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Sample records for adper scotchbond multi-purpose

  1. Armored Multi Purpose Vehicle (AMPV)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-471 Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then...RDT&E funding by $4M assigned to Program Management Growth. While this decrement will cause a slight re-prioritization of selected efforts in FY 2016

  2. Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Silvanna Rabbi, MPLM Program Manager, Italian Space Agency, gives an overview of the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in a prelaunch press conference. She describes the objectives, construction, specifications, and purpose of the three Italian-built modules, Leonardo, Rafaello, and Donatello. Ms. Rabbi then answers questions from the press.

  3. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank.

  4. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank. 9 figs.

  5. [Scotchbond from 1983 to 1992. The history of a market setter reflected in the literature. A review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Kadl, P; Krejci, I; Lutz, F

    1993-01-01

    In this critical literature review 140 [correction of 136] publications dealing with Scotchbond were chronologically compiled since 1983 when Scotchbond was introduced to the dental market. The publications dealing with dentinal bonding were analyzed. Critical statements were predominant in the in-vivo- as well as in the in-vitro-studies. The literature reviewed for a period of ten years clearly demonstrated that the expectations created by the manufacturer and some initial studies concerning dentinal bonding did not become true. Long before private practitioners realized that Scotchbond didn't live up to the standards promised by the manufacturer, independent scientists had doubted the efficiency of the product. The conflict between market orientated and objective information for the private practitioners becomes obvious in this literature review.

  6. Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zampiceni, John J.; Harper, Lon T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the New Shuttle Orbiter's Multi- Purpose Logistics Modulo (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger (HX) and associated MPLM cooling system. This paper presents Heat Exchanger (HX) design and performance characteristics of the system.

  7. Multi-Purpose Tests: A Solution to Test Proliferation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Susan E.

    This research, conducted for California State Department of Education, is one component of a feasibility study focusing on ways to make the testing process more efficient by application of multi-purpose tests (MPT). MPT are designed, administered and scored to serve more than one purpose and to consolidate and unify testing programs as a partial…

  8. OCRWM Bulletin: Westinghouse begins designing multi-purpose canister

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This publication consists of two parts: OCRWM (Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management) Bulletin; and Of Mountains & Science which has articles on the Yucca Mountain project. The OCRWM provides information about OCRWM activities and in this issue has articles on multi-purpose canister design, and transportation cask trailer.

  9. The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) of the collider experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatyuk, V.; Kekelidze, V.; Kolesnikov, V.; Rogachevsky, O.; Sorin, A.

    2016-08-01

    The project NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) is aimed to study dense baryonic matter in heavy-ion collisions in the energy range up to √{s_{NN}} = 11 GeV with average luminosity of L = 1027 cm-2s-1 (for 197Au79). The experimental program at the NICA collider will be performed with the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD). We report on the main physics objectives of the NICA heavy-ion program and present the main detector components.

  10. System Engineering Strategy for Distributed Multi-Purpose Simulation Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhula, Dlilpkumar; Kurt, Cindy Marie; Luty, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the system engineering approach used to develop distributed multi-purpose simulations. The multi-purpose simulation architecture focuses on user needs, operations, flexibility, cost and maintenance. This approach was used to develop an International Space Station (ISS) simulator, which is called the International Space Station Integrated Simulation (ISIS)1. The ISIS runs unmodified ISS flight software, system models, and the astronaut command and control interface in an open system design that allows for rapid integration of multiple ISS models. The initial intent of ISIS was to provide a distributed system that allows access to ISS flight software and models for the creation, test, and validation of crew and ground controller procedures. This capability reduces the cost and scheduling issues associated with utilizing standalone simulators in fixed locations, and facilitates discovering unknowns and errors earlier in the development lifecycle. Since its inception, the flexible architecture of the ISIS has allowed its purpose to evolve to include ground operator system and display training, flight software modification testing, and as a realistic test bed for Exploration automation technology research and development.

  11. Multi-purpose canister system evaluation: A systems engineering approach

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to investigate various container systems for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The primary goal of DOE`s investigations was to select a container technology that could handle the vast majority of commercial SNF at a reasonable cost, while ensuring the safety of the public and protecting the environment. Several alternative cask and canister concepts were evaluated for SNF assembly packaging to determine the most suitable concept. Of these alternatives, the multi-purpose canister (MPC) system was determined to be the most suitable. Based on the results of these evaluations, the decision was made to proceed with design and certification of the MPC system. A decision to fabricate and deploy MPCs will be made after further studies and preparation of an environmental impact statement.

  12. Human resources for maternal health: multi-purpose or specialists?

    PubMed

    Fauveau, Vincent; Sherratt, Della R; de Bernis, Luc

    2008-09-30

    A crucial question in the aim to attain MDG5 is whether it can be achieved faster with the scaling up of multi-purpose health workers operating in the community or with the scaling up of professional skilled birth attendants working in health facilities. Most advisers concerned with maternal mortality reduction concur to promote births in facilities with professional attendants as the ultimate strategy. The evidence, however, is scarce on what it takes to progress in this path, and on the 'interim solutions' for situations where the majority of women still deliver at home. These questions are particularly relevant as we have reached the twentieth anniversary of the safe motherhood initiative without much progress made. In this paper we review the current situation of human resources for maternal health as well as the problems that they face. We propose seven key areas of work that must be addressed when planning for scaling up human resources for maternal health in light of MDG5, and finally we indicate some advances recently made in selected countries and the lessons learned from these experiences. Whilst the focus of this paper is on maternal health, it is acknowledged that the interventions to reduce maternal mortality will also contribute to significantly reducing newborn mortality. Addressing each of the seven key areas of work--recommended by the first International Forum on 'Midwifery in the Community', Tunis, December 2006--is essential for the success of any MDG5 programme. We hypothesize that a great deal of the stagnation of maternal health programmes has been the result of confusion and careless choices in scaling up between a limited number of truly skilled birth attendants and large quantities of multi-purpose workers with short training, fewer skills, limited authority and no career pathways. We conclude from the lessons learnt that no significant progress in maternal mortality reduction can be achieved without a strong political decision to empower

  13. Human resources for maternal health: multi-purpose or specialists?

    PubMed Central

    Fauveau, Vincent; Sherratt, Della R; de Bernis, Luc

    2008-01-01

    A crucial question in the aim to attain MDG5 is whether it can be achieved faster with the scaling up of multi-purpose health workers operating in the community or with the scaling up of professional skilled birth attendants working in health facilities. Most advisers concerned with maternal mortality reduction concur to promote births in facilities with professional attendants as the ultimate strategy. The evidence, however, is scarce on what it takes to progress in this path, and on the 'interim solutions' for situations where the majority of women still deliver at home. These questions are particularly relevant as we have reached the twentieth anniversary of the safe motherhood initiative without much progress made. In this paper we review the current situation of human resources for maternal health as well as the problems that they face. We propose seven key areas of work that must be addressed when planning for scaling up human resources for maternal health in light of MDG5, and finally we indicate some advances recently made in selected countries and the lessons learned from these experiences. Whilst the focus of this paper is on maternal health, it is acknowledged that the interventions to reduce maternal mortality will also contribute to significantly reducing newborn mortality. Addressing each of the seven key areas of work – recommended by the first International Forum on 'Midwifery in the Community', Tunis, December 2006 – is essential for the success of any MDG5 programme. We hypothesize that a great deal of the stagnation of maternal health programmes has been the result of confusion and careless choices in scaling up between a limited number of truly skilled birth attendants and large quantities of multi-purpose workers with short training, fewer skills, limited authority and no career pathways. We conclude from the lessons learnt that no significant progress in maternal mortality reduction can be achieved without a strong political decision to

  14. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, Leonardo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A crewmember of Expedition One, cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko, is dwarfed by transient hardware aboard Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), a primary cargo of the STS-102 mission. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS's) moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments and supplies to and from the Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo into 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, the STS-102 mission served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  15. Multi-purpose hydrogen isotopes separation plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Boniface, H.A.; Gnanapragasam, N.V.; Ryland, D.K.; Suppiah, S.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    There is a potential interest at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories to remove tritium from moderately tritiated light water and to reclaim tritiated, downgraded heavy water. With only a few limitations, a single CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process configuration can be designed to remove tritium from heavy water or light water and upgrade heavy water. Such a design would have some restrictions on the nature of the feed-stock and tritium product, but could produce essentially tritium-free light or heavy water that is chemically pure. The extracted tritium is produced as a small quantity of tritiated heavy water. The overall plant capacity is fixed by the total amount of electrolysis and volume of catalyst. In this proposal, with 60 kA of electrolysis a throughput of 15 kg*h{sup -1} light water for detritiation, about 4 kg*h{sup -1} of heavy water for detritiation and about 27 kg*h{sup -1} of 98% heavy water for upgrading can be processed. Such a plant requires about 1,000 liters of AECL isotope exchange catalyst. The general design features and details of this multi-purpose CECE process are described in this paper, based on some practical choices of design criteria. In addition, we outline the small differences that must be accommodated and some compromises that must be made to make the plant capable of such flexible operation. (authors)

  16. Safety Assessment of Multi Purpose Small Payload Rack(MSPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Yoshinobu; Takada, Satomi; Murata, Kosei; Ozawa, Daisaku; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Nakamura, Yasuhiro

    2010-09-01

    We are reporting summary of preliminary safety assessment for Multi Purpose Small Payload Rack(MSPR), which is one of the micro gravity experiment facilities that are being developed for the 2nd phase JEM utilization(JEM: Japanese Experiment Module) that will be launched on H-II Transfer Vehicle(HTV) 2nd flight in 2011. MSPR is used for multi-purpose micro-g experiment providing experimental spaces and work stations. MSPR has three experimental spaces; first, there is a space called Work Volume(WV) with capacity volume of approximately 350 litters, in which multiple resources including electricity, communication, and moving image functions can be used. Within this space, installation of devices can be done by simple, prompt attachment by Velcro and pins with high degree of flexibility. Second, there is Small Experiment Area(SEA), with capacity volume of approximately 70 litters, in which electricity, communication, and moving image functions can also be used in the same way as WV. These spaces protect experiment devices and specimens from contingent loads by the crewmembers. Third, there is Work Bench with area of 0.5 square meters, on which can be used for maintenance, inspection and data operations of installed devices, etc. This bench can be stored in the rack during contingency. Chamber for Combustion Experiment(CCE) that is planned to be installed in WV is a pressure-resistant experimental container that can be used to seal hazardous materials from combustion experiments. This CCE has double sealing design in chamber itself, which resist gas leakage under normal the temperature and pressure. Electricity, communication, moving image function can be used in the same way as WV. JAXA Phase 2 Safety Review Panel(SRP) has been held in April, 2010. For safety analysis of MSPR, hazards were identified based on Fault Tree Analysis methodology and then these hazards were classified into either eight ISS standard-type hazards or eight unique-type hazards that requires

  17. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for multi-purpose lighters. 1212.3 Section 1212.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance §...

  18. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for multi-purpose lighters. 1212.3 Section 1212.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance §...

  19. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for multi-purpose lighters. 1212.3 Section 1212.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance §...

  20. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for multi-purpose lighters. 1212.3 Section 1212.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance §...

  1. 16 CFR 1212.3 - Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for multi-purpose lighters. 1212.3 Section 1212.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance §...

  2. Whole body vibration: unsupervised training or combined with a supervised multi-purpose exercise for fitness?

    PubMed

    Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of an unsupervised whole body vibration (WBV) training and two different supervised multi-purpose exercise programmes, with and without WBV, on body composition, functional fitness and self-reported well-being in middle-aged adults. Fifty-four healthy participants (age 48.6 ± 6.7 years) were randomly assigned to a vibration group (VG), a multi-purpose exercise group (MG) and a multi-purpose exercise with vibration group (VMG) and trained 3 days a week for 4 months. VG performed a standardised unsupervised WBV protocol, MG a supervised multi-purpose exercise and VMG a multi-purpose exercise including vibration. After training, drop out was significantly higher in VG group (P = 0.016) when compared to VMG group. In both MG and VMG, body composition, sit-up, push-up, sit and reach, agility test, hopping test and self-reported general health significantly improved (P < 0.05). No additive effects were generated by the vibration stimulus. Percentage of body fat and agility test in VG had a significant opposite trend compared to VMG group (P < 0.05). In summary, an unsupervised WBV training should not be chosen for training protocol. However, positive effects on physical fitness and the best results in adherence could be achieved integrating WBV practice into a multi-purpose exercise training.

  3. Comparative evaluation of multi-purpose solutions in the stabilization of tear lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Barniak, Vicki L; Burke, Susan E; Venkatesh, Srini

    2010-12-01

    The range and extent of tear proteins removed by various multi-purpose solutions has been investigated, but there is little information in the literature about their ability to prevent denaturation of tear proteins, particularly lysozyme. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Bausch+Lomb Biotrue™ multi-purpose solution and other care solutions to affect denaturation of lysozyme using a lysozyme activity assay. The test solutions used were: Biotrue multi-purpose solution, Bausch+Lomb renu(®) fresh™, formerly ReNu MultiPlus(®), Alcon OPTI-FREE RepleniSH, Alcon OPTI-FREE EXPRESS, CIBA VISION AQuify, and AMO COMPLETE Multi-Purpose Solution Easy Rub Formula. A phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution served as a control. The test and control solutions containing lysozyme were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a known denaturant of the enzyme. The assay was based on digestion of the cell wall of Micrococcus luteus in a suspension, a substrate sensitive to active lysozyme. Enzymatic activity against M. luteus was used to assess activity of lysozyme. The decrease in the turbidity of the cell wall suspension, a measure of relative enzyme activity, was determined by following the decrease in absorbance (at 450nm) over time using a spectrophotometer. Statistically significant greater stabilization of lysozyme was observed with Biotrue multi-purpose solution and renu fresh than with OPTI-FREE RepleniSH, OPTI-FREE EXPRESS, AQuify, COMPLETE Multi-Purpose Solution Easy Rub Formula, and a PBS control. The lysozyme activity assay revealed that Biotrue multi-purpose solution and renu fresh have the ability to stabilize lysozyme under conditions that typically denature the protein.

  4. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL NUMBER DENSITIES FOR MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER CRITICALITY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Thomas

    1996-01-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the number densities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be used in criticality evaluations of the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) waste packages. The objective of this analysis is to provide material number density information which will be referenced by future MPC criticality design analyses, such as for those supporting the Conceptual Design Report.

  5. Engineering a Multi-Purpose Test Collection for Web Retrieval Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Peter; Craswell, Nick; Hawking, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes a test collection that was developed as a multi-purpose testbed for experiments on the Web in distributed information retrieval, hyperlink algorithms, and conventional ad hoc retrieval. Discusses inter-server connectivity, integrity of server holdings, inclusion of documents related to a wide spread of likely queries, and distribution of…

  6. Nonclinical safety evaluation of boric acid and a novel borate-buffered contact lens multi-purpose solution, Biotrue™ multi-purpose solution.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, David M; Cavet, Megan E; Richardson, Mary E

    2010-12-01

    Multipurpose solutions (MPS) often contain low concentrations of boric acid as a buffering agent. Limited published literature has suggested that boric acid and borate-buffered MPS may alter the corneal epithelium; an effect attributed to cytotoxicity induced by boric acid. However, this claim has not been substantiated. We investigated the effect of treating cells with relevant concentrations of boric acid using two cytotoxicity assays, and also assessed the impact of boric acid on corneal epithelial barrier function by measuring TEER and immunostaining for tight junction protein ZO-1 in human corneal epithelial cells. Boric acid was also assessed in an in vivo ocular model when administered for 28 days. Additionally, we evaluated Biotrue multi-purpose solution, a novel borate-buffered MPS, alone and with contact lenses for ocular compatibility in vitro and in vivo. Boric acid passed both cytotoxicity assays and did not alter ZO-1 distribution or corneal TEER. Furthermore, boric acid was well-tolerated on-eye following repeated administration in a rabbit model. Finally, Biotrue multi-purpose solution demonstrated good ocular biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. This MPS was not cytotoxic and was compatible with the eye when administered alone and when evaluated with contact lenses. We demonstrate that boric acid and a borate-buffered MPS is compatible with the ocular environment. Our findings provide evidence that ocular effects reported for some borate-buffered MPS may be incorrectly attributed to boric acid and are more likely a function of the unique combination of ingredients in the MPS formulation tested.

  7. Performance test on PELICAN - a multi-purpose time of flight cold neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dehong; Mole, Richard. A.; Kearley, Gordon J.

    2015-01-01

    Pelican, a direct geometry multi-purpose cold neutron spectrometer has recently been commissioned at the Bragg Institute, ANSTO. The energy resolution and flux at the sample position as a function of neutron wavelength has been evaluated and time focusing at selected energy transfers has also been demonstrated. Several test experiments of quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scatterings have been performed and these have indicated the realisation of the design specifications and performance of the instrument.

  8. The International Space Station's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, Thermal Performance of the First Five Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Cho, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Logistics Module is the primary carrier for transport of pressurized payload to the International Space Station. Performing five missions within a thirteen month span provided a unique opportunity to gather a great deal of information toward understanding and verifying the orbital performance of the vehicle. This paper will provide a brief overview of the hardware history and design capabilities followed by a summary of the missions flown, resource requirements and possibilities for the future.

  9. Multi-Purpose, Application-Centric, Scalable I/O Proxy Application

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M. C.

    2015-06-15

    MACSio is a Multi-purpose, Application-Centric, Scalable I/O proxy application. It is designed to support a number of goals with respect to parallel I/O performance testing and benchmarking including the ability to test and compare various I/O libraries and I/O paradigms, to predict scalable performance of real applications and to help identify where improvements in I/O performance can be made within the HPC I/O software stack.

  10. The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-24

    purpose vehicles, mortar carriers, and medical treatment and evacuation vehicles. An estimated 3,000 of these M-113 variants are currently in...transportable, armored multi-purpose vehicle family intended to provide a lightweight , amphibious armored personnel carrier for armor and mechanized infantry...a number of different variations of the M-113 were produced to fulfill such roles as a command and control vehicle, mortar carrier, and armored

  11. Explosive Ordnance Disposal Proficiency Range and Multi-Purpose Contingency Training Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    measures, including but not limited to installation of safety fencing, straw bales , silt fence, seeding (temporary and permanent), planting native grasses...point. All combustible materials would be cleared from a 200-foot radius inner circle surrounding the destruction point. • Multi-Purpose Contingency...Chapter 2 April 2007 2-5 entrances, would ring the destruction point. All combustible materials would be cleared from a 200-foot radius inner

  12. Restoring Natural Streamflow Variability by Modifying Multi-purpose Reservoir Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Multi-purpose reservoirs typically provide benefits of water supply, hydroelectric power, and flood mitigation. Hydroelectric power generations generally do not consume water. However, temporal distribution of downstream flows is highly changed due to hydro-peaking effects. Associated with offstream diversion of water supplies for municipal, industrial, and agricultural requirements, natural streamflow characteristics of magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change is significantly altered by multi-purpose reservoir operation. Natural flow regime has long been recognized a master factor for ecosystem health and biodiversity. Restoration of altered flow regime caused by multi-purpose reservoir operation is the main objective of this study. This study presents an optimization framework that modifying reservoir operation to seeking balance between human and environmental needs. The methodology presented in this study is applied to the Feitsui Reservoir, located in northern Taiwan, with main purpose of providing stable water-supply and auxiliary purpose of electricity generation and flood-peak attenuation. Reservoir releases are dominated by two decision variables, i.e., duration of water releases for each day and percentage of daily required releases within the duration. The current releasing policy of the Feitsui Reservoir releases water for water-supply and hydropower purposes during 8:00 am to 16:00 pm each day and no environmental flows releases. Although greater power generation is obtained by 100% releases distributed within 8-hour period, severe temporal alteration of streamflow is observed downstream of the reservoir. Modifying reservoir operation by relaxing these two variables and reserve certain ratio of streamflow as environmental flow to maintain downstream natural variability. The optimal reservoir releasing policy is searched by the multi-criterion decision making technique for considering reservoir performance in terms of shortage ratio

  13. Programmable Thermostat Module Upgrade for the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dallas; Glasgow, Shaun; Reagan, Shawn; Presson, Keith; Howard, David; Smith, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The STS-121/ULF1.1 mission was the maiden flight of the Programmable Thermostat Module (PTM) system used to control the 28 V shell heaters on the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). These PTMs, in conjunction with a Data Recorder Module (DRM), provide continuous closed loop temperature control and data recording of MPLM on-orbit heater operations. This paper will discuss the hardware design, development, test and verification (DDT&V) activities performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as well as the operational implementation and mission performance.

  14. A multi-purpose SAIL demonstrator design and its principle experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Yan, Aimin; Xu, Nan; Wang, Lijuan; Luan, Zhu; Sun, Jianfeng; Liu, Liren

    2009-08-01

    A fully 2-D synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) demonstrator is designed and being fabricated to experimentally investigate and theoretically analyze the beam diffraction properties, antenna function, imaging resolution and signal processing algorithm of SAIL. The design details of the multi-purpose SAIL demonstrator are given and, as the first phase, a laboratory-scaled SAIL system based on bulk optical elements has been built to verify the principle of design, which is similar in construction to the demonstrator but without the major antenna telescope. The system has the aperture diameter of about 1mm and the target distance of 3.2m.

  15. The Multi-Purpose Detector for NICA heavy-Ion Collider at JINR

    SciTech Connect

    Rogachevsky, O. V.

    2012-05-15

    The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. Its main components located inside a superconducting solenoid are a tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber, a time-of-flight system for particle identification and a barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. A zero degree hadron calorimeter is designed specifically to measure the energy of spectators. In this paper, all parts of the apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

  16. NASA AND ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, NASA and ESA made a decision to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Program until the end of 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid-2014. NASA and ESA considered a number of barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module and Spacecraft Adaptor for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter element with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its projected utilization for the global space exploration endeavour.

  17. Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

  18. Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  19. Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in Discovery Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  20. The Raffaello, a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, arrives at KSC aboard a Beluga super transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An Airbus Industrie A300-600ST 'Beluga' Super Transporter is reflected in the rain puddles as it comes to a stop at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Beluga is carrying the Raffaello, the second Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS). One of Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, the MPLM is a reusable logistics carrier and the primary delivery system used to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Weighing nearly 4.5 tons, the module measures 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Raffaello will join Leonardo, the first Italian-built MPLM, in the Space Station Processing Facility for testing. NASA, Boeing, the Italian Space Agency and Alenia Aerospazio will provide engineering support.

  1. Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Boehm, Paul; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in September of 2014. The development of the Orion Active Thermal Control (ATCS) and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the integrating the components into the EFT1 vehicle and preparing them for launch. Work also has started on preliminary design reviews for the manned vehicle. Additional development work is underway to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation on the flight tests of EM1 in 2017 and of EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2013 to April 2014

  2. Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in 2014. The development of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the completing the components which are on EFT1. Additional development work has been done to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation for a flight tests in of EM1 in 2017 and in and EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2012 to April 2013.

  3. The Raffaello, a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, arrives at KSC aboard a Beluga super transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An Airbus Industrie A300-600ST 'Beluga' Super Transporter is reflected in the rain puddles as it taxis toward the mate/demate tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Beluga is carrying the Raffaello, the second Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS). One of Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, the MPLM is a reusable logistics carrier and the primary delivery system used to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Weighing nearly 4.5 tons, the module measures 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Raffaello will join Leonardo, the first Italian-built MPLM, in the Space Station Processing Facility for testing. NASA, Boeing, the Italian Space Agency and Alenia Aerospazio will provide engineering support.

  4. The Raffaello, a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, arrives at KSC aboard a Beluga super transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An Airbus Industrie A300-600ST 'Beluga' Super Transporter lands in the rain at the Shuttle Landing Facility to deliver its cargo, the second Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS). One of Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, the MPLM, named Raffaello, is a reusable logistics carrier and the primary delivery system used to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Weighing nearly 4.5 tons, the module measures 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Raffaello will join Leonardo, the first Italian-built MPLM, in the Space Station Processing Facility for testing. NASA, Boeing, the Italian Space Agency and Alenia Aerospazio will provide engineering support.

  5. The Raffaello, a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, arrives at KSC aboard a Beluga super transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An Airbus Industrie A300-600ST 'Beluga' Super Transporter touches down at the Shuttle Landing Facility to deliver its cargo, the second Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) for the International Space Station (ISS). One of Italy's major contributions to the ISS program, the MPLM, named Raffaello, is a reusable logistics carrier and the primary delivery system used to resupply and return station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Weighing nearly 4.5 tons, the module measures 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Raffaello will join Leonardo, the first Italian-built MPLM, in the Space Station Processing Facility for testing. NASA, Boeing, the Italian Space Agency and Alenia Aerospazio will provide engineering support.

  6. Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Cross, Cynthia D.; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Rains, George Edward

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely from the Earth beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT1) vehicle to be launched in 2013. The development of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the components which are on OFT1 which includes pressure control and active thermal control systems, is progressing through the design stage into manufacturing. Additional development work was done to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation for a flight test in 2017. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2011 to April 2012.

  7. Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Cross, Cynthia D.; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Rains, George Edward

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely from the Earth beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in 2014. The development of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the components which are on EFT1 which includes pressure control and active thermal control systems, is progressing through the design stage into manufacturing. Additional development work was done to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation for a flight tests in 2017 and in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2011 to April 2012.

  8. Effect of thermocycling on the durability of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives on dentin.

    PubMed

    Sangwichit, Ketkamon; Kingkaew, Ruksaphon; Pongprueksa, Pong; Senawongse, Pisol

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to compare bond strengths of adhesives with/without thermocycling and to analyze the micromorphology of resindentin interfaces. Flat dentin surfaces were prepared and divided into eight groups to bond with four etch-and-rinse adhesives (Optibond FL, Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, Optibond Solo Plus, and Single Bond 2) and four self-etch adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Adper SE Plus, Clearfil S(3) Bond and Adper Easy Bond). Specimens were further divided into two subgroups subjected for with/without thermocycling and then subjected to both micro-tensile test and resin-dentin interface evaluation. The results revealed that there were significant differences in bond strength between the groups with and without thermocycling for all etch-and-rinse groups and for the Adper Easy Bond self-etch group (p<0.01). Clearfil SE Bond demonstrated highly durable bond strengths. Furthermore, more silver ion uptake was observed at the resin-dentin interfaces for all etch-and-rinse adhesives and Adper SE Plus and Adper Easy Bond after thermocycling.

  9. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain.

  10. NASA and ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.; Grantier, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    (1) ESA decided in its Council Meeting in March 2011 to partially offset the European ISS obligations after 2015 with different means than ATVs; (2) The envisioned approach is based on a barter element(s) that would generate cost avoidance on the NASA side; (3) NASA and ESA considered a number of Barter options, NASA concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter with the most interest;. (4) A joint ESA - NASA working group was established in May 2011 to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage; (5)The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin; and (6) The project is currently in phase B1 with the objective to prepare a technical and programmatic proposal for an ESA MPCV-SM development. This proposal will be one element of the package that ESA plans submit to go forward for approval by European Ministers in November 2012.

  11. A new NASA LaRC Multi-Purpose Prepregging Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Dixon, D.; Johnston, N. J.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-purpose prepregging machine has been designed and built for NASA Langley Research Center. The machine has numerous advantages over existing units due to its various modular components. Each of these can be used individually or simultaneously depending on the required prepregging method. A reverse roll coater provides the ability to prepare thin films from typical hot-melt thermoset formulations. Also, if necessary, the design allows direct fiber impregnation within the reverse roll coater gap. Included in the impregnation module is a solution dip tank allowing the fabrication of thermoplastic prepregs from solution. The proceeding modules within the unit consist of four nip stations, two hot-plates, a hot-sled option and a high temperature oven. This paper describes the advantages of such a modular construction and discusses the various processing combinations available to the prepregger. A variety of high performance prepreg material systems were produced on IM7 (Hercules) carbon fiber. These included LaRC RP46, a PMR-type resin processed from methanol and two polyamide acids, LaRC IA and LaRC ITPI, prpregged from N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP). Parameters involved in the production of these prepreg materials are presented as are the mechanical properties of the resulting good quality laminates. A brief introduction into the existing prepregging science is presented. Topics relating to solution prepregging are identified with a focus on the current research effort and its future development.

  12. REBOUND: an open-source multi-purpose N-body code for collisional dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, H.; Liu, S.-F.

    2012-01-01

    REBOUND is a new multi-purpose N-body code which is freely available under an open-source license. It was designed for collisional dynamics such as planetary rings but can also solve the classical N-body problem. It is highly modular and can be customized easily to work on a wide variety of different problems in astrophysics and beyond. REBOUND comes with three symplectic integrators: leap-frog, the symplectic epicycle integrator (SEI) and a Wisdom-Holman mapping (WH). It supports open, periodic and shearing-sheet boundary conditions. REBOUND can use a Barnes-Hut tree to calculate both self-gravity and collisions. These modules are fully parallelized with MPI as well as OpenMP. The former makes use of a static domain decomposition and a distributed essential tree. Two new collision detection modules based on a plane-sweep algorithm are also implemented. The performance of the plane-sweep algorithm is superior to a tree code for simulations in which one dimension is much longer than the other two and in simulations which are quasi-two dimensional with less than one million particles. In this work, we discuss the different algorithms implemented in REBOUND, the philosophy behind the code's structure as well as implementation specific details of the different modules. We present results of accuracy and scaling tests which show that the code can run efficiently on both desktop machines and large computing clusters.

  13. REBOUND: Multi-purpose N-body code for collisional dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, Hanno; Liu, Shang-Fei

    2011-10-01

    REBOUND is a multi-purpose N-body code which is freely available under an open-source license. It was designed for collisional dynamics such as planetary rings but can also solve the classical N-body problem. It is highly modular and can be customized easily to work on a wide variety of different problems in astrophysics and beyond. REBOUND comes with three symplectic integrators: leap-frog, the symplectic epicycle integrator (SEI) and a Wisdom-Holman mapping (WH). It supports open, periodic and shearing-sheet boundary conditions. REBOUND can use a Barnes-Hut tree to calculate both self-gravity and collisions. These modules are fully parallelized with MPI as well as OpenMP. The former makes use of a static domain decomposition and a distributed essential tree. Two new collision detection modules based on a plane-sweep algorithm are also implemented. The performance of the plane-sweep algorithm is superior to a tree code for simulations in which one dimension is much longer than the other two and in simulations which are quasi-two dimensional with less than one million particles.

  14. Evaluation of Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and Multi-Purpose Crew Restraint Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of the Multi-purpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Spaceflights project, funded by Code U, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations on the ground and on the KC-135 to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as the design of crew restraints. The usability of multiple crew restraints was evaluated for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and for performing general purpose tasks. The purpose of the KC-135 microgravity evaluation was to: (1) to investigate the usability and effectiveness of the concepts developed, (2) to gather recommendations for further development of the concepts, and (3) to verify the validity of the existing requirements. Some designs had already been tested during a March KC-135 evaluation, and testing revealed the need for modifications/enhancements. This flight was designed to test the new iterations, as well as some new concepts. This flight also involved higher fidelity tasks in the LSG, and the addition of load cells on the gloveports.

  15. MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.

    In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorbs a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., \\citealt{verrecchia07,pittori09,giommi09,massaro11}) and its features and aims will be presented here.

  16. Software-programmable continuous-flow multi-purpose lab-on-a-chip

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ahmed M.; Thakur, Raviraj; Madren, Seth; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Thottethodi, Mithuna; Vijaykumar, T. N.; Wereley, Steven T.; Jacobson, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Current lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices are assay-specific and are custom-built for each single experiment. Performing an experiment requires scientists or engineers to go through the time-consuming process of designing, fabricating, and testing a chip before conducting the actual experiment. This prolonged cycle can take months to complete, increasing effort and cost and reducing productivity. Similarly, minor modifications to an assay protocol re-incur the overheads of the design cycle. In this paper, we develop a multi-purpose, software-programmableLab-on-a-Chip (SPLoC), where the user simply writes or downloads a program for each experiment. We describe the components necessary to realize the SPLoC, which include a high-level programming language, an abstract instruction set, a runtime and control system, and a microfluidic device. We describe two key features of our high-level language compiler, and describe a novel variable-volume variable-ratio mixer. Finally, we demonstrate our SPLoC on four diverse, real-world assays. PMID:24436691

  17. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruytenberg, T.; Webb, A. G.; Beenakker, J. W. M.

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points.

  18. Honeycomblike large area LaB6 plasma source for Multi-Purpose Plasma facility.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun; You, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lho, Taihyeop; Choh, Kwon Kook; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Yong Ho; Lee, Bongju; Yoo, Suk Jae; Kwon, Myeon

    2007-10-01

    A Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP(2)) facility has been renovated from Hanbit mirror device [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 686 (2003)] by adopting the same philosophy of diversified plasma simulator (DiPS) [Chung et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46, 354 (2006)] by installing two plasma sources: LaB(6) (dc) and helicon (rf) plasma sources; and making three distinct simulators: divertor plasma simulator, space propulsion simulator, and astrophysics simulator. During the first renovation stage, a honeycomblike large area LaB(6) (HLA-LaB(6)) cathode was developed for the divertor plasma simulator to improve the resistance against the thermal shock fragility for large and high density plasma generation. A HLA-LaB(6) cathode is composed of the one inner cathode with 4 in. diameter and the six outer cathodes with 2 in. diameter along with separate graphite heaters. The first plasma is generated with Ar gas and its properties are measured by the electric probes with various discharge currents and magnetic field configurations. Plasma density at the middle of central cell reaches up to 2.6 x 10(12) cm(-3), while the electron temperature remains around 3-3.5 eV at the low discharge current of less than 45 A, and the magnetic field intensity of 870 G. Unique features of electric property of heaters, plasma density profiles, is explained comparing with those of single LaB(6) cathode with 4 in. diameter in DiPS.

  19. A case study: Transforming a vaudeville theatre into a 21st century multi-purpose hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaske, Richard H.; Hoffman, Ian B.; Laney, Jonathan P.

    2002-05-01

    Originally constructed in 1927 as an atmospheric, vaudeville theatre, the Coronado enjoyed 50 years as host to a true variety of events. In the 1970s, functional and space limitations became a catalyst for touring events to avoid the Coronado, and the theatre fell into disrepair. In the mid-1990s, a renovation was planned (completed January 2001) to restore the glory of the original theatre and upgrade it to be a viable multi-purpose hall for the 21st century. By annexing two neighboring buildings, many of the space limitations could be overcome in both the front- and back-of-house. The scope included a significantly enlarged stage and stagehouse, performer support spaces, expanded lobby spaces, quiet ventilation systems, and a new music rehearsal room. Acoustically, a primary goal was to upgrade the hall for both reinforced music/theatre performances and unreinforced, orchestral performances. However, historical regulations prevented modification to the room shape and configuration. In order to make the room suitable for unreinforced music, two primary acoustic features were instituted-a semi-custom concert enclosure for the stage and an acoustic enhancement system for the audience chamber. For theatrical and popular music events, a new performance audio system was designed and integrated into the hall.

  20. Software-programmable continuous-flow multi-purpose lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmed M; Thakur, Raviraj; Madren, Seth; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Thottethodi, Mithuna; Vijaykumar, T N; Wereley, Steven T; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2013-11-01

    Current lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices are assay-specific and are custom-built for each single experiment. Performing an experiment requires scientists or engineers to go through the time-consuming process of designing, fabricating, and testing a chip before conducting the actual experiment. This prolonged cycle can take months to complete, increasing effort and cost and reducing productivity. Similarly, minor modifications to an assay protocol re-incur the overheads of the design cycle. In this paper, we develop a multi-purpose, software-programmableLab-on-a-Chip (SPLoC), where the user simply writes or downloads a program for each experiment. We describe the components necessary to realize the SPLoC, which include a high-level programming language, an abstract instruction set, a runtime and control system, and a microfluidic device. We describe two key features of our high-level language compiler, and describe a novel variable-volume variable-ratio mixer. Finally, we demonstrate our SPLoC on four diverse, real-world assays.

  1. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Ruytenberg, T; Webb, A G; Beenakker, J W M

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points.

  2. Earthscape, a Multi-Purpose Interactive 3d Globe Viewer for Hybrid Data Visualization and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarthou, A.; Mas, S.; Jacquin, M.; Moreno, N.; Salamon, A.

    2015-08-01

    The hybrid visualization and interaction tool EarthScape is presented here. The software is able to display simultaneously LiDAR point clouds, draped videos with moving footprint, volume scientific data (using volume rendering, isosurface and slice plane), raster data such as still satellite images, vector data and 3D models such as buildings or vehicles. The application runs on touch screen devices such as tablets. The software is based on open source libraries, such as OpenSceneGraph, osgEarth and OpenCV, and shader programming is used to implement volume rendering of scientific data. The next goal of EarthScape is to perform data analysis using ENVI Services Engine, a cloud data analysis solution. EarthScape is also designed to be a client of Jagwire which provides multisource geo-referenced video fluxes. When all these components will be included, EarthScape will be a multi-purpose platform that will provide at the same time data analysis, hybrid visualization and complex interactions. The software is available on demand for free at france@exelisvis.com.

  3. 77 FR 38582 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle... information collection will cover all aspects of a U.S. organization's life-cycle with CS. CS is mandated by... services and trade events to U.S. organizations. The Domestic Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose...

  4. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by children; risks of death or injury. 1145.17 Section 1145.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate...

  5. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by children; risks of death or injury. 1145.17 Section 1145.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate...

  6. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by children; risks of death or injury. 1145.17 Section 1145.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate...

  7. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... by children; risks of death or injury. 1145.17 Section 1145.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate...

  8. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by children; risks of death or injury. 1145.17 Section 1145.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate...

  9. Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Yasmin; Radke, Tara; Chuhta, Jesse; Hughes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics model and to verify no recontact. NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) teams examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute parameters, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1, but more testing is required to support human certification, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust but affordable human spacecraft capability.

