some peculiar properties that are possibly connected to the exceptional nature of this burst, namely: (1) an unprecedented large optical delay of 410 ± 50 s between the peak time in gamma-rays and the peak time in the optical of a marked multiwavelength flare; (2) multiwavelength prompt emission spectral modeling requires a certain amount of dust in the circumburst environment. The dust produces a rest frame visual extinction of A{sub V} = 0.3-1.5 mag, and may undergo destruction at late times; and (3) we detect the presence of a hard spectral extra power-law component at the end of the X-ray steep steep decay phase and before the start of the X-ray afterglow, which has never been revealed thus far in past GRBs. The optical afterglow shows more usual properties; it has a flux power-law decay with an index of 1.6 ± 0.1 and a late rebrightening feature observed at ∼1.1 the day after the first Burst Alert Telescope trigger. We discuss our findings in the context of several possible interpretations that have been given thus far of the complex multiband GRB phenomenology and propose a binary channel formation for the blue supergiant progenitor.

  20. Fission prompt gamma-ray multiplicity distribution measurements and simulations at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Ullmann, J; Jandel, M; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Norman, E

    2010-08-24

    The nearly energy independence of the DANCE efficiency and multiplicity response to {gamma} rays makes it possible to measure the prompt {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution in fission. We demonstrate this unique capability of DANCE through the comparison of {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution between the measurement and numerical simulation for three radioactive sources {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 88}Y. The prospect for measuring the {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution for both spontaneous and neutron-induced fission is discussed.

  1. Origin of the bright prompt optical emission in the naked eye burst

    SciTech Connect

    Hascoeet, R.; Daigne, F.; Mochkovitch, R.

    2010-10-15

    The huge optical brightness of GRB 080319B (the 'Naked Eye Burst') makes this event really challenging for models of the prompt GRB emission. In the framework of the internal shock model, we investigate a scenario where the dominant radiative process is synchrotron emission and the high optical flux is due to the dynamical properties of the relativistic outflow : if the initial Lorentz factor distribution in the jet is highly variable, many internal shocks will form within the outflow at various radii. The most violent shocks will produce the main gamma-ray component while the less violent ones will contribute at lower energy, including the optical range.

  2. Rickettsial infection of the central nervous system: the role of prompt antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Y

    1991-04-01

    Rickettsial diseases of man, which are prevalent in all the continents (except Antartica) continue to be a major health problem in tropical and temperate parts of the world. Rickettsioses must be considered in every traveller seeking medical attention soon after returning from endemic areas, since the disease can be associated with significant morbidity. When a definite diagnosis has been made by specific serological tests, prompt antimicrobial therapy is indicated. A tetracycline should be regarded as the drug of choice due to its high efficacy, low toxicity, superior in vitro activity and the possibility of relapse which can follow chloramphenicol therapy. PMID:1852855

  3. Tomographic image of prompt gamma ray from boron neutron capture therapy: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suk Suh, Tae; Jo Hong, Key

    2014-02-24

    Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography image from boron neutron capture therapy using Monte Carlo simulation. Prompt gamma ray (478 keV) was used to reconstruct image with ordered subsets expectation maximization method. From analysis of receiver operating characteristic curve, area under curve values of three boron regions were 0.738, 0.623, and 0.817. The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm, and 1.4 cm.

  4. Prompt muon-induced fission: A probe for nuclear friction in large-amplitude collective motion

    SciTech Connect

    Oberacker, V.E.; Umar, A.S.; Wells, J.C.; Strayer, M.R.; Maruhn, J.A.; Reinhard, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    Excited muonic atoms in the actinide region may induce prompt fission by inverse internal conversion, i.e. the excitation energy of the muonic atom is transferred to the nucleus. The authors solve the time dependent Dirac equation for the muonic spinor wave function in the Coulomb field of the fissioning nucleus on a 3-dimensional lattice and demonstrate that the muon attachment probability to the light fission fragment is a measure of the nuclear energy dissipation between the outer fission barrier and the scission point.

  5. Prompt and Afterglow Emission Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Patel, Sandeep K.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Granot, Jonathan; Rol, Evert; Woosley, Stan; in'tZand, Jean J. M.; vanderHorst, Alexander; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Strom, Richard

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby GRBs (GRBs 980425, 030329, 031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with type Ib/c supernovae. For each event, we investigated its spectral and luminosity evolution and estimated the total energy budget based on the broadband observations. We discuss the properties of the four events in comparison to general burst population, and infer the physical parameters involved in creation of these nearby GRB-SN events

  6. Discovery of a tight correlation among the prompt emission properties of long gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmani, C.; Ghisellini, G.; Avila-Reese, V.; Ghirlanda, G.

    2006-07-01

    We report the discovery of a correlation among three prompt emission properties of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). These are the isotropic peak luminosity Liso, the peak energy (in νLν) of the time-integrated prompt emission spectrum Epk, and the `high signal' time-scale T0.45, previously used to characterize the variability behaviour of bursts. In the rest frame of the source, the discovered correlation reads Liso ~ E1.62pkT-0.490.45. We find other strong correlations, but at the cost of increasing the number of variables, involving the variability and the isotropic energy of the prompt emission. With respect to the other tight correlations found in GRBs (i.e. between the collimation corrected energy Eγ and Epk, the so-called Ghirlanda correlation, and the phenomenological correlation among the isotropic emitted energy Eiso,Epk and the jet break time tbreak), the newly found correlation does not require any information from the afterglow phase of the bursts, nor any model-dependent assumption. In the popular scenario in which we are receiving beamed radiation originating in a fireball pointing at us, the discovered correlation preserves its form in the comoving frame. This helps to explain the small scatter of the correlation and underlines the role of the local brightness (i.e. the brightness of the visible fraction of the fireball surface). This correlation has been found with a relatively small number of objects and it is hard to establish if any selection bias affects it. Its connection with the prompt local brightness is promising, but a solid physical understanding is still to be found. Despite all that, we find that some properties of the correlation, which we discuss, support its true existence, and this has important implications for the GRB physics. Furthermore, it is possible to use such correlation as an accurate redshift estimator, and, more importantly, its tightness will allow us to use it as a tool to constrain the cosmological parameters.