  10. Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Yasmin; Chuhta, Jesse D.; Hughes, Michael P.; Radke, Tara S.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics models used to verify no re-contact. The NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) architecture includes a highly-integrated Forward Bay Cover (FBC) jettison assembly design that combines parachutes and piston thrusters to separate the FBC from the Crew Module (CM) and avoid re-contact. A multi-disciplinary team across numerous organizations examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the FBC separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute elements, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1. Additional testing will be required to support human certification of this separation event, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust human-rated FBC separation event.

  11. HyBIS - a low cost, multi-purpose, modular vehicle for detailed ocean mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huehnerbach, V.; Murton, B.; Berndt, C.; Garrard, J.; Wollatz-Vogt, M.; Wetzel, G.; Matthiessen, T.

    2013-12-01

    HyBIS is a low-cost, multi-purpose, highly maneuverable, fibre-optic controlled survey and sampling robotic underwater vehicle (RUV) capable of diving to 6000m. Built in the UK by Hydro-Lek Ltd. in collaboration with the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, it has proven itself during recent discoveries of the deepest hydrothermal vents in the world, at 5100m deep in the Cayman Trough in the Caribbean and habitat mapping of seamounts in the Atlantic and Indian oceans . The vehicle has a modular design, with the top module being a command and power system that comprises power management, cameras, lights, hydraulics, thrusters and telemetry. The lower module can alternatively be a clam-shell sampling grab, a manipulator-arm and tool sled, a winch for instrument recovery, or an ocean bottom seismometer deployment module. Unlike a conventional ROV, HyBIS does not have any floatation, rather it is suspended by its umbilical cable directly from the ship. The advantage of direct suspension is that HyBIS can recover or deploy a payload of up to 700kg, although this comes at the price of reduced maneuverability compared to a 'normal' ROV. During its four years of service, HyBIS has, so far, accumulated an impressive list of achievements: recording over 450 hours of HD video footage, thousands of HD still images, collected geological, biological samples, as well as fluids and gas from over 40 different sites. It has also recovered two different seabed landers containing scientific equipment worth over £300k, and placed Ocean Bottom Seismometers onto the seafloor.

  12. NASA Planning for Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    tools included Kaizen/Lean events, mockups and human factors analysis. The majority of products developed by this team are applicable as KSC prepares 21st Century Ground Systems for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System.

  13. Friction Stir Weld Application and Tooling Design for the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcorn, John

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), commonly known as the Orion capsule, is planned to be the United States' next manned spacecraft for missions beyond low earth orbit. Following the cancellation of the Constellation program and creation of SLS (Space Launch System), the need arose for the MPCV to utilize the Delta IV Heavy rocket for a test launch scheduled for 2014 instead of the previously planned Ares I rocket. As a result, an adapter (MSA) must be used in conjunction with the MPCV to account for the variation in diameter of the launch vehicles; 5.5 meters down to 5.0 meters. Prior to ight article fabrication, a path nder (test article) will be fabricated to ne tune the associated manufacturing processes. The adapter will be comprised of an aluminum frustum (partial cone) that employs isogrid technology and circumferential rings on each end. The frustum will be fabricated by friction stir welding (FSW) three individual panels together on a Vertical Weld Tool (VWT) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Subsequently, each circumferential ring will be friction stir welded to the frustum using a Robotic Weld Tool (RWT). The irregular geometry and large mass of the MSA require that extensive tooling preparation be put into support structures for the friction stir weld. The tooling on the VWT will be comprised of a set of conveyors mounted on pre-existing stanchions so that the MSA will have the ability to be rotated after each of the three friction stir welds. The tooling requirements to friction stir weld the rings with the RWT are somewhat more demanding. To support the mass of the MSA and resist the load of the weld tool, a system of mandrels will be mounted to stanchions and assembled in a circle. The goal of the paper will be to explain the design, fabrication, and assembly of the tooling, to explain the use of friction stir welding on the MSA path nder, and also to discuss the lessons learned and modi cations made in preparation for ight article fabrication

  14. A Multi-Purpose Data Dissemination Infrastructure for the Marine-Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafusa, Y.; Saito, H.; Kayo, M.; Suzuki, H.

    2015-12-01

    To open the data from a variety of observations, the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has developed a multi-purpose data dissemination infrastructure. Although many observations have been made in the earth science, all the data are not opened completely. We think data centers may provide researchers with a universal data dissemination service which can handle various kinds of observation data with little effort. For this purpose JAMSTEC Data Management Office has developed the "Information Catalog Infrastructure System (Catalog System)". This is a kind of catalog management system which can create, renew and delete catalogs (= databases) and has following features, - The Catalog System does not depend on data types or granularity of data records. - By registering a new metadata schema to the system, a new database can be created on the same system without sytem modification. - As web pages are defined by the cascading style sheets, databases have different look and feel, and operability. - The Catalog System provides databases with basic search tools; search by text, selection from a category tree, and selection from a time line chart. - For domestic users it creates the Japanese and English pages at the same time and has dictionary to control terminology and proper noun. As of August 2015 JAMSTEC operates 7 databases on the Catalog System. We expect to transfer existing databases to this system, or create new databases on it. In comparison with a dedicated database developed for the specific dataset, the Catalog System is suitable for the dissemination of small datasets, with minimum cost. Metadata held in the catalogs may be transfered to other metadata schema to exchange global databases or portals. Examples: JAMSTEC Data Catalog: http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/catalog/data_catalog/metadataList?lang=enJAMSTEC Document Catalog: http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/catalog/doc_catalog/metadataList?lang=en&tab=categoryResearch Information

  15. Multi-criteria objective based climate change impact assessment for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

    2014-05-01

    Water resources systems with reservoirs are expected to be sensitive to climate change. Assessment studies that analyze the impact of climate change on the performance of reservoirs can be divided in two groups: (1) Studies that simulate the operation under projected inflows with the current set of operational rules. Due to non adapted operational rules the future performance of these reservoirs can be underestimated and the impact overestimated. (2) Studies that optimize the operational rules for best adaption of the system to the projected conditions before the assessment of the impact. The latter allows for estimating more realistically future performance and adaption strategies based on new operation rules are available if required. Multi-purpose reservoirs serve various, often conflicting functions. If all functions cannot be served simultaneously at a maximum level, an effective compromise between multiple objectives of the reservoir operation has to be provided. Yet under climate change the historically preferenced compromise may no longer be the most suitable compromise in the future. Therefore a multi-objective based climate change impact assessment approach for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems is proposed in the study. Projected inflows are provided in a first step using a physically based rainfall-runoff model. In a second step, a time series model is applied to generate long-term inflow time series. Finally, the long-term inflow series are used as driving variables for a simulation-based multi-objective optimization of the reservoir system in order to derive optimal operation rules. As a result, the adapted Pareto-optimal set of diverse best compromise solutions can be presented to the decision maker in order to assist him in assessing climate change adaption measures with respect to the future performance of the multi-purpose reservoir system. The approach is tested on a multi-purpose multi-reservoir system in a mountainous catchment in Germany. A

  16. A target field design of open multi-purpose RF coil for musculoskeletal MR imaging at 3T.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Diange; Wang, Xiaoying; Huang, Kefu; Zhang, Jue

    2016-10-01

    Musculoskeletal MR imaging under multi-angle situations plays an increasingly important role in assessing joint and muscle tissues system. However, there are still limitations due to the closed structures of most conventional RF coils. In this study, a time-harmonic target-field method was employed to design open multi-purpose coil (OMC) for multi-angle musculoskeletal MR imaging. The phantom imaging results suggested that the proposed OMC could achieve homogeneously distributed magnetic field and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 239.04±0.83 in the region of interest (ROI). The maximum temperature in the heating hazard test was 16°C lower than the standard regulation, which indicated the security of the designed OMC. Furthermore, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed OMC for musculoskeletal MR imaging, especially for multi-angle imaging, a healthy volunteer was examined for MR imaging of elbow, ankle and knee using OMC. The in vivo imaging results showed that the proposed OMC is effective for MR imaging of musculoskeletal tissues at different body parts, with satisfied B1 field homogeneity and SNR. Moreover, the open structure of the OMC could provide a large joint movement region. The proposed open multi-purpose coil is feasible for musculoskeletal MR imaging, and potentially, it is more suitable for the evaluation of musculoskeletal tissues under multi-angle conditions.

  17. Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in 2014. The development of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the completing the components which are on EFT1. Additional development work has been done to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation for a flight tests in of EM1 in 2017 and in and EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2012 to April 2013.

  18. Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Boehm, Paul; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in September of 2014. The development of the Orion Active Thermal Control (ATCS) and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the integrating the components into the EFT1 vehicle and preparing them for launch. Work also has started on preliminary design reviews for the manned vehicle. Additional development work is underway to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation on the flight tests of EM1 in 2017 and of EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2013 to April 2014.

  19. Low cost multi-purpose balloon-borne platform for wide-field imaging and video observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, Francisco; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Conde, Aitor

    2016-07-01

    Atmosphere layers, especially the troposphere, hinder the astronomical observation. For more than 100 years astronomers have tried observing from balloons to avoid turbulence and extinction. New developments in cardsize computers, RF equipment and satellite navigation have democratised the access to the stratosphere. As a result of a ProAm collaboration with the Daedalus Team we have developed a low-cost multi-purpose platform with stratospheric balloons carrying up to 3 kg of scientific payload. The Daedalus Team is an amateur group that has been launching sounding probes since 2010. Since then the first two authors have provided scienti fic payloads for nighttime flights with the purpose of technology demonstration for astronomical observation. We have successfully observed meteor showers (Geminids 2012, Camelopardalis 2014, Quadrantids 2016 and Lyrids 2016) and city light pollution emission with image and video sensors covering the 400-1000nm range.

  20. Development and applications of a multi-purpose digital controller with a System-on-Chip FPGA for accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurimoto, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Keigo

    2016-12-01

    J-PARC Main Ring (MR) is a high intensity proton synchrotron which accelerates protons from 3 GeV to 30 GeV. It has operated at a beam intensity of 390 kW and an upgrade toward the megawatt rating is scheduled. For higher beam intensity, some of the accelerator components require more intelligent and complicated functions. To consolidate such functions among various components, we developed multi-purpose digital boards using a System-on-Chip Field-Programmable Gated Array (SoC FPGA). In this paper, we describe the details of our developed boards as well as their possible applications. As an application of the boards, we have successfully performed the measurement of the betatron amplitude function during beam acceleration in J-PARC MR. The experimental setup and results of the measurement are also described in detail.

  1. Liftoff and Time Equivalent Duration Data Evaluation of Exploration Flight Test 1 Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces high acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are used in the prediction of the internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components. There arises the question about time equivalent (Teq) duration of the liftoff phase and similarity to other launch vehicles. Vibroacoustic engineers require the fatigue-weighted time duration values for qualification testing inputs. In order to determine the Teq for the Space Launch System, NASA's newest launch vehicle, the external microphone data from the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was evaluated. During that evaluation, a trend was observed in the data and the origin of that trend is discussed in this paper. Finally, the Teq values for the EFT-1 Orion MPCV are presented.

  2. Environmental assessment for the reuse of TNX as a multi-purpose pilot plant campus at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental and safety impacts of DOE planning to allow asset reuse of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include providing for a location for the Centers of Excellence at or adjacent to SRS and entering into a cooperative agreement with a non-profit management and operations (management firm) contractor to operate and market the TNX facilities and equipment. The area (formerly TNX) would be called a Multi-Purpose Pilot Plant Campus (MPPC) and would be used: (1) as location for technology research, development, demonstration, and commercial operations; (2) to establish partnerships with industry to develop applied technologies for commercialization; and (3) serve as administrative headquarters for Centers of Excellence in the program areas of soil remediation, radioecology, groundwater contamination, and municipal solid waste minimization.

  3. K/FAST - The U.S. Army's NDI multi-purpose Ku-band fly-away Satcom terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Alexander J.; Bernard, Robert A.; Stevens, Peter E.; D'Alessandro, Maryann

    1992-03-01

    Attention is given to K/FAST, a NDI multi-purpose Ku-band fly-away Satcom terminal, and the ways in which it epitomizes current trends in military C3I. K/FAST is a state-of-the-art, all solid-state Ku-band terminal providing medium data rate (less than T1) capability. It is designed to accept a GFE bulk encryptor, and includes a multiplexer subsystem with plug-in jacks for secure or nonsecure phones. The multiplexer is reconfigurable, in the field, and permits a mix of compressed voice, data, facsimile, and compressed video. It is demonstrated that off-the-shelf state-of-the-art NDI hardware can be integrated to meet military mission requirements while bypassing the typical multiyear DOD research-and-development cycle.

  4. Urban photogrammetric data base for multi-purpose cadastral-based information systems: the Riyadh city case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-garni, Abdullah M.

    Urban information systems are economic resources that can benefit decision makers in the planning, development, and management of urban projects and resources. In this research, a conceptual model-based prototype Urban Geographic Information System (UGIS) is developed. The base maps used in developing the system and acquiring visual attributes are obtained from aerial photographs. The system is a multi-purpose parcel-based one that can serve many urban applications such as public utilities, health centres, schools, population estimation, road engineering and maintenance, and many others. A modern region in the capital city of Saudi Arabia is used for the study. The developed model is operational for one urban application (population estimation) and is tested for that particular application. The results showed that the system has a satisfactory accuracy and that it may well be promising for other similar urban applications in countries with similar demographic and social characteristics.

  5. Multi-purpose silastic dual-lumen central venous catheters for both collection and transplantation of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, H M; Trehan, S; Miller, R; Fox, R M; Creger, R J; Raaf, J H

    2000-04-01

    Autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation frequently requires sequential placement and use of two separate central venous catheters: (1) a short-term, large-bore, stiff device inserted for leukapheresis, and after removal of that device, (2) a long-term, multi-lumen, flexible, Silastic catheter for administration of high-dose chemotherapy, re-infusion of hematopoietic cells, and intensive supportive care. We reviewed our recent experience with two dual-lumen, large-bore, Silastic multi-purpose ('hybrid') catheters, each of which can be used as a single device for both leukapheresis and long-term supportive care throughout the transplant process. Quinton-Raaf PermCath and Bard-Hickman hemodialysis/apheresis dual-lumen catheters were used as the sole venous access device in 112 consecutive patients who underwent autologous PBPC collection and transplantation. The catheter exit site was monitored three times a week, and lumen patency was assessed using clinical and radiologic techniques. Catheters were removed prematurely for persistent thrombus, positive blood cultures despite appropriate antibiotics, or mechanical dysfunction. There were no intra-operative or immediate post-operative complications relating to insertion. Thirty-two patients experienced catheter occlusion necessitating urokinase instillation. Persistent occlusive problems were noted in 16 patients, and in 10 patients the catheter had to be removed. Two exit site infections and 17 bacteremias occurred. Catheters had to be removed for persistent infection in two subjects and for mechanical problems in five others. Cost analysis comparing the hybrid catheters alone vs conventional devices revealed a charge of $4230 in patients with hybrid catheters vs. $7530 in those requiring a temporary non-Silastic dialysis catheter in addition to a flexible, long-term Silastic catheter. Hybrid, Silastic, dual-lumen, large-bore central venous catheters are safe, cost-effective and convenient

  6. Multi-Purpose Low Voltage Dual Output DC-DC Converter For 100V Power Bus Telecom Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiana, D.; Mollard, J. M.

    2011-10-01

    The decreasing supply voltages of digital electronic and high speed ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and DAC (Digital to Analog Converter) require flexible and high current secondary power distribution system. In the frame of the Inmarsat I-XL program, a 12 kW geomobile SatCom satellite, with 100 V regulated power bus, a multi purpose dual output converter was developed for the payload processor as a building block. After a short introduction on the main performance requirements, the baseline architecture is presented. The main drivers of the architecture are reliability, adjustability, radiation tolerant and single event free, volume and mass. The combination of all these constraints highlights the need of significant breakthrough in various domains. Many research results related to packaging and power electronic topics are brought up. These results directly drive the adopted solution presented in the next step followed by a description of the integration of the defined building block in the Inmarsat I-XL payload IP (Integrated Processor). Finally, the main electrical performances such as output ripple and spikes, load step transient and stability are summarized.

  7. Genetic algorithms optimization of hedging rules for operation of the multi-purpose Ubonratana Reservoir in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiamsathit, C.; Adeloye, A. J.; Soudharajan, B.

    2014-09-01

    This study has developed optimal hedging policies for the multi-purpose Ubonratana Reservoir in northeastern Thailand based on its existing rule curves. The hedging policy was applied whenever the reservoir storage falls below a critical level for each month of the year. The decision variables, i.e. the set of monthly storages defining the critical rule curve that triggers rationing and the rationing ratio, were optimized by genetic algorithm (GA). Both single stage (i.e. with one critical rule curve and one rationing ratio) and two-stage (with two critical rule curves and ratios) of the hedging policy were considered in the optimization. To test the effect of the optimized hedging policies on reservoir performance, simulations were carried out, forced alternatively with the existing rule curves (i.e. without hedging) and the two optimized hedging policies. Performance was summarized in terms of reliability (time- and volume-based) and vulnerability. The results showed that the vulnerability was significantly reduced by using the optimized hedging rules. However, the number of water shortages increased with the optimized rules, causing the time-based reliability to worsen significantly. This should not be of concern since, although the number of shortages increased, the associated shortage quantities on most of these additional occasions were small, leaving the volumetric reliability largely unchanged.

  8. The role of multi-purpose solutions in prevention and removal of lipid depositions on contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Tam, Ngai Keung; Pitt, William G; Perez, Krystian X; Handly, Erika; Glenn, Andrew A; Hickey, John W; Larsen, Brian G

    2014-12-01

    The sorption and desorption of radiolabeled dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol (CH) were measured on 5 types of commercial contact lenses. The lenses were soaked in vitro in an artificial tear fluid for 16h. The effects of borate buffered saline and two commercial multi-purpose lens-care solutions (MPSs) on reducing the lipid (DPPC and CH) sorption and increasing the lipid removal were examined. The results showed that silicone hydrogel (SiHy) lenses accumulated the most lipids, sorbing over an order of magnitude more than polymacon, a conventional hydrogel lens. Pre-soaking the SiHy lenses for 16h in MPSs reduced the DPPC sorption by up to 13% and the CH sorption by up to 11%, compared to controls that were not pre-soaked. However neither these reductions nor those on polymacon were statistically significant (p>0.05). In sorption experiments without presoaking, subsequent exposure to the MPSs removed some DPPC from the lenses (0-3.1% for SiHy lenses and 14-55% for polymacon), but CH removal was 0.0-0.8% for SiHy lenses and 0.6-28% for polymacon lenses. Some of these removals were statistically significant (p<0.05).

  9. Iodine Tagging Velocimetry and Mechanism in the Hypersonic Near Wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balla, R. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a new molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) method for velocity measurements of high speed flow. It demonstrates offbody Iodine Tagging Velocimetry (ITV) in the hypersonic near wake of a MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) model. Experiments are performed in the NASA-Langley 31-inch Mach 10 air wind tunnel. A 0.5% I2 / N2 mixture is seeded on the leeward backshell of the model using a pressure tap. I2 laser-induced fluorescence is excited along a 5.5 mm line using an ArF excimer laser near 193 nm. Results indicate I2 absorbs at least 2 photons to produce iodine ions and electrons. These recombine as the tagged region is displaced downstream to produce I (2P3/2) whose emission is monitored at 206 nm. Results at P0 = 2.41 MPa (350 psi), T0 = 990K, and 10 micro-sec transit times produce velocities from 630-820 m/sec across the I2 seeded jet at a distance of 38.2 mm (25.5 jet diameters) downstream from the jet orifice. Maximum wake jet velocities near the shear layer are 59% of freestream velocity.

  10. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT ADHESIVE SYSTEMS ON THE PULL-OUT BOND STRENGTH OF GLASS FIBER POSTS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Andrade, Andréa Mello; Machuca, Melissa Fernanda Garcia; da Silva, Paulo Maurício Batista; da Silva, Ricardo Virgolino C.; Veronezi, Maria Cecília

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts (Reforpost – Angelus-Brazil) cemented to root dentin with a resin cement (RelyX ARC – 3M/ESPE) associated with two different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond - 3M/ESPE and Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP) Plus – 3M/ESPE), using the pull-out test. Twenty single-rooted human teeth with standardized root canals were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=10): G1- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (3M/ESPE) + Adper Single Bond + #1 post (Reforpost – Angelus) + four #1 accessory posts (Reforpin – Angelus) + resin cement; G2- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel + Adper Scotchbond MP Plus + #1 post + four #1 accessory posts + resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days and submitted to the pull-out test in a universal testing machine (EMIC) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength (kgf) and standard deviation were: G1- 29.163 ± 7.123; G2- 37.752 ±13.054. Statistical analysis (Student's t-test; α=0.05 showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. Adhesive bonding failures between resin cement and root canal dentin surface were observed in both groups, with non-polymerized resin cement in the apical portion of the post space when Single Bond was used (G1). The type of adhesive system employed on the fiber post cementation did not influence the pull-out bond strength. PMID:19089224

  11. Marginal permeability of self-etch and total-etch adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Owens, Barry M; Johnson, William W; Harris, Edward F

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated microleakage in vitro of self-etch and multi-step, total-etch adhesive systems. Ninety-six extracted non-carious human molars were randomly assigned to eight groups (n=12) and restored with different adhesive systems: Optibond Solo Plus, iBond, Adper Prompt L-Pop, Xeno III, Simplicity, Nano-Bond, Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Touch & Bond. Each group was treated following the manufacturer's instructions. Class V cavities were prepared on the facial or lingual surfaces of each tooth with coronal margins in enamel and apical margins in cementum (dentin). The teeth were restored with Z-100 resin composite. After polishing with Sof-Lex disks, the teeth were thermocycled for 1000 cycles and coated with nail varnish to within 1.0 mm of the restoration. The teeth were stained in 1% methylene blue dye for 24 hours and sectioned from the facial to lingual surface. Dye penetration (microleakage) was examined with a 20x binocular microscope. Enamel and dentin margin leakage was scored on a 0 to 3 ordinal scale. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Comparison of the adhesive groups at the enamel margin revealed: 1) Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose exhibited significantly less leakage than the other adhesive groups (except iBond); 2) among the self-etch adhesive groups, iBond exhibited significantly less leakage than Nano-Bond and 3) the other adhesive groups clustered intermediately. In contrast, there were no significant differences among the adhesive groups when the dentin margin was evaluated. A Wilcoxin signed rank test showed significantly less leakage at the enamel margins compared to the dentin margins of the eight adhesive systems tested. All data were submitted to statistical analysis at p<0.05 level of significance.

  12. Monte Carlo simulations of gamma-ray space telescopes: a BoGEMMS multi-purpose application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioretti, Valentina; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Tavani, Marco; Marisaldi, Martino; Sabatini, Sabina; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio

    2014-07-01

    After the development of a BoGEMMS (Bologna Geant4 Multi-Mission Simulator) template for the background study of X-ray telescopes, a new extension is built for the simulation of a Gamma-ray space mission (e.g. AGILE, Fermi), conceived to work as a common, multi-purpose framework for the present and future electron tracking gamma-ray space telescopes. The Gamma-ray extension involves the Geant4 mass model, the physics list and, more important, the production and treatment of the simulation output. From the user point of view, the simulation set-up follows a tree structure, with the main level being the selection of the simulation framework (the general, X-ray or gamma-ray application) and the secondary levels being the detailed configuration of the geometry and the output format. The BoGEMMS application to Gamma-ray missions has been used to evaluate the instrument performances of a new generation of Gamma-ray telescopes (e.g. Gamma-Light), and a full simulation of the AGILE mission is currently under construction, to scientifically validate and calibrate the simulator with real in-space data sets. A complete description of the BoGEMMS Gamma-ray framework is presented here, with an overview of the achieved results for the potential application to present and future experiments (e.g., GAMMA-400 and Gamma-Light). The evaluation of the photon conversion efficiency to beta particle pairs and the comparison to tabulated data allows the preliminary physical validation of the overall architecture. The Gamma-ray module application for the study of the Gamma-Light instrument performances is reported as reference test case.

  13. Managing runoff and flow pathways in a small rural catchment to reduce flood risk with other multi-purpose benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Welton, Phil; Kerr, Peter; Quinn, Paul; Jonczyk, Jennine

    2010-05-01

    Belford only two houses were flooded. Data from the catchment and mitigation features showed that the defence measures resulted in an increase in travel time of the peak and attenuated high flows which would have usually travelled quickly down the channel to the village. For example, the pilot feature appears to have increased the travel time of a flood peak at the top of the catchment from 20 minutes to 35 minutes over a 1 km stretch of channel. There are currently ten active mitigation features present in the catchment. More features are planned for construction this year. Early data from the catchment indicates that the runoff attenuation features are having an impact on reducing flood flows in the channel and also slowing down the flood peak. At the same time the multi-purpose aspects of the features are apparent.

  14. Multi-destination and multi-purpose trip effects in the analysis of the demand for trips to a remote recreational site.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Amoako-Tuffour, Joe

    2009-06-01

    One of the basic assumptions of the travel cost method for recreational demand analysis is that the travel cost is always incurred for a single purpose recreational trip. Several studies have skirted around the issue with simplifying assumptions and dropping observations considered as nonconventional holiday-makers or as nontraditional visitors from the sample. The effect of such simplifications on the benefit estimates remains conjectural. Given the remoteness of notable recreational parks, multi-destination or multi-purpose trips are not uncommon. This article examines the consequences of allocating travel costs to a recreational site when some trips were taken for purposes other than recreation and/or included visits to other recreational sites. Using a multi-purpose weighting approach on data from Gros Morne National Park, Canada, we conclude that a proper correction for multi-destination or multi-purpose trip is more of what is needed to avoid potential biases in the estimated effects of the price (travel-cost) variable and of the income variable in the trip generation equation.

  15. The Role of Combination Techniques in Maximizing the Utility of Precipitation Estimates from Several Multi-Purpose Remote-Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-purpose remote-sensing products from various satellites have proved crucial in developing global estimates of precipitation. Examples of these products include low-earth-orbit and geosynchronous-orbit infrared (leo- and geo-IR), Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Television Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data, and passive microwave data such as that from the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I). Each of these datasets has served as the basis for at least one useful quasi-global precipitation estimation algorithm; however, the quality of estimates varies tremendously among the algorithms for the different climatic regions around the globe.

  16. Spin Forming of an Aluminum 2219-T6 Aft Bulkhead for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle: Phase II Supplemental Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Squire, Michael D.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hoffman, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the aft bulkhead of the pressure vessel. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) 2219 aft bulkhead which will eliminate the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design that will reduce vehicle weight by eliminating welds. Phase I of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece forward pressure vessel bulkhead from aluminum-lithium 2195.

  17. A multicenter investigation of OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® multi-purpose disinfecting solution impact on soft contact lens patient comfort

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Glenn S; Bennett, Linda; Espejo, Louis; Carducci, Suzanne; Sacco, Andrew; Hannigan, Robert; Schatz, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Demonstrate that successful soft contact lens wearers using competitive multipurpose solutions report improvement in comfort with OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Solution (MPDS). Methods: This 30-day, multicentered, open-label study enrolled 109 eligible soft contact lens wearers using COMPLETE® Multi-Purpose Solution (MPS) Easy Rub® or ReNu MultiPlus® MPS. The test solution (OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® MPDS) was dispensed for use in place of habitual care solutions. Subjects assessed their experience with their habitual solution (baseline) and the test solution (Day 30) using Likert-style questions. Contact lens acuity and biomicroscopy findings were recorded at each visit. Results: The test solution was associated with a statistically significant improvement in instillation comfort (P = 0.02), end of day comfort (P < 0.0001), clear vision (P < 0.0001) and overall satisfaction (P < 0.001). Subjects reported the test solution enhanced their overall lens-wearing experience more effectively than their previous solution (P < 0.0001) and that they would continue test solution use after the study (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The test solution was effective at improving comfort and overall contact lens experience compared to COMPLETE® MPS Easy Rub® or ReNu MultiPlus® MPS in successful contact lens wearers. These results indicate that changing contact lens care solutions, even in successful lens wearers, may improve comfort and overall lens-wearing experience. PMID:20169049

  18. SU-E-J-47: Development of a High-Precision, Image-Guided Radiotherapy, Multi- Purpose Radiation Isocenter Quality-Assurance Calibration and Checking System

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C; Yan, G; Helmig, R; Lebron, S; Kahler, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a system that can define the radiation isocenter and correlate this information with couch coordinates, laser alignment, optical distance indicator (ODI) settings, optical tracking system (OTS) calibrations, and mechanical isocenter walkout. Methods: Our team developed a multi-adapter, multi-purpose quality assurance (QA) and calibration device that uses an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and in-house image-processing software to define the radiation isocenter, thereby allowing linear accelerator (Linac) components to be verified and calibrated. Motivated by the concept that each Linac component related to patient setup for image-guided radiotherapy based on cone-beam CT should be calibrated with respect to the radiation isocenter, we designed multiple concentric adapters of various materials and shapes to meet the needs of MV and KV radiation isocenter definition, laser alignment, and OTS calibration. The phantom's ability to accurately define the radiation isocenter was validated on 4 Elekta Linacs using a commercial ball bearing (BB) phantom as a reference. Radiation isocenter walkout and the accuracy of couch coordinates, ODI, and OTS were then quantified with the device. Results: The device was able to define the radiation isocenter within 0.3 mm. Radiation isocenter walkout was within ±1 mm at 4 cardinal angles. By switching adapters, we identified that the accuracy of the couch position digital readout, ODI, OTS, and mechanical isocenter walkout was within sub-mm. Conclusion: This multi-adapter, multi-purpose isocenter phantom can be used to accurately define the radiation isocenter and represents a potential paradigm shift in Linac QA. Moreover, multiple concentric adapters allowed for sub-mm accuracy for the other relevant components. This intuitive and user-friendly design is currently patent pending.

  19. Operation and maintenance of a new hazardous waste multi-purpose rotary kiln incinerator (system) in compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency and Louisiana (US) regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fontenot, M.M. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The proper management of hazardous and non-hazardous waste generated by modern society will continue to be a challenge for the world. Waste minimization and recycling practices will play a significant role in reducing the amount of waste to be managed. Total elimination of all waste in present day society is unlikely to occur in the future. Therefore, generators must take a proactive and responsible care approach to manage their wastes. An effective treatment operation to manage combustible waste is incineration. Properly designed, high efficiency waste incineration systems are very effective treatment solutions for waste management, particularly when compared to land disposal alternatives. High temperature incineration provides a permanent solution for destroying combustible waste and eliminate harmful or toxic organic constituents in the waste. The Novartis Crop Protection, Inc., St. Gabriel Facility, top environmental priority in the management of waste is to minimize waste at the source. The remaining wastes are recycled, detoxified, and/or incinerated. Land disposal of waste is the last resort for waste management. To achieve the St. Gabriel Facility waste management priorities, a new multi-purpose rotary kiln incinerator was constructed in 1992--93. The incinerator is the first of its kind constructed and permitted in the State of Louisiana since the promulgation of RCRA. The final operating conditions under RCRA were obtained from the regulatory agencies in 1996. This paper will discuss the operating and maintenance programs that were implemented for the new multi-purpose rotary kiln incinerator system to meet the RCRA permit conditions. A review of the preventative maintenance programs (i.e., equipment, monitors, analyzers), computer control, waste analysis, tracking of key parameters, operational cost and equipment reliability of the incinerator system will be presented.

  20. Configurable Multi-Purpose Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencia, J. Emilio; Forney, Chirstopher; Morrison, Robert; Birr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Advancements in technology have allowed the miniaturization of systems used in aerospace vehicles. This technology is driven by the need for next-generation systems that provide reliable, responsive, and cost-effective range operations while providing increased capabilities such as simultaneous mission support, increased launch trajectories, improved launch, and landing opportunities, etc. Leveraging the newest technologies, the command and telemetry processor (CTP) concept provides for a compact, flexible, and integrated solution for flight command and telemetry systems and range systems. The CTP is a relatively small circuit board that serves as a processing platform for high dynamic, high vibration environments. The CTP can be reconfigured and reprogrammed, allowing it to be adapted for many different applications. The design is centered around a configurable field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device that contains numerous logic cells that can be used to implement traditional integrated circuits. The FPGA contains two PowerPC processors running the Vx-Works real-time operating system and are used to execute software programs specific to each application. The CTP was designed and developed specifically to provide telemetry functions; namely, the command processing, telemetry processing, and GPS metric tracking of a flight vehicle. However, it can be used as a general-purpose processor board to perform numerous functions implemented in either hardware or software using the FPGA s processors and/or logic cells. Functionally, the CTP was designed for range safety applications where it would ultimately become part of a vehicle s flight termination system. Consequently, the major functions of the CTP are to perform the forward link command processing, GPS metric tracking, return link telemetry data processing, error detection and correction, data encryption/ decryption, and initiate flight termination action commands. Also, the CTP had to be designed to survive and operate in a launch environment. Additionally, the CTP was designed to interface with the WFF (Wallops Flight Facility) custom-designed transceiver board which is used in the Low Cost TDRSS Transceiver (LCT2) also developed by WFF. The LCT2 s transceiver board demodulates commands received from the ground via the forward link and sends them to the CTP, where they are processed. The CTP inputs and processes data from the inertial measurement unit (IMU) and the GPS receiver board, generates status data, and then sends the data to the transceiver board where it is modulated and sent to the ground via the return link. Overall, the CTP has combined processing with the ability to interface to a GPS receiver, an IMU, and a pulse code modulation (PCM) communication link, while providing the capability to support common interfaces including Ethernet and serial interfaces boarding a relatively small-sized, lightweight package.

  1. The Multi-Purpose Astrolabe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neie, Van E.

    1979-01-01

    Directions are given for construction of an astrolabe capable of yielding two celestial coordinates: altitude and azimuth. Potential uses are included for both young and older children. Quantitative measurement activities related to celestial motion and position are given. (SA)

  2. Multi-purpose droop controllers incorporating a passivity-based stabilizer for unified control of electronically interfaced distributed generators including primary source dynamics.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Seyed Mohammad; Afsharnia, Saeed

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents multi-purpose droop controllers for electronically-interfaced distributed generators (EI-DGs). These controllers allow the micro-grids to operate in grid-connected mode, islanded mode and mode transition transients with a unique control configuration. The active and reactive-power sharing among EI-DGs are satisfied by the proposed droop controllers in islanded mode. On the other hand, in the grid-connected mode, the droop controllers adjust the output active and reactive-powers of EI-DGs at the pre-programmed constant levels. The provision of sufficient damping capability and maintenance of the transient stability in all operational modes of EI-DGs are warranted by the suggested stabilizer. This stabilizer, which is designed using the passivity-based control (PBC) approach, is incorporated in the droop controllers to dampen power-angle, frequency and voltage deviations during large transients using solely local information. The primary source dynamics of EI-DGs are also considered. It is analytically proven that the presence of the primary source dynamics leads to attenuation of the damping capability of EI-DGs in transients. To compensate the adverse effect of the primary source dynamics during transients a novel compensator is inserted in the frequency-droop loop. Finally, time-domain simulations are performed on a multi-resources MG to verify the analytical results compared to those obtained, based on a recently-developed strategy.

  3. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 ×25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ≥ Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As.

  4. A new analysis method using Bragg curve spectroscopy for a Multi-purpose Active-target Particle Telescope for radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losekamm, M. J.; Milde, M.; Pöschl, T.; Greenwald, D.; Paul, S.

    2017-02-01

    Traditional radiation detectors can either measure the total radiation dose omnidirectionally (dosimeters), or determine the incoming particles characteristics within a narrow field of view (spectrometers). Instantaneous measurements of anisotropic fluxes thus require several detectors, resulting in bulky setups. The Multi-purpose Active-target Particle Telescope (MAPT), employing a new detection principle, is designed to measure particle fluxes omnidirectionally and be simultaneously a dosimeter and spectrometer. It consists of an active core of scintillating fibers whose light output is measured by silicon photomultipliers, and fits into a cube with an edge length of 10 cm. It identifies particles using extended Bragg curve spectroscopy, with sensitivity to charged particles with kinetic energies above 25 MeV. MAPT's unique layout results in a geometrical acceptance of approximately 800 cm2 sr and an angular resolution of less than 6°, which can be improved by track-fitting procedures. In a beam test of a simplified prototype, the energy resolution was found to be less than 1 MeV for protons with energies between 30 and 70 MeV. Possible applications of MAPT include the monitoring of radiation environments in spacecraft and beam monitoring in medical facilities.

  5. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 ×25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ≥ Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As. PMID:26230506

  6. Effects of species and season on chemical composition and ruminal crude protein and organic matter degradability of some multi-purpose tree species by West African dwarf rams.

    PubMed

    Arigbede, O M; Anele, U Y; Südekum, K-H; Hummel, J; Oni, A O; Olanite, J A; Isah, A O

    2012-04-01

    Seasonal chemical composition and ruminal organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) degradabilities were determined in four tropical multi-purpose tree species (MPTS) namely; Pterocarpus santalinoides, Grewia pubescens, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Leucaena leucocephala. Three West African dwarf (WAD) rams fitted with permanent rumen cannula were used for the degradability trials. Foliage samples were collected four times to represent seasonal variations as follows: January--mid dry; April--late dry; July--mid rainy and October--late rainy seasons. Leaf samples were randomly collected from the trees for estimation of dry matter (DM) and chemical composition. Ruminal in sacco OM and CP degradabilities were estimated from residues in nylon bags. All samples had high CP (161-259 g/kg DM) and moderate fibre concentrations [neutral detergent fibre (without residual ash], 300-501 g/kg DM; acid detergent fibre (without residual ash), 225-409 g/kg DM and acid detergent lignin, 87-179 g/kg DM across seasons. Interaction effects of species and season on chemical composition were highly significant (p = 0.001) except for trypsin inhibitor (p = 0.614). The MPTS recorded more than 60% OM and CP degradability at 24 h, which implied that they were all highly degradable in the rumen. Their incorporation into ruminant feeding systems as dry season forage supplements is therefore recommended.

  7. Multi-time scale Climate Informed Stochastic Hybrid Simulation-Optimization Model (McISH model) for Multi-Purpose Reservoir System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, M.; Lall, U.

    2013-12-01

    In order to mitigate the impacts of climate change, proactive management strategies to operate reservoirs and dams are needed. A multi-time scale climate informed stochastic model is developed to optimize the operations for a multi-purpose single reservoir by simulating decadal, interannual, seasonal and sub-seasonal variability. We apply the model to a setting motivated by the largest multi-purpose dam in N. India, the Bhakhra reservoir on the Sutlej River, a tributary of the Indus. This leads to a focus on timing and amplitude of the flows for the monsoon and snowmelt periods. The flow simulations are constrained by multiple sources of historical data and GCM future projections, that are being developed through a NSF funded project titled 'Decadal Prediction and Stochastic Simulation of Hydroclimate Over Monsoon Asia'. The model presented is a multilevel, nonlinear programming model that aims to optimize the reservoir operating policy on a decadal horizon and the operation strategy on an updated annual basis. The model is hierarchical, in terms of having a structure that two optimization models designated for different time scales are nested as a matryoshka doll. The two optimization models have similar mathematical formulations with some modifications to meet the constraints within that time frame. The first level of the model is designated to provide optimization solution for policy makers to determine contracted annual releases to different uses with a prescribed reliability; the second level is a within-the-period (e.g., year) operation optimization scheme that allocates the contracted annual releases on a subperiod (e.g. monthly) basis, with additional benefit for extra release and penalty for failure. The model maximizes the net benefit of irrigation, hydropower generation and flood control in each of the periods. The model design thus facilitates the consistent application of weather and climate forecasts to improve operations of reservoir systems. The

  8. TH-A-19A-08: Intel Xeon Phi Implementation of a Fast Multi-Purpose Monte Carlo Simulation for Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Souris, K; Lee, J; Sterpin, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of graphics processing units (GPUs) to compute dose distributions using Monte Carlo (MC) methods within clinical time constraints. However, GPUs have a rigid vectorial architecture that favors the implementation of simplified particle transport algorithms, adapted to specific tasks. Our new, fast, and multipurpose MC code, named MCsquare, runs on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. This technology offers 60 independent cores, and therefore more flexibility to implement fast and yet generic MC functionalities, such as prompt gamma simulations. Methods: MCsquare implements several models and hence allows users to make their own tradeoff between speed and accuracy. A 200 MeV proton beam is simulated in a heterogeneous phantom using Geant4 and two configurations of MCsquare. The first one is the most conservative and accurate. The method of fictitious interactions handles the interfaces and secondary charged particles emitted in nuclear interactions are fully simulated. The second, faster configuration simplifies interface crossings and simulates only secondary protons after nuclear interaction events. Integral depth-dose and transversal profiles are compared to those of Geant4. Moreover, the production profile of prompt gammas is compared to PENH results. Results: Integral depth dose and transversal profiles computed by MCsquare and Geant4 are within 3%. The production of secondaries from nuclear interactions is slightly inaccurate at interfaces for the fastest configuration of MCsquare but this is unlikely to have any clinical impact. The computation time varies between 90 seconds for the most conservative settings to merely 59 seconds in the fastest configuration. Finally prompt gamma profiles are also in very good agreement with PENH results. Conclusion: Our new, fast, and multi-purpose Monte Carlo code simulates prompt gammas and calculates dose distributions in less than a minute, which complies with clinical time

  9. Development of a new single-bottle multi-purpose primer for bonding to dental porcelain, alumina, zirconia, and dental gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kunio; Tanaka, Hisaki; Fujii, Toshihide; Deguchi, Mikito; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the bonding efficacy of a combined primer application which comprised a silane coupling agent, an acidic adhesive monomer, and a dithiooctanoate monomer, as well as the influence of shelf life on bonding. Five experimental primers (coded as Si-P-SS-1 to Si-P-SS-4, and Si-SS as the control) were prepared using 20.0-40.0 wt% 3-methacryloyloxypropyltriethoxysilane (3-MPTES), 0-7.44 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA), and 0.50 wt% 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT). After 24-hour storage at 23°C (Initial) and 2-month storage at 50°C (Aged), tensile bond strengths (TBSs) of a resin cement (ResiCem, Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan) to primer-treated porcelain, alumina, zirconia, and Au alloy were measured. With the Initial and Aged primers of Si-P-SS-1 to Si-P-SS-3, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean TBSs (MPa) [porcelain: 21.7-29.2; alumina: 21.4-25.3; zirconia: 20.3-24.5; and Au alloy: 23.4-27.6] among these three primers (p>0.05), but they were significantly higher than that of the control primer (p<0.05). The experimental primers Si-P-SS-1 to Si-P-SS-3 demonstrated good potential as multi-purpose primers: they had good shelf lives as single-bottle primer systems and were thus able to exhibit good bond strength to all the adherends tested after 2-month storage under accelerated aging conditions.

  10. Liquid Methane Conditioning Capabilities Developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Small Multi- Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) for Accelerated Lunar Surface Storage Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamberger, Helmut H.; Robinson, R. Craig; Jurns, John M.; Grasl, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Glenn Research Center s Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) recently completed validation / checkout testing of a new liquid methane delivery system and liquid methane (LCH4) conditioning system. Facility checkout validation was conducted in preparation for a series of passive thermal control technology tests planned at SMiRF in FY10 using a flight-like propellant tank at simulated thermal environments from 140 to 350K. These tests will validate models and provide high quality data to support consideration of LCH4/LO2 propellant combination option for a lunar or planetary ascent stage.An infrastructure has been put in place which will support testing of large amounts of liquid methane at SMiRF. Extensive modifications were made to the test facility s existing liquid hydrogen system for compatibility with liquid methane. Also, a new liquid methane fluid conditioning system will enable liquid methane to be quickly densified (sub-cooled below normal boiling point) and to be quickly reheated to saturation conditions between 92 and 140 K. Fluid temperatures can be quickly adjusted to compress the overall test duration. A detailed trade study was conducted to determine an appropriate technique to liquid conditioning with regard to the SMiRF facility s existing infrastructure. In addition, a completely new roadable dewar has been procured for transportation and temporary storage of liquid methane. A new spherical, flight-representative tank has also been fabricated for integration into the vacuum chamber at SMiRF. The addition of this system to SMiRF marks the first time a large-scale liquid methane propellant test capability has been realized at Glenn.This work supports the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project being conducted under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, providing focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts to support NASA s future robotic or human exploration missions.

  11. EFFECT OF AN ADDITIONAL HYDROPHILIC VERSUS HYDROPHOBIC COAT ON THE QUALITY OF DENTINAL SEALING PROVIDED BY TWO-STEP ETCH-AND-RINSE ADHESIVES

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Safira Marques de Andrade; Carrilho, Marcela Rocha de Oliveira; Marquezini, Luiz; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel; Manso, Adriana Pigozzo; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; de Carvalho, Ricardo Marins

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that the quality of the dentinal sealing provided by two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives cannot be altered by the addition of an extra layer of the respective adhesive or the application of a more hydrophobic, non-solvated resin. Material and Methods: full-crown preparations were acid-etched with phosphoric acid for 15 s and bonded with Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE), Excite DSC (Ivoclar/Vivadent) or Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply). The adhesives were used according to the manufacturers' instructions (control groups) or after application to dentin they were a) covered with an extra coat of each respective system or b) coated with a non-solvated bonding agent (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive, 3M ESPE). Fluid flow rate was measured before and after dentin surfaces were acid-etched and bonded with adhesives. Results: None of the adhesives or experimental treatments was capable to block completely the fluid transudation across the treated dentin. Application of an extra coat of the adhesive did not reduce the fluid flow rate of adhesive-bonded dentin (p>0.05). Conversely, the application of a more hydrophobic non-solvated resin resulted in significant reductions in the fluid flow rate (p<0.05) for all tested adhesives. Conclusions: The quality of the dentinal sealing provided by etch-and-rinse adhesives can be significantly improved by the application of a more hydrophobic, non-solvated bonding agent. PMID:19466248

  12. Regional bond strengths to root canal dentin of fiber posts luted with three cementation systems.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Giovana Mongruel; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel; Reis, Alessandra; Gomes, João Carlos; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the cementation system on the regional push-out bond strength and failure pattern of fiber posts to radicular dentin. The roots of 48 extracted human incisors were prepared and divided into 3 groups (n = 16), according to the cementation system: AdperScotchbond Multi-Purpose + resin cement RelyX ARC (SBMP+ARC); Adper SingleBond 2 + RelyX ARC (SB+ARC) and; RelyX U100 self-adhesive resin cement (U100). The posts were cemented as per manufacturer's instructions for each cementation system. After 1 week, the roots were sectioned transversely into 6 discs. Two discs were obtained from the cervical, middle and apical thirds and the push-out test was carried out. The failure pattern was examined on all debonded specimens. The data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test. When U100 was used, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was observed among the different root regions. Statistically higher push-out bond strength values were detected in the cervical third for SBMP+ARC and SB+ARC (p<0.05). The U100 showed significantly more mixed failures than SBMP+ARC in the apical third (p<0.05). In conclusion, the self-adhesive cement RelyX U100 was the only cement not sensitive to the root canal region.

  13. Experience in Remote Demolition of the Activated Biological Shielding of the Multi Purpose Research Reactor (MZFR) on the German Karlsruhe Site - 12208

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenmann, Beata; Fleisch, Joachim; Prechtl, Erwin; Suessdorf, Werner; Urban, Manfred

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, WAK Decommissioning and Waste Management GmbH (WAK) became owner and operator of the waste treatment facilities of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) as well as of the prototype reactors, the Compact Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (KNK) and Multi-Purpose Reactor (MZFR), both being in an advanced stage of dismantling. Together with the dismantling and decontamination activities of the former WAK reprocessing facility since 1990, the envisaged demolishing of the R and D reactor FR2 and a hot cell facility, all governmentally funded nuclear decommissioning projects on the Karlsruhe site are concentrated under the WAK management. The small space typical of prototype research reactors represented a challenge also during the last phase of activated dismantling, dismantling of the activated biological shield of the MZFR. Successful demolition of the biological shield required detailed planning and extensive testing in the years before. In view of the limited space and the ambient dose rate that was too high for manual work, it was required to find a tool carrier system to take up and control various demolition and dismantling tools in a remote manner. The strategy formulated in the concept of dismantling the biological shield by means of a modified electro-hydraulic demolition excavator in an adaptable working scaffolding turned out to be feasible. The following boundary conditions were essential: - Remote exchange of the dismantling and removal tools in smallest space. - Positioning of various supply facilities on the working platform. - Avoiding of interfering edges. - Optimization of mass flow (removal of the dismantled mass from the working area). - Maintenance in the surroundings of the dismantling area (in the controlled area). - Testing and qualification of the facilities and training of the staff. Both the dismantling technique chosen and the proceeding selected proved to be successful. Using various designs of universal cutters developed on the basis of

  14. Effect of thermal aging on the tensile bond strength at reduced areas of seven current adhesives.

    PubMed

    Baracco, Bruno; Fuentes, M Victoria; Garrido, Miguel A; González-López, Santiago; Ceballos, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the micro-tensile bond strength (MTBS) to dentin of seven adhesive systems (total and self-etch adhesives) after 24 h and 5,000 thermocycles. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were exposed and bonded with two total-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and XP Bond), two two-step self-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond SE and Filtek Silorane Adhesive System) and three one-step self-etch adhesives (G-Bond, Xeno V and Bond Force). All adhesive systems were applied following manufacturers' instructions. Composite buildups were constructed and the bonded teeth were then stored in water (24 h, 37 °C) or thermocycled (5,000 cycles) before being sectioned and submitted to MTBS test. Two-way ANOVA and subsequent comparison tests were applied at α = 0.05. Characteristic de-bonded specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 24 h water storage, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, Filtek Silorane Adhesive System and Adper Scotchbond SE and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. After thermocycling, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, followed by Filtek Silorane Adhesive System, Adper Scotchbond SE and Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. Thermal aging induced a significant decrease in MTBS values with all adhesives tested. The resistance of resin-dentin bonds to thermal-aging degradation was material dependent. One-step self-etch adhesives obtained the lowest MTBS results after both aging treatments, and their adhesive capacity was significantly reduced after thermocycling.

  15. A multi-purpose computing center: FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Fermilab Computing Center is described with a special emphasis given to the scientific computing systems and the data storage and archiving systems. The scope and focus of this paper is the Fermilab scientific computing facility. It does not cover, or does not cover very well, related issues such as data Grids, cloud computing and storage, commercial storage, data integrity, authorization, access rates, and novel storage technologies. These are all important considerations in discussing data centers and should be kept in mind when one explores issues related to computing centers and long-term data storage.

  16. Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Content, David

    2009-01-01

    A dual-channel telescope allows for a wide-field telescope design wit h a good, narrow field channel of fewer surfaces for shorter-wavelen gth or planet-finding applications. The design starts with a Korsch three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope that meets the mission criter ia for image quality over a wide field of view. The internal image a t the Cassegrain focus is typically blurry due to the aberration bala ncing among the three mirrors. The Cassegrain focus is then re-optim ized on the axis of the system where the narrow field channel instru ment is picked off by bending the primary mirror.

  17. Multi-purpose neutron radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.P.; Bryant, L.E.; Berry, P.

    1996-07-01

    A conceptual design is given for a low cost, multipurpose radiography system suited for the needs of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The proposed neutron source is californium-252. One purpose is to provide an in-house capability for occasional, reactor quality, neutron radiography thus replacing the recently closed Omega-West Reactor. A second purpose is to provide a highly reliable standby transportable neutron radiography system. A third purpose is to provide for transportable neutron probe gamma spectroscopy techniques. The cost is minimized by shared use of an existing x-ray facility, and by use of an existing transport cask. The achievable neutron radiography and radioscopy performance characteristics have been verified. The demonstrated image qualities range from high resolution gadolinium - SR film, with L:D = 100:1, to radioscopy using a LIXI image with L:D = 30:1 and neutron fluence 3.4 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}.

  18. Quarkonia as a multi-purpose tool

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2010-12-21

    Quarkonia can be a very useful tool for understanding the medium in which they are produced and pass through. However, their usefulness as a tool depends on how well certain aspects of their behavior in cold matter are understood.

  19. Effects of a newly designed HEMA-free, multi-purpose, single-bottle, self-etching adhesive on bonding to dental hard tissues, zirconia-based ceramics, and gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kunio; Jogetsu, Yoshiyuki; Shinno, Kazuya; Nakatsuka, Toshiyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the bonding effectiveness of newly designed self-etching adhesives to four types of adherends--enamel, dentin, zirconia, and gold (Au) alloy. Five experimental adhesives were prepared, which contained 3.0-5.0 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA) or 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 3-phosphonopropionate (6-MHPP), 3.0 wt% 4-acryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-AET) or 17.0 wt% 4-methacryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-MET), 0-0.5 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT) or 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT), and varying contents of Bis-GMA, dimethacrylate monomers, water, acetone, and a photoinitiator system. After 2,000 times of thermal cycling, shear bond strengths (SBSs) between a resin composite (Beautifil II, Shofu Inc., Japan) and the four adherends, bonded using the experimental adhesives, were measured at 1.0 mm/min. No statistically significant differences in SBS for bonding to ground enamel, dentin, sandblasted zirconia and Au alloy (p>0.05) were found between experimental adhesives which contained 6-MHPA and/or 6-MHPP, 4-MET or 4-AET, 6-MHDT and/or 10-MDDT, Bis-GMA, and dimethacrylates. An adhesive layer of less than 5.0 µm thickness, by scanning electron microscopy observation, revealed strong adhesion to the four adherends. Therefore, the newly designed multi-purpose, self-etching adhesive strongly adhered to all the four adherend materials tested.

  20. Design of a new, multi-purpose, light-curing adhesive comprising a silane coupling agent, acidic adhesive monomers and dithiooctanoate monomers for bonding to varied metal and dental ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kunio; Tanaka, Hisaki; Fujii, Toshihide; Deguchi, Mikito; Negoro, Noriyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    A newly designed, light-curing adhesive was investigated for its bonding effectiveness to porcelain, alumina, zirconia, Au, Au alloy, Ag alloy, Au-Ag-Pd alloy, and Ni-Cr alloy. Four experimental adhesives were prepared using varying contents of the following: a silane coupling agent [3-methacryloyloxypropyltriethoxysilane (3-MPTES)], acidic adhesive monomers [6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate(6-MHPA),6-methacryloyloxyhexyl3-phosphonopropionate(6-MHPP)and 4-methacryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-MET)], and dithiooctanoate monomers [6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT) and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT)]. After all adherend surfaces were sandblasted and applied with an experimental adhesive, shear bond strengths (SBSs) of a light-curing resin composite (Beautifil II, Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan) to the adherend materials after 2,000 times of thermal cycling were measured. For the experimental adhesive which contained 3-MPTES (30.0 wt%), 6-MHPA (1.0 wt%), 6-MHPP (1.0 wt%), 4-MET (1.0 wt%), 6-MHDT (0.5 wt%) and 10-MDDT (0.5 wt%), it consistently yielded the highest SBS for all adherend surfaces in the range of 20.8 (4.8)-30.3 (7.9) MPa, with no significant differences among all the adherend materials (p>0.05). Therefore, the newly designed, multi-purpose, light-curing adhesive was able to deliver high SBS to all the adherend materials tested.

  1. Influence of Erosive and Abrasive Cycling on Bonding of Different Adhesive Systems to Enamel: An In situ Study.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Marina Ciccone; Casas-Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Machado, Camila Moreira; Freitas, Maria Cristina Carvalho de Almendra; Atta, Maria Teresa; Wang, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of orange juice on the bond strength (BS) of dentin bonding systems (DBSs) to enamel surface after simulation with an in situ/ ex vivo erosive cycling. One hundred and ninety two bovine enamel fragments (4x4x2mm) were obtained and randomized regarding superficial microhardness and distributed to palatal devices for 8 volunteers, in three phases (one for each DBS), containing 8 blocks, which were, allocated in 4 pairs. Daily, these pairs were subjected extraorally to the following conditions: CONT- neither erosive nor abrasive challenge; ERO- erosive challenge only; ABR- abrasive challenge only and ERO + ABR- with erosive and abrasive challenges. Erosive cycles (immersion in orange juice, 3 times/day/5 min/5 days) or/and abrasive challenges (electric toothbrush, 3 times/day/1 min/5 days) were performed. After these cycles, all specimens were restored with the adhesive systems Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP), Adper Single Bond 2 (SB) or Clearfil SE Bond (SE), and the composite resin Filtek Z250. After 7 days, sticks (area ≅1 mm2) were obtained and subjected to the microtensile bond strength test (μTBS) at 0.5 mm/min. Data was statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests (a=0.05). Failure modes were determined using a digital microscope (40´). DBS was the only statistical significant factor. SE was the unique DBS not affected in any challenge, whereas MP and SB performed according to the scenario. The adhesive and mixed failures were predominant in all groups. Overall performance suggested that BS to enamel after erosive /abrasive challenged by orange juice was not affected and it was material-dependent.

  2. BOND STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY OF ENAMEL USING SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVE SYSTEMS WITH DIFFERENT ACIDITIES

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Sandra Kiss; Reis, Alessandra; Pelizzaro, Arlete; Dal-Bianco, Karen; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the bond strength and the morphology of enamel after application of self-etching adhesive systems with different acidities. The tested hypothesis was that the performance of the self-etching adhesive systems does not vary for the studied parameters. Material and methods: Composite resin (Filtek Z250) buildups were bonded to untreated (prophylaxis) and treated (burcut or SiC-paper) enamel surfaces of third molars after application of four self-etching and two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems (n=6/condition): Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch (OP); AdheSe (AD); Tyrian Self Priming Etching (TY), Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (SBMP) and Adper Single Bond (SB). After storage in water (24 h/37°C), the bonded specimens were sectioned into sticks with 0.8 mm2 cross-sectional area and the microtensile bond strength was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean bond strength values (MPa) were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The etching patterns of the adhesive systems were also observed with a scanning electron microscope. Results: The main factor adhesive system was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean bond strength values (MPa) and standard deviations were: CSE (20.5±3.5), OP (11.3±2.3), AD (11.2±2.8), TY (11.1±3.0), SBMP (21.9±4.0) and SB (24.9±3.0). Different etching patterns were observed for the self-etching primers depending on the enamel treatment and the pH of the adhesive system. Conclusion: Although there is a tendency towards using adhesive systems with simplified application procedures, this may compromise the bonding performance of some systems to enamel, even when the prismless enamel is removed. PMID:19668991

  3. ON THE DURABILITY OF RESIN-DENTIN BONDS: IDENTIFYING THE WEAKEST LINKS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zihou; Beitzel, Dylan; Mutluay, Mustafa; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.; Arola, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue of resin-dentin adhesive bonds is critical to the longevity of resin composite restorations. Objectives The objectives were to characterize the fatigue and fatigue crack growth resistance of resin-dentin bonds achieved using two different commercial adhesives and to identify apparent “weak-links”. Methods Bonded interface specimens were prepared using Adper Single Bond Plus (SB) or Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) adhesives and 3M Z100 resin composite according to the manufacturers instructions. The stress-life fatigue behavior was evaluated using the twin bonded interface approach and the fatigue crack growth resistance was examined using bonded interface Compact Tension (CT) specimens. Fatigue properties of the interfaces were compared to those of the resin-adhesive, resin composite and coronal dentin. Results The fatigue strength of the SBMP interface was significantly greater than that achieved by SB (p≤0.01). Both bonded interfaces exhibited significantly lower fatigue strength than that of the Z100 and dentin. Regarding the fatigue crack growth resistance, the stress intensity threshold (ΔKth) of the SB interface was significantly greater (p≤0.01) than that of the SBMP, whereas the ΔKth of the interfaces was more than twice that of the parent adhesives. Significance Collagen fibril reinforcement of the resin adhesive is essential to the fatigue crack growth resistance of resin-dentin bonds. Resin tags that are not well hybridized into the surrounding intertubular dentin and/or poor collagen integrity are detrimental to the bonded interface durability. PMID:26169318

  4. The effect of various primers on shear bond strength of zirconia ceramic and resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Sanohkan, Sasiwimol; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Larpboonphol, Narongrit; Sae-Yib, Taewalit; Jampa, Thibet; Manoppan, Satawat

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine the in vitro shear bond strengths (SBS) of zirconia ceramic to resin composite after various primer treatments. Materials and Methods: Forty zirconia ceramic (Zeno, Wieland Dental) specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were prepared, sandblasted with 50 μm alumina, and divided into four groups (n = 10). Three experimental groups were surface treated with three primers; CP (RelyX Ceramic Primer, 3M ESPE), AP (Alloy Primer, Kuraray Medical), and MP (Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent AG). One group was not treated and served as the control. All specimens were bonded to a resin composite (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE) cylinder with an adhesive system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus Adhesive, 3M ESPE) and then stored in 100% humidity at 37°C for 24 h before SBS testing in a universal testing machine. Mean SBS (MPa) were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = 0.05). Results: Group AP yielded the highest mean and standard deviation (SD) value of SBS (16.8 ± 2.5 MPa) and Group C presented the lowest mean and SD value (15.4 ± 1.6 MPa). The SBS did not differ significantly among the groups (P = 0.079). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the SBS values between zirconia ceramic to resin composite using various primers and untreated surface were not significantly different. PMID:24347881

  5. Effects of simplified ethanol-wet bonding technique on immediate bond strength with normal versus caries-affected dentin

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Sharma, Ritu; Miglani, Sanjay; Bhasin, Saranjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the use of simplified ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) technique improved the immediate microtensile bond strength (μTBS) between resin composite and caries-affected dentin (CAD). Materials and Methods: Twenty-four extracted carious human permanent molars were sectioned to expose the carious lesion. The carious dentin was excavated until CAD was exposed. The samples were divided into two groups: water-wet bonding with Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and a simplified EWB (three 100% ethanol applications for 30 s each), followed by application of an experimental hydrophobic primer and restoration. The samples were vertically sectioned to produce 1 mm × 1 mm thick slabs. The normal dentin (ND) slabs and CAD slabs were identified and were subjected to μTBS evaluation. Slabs from four teeth (two from each group) were evaluated under microscope. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Holm–Sidak test at P < 0.05. Results: EWB improved the μTBS in ND but not in CAD group. The dentinal tubules in CAD group showed sclerotic activity with minimal or no hybrid layer. Conclusions: Simplified ethanol bonding does not improve the bond strength in CAD. PMID:27656059

  6. Two-year clinical trial of a universal adhesive in total-etch and self-etch mode in non-carious cervical lesions☆

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Nathaniel C.; Robles, Augusto; Fu, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Chee Paul; Sawlani, Kanchan; Burgess, John O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the clinical performance of Scotchbond™ Universal Adhesive used in self- and total-etch modes and two-bottle Scotchbond™ Multi-purpose Adhesive in total-etch mode for Class 5 non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs). Methods 37 adults were recruited with 3 or 6 NCCLs (>1.5 mm deep). Teeth were isolated, and a short cervical bevel was prepared. Teeth were restored randomly with Scotchbond Universal total-etch, Scotchbond Universal self-etch or Scotchbond Multi-purpose followed with a composite resin. Restorations were evaluated at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months for marginal adaptation, marginal discoloration, secondary caries, and sensitivity to cold using modified USPHS Criteria. Patients and evaluators were blinded. Logistic and linear regression models using a generalized estimating equation were applied to evaluate the effects of time and adhesive material on clinical assessment outcomes over the 24 month follow-up period. Kaplan–Meier method was used to compare the retention between adhesive materials. Results Clinical performance of all adhesive materials deteriorated over time for marginal adaptation, and discoloration (p <0.0001). Both Scotchbond Universal self-etch and Scotchbond Multi-purpose materials were more than three times as likely to contribute to less satisfying performance in marginal discoloration over time than Scotchbond Universal total-etch. The retention rates up to 24 months were 87.6%, 94.9% and 100% for Scotchbond Multi-purpose and Scotchbond Universal self-etch and total-etch, respectively. Conclusions Scotchbond Universal in self- and total- etch modes performed similar to or better than Scotchbond Multipurpose, respectively. Clinical significance 24 month evaluation of a universal adhesive indicates acceptable clinical performance, particularly in a total-etch mode. PMID:26231300

  7. Modeling the combined impacts of climate and socio-economic change on water quality, availability and consumption in a multi-purpose reservoir: an application to the Xarrama basin, southern Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana

    2014-05-01

    The water resources sector is one of the most vulnerable to climate change. In southern Europe, an increase of water scarcity is expected, combined with a higher frequency and length of severe droughts. Water management in these regions is already a challenge, and several severe droughts occurred there during the last decades, such as the severe droughts of 2005 and 2012 in Portugal, which have highlighted existing vulnerabilities and led to the disruption of part of water supplies. Furthermore, the evolution of socio-economic conditions and even climate change could cause changes to population and land-uses, with the potential to increase pressures on existing resources. The threat of scarcer water resources highlights the need to understand these vulnerabilities and act to reduce them, adapting to the impacts of future climate and land use changes. In fact, water resources governance has been pointed as a key challenge in the present and in the future, as it builds capacity on how to deal with stress and uncertainties generated by climatic variability and global change. Project ERLAND is focused on assessing the eco-hydrological impacts of climate change in Portugal, and therefore water scarcity and droughts are an important focal point on this research. One of the study areas is the Xarrama river basin in southern Portugal, which feeds the multi-purpose Vale do Gaio reservoir used for irrigation and urban water supplies, coupled with a small hydroelectric generating capacity. Currently it experiences some water quality problems and there is already the need of water transfers from other reservoirs to maintain supplies and quality. This is combined with ongoing land-use changes, where irrigated vineyards and olive groves have started to replace traditional rainfed pastures and cereal cultivation. The exposition and vulnerability of the Xarrama basin and the Vale do Gaio reservoir is being addressed for present and future conditions. Future climate scenarios were

  8. Influence of additional adhesive application on the microtensile bond strength of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    de Silva, André Luís Faria; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; de Souza, Grace Mendonça Dias; dos Santos, Carlos Tadeu Dias; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated microtensile bond strength (pTBS) when an additional adhesive layer was applied to the dentin surface. Thirty-five human third molars were flattened to expose the occlusal dentin surface. The teeth were randomly assigned to 7 experimental groups: G1-Single Bond (SB); G2-additional layer of SB; G3--a layer of Scotchbond Multi-purpose (SMP) adhesive applied over SB; G4-Clearfil SE Bond (CE); G5-additional layer of CE; G6-Adper Prompt (AP) and G7-additional layer of AP. For the G2, G3, G5 and G7 groups, the first adhesive layer was light-cured before application of the additional layer. After bonding procedures, 5-mm high composite crowns were incrementally built up. The samples were sectioned to obtain 0.9 x 0.9 beams, which were tested under tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5-mm/minute until failure. The failure mode and adhesive thickness were evaluated under SEM. The pTBS data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and post-hoc Ducan's Test (a=0.05). Mean adhesive thickness was analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test (a=0.05). The results indicated that G3 presented the highest microTBS and the thickest adhesive layer. G6 and G7 presented the lowest microTBS values. When solvent-free adhesives systems were used, microTBS values were not affected by the thicker layer.

  9. Water interaction and bond strength to dentin of dye-labelled adhesive as a function of the addition of rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Linda; BIM, Odair; LOPES, Adolfo Coelho de Oliveira; FRANCISCONI-DOS-RIOS, Luciana Fávaro; MAENOSONO, Rafael Massunari; D’ALPINO, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; ATTA, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This study investigated the effect of the fluorescent dye rhodamine B (RB) for interfacial micromorphology analysis of dental composite restorations on water sorption/solubility (WS/WSL) and microtensile bond strength to dentin (µTBS) of a 3-step total etch and a 2-step self-etch adhesive system. Material and Methods The adhesives Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (MP) and Clearfil SE Bond (SE) were mixed with 0.1 mg/mL of RB. For the WS/WSL tests, cured resin disks (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm thick) were prepared and assigned into four groups (n=10): MP, MP-RB, SE, and SE-RB. For µTBS assessment, extracted human third molars (n=40) had the flat occlusal dentin prepared and assigned into the same experimental groups (n=10). After the bonding and restoration procedures, specimens were sectioned in rectangular beams, stored in water and tested after seven days or after 12 months. The failure mode of fractured specimens was qualitatively evaluated under optical microscope (x40). Data from WS/WSL and µTBS were assessed by one-way and three-way ANOVA, respectively, and Tukey’s test (α=5%). Results RB increased the WSL of MP and SE. On the other hand, WS of both MP and SE was not affected by the addition of RB. No significance in µTBS between MP and MP-RB for seven days or one year was observed, whereas for SE a decrease in the µTBS means occurred in both storage times. Conclusions RB should be incorporated into non-simplified DBSs with caution, as it can interfere with their physical-mechanical properties, leading to a possible misinterpretation of bonded interface. PMID:27556201

  10. Permeability of Dental Adhesives – A SEM Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Malacarne-Zanon, Juliana; de Andrade e Silva, Safira M.; Wang, Linda; de Goes, Mario F.; Martins, Adriano Luis; Narvaes-Romani, Eliene O.; Anido-Anido, Andrea; Carrilho, Marcela R. O.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To morphologically evaluate the permeability of different commercial dental adhesives using scanning electron microscopy. Methods: Seven adhesive systems were evaluated: one three-step system (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose - MP); one two-step self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond – SE); three two-step etch-and-rinse systems (Single Bond 2 – SB; Excite – EX; One-Step – OS); and two single-step self-etching adhesives (Adper Prompt – AP; One-Up Bond F – OU). The mixture of primer and bond agents of the Clearfil SE Bond system (SE-PB) was also tested. The adhesives were poured into a brass mold (5.8 mm x 0.8 mm) and light-cured for 80 s at 650 mW/cm2. After a 24 h desiccation process, the specimens were immersed in a 50% ammoniac silver nitrate solution for tracer permeation. Afterwards, they were sectioned in ultra-fine slices, carbon-coated, and analyzed under backscattered electrons in a scanning electron microscopy. Results: MP and SE showed slight and superficial tracer permeation. In EX, SB, and OS, permeation extended beyond the inner superficies of the specimens. SE-PB did not mix well, and most of the tracer was precipitated into the primer agent. In AP and OU, “water-trees” were observed all over the specimens. Conclusions: Different materials showed distinct permeability in aqueous solution. The extent of tracer permeation varied according to the composition of each material and it was more evident in the more hydrophilic and solvated ones. PMID:20922163

  11. Changes in Water Sorption and Solubility of Dental Adhesive Systems after Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Vitória, Lívia Andrade; Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Santos, Poliana Ramos Braga; Cavalcanti, Andrea Nóbrega

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effect of cigarette smoke on water sorption and solubility of four adhesive systems. Materials and Methods. Sixteen disks of each adhesive system were prepared (Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Adhesive (SA); Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Adhesive System (Adhesive + Primer) (SAP); Adper Single Bond Plus (SB); Adper Easy One (EO)). Specimens were desiccated until a constant mass was obtained and divided into two groups (n = 8). One-half of the specimens were immersed in deionized water, while the other half were also immersed, but with daily exposure to tobacco smoke. After 21 days, disks were measured again and stored in desiccators until constant mass was achieved. Data were calculated according to ISO specifications and statistically analyzed. Results. The tobacco smoke only significantly affected the water sorption and solubility of EO. There were significant differences in both analyses among materials tested. The SB exhibited the highest water sorption, followed by EO, which demonstrated significantly higher solubility values than SB. The SA and SAP showed low water sorption and solubility, and there were no significant differences between the two. Conclusion. Regardless of smoke exposure, both simplified adhesive systems presented an inferior performance that could be related to the complex mixture of components in such versions. PMID:23984078

  12. Cable TV--An Inexpensive Multi-Purpose Communication Vehicle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longworth, Allison

    1975-01-01

    Cable television (the CATV system) can link homes and schools into a communications network, giving its users access to local, as well as national, educational information. This article outlines a five-step plan to set up CATV, telling how to originate broadcasts and implement two-way transmission. (DS)

  13. Multi-Purpose, Multi-Reservoir Simulation on a PC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    The methodology and difficulties in converting a large, general purpose, mainframe, batch oriented computer program (for reservoir simulation ) to...work effectively in the PC environment are described in this paper. A brief overview of the present capabilities of the general purpose reservoir ... simulation program (HEC-5), that works on mainframe and MS DOS compatible computers, is also presented. Keywords: Simulation, Personal computer, Reservior

  14. The Videodisc: A Multi-Purpose Instructional Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Robert V.

    This discussion of the laser videodisk begins by noting that it is an extremely high density visual storage medium that can supply instructors with vast visual warehouses to supplement instruction, whether through conventional group presentations or via individualized computer assisted instruction. Major features of the medium are then described…

  15. Feasibility Study for a Compact, Multi-Purpose Bioluminescence Detector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    which is likely to be primarily dinoflagellates, ostracods and gelatinous zooplankton , however a faster pump speed would be desirable in a profiling...London. (in press) Johnsen, S. and E.A. Widder. (1998) Measurements of the transparency of mesopelagic gelatinous zooplankton from the North Western...transparency and visibility of gelatinous zooplankton . SPIE Ocean Optics XIV. (in press) Johnsen, S. and E.A. Widder. (submitted) The physical basis of

  16. Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Camera Asset Planning: Imagery Previsualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaulieu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Using JSC-developed and other industry-standard off-the-shelf 3D modeling, animation, and rendering software packages, the Image Science Analysis Group (ISAG) supports Orion Project imagery planning efforts through dynamic 3D simulation and realistic previsualization of ground-, vehicle-, and air-based camera output.

  17. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOEpatents

    Ury, Michael G.; Turner, Brian; Wooten, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

  18. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOEpatents

    Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

    1999-02-02

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

  19. Influence of eugenol-containing temporary cement on efficacy of dentin-bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Peutzfeldt, A; Asmussen, E

    1999-02-01

    Zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) cements are widely used as temporary filling materials. However, eugenol has earlier been shown to have a detrimental effect on both resin composites and dentin-bonding systems. The aim of the present in vitro study was to examine whether ZOE cement would also reduce the efficacy of relatively new dentin-bonding systems. This was done by determination of gap formation around resin composite fillings in dentin cavities and of bond strength of resin composite to enamel and dentin. The tooth surfaces involved were either freshly cut, or had been exposed to a ZOE cement (IRM) or to a non-ZOE cement (Cavit) for 7 d before application of a dentin-bonding system (Gluma CPS or Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus) and a resin composite (Z100). Gap formation was assessed in a light microscope on 20-min-old fillings and expressed as wall-to-wall contraction (the width of the maximum marginal gap in % of the cavity diameter). Bond strength was measured in shear on 1-d-old specimens. The mean values of wall-to-wall contraction were 0.06-0.09% with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and 0.20-0.24% with Gluma CPS. The mean values of bond strength to enamel were 22-25 MPa for Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and 20-23 MPa for Gluma CPS, and to dentin were 20-22 MPa for Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and 13-14 MPa for Gluma CPS. The use of Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus resulted in higher bond strength to dentin and less wall-to-wall contraction than did Gluma CPS. No differences were found in either wall-to-wall contraction or in bond strength between the three groups for either dentin-bonding system. Thus, the ZOE cement did not influence the efficacy of two relatively new dentin-bonding systems.