  7. Rickettsial infection of the central nervous system: the role of prompt antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Y

    1991-04-01

    Rickettsial diseases of man, which are prevalent in all the continents (except Antartica) continue to be a major health problem in tropical and temperate parts of the world. Rickettsioses must be considered in every traveller seeking medical attention soon after returning from endemic areas, since the disease can be associated with significant morbidity. When a definite diagnosis has been made by specific serological tests, prompt antimicrobial therapy is indicated. A tetracycline should be regarded as the drug of choice due to its high efficacy, low toxicity, superior in vitro activity and the possibility of relapse which can follow chloramphenicol therapy.

  8. Rapidity correlations and {Delta}G from prompt photon plus jet production in polarized pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanghyeon Chang; Claudio Coriano; L. E. Gordon

    1997-09-01

    A study of prompt photon plus associated jet production is performed at next-to-leading order (O({alpha}{alpha}{sub s}{sup 2})) in QCD at {radical}S=200--500 GeV, appropriate for the RHIC polarized {rvec p}{rvec p} collider experiment. Momentum correlations between the jet and photon are examined and the utility of the process as a method for constraining the size and shape of the polarized gluon density of the proton {Delta}G is examined.

  9. Improvement in the practical implementation of neutron source strength calibration using prompt gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Khabaz, Rahim; Rene Vega-Carrillo, Hector

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the neutron emission rate from neutron sources using prompt gamma rays in hydrogen was determined, and several improvements were applied. Using Monte Carlo calculations, the best positions for the source, moderator and detector relative to each other were selected. For (241)Am-Be and (252)Cf sources, the sizes for polyethylene spheres with the highest efficiency were 12- and 10-inch, respectively. In addition, a new shielding cone was designed to account for scattered neutrons and gamma rays. The newly designed shielding cone, which is 45 cm in length, provided suitable attenuation for the source radiation.

  10. Mining Archived HYSPEC User Data to Analyze the Prompt Pulse at the SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael B.; Iverson, Erik B.; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Winn, Barry L.

    2015-10-01

    The Hybrid-Spectrometer (HYSPEC) is one of 17 instruments currently operated at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL). The secondary spectrometer of this instrument is located inside an out-building off the north side of the SNS instrument hall. HYSPEC has experienced a larger background feature than similar inelastic instruments since its commissioning in 2011. This background feature is caused by a phenomenon known as the “prompt pulse” which is an essential part of neutron production in a pulsed spallation source but comes with unfortunate side effects.

  11. Test of Compton camera components for prompt gamma imaging at the ELBE bremsstrahlung beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, F.; Golnik, C.; Berthel, M.; Dreyer, A.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Heidel, K.; Kormoll, T.; Rohling, H.; Schöne, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Pausch, G.

    2014-05-01

    In the context of ion beam therapy, particle range verification is a major challenge for the quality assurance of the treatment. One approach is the measurement of the prompt gamma rays resulting from the tissue irradiation. A Compton camera based on several position sensitive gamma ray detectors, together with an imaging algorithm, is expected to reconstruct the prompt gamma ray emission density map, which is correlated with the dose distribution. At OncoRay and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), a Compton camera setup is being developed consisting of two scatter planes: two CdZnTe (CZT) cross strip detectors, and an absorber consisting of one Lu2SiO5 (LSO) block detector. The data acquisition is based on VME electronics and handled by software developed on the ROOT framework. The setup has been tested at the linear electron accelerator ELBE at HZDR, which is used in this experiment to produce bunched bremsstrahlung photons with up to 12.5 MeV energy and a repetition rate of 13 MHz. Their spectrum has similarities with the shape expected from prompt gamma rays in the clinical environment, and the flux is also bunched with the accelerator frequency. The charge sharing effect of the CZT detector is studied qualitatively for different energy ranges. The LSO detector pixel discrimination resolution is analyzed and it shows a trend to improve for high energy depositions. The time correlation between the pulsed prompt photons and the measured detector signals, to be used for background suppression, exhibits a time resolution of 3 ns FWHM for the CZT detector and of 2 ns for the LSO detector. A time walk correction and pixel-wise calibration is applied for the LSO detector, whose resolution improves up to 630 ps. In conclusion, the detector setup is suitable for time-resolved background suppression in pulsed clinical particle accelerators. Ongoing tasks are the quantitative comparison with simulations and the test of imaging algorithms. Experiments at proton

  12. Prompt photon production in double-Pomeron-exchange events at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohara, A. K.; Marquet, C.