  20. Zirconia nanoparticles prepared by laser vaporization as fillers for dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Lohbauer, Ulrich; Wagner, Andrea; Belli, Renan; Stoetzel, Christian; Hilpert, Andrea; Kurland, Heinz-Dieter; Grabow, Janet; Müller, Frank A

    2010-12-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles prepared by laser vaporization were incorporated into the primer or into the adhesive of a commercial adhesive system in order to evaluate its effect on bond strength to dentin. Zirconia nanoparticles (20-50nm) were prepared using a particular laser vaporization technique and incorporated into the primer (P) or into the adhesive (A) of the Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) system at 5, 10, 15 and 20wt.% by means of mechanical mixing (stirring) and ultrasonication. Control (unfilled) and experimental groups (filled) were applied, according to the manufacturer's instructions, onto flat mid-coronal human dentin. Composite crowns were built up, stored in distilled water for 24h at 37°C and cut into 0.65±0.05mm² beams following a non-trimming microtensile technique. Specimens were fractured in tension using a universal testing machine (Zwick) and examined by scanning electron microscopy for fractographic analysis. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and modified LSD test at α=0.05. Analysis of the nanofiller distribution and ultramorphological characterization of the interface were performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zirconia nanoparticle incorporation into the primer or into the adhesive of SBMP significantly increased μTBS to dentin. Filler concentration only affected μTBS significantly in the P group. Statistically significant differences between groups P and A occurred only at 20wt.% filler content, with a significantly higher μTBS in group P. TEM micrographs revealed nanoparticle deposition on top of a hybrid layer when incorporated into the primer, whereas they remained dispersed through the adhesive layer in group A. Zirconia nanoparticles incorporation into SBMP increased bond strength to dentin by reinforcing the interface adhesive layer. Nanofiller incorporation into the primer solution showed a tendency of increasing bond strength with increasing concentration. At high

  1. Bond Strength of a Novel One Bottle Multi-mode Adhesive to Human Dentin After Six Months of Storage

    PubMed Central

    Manfroi, Fernanda Borguetti; Marcondes, Maurem Leitão; Somacal, Deise Caren; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Júnior, Luiz Henrique Burnett; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of Scotchbond Universal to dentin using the etch-and-rinse or the self-etch technique after 24 h and 6 months of storage. Materials and Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were obtained in 24 third molars. The teeth were divided into four groups: G1 – Scotchbond Universal applied in the etch-and-rinse mode; G2 – Scotchbond Universal applied in the self-etch mode; G3 – Scotchbond Multi-Purpose; G4 – Clearfil SE Bond. A block of composite was built on the adhesive area. The tooth/resin sets were cut parallel to the long axis to obtain 40 beams (~0.8 mm2) for each group. Twenty specimens were immediately submitted to the µTBS test, and the remaining 20 were stored in water for 6 months. Failures and the adhesive interface were analyzed by SEM. Results: According to two-way ANOVA, the interaction between adhesive and storage time was significant (p=0.015).The µTBS (MPa) means were the following: 24 h – G1 (39.37±10.82), G2 (31.02±13.76), G3 (35.09±14.03) and G4 (35.84±11.06); 6 months – G1 (36.99±8.78), G2 (40.58±8.07), G3 (32.44±6.07) and G4 (41.75±8.25). Most failures were mixed. Evidence of hybrid layer and numerous resin tags were noted for Scotchbond Universal applied with the etch-and-rinse mode and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose. A thinner hybrid layer and fewer resin tags were noted for Scotchbond Universal applied in the self-etch mode and Clearfil SE Bond. Conclusion: The results indicate that the µTBS for Scotchbond Universal is comparable to the gold-standard adhesives. Scotchbond Universal applied in the self-etch mode and Clearfil SE Bond revealed higher bond stability compared to the etch-and-rinse mode. PMID:27347230

  2. Fracture resistance of teeth restored with the bonded amalgam technique.

    PubMed

    Dias de Souza, G M; Pereira, G D; Dias, C T; Paulillo, L A

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars with MOD Class II cavity preparations restored with silver amalgam (G1), Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus and silver amalgam (G2) and Panavia F and silver amalgam (G3). After the restorations were made, the specimens were stored at 37 degrees C for 24 hours at 100% humidity and submitted to the compression test. Statistical analysis of the data (ANOVA and Tukey Test) revealed no significant differences among the three groups that were studied.

  3. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the interface of three adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Macari, Soraia; Gonçalves, Mariane; Nonaka, Tomio; Santos, Jaime Maia dos

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the resin-dentin interface of three adhesive systems, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, Optibond and Denthesive Bond II by scanning electron microscopy. The adhesives and their respective composite resins were applied inside the cervical root canal of human incisors and canines according to manufacturer recommendations. The teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and sliced transversally to the root canal and perpendicularly to the resin-dentin interface. The adhesive systems Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Optibond had a homogenous hybrid layer and similar characteristics, involving resin penetration of peritubular and intertubular dentin matrix. Morphological differences of resin tags were seen; Scotchbond Multi-Purpose had more and longer tags than Optibond. Denthesive Bond II did not have the same consistency of bonding. Tubular orifices were not opened and the smear layer was not removed. This was due to the absence of previous acid conditioning of dentin that damages hybrid layer formation. Analysis of the hybrid layer revealed different patterns, suggesting that the attachment was influenced by many factors and a standardization of dentinal substrate was impossible.

  4. The Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle European Service Module: a European Contribution to Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen; Berthe, Philippe; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length - main engine excluded - of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.

  5. The Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle European Service Module: a European Contribution to Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthe, Philippe; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length – main engine excluded – of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.

  6. Strategic need for a multi-purpose thermal hydraulic loop for support of advanced reactor technologies

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James E.; Sabharwall, Piyush; Yoon, Su -Jong; Housley, Gregory K.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation needs. The experimental database will guide development of appropriate predictive methods and be available for code verification and validation (V&V) related to these systems.

  7. The Armys Armored Multi Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-24

    Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisitions, Technology, and Logistics, from Rep. Mike Rogers et al., April 3, 2014. 25 Tony Bertuca, “Lawmakers...InsideDefense.com, June 27, 2014. 27 Rules Committee Print 113-58, House Amendment to the Text of S. 1847, [Showing the text of the Carl Levin and

  8. The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-14

    3, 2015. 24 Letter to Secretary Frank Kendall, Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisitions, Technology, and Logistics, from Rep. Mike Rogers et al...Showing the text of the Carl Levin and Howard P. “Buck” McKeon National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015], December 2, 2014

  9. Novel laboratory approaches to multi-purpose aquatic bioregenerative closed-loop food production systems.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Andriske, M; Kreuzberg, K; Paassen, U; Schreibman, M P; Voeste, D

    1998-01-01

    Based on the construction principle of the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) two novel combined animal-plant production systems were developed in laboratory scale the first of which is dedicated to mid-term operation in closed state up to two years. In principle both consist of the "classic" C.E.B.A.S. subcomponents: animal tank (Zoological Component), plant cultivators (Botanical Component), ammonia converting bacteria filter (Microbial Component) and data acquisition/control unit (Electronical Component). The innovative approach in the first system is the utilization of minimally three aquatic plant cultivators for different species. In this one the animal tank has a volume of about 160 liters and is constructed as an "endless-way system" surrounding a central unit containing the heat exchanger and the bacteria filter with volumes of about 1.5 liters each. A suspension plant cultivator (1 liter) for the edible duckweed Wolffia arrhiza is externally connected. The second plant cultivator is a meandric microalgal bioreactor for filamentous green algae. The third plant growth facility is a chamber with about 2.5 liters volume for cultivation of the "traditional" C.E.B.A.S. plant species, the rootless buoyant Ceratophyllum demersum. Both latter units are illuminated with 9 W fluorescent lamps. In the current experiment the animal tank contains the live-bearing teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri and the small pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata because their physiological adaptation to the closed system conditions is well known from many previous C.E.B.A.S. experiments. The water temperature is maintained at 25 degrees C and the oxygen level is regulated between 4 and 7 mg/l by switching on and off the plant cultivator illuminations according to a suitable pattern thus utilizing solely the oxygen produced by photosynthesis. The animals and the microorganisms of filter and biofilm provide the plants with a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide. Oxygen concentration, pH value, temperature and redox potential are on-line recorded. Ion concentrations and numbers of living germs in the system water are determined twice monthly in the laboratory from samples taken from a special "sample removal module"; the sample volume is automatically replaced from an reservoir container. A rotatory pump produces a water flow of about 38 l/min. For a similar smaller test system with approx. 10 l volume developed from the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI-MODULE a novel indirect solar energy supply is tested which has a buffer capacity to maintain the system for 7 days in darkness under central European climate conditions also in winter. It contains only a single plant cultivator which is operated with Wollfia arrhiza. This lemnacean plant is able to produce large amounts of plant biomass in a short time by vegetative reproduction via daughter fronds. This easy-to-handle apparatus is dedicated to be operative more than 4 month. The experimental animals and microorganisms are the same as in the large system. The paper provides detailed information on the system construction principles and the biological, physical and chemical data of the initial phase of the test runs of both systems with the main focus on the large one.

  10. Multi-purpose fast neutron spectrum analyzer with real-time signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulyaev, Yu. S.; Puryga, E. A.; Khilchenko, A. D.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Burdakov, A. V.; Grishnyaev, E. V.

    2013-08-01

    Diagnostics of hot ion component of plasma on the products of fusion reactions is widely used on thermonuclear facilities. In case of employment of neutron spectrometers, based on organics scintillators, there is advanced technique developed to eliminate neutron pulses from gamma background—digital pulse shape discrimination. For every DPSD application it is necessary to use the fast (2-5 ns) and precise (12 bit) transient ADC unit with large amount of onboard memory for storing every digitized scintillation pulses during shot time. At present time the duration of hot thermonuclear plasma burning in large tokamaks approximate to 1 min, and this requires very high onboard memory capacity (˜100 GB). This paper describes a neutron spectrum analyzer with real-time DPSD algorithm, implemented to ADC unit. This approach saves about two orders of onboard memory capacity, gives the possibility of instant use of outcome to feedback systems. This analyzer was tested and calibrated with help of 60Co and 252Cf radiation sources, and deuterium neutron generator.

  11. Work continues on Leonardo, the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, in the Space Station Processing Faci

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility work on Leonardo, the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) built by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). The MPLM, a reusable logistics carrier, will be the primary delivery system used to resupply and return International Space Station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Leonardo is the first of three MPLM carriers for the International Space Station. It is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Mission STS-102, targeted for June 2000. Leonardo shares space in the SSPF with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), targeted for launch in September 1999, and Destiny, the U.S. Lab module, targeted for mission STS-98 in late April 2000.

  12. Novel laboratory approaches to multi-purpose aquatic bioregenerative closed-loop food production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Paassen, U.; Schreibman, M. P.; Voeste, D.

    Based on the construction principle of the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) two novel combined animal-plant production systems were developed in laboratory scale the first of which is dedicated to mid-term operation in closed state up to two years. In principle both consist of the "classic" C.E.B.A.S. subcomponents: animal tank (Zoological Component), plant cultivators (Botanical Component), ammonia converting bacteria filter (Microbial Component) and data acquisition/control unit (Electronical Component). The innovative approach in the first system is the utilization of minimally three aquatic plant cultivators for different species. In this one the animal tank has a volume of about 160 liters and is constructed as an "endless-way system" surronding a central unit containing the heat exchanger and the bacteria filter with volumes of about 1.5 liters each. A suspension plant cultivator (1 liter) for the edible duckweed Wolffia arrhiza is externally connected. The second plant cultivator is a meandric microalgal bioreactor for filamentous green algae. The third plant growth facilitiy is a chamber with about 2.5 liters volume for cultivation of the "traditional" C.E.B.A.S. plant species, the rootless buoyant Ceratophyllum demersum. Both latter units are illuminated with 9 W fluorescent lamps. In the current experiment the animal tank contains the live-bearing teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri and the small pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata because their physiological adaptation to the closed system conditions is well known from many previous C.E.B.A.S. experiments. The water temperature is maintained at 25 °C and the oxygen level is regulated between 4 and 7 mg/1 by switching on and off the plant cultivator illuminations according to a suitable pattern thus utilizing solely the oxygen produced by photosynthesis. The animals and the micoorganisms of filter and bioflim provide the plants with a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide. Oxygen concentration, pH value, temperature and redox potential are on-line recorded. Ion concentrations and numbers of living germs in the system water are determined twice monthly in the laboratory from samples taken from a special "sample removal module"; the sample volume is automatically replaced from an reservoir container. A rotatory pump produces a water flow of about 38 l/min. For a similar smaller test system with approx. 10 I volume developed from the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI-MODULE a novel indirect solar energy supply is tested which has a buffer capacity to maintain the system for 7 days in darkness under central European climate conditions also in winter. It contains only a single plant cultivator which is operated with Wollfla arrhiza. This lemnacean plant is able to produce large amounts of plant biomass in a short time by vegetative reproduction via daughter fronds. This easy-to-handle apparartus is dedicated to be operative more than 4 month. The experimental animals and microorganisms are the same as in the large system. The paper provides detailed information on the system construction principles and the biological, physical and chemical data of the initial phase of the test runs of both systems with the main focus on the large one.

  13. Multi-purpose presentation techniques for geoscientific data in various media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rink, Karsten; Bilke, Lars

    2014-05-01

    The intuitive presentation of the progression of complex geoscientific phenomena is often an underrated part of the modelling- and simulation workflow. Compiling such a presentation allows to easily communicate progress in joint research projects between participants with different backgrounds. Also, adequate 3D visualisations are usually easier to understand when presenting research results to stakeholders as well as the general public and critical information is conveyed in a more comprehensible manner. We established a workflow that is based on integration and preprocessing of multiple geoscientific data sets in a suitable framework such as the OpenGeoSys Data Explorer or ParaView. After choosing an adequate visual representation of the data in these frameworks, custom-made interfaces are employed to export the data to presentation frameworks. For instance, using the Unity 3D Engine allows to implement interaction techniques such as adding camera paths, concentrating on specific subsets of the data or scene, blending multiple data sets, etc. While a general sequence of the presentation can be predefined, interactive navigation is still possible and allows to focus on particular interests of the audience. Established interfaces and frameworks allow to display existing presentations in multiple ways, including virtual reality environments, novel hardware such as head-mounted displays like the Occulus Rift, or even websites presenting 3D content. Furthermore, the content can be redistributed as an executable for use on arbitrary machines. This versatility enables the use of prepared presentations for a multitude of occasions including exchange of intermediary result to partners in cooperate projects, reports at conferences, the defense of research projects, or use in training courses or for tutorials.

  14. A High Intensity Multi-Purpose D-D Neutron Generator for Nuclear Engineering Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ka-Ngo Leung; Jasmina L. Vujic; Edward C. Morse; Per F. Peterson

    2005-11-29

    This NEER project involves the design, construction and testing of a low-cost high intensity D-D neutron generator for teaching nuclear engineering students in a laboratory environment without radioisotopes or a nuclear reactor. The neutron generator was designed, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  15. The XP spaceplane: A near term multi-purpose suborbital RLV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Charles J.

    2007-06-01

    This paper will describe the history, technology and design features of the XP spaceplane being developed by Rocketplane Ltd. in Oklahoma. The XP is a four seat fighter-sized spaceplane that uses turbojets for takeoff and landing and a liquid oxygen/kerosene rocket engine for main propulsion during its ascent to a 100 km apogee suborbital space flight. The XP is intended to serve a variety of markets including suborbital tourist flights, intermediate duration microgravity research, remote sensing, astronomy, and microsatellite launch missions. Changes in vehicle configuration and flight profile for serving each of these markets will be described. The prototype XP will have its rollout ceremony at the end of 2007 and will begin test flights in early 2008. Commercial space flight operations are expected to begin in fall 2008 with tourist flights and microgravity research flights being the early customer base. The spaceplane's flight systems, safety systems, and operating procedures will be reviewed. In addition, key elements of the Rocketplane business and financial model will be discussed.

  16. Validation of a Cost-Efficient Multi-Purpose SNP Panel for Disease Based Research

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Liping; Phillips, Christopher; Azaro, Marco; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Here we present convergent methodologies using theoretical calculations, empirical assessment on in-house and publicly available datasets as well as in silico simulations, that validate a panel of SNPs for a variety of necessary tasks in human genetics disease research before resources are committed to larger-scale genotyping studies on those samples. While large-scale well-funded human genetic studies routinely have up to a million SNP genotypes, samples in a human genetics laboratory that are not yet part of such studies may be productively utilized in pilot projects or as part of targeted follow-up work though such smaller scale applications require at least some genome-wide genotype data for quality control purposes such as DNA “barcoding” to detect swaps or contamination issues, determining familial relationships between samples and correcting biases due to population effects such as population stratification in pilot studies. Principal Findings Empirical performance in classification of relative types for any two given DNA samples (e.g., full siblings, parental, etc) indicated that for outbred populations the panel performs sufficiently to classify relationship in extended families and therefore also for smaller structures such as trios and for twin zygosity testing. Additionally, familial relationships do not significantly diminish the (mean match) probability of sharing SNP genotypes in pedigrees, further indicating the uniqueness of the “barcode.” Simulation using these SNPs for an African American case-control disease association study demonstrated that population stratification, even in complex admixed samples, can be adequately corrected under a range of disease models using the SNP panel. Conclusion The panel has been validated for use in a variety of human disease genetics research tasks including sample barcoding, relationship verification, population substructure detection and statistical correction. Given the ease of genotyping our specific assay contained herein, this panel represents a useful and economical panel for human geneticists. PMID:21611176

  17. Assessing the performance of multi-purpose channel management measures at increasing scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Addy, Steve

    2016-04-01

    In addition to hydroclimatic drivers, sediment deposition from high energy river systems can reduce channel conveyance capacity and lead to significant increases in flood risk. There is an increasing recognition that we need to work with the interplay of natural hydrological and morphological processes in order to attenuate flood flows and manage sediment (both coarse and fine). This typically includes both catchment (e.g. woodland planting, wetlands) and river (e.g. wood placement, floodplain reconnection) restoration approaches. The aim of this work was to assess at which scales channel management measures (notably wood placement and flood embankment removal) are most appropriate for flood and sediment management in high energy upland river systems. We present research findings from two densely instrumented research sites in Scotland which regularly experience flood events and have associated coarse sediment problems. We assessed the performance of a range of novel trial measures for three different scales: wooded flow restrictors and gully tree planting at the small scale (<1 km2), floodplain tree planting and engineered log jams at the intermediate scale (5-60 km2), and flood embankment lowering at the large scale (350 km2). Our results suggest that at the smallest scale, care is needed in the installation of flow restrictors. It was found for some restrictors that vertical erosion can occur if the tributary channel bed is disturbed. Preliminary model evidence suggested they have a very limited impact on channel discharge and flood peak delay owing to the small storage areas behind the structures. At intermediate scales, the ability to trap sediment by engineered log jams was limited. Of the 45 engineered log jams installed, around half created a small geomorphic response and only 5 captured a significant amount of coarse material (during one large flood event). As scale increases, the chance of damage or loss of wood placement is greatest. Monitoring highlights the importance of structure design (porosity and degree of channel blockage) and placement in zones of high sediment transport to optimise performance. At the large scale, well designed flood embankment lowering can improve connectivity to the floodplain during low to medium return period events. However, ancillary works to stabilise the bank failed thus emphasising the importance of letting natural processes readjust channel morphology and hydrological connections to the floodplain. Although these trial measures demonstrated limited effects, this may be in part owing to restrictions in the range of hydroclimatological conditions during the study period and further work is needed to assess the performance under more extreme conditions. This work will contribute to refining guidance for managing channel coarse sediment problems in the future which in turn could help mitigate flooding using natural approaches.

  18. Pursuit, Avoidance, and Cohesion in Flight: Multi-Purpose Control Laws and Neuromorphic VLSI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    As the next step (past the head-direction cell system) in our spatial navigation efforts, we are developing a neuromorphic analog VLSI -based model...but have begun circuit designs that utilize a floating-gate memory synaptic array. The episodic memory uses a two stage neural network: a feature...Control Laws and Neuromorphic VLSI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 070402-7705 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-07-1-0446 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  19. A multi-purpose satellite service at 20/30 GHz - Opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Leslie

    1992-03-01

    The suitability of developing high-frequency bands is evaluated with particular attention given to the use of the 20/30-GHz band for satellite voice, data, and video communications. Crowding in the C- and Ku-band frequencies allocated to fixed-satellite services is examined in the light of continuing growth, and the benefits of establishing general-satellite services (GSSs) are listed. NASA's ACTS program and private GSS systems are delineated and shown to offer high-data-rate fixed-communications antennas and technologies suitable for multiple services. The Norstar satellite is described as an example of a GSS system, and the technical characteristics are given. In spite of technical, operational, and regulatory challenges presented by the development of GSS systems, a GSS allocation can enable the International Telecommunications Union to be proactive in its spectrum/orbit allocations.

  20. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaker, Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.

    2007-12-01

    In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, it is the only sub-basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). This lack of data represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. Therefore, the new research icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS will be equipped with drilling facilities to fulfil the needs of the IODP for a -Mission-Specific Platform- to drill in deep, permanently ice-covered ocean basins. This icebreaker must be also powerful enough to maintain station against the drifting sea-ice cover and will have to be equipped with a dynamic positioning system. This new icebreaker would be conceived as an optimized science platform from the keel up and will allow conducting long, international and interdisciplinary expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean during all seasons of the year. In a long-term perspective the AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research vessel as well as a polar drill ship. The construction of AURORA BOREALIS requires several new technical implementations, such as advanced dynamic positioning and deep-sea drilling under a closed sea-ice cover and two moon pools (7 x 7 m), and will provide an extended technical potential and knowledge for marine technology. The scientific and technical details will be presented.

  1. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaking Deep-Sea Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.; Azzolini, R.

    2009-04-01

    Future breakthroughs in scientific deep-sea drilling critically depend on our ability to perform field expeditions with state-of-the-art technologies and modern infrastructures. This will require major investments, both in terms of generating new, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. Diverse models for science operations are presently projected, also within the context of scientific needs after the current phase of the IODP will come to an end. In spite of its critical role in global climate and tectonic evolution, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most unexplored ocean basins of the world, its geologic and paleo-environmental history remaining largely unknown. Restricted by circulating sea ice, scientific drilling has been slow to arrive in the Arctic Ocean. This lack of data remains and represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. We here report on the finalised technical planning of a new European research icebreaker and deep-sea drilling vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, designed with an all-season capability of endurance in permanently ice-covered waters. The icebreaker will be able to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins primarily during the more favorable summer seasons in order to fulfill the needs of the IODP or its eventual successor as a Mission-Specific Platform. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced polar research vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments within the next 35-40 years. It will feature the highest attainable icebreaker classification, considerably surpassing in performance all currently operating research icebreakers. New technological features to be implemented include a novel hull design and specialized dynamic positioning systems for operations under closed sea-ice cover conditions with up to 2.5 m ice thickness, combined with advanced ice-forecasting support. The vessel is planned to operate routinely without ice management support by additional icebreakers, thus reducing operational costs for scientific drilling in polar regions considerably. Two moon-pools (7x7 m each) will allow routine deployment of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) in ice conditions. A dedicated deep-sea drilling rig with full weather protection will enable sampling of the ocean floor in water depths between 100 and 5000 m with more than 1000 m penetration under polar conditions. The modular arrangement of science space with hangars, the possibility to flexibly equip the ship with laboratory or supply containers and with helicopters, addresses the needs of diverse disciplines in marine research. This icebreaker will allow to stage long international, interdisciplinary drilling expeditions in the central Arctic. In a long-term perspective, AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research and a scientific drilling vessel.

  2. A multi-purpose system for water purification and sea-water softening.

    PubMed

    Barsky, L; Rubinstein, J; Barsky, S; Kirzhner, F; Bodul, O

    1998-01-01

    A novel technique that can be used for reacting toxic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power plants and other combustion wastes with sea water is described. A chemical interaction between CO2 and the cations in sea water, with the pH electrolytically regulated, can precipitate almost all the calcium and magnesium ions, as well as some sodium and potassium ions, as carbonates and bicarbonates. The carbonates and bicarbonates thus prepared can then be mixed with ash to yield a building material. Sulfur ions will be neutralized with calcium and magnesium, and the remaining ions can be removed using reverse osmosis or some other method. The technology and equipment for purification are based on modules that can be used for industrial waste-water, sea water, solutions, and otherwise. The module for separation of sand and suspended coarse substances consists of a tank for flocculation, coagulation, and precipitation of solid particles; and a low-pressure hydrocyclone. The module for purification from oil and fine suspensions is based on column flotation, flotation with a special ejector, and adhesion flotation. The module for ions and colloids consists of an absorbing filter with zeolite, fly ash, and other absorbing materials. Using a laboratory model consisting of a special mini-plant, we processed 10 L of factory-waste water containing more than 20 g/L organic content (compare with the upper limit of 0.02 g/L allowed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection in Israel). After the experimental solution was treated and evaporated to a small bulk, the water obtained was almost clear. On the basis of the results in the model, we present a scaled-up process for the design, development, and production of equipment for and the assembly of a large installation for drainage and water purification.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MESS: Multi-purpose Exoplanet Simulation System (Bonavita+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonavita, M.; Chauvin, G.; Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Janson, M.; Beuzit, J. L.; Kasper, M.; Mordasini, C.

    2011-11-01

    All the IDL routines needed to run the MESS code are included, together with a script providing an example of its use, and all the necessary input files. Save all the file in the same directory, or add the directory where the .pro files are extracted to your IDL path. A step by step tutorial, further examples and newer versions of the code can be downloaded from www.messthecode.com Please send an email to info@messthecode.com for any suggestion/request. (2 data files).

  4. Managing Industrial Teacher Education Programs in a Multi-Purpose Academic Unit--Selected Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streichler, Jerry

    Multipurpose academic units are academic units that are headed or chaired by one individual who, along with his or her faculty, is responsible for more than one degree or for more than one program under a degree. One example of a multipurpose academic unit would be a department that combines teacher education and industrial technology programs and…

  5. Multi-purpose HealthCare Telemedicine Systems with mobile communication link support

    PubMed Central

    Kyriacou, E; Pavlopoulos, S; Berler, A; Neophytou, M; Bourka, A; Georgoulas, A; Anagnostaki, A; Karayiannis, D; Schizas, C; Pattichis, C; Andreou, A; Koutsouris, D

    2003-01-01

    The provision of effective emergency telemedicine and home monitoring solutions are the major fields of interest discussed in this study. Ambulances, Rural Health Centers (RHC) or other remote health location such as Ships navigating in wide seas are common examples of possible emergency sites, while critical care telemetry and telemedicine home follow-ups are important issues of telemonitoring. In order to support the above different growing application fields we created a combined real-time and store and forward facility that consists of a base unit and a telemedicine (mobile) unit. This integrated system: can be used when handling emergency cases in ambulances, RHC or ships by using a mobile telemedicine unit at the emergency site and a base unit at the hospital-expert's site, enhances intensive health care provision by giving a mobile base unit to the ICU doctor while the telemedicine unit remains at the ICU patient site and enables home telemonitoring, by installing the telemedicine unit at the patient's home while the base unit remains at the physician's office or hospital. The system allows the transmission of vital biosignals (3–12 lead ECG, SPO2, NIBP, IBP, Temp) and still images of the patient. The transmission is performed through GSM mobile telecommunication network, through satellite links (where GSM is not available) or through Plain Old Telephony Systems (POTS) where available. Using this device a specialist doctor can telematically "move" to the patient's site and instruct unspecialized personnel when handling an emergency or telemonitoring case. Due to the need of storing and archiving of all data interchanged during the telemedicine sessions, we have equipped the consultation site with a multimedia database able to store and manage the data collected by the system. The performance of the system has been technically tested over several telecommunication means; in addition the system has been clinically validated in three different countries using a standardized medical protocol. PMID:12694629

  6. High Bandwidth, Multi-Purpose Passive Radar Receiver Design For Aerospace and Geoscience Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertatschitsch, Laura

    Passive radar permits inexpensive and stealthy detection and tracking of aerospace and geoscience targets. Transmitters of opportunity such as commercial FM broadcast, DTV broadcast, and cell phone towers are already illuminating many populated areas with continuous power. Passive radar receivers can be located at a distance from the transmitter, and can sense this direct transmission as well as any reflections from ground clutter, aircraft, ionospheric turbulence and meteor trails. The 100% duty cycle allows for long coherent integration, increasing the sensitivity of these instruments greatly. Traditional radar receivers employ analog front end downconverters to translate the radio frequency spectrum to an intermediate frequency (IF) for sampling and signal processing. Such downconverters limit the spectrum available for study, and can introduce nonlinearities which limit the detectability of weak signals in the presence of strong signals. With suitably fast digitizers one can bypass the downconversion stage completely. Very fast digitizers may have relatively few bits, but precision is recovered in subsequent signal processing. We present a new passive radar receiver designed to utilize a broad spectrum of commercial transmitters without the use of a front end analog downconverter. The receiver centers around a Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH) board developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) group. Fast sampling rates (8-bit samples as fast as 3 GSps) combined with 640 multiply/addition operations on the Virtex-5 FPGA centered on the ROACH allows for coherent processing of broad spectrum and dynamic decision-making on one device all while sharing a single front end, putting this device on the cutting edge of wideband receiver technology. The radar is also designed to support mobile operation. It fits within a 19'' rack, it is equipped with solid state hard drives, and can run off an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) for up to 1 hour of continuous operation. In this document we provide technical details of the hardware, firmware, and software of the system and design strategies and decisions. We cover the topic of coherent processing for passive radar, specifically an overview of the cross-ambiguity function as a detection mechanism. While the applications of a system like this are incredibly broad, the initial validation and performance analysis was applied specifically to detection of aircraft using Digital Television (DTV) broadcast as an illuminator. We present results of both stationary and mobile operation. In stationary operation, the same helicopter has been detected using two different DTV transmissions. Early mobile operation results show the Doppler-spread ground clutter and possible detection of aircraft. In addition to the fully-functional aircraft detection signal chain, alternative FPGA designs are presented with modes for fast sampling on two antennas or four antennas, with access to an aggregate 240 MHz of spectrum, with 8-bit samples. At these extremely high data rates, moderate data loss occurs while saving this data to disk, but as detailed within this document, it can be accounted for and the effects minimalized, still allowing for detection of aircraft. With these modes, FM transmission and DTV transmission can be captured synchronously from a single antenna and digitizer feed, an exciting result that offers promise for both aerospace and geoscience applications.

  7. Multi-purpose, multi-reservoir simulation on a PC. Technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Eichert, B.S.; Franke, C.

    1988-08-01

    The methodology and difficulties in converting a large, general-purpose, mainframe, batch-oriented computer program (for reservoir simulation) to work effectively in the PC environment are described in this paper. A brief overview of the present capabilities of the general purpose reservoir simulation program (HEC-5), which works on mainframe and MS DOS compatible computers, is also presented.

  8. Development of flaw acceptance criteria for aging management of spent nuclear fuel multi-purpose canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Poh -Sang; Sindelar, Robert L.

    2015-03-09

    A typical multipurpose canister (MPC) is made of austenitic stainless steel and is loaded with spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation when it is exposed to aggressive atmospheric environments during a possibly long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Because heat treatment for stress relief is not required for the construction of an MPC, stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic in-service Inspection. The first-order instability flaw sizes has been determined with bounding flaw configurations, that is, through-wall axial or circumferential cracks, and part-through-wall long axial flaw or 360° circumferential crack. The procedure recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service code (Second Edition) is used to estimate the instability crack length or depth by implementing the failure assessment diagram (FAD) methodology. The welding residual stresses are mostly unknown and are therefore estimated with the API 579 procedure. It is demonstrated in this paper that the residual stress has significant impact on the instability length or depth of the crack. The findings will limit the applicability of the flaw tolerance obtained from limit load approach where residual stress is ignored and only ligament yielding is considered.

  9. Zwitterionic Nanofibers of Super-Glue for Transparent and Biocompatible Multi-Purpose Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, Elisa; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Bayer, Ilker S.; Ciofani, Gianni; Genchi, Giada G.; Ceseracciu, Luca; Davis, Alexander; Papadopoulou, Evie L.; Barthel, Markus J.; Marini, Lara; Ruffilli, Roberta; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2015-09-01

    Here we show that macrozwitterions of poly(ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate), commonly called Super Glue, can easily assemble into long and well defined fibers by electrospinning. The resulting fibrous networks are thermally treated on glass in order to create transparent coatings whose superficial morphology recalls the organization of the initial electrospun mats. These textured coatings are characterized by low liquid adhesion and anti-staining performance. Furthermore, the low friction coefficient and excellent scratch resistance make them attractive as solid lubricants. The inherent texture of the coatings positively affects their biocompatibility. In fact, they are able to promote the proliferation and differentiation of myoblast stem cells. Optically-transparent and biocompatible coatings that simultaneously possess characteristics of low water contact angle hysteresis, low friction and mechanical robustness can find application in a wide range of technological sectors, from the construction and automotive industries to electronic and biomedical devices.

  10. Multi-Purpose Enrollment Projections: A Comparative Analysis of Four Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Debra Mary

    2013-01-01

    Providing support for institutional planning is central to the function of institutional research. Necessary for the planning process are accurate enrollment projections. The purpose of the present study was to develop a short-term enrollment model simple enough to be understood by those who rely on it, yet sufficiently complex to serve varying…

  11. Genetically encoded bioluminescent voltage indicator for multi-purpose use in wide range of bioimaging

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Shigenori; Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Kazushi; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Jinno, Yuka; Bai, Guirong; Daniels, Matthew J.; Okamura, Yasushi; Matsuda, Tomoki; Nagai, Takeharu

    2017-01-01

    We report development of the first genetically encoded bioluminescent indicator for membrane voltage called LOTUS-V. Since it is bioluminescent, imaging LOTUS-V does not require external light illumination. This allows bidirectional optogenetic control of cellular activity triggered by Channelrhodopsin2 and Halorhodopsin during voltage imaging. The other advantage of LOTUS-V is the robustness of a signal-to-background ratio (SBR) wherever it expressed, even in the specimens where autofluorescence from environment severely interferes fluorescence imaging. Through imaging of moving cardiomyocyte aggregates, we demonstrated the advantages of LOTUS-V in long-term imaging are attributable to the absence of phototoxicity, and photobleaching in bioluminescent imaging, combined with the ratiometric aspect of LOTUS-V design. Collectively LOTUS-V extends the scope of excitable cell control and simultaneous voltage phenotyping, which should enable applications in bioscience, medicine and pharmacology previously not possible. PMID:28205521

  12. Serine/threonine protein phosphatases: multi-purpose enzymes in control of defense mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatases are a group of enzymes involved in the regulation of defense mechanisms in plants. This paper describes the effects of an inhibitor of these enzymes on the expression of all of the genes associated with these defense mechanisms. The results suggest that inhibi...

  13. Space Propulsion Research Facility (B-2): An Innovative, Multi-Purpose Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald M.; Weaver, Harold F.; Kudlac, Maureen T.; Maloney, Christian T.; Evans, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is designed to hot fire rocket engines or upper stage launch vehicles with up to 890,000 N force (200,000 lb force), after environmental conditioning of the test article in simulated thermal vacuum space environment. As NASA s third largest thermal vacuum facility, and the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of propellant, it is uniquely suited to support developmental testing associated with large lightweight structures and Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, as well as non-traditional propulsion test programs such as Electric and In-Space propulsion. B-2 has undergone refurbishment of key subsystems to support the NASA s future test needs, including data acquisition and controls, vacuum, and propellant systems. This paper details the modernization efforts at B-2 to support the Nation s thermal vacuum/propellant test capabilities, the unique design considerations implemented for efficient operations and maintenance, and ultimately to reduce test costs.

  14. Multi-purpose 805 MHz Pillbox RF Cavity for Muon Acceleration Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.; Chan, Kwok-Chi Dominic; Jason, Andrew; Miyadera, Haruo; Turchi, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    An 805 MHz RF pillbox cavity has been designed and constructed to investigate potential muon beam acceleration and cooling techniques. The cavity can operate at vacuum or under pressure to 100 atmospheres, at room temperature or in a liquid nitrogen bath at 77 K. The cavity is designed for easy assembly and disassembly with bolted construction using aluminum seals. The surfaces of the end walls of the cavity can be replaced with different materials such as copper, aluminum, beryllium, or molybdenum, and with different geometries such as shaped windows or grid structures. Different surface treatments such as electro polished, high-pressure water cleaned, and atomic layer deposition are being considered for testing. The cavity has been designed to fit inside the 5-Tesla solenoid in the MuCool Test Area at Fermilab. Current status of the cavity prepared for initial conditioning and operation in the external magnetic field is discussed.

  15. Feasibility of frequency-modulated wireless transmission for a multi-purpose MEMS-based accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Sabato, Alessandro; Feng, Maria Q

    2014-09-05

    Recent advances in the Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology have made wireless MEMS accelerometers an attractive tool for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of civil engineering structures. To date, sensors' low sensitivity and accuracy--especially at very low frequencies--have imposed serious limitations for their application in monitoring large-sized structures. Conventionally, the MEMS sensor's analog signals are converted to digital signals before radio-frequency (RF) wireless transmission. The conversion can cause a low sensitivity to the important low-frequency and low-amplitude signals. To overcome this difficulty, the authors have developed a MEMS accelerometer system, which converts the sensor output voltage to a frequency-modulated signal before RF transmission. This is achieved by using a Voltage to Frequency Conversion (V/F) instead of the conventional Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC). In this paper, a prototype MEMS accelerometer system is presented, which consists of a transmitter and receiver circuit boards. The former is equipped with a MEMS accelerometer, a V/F converter and a wireless RF transmitter, while the latter contains an RF receiver and a F/V converter for demodulating the signal. The efficacy of the MEMS accelerometer system in measuring low-frequency and low-amplitude dynamic responses is demonstrated through extensive laboratory tests and experiments on a flow-loop pipeline.

  16. 77 FR 38766 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites... Jessup, Departmental Paperwork Clearance Officer, Department of Commerce, Room 6616, 14th...

  17. Development of the MRPC for the TOF system of the MultiPurpose Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkin, V. A.; Bazylev, S. N.; Burdenyuk, I. S.; Buryakov, M. G.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Dulov, P. O.; Golovatyuk, V. M.; Lobastov, S. P.; Rumyantsev, M. M.; Schipunov, A. V.; Shutov, A. V.; Slepnev, I. V.; Slepnev, V. M.; Terletskiy, A. V.; Volgin, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    The Multipurpose Detector (MPD) [1] is designed to study of hot and dense baryonic matter in collisions of heavy ions over the atomic mass range 1-197 at the centre of mass energy up to √SNN = 11 GeV (for Au79+). The MPD experiment will be carried out at the JINR accelerator complex NICA [2] which is under construction. The barrel part of the MPD consists of various detectors surrounding the interaction point. It includes a precise tracking system (time projection chamber (TPC) and silicon inner tracker (IT)) and high-performance particle identification system based on time-of-flight (TOF) and calorimeter (ECal). The triple-stack multigap resistive plate chamber is chosen as an active element of the TOF. It provides good time resolution and long term stability. This article presents parameters of the MRPC obtained using the deuteron beam of JINR accelerator Nuclotron. The time resolution is 0~4 ps with efficiency of 99%. Rate capability studies resulted with a time resolution of 60 ps and efficiency higher than 90% on the beam with particle flux densities up to 2 kHz/cm2.