    2016-06-01

    Within the resolved Pomeron model of hard diffractive scattering, we compute prompt photon production in double-Pomeron-exchange events in proton-proton collisions. Using specific kinematical constraints chosen according to the acceptances of the forward proton detectors of experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, we provide estimates for inclusive and isolated photon production. This is done using the JetPhox program. We find that next-to-leading order corrections to the hard process are important and must be included in order to correctly constrain the quark and gluon content of the Pomeron from such processes at the LHC.

  13. An augmented reality (AR)-based vocational task prompting system for people with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Kang, Ya-Shu; Huang, Po-Chiao

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed the possibility of training three people with cognitive impairments using an augmented reality (AR)-based task prompting system. Using AR technology, the system provided picture cues, identified incorrect task steps on the fly, and helped users make corrections. Based on a multiple baseline design, the data showed that the three participants considerably increased their target response, which improved their vocational job skills during the intervention phases and enabled them to maintain the acquired job skills after intervention. The practical and developmental implications of the results are discussed. PMID:23880030

  14. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-10-26

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO{sub 3} was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl{sub 2}Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

  15. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics. [Patient application

    DOEpatents

    Barnard, R.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1980-11-05

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or epithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  16. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Barnard, Ralston W.; Jensen, Dal H.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or eqithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  17. A Unified Model for GRB Prompt Emission from Optical to γ-Rays: Exploring GRBs as Standard Candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiriec, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hartmann, D. H.; Granot, J.; Asano, K.; Mészáros, P.; Gill, R.; Gehrels, N.; McEnery, J.

    2016-11-01

    The origin of prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remains to be an open question. Correlated prompt optical and γ-ray emission observed in a handful of GRBs strongly suggests a common emission region, but failure to adequately fit the broadband GRB spectrum prompted the hypothesis of different emission mechanisms for the low- and high-energy radiations. We demonstrate that our multi-component model for GRB γ-ray prompt emission provides an excellent fit to GRB 110205A from optical to γ-ray energies. Our results show that the optical and highest γ-ray emissions have the same spatial and spectral origin, which is different from the bulk of the X- and softest γ-ray radiation. Finally, our accurate redshift estimate for GRB 110205A demonstrates promise for using GRBs as cosmological standard candles.

  18. Time-of-flight neutron rejection to improve prompt gamma imaging for proton range verification: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Biegun, Aleksandra K; Seravalli, Enrica; Lopes, Patrícia Cambraia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Pinto, Marco; Oxley, David C; Dendooven, Peter; Verhaegen, Frank; Parodi, Katia; Crespo, Paulo; Schaart, Dennis R

    2012-10-21

    Therapeutic proton and heavier ion beams generate prompt gamma photons that may escape from the patient. In principle, this allows for real-time, in situ monitoring of the treatment delivery, in particular, the hadron range within the patient, by imaging the emitted prompt gamma rays. Unfortunately, the neutrons simultaneously created with the prompt photons create a background that may obscure the prompt gamma signal. To enhance the accuracy of proton dose verification by prompt gamma imaging, we therefore propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique to reject this neutron background, involving a shifting time window to account for the propagation of the protons through the patient. Time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations of the generation and transport of prompt gamma photons and neutrons upon irradiation of a PMMA phantom with 100, 150 and 200 MeV protons were performed using Geant4 (version 9.2.p02) and MCNPX (version 2.7.D). The influence of angular collimation and TOF selection on the prompt gamma and neutron longitudinal profiles is studied. Furthermore, the implications of the proton beam microstructure (characterized by the proton bunch width and repetition period) are investigated. The application of a shifting TOF window having a width of ΔTOF(z) = 1.0 ns appears to reduce the neutron background by more than 99%. Subsequent application of an energy threshold does not appear to sharpen the distal falloff of the prompt gamma profile but reduces the tail that is observed beyond the proton range. Investigations of the influence of the beam time structure show that TOF rejection of the neutron background is expected to be effective for typical therapeutic proton cyclotrons.

  19. The Effects of Essay Placement and Prompt Type on Performance on the New SAT®. Research Report No. 2006-7. ETS RR-06-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyeon-Joo; Walker, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated (1) whether essay placement (either at the beginning or at the end of the test battery) impacts test-takers' performance on the critical reading, mathematics, and writing multiple choice measures; and (2) whether essay prompt type (either a simple one-line prompt or a prompt including a short passage) affects test-takers'…

  20. Prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system: Relationships with treatment retention and outcome among cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Serafini, Kelly; Malin-Mayor, Bo; Babuscio, Theresa A.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives A substantial portion of individuals entering treatment for substance use have been referred by the criminal justice system, yet there are conflicting reports regarding treatment engagement and outcome differences compared to those not referred. This study examined baseline characteristic and treatment outcome differences among cocaine-dependent individuals participating in cocaine treatment randomized trials. Methods This secondary analysis pooled samples across five completed randomized controlled trials, resulting in 434 participants. Of these, 67 (15%) were prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system. Results This subsample of criminal justice prompted (CJP) individuals did not differ from those not prompted by the criminal justice system in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, or age. However, the CJP group reported more years of regular cocaine use, more severe employment and legal problems, as well as less readiness to change prior to treatment. Treatment outcomes did not differ significantly from those without a criminal justice prompt, and on some measures the outcomes for CJP group were better (e.g., percentage of days cocaine abstinent, number of therapy sessions attended). Discussion and Conclusions These findings suggest that being prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system may not lead to poorer treatment engagement or substance use outcomes for individuals participating in randomized controlled treatment trials. Scientific Significance Despite some baseline indicators of poorer treatment prognosis, individuals who have been prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system have similar treatment outcomes as those presenting to treatment voluntarily. PMID:25809378