  18. Use of Multi-Purpose Modular Fast Reactors SVBR-75/100 in Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zrodnikov, A.V.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Komlev, O.G.; Dragunov, Yu.G.; Stepanov, V.S.; Klimov, N.N.; Kopytov, I.I.; Krushelnitsky, V.N.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an innovative nuclear power technology (NPT), based on the use of modular type fast-neutron reactors (FR) (SVBR-75/100) having heavy liquid-metal coolant (HLMC) i.e. eutectic lead-bismuth alloy, which was mastered in Russia for the nuclear submarine (NS) reactors. Reactor SVBR-75/100 possesses inherent self-protection and passive safety properties that allows elimination of many safety systems necessary for traditional type reactors. Use of this NPT makes it possible to eliminate conflicting requirements among safety needs and economic factors, which is particularly found in traditional reactors, to increase considerably the investment attractiveness of nuclear power (NP) based on the use of fast-neutron reactors for the near future, when the cost of natural uranium is low and to assure NP development in the market conditions. On the basis of the factory-fabricated 'standard' reactor modules, it is possible to construct the nuclear power plants (NPP) with different power and purposes. (authors)

  19. Negotiating designs of multi-purpose reservoir systems in international basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geressu, Robel; Harou, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Given increasing agricultural and energy demands, coordinated management of multi-reservoir systems could help increase production without further stressing available water resources. However, regional or international disputes about water-use rights pose a challenge to efficient expansion and management of many large reservoir systems. Even when projects are likely to benefit all stakeholders, agreeing on the design, operation, financing, and benefit sharing can be challenging. This is due to the difficulty of considering multiple stakeholder interests in the design of projects and understanding the benefit trade-offs that designs imply. Incommensurate performance metrics, incomplete knowledge on system requirements, lack of objectivity in managing conflict and difficulty to communicate complex issue exacerbate the problem. This work proposes a multi-step hybrid multi-objective optimization and multi-criteria ranking approach for supporting negotiation in water resource systems. The approach uses many-objective optimization to generate alternative efficient designs and reveal the trade-offs between conflicting objectives. This enables informed elicitation of criteria weights for further multi-criteria ranking of alternatives. An ideal design would be ranked as best by all stakeholders. Resource-sharing mechanisms such as power-trade and/or cost sharing may help competing stakeholders arrive at designs acceptable to all. Many-objective optimization helps suggests efficient designs (reservoir site, its storage size and operating rule) and coordination levels considering the perspectives of multiple stakeholders simultaneously. We apply the proposed approach to a proof-of-concept study of the expansion of the Blue Nile transboundary reservoir system.

  20. Efficient operation of a multi-purpose reservoir in Chile: Tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to hydropower in dry years, with the aim of obtaining greater benefits from water use in the basin

  1. Feasibility of Frequency-Modulated Wireless Transmission for a Multi-Purpose MEMS-Based Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Sabato, Alessandro; Feng, Maria Q.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology have made wireless MEMS accelerometers an attractive tool for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of civil engineering structures. To date, sensors' low sensitivity and accuracy—especially at very low frequencies—have imposed serious limitations for their application in monitoring large-sized structures. Conventionally, the MEMS sensor's analog signals are converted to digital signals before radio-frequency (RF) wireless transmission. The conversion can cause a low sensitivity to the important low-frequency and low-amplitude signals. To overcome this difficulty, the authors have developed a MEMS accelerometer system, which converts the sensor output voltage to a frequency-modulated signal before RF transmission. This is achieved by using a Voltage to Frequency Conversion (V/F) instead of the conventional Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC). In this paper, a prototype MEMS accelerometer system is presented, which consists of a transmitter and receiver circuit boards. The former is equipped with a MEMS accelerometer, a V/F converter and a wireless RF transmitter, while the latter contains an RF receiver and a F/V converter for demodulating the signal. The efficacy of the MEMS accelerometer system in measuring low-frequency and low-amplitude dynamic responses is demonstrated through extensive laboratory tests and experiments on a flow-loop pipeline. PMID:25198003

  2. SES Multi-Purpose Ship Study. Transport Application. Volume 1. Technical Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    that the ship w.ould suffer major structural damage that will cause termination of the mission. The safety factors specified in notes to Figure 4-5 are...metallic connecting elements caused them to come into contact with adjacent soft seal material. The damage occurred mostly in seal seams. Risk of this... caused by the idling epicyclic gear are prevented. During gas turbine operation power is transmitted from the SSS-clutch via the pinion (6) to the main

  3. Mitigating hydrologic alterations caused by hydropeaking through modified releasing rules for a multi-purpose reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, S. P.; Palokangas, C.

    2011-12-01

    The St. Louis River begins in Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota and enters Lake Superior between Duluth, Minnesota and Superior, Wisconsin. The Partridge River and the Embarrass River are two of its main tributaries. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits are issued for surface water dischargers under the Clean Water Act. The Permit Compliance System (PCS) and the Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a tool allowing public access to information contained in NPDES permits. Along the way to Lake Superior, 19 facilities list the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, part of the St. Louis River estuary, or one of its tributaries as a receiving water. Of these 19 locations, four report discharging heavy metals into the receiving water. Copper and Lead are the metals most frequently discharged.

  4. High-performance heavy concrete as a multi-purpose shield.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, S M J; Mosleh-Shirazi, M A; Roshan-Shomal, P; Raadpey, N; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, M

    2010-12-01

    Concrete has long been used as a shield against high-energy photons and neutrons. In this study, colemanite and galena minerals (CoGa) were used for the production of an economical high-performance heavy concrete. To measure the gamma radiation attenuation of the CoGa concrete samples, they were exposed to a narrow beam of gamma rays emitted from a (60)Co radiotherapy unit. An Am-Be neutron source was used for assessing the shielding properties of the samples against neutrons. The compression strengths of both types of concrete mixes (CoGa and reference concrete) were investigated. The range of the densities of the heavy concrete samples was 4100-4650 kg m(-3), whereas it was 2300-2600 kg m(-3) in the ordinary concrete reference samples. The half-value layer of the CoGa concrete samples for (60)Co gamma rays was 2.49 cm; much less than that of ordinary concrete (6.0 cm). Moreover, CoGa concrete samples had a 10 % greater neutron absorption compared with reference concrete.

  5. Assessment of replicate bias in 454 pyrosequencing and a multi-purpose read-filtering tool

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Roche 454 pyrosequencing platform is often considered the most versatile of the Next Generation Sequencing technology platforms, permitting the sequencing of large genomes, the analysis of variations or the study of transcriptomes. A recent reported bias leads to the production of multiple reads for a unique DNA fragment in a random manner within a run. This bias has a direct impact on the quality of the measurement of the representation of the fragments using the reads. Other cleaning steps are usually performed on the reads before assembly or alignment. Findings PyroCleaner is a software module intended to clean 454 pyrosequencing reads in order to ease the assembly process. This program is a free software and is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. It implements several filters using criteria such as read duplication, length, complexity, base-pair quality and number of undetermined bases. It also permits to clean flowgram files (.sff) of paired-end sequences generating on one hand validated paired-ends file and the other hand single read file. Conclusions Read cleaning has always been an important step in sequence analysis. The pyrocleaner python module is a Swiss knife dedicated to 454 reads cleaning. It includes commonly used filters as well as specialised ones such as duplicated read removal and paired-end read verification. PMID:21615897

  6. Technology-Assisted Sheltered Instruction: Instructional Streaming Video in an EFL Multi-Purpose Computer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yun-Hsuan; Chuang, Tsung-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) has been widely adopted for decades. However, existing CBI models cannot always be effectively put into practice, especially for learners of lower English proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL) context. This study examined an animation design course adopting CBI to promote reading abilities of English…

  7. A Multi-Purpose Astronaut Shower for Long-Duration Mirogravity Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, M. C.; Versteeg, M.; Zenger, R.

    An initial study for an Advanced Kind Of Shower (AKOS) has attempted to define the need and advantages, as well as develop a concept, for an astronaut's shower. Relying on past studies, on flight experiences, and on the ensuing critiques, and building on an interdisciplinary approach, the study defined a modular piece of equipment that - using parts inspired by commercially- available products - that for the first time could satisfy different functions for the hygiene, well-being, and health support of the crew members.

  8. Zwitterionic Nanofibers of Super-Glue for Transparent and Biocompatible Multi-Purpose Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Mele, Elisa; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Bayer, Ilker S.; Ciofani, Gianni; Genchi, Giada G.; Ceseracciu, Luca; Davis, Alexander; Papadopoulou, Evie L.; Barthel, Markus J.; Marini, Lara; Ruffilli, Roberta; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2015-01-01

    Here we show that macrozwitterions of poly(ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate), commonly called Super Glue, can easily assemble into long and well defined fibers by electrospinning. The resulting fibrous networks are thermally treated on glass in order to create transparent coatings whose superficial morphology recalls the organization of the initial electrospun mats. These textured coatings are characterized by low liquid adhesion and anti-staining performance. Furthermore, the low friction coefficient and excellent scratch resistance make them attractive as solid lubricants. The inherent texture of the coatings positively affects their biocompatibility. In fact, they are able to promote the proliferation and differentiation of myoblast stem cells. Optically-transparent and biocompatible coatings that simultaneously possess characteristics of low water contact angle hysteresis, low friction and mechanical robustness can find application in a wide range of technological sectors, from the construction and automotive industries to electronic and biomedical devices. PMID:26357936

  9. Simultaneous modelling of multi-purpose/multi-stop activity patterns and quantities consumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, John R.; Smith, Nariida C.; Xu, Blake

    Whereas for commuting travel there is a one-to-one correspondence between commuters and jobs, and for commodity flows a one-to-one correspondence between the size of orders and the shipping cost of the commodities, the situation is much more complex for retail/service travel. A typical shopper may make a single trip or multi-stop tour to buy/consume a quite diverse set of commodities/services at different locations in quite variable quantities. At the same time, the general pattern of the tour is clearly dependent on the activities and goods available at potential stops. These interdependencies have been alluded to in the literature, especially by spatial economists. However, until some preliminary work by the first author, there has been no attempt to formally include these interdependencies in a general model. This paper presents a framework for achieving this goal by developing an evolutionary set of models starting from the simplest forms available. From the above, it is clear that such interdependency models will inevitably have high dimensionality and combinatorial complexity. This rules out a simultaneous treatment of all the events using an individual choice approach. If an individual choice approach is to be applied in a tractable manner, the set of interdependent events needs to be segmented into several subsets, with simultaneity recognised within each subset, but a mere sequential progression occurring between subsets. In this paper, full event interdependencies are retained at the expense of modelling market segments of consumers rather than a sample of representative individuals. We couple the travel and consumption events in the only feasible way, by modelling the tours as discrete entities, in conjunction with the amount of each commodity consumed per stop on each such tour in terms of the continuous quantities of microeconomics. This is performed both under a budget/income constraint from microeconomics and a time budget constraint from time geography. The model considers both physical trips and tele-orders.

  10. A Multi-Purpose Modular Electronics Integration Node for Exploration Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David; Hawes, Kevin; Stankiewicz, Tom

    2013-01-01

    As NASA works to develop an effective integrated portable life support system design for exploration Extravehicular activity (EVA), alternatives to the current system s electrical power and control architecture are needed to support new requirements for flexibility, maintainability, reliability, and reduced mass and volume. Experience with the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has demonstrated that the current architecture, based in a central power supply, monitoring and control unit, with dedicated analog wiring harness connections to active components in the system has a significant impact on system packaging and seriously constrains design flexibility in adapting to component obsolescence and changing system needs over time. An alternative architecture based in the use of a digital data bus offers possible wiring harness and system power savings, but risks significant penalties in component complexity and cost. A hybrid architecture that relies on a set of electronic and power interface nodes serving functional models within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is proposed to minimize both packaging and component level penalties. A common interface node hardware design can further reduce penalties by reducing the nonrecurring development costs, making miniaturization more practical, maximizing opportunities for maturation and reliability growth, providing enhanced fault tolerance, and providing stable design interfaces for system components and a central control. Adaptation to varying specific module requirements can be achieved with modest changes in firmware code within the module. A preliminary design effort has developed a common set of hardware interface requirements and functional capabilities for such a node based on anticipated modules comprising an exploration PLSS, and a prototype node has been designed assembled, programmed, and tested. One instance of such a node has been adapted to support testing the swingbed carbon dioxide and humidity control element in NASA s advanced PLSS 2.0 test article. This paper will describe the common interface node design concept, results of the prototype development and test effort, and plans for use in NASA PLSS 2.0 integrated tests.

  11. A multi-purpose method for analysis of spur gear tooth loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasuba, R.; Evans, J. W.; August, R.; Frater, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A large digitized approach was developed for the static and dynamic load analysis of spur gearing. An iterative procedure was used to calculate directly the "variable-variable" gear mesh stiffness as a function of transmitted load, gear tooth profile errors, gear tooth deflections and gear hub torsional deformation, and position of contacting profile points. The developed approach can be used to analyze the loads, Hertz stresses, and PV for the normal and high contrast ratio gearing, presently the modeling is limited to the condition that for a given gear all teeth have identical spacing and profiles (with or without surface imperfections). Certain types of simulated sinusoidal profile errors and pitting can cause interruptions of the gear mesh stiffness function and, thus, increase the dynamic loads in spur gearing. In addition, a finite element stress and mesh subprogram was developed for future introduction into the main program for calculating the gear tooth bending stresses under dynamic loads.

  12. Alpha-foetoprotein (AFP): A multi-purpose marker in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sauzay, Chloé; Petit, Alexandra; Bourgeois, Anne-Marie; Barbare, Jean-Claude; Chauffert, Bruno; Galmiche, Antoine; Houessinon, Aline

    2016-12-01

    Alpha-foetoprotein (AFP), one of the first protein tumour markers discovered, is widely used today in clinical practice. Its application for the screening and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most frequent form of primary liver tumour, is a matter of extensive debate. In addition to the studies focused on the role of the AFP in the diagnosis of HCC, in recent years AFP has been used to guide the therapeutic choice in HCC and monitor the treatment. Here, we summarize the latest studies that show the interest of AFP quantification in determining the suitability of liver transplantation or to follow-up on patients receiving the targeted treatment sorafenib. We also highlight the recent studies showing the active role of AFP in tumour progression, and the new modes of regulation of this tumour marker. Among these is the regulation of AFP through tumour proteostasis and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). We discuss the implications of this new knowledge in the therapeutic context, in terms of interpreting serum levels of AFP, and the new perspectives offered by AFP for the study of tumour proteostasis.

  13. Push-Out Bond Strength of Restorations with Bulk-Fill, Flow, and Conventional Resin Composites

    PubMed Central

    Caixeta, Rodrigo Vieira; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Kaneshima, Edmilson Nobumitu; Barbosa, Aline Silvestre; Picolotto, Cassiana Pedrotti; Lima, Ana Eliza de Souza; Gonini Júnior, Alcides; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strengths of composite restorations made with different filler amounts and resin composites that were photoactivated using a light-emitting diode (LED). Thirty bovine incisors were selected, and a conical cavity was prepared in the facial surface of each tooth. All preparations were etched with Scotchbond Etching Gel, the Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus adhesive system was applied followed by photoactivation, and the cavities were filled with a single increment of Filtek Z350 XT, Filtek Z350 XT Flow, or bulk-fill X-tra fil resin composite (n = 10) followed by photoactivation. A push-out test to determine bond strength was conducted using a universal testing machine. Data (MPa) were submitted to Student's t-test at a 5% significance level. After the test, the fractured specimens were examined using an optical microscope under magnification (10x). Although all three composites demonstrated a high prevalence of adhesive failures, the bond strength values of the different resin composites photoactivated by LED showed that the X-tra fil resin composite had a lower bond strength than the Filtek Z350 XT and Filtek Z350 XT Flow resin composites. PMID:26457322

  14. MMP Activity in the Hybrid Layer Detected with in situ Zymography

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, A.; Nascimento, F.D.; Carrilho, M.; Tersariol, I.; Papa, V.; Tjäderhane, L.; Di Lenarda, R.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Dentinal proteases are believed to play an important role in the degradation of hybrid layers (HL). This study investigated the HL gelatinolytic activity by in situ zymography and functional enzyme activity assay. The hypotheses were that HLs created by an etch-and-rinse adhesive exhibit active gelatinolytic activity, and MMP-2 and -9 activities in dentin increase during adhesive procedures. Etched-dentin specimens were bonded with Adper Scotchbond 1XT and restored with composite. Adhesive/dentin interface slices were placed on microscope slides, covered with fluorescein-conjugated gelatin, and observed with a multi-photon confocal microscope after 24 hrs. Human dentin powder aliquots were prepared and assigned to the following treatments: A, untreated; B, etched with 10% phosphoric acid; or C, etched with 10% phosphoric acid and mixed with Scotchbond 1XT. The MMP-2 and -9 activities of extracts of dentin powder were measured with functional enzyme assays. Intense and continuous enzyme activity was detected at the bottom of the HL, while that activity was more irregular in the upper HL. Both acid-etching and subsequent adhesive application significantly increased MMP-2 and -9 activities (p < 0.05). The results demonstrate, for the first time, intrinsic MMP activity in the HL, and intense activation of matrix-bound MMP activity with both etching and adhesive application. PMID:22354448

  15. Effects of Etch-and-Rinse and Self-etch Adhesives on Dentin MMP-2 and MMP-9

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, A.; Scaffa, P.; Carrilho, M.; Tjäderhane, L.; Di Lenarda, R.; Polimeni, A.; Tezvergil-Mutluay, A.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Auto-degradation of collagen matrices occurs within hybrid layers created by contemporary dentin bonding systems, by the slow action of host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study tested the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the activities of MMP-2 and -9 after treatment with different etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesives. Tested adhesives were: Adper Scotchbond 1XT (3M ESPE), PQ1 (Ultradent), Peak LC (Ultradent), Optibond Solo Plus (Kerr), Prime&Bond NT (Dentsply) (all 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesives), and Adper Easy Bond (3M ESPE), Tri-S (Kuraray), and Xeno-V (Dentsply) (1-step self-etch adhesives). MMP-2 and -9 activities were quantified in adhesive-treated dentin powder by means of an activity assay and gelatin zymography. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were found after treatment with all of the simplified etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives; however, the activation was adhesive-dependent. It is concluded that all two-step etch-and-rinse and the one-step self-etch adhesives tested can activate endogenous MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human dentin. These results support the role of endogenous MMPs in the degradation of hybrid layers created by these adhesives. PMID:23128110

  16. Effect of silorane-based adhesive system on bond strength between composite and dentin substrate

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Júnior, Lindomar Corrêa; de Souza Almeida, Mauro; do Valle, Accácio Lins; Honório, Heitor Marques; Vidotti, Hugo Alberto; De Souza, Grace Mendonca

    2015-01-01

    Context: The complexities of the oral environment, the dentin substrate, and the different bond and composite resin systems represent a challenge to the maintenance of reasonable bond between the composite resin and the tooth structure. Aims: To evaluate the effect of the adhesive system on bond strength between silorane-based composite resin and dentin. Materials and Methods: Fourteen human molars extracted were selected and vertically cut into 3 dentin fragments, randomly divided among the experimental groups and restored with Z250 and P90 composite resin using different adhesive protocols (Adper Single Bond 2, Silorano primer, Adper SE Plus, and Scotchbond Multiuse). Two composite resin cylinders were built up on each dentin surface (n = 10) and subjected to a micro-shear bond strength test. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (P = 0.05). Results: According to the results, Kruskal–Wallis test evidenced at least one statistical significant difference (P = 0.001). The Tukey test showed statistically significant differences among the group (P < 0.05). Group PSM8 (P90 + SM) showed statically significant higher results when compared with groups PSP4 (P90 + SP), PSB2 (P90 + SB), and ZSE5 (Z250 + SE). Conclusion: The results evidenced that the monomer of the adhesive system has an effect on bond strength between the composite resin and dentin. PMID:26752846

  17. Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) Wake Deficit Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Schuster, David M.

    2014-01-01

    During descent after re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere, the Orion CM deploys its drogue parachutes at approximately Mach 0.7. Accurately predicting the dynamic pressure experienced by the drogue parachutes at deployment is critical to properly designing the parachutes. This NASA Engineering and Safety Center assessment was designed to provide a complete set of flowfield measurements on and around an idealized Orion Crew Module shape with the most appropriate wind tunnel simulation of the Orion flight conditions prior to parachute deployment. This document contains the details of testing and the outcome of the assessment.

  18. SMILEI: A collaborative, open-source, multi-purpose PIC code for the next generation of super-computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grech, Mickael; Derouillat, J.; Beck, A.; Chiaramello, M.; Grassi, A.; Niel, F.; Perez, F.; Vinci, T.; Fle, M.; Aunai, N.; Dargent, J.; Plotnikov, I.; Bouchard, G.; Savoini, P.; Riconda, C.

    2016-10-01

    Over the last decades, Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes have been central tools for plasma simulations. Today, new trends in High-Performance Computing (HPC) are emerging, dramatically changing HPC-relevant software design and putting some - if not most - legacy codes far beyond the level of performance expected on the new and future massively-parallel super computers. SMILEI is a new open-source PIC code co-developed by both plasma physicists and HPC specialists, and applied to a wide range of physics-related studies: from laser-plasma interaction to astrophysical plasmas. It benefits from an innovative parallelization strategy that relies on a super-domain-decomposition allowing for enhanced cache-use and efficient dynamic load balancing. Beyond these HPC-related developments, SMILEI also benefits from additional physics modules allowing to deal with binary collisions, field and collisional ionization and radiation back-reaction. This poster presents the SMILEI project, its HPC capabilities and illustrates some of the physics problems tackled with SMILEI.

  19. Hydropeaking mitigation project on a multi-purpose hydro-scheme on Valsura River in South Tyrol/Italy.

    PubMed

    Premstaller, Georg; Cavedon, Valentina; Pisaturo, Giuseppe Roberto; Schweizer, Steffen; Adami, Vito; Righetti, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    A hydropeaking mitigation project on Valsura River in the Italians Alps is described. The project is of particular interest due to several aspects. First of all, the Valsura torrent has unique morphological braiding characteristics, which are unique in the reach of Adige valley between Merano and Bolzano, and has a good reproduction potential for fish, especially in the terminal stretch along a biotope before its confluence with Adige River. Moreover, the Valsura hydropower cascade, which overall consists of six high-head hydropower plants, has an exceptional economic importance for the local hydropower industry. Lastly, the last HPP on the cascade is a multipurpose plant, so that interesting interactions between hydropeaking mitigation, irrigation supply and peak energy production are considered. The project started from a hydrological and a limnological measuring campaign and from an energetic, hydraulic and legislative framework analysis. The ecological findings are combined into a deficit analysis, founding the basis for the definition of a hydrological target state, which points to achieve a good natural reproduction for brown trout in the hydropeaked stretch, fulfilling at the same time the human safety conditions. Finally, mitigation Measures are described that at the same time comply with the following manifold aspects: a. maintenance of the requested target limits for fish reproduction; b. maintenance of the water release for the agricultural irrigation; c. enhancement of the flexibility of the hydropower plant's operation; d. reduction of the risk for local population. The paper compares operational and constructive mitigation measures and shows that constructive hydropeaking mitigation measures, for the present case study, can combine the positive effects of ecological improvement with higher safety standards and more flexible energy production.

  20. Multi-Purpose Thermal Hydraulic Loop: Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) Facility for Support of Advanced Reactor Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; SuJong Yoon

    2001-11-01

    Effective and robust high temperature heat transfer systems are fundamental to the successful deployment of advanced reactors for both power generation and non-electric applications. Plant designs often include an intermediate heat transfer loop (IHTL) with heat exchangers at either end to deliver thermal energy to the application while providing isolation of the primary reactor system. In order to address technical feasibility concerns and challenges a new high-temperature multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility “Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test facility” (ARTIST) is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory. The facility will include three flow loops: high-temperature helium, molten salt, and steam/water. Details of some of the design aspects and challenges of this facility, which is currently in the conceptual design phase, are discussed

  1. Evaluating the potential of multi-purpose nature based solutions in peri-urban landscapes - a preliminary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geris, Josie; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Guenther, Daniel; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Many communities across the world face the increasing challenge of balancing water quantity and quality protection and improvement with accommodating new growth and urban development. Urbanisation is typically associated with detrimental changes in water quality, sediment delivery, and effects on water storage and flow pathways (e.g. increases in flooding). Current mitigation solutions are typically based on isolated design strategies used at specific small scale sites and for storm water only. More holistic catchment scale approaches are urgently required to effectively manage the amount of water flows and protect the raw water quality in peri-urban landscapes. This project aims to provide a better understanding of the connectivity between natural and managed flow pathways, storage, and biogeochemical processes in the peri-urban landscape to eventually aid a more integrated water quantity and quality control design. For an actively urbanising catchment in NE Scotland we seek to understand the spatio-temporal character of the natural flow pathways and associated water quality, and how these may be used to support the design of nature based solutions during urbanisation. We present preliminary findings from a dense and multiscale monitoring network that includes hydrometric, tracer (stable water isotopes) and water quality (turbidity (sediment), nitrate, phosphate) data during a range of contrasting hydroclimatological conditions and at different stages of the development of urban infrastructure. These demonstrate a highly variable nature, both temporally and spatially, with water quality dynamics out of sync with storm responses and depending on management practices. This highlights potential difficulties for managing water quantity and quality simultaneously at the catchment scale, and suggests that a treatment train approach may be required. Well-designed nature based solutions that tackle both water quantity and quality issues will require adaptability and a focus on the whole spectrum of the flow regime.

  2. Upgrade to a programmable timing system for the KOMAC proton linac and multi-purpose beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2016-09-01

    The KOMAC facility consists of low-energy components, including a 50-keV ion source, a lowenergy beam transport (LEBT), a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and a 20-MeV drift tube linac (DTL), as well as high-energy components, including seven DTL tanks for the 100-MeV proton beam. The KOMAC includes ten beam lines, five for 20-MeV beams and five for 100-MeV beams. The peak beam current and the maximum beam duty are 20 mA and 24% for the 20-MeV linac and 20 mA and 8% for the 100-MeV linac, respectively. Four high-voltage convertor modulators are used. Each modulator drives two or three klystrons. The peak output power is 5.8 MW, and the average power is 520 kW with a duty of 9%. The pulse width and repetition rate are 1.5 ms and 60 Hz, respectively. Each component of the pulsed operation mode has a timing trigger signal with precision synchronization. A timing system for beam extraction and for diagnostic components is required to provide precise pulse signals synchronized with a 300-MHz RF reference frequency. In addition, the timing parameters should be capable of real-time changes in accordance with the beam power. The KOMAC timing system has been upgraded to a programmable Micro Research Finland (MRF) event timing system that is synchronized with the RF, AC main frequency and with the global positioning system (GPS) 1-PPS signal. The event timing system consists of an event generator (EVG) and an event receiver (EVR). The event timing system is integrated with the KOMAC control system by using experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) software. For preliminary hardware and software testing, a long operation test with a synchronization of 300-MHz RF reference and 60-Hz AC has been completed successfully. In this paper, we will describe the software implementation, the testing, and the installation of the new timing system.

  3. Implications of changing water cycle for the performance and yield characteristics of the multi-purpose Beas Reservoir in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeloye, A. J.; Ojha, C. S.; Soundharajan, B.; Remesan, R.

    2013-12-01

    There is considerable change in both the spatial and temporal patterns of monsoon rainfall in India, with implications for water resources availability and security. 'Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change on India Agriculture' (MICCI) is one of five on-going scientific efforts being sponsored as part of the UK-NERC/India-MOES Changing Water Cycle (South Asia) initiative to further the understanding of the problem and proffer solutions that are robust and effective. This paper focuses on assessing the implications of projected climate change on the yield and performance characteristics of the Pong Reservoir on the Beas River, Himachal Pradesh, India. The Pong serves both hydropower and irrigation needs and is therefore strategic for the socio-economic well-being of the region as well as sustaining the livelihoods of millions of farmers that rely on it for irrigation. Simulated baseline and climate-change perturbed hydro-climate scenarios developed as part of a companion Work Package of MICCI formed the basis of the analysis. For both of these scenarios, reservoir analyses were carried out using the Sequent Peak Algorithm (SPA) and Pong's existing level of releases to derive rule curves for the reservoir. These rule curves then formed the basis of further reservoir behaviour simulations in WEAP and the resulting performance of the reservoir was summarised in terms of reliability, resilience, vulnerability and sustainability. The whole exercise was implemented within a Monte Carlo framework for the benefit of characterising the variability in the assessments. The results show that the rule curves developed using future hydro-climate are significantly changed from the baseline in that higher storages will be required to be maintained in the Pong in the future to achieve reliable performance. As far as the overall performance of the reservoir is concerned, future reliability (both time-based and volume-based) is not significantly different from the baseline, provided the future simulations adopt the future rule curves. This is, however, not the case with the resilience, with the future hydro-climate resulting in a less resilient system when compared with the baseline. The resilience is the ability of the system to recover from a hydrological failure; consequently, lower resilience for the future systems is an indication that longer, continuous failure periods are likely with implications for the two purposes of the reservoir. For example, extended periods of water scarcity that may result from a low resilient system will mean that crops are likely to experience longer periods of water stress with implications for crop yields. In such situations, better operational practices that manage the available water through hedging and irrigation water scheduling will be required. Other interventions may include the introduction of water from other sources, e.g. groundwater.

  4. Flood mitigation through optimal control of a network of multi-purpose reservoirs by using Model Predictive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MyoLin, Nay; Rutten, Martine; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is a common natural disaster in the world. Construction of reservoirs, sluice gates, dikes, embankments and sea walls are implemented to minimize loss of life and property in a flood event. Rather than completely relying on large structural measures, non-structural measures such as real time control of a reservoir system can also improve flood prevention and water supply in a river basin. In this paper, we present the optimal operation of a multi-reservoir system by using Model Predictive Control (MPC) and particular attention is focused on flood mitigation of the Sittaung River Basin, Myanmar. The main challenges are non-linearity in the dynamic behavior of the water system and exponential growth of computational complexity with the state and control dimension. To deal with an issue related to non-linearity, we applied simplified internal model based on linearization scheme with a large grid length. For solving curse of dimensionality, we utilize the reduced model in which the states of the system are reduced by considering outflows from uncontrolled catchments as disturbances in the water system. We also address the computational time for real time control by using large time step scheme. Simulation results indicate that this model is able to use for real time control of a reservoir system addressing trade-offs between the multiple objectives.

  5. Computerized Lexis-Based Instruction in EFL Classrooms: Using Multi-Purpose LexisBOARD to Teach L2 Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Domakani, Masoud Rahimi; Rahimi, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Lexis-based views of second or foreign language (L2) teaching place prime importance on the teaching of conventionalized multi-word lexical items, or unanalyzed chunks, as a useful mechanism for fostering learners' creative production of forms and their subsequent development of L2 competence. This pretest/posttest quasiexperimental study probed…

  6. 78 FR 20388 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2007 Ford Escape Multi-Purpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Rearview Mirrors: replacement of the passenger side rearview mirror with a U.S.-model component or inscription of the required warning statement on the face of that mirror. Standard No. 120 Tire Selection...

  7. 78 FR 13755 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2003 Jeep Wrangler Multi-Purpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    .... Standard No. 111 Rearview Mirrors: Installation of a U.S.-model passenger side rearview mirror, or inscription of the required warning statement on the face of the existing mirror. Standard No. 110...

  8. Innovation in Management of Primary School Construction: Multi-Purpose Primary School Buildings in Bangladesh. Educational Building Report 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinos, Fecadu

    This report deals with school building construction utilizing technology carried out by the Lutheran World Service/Rangpur Dinajpur Rehabilitation Service in Bangladesh. The purpose was to develop an alternative design for primary school constructions. The design, construction, and multipurpose use of the school buildings are described. Appended…

  9. Setting up a Low-Cost Lab Management System for a Multi-Purpose Computing Laboratory Using Virtualisation Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Heng Ngee; Lee, Yeow Leong; Tan, Wee Kiat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how a generic computer laboratory equipped with 52 workstations is set up for teaching IT-related courses and other general purpose usage. The authors have successfully constructed a lab management system based on decentralised, client-side software virtualisation technology using Linux and free software tools from VMware that…

  10. 78 FR 65756 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1992 Jeep Wrangler Multi-Purpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Steering Control Rearward Displacement, 205 Glazing Materials, 207 Seating Systems, 210 Seat Belt Assembly... Occupant Crash Protection: Installation of seat belt lamp and audible warning buzzer if the vehicle is not already so equipped. Standard No. 209 Seat Belt Assemblies: Inspection of seat belts and installation of...

  11. The FY1992 survey on multi-purpose dam and energy utilization system by the wind power generation eration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The wind power generation for power supply necessary for pumping for water-use works using underground dam which were pushed at Miyako Island, Okinawa is described. The survey aims to study economic effects of introduction of the wind power generation system by setting areas for irrigation. The field area, which is irrigable by three units of USW's 100kW wind power generator as a load follow-up system, is 100ha. Surplus power, when purchased by power companies, is appropriated for maintenance cost for irrigation and makes farmers' running cost nothing. Even though depreciation expenses and interest rates of the initial cost which is construction cost of the wind power generation system are borne, the system possibly pays. Since a public subsidy is expected to be given to the initial cost portion, burdens of farmers become much lighter. By using an inverter pump system, the number of operated pumps and the revolution number of the pump can be controlled so as to make all output of the wind turbine consume as power of the pump. So the system which is minimum in running cost can be obtained.

  12. Belford proactive flood solutions: scientific evidence to influence local and national policy by multi-purpose runoff management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, M.; Quinn, P. F.; Jonczyk, J.

    2010-12-01

    The increased risk from flooding continues to be of concern to governments all around the world and flood protection is becoming more of a challenge. In the UK, climate change projections indicate more extremes within the weather systems. In addition, there is an increased demand for using land in urban areas beside channels. These developments both put pressure on our flood defences and there is a need for new solutions to managing flood risk. There is currently support within the England and Wales Environment Agency for sustainable flood management solutions such as storage ponds, wetlands, beaver dams and willow riparian features (referred to here as Runoff Attenuation Features, or RAFs). However the effectiveness of RAFs are not known at the catchment scale since they have only really been trailed at the plot scale. These types of mitigation measure can offer benefits to water quality and create ecological habitats. The village of Belford, situated in the Belford Burn catchment (6km2), northern England, has suffered from numerous flood events. In addition, the catchment suffers from water quality issues within the channel and high sediment loads are having an impact on the ecology of the nearby estuary. There was a desire by the Local Environment Agency Flood Levy team to deliver an alternative catchment-based solution to the problem. With funding from the Northumbria Regional Flood Defence Committee, the Environment Agency North East Local Levy team and Newcastle University have created a partnership to address the flood problem trailing soft engineered RAF’s at the catchment scale. The partnership project, “Belford proactive flood solutions” is testing novel techniques in reducing flood risk in small sub-catchments for the Environment Agency. The project provides the information needed to understand whether the multi-functional mitigation measures are working at the sub-catchment scale. Data suggest that the mitigation measures present have delayed the overall travel time of the flood peak in the catchment by 33%. The current maximum flood storage capacity of all the features stands at around 15,000 m3. The evidence also suggests that a dam like in-stream mitigation measure can significantly reduce sediment load. Other benefits of some mitigation features include large increase in the population of water voles over the past two years. The scheme also acts as a demonstration site for interested stakeholders where they can learn about this approach to flood risk management and see the multipurpose benefits. As the project has progressed and lessons have been learnt, it has been possible to develop a runoff management toolkit for implementing these mitigation measures in other catchments of similar size. Already, the local Environment Agency has utilised the tools and recently applied similar mitigation measures to other catchments. On-going modelling exercises in the project are using the data to explore the up-scaling of the features to larger catchments.

  13. Navy’s Lamps (Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System) Prime Contractor Management: An Explanation and Discussion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    Harvard Business Review , November-December 1971 5. Gaddis, Paul 0., The Project Manager, Harvard Business Review , May...Lorsch, Jay W., New Vanagement Job: The Integrator, Harvard Business Review , November-December1967 8. Likert, Rensis, New Patterns of 1,’anagement...James B. and Buffa, Elwood S., Corporate !Todels: On-Line, Real-Tine Dystpms, Harvard Business Review , July-August 1970 I 15. Kast, Fremont E.