  1. Modelling Random Coincidences in Positron Emission Tomography by Using Singles and Prompts: A Comparison Study.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Josep F; Rafecas, M

    2016-01-01

    Random coincidences degrade the image in Positron Emission Tomography, PET. To compensate for their degradation effects, the rate of random coincidences should be estimated. Under certain circumstances, current estimation methods fail to provide accurate results. We propose a novel method, "Singles-Prompts" (SP), that includes the information conveyed by prompt coincidences and models the pile-up. The SP method has the same structure than the well-known "Singles Rate" (SR) approach. Hence, SP can straightforwardly replace SR. In this work, the SP method has been extensively assessed and compared to two conventional methods, SR and the delayed window (DW) method, in a preclinical PET scenario using Monte-Carlo simulations. SP offers accurate estimates for the randoms rates, while SR and DW tend to overestimate the rates (∼10%, and 5%, respectively). With pile-up, the SP method is more robust than SR (but less than DW). At the image level, the contrast is overestimated in SR-corrected images, +16%, while SP produces the correct value. Spill-over is slightly reduced using SP instead of SR. The DW images values are similar to those of SP except for low-statistic scenarios, where DW behaves as if randoms were not compensated for. In particular, the contrast is reduced, -16%. In general, the better estimations of SP translate into better image quality. PMID:27603143

  2. Strategies for Finding Prompt Radio Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Transients with the Murchison Widefield Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, D. L.; Murphy, T.; Rowlinson, A.; Croft, S. D.; Wayth, R. B.; Trott, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    Wepresent and evaluate several strategies to search for prompt, low-frequency radio emission associated with gravitational wave transients using the Murchison Widefield Array. As we are able to repoint the Murchison Widefield Array on timescales of tens of seconds, we can search for the dispersed radio signal that has been predicted to originate along with or shortly after a neutron star-neutron star merger. We find that given the large, 600 deg2 instantaneous field of view of the Murchison Widefield Array, we can cover a significant fraction of the predicted gravitational wave error region, although due to the complicated geometry of the latter, we only cover > 50% of the error region for approximately 5% of events, and roughly 15% of events will be located < 10° from the Murchison Widefield Array pointing centre such that they will be covered in the radio images. For optimal conditions, our limiting flux density for a 10-s long transient would be 0.1 Jy, increasing to about 1 Jy for a wider range of events. This corresponds to luminosity limits of 1038-39 erg s-1 based on expectations for the distances of the gravitational wave transients, which should be sufficient to detect or significantly constrain a range of models for prompt emission.

  3. Transitions, cross sections and neutron binding energy in 186Re by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, A. G.; Hurst, A. M.; Firestone, R. B.; Revay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L.; McHale, S. R.; McClory, J. W.; Detwiler, B.; Carroll, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    The nuclide 186Re possesses an isomer with 200,000 year half-life while its ground state has a half-life of 3.718 days. It is also odd-odd and well-deformed nucleus, so should exhibit a variety of other interesting nuclear-structure phenomena. However, the available nuclear data is rather sparse; for example, the energy of the isomer is only known to within + 7 keV and, with the exception of the J?=1- ground state, every proposed level is tentative in the ENSDF. Previously, Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) was utilized to study natRe with 186,188Re being produced via thermal neutron capture. Recently, an enriched 185Re target was irradiated by thermal neutrons at the Budapest Research Reactor to build on those results. Prompt (primary and secondary) and delayed gamma-ray transitions were measured with a large-volume, Compton-suppressed HPGe detector. Absolute cross sections for each gamma transition were deduced and corrected for self attenuation within the sample. Fifty-two primary gamma-ray transitions were newly identified and used to determine a revised value of the neutron binding energy. DICEBOX was used to simulate the decay scheme and the total radiative thermal neutron capture cross section was found to be 97+/-3 b Supported by DTRA (Detwiler) through HDTRA1-08-1-0014.

  4. Examples of MC and A systems to meet prompt accountability specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Eggers, R F; Brouns, R J; Bryant, J L; Davenport, L C; Brite, D W; Kinnison, R R; Fager, J E; Williams, R C; Wilson, R L

    1983-01-01

    Proposed regulations for NRC licensees authorized to possess and process formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) would require each licensee to implement a material control and accounting (MC and A) system capable of prompt loss detection and alarm resolution. In support of the loss detection and alarm response activities an overcheck program would also be implemented. This program would include personnel qualification and training, quality control, inventory verification and shipper-receiver transaction verification. However, the frequeny of physical inventory verification would be about once per year rather than once every two months. In addition MC and A activities would include procedures for the prevention and detection of data falsification and other forms of deceit that might undermine the performance of the loss detection and response systems. This report provides examples of prompt accountability systems for four plants: mixed oxide fuel fabrication, uranium hexafluoride conversion, high enriched uranium fuel fabrication, and high enriched uranium scrap recovery. Purpose of this report is to provide guidance to the MC and A system designer and evaluator on how the proposed requirements might be met.