  14. Tensile bond strength and SEM evaluation of caries-affected dentin using dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, M; Sano, H; Burrow, M F; Tagami, J; Yoshiyama, M; Ebisu, S; Ciucchi, B; Russell, C M; Pashley, D H

    1995-10-01

    Tensile bond strength measurements are commonly used for the evaluation of dentin adhesive systems. Most tests are performed using extracted non-carious human or bovine dentin. However, the adhesion of resins to caries-affected dentin is still unclear. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that bonding to caries-affected dentin is inferior to bonding to normal dentin, and that the quality of the hybrid layer plays a major role in creating good adhesion. We used a micro-tensile bond strength test to compare test bond strengths made to either caries-affected dentin or normal dentin, using three commercial adhesive systems (All Bond 2, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, and Clearfil Liner Bond II). For scanning electron microscopy, the polished interfaces between the adhesive bond and dentin were subjected to brief exposure to 10% phosphoric acid solution and 5% sodium hypochlorite, so that the quality of the hybrid layers could be observed. Bonding to normal dentin with either All Bond 2 (26.9 +/- 8.8 MPa) or Clearfil Liner Bond II (29.5 +/- 10.9 MPa) showed tensile bond strengths higher than those to caries-affected dentin (13.0 +/- 3.6 MPa and 14.0 +/- 4.3 MPa, respectively). The tensile bond strengths obtained with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose were similar in normal and caries-affected dentin (20.3 +/- 5.5 MPa and 18.5 +/- 4.0 MPa, respectively). The hybrid layers created by All Bond 2 in normal dentin and by Clearfil Liner Bond II in normal or caries-affected dentin showed phosphoric acid and sodium hypochlorite resistance, whereas the hybrid layers created by All Bond 2 in caries-affected dentin and those created by Scotchbond Multi-Purpose to normal and caries-affected dentin showed partial susceptibility to the acid and sodium hypochlorite treatment. The results indicate that the strength of adhesion to dentin depends upon both the adhesive system used and the type of dentin. Moreover, the quality of the hybrid layer may not always contribute

  15. Des Moines Recreational River and Greenbelt Project. Multi-Purpose Trail, Red Rock, Segment 1. Feature Design Memorandum Number 3 with Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-31

    34Engineering and Design Stability of Earth and Rockfill Dam ." Therefore, no stability problems are expected. A slope stability analysis for rapid drawn...stability was analyzed in accordance with EM 1110-2-1902, "Engineering Design Stability of Earth and Rock fill Dams ," dated 1 April 1970. The maximum height...and along, the Des Moines River from U.S. Highway 20 in Fort Dodge, Iowa, downstream to relocated U.S. Highway 92 in the vicinity of the Red Rock Dam . B

  16. Quantifying the uncertainties of climate change effects on the storage-yield and performance characteristics of the Pong multi-purpose reservoir, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soundharajan, B.; Adeloye, A. J.; Remesan, R.

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is predicted to affect water resources infrastructure due to its effect on rainfall, temperature and evapotranspiration. However, there are huge uncertainties on both the magnitude and direction of these effects. The Pong reservoir on the Beas River in northern India serves irrigation and hydropower needs. The hydrology of the catchment is highly influenced by Himalayan seasonal snow and glaciers, and Monsoon rainfall; the changing pattern of the latter and the predicted disappearance of the former will have profound effects on the performance of the reservoir. This study employed a Monte-Carlo simulation approach to characterise the uncertainties in the future storage requirements and performance of the reservoir. Using a calibrated rainfall-runoff (R-R) model, the baseline runoff scenario was first simulated. The R-R inputs (rainfall and temperature) were then perturbed using plausible delta-changes to produce simulated climate change runoff scenarios. Stochastic models of the runoff were developed and used to generate ensembles of both the current and climate-change perturbed future scenarios. The resulting runoff ensembles were used to simulate the behaviour of the reservoir and determine "populations" of reservoir storage capacity and performance characteristics. Comparing these parameters between the current and the perturbed provided the population of climate change effects which was then analysed to determine the uncertainties. The results show that contrary to the usual practice of using single records, there is wide variability in the assessed impacts. This variability or uncertainty will, no doubt, complicate the development of climate change adaptation measures; however, knowledge of its sheer magnitude as demonstrated in this study will help in the formulation of appropriate policy and technical interventions for sustaining and possibly enhancing water security for irrigation and other uses served by Pong reservoir.

  17. A multi purpose source chamber at the PLEIADES beamline at SOLEIL for spectroscopic studies of isolated species: Cold molecules, clusters, and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblad, Andreas; Söderström, Johan; Nicolas, Christophe; Robert, Emmanuel; Miron, Catalin

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the philosophy and design goals regarding the construction of a versatile sample environment: a source capable of producing beams of atoms, molecules, clusters, and nanoparticles in view of studying their interaction with short wavelength (vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray) synchrotron radiation. In the design, specific care has been taken of (a) the use standard components, (b) ensuring modularity, i.e., that swiftly switching between different experimental configurations was possible. To demonstrate the efficiency of the design, proof-of-principle experiments have been conducted by recording x-ray absorption and photoelectron spectra from isolated nanoparticles (SiO2) and free mixed clusters (Ar/Xe). The results from those experiments are showcased and briefly discussed.

  18. Strategies and actions of multi-purpose health communication on vaccine preventable infectious diseases in order to increase vaccination coverage in the population: The ESCULAPIO project.

    PubMed

    Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Lauri, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Levi, Miriam; Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Pellizzari, Barbara; Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Vitale, Francesco; Iannazzo, Stefania; Boccalini, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The ESCULAPIO Project aims at increasing awareness on vaccine preventable infectious diseases (VPID) and vaccinations in different target populations and to spread the culture of prevention. Information/training interventions on VPID have been developed and health promotion activities for the general population, students and their parents, teachers and health care workers (HCWs) were set up. In Tuscany, educational courses on VPID in high schools were organized and students were stimulated to prepare informative materials on VPID for lower grade school pupils. In Liguria, an educational card game (named 'Vaccine at the Fair') was presented to children of primary schools. Stands in shopping centers were used in Palermo to distribute the regional vaccination schedule and gadgets, also providing indications on reliable websites where to find correct information on vaccinations. A music video played by health care workers (HCWs) was created and used in the University Hospital of Cagliari to promote the anti-flu vaccination campaign in HCWs. In Apulia, meetings with the general population were organized to collect controversial issues about vaccinations and a national call center was launched to create a direct line from the general population to experts in vaccines and vaccination strategies. In Veneto, meetings in the birth centers and home visits for subjects refusing vaccination have been organized. All activities are useful and effective tools to increase knowledge about VPID and confidence in vaccination, which are crucial aspects in order to increase vaccine uptake. The project was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013.

  19. A Lunar L2-Farside Exploration and Science Mission Concept with the ORion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and a Teleoperated Lander/Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Kring, David; Norris, Scott; Hopkins, Josh; Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin

    2012-01-01

    A novel concept is presented in this paper for a human mission to the lunar L2 (Lagrange) point that would be a proving ground for future exploration missions to deep space while also overseeing scientifically important investigations. In an L2 halo orbit above the lunar farside, the astronauts would travel 15% farther from Earth than did the Apollo astronauts and spend almost three times longer in deep space. Such missions would validate the Orion MPCV's life support systems, would demonstrate the high-speed re-entry capability needed for return from deep space, and would measure astronauts' radiation dose from cosmic rays and solar flares to verify that Orion would provide sufficient protection, as it is designed to do. On this proposed mission, the astronauts would teleoperate landers and rovers on the unexplored lunar farside, which would obtain samples from the geologically interesting farside and deploy a low radio frequency telescope. Sampling the South Pole-Aitkin basin (one of the oldest impact basins in the solar system) is a key science objective of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Observations of the Universe's first stars/galaxies at low radio frequencies are a priority of the 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Such telerobotic oversight would also demonstrate capability for human and robotic cooperation on future, more complex deep space missions.

  20. Trajectory Design Analysis over the Lunar Nodal Cycle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Dawn, Timothy F.; Jedrey, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The first crewed mission, Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2), for the MPCV Orion spacecraft is scheduled for August 2021, and its current mission is to orbit the Moon in a highly elliptical lunar orbit for 3 days. A 21-year scan was performed to identify feasible missions that satisfy the propulsive capabilities of the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS) and MPCV Service Module (SM). The mission is divided into 4 phases: (1) a lunar free return trajectory, (2) a hybrid maneuver, during the translunar coast, to lower the approach perilune altitude to 100 km, (3) lunar orbit insertion into a 100 x 10,000 km orbit, and (4) lunar orbit loiter and Earth return to a splashdown off the coast of Southern California. Trajectory data was collected for all feasible missions and converted to information that influence different subsystems including propulsion, power, thermal, communications, and mission operations. The complete 21-year scan data shows seasonal effects that are due to the Earth-Moon geometry and the initial Earth parking orbit. The data and information is also useful to identify mission opportunities around the current planned launch date for EM-2.

  1. Multi-purpose two- and three-dimensional momentum imaging of charged particles for attosecond experiments at 1 kHz repetition rate

    SciTech Connect

    Månsson, Erik P. Sorensen, Stacey L.; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Arnold, Cord L.; Kroon, David; Guénot, Diego; Fordell, Thomas; Johnsson, Per; L’Huillier, Anne; Lépine, Franck

    2014-12-15

    We report on the versatile design and operation of a two-sided spectrometer for the imaging of charged-particle momenta in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D). The benefits of 3D detection are to discern particles of different mass and to study correlations between fragments from multi-ionization processes, while 2D detectors are more efficient for single-ionization applications. Combining these detector types in one instrument allows us to detect positive and negative particles simultaneously and to reduce acquisition times by using the 2D detector at a higher ionization rate when the third dimension is not required. The combined access to electronic and nuclear dynamics available when both sides are used together is important for studying photoreactions in samples of increasing complexity. The possibilities and limitations of 3D momentum imaging of electrons or ions in the same spectrometer geometry are investigated analytically and three different modes of operation demonstrated experimentally, with infrared or extreme ultraviolet light and an atomic/molecular beam.

  2. Future Concepts for Integrating the Space Launch System and the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle into a Reusable Space Transportation Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes the Space Launch System (SLS), the Mulit-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), the International Space Station (ISS), and propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for commercial crew, cargo, and propellant launches to a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and/or the ISS. The SLS provides all payload and propellant launches to the Earth-Moon Langrange Point 1 (EML1) Depot to support new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The ISS or follow-on LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to Earth-Moon L1 for EML1 Depot missions. The EML1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid, and Mars missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched utilizing the SLS and current ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) derived from the MPCV and a reusable Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (CPS) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, EML1 Depot and missions beyond the Earth-Moon vicinity; a new reusable Lunar Lander for crew transportation between the EML1 Depot and the lunar surface; and a new reusable Deep Space Habitat (DSH) with a CTV to support crew missions from the EML1 Depot to ESL2, Asteroids, and a Mars Orbital Depot. The LEO Depot, EML1 Depot, and Mars Orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing SLS and current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure might be implemented incrementally over the next few decades. The potential benefits of this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, development of new reusable in-space vehicles, and development of a robust multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  3. Use of a novel multi-purpose sponge for laparoscopic surgery: Does it have special relevance to robotically-assisted laparoscopic surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Luca; Guadagni, Simone; Troia, Elena; Di Franco, Gregorio; Palmeri, Matteo; Caprili, Giovanni; D’Isidoro, Cristiano; Moglia, Andrea; Pisano, Roberta; Pietrabissa, Andrea; Cuschieri, Alfred; Mosca, Franco

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The STAR System (Ekymed SpA) is a novel multipurpose sponge developed for conventional manual laparoscopic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2012 and December 2014, we successfully used the sponge in ten robot-assisted and ten direct manual laparoscopic operations to achieve haemostasis, for blunt dissections, for atraumatic lifting of solid organs, to check for bile leaks, for cleaning the surgical field thus avoiding frequent use of suction or the application of haemostatic agents. The reason of the insertion (RI), the main use (MU) and any further use (FU), once inserted, were registered for each operation and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The principal RI was haemostasis for minor bleeding, without differences between the two groups (P = not significant). Regard to MU, in the robotic group cleaning the surgical field was utilised more than laparoscopic group (100% vs. 60%; P = 0.03). About FU, atraumatic solid organs lifting was more frequent during robotically assisted surgery than with laparoscopy (50% vs. 0%; P = 0.01). A statistically more frequent use of the sponge was registered during standard laparoscopy for the blunt dissection (30% vs. 80%; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The STAR System was beneficial in both approaches, but it imparts added benefit during robotically-assisted laparoscopic surgery organs because of the lack of tactile feedback and because the operating surgeon is remote from the patient, and has to rely on the assisting surgeon in the sterile field for dealing with bleeding episodes, cleansing/mopping the operative field when necessary, who may not be experienced or completely proficient. PMID:27251845

  4. A lunar L2-Farside exploration and science mission concept with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and a teleoperated lander/rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Kring, David A.; Hopkins, Joshua B.; Norris, Scott; Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Kasper, Justin

    2013-07-01

    A novel concept is presented in this paper for a human mission to the lunar L2 (Lagrange) point that would be a proving ground for future exploration missions to deep space while also overseeing scientifically important investigations. In an L2 halo orbit above the lunar farside, the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Vehicle would travel 15% farther from Earth than did the Apollo astronauts and spend almost three times longer in deep space. Such a mission would serve as a first step beyond low Earth orbit and prove out operational spaceflight capabilities such as life support, communication, high speed re-entry, and radiation protection prior to more difficult human exploration missions. On this proposed mission, the crew would teleoperate landers/rovers on the unexplored lunar farside, which would obtain samples from the geologically interesting farside and deploy a low radio frequency telescope. Sampling the South Pole-Aitken basin, one of the oldest impact basins in the solar system, is a key science objective of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Observations at low radio frequencies to track the effects of the Universe's first stars/galaxies on the intergalactic medium are a priority of the 2010 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Such telerobotic oversight would also demonstrate capability for human and robotic cooperation on future, more complex deep space missions such as exploring Mars.

  5. Electronic Checklists on Multi-Purpose Displays: A Better Way For Fighter Pilots to Manage Information and Situational Awareness during Periods of High Workload

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    compartmentalized cockpit design, increasingly complex weapons and sensor suites, digitization , and multi-role missions with high stress levels. Does it not meet the...capability is the electronic displays and digits provide excellent data in excruciating detail, but the problem is they do not present rate of data change...environment. Pilots in a digital cockpit exist in an information-rich environment. The challenge for designers is to organize and present multiple sources

  6. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Multi-Purpose Machine Gun Range at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst (JB MDL), New Jersey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Proposed MPMGR July 2015 JB MDL, New Jersey 2-2 Heating would be accomplished through electrical, geothermal , heat pump, or solar power. No fuel storage...drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities Consider using captured biogases in combined heat and power systems , and renewable energy (wind...Planning, and Conservation System ISBC Infantry Squad Battle Course JB MDL Joint Base McGuire-Dix- Lakehurst Ldn Day-Night Level MBTA Migratory Bird

  7. A Novel Multi-Purpose Matching Representation of Local 3D Surfaces: A Rotationally Invariant, Efficient, and Highly Discriminative Approach With an Adjustable Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Al-Osaimi, Faisal R

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to local 3D surface matching representation suitable for a range of 3D vision applications is introduced. Local 3D surface patches around key points on the 3D surface are represented by 2D images such that the representing 2D images enjoy certain characteristics which positively impact the matching accuracy, robustness, and speed. First, the proposed representation is complete, in the sense, there is no information loss during their computation. Second, the 3DoF 2D representations are strictly invariant to all the 3DoF rotations. To optimally avail surface information, the sensitivity of the representations to surface information is adjustable. This also provides the proposed matching representation with the means to optimally adjust to a particular class of problems/applications or an acquisition technology. Each 2D matching representation is a sequence of adjustable integral kernels, where each kernel is efficiently computed from a triple of precise 3D curves (profiles) formed by intersecting three concentric spheres with the 3D surface. Robust techniques for sampling the profiles and establishing correspondences among them were devised. Based on the proposed matching representation, two techniques for the detection of key points were presented. The first is suitable for static images, while the second is suitable for 3D videos. The approach was tested on the face recognition grand challenge v2.0, the 3D twins expression challenge, and the Bosphorus data sets, and a superior face recognition performance was achieved. In addition, the proposed approach was used in object class recognition and tested on a Kinect data set.

  8. A multi purpose source chamber at the PLEIADES beamline at SOLEIL for spectroscopic studies of isolated species: Cold molecules, clusters, and nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblad, Andreas; Söderström, Johan; Nicolas, Christophe; Robert, Emmanuel; Miron, Catalin

    2013-11-15

    This paper describes the philosophy and design goals regarding the construction of a versatile sample environment: a source capable of producing beams of atoms, molecules, clusters, and nanoparticles in view of studying their interaction with short wavelength (vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray) synchrotron radiation. In the design, specific care has been taken of (a) the use standard components, (b) ensuring modularity, i.e., that swiftly switching between different experimental configurations was possible. To demonstrate the efficiency of the design, proof-of-principle experiments have been conducted by recording x-ray absorption and photoelectron spectra from isolated nanoparticles (SiO{sub 2}) and free mixed clusters (Ar/Xe). The results from those experiments are showcased and briefly discussed.

  9. A multi purpose source chamber at the PLEIADES beamline at SOLEIL for spectroscopic studies of isolated species: cold molecules, clusters, and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Andreas; Söderström, Johan; Nicolas, Christophe; Robert, Emmanuel; Miron, Catalin

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the philosophy and design goals regarding the construction of a versatile sample environment: a source capable of producing beams of atoms, molecules, clusters, and nanoparticles in view of studying their interaction with short wavelength (vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray) synchrotron radiation. In the design, specific care has been taken of (a) the use standard components, (b) ensuring modularity, i.e., that swiftly switching between different experimental configurations was possible. To demonstrate the efficiency of the design, proof-of-principle experiments have been conducted by recording x-ray absorption and photoelectron spectra from isolated nanoparticles (SiO2) and free mixed clusters (Ar/Xe). The results from those experiments are showcased and briefly discussed.

  10. Helios: a Multi-Purpose LIDAR Simulation Framework for Research, Planning and Training of Laser Scanning Operations with Airborne, Ground-Based Mobile and Stationary Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, S.; Höfle, B.

    2016-06-01

    In many technical domains of modern society, there is a growing demand for fast, precise and automatic acquisition of digital 3D models of a wide variety of physical objects and environments. Laser scanning is a popular and widely used technology to cover this demand, but it is also expensive and complex to use to its full potential. However, there might exist scenarios where the operation of a real laser scanner could be replaced by a computer simulation, in order to save time and costs. This includes scenarios like teaching and training of laser scanning, development of new scanner hardware and scanning methods, or generation of artificial scan data sets to support the development of point cloud processing and analysis algorithms. To test the feasibility of this idea, we have developed a highly flexible laser scanning simulation framework named Heidelberg LiDAR Operations Simulator (HELIOS). HELIOS is implemented as a Java library and split up into a core component and multiple extension modules. Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to define scanner, platform and scene models and to configure the behaviour of modules. Modules were developed and implemented for (1) loading of simulation assets and configuration (i.e. 3D scene models, scanner definitions, survey descriptions etc.), (2) playback of XML survey descriptions, (3) TLS survey planning (i.e. automatic computation of recommended scanning positions) and (4) interactive real-time 3D visualization of simulated surveys. As a proof of concept, we show the results of two experiments: First, a survey planning test in a scene that was specifically created to evaluate the quality of the survey planning algorithm. Second, a simulated TLS scan of a crop field in a precision farming scenario. The results show that HELIOS fulfills its design goals.

  11. Fracture resistance of premolars with bonded class II amalgams.

    PubMed

    Dias de Souza, Grace Mendonça; Pereira, Gisele Damiana Silveira; Dias, Carlos Tadeu Santos; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars with MOD cavity preparation and simulated periodontal ligament. The teeth were restored with silver amalgam (G1), Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and silver amalgam (G2) and Panavia F and silver amalgam (G3). After restorations were made, the specimens were stored at 37 degrees C for 24 hours at 100% humidity and submitted to the compression test in the Universal Testing Machine (Instron). The statistical analysis of the results (ANOVA and Tukey Test) revealed that the fracture resistance of group 2 (G2=105.720 kgF) was superior to those of groups 1 (G1=72.433 kgF) and 3 (G3=80.505 kgF) that did not differ between them.

  12. Effect of thermocycling and varying polymerization techniques on the restorative interface of class V cavities restored with different composite resin systems

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Lindomar-Corrêa; Só, Marcus-Vinicius-Reis; Júnior, Newton-Fahl

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate marginal microleakage of two composite resins - a methacrylate- and a silorane-based submitted to different polymerization techniques and thermocycling. Material and Methods Ninety-six class V cavities were prepared in sound human molars and restored under different polymerization and thermocycling regimens. The adhesive systems employed were Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose and Filtek P-90 for cavities restored with Z250 and P-90. The specimens were restored with Z250 or P-90, and divided into 3 subgroups with different polymerization techniques. The data were analyzed by Three way Analysis of Variance Test (p<0.05). Results Micro infiltration lower scores were found in groups which were used silorane-based resin with significant statistical difference compared with the specimens restored with methacrylate-based resin, independently of polymerization type used and thermocycling (P>0.001). Conclusions Silorane-based composite resins present lower marginal microleakage values when compared to methacrylate-based composites resins. Key words:Composite resin, microleakage, polymerization. PMID:28298983

  13. Chlorhexidine stabilizes the adhesive interface: a 2 year in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Nato, Fernando; Carrilho, Marcela; Visintini, Erika; Tjäderhane, Leo; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Tay, Franklin R; De Stefano Dorigo, Elettra; Pashley, David H

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the role of endogenous dentin MMPs in auto-degradation of collagen fibrils within adhesive-bonded interfaces. The null hypotheses tested were that adhesive blends or chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) application does not modify dentin MMPs activity and that CHX used as therapeutic primer does not improve the stability of adhesive interfaces over time. Methods Zymograms of protein extracts from human dentin powder incubated with Adper Scotchbond 1XT (SB1XT) on untreated or 0.2–2% CHX treated dentin were obtained to assay dentin MMPs activity. Microtensile bond strength and interfacial nanoleakage expression of SB1XT bonded interfaces (with or without CHX pre-treatment for 30s on the etched surface) were analyzed immediately and after 2 yr of storage in artificial saliva at 37°C. Results Zymograms showed that application of SB1XT to human dentin powder increases MMP-2 activity, while CHX pre-treatment inhibited all dentin gelatinolytic activity, irrespective from the tested concentration. CHX significantly lowered the loss of bond strength and nanoleakage seen in acid-etched resin-bonded dentin artificially aged for 2 yr. Significance The study demonstrates the active role of SB1XT in dentin MMP-2 activation and the efficacy of CHX inhibition of MMPs even if used at low concentration (0.2%). PMID:20045177

  14. Effect of water storage on ultimate tensile strength and mass changes of universal adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololumi, Nazanin; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Sadr, Alireza; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh-Mahsa; Ghasemi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on micro tensile strength (µTS) and mass changes (MC) of two universal adhesives. Material and Methods 10 disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each adhesive; Scotchbond Universal (SCU) All-Bond Universal (ABU) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2). At the baseline and after 1 day and 28 days of water storage, their mass were measured and compared to estimate water sorption and solubility. For µTS test, 20 dumbbell shaped specimens were also prepared for each adhesive in two subgroups of 1 day and 28 days water storage. Results MC was significantly lower for SCU and ABU than SB2 (P < 0.05) at both time intervals. In all three adhesives, the MC was significantly lower at 28 days compared to that at 1 day (P < 0.05). Similarly, µTS was significantly higher for SCU and ABU than SB2 at both storage intervals (P < 0.05). After 28 days, µTS increased significantly for universal adhesives (P < 0.05). Conclusions MC and µTS of adhesives were both material and time dependent when stored in water; both universal adhesives showed less water sorption and higher values of µTS than the control group. Key words:Absorption, dental adhesives, dentin-bonding agents, solubility, tensile strength. PMID:28149468

  15. Comparative evaluation of the effect of different bonding agents on the ultramorphology of primary tooth dentin and the resin dentin interface

    PubMed Central

    Vashisth, Pallavi; Goswami, Mousumi; Mittal, Mudit; Chaudhary, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To analyze and compare the changes in the ultramorphology of dentin in primary teeth using different bonding agents and to study the resin/dentin interface produced by them. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surfaces of 50 extracted human deciduous teeth were grounded to expose the dentin. The teeth were divided into two groups (A) For viewing surface morphology- 18 teeth divided into four groups: (a) for viewing dentinal morphology (3 teeth), (b) Scotchbond multi-purpose (5 teeth), (c) Adhe SE (5 teeth), (d) Futurabond (5 teeth). (B) For viewing interfacial morphology- 32 teeth divided into four groups with 8 teeth each: (a) Scotch Bond Multipurpose (3M, ESPE),), (b) Adhe Se (Vivadent), (c) Optibond All-in-One (Kerr), (d) Futurabond NR (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). The adhesives were applied to each group following the manufacturer's instruction. All the samples were then prepared for viewing under SEM. Results: The photographs were graded using a four-step (0-3) scale method proposed by Ferrari et al. For Scotchbond, 12 (75%) were graded as 2 Grade 3 was observed in only 1 observation in the entire lot of materials. The results obtained for Adhe SE and Optibond AIO were similar, i.e. in 5 (31.25%) observations each the scores were 0 and in 11 (68.75%) observations each the scores were 1. In case of Futurabond, 3 (18.75%) observations were graded as 0 and 13 (81.25%) were graded as 1, thus showing a mean score of 0.81±0.40. Conclusion: Three- step bonding agent results in the complete removal of smear layer. While the self- etch approach is not efficient in removing the smear layer and opening of the dentinal tubules. The longest resin tags with lateral branches were seen in two groups- Scotch bond multipurpose and Optibond FL. PMID:23112484

  16. Cytotoxicity of universal, self-etching and etch-and-rinse adhesive systems according to the polymerization time.

    PubMed

    Elias, Silvia T; Santos, Andressa F Dos; Garcia, Fernanda C P; Pereira, Patrícia N R; Hilgert, Leandro A; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris M; Guerra, Eliete N S; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated in fibroblast cultures the direct cytotoxicity of universal, self-etching and etch-and-rinse adhesive systems according to the polymerization time. Paper discs were impregnated with adhesives and light-cured (10, 20 or 40 s). The discs were then immersed in culture medium to obtain the eluates for the experimental groups (A1-Single Bond 2; A2-Scotchbond Multi-purpose; A3-Clearfil SE Bond; A4 Scotchbond Universal). As a negative control, paper discs were immersed in culture medium only. After 24 h or 7 days, the eluate obtained was applied on fibroblast culture. Cell viability, cell morphology, membrane damage and the presence of residual monomers were evaluated by MTT assay, SEM, flow cytometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (=0.05). All adhesive systems significantly reduced 33-51% cell metabolism when compared to the negative control, regardless of polymerization time, storage period and adhesive system. Moreover, the adhesives caused intense morphological alterations and cell membrane damage. Toxicity was directly related to the presence of residual monomers in the eluates. Residual monomers and additional components are capable of reducing mitochondrial activity, causing morphological alterations and disruption of the cell membrane in fibroblasts, regardless of the polymerization time. This study highlights that despite the more complex composition of the universal adhesive system, its biological response was not more toxic when compared with other systems, even when the shortest polymerization time was tested in cell culture.

  17. Microleakage of composite resin restorations with a 10 percent maleic acid etchant.

    PubMed

    Gilpatrick, R O; Owens, B M; Kaplan, I; Cook, G

    1996-04-01

    Microleakage of Class V composite resin restorations with margins all in enamel were compared in this in-vitro study using Scotchbond MultiPurpose Adhesive (SMP) (3M Corp.), and Scotchbond II (SB II) (3M Corp). Twenty extracted human molars were randomly separated into two groups: Group One, which used the SMP system and Group Two, which used the SB II system. Circular Class V preparations were cut 1.8 mm deep and 3 mm in diameter using a #556 fissure bur. Cavosurface margins, all in enamel, were beveled. The enamel and dentin were treated following manufacturer's directions for each group, and a microfilled composite resin, Silux Plus (3M Corp), was applied in two hand-placed increments. All teeth were finished with Sof-Lex discs, stored in water for seven days, then thermocycled in a water bath for 100 cycles, alternating from 4 degrees C to 58 degrees C. The teeth were placed in a 5 percent solution of methylene blue, rinsed and then invested in resin. All teeth were sectioned vertically and horizontally and a ratio (percentage) of wall length to amount of leakage along each wall was established. The overall mean leakage of Group One was 15.27 percent and Group Two was 13.84 percent. Looking at individual walls, the mean occlusal wall leakage of Group One was 28.41 percent and Group Two was 12.45 percent. Mean gingival wall leakage of Group One was 15.96 percent and Group Two was 21.80 percent. Comparing the two groups, using a student's t test, there was no significant difference between the overall mean leakage or between the gingival wall leakage (p > 0.05); however, there was a significant difference between the occlusal wall leakage (p < 0.05), with SMP exhibiting more leakage.

  18. Shear bond strength of bulk-fill and nano-restorative materials to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Colak, Hakan; Ercan, Ertugrul; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Bulk-fill composite materials are being developed for preparation depths of up to 4 mm in an effort to simplify and improve the placement of direct composite posterior restorations. The aim of our study was to compare shear-bond strength of bulk-fill and conventional posterior composite resins. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 caries free extracted human molars were used and sectioned parallel to occlusal surface to expose midcoronal dentin. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups. Total-etch dentine bonding system (Adper Scotchbond 1XT, 3M ESPE) was applied to dentin surface in all the groups to reduce variability in results. Then, dentine surfaces covered by following materials. Group I: SonicFill Bulk-Fill, Group II: Tetric EvoCeram (TBF), Group III: Herculite XRV Ultra, and Group IV: TBF Bulk-Fill, 2 mm × 3 mm cylindrical restorations were prepared by using application apparatus. Shear bond testing was measured by using a universal testing machine. Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-tests were performed to evaluate the data. Results: The highest value was observed in Group III (14.42 ± 4.34) and the lowest value was observed in Group IV (11.16 ± 2.76) and there is a statistically significant difference between these groups (P = 0.046). However, there is no statistically significant difference between the values of other groups. In this study, Group III was showed higher strength values. Conclusion: There is a need for future studies about long-term bond strength and clinical success of these adhesive and bulk-fill systems. PMID:27011738

  19. Initial adhesion of glass-fiber-reinforced composite to the surface of porcine calvarial bone.

    PubMed

    Tuusa, S M R; Lassila, L V J; Matinlinna, J P; Peltola, M J; Vallittu, P K

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the initial bond strength of the glass-fiber-reinforced composite veil to the surface of the porcine calvarial compact bone using different adhesives. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) made of E-glass fiber veil with the BisGMA-PMMA resin system was used in the study. For the shear bond strength test, porcine calvarial bone cubes were mounted into resin matrix. FRC-veil discs were bonded to compact bone with different types of adhesives: (A) BisGMA-HEMA based (3M-ESPE Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive), (B) 4-META/UDMA/BisGMA based (Unifil Bond Bonding Agent) and MDP based (Clearfil Se Bond adhesive), (C) UDMA/BisGMA/PMMA-based experimental adhesive, and (D) silane-based (APS, ICS, MPS) experimental adhesives. The surface of the bone was mechanically roughened and was either used as such, treated with dental primers (Unifil Bond Self-etching Primer, Clearfil Se Bond Primer), or treated with an experimental silane mixture (APS, ICS, MPS), or with a mixture of the experimental silane liquid and Clearfil Se Bond Primer. The 3M-ESPE Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive and UDMA/BisGMA/PMMA experimental adhesive gave poor results in the shear bond test (0.58 and 0.40 MPa, respectively). Unifil Bond Bonding Agent and Clearfil Se Bond adhesive with respective primers markedly improved the shear bond strength; with Unifil the result was 3.40 MPa, and with Clearfil it was 6.19 MPa. When the bone surface was primed with a mixture of Clearfil Se Bond Primer and Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator, the Clearfil Se Bond adhesive-impregnated FRC veil gave the best adhesion to the bone surface in this test: 9.50 MPa. The addition of bioactive glass granules between the veil and the bone lowered the shear bond strength in the test system described above to 6.72 MPa. The test systems with the silane mixture were also promising. In the SEM study, it was found that the mechanical treatment reveals the pores of the bone surface. Chemical

  20. An in vitro comparison of four surface preparation techniques for veneering a compomer to stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Salama, F S; el-Mallakh, B F

    1997-01-01

    Compomers are a new class of materials reportedly having the anticariogenicity and the bonding ability to metals similar to glass ionomers while maintaining the high esthetic qualities of composite resins. The purpose of this study was to determine and evaluate the shear bond strength and fracture pattern of a compomer (Dyract) to stainless steel crowns (SSCs) using different mechanical and chemical retention procedures for possible future development of a chair-side technique of producing esthetic SSCs. Thirty-two Unitek SSCs, divided into four groups, were mounted in autopolymerizing acrylic resin so that the resulting specimen has the crown's flat lingual surface projecting above and parallel to the top surface of the acrylic resin block. Dyract was placed in transparent nylon cylinders (3 x 3 mm) and bonded to SSC's surfaces directly (group 1) or following sandblasting of the SSCs (group 2). In group 3, Dyract was bonded to stainless steel lingual cleats that were previously spot-welded to the SSCs. In group 4, Dyract was bonded to sandblasted SSC's surfaces using Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus dental adhesive. Specimens were placed in deionized water for 1 hr at 37 degrees C. Shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. The mean (SD) shear bond strengths in MPa for groups 1-4 respectively were as follows: 2.998 (1.381), 9.518 (2.464), 13.909 (1.653), and 9.372 (3.723). One-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple range tests revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups (P < 0.00001). While no significant difference was found between groups 2 and 4 in which Dyract-PSA prime/adhesive and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus dental adhesive were used, group 3 had significantly higher shear bond strength than other groups. Stereoscopic and SEM examinations revealed adhesive and mixed bond failures. It is concluded that the bond strength of Dyract to SSCs could be enhanced significantly by applying simple mechanical means of retention

  1. Bonding performance and interfacial characteristics of short fiber-reinforced resin composite in comparison with other composite restoratives.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) and surface free-energy (SFE) of short fiber-reinforced resin composite (SFRC), using different adhesive systems, in comparison with other composite restoratives. The resin composites used were everX Posterior (EP), Clearfil AP-X (CA), and Filtek Supreme Ultra Universal Restorative (FS). The adhesive systems used were Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SM), Clearfil SE Bond (CS), and G-Premio Bond (GB). Resin composite was bonded to dentin, and SBS was determined after 24 h of storage in distilled water and after 10,000 thermal cycles (TCs). The SFEs of the resin composites and the adhesives were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids. The SFE values and SFE characteristics were not influenced by the type of resin composite, but were influenced by the type of adhesive system. The results of this study suggest that the bonding performance and interfacial characteristics of SFRC are the same as for other composite restoratives, but that these parameters are affected by the type of adhesive system. The bonding performance of SFRC was enhanced by thermal cycling in a manner similar to that for other composite restoratives.

  2. Bonding Effectiveness of Two Adhesive Luting Cements to Glass Fiber Posts: Pull-Out Evaluation of Three Different Post Surface Conditioning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength at the post/resin-cement interface with 3 different surface treatments of glass fiber posts and with 2 different luting resin cements. Sixty glass fiber posts (RelyX Fiber Post) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20) and were luted with a dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and with a dual-polymerizing resin cement (RelyX ARC). This was carried out in association with a dual-polymerizing adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus) in simulated plexiglass root canals after receiving three different pretreatment procedures. A pull-out test was performed on each sample to measure bond strengths. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Two samples from each group were processed for SEM observations in order to investigate the morphologic aspect of the post/cement interface. Both resin cements demonstrated significant different bond strength values (P < 0.0001). The surface treatment result was also statistically significant (P = 0.0465). SEM examination showed a modification of the post surface after pretreatment with methyl methacrylate. The dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement achieved higher MPa bond strength values. The use of methyl methacrylate as a surface treatment of glass fiber posts provided a significant increase in bond strengths between the posts and both luting materials. PMID:24987418

  3. Effects of non-thermal atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma on the adhesion and durability of resin composite to dentin.

    PubMed

    Han, Geum-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Chung, Sung-No; Chun, Bae-Hyeock; Kim, Chang-Keun; Seo, Deog-Gyu; Son, Ho-Hyun; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of low-power, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NT-APP) treatments, in pulsed and conventional modes, on the adhesion of resin composite to dentin and on the durability of the bond between resin composite and dentin. A pencil-type NT-APP jet was applied in pulsed and conventional modes to acid-etched dentin. The microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of resin composite to dentin was evaluated at 24 h and after thermocycling in one control group (no plasma) and in two experimental groups (pulsed plasma and conventional plasma groups) using the Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus Adhesive System. Data were analyzed using two-factor repeated-measures anova and Weibull statistics. Fractured surfaces and the bonded interfaces were evaluated using a field-emission scanning electron microscope. Although there were no significant differences between the plasma treatment groups, the plasma treatment improved the MTBS compared with the control group. After thermocycling, the MTBS did not decrease in the control or conventional plasma group but increased in the pulsed plasma group. Thermocycling increased the Weibull moduli of plasma-treated groups. In conclusion, plasma treatment using NT-APP improved the adhesion of resin composite to dentin. Using a pulsed energy source, the energy delivered to the dentin was effectively reduced without any reduction in bond strength or durability.

  4. Anti-biofilm dentin primer with quaternary ammonium and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Zhang, K; Melo, M A S; Weir, M D; Zhou, X; Xu, H H K

    2012-06-01

    Antibacterial bonding agents could combat recurrent caries at the tooth-composite margins. The objectives of this study were to develop novel antibacterial dentin primers containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and to investigate the effects on dentin bond strength and dental plaque microcosm biofilms for the first time. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose ("SBMP") bonding agent was used. QADM and NAg were incorporated into SBMP primer, yielding 4 primers: SBMP primer (control), control + 10% QADM (mass), control + 0.05% NAg, and control + 10% QADM + 0.05% NAg. Human saliva was collected to grow microcosm biofilms. The NAg particle size (mean ± SD; n = 100) was 2.7 ± 0.6 nm. Dentin shear bond strengths (n = 10) with human third molars were approximately 30 MPa for all groups (p > 0.1). QADM-NAg-containing primer increased the bacteria inhibition zone by 9-fold, compared with control primer (p < 0.05). QADM-NAg-containing primer reduced lactic acid production and colony-forming units of total micro-organisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci by an order of magnitude. In conclusion, novel QADM-NAg-containing primers were strongly antibacterial without compromising dentin bond strength, and hence are promising to inhibit biofilms and secondary caries. The processing method of incorporating QADM and NAg together into the same primer produced the strongest antibacterial effect, which could have a wide applicability to other bonding systems.