  5. Measurement of prompt J/ ψ pair production in pp collisions at = 7 Tev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Gonzalez, J. Suarez; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Kim, T. J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Velde, C. Vander; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Rios, A. A. Ocampo; Ryckbosch, D.; Diblen, S. Salva; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Marono, M. Vidal; Garcia, J. M. Vizan; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Martins, M. Correa; Martins, T. Dos Reis; Pol, M. E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Malbouisson, H.; Figueiredo, D. Matos; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Da Silva, W. L. Prado; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Manganote, E. J. Tonelli; Pereira, A. Vilela; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Plestina, R.; Tao, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Sierra, L. F. Chaparro; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Moreno, B. Gomez; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Kamel, A. Ellithi; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; de Monchenault, G. 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Diez; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Garcia, J. Garay; Geiser, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Hempel, M.; Horton, D.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, F.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Cipriano, P. M. Ribeiro; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Spannagel, S.; Trevino, A. D. R. Vargas; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Martin, M. Aldaya; Blobel, V.; Vignali, M. Centis; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lange, J.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Pardo, P. Lobelle; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Nürnberg, A.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Röcker, S.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. 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M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Naseri, M.; Mehdiabadi, S. Paktinat; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Ferro, F.; Vetere, M. Lo; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; de Fatis, T. Tabarelli; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Bellato, M.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giubilato, P.; Gonella, F.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Montecassiano, F.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Grassi, M.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Ortona, G.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Angioni, G. L. Pinna; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Ricca, G. Della; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; La Cruz, I. Heredia-de; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Moreno, S. Carrillo; Valencia, F. Vazquez; Pedraza, I.; Ibarguen, H. A. Salazar; Linares, E. Casimiro; Pineda, A. Morelos; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Bargassa, P.; Da Cruz E Silva, C. Beirão; Faccioli, P.; Parracho, P. G. Ferreira; Gallinaro, M.; Nguyen, F.; Antunes, J. Rodrigues; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Golutvin, I.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Korenkov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Tikhonenko, E.; Yuldashev, B. S.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Dordevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Maestre, J. Alcaraz; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Llatas, M. Chamizo; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Peris, A. Delgado; Vázquez, D. Domínguez; Del Valle, A. Escalante; Bedoya, C. Fernandez; Ramos, J. P. Fernández; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Lopez, O. Gonzalez; Lopez, S. Goy; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; De Martino, E. Navarro; Yzquierdo, A. Pérez-Calero; Pelayo, J. Puerta; Olmeda, A. Quintario; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Menendez, J. Fernandez; Folgueras, S.; Caballero, I. Gonzalez; Iglesias, L. Lloret; Cifuentes, J. A. Brochero; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Campderros, J. Duarte; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Graziano, A.; Virto, A. Lopez; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Rivero, C. Martinez; Matorras, F.; Sanchez, F. J. Munoz; Gomez, J. Piedra; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Cortabitarte, R. Vilar; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Marrouche, J.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; del Arbol, P. Martinez Ruiz; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Nägeli, C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rebane, L.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Mejias, B. Millan; Ngadiuba, J.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Snoek, H.; Taroni, S.; Verzetti, M.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wilken, R.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Topaksu, A. Kayis; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Cerci, D. Sunar; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Gamsizkan, H.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Bahtiyar, H.; Barlas, E.; Cankocak, K.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Yücel, M.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Negra, M. Della; Dunne, P.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mathias, B.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Acosta, M. Vazquez; Virdee, T.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; Lawson, P.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; John, J. St.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; De La Barca Sanchez, M. Calderon; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Searle, M.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Rikova, M. Ivova; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Nguyen, H.; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Dishaw, A.; Flowers, K.; Sevilla, M. Franco; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Lopez, E. Luiggi; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Kaufman, G. Nicolas; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaadze, K.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Outschoorn, V. I. Martinez; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carver, M.; Cheng, T.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Gray, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Dutta, V.; Ceballos, G. Gomez; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Suarez, R. Gonzalez; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Meier, F.; Snow, G. R.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R. J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Vuosalo, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hebda, P.; Hunt, A.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Mendez, H.; Vargas, J. E. Ramirez; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Miner, D. C.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Don, C. Kottachchi Kankanamge; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Woods, N.

    2014-09-01

    Production of prompt J/ ψ meson pairs in proton-proton collisions at = 7 TeV is measured with the CMS experiment at the LHC in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 4.7 fb-1. The two J/ ψ mesons are fully reconstructed via their decays into μ + μ - pairs. This observation provides for the first time access to the high-transverse-momentum region of J/ ψ pair production where model predictions are not yet established. The total and differential cross sections are measured in a phase space defined by the individual J/ ψ transverse momentum ( p T J/ ψ ) and rapidity (| y J/ ψ |): | y J/ ψ | < 1.2 for p {T/J/ ψ } > 6.5 GeV/ c; 1.2 < | y J/ ψ | < 1.43 for a p T threshold that scales linearly with | y J/ ψ | from 6.5 to 4.5 GeV/ c; and 1.43 < | y J/ ψ | < 2.2 for p {T/J/ ψ } > 4.5 GeV/ c. The total cross section, assuming unpolarized prompt J/ ψ pair production is 1.49 ± 0.07 (stat) ±0.13 (syst) nb. Different assumptions about the J/ ψ polarization imply modifications to the cross section ranging from -31% to +27%. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Monte Carlo model for neutron capture prompt gamma-ray analysis of coal in transmission geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, R.Y.