  5. NANOLEAKAGE PHENOMENON ON DEPROTEINIZED HUMAN DENTIN

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Patrícia de Britto Pereira Garcia; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dentin deproteinization on the nanoleakage phenomenon. Material and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared in 12 human molars with cervical margins located in dentin. The cavities were assigned to 2 groups (n=6) according to dentin treatment: Group I - dentin treated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and Group II - dentin treated following the manufacturer’s instructions + 10% NaOCl. Each group was sub-divided into three groups, according to the DBS (dentin bonding system) used: Scotchbond Multi Purpose (SBMP), Prime & Bond NT (PB) and Clearfil SE Bond (SE), which were applied according to manufacturer’s instructions. The cavities were restored with composite resin, and the specimens were immersed in a tracer agent (AgNO3 50%) for 24 h. The teeth were sectioned buccolingually through the center of the restorations, and nanoleakage pattern was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the backscattered electron image mode. Results: SEM analysis showed different nanoleakage patterns for each DBS. Irrespective of dentin treatments, all SBMP specimens showed nanoleakage. SE did not show any nanoleakage with both dentin treatments used. PB showed nanoleakage within the hybrid layer only in Group I. Conclusions: The influence of dentin deproteinization on the nanoleakage phenomenon was dependent on dentin bonding system formulation and bonding strategies. PMID:19089146

  6. Effects of quaternary ammonium chain length on antibacterial bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Weir, M D; Xu, H H K

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize new quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with systematically varied alkyl chain lengths (CL) and to investigate, for the first time, the CL effects on antibacterial efficacy, cytotoxicity, and dentin bond strength of bonding agents. QAMs were synthesized with CL of 3 to 18 and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent. The cured resins were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Bacterial early attachment was investigated at 4 hrs. Biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured after 2 days. With CL increasing from 3 to 16, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were decreased by 5 orders of magnitude. Incorporating QAMs into SBMP reduced bacterial early attachment, with the least colonization at CL = 16. Biofilm CFU for CL = 16 was 4 log lower than SBMP control (p < .05). All groups had similar dentin bond strengths (p > .1). The new antibacterial materials had fibroblast/odontoblast viability similar to that of commercial controls. In conclusion, increasing the chain length of new QAMs in bonding agents greatly increased the antibacterial efficacy. A reduction in Streptococcus mutans biofilm CFU by 4 log could be achieved, without compromising bond strength and cytotoxicity. New QAM-containing bonding agents are promising for a wide range of restorations to inhibit biofilms.

  7. Raman Imaging of Dental Adhesive Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieliczka, D. M.; Kruger, M. B.; Spencer, P.

    1997-03-01

    In this project the dentin/adhesive interface was studied using micro-Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with laser light that is optimized to minimize the sample fluorescence. The commercial dentin adhesives Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus(3M) and Superbond (Sun Medical) were placed on coronal dentin substrates that were cut from extracted, unerupted third molars. The Raman spectra were obtained using a Dilor spectrometer with a resolution of 4 cm-1 over the spectral range of 100 to 2000 cm-1. All data were obtained using a Kr+ laser operating at 647 nm, a microscope with a 100x objective and with the sample mounted on a precision linear stage allowing for 0.5 (m positioning. Data were obtained from successive positions on the sample providing a spectral record of the interface from the pure adhesive to the pure dentin. Adhesive penetration into the dentin was determined by comparing the relative intensities of spectral bands attributable to the dentin versus the adhesive.

  8. Comparison of shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, S; Bahman, S; Arghavan, A B; Fatemeh, M

    2008-06-01

    Amalgam's non-adhesive characteristics necessitate cavity preparations incorporating retentive features, which often require the removal of non-carious tooth structure. Use of adhesives beneath amalgam restorations, would be helpful to overcome this disadvantage. This study was undertaken to compare the mean shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin, to evaluate the efficacy of amalgam adhesives in pediatric dentistry.27 primary and 28 permanent posterior teeth with intact buccal or lingual surfaces were grounded to expose dentin and wet-polished with 400-grit silicone carbide paper. Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus adhesive system was applied to the dentin surfaces and light cured. Amalgam was condensed onto the treated dentin through a plastic mold.shear bond strength testing was done using an Instron Universal testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min.The data were analyzed by independent samples t-test The difference among the two groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05) Bonded amalgam showed the same level of bond strength to primary and permanent dentin; so, application of amalgam bonding agents in pediatric dentistry can be recommended.

  9. Five-year clinical evaluation of 300 teeth restored with porcelain laminate veneers using total-etch and a modified self-etch adhesive system.

    PubMed

    Aykor, Arzu; Ozel, Emre

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term clinical performance of porcelain laminate veneers luted with hybrid composite in combination with total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems. The study was performed on 30 patients ranging in age between 28 and 54 years. Ten veneers were performed per patient in the maxillary arch. In Group 1, 150 teeth were treated with porcelain veneers, using a total-etch adhesive system (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus, 3M ESPE). In Group 2, 150 teeth were bonded with a self-etch adhesive system (AdheSE, Ivoclar-Vivadent). All the veneers were luted with a light-cured hybrid composite (Z100, 3M ESPE). The patients were recalled after 1, 2 and 5 years. Modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria were utilized to evaluate the porcelain laminate veneers in terms of marginal adaptation, cavo-surface marginal discoloration, secondary caries, postoperative sensitivity, satisfaction with restoration shade and gingival tissue response. Data were analyzed using the Chi-Square test (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the total-etch and self-etch groups in terms of USPHS criteria (p > 0.05). Porcelain veneers exhibited successful clinical performance with both total-etch and two-step self-etch adhesives at the end of five-years.

  10. Multi-step adhesive cementation versus one-step adhesive cementation: push-out bond strength between fiber post and root dentin before and after mechanical cycling.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Marina; Rippe, Marilia Pivetta; Bergoli, Cesar Dalmolin; Monaco, Carlo; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of mechanical cycling on resin push-out bond strength to root dentin, using two strategies for fiber post cementation. Forty bovine roots were embedded in acrylic resin after root canal preparation using a custom drill of the fiber post system. The fiber posts were cemented into root canals using two different strategies (N = 20): a conventional adhesive approach using a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system combined with a conventional resin cement (ScotchBond Multi Purpose Plus + RelyX ARC ), or a simplified adhesive approach using a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100). The core was built up with composite resin and half of the specimens from each cementation strategy were submitted to mechanical cycling (45 degree angle; 37 degrees C; 88 N; 4 Hz; 700,000 cycles). Each specimen was cross-sectioned and the disk specimens were pushed-out. The means from every group (n = 10) were statistically analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and a Tukey test (P = 0.05). The cementation strategy affected the push-out results (P < 0.001), while mechanical cycling did not (P = 0.3716). The simplified approach (a self-adhesive resin cement) had better bond performance despite the conditioning. The self-adhesive resin cement appears to be a good option for post cementation. Further trials are needed to confirm these results.

  11. Evaluation of four cementation strategies on the push-out bond strength between fiber post and root dentin.

    PubMed

    Bergoli, Cesar Dalmolin; Amaral, Marina; Druck, Carolina Ceolin; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2011-01-01

    This trial used push-out testing to evaluate four different fiber post cementation strategies. Specimens of bovine mandibular teeth were randomly allocated into four groups according to cementation strategies (n = 10): ScotchBond MultiPurpose and RelyX ARC (Group 1); AdheSE and Multilink Automix (Group 2); phosphoric acid and RelyX U100 (Group 3); and RelyX U100 (Group 4). Four slices from each specimen (2.0 mm thick) were obtained for the push-out test. All slices were analyzed for failure mode after testing. A one-way ANOVA showed differences between the groups (P = 0.002). A Tukey test indicated that Group 1 had the highest bond strength values (13.96 ± 6.41 MPa). Groups 2 (6.58 ± 2.14 MPa), 3 (5.85 ± 2.57 MPa), and 4 (8.19 ± 2.28 MPa) had similar bond strengths, but all of them were lower than Group 1. A three-step total etching adhesive system, associated with a conventional resin cement, might be a good alternative for fiber post cementation.

  12. Effects of Quaternary Ammonium Chain Length on Antibacterial Bonding Agents

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Weir, M.D.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize new quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with systematically varied alkyl chain lengths (CL) and to investigate, for the first time, the CL effects on antibacterial efficacy, cytotoxicity, and dentin bond strength of bonding agents. QAMs were synthesized with CL of 3 to 18 and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent. The cured resins were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Bacterial early attachment was investigated at 4 hrs. Biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured after 2 days. With CL increasing from 3 to 16, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were decreased by 5 orders of magnitude. Incorporating QAMs into SBMP reduced bacterial early attachment, with the least colonization at CL = 16. Biofilm CFU for CL = 16 was 4 log lower than SBMP control (p < .05). All groups had similar dentin bond strengths (p > .1). The new antibacterial materials had fibroblast/odontoblast viability similar to that of commercial controls. In conclusion, increasing the chain length of new QAMs in bonding agents greatly increased the antibacterial efficacy. A reduction in Streptococcus mutans biofilm CFU by 4 log could be achieved, without compromising bond strength and cytotoxicity. New QAM-containing bonding agents are promising for a wide range of restorations to inhibit biofilms. PMID:23958761

  13. Influence of Er:YAG and Ti:sapphire laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength of several adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Portillo, M; Lorenzo, M C; Moreno, P; García, A; Montero, J; Ceballos, L; Fuentes, M V; Albaladejo, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) and Ti:sapphire laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of three different adhesive systems to dentin. Flat dentin surfaces from 27 molars were divided into three groups according to laser irradiation: control, Er:YAG (2,940 nm, 100 μs, 2.7 W, 9 Hz) and Ti:sapphire laser (795 nm, 120 fs, 1 W, 1 kHz). Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the adhesive system used: two-step total-etching adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, from now on XT), two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond, from now on CSE), and all-in-one self-etching adhesive (Optibond All-in-One, from now on OAO). After 24 h of water storage, beams of section at 1 mm(2) were longitudinally cut from the samples. Each beam underwent traction test in an Instron machine. Fifteen polished dentin specimens were used for the surface morphology analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Failure modes of representative debonded microbars were SEM-assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, chi-square test, and multiple linear regression (p < 0.05). In the control group, XT obtained higher MTBS than that of laser groups that performed equally. CSE showed higher MTBS without laser than that with laser groups, where Er:YAG attained higher MTBS than ultrashort laser. When OAO was used, MTBS values were equal in the three treatments. CSE obtained the highest MTBS regardless of the surface treatment applied. The Er:YAG and ultrashort laser irradiation reduce the bonding effectiveness when a two-step total-etching adhesive or a two-step self-etching adhesive are used and do not affect their effectiveness when an all-in-one self-etching adhesive is applied.

  14. Influence of chlorhexidine concentration on the durability of etch-and-rinse dentin bonds: a 12-month in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Breschi, Lorenzo; Cammelli, Federica; Visintini, Erika; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Vita, Francesca; Carrilho, Marcela; Cadenaro, Milena; Foulger, Stephen; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David; Di Lenarda, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of 0.2% and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) used as a therapeutic primer on the long-term bond strengths of two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Methods Adper Scotchbond 1XT (SB1) and XP-Bond (XPB) were evaluated. Etched dentin substrates were assigned to six treatment groups: (1) 0.2% CHX + SB1; (2) 2% CHX + SB1; (3) SB1 (control); (4) 0.2% CHX + XPB; (5) 2% CHX + XPB; (6) XPB (control). Composite build-ups were made and beams prepared for microtensile bond strength test. Beams were divided in three subgroups and either immediately pulled to failure or stored in artificial saliva for 6 or 12 months prior to testing. Data were evaluated by three-way ANOVA. Additional adhesive interfaces were prepared to investigate nanoleakage expression by TEM. Results SB1 and XPB showed similar immediate bond strength values with or without CHX pre-treatment (p>0.05). After 12 months, bonds fell from 43.9 ± 9.5 MPa to 20.1 ± 5.4 MPa and from 39.6 ± 9.4 MPa to 14.2 ± 5.0 MPa in control specimens for SB1 and XPB respectively, while bond fell only from 41.9±9.6MPa to 33.2 ± 8.3 MPa and 38.3 ± 8.9 MPa to 26.5 ± 10.9 (for SB1 and XPB respectively) when 0.2% CHX was previously used. CHX concentration did not affect bond strength values (0.2% vs 2%, p>.05). Nanoleakage increased during aging in controls, but reduced silver deposits were found in CHX-treated specimens. Conclusions Chlorhexidine significantly reduced the loss of bond strength seen in control bonds. Since no bacterial growth was present in the aging conditions, the results of this study suggest that endogenous factors thought to degrade the adhesive interface can be inhibited by CHX. Further in vivo trials should confirm the role of CHX in bond durability. PMID:19603582

  15. Use of a specific MMP inhibitor (Galardin) for preservation of hybrid layer

    PubMed Central

    Breschi, Lorenzo; Martin, Patrizia; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Nato, Fernando; Carrilho, Marcela; Tjäderhane, Leo; Visintini, Erika; Cadenaro, Milena; Tay, Franklin R; De Stefano Dorigo, Elettra; Pashley, David H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Dentinal MMPs have been claimed to contribute to the auto-degradation of collagen fibrils within incompletely resin-infiltrated hybrid layers and their inhibition may, therefore, slow the degradation of hybrid layer. This study aimed to determine the contribution of a synthetic MMPs inhibitor (Galardin) to the proteolytic activity of dentinal MMPs and to the morphological and mechanical features of hybrid layers after aging. Methods Dentin powder obtained from human molars was treated with Galardin or chlorhexidine digluconate and zymographically analyzed. Microtensile bond strength was also evaluated in extracted human teeth. Exposed dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid and specimens were assigned to (1) pre-treatment with Galardin as additional primer for 30s; (2) no pre-treatment. A two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1XT, 3M ESPE) was then applied in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and resin composite build-ups were created. Specimens were immediately tested for their microtensile bond strength or stored in artificial saliva for 12 months prior to being tested. Data were evaluated by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (〈=0.05). Additional specimens were prepared for interfacial nanoleakage analysis under light microscopy and TEM, quantified by two independent observers and statistically analyzed (|2 test, 〈=0.05). Results The inhibitory effect of Galardin on dentinal MMPs was confirmed by zymographic analysis, as complete inhibition of both MMP-2 and -9 was observed. The use of Galardin had no effect on immediate bond strength, while it significantly decreased bond degradation after 1 year (p<0.05). Interfacial nanoleakage expression after aging revealed reduced silver deposits in galardin-treated specimens compared to controls (p<0.05). Conclusions This study confirmed that the proteolytic activity of dentinal MMPs was inhibited by the use of Galardin in a therapeutic primer. Galardin also partially preserved the

  16. Effect of indirect composite treatment microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, Nuria; Baracco, Bruno; Romero, Martin; Ceballos, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background No specific indications about the pre-treatment of indirect composite restorations is provided by the manufacturers of most self-adhesive resin cements. The potential effect of silane treatment to the bond strength of the complete tooth/indirect restoration complex is not available.The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of different surface treatments on microtensile bond strength of composite overlays to dentin using several self-adhesive resin cements and a total-etch one. Material and Methods Composite overlays were fabricated and bonding surfaces were airborne-particle abraded and randomly assigned to two different surface treatments: no treatment or silane application (RelyX Ceramic Primer) followed by an adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT). Composite overlays were luted to flat dentin surfaces using the following self-adhesive resin cements: RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, Speedcem, Maxcem Elite or Smartcem2, and the total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC. After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into sticks 1 mm thick and stressed in tension until failure. Two-way ANOVA and SNK tests were applied at α=0.05. Results Bond strength values were significantly influenced by the resin cement used (p<0.001). However, composite surface treatment and the interaction between the resin cement applied and surface treatment did not significantly affect dentin bond strength (p>0.05). All self-adhesive resin cements showed lower bond strength values than the total-etch RelyX ARC. Among self-adhesive resin cements, RelyX Unicem and G-Cem attained statistically higher bond strength values. Smartcem2 and Maxcem Elite exhibited 80-90% of pre-test failures. Conclusions The silane and adhesive application after indirect resin composite sandblasting did not improve the bond strength of dentin-composite overlay complex. Selection of the resin cement seems to be a more relevant factor when bonding indirect composites to dentin than its surface treatment. Key words

  17. Effect of 2% Chlorhexidine Digluconate on the Bond Strength to Normal versus Caries-Affected Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Paula C. P.; Pashley, David H.; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; de Goes, Mario Fernando; Wang, Linda; Carrilho, Marcela R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This study evaluated the effect of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) used as a therapeutic primer on the long-term bond strengths of two etch-and-rinse adhesives to normal (ND) and caries-affected (CAD) dentin. Forty extracted human molars with coronal carious lesions, surrounded by normal dentin, were selected for this study. Flat surfaces of two types of dentin (i.e. ND and CAD) were prepared with a water-cooled high speed diamond disc, and then acid-etched, rinsed and air-dried. In control groups, dentin was re-hydrated with distilled water, blot-dried and bonded with a three-step (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose-MP) or a two-step (Single Bond 2-SB) etch-and-rinse adhesive. In experimental groups, dentin was re-hydrated with 2% CHX (60 s), blot-dried and bonded with the same adhesives. Resin composite build-ups were made. Specimens were prepared for microtensile bond testing in accordance with the non-trimming technique and then tested either immediately or after 6-month storage in artificial saliva. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Bonferroni tests (α = 0.05). CHX did not affect the immediate bond strength to ND or CAD (p>0.05). CHX treatment significantly lowered the loss of bond strength after 6 months seen in control bonds for ND (p<0.05), but it did not alter the bond strength of CAD (p>0.05). Application of MP on CHX-treated ND or CAD produced bonds that did not change over 6 months of storage. PMID:19363971

  18. Doxycycline-encapsulated nanotube-modified dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, S A; Palasuk, J; Kamocki, K; Geraldeli, S; Gregory, R L; Platt, J A; Windsor, L J; Bottino, M C

    2014-12-01

    This article presents details of fabrication, biological activity (i.e., anti-matrix metalloproteinase [anti-MMP] inhibition), cytocompatibility, and bonding characteristics to dentin of a unique doxycycline (DOX)-encapsulated halloysite nanotube (HNT)-modified adhesive. We tested the hypothesis that the release of DOX from the DOX-encapsulated nanotube-modified adhesive can effectively inhibit MMP activity. We incorporated nanotubes, encapsulated or not with DOX, into the adhesive resin of a commercially available bonding system (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose [SBMP]). The following groups were tested: unmodified SBMP (control), SBMP with nanotubes (HNT), and DOX-encapsulated nanotube-modified adhesive (HNT+DOX). Changes in degree of conversion (DC) and microtensile bond strength were evaluated. Cytotoxicity was examined on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). To prove the successful encapsulation of DOX within the adhesives-but, more important, to support the hypothesis that the HNT+DOX adhesive would release DOX at subantimicrobial levels-we tested the antimicrobial activity of synthesized adhesives and the DOX-containing eluates against Streptococcus mutans through agar diffusion assays. Anti-MMP properties were assessed via β-casein cleavage assays. Increasing curing times (10, 20, 40 sec) led to increased DC values. There were no statistically significant differences (p > .05) in DC within each increasing curing time between the modified adhesives compared to SBMP. No statistically significant differences in microtensile bond strength were noted. None of the adhesives eluates were cytotoxic to the human dental pulp stem cells. A significant growth inhibition of S. mutans by direct contact illustrates successful encapsulation of DOX into the experimental adhesive. More important, DOX-containing eluates promoted inhibition of MMP-1 activity when compared to the control. Collectively, our findings provide a solid background for further testing of encapsulated MMP

  19. Novel dental adhesives containing nanoparticles of silver and amorphous calcium phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary Anne S.; Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K. A.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Secondary caries is the main reason for restoration failure, and replacement of the failed restorations accounts for 50–70% of all restorations. Antibacterial adhesives could inhibit residual bacteria in tooth cavity and invading bacteria along the margins. Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion release could remineralize the lesions. The objectives of this study were to incorporate nanoparticles of silver (NAg) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) into adhesive for the first time, and to investigate the effects on dentin bond strength and plaque microcosm biofilms. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive was used as control. NAg were added into primer and adhesive at 0.1% by mass. NACP were mixed into adhesive at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Microcosm biofilms were grown on disks with primer covering the adhesive on a composite. Biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU) and lactic acid were measured. Results Human dentin shear bond strengths (n=10) ranged from 26 to 34 MPa; adding NAg and NACP into adhesive did not decrease the bond strength (p > 0.1). SEM examination revealed resin tags from well-filled dentinal tubules. Numerous NACP infiltrated into the dentinal tubules. While NACP had little antibacterial effect, NAg in bonding agents greatly reduced the biofilm viability and metabolic activity, compared to the control (p < 0.05). CFU for total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci on bonding agents with NAg were an order of magnitude less than those of the control. Lactic acid production by biofilms for groups containing NAg was 1/4 of that of the control. Significance Dental plaque microcosm biofilm viability and acid production were greatly reduced on bonding agents containing NAg and NACP, without compromising dentin bond strength. The novel method of incorporating dual agents (remineralizing agent NACP and antibacterial agent NAg) may have wide applicability to other dental bonding systems. PMID

  20. Dual antibacterial agents of nano-silver and 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide in dental adhesive to inhibit caries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Li, Fang; Imazato, Satoshi; Cheng, Lei; Liu, Huaibing; Arola, Dwayne D; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H K

    2013-08-01

    Dental resins containing 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB) showed potent antibacterial functions. Recent studies developed antibacterial resins containing nanoparticles of silver (NAg). The objectives of this study were to develop an adhesive containing dual agents of MDPB and NAg for the first time and to investigate the combined effects of antibacterial adhesive and primer on biofilm viability, metabolic activity, lactic acid, dentin bond strength, and fibroblast cytotoxicity. MDPB and NAg were incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) adhesive "A" and primer "P". Five systems were tested: SBMP adhesive A; A + MDPB; A+NAg; A + MDPB + NAg; P + MDPB + NAg together with A + MDPB + NAg. Dental plaque microcosm biofilms were cultured using mixed saliva from 10 donors. Metabolic activity, colony-forming units, and lactic acid production of biofilms were investigated. Human fibroblast cytotoxicity of bonding agents was determined. MDPB + NAg in adhesive/primer did not compromise dentin bond strength (p > 0.1). MDPB or NAg alone in adhesive substantially reduced the biofilm activities. Dual agents MDPB + NAg in adhesive significantly reduced the biofilm viability compared with each agent alone (p < 0.05). The greatest inhibition of biofilms was achieved when both adhesive and primer contained MDPB + NAg. Fibroblast viability of groups with dual antibacterial agents was similar to control using culture medium without resin eluents (p > 0.1). In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that the antibacterial potency of MDPB adhesive could be substantially enhanced via NAg. Adding MDPB + NAg into both primer and adhesive achieved the strongest antibiofilm efficacy. The dual agent (MDPB + NAg) method could have wide applicability to other adhesives, sealants, cements, and composites to inhibit biofilms and caries.

  1. The effect of curing light and chemical catalyst on the degree of conversion of two dual cured resin luting cements.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different curing lights and chemical catalysts on the degree of conversion of resin luting cements. A total of 60 disk-shaped specimens of RelyX ARC or Panavia F of diameter 5 mm and thickness 0.5 mm were prepared and the respective chemical catalyst (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus or ED Primer) was added. The specimens were light-cured using different curing units (an argon ion laser, an LED or a quartz-tungsten-halogen light) through shade A2 composite disks of diameter 10 mm and thickness 2 mm. After 24 h of dry storage at 37°C, the degree of conversion of the resin luting cements was measured by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and the Tukey test were used, with p ≤ 0.05. Panavia F when used without catalyst and cured using the LED or the argon ion laser showed degree of conversion values significantly lower than RelyX ARC, with and without catalyst, and cured with any of the light sources. Therefore, the degree of conversion of Panavia F with ED Primer cured with the quartz-tungsten-halogen light was significantly different from that of RelyX ARC regardless of the use of the chemical catalyst and light curing source. In conclusion, RelyX ARC can be cured satisfactorily with the argon ion laser, LED or quartz-tungsten-halogen light with or without a chemical catalyst. To obtain a satisfactory degree of conversion, Panavia F luting cement should be used with ED Primer and cured with halogen light.

  2. Durability of enamel bonding using two-step self-etch systems on ground and unground enamel.

    PubMed

    Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Moura, Sandra Kiss; Pellizzaro, Arlete; Dal-Bianco, Karen; Patzlaff, Rafael Tiago; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda; Reis, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the early and long-term microtensile bond strengths (MTBS) and interfacial enamel gap formation (IGW) of two-step self-etch systems to unground and ground enamel. Resin composite (Filtek Z250) buildups were bonded to proximal enamel surfaces (unground, bur-cut or SiC-treated enamel) of third molars after the application of four self-etch adhesives: a mild (Clearfil SE Bond [SE]), two moderate (Optibond Solo Plus Self-Etch Primer [SO] and AdheSE [AD]) and a strong adhesive (Tyrian Self Priming Etchant + One Step Plus [TY]) and two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems (Single Bond [SB] and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus [SBMP]). Ten tooth halves were assigned for each adhesive. After storage in water (24 hours/37 degrees C), the bonded specimens were sectioned into beams (0.9 mm2) and subjected to microTBS (0.5 mm/minute) or interfacial gap width measurement (stereomicroscope at 400x) either immediately (IM) or after 12 months (12M) of water storage. The data were analyzed by three-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). No gap formation was observed in any experimental condition. The microTBS in the Si-C paper and diamond bur groups were similar and greater than the unground group only for the moderate self-etch systems (SO and AD). No reductions in bond strength values were observed after 12 months of water storage, regardless of the adhesive evaluated.

  3. Poly (amido amine) and nano-calcium phosphate bonding agent to remineralize tooth dentin in cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kunneng; Weir, Michael D; Reynolds, Mark A; Zhou, Xuedong; Li, Jiyao; Xu, Hockin H K

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a novel method to remineralize dentin lesions, and investigate the remineralization effects of poly (amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer plus a bonding agent with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) in a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid environment for the first time. Dentin lesions were produced via phosphoric acid. Four groups were tested: (1) dentin control, (2) dentin with PAMAM, (3) dentin with NACP bonding agent, and (4) dentin with PAMAM plus NACP bonding agent. Specimens were treated with cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid. The remineralized dentin was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), hardness and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). NACP bonding agent yielded a dentin shear bond strength similar to commercial controls (Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply; Scotchbond Multi-purpose, 3M) (p>0.1). Increasing NACP in bonding agent from 0 to 40% did not affect bond strength. NACP bonding agent neutralized the acid and released Ca ions with concentrations of 4 to 20mmol/L, and P ions of 2 to 9mmol/L. PAMAM or NACP bonding agent alone achieved slight remineralization. The PAMAM+NACP group achieved the greatest dentin remineralization p<0.05). At 20days, PAMAM+NACP increased the hardness of pre-demineralized dentin to reach the normal dentin hardness (p>0.1). In conclusion, superior remineralization of PAMAM+NACP bonding agent was demonstrated for the first time. PAMAM+NACP bonding agent induced dentin remineralization under acid challenge, when conventional remineralization methods such as PAMAM alone did not work well. The novel PAMAM+NACP bonding agent method is promising to improve the longevity of resin-dentin bonds, inhibit caries, and protect teeth.

  4. Improving orthodontic bonding to silver amalgam.

    PubMed

    Zachrisson, B U; Büyükyilmaz, T; Zachrisson, Y O

    1995-01-01

    Flat rectangular tabs (n = 84) prepared from lathe-cut amalgam (ANA 2000) were subjected to aluminum oxide sandblasting or roughening with a diamond bur. Mandibular incisor edgewise brackets were bonded to these tabs using: Concise (Bis-GMA resin); one of three metal-bonding adhesives, viz., Superbond C&B (4-META resin), Panavia Ex (10-MDP Bis-GMA resin) or Geristore (composite base); and Concise after application of the intermediate resins All-Bond 2 Primers A+B, or the Scotch-Bond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) system. All specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours before tensile bond strength testing. Alignment and uniform loading during testing were secured by engaging a hook in a circular ring soldered onto the bracket slot before bonding. Similar control brackets (n = 12) were bonded with Concise to extracted caries-free mandibular incisors. Bond failure sites were classified by a modified ARI system. Mean tensile bond strengths in the experimental group ranged from 3.4 to 6.4 MPa--significantly weaker than the control sample (13.2 MPa). Bond failure generally occurred at the amalgam/adhesive interface. Superbond C&B created the strongest bonds to amalgam; according to ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple-Range test, they were significantly stronger than the bonds with Panavia Ex and Concise, with Geristore in between. However, the bond strength of Concise to sandblasted amalgam was comparable to the Superbond C&B bonds when coupled with an intermediate application of All-Bond 2 Primers A+B. The SBMP, on the other hand, was less effective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Effect of food and oral simulating fluids on structure of adhesive composite systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Greener, E H; Mueller, H J

    1995-02-01

    This work evaluates the degradation of three adhesive/composite systems (Tenure/Marathon One. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose/Z100 and Optibond/Herculite XRV) upon immersion in 75% ethanol solution and in an artificial saliva (Moi-Stir). Shear bond strength (SBS) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) specimens were employed for this study. For the SBS specimens, the bonded interface and composite were exposed to food and oral simulating fluids at 37 degrees C for up to 30 days. A similar control series was stored in air. DTS specimens were stored in 75% ethanol at 37 degrees C for up to 30 days. The SBS specimens were sheared to failure. Small quantities of bonding resin were removed from the tooth side of the fractured surface and from the non-fractured fractured end of the composite for Fourier transform infrared microscopic evaluation. Similar scrapings were taken from DTS specimen surfaces. The infrared absorbance intensity (AI) of the major peaks was measured as a function of storage time and ratioed against the aromatic C = C (1609.4 cm-1) peak. The data were analysed using ANOVA and the Tukey LSD test. The AI of major peaks was similar for the materials stored either in air or in Moi-Stir for all testing periods. Storage in ethanol caused the AI of aliphatic C = C (1638 cm-1) and of O-H (approximately 3500 cm-1) bonds to significantly decrease (30-50%) for specimens of bonding resin while the AI of C = O bonds (1730 cm-1) increased (60-120%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Doxycycline-Encapsulated Nanotube-Modified Dentin Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, S.A.; Palasuk, J.; Kamocki, K.; Geraldeli, S.; Gregory, R.L.; Platt, J.A.; Windsor, L.J.; Bottino, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents details of fabrication, biological activity (i.e., anti–matrix metalloproteinase [anti-MMP] inhibition), cytocompatibility, and bonding characteristics to dentin of a unique doxycycline (DOX)–encapsulated halloysite nanotube (HNT)–modified adhesive. We tested the hypothesis that the release of DOX from the DOX-encapsulated nanotube-modified adhesive can effectively inhibit MMP activity. We incorporated nanotubes, encapsulated or not with DOX, into the adhesive resin of a commercially available bonding system (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose [SBMP]). The following groups were tested: unmodified SBMP (control), SBMP with nanotubes (HNT), and DOX-encapsulated nanotube-modified adhesive (HNT+DOX). Changes in degree of conversion (DC) and microtensile bond strength were evaluated. Cytotoxicity was examined on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). To prove the successful encapsulation of DOX within the adhesives—but, more important, to support the hypothesis that the HNT+DOX adhesive would release DOX at subantimicrobial levels—we tested the antimicrobial activity of synthesized adhesives and the DOX-containing eluates against Streptococcus mutans through agar diffusion assays. Anti-MMP properties were assessed via β-casein cleavage assays. Increasing curing times (10, 20, 40 sec) led to increased DC values. There were no statistically significant differences (p > .05) in DC within each increasing curing time between the modified adhesives compared to SBMP. No statistically significant differences in microtensile bond strength were noted. None of the adhesives eluates were cytotoxic to the human dental pulp stem cells. A significant growth inhibition of S. mutans by direct contact illustrates successful encapsulation of DOX into the experimental adhesive. More important, DOX-containing eluates promoted inhibition of MMP-1 activity when compared to the control. Collectively, our findings provide a solid background for further testing of

  7. Effect of water-ageing on dentine bond strength and anti-biofilm activity of bonding agent containing new monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Cheng, Lei; Wu, Eric J.; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to develop bonding agent containing a new antibacterial monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) as well as nanoparticles of silver (NAg) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), and to investigate the effects of water-ageing for 6 months on dentine bond strength and anti-biofilm properties for the first time. Methods Four bonding agents were tested: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) Primer and Adhesive control; SBMP + 5% DMADDM; SBMP + 5% DMADDM + 0.1% NAg; and SBMP + 5% DMADDM + 0.1% NAg with 20% NACP in adhesive. Specimens were water-aged for 1 d and 6 months at 37 °C. Then the dentine shear bond strengths were measured. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to inoculate bacteria on water-aged specimens and to measure metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFUs), and lactic acid production. Results Dentine bond strength showed a 35% loss in 6 months of water-ageing for SBMP control (mean ± sd; n = 10); in contrast, the new antibacterial bonding agents showed no strength loss. The DMADDM–NAg–NACP containing bonding agent imparted a strong antibacterial effect by greatly reducing biofilm viability, metabolic activity and acid production. The biofilm CFU was reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, compared to SBMP control. Furthermore, the DMADDM–NAg–NACP bonding agent exhibited a long-term antibacterial performance, with no significant difference between 1 d and 6 months (p > 0.1). Conclusions Incorporating DMADDM–NAg–NACP in bonding agent yielded potent and long-lasting antibacterial properties, and much stronger bond strength after 6 months of water-ageing than a commercial control. The new antibacterial bonding agent is promising to inhibit biofilms and caries at the margins. The method of DMADDM–NAg–NACP incorporation may have a wide applicability to other adhesives, cements and composites. PMID:23583528

  8. In vivo degradation of resin-dentin bonds in humans over 1 to 3 years.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, M; Ohno, H; Kaga, M; Endo, K; Sano, H; Oguchi, H

    2000-06-01

    The longevity of resin restorations is currently an area of great interest in adhesive dentistry. However, no work has been conducted to investigate the durability of resin-dentin bond structures using human substrate in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degradation of the resin-dentin bond structures aged in an oral environment for 1, 2, or 3 years. Cavities were prepared in primary molars, and an adhesive resin system (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose) was applied to the cavity. After 1 to 3 years, following the eruption of the succedaneous permanent teeth, the resin-restored teeth were extracted. Immediately after extraction, those teeth were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface and trimmed to produce an hourglass-shaped specimen. Then, a micro-tensile test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The mean bond strengths were statistically compared with one-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (p < 0.05). Further, all fractured surfaces were observed by SEM, and the area fraction of failure mode was calculated by means of a digital analyzer on SEM photomicrographs. There were significant differences in tensile-bond strength among all 3 groups (p < 0.05), with mean values ranging from 28.3 +/- 11.3 MPa (control), to 15.2 +/- 4.4 MPa (1 to 2 years), to 9.1 +/- 5.1 MPa (2 to 3 years). Moreover, under fractographic analysis, the proportion of demineralized dentin at the fractured surface in specimens aged in an oral environment was greater than that in control specimens. Furthermore, degradation of resin composite and the depletion of collagen fibrils was observed among the specimens aged in an oral environment. Analysis of the results of this study indicated that the degradation of resin-dentin bond structures occurs after aging in the oral cavity.