    1984-01-01

    In order to relate the detector response to the elemental concentration, a great number of elaborate experimental standards are needed. It is tedious and curbs, among other factors, the wider use of the neutron capture prompt gamma-ray analysis (NCPGRA). A Monte Carlo model therefore has been developed to predict the photopeak detector response at all elemental concentrations of interest in the host matrix simultaneously, and an experimental system which simulates the on-line analysis of coal on a conveyor belt has been built to test this model and increase the extent of its readiness for industrial application. Variance reduction techniques, including an expected value technique followed by Russian Roulette, are used extensively to reduce computation effort. Each of the various shielding components of the analyzer is considered with respect to both neutron transport and prompt gamma-ray attenuation. Further, the free gas model is employed to simulate thermal neutron interaction. Results of this Monte Carlo model are generally in good agreement with photopeak detector responses on those major and minor elements measurable by NCPGRA in coal, and the agreement is excellent on the variation in detector response with elemental concentration for sulfur and titanium. Therefore, it gives high confidence in the validity of the Monte Carlo model. The model is thus expected to be generally useful for calibrating NCPGRA analyzers in transmission geometry.

  7. If he can do it, so can they: exposure to counterstereotypically successful exemplars prompts automatic inferences.

    PubMed

    Critcher, Clayton R; Risen, Jane L

    2014-03-01

    After incidental exposure to Blacks who succeeded in counterstereotypical domains (e.g., Brown University President Ruth Simmons, Nobel Laureate Toni Morrison), participants drew an automatic inference that race was not a success-inhibiting factor in modern society. Of note, participants' automatic inferences were not simply guided by their explicit reasoning (i.e., their beliefs about what these exemplars signify about the state of race relations). Studies 1-3 demonstrated the basic automatic inference effect and provided evidence that such effects unfolded automatically, without intention or awareness. Study 4 replicated the effect in non-race-related domains. Subsequent studies examined what features of exemplars (Studies 5 and 6) and inference makers (Studies 7 and 8) prompt automatic inferences. Study 5 suggested that counterstereotypically successful exemplars prompt racism-denying inferences because they signal what is possible, even if not typical. Study 6 demonstrated that when these exemplars succeed in a stereotypical domain (e.g., Blacks in athletics), similar automatic inferences are not drawn. Those most likely to draw automatic inferences are people predisposed to approach the world with inferential thinking: participants dispositionally high in need for cognition (Study 7) or experimentally primed to think inferentially (Study 8).

  8. Objects prompt authentic scientific activities among learners in a museum programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Kramer Lindow, Bent Erik

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science education as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme at a natural history museum to identify how palaeontological objects prompt scientific activity among upper secondary school students. We first construct a theoretical framework based on an analysis of the programme's palaeontological content. From this, we build our reference model, which considers the specimens used in the programme, possible palaeontological interpretations of these specimens, and the conditions inherent in the programme. We use the reference model to analyse the activities of programme participants, and illustrate how these activities are palaeontologically authentic. Finally, we discuss our findings, examining the mechanism by which the specimens prompt scientific activities. We also discuss our discipline-based approach, and how it allows us to positively identify participants' activities as authentic. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings.

  9. DETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY POLARIZATION IN PROMPT EMISSION OF GRB 100826A

    SciTech Connect

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Murakami, Toshio; Sakashita, Tomonori; Morihara, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Takuya; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kodama, Yoshiki; Gunji, Shuichi; Toukairin, Noriyuki; Mihara, Tatehiro; Toma, Kenji; Kubo, Shin

    2011-12-20

    We report the polarization measurement in prompt {gamma}-ray emission of GRB 100826A with the Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter on board the small solar-power-sail demonstrator IKAROS. We detected the firm change of polarization angle (PA) during the prompt emission with 99.9% (3.5{sigma}) confidence level, and the average polarization degree ({Pi}) of 27% {+-} 11% with 99.4% (2.9{sigma}) confidence level. Here the quoted errors are given at 1{sigma} confidence level for the two parameters of interest. The systematic errors have been carefully included in this analysis, unlike other previous reports. Such a high {Pi} can be obtained in several emission models of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), including synchrotron and photospheric models. However, it is difficult to explain the observed significant change of PA within the framework of axisymmetric jet as considered in many theoretical works. The non-axisymmetric (e.g., patchy) structures of the magnetic fields and/or brightness inside the relativistic jet are therefore required within the observable angular scale of {approx}{Gamma}{sup -1}. Our observation strongly indicates that the polarization measurement is a powerful tool to constrain the GRB production mechanism, and more theoretical works are needed to discuss the data in more detail.

  10. Optical polarimetric observations of GRB prompt emissions by MASTER robots-telescopes net.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbovskoy, Evgeny; Lipunov, Vladimir; Kornilov, Victor; Shatskij, Nikolaj; Kuvshi-Nov, Dmitry; Tyurina, Nataly; Belinski, Alexander; Krylov, Alexander; Balanutsa, Pavel; Chazov, Vadim; Kuznetsov, Artem; Zimnuhov, Dmitry; Balanutsa, Pavel; Kortunov, Petr; Sankovich, Anatoly; Tlatov, An-Drey; Parkhomenko, A.; Krushinsky, Vadim; Zalozhnyh, Ivan; Popov, A.; Kopytova, Taisia; Ivanov, Kirill; Yazev, Sergey; Yurkov, Vladimir

    The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19 -20mag. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovas (including SNIa), search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes. Observations on telescopes capable to observ polarisation of GRB prompt emission have been begun in the summer of 2009. Since summer of 2009 an observations of several GRB have been made. In particular for GRB0910 and GRB091127 optical polarisation has been measured. So, for GRB091127 which supervision have begun all through 91 sec polarisation at level of several tens percent has been registered. (GCN 10231, GCN 10052, GCN 10203)

  11. The LANL/LLNL Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum Program at LANSCE and Approach to Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, R.C.; Wu, C.Y.; Lee, H.Y.; Taddeucci, T.N.; Perdue, B.A.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Fotiades, N.; Devlin, M.; Ullmann, J.L.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Jandel, M.; Nelson, R.O.; Wender, S.A.; Neudecker, D.; Rising, M.E.; Mosby, S.; Sjue, S.; White, M.C.; Bucher, B.; Henderson, R.

    2015-01-15

    New data on the prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) from neutron-induced fission with higher accuracies are needed to resolve discrepancies in the literature and to address gaps in the experimental data. The Chi-Nu project, conducted jointly by LANL and LLNL, aims to measure the shape of the PFNS for fission of {sup 239}Pu induced by neutrons from 0.5 to 20 MeV with accuracies of 3–5% in the outgoing energy from 0.1 to 9 MeV and 15% from 9 to 12 MeV and to provide detailed experimental uncertainties. Neutrons from the WNR/LANSCE neutron source are being used to induce fission in a Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC). Two arrays of neutron detectors are used to cover the energy range of neutrons emitted promptly in the fission process. Challenges for the present experiment include background reduction, use of {sup 239}Pu in a PPAC, and understanding neutron detector response. Achieving the target accuracies requires the understanding of many systematic uncertainties. The status and plans for the future will be presented.

  12. Prompting children to reason proportionally: Processing discrete units as continuous amounts.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Ty W; Levine, Susan C

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies reveal that children can solve proportional reasoning problems presented with continuous amounts that enable intuitive strategies by around 6 years of age but have difficulties with problems presented with discrete units that tend to elicit explicit count-and-match strategies until at least 10 years of age. The current study tests whether performance on discrete unit problems might be improved by prompting intuitive reasoning with continuous-format problems. Participants were kindergarten, second-grade, and fourth-grade students (N = 194) assigned to either an experimental condition, where they were given continuous amount proportion problems before discrete unit proportion problems, or a control condition, where they were given all discrete unit problems. Results of a three-way mixed-model analysis of variance examining school grade, experimental condition, and block of trials indicated that fourth-grade students in the experimental condition outperformed those in the control condition on discrete unit problems in the second half of the experiment, but kindergarten and second-grade students did not differ by condition. This suggests that older children can be prompted to use intuitive strategies to reason proportionally. PMID:25751097

  13. Toward an Understanding of GRB Prompt Emission Mechanism. I. The Origin of Spectral Lags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing

    2016-07-01

    Despite decades of investigations, the physical mechanism that powers the bright prompt γ-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still not identified. One important observational clue that still has not been properly interpreted is the existence of time lags of broad light curve pulses in different energy bands, referred to as “spectral lags.” Here, we show that the traditional view invoking the high-latitude emission “curvature effect” of a relativistic jet cannot account for spectral lags. Rather, the observed spectral lags demand the sweep of a spectral peak across the observing energy band in a specific manner. The duration of the broad pulses and inferred typical Lorentz factor of GRBs require that the emission region be in an optically thin emission region far from the GRB central engine. We construct a simple physical model invoking synchrotron radiation from a rapidly expanding outflow. We show that the observed spectral lags appear naturally in our model light curves given that (1) the gamma-ray photon spectrum is curved (as observed), (2) the magnetic field strength in the emitting region decreases with radius as the region expands in space, and (3) the emission region itself undergoes rapid bulk acceleration as the prompt γ-rays are produced. These requirements are consistent with a Poynting-flux-dominated jet abruptly dissipating magnetic energy at a large distance from the engine.

  14. Unified Monte Carlo: Evaluation, Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation of the Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, Michael E.; Talou, Patrick; Prinja, Anil K.; White, Morgan C.

    2014-06-01

    The unified Monte Carlo (UMC) method is used for the quantification of uncertainties associated with the evaluation of the prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) for the n(0.5 MeV)+239Pu fission reaction and compared to the Kalman filter. Ultimately, the UMC and Kalman filter approaches lead to very similar evaluated PFNS while UMC is also capable of capturing the nonlinearities present in the Los Alamos (LA) model used to calculate the PFNS. Next, the unified Monte Carlo + total Monte Carlo (UMC+TMC) method is implemented to propagate uncertainties from the prior LA model parameters through the Flattop critical assemblies. Due to the fact that cross-experiment correlations are neglected in the present evaluation work, the UMC+TMC method predicts uncertainties in the integral quantities smaller by an order of magnitude or more compared to direct sampling from the posterior LA model parameters. Last, the UMC method is proposed for use as an evaluation tool that can be used with the new prompt fission Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach codes that are currently under development.

  15. A position-sensitive twin ionization chamber for fission fragment and prompt neutron correlation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göök, A.; Geerts, W.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Vidali, M.; Zeynalov, Sh.

    2016-09-01

    A twin position-sensitive Frisch grid ionization chamber, intended as a fission fragment detector in experiments to study prompt fission neutron correlations with fission fragment properties, is presented. Fission fragment mass and energies are determined by means of the double kinetic energy technique, based on conservation of mass and linear momentum. The position sensitivity is achieved by replacing each anode plate in the standard twin ionization chamber by a wire plane and a strip anode, both readout by means of resistive charge division. This provides information about the fission axis orientation, which is necessary to reconstruct the neutron emission process in the fully accelerated fragment rest-frame. The energy resolution compared to the standard twin ionization chamber is found not to be affected by the modification. The angular resolution of the detector relative to an arbitrarily oriented axis is better than 7° FWHM. Results on prompt fission neutron angular distributions in 235U(n,f) obtained with the detector in combination with an array of neutron scintillation detectors is presented as a proof of principle.

  16. Prompting children to reason proportionally: Processing discrete units as continuous amounts.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Ty W; Levine, Susan C

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies reveal that children can solve proportional reasoning problems presented with continuous amounts that enable intuitive strategies by around 6 years of age but have difficulties with problems presented with discrete units that tend to elicit explicit count-and-match strategies until at least 10 years of age. The current study tests whether performance on discrete unit problems might be improved by prompting intuitive reasoning with continuous-format problems. Participants were kindergarten, second-grade, and fourth-grade students (N = 194) assigned to either an experimental condition, where they were given continuous amount proportion problems before discrete unit proportion problems, or a control condition, where they were given all discrete unit problems. Results of a three-way mixed-model analysis of variance examining school grade, experimental condition, and block of trials indicated that fourth-grade students in the experimental condition outperformed those in the control condition on discrete unit problems in the second half of the experiment, but kindergarten and second-grade students did not differ by condition. This suggests that older children can be prompted to use intuitive strategies to reason proportionally.

  17. Impact of low-energy photons on the characteristics of prompt fission γ -ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberstedt, A.; Billnert, R.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we report on a new study of prompt γ -rays from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf . Photons were measured in coincidence with fission fragments by employing four different lanthanide halide scintillation detectors. Together with results from a previous work of ours, we determined characteristic parameters with high precision, such as the average γ -ray multiplicity ν¯γ=(8.29 ±0.13 ), the average energy per photon ɛγ=(0.80 ±0.02 ) MeV, and the total γ -ray energy release per fission Eγ ,tot=(6.65 ±0.10 ) MeV. The excellent agreement between the individual results obtained in all six measurements proves the good repeatability of the applied experimental technique. The impact of low-energy photons, i.e., below 500 keV, on prompt fission γ -ray spectra characteristics has been investigated as well by comparing our results with those taken with the DANCE detector system, which appears to suffer from absorption effects in the low-energy region. Correction factors for this effect were estimated, giving results comparable to ours as well as to historical ones. From this we demonstrate that the different techniques of determining the average γ -ray multiplicity, either from a properly measured and normalized spectrum or a measured multiplicity distribution, give equivalent and consistent results.

  18. Comptonization signatures in the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Frontera, F.; Farinelli, R.; Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Titarchuk, L.; Amati, L.; Landi, R.

    2013-12-20

    We report results of a systematic study of the broadband (2-2000 keV) time-resolved prompt emission spectra of a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with both Wide Field Cameras (WFCs) on board the BeppoSAX satellite and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The main goal of this paper is to test spectral models of the GRB prompt emission that have recently been proposed. In particular, we test a recent photospheric model proposed, i.e., blackbody plus power law, the addition of a blackbody emission to the Band function in the cases in which this function does not fit the data, and a recent Comptonization model. By considering the few spectra for which the simple Band function does not provide a fully acceptable fit to the data, we find a statistically significant better fit by adding a blackbody to this function only in one case. We confirm earlier results found fitting the BATSE spectra alone with a blackbody plus power law. Instead, when the BATSE GRB spectra are joined to those obtained with WFCs (2-28 keV), this model becomes unacceptable in most time intervals in which we subdivide the GRB light curves. We find instead that the Comptonization model is always acceptable, even in the few cases in which the Band function is inconsistent with the data. We discuss the implications of these results.

  19. Evaluation of prompted annotation of activity data recorded from a smart phone.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Ian; Han, Manhyung; Nugent, Chris; Lee, Hosung; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-08-27

    In this paper we discuss the design and evaluation of a mobile based tool to collect activity data on a large scale. The current approach, based on an existing activity recognition module, recognizes class transitions from a set of specific activities (for example walking and running) to the standing still activity. Once this transition is detected the system prompts the user to provide a label for their previous activity. This label, along with the raw sensor data, is then stored locally prior to being uploaded to cloud storage. The system was evaluated by ten users. Three evaluation protocols were used, including a structured, semi-structured and free living protocol. Results indicate that the mobile application could be used to allow the user to provide accurate ground truth labels for their activity data. Similarities of up to 100% where observed when comparing the user prompted labels and those from an observer during structured lab based experiments. Further work will examine data segmentation and personalization issues in order to refine the system.

  20. Radical Concentrations and Prompt NO Formation in Hydrocarbon-Air Premixed Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusi, Yasuji; Yuuki, Akimasa

    1985-05-01

    Hydroxyl radical concentrations in laminar, premixed CH4-air flat-flames were measured by a conventional absorption method in the flame temperature range T{=}2200-1700 K. The OH mole fractions in the reaction zone POH were found to be insensitive to the flame temperature and the maximum POH to be about 6× 10-3 at T{=}2000 K in a stoichiometric flame. The rate constant for the prompt NO formation, CH+N2→HCN+N\\dashrightarrow2NO (4), is modified as k4{=}1.2× 1012\\exp (-13600/RT) by the relation between the amount of prompt NO and the saturation ion current Is. It is also shown from the measurements of NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons H.C., and Is, that the chemical kinetics are not significantly influenced by the flame temperature, and NO emission is reduced by reactions among NO, H.C., and N-containing intermediate species in low-temperature flames, even in stoichiometric and fuel-lean mixtures.