  9. Dual antibacterial agents of nano-silver and 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide in dental adhesive to inhibit caries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Li, Fang; Imazato, Satoshi; Cheng, Lei; Liu, Huaibing; Arola, Dwayne D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Dental resins containing 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB) showed potent antibacterial functions. Recent studies developed antibacterial resins containing nanoparticles of silver (NAg). The objectives of this study were to develop an adhesive containing dual agents of MDPB and NAg for the first time, and to investigate the combined effects of antibacterial adhesive and primer on biofilm viability, metabolic activity, lactic acid, dentin bond strength, and fibroblast cytotoxicity. MDPB and NAg were incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) adhesive “A” and primer “P”. Five systems were tested: SBMP adhesive A; A+MDPB; A+NAg; A+MDPB+NAg; P+MDPB+NAg together with A+MDPB+NAg. Dental plaque microcosm biofilms were cultured using mixed saliva from ten donors. Metabolic activity, colony-forming units, and lactic acid production of biofilms were investigated. Human fibroblast cytotoxicity of bonding agents was determined. MDPB+NAg in adhesive/primer did not compromise dentin bond strength (p>0.1). MDPB or NAg alone in adhesive substantially reduced the biofilm activities. Dual agents MDPB+NAg in adhesive greatly reduced the biofilm viability compared to each agent alone (p<0.05). The greatest inhibition of biofilms was achieved when both adhesive and primer contained MDPB+NAg. Fibroblast viability of groups with dual antibacterial agents was similar to control using culture medium without resin eluents (p>0.1). In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that the antibacterial potency of MDPB adhesive could be substantially enhanced via NAg. Adding MDPB+NAg into both primer and adhesive achieved the strongest anti-biofilm efficacy. The dual agent (MDPB+NAg) method could have wide applicability to other adhesives, sealants, cements and composites to inhibit biofilms and caries. PMID:23529901

  10. Development of a multifunctional adhesive system for prevention of root caries and secondary caries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Melo, Mary A. S.; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jason; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel adhesive for prevention of tooth root caries and secondary caries by possessing a combination of protein-repellent, antibacterial, and remineralization capabilities for the first time; and (2) investigate the effects of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) on dentine bond strength, protein-repellent properties, and dental plaque microcosm biofilm response. Methods MPC, DMAHDM and NACP were added into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose primer and adhesive. Dentine shear bond strengths were measured. Adhesive coating thickness, surface texture and dentine-adhesive interfacial structure were examined. Protein adsorption onto adhesive resin surface was determined by the micro bicinchoninic acid method. A human saliva microcosm biofilm model was used to investigate biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and lactic acid production. Results The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP did not adversely affect dentine shear bond strength (p > 0.1). The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP produced a coating on root dentine with a thickness of approximately 70 μm and completely sealed all the dentinal tubules. The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP had 95% reduction in protein adsorption, compared to SBMP control (p < 0.05). The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP was strongly antibacterial, with biofilm CFU being four orders of magnitude lower than that of SBMP control. Significance The novel multifunctional adhesive with strong protein-repellent, antibacterial and remineralization properties is promising to coat tooth roots to prevent root caries and secondary caries. The combined use of MPC, DMAHDM and NACP may have wide applicability to bonding agents, cements, sealants and composites to inhibit caries. PMID:26187532

  11. Effects of dual antibacterial agents MDPB and nano-silver in primer on microcosm biofilm, cytotoxicity and dentin bond properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Cheng, Lei; Imazato, Satoshi; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dentin primer containing dual antibacterial agents, namely, 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg), on dentin bond strength, dental plaque microcosm biofilm response, and fibroblast cytotoxicity for the first time. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) was used as the parent bonding agent. Four primers were tested: SBMP primer control (referred to as “P”), P+5%MDPB, P+0.05%NAg, and P+5%MDPB+0.05%NAg. Dentin shear bond strengths were measured using extracted human teeth. Biofilms from the mixed saliva of 10 donors were cultured to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU), and lactic acid production. Human fibroblast cytotoxicity of the four primers was tested in vitro. Results Incorporating MDPB and NAg into primer did not reduce dentin bond strength compared to control (p>0.1). SEM revealed well-bonded adhesive-dentin interfaces with numerous resin tags. MDPB or NAg each greatly reduced biofilm viability and acid production, compared to control. Dual agents MDPB+NAg had a much stronger effect than either agent alone (p<0.05), increasing inhibition zone size and reducing metabolic activity, CFU and lactic acid by an order of magnitude, compared to control. There was no difference in cytotoxicity between commercial control and antibacterial primers (p>0.1). Conclusions The method of using dual agents MDPB+NAg in the primer yielded potent antibacterial properties. Hence, this method may be promising to combat residual bacteria in tooth cavity and invading bacteria at the margins. The dual agents MDPB+NAg may have wide applicability to other adhesives, composites, sealants and cements to inhibit biofilms and caries. PMID:23402889

  12. Effect of quaternary ammonium and silver nanoparticle-containing adhesives on dentin bond strength and dental plaque microcosm biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Melo, Mary Anne S.; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Antibacterial bonding agents are promising to hinder the residual and invading bacteria at the tooth-restoration interfaces. The objectives of this study were to develop an antibacterial bonding agent by incorporation of quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and to investigate the effect of QADM-NAg adhesive and primer on dentin bond strength and plaque microcosm biofilm response for the first time. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer were used as control. Experimental adhesive and primer were made by adding QADM and NAg into control adhesive and primer. Human dentin shear bond strengths were measured (n = 10). A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, lactic acid production, and live/dead staining assay (n = 6). Results Adding QADM and NAg into adhesive and primer did not compromise the dentin shear bond strength which ranged from 30 to 35 MPa (p > 0.1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations revealed numerous resin tags, which were similar for the control and the QADM and NAg groups. Adding QADM or NAg markedly reduced the biofilm viability, compared to adhesive control. QADM and NAg together in the adhesive had a much stronger antibacterial effect than using each agent alone (p < 0.05). Adding QADM and NAg in both adhesive and primer had the strongest antibacterial activity, reducing metabolic activity, CFU, and lactic acid by an order of magnitude, compared to control. Significance Without compromising dentin bond strength and resin tag formation, the QADM and NAg containing adhesive and primer achieved strong antibacterial effects against microcosm biofilms for the first time. QADM-NAg adhesive and primer are promising to combat residual bacteria in tooth cavity and invading bacteria at the margins, thereby to inhibit secondary caries. QADM and NAg incorporation may have a

  13. Novel protein-repellent dental adhesive containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Melo, Mary Anne S.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Biofilms at tooth-restoration margins can produce acids and cause secondary caries. A protein-repellent adhesive resin can potentially inhibition bacteria attachment and biofilm growth. However, there has been no report on protein-repellent dental resins. The objectives of this study were to develop a protein-repellent bonding agent incorporating 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), and to investigate its resistance to protein adsorption and biofilm growth for the first time. Methods MPC was incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) at 0%, 3.75%, 7.5%, 11.25%, and 15% by mass. Extracted human teeth were used to measure dentin shear bond strengths. Protein adsorption onto resins was determined by a micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to measure biofilm metabolic activity and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Results Adding 7.5% MPC into primer and adhesive did not decrease the dentin bond strength, compared to control (p > 0.1). Incorporation of 7.5% of MPC achieved the lowest protein adsorption, which was 20-fold less than that of control. Incorporation of 7.5% of MPC greatly reduced bacterial adhesion, yielding biofilm total microorganism, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci CFU that were an order of magnitude less than control. Conclusions A protein-repellent dental adhesive resin was developed for the first time. Incorporation of MPC into primer and adhesive at 7.5% by mass greatly reduced the protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion, without compromising the dentin bond strength. The novel protein-repellent primer and adhesive are promising to inhibit biofilm formation and acid production, to protect the tooth-restoration margins and prevent secondary caries. PMID:25234652

  14. Effects of antibacterial primers with quaternary ammonium and nano-silver on S. mutans impregnated in human dentin blocks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D.; Liu, Huaibing; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recent studies developed antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg). The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the effect of antibacterial primers containing QADM and NAg on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) impregnated into dentin blocks for the first time, and (2) the effect of QADM or NAg alone or in combination, and the effect of NAg mass fraction, on S. mutans viability in dentin. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent was used. QADM and NAg were incorporated into SBMP primer. Six primers were tested: SBMP primer control, control + 10% QADM (mass %), control + 0.05% NAg, control + 10% QADM + 0.05% NAg, control + 0.1% NAg, and control + 10% QADM + 0.1% NAg. S. mutans were impregnated into dentin blocks, then a primer was applied. The viable colony-forming units (CFU) were then measured by harvesting the bacteria in dentin using a sonication method. Results Control + 10% QADM + 0.1% NAg had bacteria inhibition zone 8-fold that of control (p < 0.05). The sonication method successfully harvested bacteria from dentin blocks. Control + 10% QADM + 0.1% NAg inhibited S. mutans in dentin blocks, reducing the viable CFU in dentin by three orders of magnitude, compared to control dentin without primer. Using QADM+NAg was more effective than QADM alone. Higher NAg content increased the potency. Dentin shear bond strength was similar for all groups (p > 0.1). Significance Antibacterial primer with QADM and NAg were shown to inhibit the S. mutans impregnated into dentin blocks for the first time. Bonding agent containing QADM and NAg is promising to eradicate bacteria in tooth cavity and inhibit caries. The QADM and NAg may have applicability to other adhesives, cements, sealants and composites. PMID:23422420

  15. Effect of charge density of bonding agent containing a new quaternary ammonium methacrylate on antibacterial and bonding properties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Chen, Jihua; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Quaternary amine charge density is important because when the negatively-charged bacteria contact the positive quaternary amine charge, the electric balance is disturbed and the bacterium could be disrupted. There has been no report on the effects of charge density on the antibacterial efficacy of dental bonding agents. The objective of this study was to synthesize a new quaternary ammonium methacrylate, and investigate the effects of charge density of bonding agent on bacteria early-attachment, biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) and dentin bond strength. Methods Dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) with an alkyl chain length of 16 was synthesized and mixed into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer (SBMP) at mass fractions of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. A microtensile dentin bond test was performed. The density of quaternary ammonium groups was measured using a fluorescein dye method. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) early-attachment was examined at 4 hours, and biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured at 2 days. Results All groups had similar microtensile bonding strengths (mean ± sd; n = 40) of about 60 MPa (p > 0.1). Quaternary amine charge density of bonding agents monotonically increased with increasing DMAHDM mass fraction. Bacteria early-attachment coverage greatly decreased with increasing DMAHDM content in the resin. Biofilm CFU at 10% DMAHDM was reduced by almost 5 log, compared to SBMP control. Charge density of bonding agent was inversely proportional to bacteria early-attachment coverage and biofilm CFU. Significance Increasing the quaternary amine charge density of dentin bonding agent resin was shown to greatly reduce S. mutans attachment and decrease biofilm CFU by four orders of magnitude, without compromising the dentin bond strength. The new DMAHDM is promising for use in bonding agents and other antibacterial restorative materials to inhibit caries. PMID:24534376

  16. Dental primer and adhesive containing a new antibacterial quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Zhang, Ke; Arola, Dwayne D.; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The main reason for restoration failure is secondary caries caused by biofilm acids. Replacing the failed restorations accounts for 50–70% of all operative work. The objectives of this study were to incorporate a new quaternary ammonium monomer (dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate, DMADDM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg) into a primer and an adhesive, and to investigate their effects on antibacterial and dentin bonding properties. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) served as control. DMADDM was synthesized and incorporated with NAg into primer/adhesive. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU), and lactic acid. Dentin shear bond strengths were measured. Results Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the new DMADDM were orders of magnitude lower than those of a previous quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM). Uncured primer with DMADDM had much larger inhibition zones than QADM (p<0.05). Cured primer/adhesive with DMADDM-NAg greatly reduced biofilm metabolic activity (p<0.05). Combining DMADDM with NAg in primer/adhesive resulted in less CFU than DMADDM alone (p<0.05). Lactic acid production by biofilms was reduced by 20-fold via DMADDM-NAg, compared to control. Incorporation of DMADDM and NAg into primer/adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. Conclusions A new antibacterial monomer DMADDM was synthesized and incorporated into primer/adhesive for the first time. The bonding agents are promising to combat residual bacteria in tooth cavity and invading bacteria at tooth-restoration margins to inhibit caries. DMADDM and NAg are promising for use into a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives. PMID:23353068

  17. Primer containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate kills bacteria impregnated in human dentin blocks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Lin, Nancy J; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Xu, Hockin HK

    2016-01-01

    Antibacterial dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) was recently synthesized. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate antibacterial activity of DMADDM-containing primer on Streptococcus mutans impregnated into dentin blocks for the first time, and (2) compare the antibacterial efficacy of DMADDM with a previous quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM). Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent was used. DMADDM and QADM were mixed into SBMP primer. Six primers were tested: SBMP control primer P, P+2.5% DMADDM, P+5% DMADDM, P+7.5% DMADDM, P+10% DMADDM, and P+10% QADM. S. mutans were impregnated into human dentin blocks, and each primer was applied to dentin to test its ability to kill bacteria in dentinal tubules. Bacteria in dentin were collected via a sonication method, and the colony-forming units (CFU) and inhibition zones were measured. The bacterial inhibition zone of P+10% DMADDM was 10 times that of control primer (P<0.05). CFU in dentin with P+10% DMADDM was reduced by three orders of magnitude, compared with control. DMADDM had a much stronger antibacterial effect than QADM, and antibacterial efficacy increased with increasing DMADDM concentration. Dentin shear bond strengths were similar among all groups (P>0.1). In conclusion, antibacterial DMADDM-containing primer was validated to kill bacteria inside dentin blocks, possessing a much stronger antibacterial potency than the previous QADM. DMADDM-containing bonding agent was effective in eradicating bacteria in dentin, and its efficacy was directly proportional to DMADDM mass fraction. Therefore, DMADDM may be promising for use in bonding agents as well as in other restorative and preventive materials to inhibit bacteria. PMID:27811846

  18. Microleakage Evaluation of Adhesive Systems Following Pulp Chamber Irrigation with Sodium Hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddas, Mohammad Javad; Moosavi, Horieh; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of delaying composite resin restorative procedures bonded with total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems on microleakage following root canal irrigation with sodium hy-pochlorite (NaOCl) solution. Materials and methods. The roofs of pulp chambers and roots (1–2 mm below furcation) of 40 human first molar teeth were cut and pulp tissues completely removed. The teeth were randomly divided into two main groups (n = 20). Group E (experimental) was irrigated with 5% NaOCl and group C (control) was left untreated. For the experimental group, after obturation of root canals with gutta-percha and sealing the cavity with Cavit, the specimens were stored in artificialsaliva for two weeks. Then each group was divided into two subgroups according to the total-etch or self-etch adhesive application protocol: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Clearfil SE Bond. The specimens were restored with composite resin using each bonding agent: Z250 and Clearfil Photo Core, respectively. Fluid filtration method was used for evaluation of microleakage. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA ( α= 0.05). Results. Two types of dentin adhesive systems showed no statistically significant differences in microleakage (P = 0.77). NaOCl-treated groups demonstrated significantly higher microleakage values compared to the non-NaOCl-treated groups (P= 0.001). The interaction between the two factors was not significant (P = 0.78). Conclusion. Differences in inlay temperature had no effect on microleakage. CAD/CAM inlays had lower cement thick-ness than laboratory-made inlays, but this was not related to their microleakage. PMID:25024835

  19. Influence of irradiation by a novel CO2 9.3-μm short-pulsed laser on sealant bond strength.

    PubMed

    Rechmann, P; Sherathiya, K; Kinsel, R; Vaderhobli, R; Rechmann, B M T

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether irradiation of enamel with a novel CO2 9.3-μm short-pulsed laser using energies that enhance caries resistance influences the shear bond strength of composite resin sealants to the irradiated enamel. Seventy bovine and 240 human enamel samples were irradiated with a 9.3-μm carbon dioxide laser (Solea, Convergent Dental, Inc., Natick, MA) with four different laser energies known to enhance caries resistance or ablate enamel (pulse duration from 3 μs at 1.6 mJ/pulse to 43 μs at 14.9 mJ/pulse with fluences between 3.3 and 30.4 J/cm(2), pulse repetition rate between 4.1 and 41.3 Hz, beam diameter of 0.25 mm and 1-mm spiral pattern, and focus distance of 4-15 mm). Irradiation was performed "freehand" or using a computerized, motor-driven stage. Enamel etching was achieved with 37% phosphoric acid (Scotchbond Universal etchant, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN). As bonding agent, Adper Single Bond Plus was used followed by placing Z250 Filtek Supreme flowable composite resin (both 3M ESPE). After 24 h water storage, a single-plane shear bond test was performed (UltraTester, Ultradent Products, Inc., South Jordan, UT). All laser-irradiated samples showed equal or higher bond strength than non-laser-treated controls. The highest shear bond strength values were observed with the 3-μs pulse duration/0.25-mm laser pattern (mean ± SD = 31.90 ± 2.50 MPa), representing a significant 27.4% bond strength increase over the controls (25.04 ± 2.80 MPa, P ≤ 0.0001). Two other caries-preventive irradiation (3 μs/1 mm and 7 μs/0.25 mm) and one ablative pattern (23 μs/0.25 mm) achieved significantly increased bond strength compared to the controls. Bovine enamel also showed in all test groups increased shear bond strength over the controls. Computerized motor-driven stage irradiation did not show superior bond strength values over the clinically more relevant freehand irradiation. Enamel

  20. Antibacterial activity and ion release of bonding agent containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Weir, Michael D.; Cheng, Lei; Lin, Nancy; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Chow, Laurence C.; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent caries at the margins is a primary reason for restoration failure. The objectives of this study were to develop bonding agent with the double benefits of antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities, to investigate the effects of NACP filler level and solution pH on Ca and P ion release from adhesive, and to examine the antibacterial and dentin bond properties. Methods Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and a quaternary ammonium monomer (dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate, DMADDM) were synthesized. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) primer and adhesive served as control. DMADDM was incorporated into primer and adhesive at 5% by mass. NACP was incorporated into adhesive at filler mass fractions of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to test the antibacterial bonding agents. Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion releases from the cured adhesive samples were measured vs. filler level and solution pH of 7, 5.5 and 4. Results Adding 5% DMADDM and 10–40% NACP into bonding agent, and water-aging for 28 days, did not affect dentin bond strength, compared to SBMP control at 1 day (p > 0.1). Adding DMADDM into bonding agent substantially decreased the biofilm metabolic activity and lactic acid production. Total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci were greatly reduced for bonding agents containing DMADDM. Increasing NACP filler level from 10% to 40% in adhesive increased the Ca and P ion release by an order of magnitude. Decreasing solution pH from 7 to 4 increased the ion release from adhesive by 6–10 folds. Significance Bonding agents containing antibacterial DMADDM and remineralizer NACP were formulated to have Ca and P ion release, which increased with NACP filler level from 10% to 40% in adhesive. NACP adhesive was “smart” and dramatically increased the ion release at cariogenic pH 4, when these ions would be most-needed to inhibit caries. Therefore, bonding agent

  1. Comparison of quaternary ammonium-containing with nano-silver-containing adhesive in antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Chen, Jihua; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Antibacterial primer and adhesive are promising to help combat biofilms and recurrent caries. The objectives of this study were to compare novel bonding agent containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) with bonding agent containing nanoparticles of silver (NAg) in antibacterial activity, contact-inhibition vs. long-distance inhibition, glucosyltransferases (gtf) gene expressions, and cytotoxicity for the first time. Methods QADM and NAg were incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer. Microtensile dentin bond strength was measured. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm on resin surface (contact-inhibition) as well as S. mutans in culture medium away from the resin surface (long-distance inhibition) were tested for metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU), lactic acid production, and gtf gene expressions. Eluents from cured primer/adhesive samples were used to examine cytotoxicity against human gingival fibroblasts. Results Bonding agent with QADM greatly reduced CFU and lactic acid of biofilms on the resin surface (p < 0.05), while having no effect on S. mutans in culture medium away from the resin surface. In contrast, bonding agent with NAg inhibited not only S. mutans on the resin surface, but also S. mutans in culture medium away from the resin surface. Bonding agent with QADM suppressed gtfB, gtfC and gtfD gene expressions of S. mutans on its surface, but not away from its surface. Bonding agent with NAg suppressed S. mutans gene expressions both on its surface and away from its surface. Bonding agents with QADM and NAg did not adversely affect microtensile bond strength or fibroblast cytotoxicity, compared to control (p > 0.1). Significance QADM-containing adhesive had contact-inhibition and inhibited bacteria on its surface, but not away from its surface. NAg-containing adhesive had long-distance killing capability and inhibited bacteria on its surface and away from its surface. The novel antibacterial

  2. 16 CFR 1212.15 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manufacturer or importer shall ensure that the surrogate multi-purpose lighters used for qualification testing... surrogate multi-purpose lighters be used for testing each 100-child panel.) (b) Contents of...

  3. 16 CFR 1212.13 - Certification tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... include: (A) Qualification tests, which must be performed on surrogates of each model of multi-purpose...-purpose lighter or multi-purpose lighter surrogate may be performed by a commercial testing laboratory...

  4. 16 CFR 1212.15 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... manufacturer or importer shall ensure that the surrogate multi-purpose lighters used for qualification testing... surrogate multi-purpose lighters be used for testing each 100-child panel.) (b) Contents of...

  5. 16 CFR 1212.15 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... manufacturer or importer shall ensure that the surrogate multi-purpose lighters used for qualification testing... surrogate multi-purpose lighters be used for testing each 100-child panel.) (b) Contents of...

  6. 16 CFR 1212.13 - Certification tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... include: (A) Qualification tests, which must be performed on surrogates of each model of multi-purpose...-purpose lighter or multi-purpose lighter surrogate may be performed by a commercial testing laboratory...

  7. 16 CFR 1212.13 - Certification tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... include: (A) Qualification tests, which must be performed on surrogates of each model of multi-purpose...-purpose lighter or multi-purpose lighter surrogate may be performed by a commercial testing laboratory...

  8. 16 CFR 1212.15 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... manufacturer or importer shall ensure that the surrogate multi-purpose lighters used for qualification testing... surrogate multi-purpose lighters be used for testing each 100-child panel.) (b) Contents of...

  9. 16 CFR 1212.15 - Specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacturer or importer shall ensure that the surrogate multi-purpose lighters used for qualification testing... surrogate multi-purpose lighters be used for testing each 100-child panel.) (b) Contents of...

  10. 16 CFR 1212.13 - Certification tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... include: (A) Qualification tests, which must be performed on surrogates of each model of multi-purpose...-purpose lighter or multi-purpose lighter surrogate may be performed by a commercial testing laboratory...

  11. 75 FR 27731 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standard for Multi-Purpose Lighters AGENCY: Consumer Product... approval of a collection of information from manufacturers and importers of multi-purpose lighters. DATES... Collection of Information--Multi-Purpose Lighters'' and e-mailed to the Office of the Secretary at...

  12. 16 CFR 1212.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... signal of any duration from a surrogate multi-purpose lighter within either of the two 5-minute test periods specified in § 1212.4(f). (c)(1) Surrogate multi-purpose lighter means a device that (i... clearly discernible when the surrogate multi-purpose lighter is activated in each manner that...

  13. 16 CFR 1212.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... signal of any duration from a surrogate multi-purpose lighter within either of the two 5-minute test periods specified in § 1212.4(f). (c)(1) Surrogate multi-purpose lighter means a device that (i... clearly discernible when the surrogate multi-purpose lighter is activated in each manner that...

  14. 16 CFR 1212.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... signal of any duration from a surrogate multi-purpose lighter within either of the two 5-minute test periods specified in § 1212.4(f). (c)(1) Surrogate multi-purpose lighter means a device that (i... clearly discernible when the surrogate multi-purpose lighter is activated in each manner that...

  15. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by children uses a panel of children to test a surrogate multi-purpose lighter representing the... handicap that would interfere with the child's ability to operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter shall participate. (6) Two children at a time shall participate in testing of surrogate multi-purpose...

  16. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... by children uses a panel of children to test a surrogate multi-purpose lighter representing the... handicap that would interfere with the child's ability to operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter shall participate. (6) Two children at a time shall participate in testing of surrogate multi-purpose...

  17. Repairability of aged resin composites mediated by different restorative systems.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Cleidiel Aa; Mauro, Sílvio J; de Campos, Renata A; Dos Santos, Paulo H; Machado, Lucas S; Fagundes, Ticiane C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of resin composite repairs with and without aging of the surface to be repaired, using different adhesive systems and resin composites. Ninety specimens were prepared: 10 for the Control Group (GC - without repair); 40 for Group I (GI - repairs after 7 days) and 40 for Group II (GII - repairs after 180 days). Groups I and II were divided into 4 subgroups of 10 specimens each, according to the adhesive system and composite resin used: A) Adper Scotch Bond Multipurpose + Filtek Z350 XT; B) Adper Single Bond Plus + Filtek Z350 XT; C) Adper Scotch Bond Multipurpose + Esthet-X; D) Adper Single Bond Plus + Esthet-X. The specimens were tested for shear strength in a universal testing machine. The results were analyzed by two-factor one-way ANOVA and Fisher's post hoc tests (alpha=0.05). The control group had better performance than the other groups. There was no significant difference when comparing different adhesive systems and composite resins. Repairs performed at 7 days were better than those performed at 180 days. The composite repairs decreased the mechanical strength of the restoration. Aging of the resin substrate may decrease repair bond strength over time, regardless of the type of adhesive systems and resin composites used.

  18. Bond Strength of Silorane- and Methacrylate-Based Composites to Resin-Modified Glass Ionomers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-13

    Mine et al., 2010). Yaman et al. (2010) examined premolars marked for extraction due to orthodontics , bonded either Filtek Supreme XT with Adper...337-44. Li Y, Lee S, Zhang W, Zunt S, Rohrer M. Dentin/ Pulp Biocompatibility of an Adhesive System for Silorane Restorative. IADR 2008, abstract

  19. Micro-tensile bond strength of different adhesive systems on sound dentin and resin-based composite: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Rashmirekha; Sarangi, Priyanka; Mohanty, Sandhyarani; Behera, Subasish; Nanda, Soumyaranjan; Satapathy, Sukanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the difference in the micro-tensile bond strength of specimens made with two different adhesive systems and compare them with two homogenous substrates. Materials and Methods: Sixty permanent mandibular molars were mounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned with exposed dentin surfaces. Samples were then divided into four groups. To Group-I Adper Single Bond 2 and to Group-II Adper Self-Etch plus bonding agents were applied. For Group-I and Group-II beams consisted of resin composite in the upper half and dentin in the lower half. In Group-III beams were made of only dentin. In Group-IV beams were made of only composite. Fifteen specimens of each group were taken for the micro-tensile bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: The results are analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Critical Difference test. Results: The interface bonded with the two adhesive systems had lower micro-tensile bond strength than those of dentin and resin composite and the self-etching adhesive Adper Self-Etch plus had comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesive Adper Single Bond 2. Conclusion: The bond strength values for current adhesive systems cannot be compared to the micro-tensile bond strength of dentin and resin composite, and self-etching adhesives have comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesives. PMID:26430301

  20. Assessment of Tooth Preparation via Er:YAG Laser and Bur on Microleakage of Dentin Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Heydari, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Objective Microleakage can be responsible for tooth hypersensitivity, secondary caries, and the possibility of pathological pulp alterations in restored teeth. Recently, alternative methods for tooth preparation such as laser irradiation have been studied; but there are limited studies on primary teeth. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the degree of microleakage of composite restorations prepared by Er:YAG laser and conventional bur preparation with two adhesive systems in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Eighty primary canine teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups. Class V cavities were prepared by Er:YAG laser or diamond bur on buccal surface. The groups were as follows: group1: High speed drill + self-etching adhesive Adper Prompt-L-Pop, group 2: Er:YAG laser + etch & rinse adhesive Adper Single Bond, group 3: High speed drill + Adper Single Bond, group 4: Er:YAG laser + Adper Prompt-L-Pop. Cavities were restored with Filtek Z250 composite resin. Then all of the specimens were polished, thermocycled, immersed in 2% methylene blue solution and sectioned longitudinally. Degree of microleakage was evaluated by two evaluators who assigned the micrleakage score (0 to 3). The original data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests. Results: There were significant differences between bur-prepared cavities in the Adper Single Bond and other groups. There were no statistically significant differences between other groups. Conclusion: Laser-prepared cavities showed higher microleakage scores than cavities prepared with diamond bur with etch and rinse adhesive system. No significant difference was revealed between the laser and bur-prepared cavities using self-etch primers. PMID:24910693

  1. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Composite to Stainless Steel Crowns Using Two Mechanical Surface Treatments and Two Bonding Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ghadimi, Sara; Heidari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite to stainless steel crowns (SSC) using two mechanical surface treatments (MSTs) and two bonding systems. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four SSCs were divided into six groups of 14; Group1: No MST+Scotchbond Universal adhesive (N+U), Group 2: Surface roughening by a diamond bur+Scotchbond Universal adhesive (R+U), Group 3: Sandblasting+Scotchbond Universal adhesive (S+U), Group 4: No MST+Alloy Primer+Clearfil SE Primer and Bond (N+A), Group 5: Surface roughening by a diamond bur+Alloy Primer+Clearfil SE Primer and Bond (R+A), Group 6: Sandblasting+Alloy Primer+Clearfil SE Primer and Bond (S+A). After MST and bonding procedure, composite cylinders were bonded to the lingual surface of SSCs, then the SBS of composite to SSCs was measured using a universal testing machine following thermocycling. Results: The SBS of groups R+U and S+U was significantly higher than that of group N+U. No significant difference was noted in SBS of groups R+U and S+U. The SBS of group S+A was significantly higher than that of groups N+A and R+A. No significant difference was noted in the SBS of groups N+A and R+A (P>0.05). Conclusions: In Scotchbond Universal adhesive groups, sandblasting and surface roughening by diamond bur significantly increased the SBS of composite to SSCs compared to no MST. In Alloy Primer groups, sandblasting significantly increased the SBS of composite to SSC compared to surface roughening with diamond bur and no MST. PMID:27536330

  2. The effect of cavity disinfectants on the micro-shear bond strength of dentin adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Elkassas, Dina Wafik; Fawzi, Elham Mostafa; El Zohairy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was carried out to examine the effect of application of four different disinfecting agents on the micro-shear bond strength (μ-SBS) of an etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: One hundred flat dentin surfaces of human molars were produced by wet grinding the buccal surfaces. Specimens were randomly assigned to five groups according to the disinfectant used: Group I: Control (no disinfectant); Group II: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite based; Group III: 2% chlorhexidine based (Consepsis), Group IV: 0.1% benzalkoniumchloride based (Tubulicid red) and Group V: 3% doxycycline based (Biopure, MTAD). Specimens were bonded using either Adper Single Bond 2 or Clearfil S3 Bond, which were employed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Resin composite microcylinders were bonded using Tygon® tubes for μ-SBS testing. The modes of failure were noted after visual examination using a binocular stereomicroscope at ×25 magnification. Failures were classified as adhesive, or mixed. μ-SBS results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Results: Dentin disinfectants tested significantly negated the bonding of Adper Single bond 2 and the groups were ranked; Group I > Group V = Group IV > Group II = Group III, meanwhile they enhanced significantly the μ-SBS values upon using Clearfil S3 Bond and were ranked; Group II > Group III = Group IV = Group V > Group I. Most failures were adhesive with the Adper single bond adhesive system. Mixed modes of failure were evident with Clearfil S3 bond. Conclusions: The disinfectants tested should not be used with Adper Single Bond 2 when applied before the etching step, However they could be used safely prior to bonding with Clearfil S3 Bond. PMID:24966768

  3. Effects of endodontic tri-antibiotic paste on bond strengths of dentin adhesives to coronal dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mirzakoucheki, Parvin; Walter, Ricardo; Jahromi, Maryam Zare; Mirsattari, Sanaz; Akbarzadeh, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tri-antibiotic paste (TAP) on microtensile bond strengths (MTBS) of dental adhesives to dentin. Materials and Methods Sixty extracted molars had their occlusal surfaces flattened to expose dentin. They were divided into two groups, i.e., control group with no dentin treatment and experimental group with dentin treatment with TAP. After 10 days, specimens were bonded using self-etch (Filtek P90 adhesive) or etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond Plus) adhesives and restored with composite resin. Teeth were sectioned into beams, and the specimens were subjected to MTBS test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between dentin treatment and adhesive on MTBS to coronal dentin (p = 0.003). Despite a trend towards worse MTBS being noticed in the experimental groups, TAP application showed no significant effect on MTBS (p = 0.064). Conclusions The etch-and-rinse adhesive Adper Single Bond Plus presented higher mean bond strengths than the self-etch adhesive Filtek P90, irrespective of the group. The superior bond performance for Adper Single Bond when compared to Filtek P90 adhesive was confirmed by a fewer number of adhesive failures. The influence of TAP in bond strength is insignificant. PMID:25984475

  4. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test protocol. 1212.4 Section 1212.4... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test panel. (1) The test to determine if a multi-purpose lighter is resistant to successful...

  5. 77 FR 17567 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming Right-Hand Drive 2000-2003 Jeep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Nonconforming Right-Hand Drive 2000-2003 Jeep Wrangler Multi-Purpose Passenger Vehicles Are Eligible for... a petition for a decision that right-hand drive (RHD) 2000-2003 Jeep Wrangler multi-purpose... Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery or Courier: West...

  6. 76 FR 62004 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, California Air Resources Board-Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...) modify the definitions for ASTM, Multi-purpose Solvent, Paint Thinner, and Automotive windshield washer... covers VOC area sources and not stationary sources. In 1998 EPA promulgated a national rule to regulate...'s 1998 national rule and also covers two new consumer product categories, Multi-purpose Solvents...

  7. Bond Strength and Interfacial Morphology of Different Dentin Adhesives in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Vashisth, Pallavi; Mittal, Mudit; Goswami, Mousumi; Chaudhary, Seema; Dwivedi, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interfacial morphology and the bond strength produced by the three-step, two-step and single-step bonding systems in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surfaces of 72 extracted human deciduous teeth were ground to expose the dentin. The teeth were divided into four groups: (a) Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M, ESPE), (b) Adh Se (Vivadent), (d) OptiBond All-in-One (Kerr) and (e)Futurabond NR (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). The adhesives were applied to each group following the manufacturer’s instructions. Then, teeth from each group were divided into two groups: (A) For viewing interfacial morphology (32 teeth), with 8 teeth in each group, and (B) For measurement of bond strength (40 teeth), with 10 teeth in each group. All the samples were prepared for viewing under SEM. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15.0 software. Results: Observational measurement of tag length in different adhesives revealed that Scotchbond had the most widely spread values with a range from 12.20 to 89.10μm while OptiBond AIO had the narrowest range (0 to 22.50). The bond strength of Scotchbond Multipurpose was significantly higher (7.4744±1.88763) (p<0.001) as compared to Futurabond NR (3.8070±1.61345), Adhe SE (4.4478 ± 1.3820) and OptiBond-all-in-one (4.4856±1.07925). Conclusion: The three-step bonding system showed better results as compared to simplified studied bonding systems PMID:24910694

  8. 77 FR 65665 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    .... Title: International Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose Forms. OMB Control Number: 0625-0237. Form Number(s... customized form for each CS client, and will cover all aspects of an international client's life-cycle...

  9. 77 FR 59373 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    .... Chapter 35). Agency: International Trade Administration. Title: Domestic Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose... a customized for each CS client, and will cover all aspects of a client's life-cycle with...

  10. Near-Earth Asteroid Stack - Mission Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    A possible stack configuration - a deep space habitat, the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Exploration Vehicle - approaches a near-Earth asteroid. During a mission that could take months...

  11. Overall Building 22 NorthSouth Section and Sections of Stair Halls, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall Building 22 North-South Section and Sections of Stair Halls, Hobby Shop, Classroom 5, Library Reading Room & Multi-Purpose Hall - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  12. 48. Second floor, looking southwest (possibly former multipurpose room) with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Second floor, looking southwest (possibly former multi-purpose room) with fire stair in center - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  13. 16 CFR 1212.14 - Qualification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in commerce in the United States, surrogate multi-purpose lighters of each model shall be tested in..., additional qualification tests must be made on surrogates for the changed product before the changed...

  14. 16 CFR 1212.14 - Qualification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in commerce in the United States, surrogate multi-purpose lighters of each model shall be tested in..., additional qualification tests must be made on surrogates for the changed product before the changed...

  15. 16 CFR 1212.14 - Qualification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in commerce in the United States, surrogate multi-purpose lighters of each model shall be tested in..., additional qualification tests must be made on surrogates for the changed product before the changed...

  16. 16 CFR 1212.14 - Qualification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in commerce in the United States, surrogate multi-purpose lighters of each model shall be tested in..., additional qualification tests must be made on surrogates for the changed product before the changed...

  17. 16 CFR 1212.14 - Qualification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in commerce in the United States, surrogate multi-purpose lighters of each model shall be tested in..., additional qualification tests must be made on surrogates for the changed product before the changed...

  18. 49 CFR 571.124 - Standard No. 124; Accelerator control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disconnection in the accelerator control system. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce deaths.... S3. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger vehicles,...

  19. Near-Earth Asteroid - Mission Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation shows astronauts in the Space Exploration Vehicle docking with a near-Earth asteroid, performing a spacewalk, and returning to Earth in the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. ...

  20. 78 FR 10634 - Notice of Meetings, Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... on April 3 will be held at the Mesa County Courthouse Annex, Multi-Purpose Room, 544 Rood ] Avenue..., Training Room A, 544 Rood Avenue, Grand Junction, CO. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Katie...

  1. Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Analysis of a Lengthened DDG-51 Destroyer Modified Repeat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    IPS Integrated Power System IR Infrared JTIDS Joint Tactical Information Distribution System LAMPS Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System LCG...Information Distribution System ( JTIDS ) Command and Control Processor, Combat Direction Finding, the Tactical Information Exchange System (TADIX B

  2. Evolution of MPCV Service Module Propulsion and GN and C Interface Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Heather; Belair, Michael; Madsen, Jennifer; Gutkowski, Jeff; Dickens, Kevin; Lux, Johannes; Jaeger, Markus; Ieardo, Nicola; Paisley, Jonathan; Freudenberger, John

    2014-01-01

    Presentation on the European Service Module mission description, propulsion subsystem, and propulsion and guidance navigation and control interface requirements. The content focuses on the updates to these areas between Constellation and the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle.

  3. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.4 Test protocol. (a) Child... could affect child resistance to verify that they are within reasonable operating tolerances for...

  4. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.4 Test protocol. (a) Child... could affect child resistance to verify that they are within reasonable operating tolerances for...

  5. Orion MPCV Water Landing Test at Hydro Impact Basin

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is the third Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) water landing test conducted at the Hydro Impact Basin at NASA Langley Research Center. This test represented the worst-case scenario for l...

  6. NASA's Orion MPCV Capsule Departs Dryden for KSC

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion prototype version of NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle that was used in the Launch Abort System PA-1 test last year, departed NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in California Tuesday ev...

  7. To Compare the Microleakage Among Experimental Adhesives Containing Nanoclay Fillers after the Storages of 24 Hours and 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Seyed Mostafa; Atai, Mohammad; Alavi, Bagher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the microleakage among experimental adhesives containing nanoclay fillers after the storages of 24 hours and 6 months. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on extracted human molars with the occlusal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins in cementum. Phosphoric acid was applied to the enamel and dentin margins.Subsequently, the cavities were treated using four groups of experimental adhesive systems and restored with a resin composite. Adper Single Bond® was used as control group. After 24- hour and 6- month storages, the samples were subjected to thermocycling shocks and then immersed in silver nitrate as well as developer solution and finally evaluated for leakage. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Based on Kruskal –Wallis test, significant differences were found between groups regarding microleakage. The Mann- Whitney test showed that Leakage was significantly lower in Adper Single Bond® compared to the other groups in dentinal margins after 24 hours and 6 months and in enamel margins after 6 months. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test showed that the enamel leakage in experimental adhesives was significantly lower than dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as enamel leakage in Adper Single Bond and adhesive with 0.5% PMAA-g-nanoclay was significantly lower than dentinal margins after storage period of 6 months. Conclusion: All the experimental adhesives were effective in reducing enamel leakage after 24 hours, but were not effective in reducing dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as in enamel and dentinal leakage after a 6-month storage. No improvement was observed in the microleakage in dentin in both short (24 hrs) and long times (6 months). The high microleakage in the adhesives is probably attributed to the high concentration of HEMA in the recipe of the bonding agent. PMID:21566692

  8. Effect of chlorhexidine application on the bond strength of resin core to axial dentin in endodontic cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX) on the microtensile bonds strength (µTBS) of resin core with two adhesive systems to dentin in endodontic cavities. Materials and Methods Flat dentinal surfaces in 40 molar endodontic cavities were treated with self-etch adhesive system, Contax (DMG) and total-etch adhesive system, Adper Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE) after the following surface treatments: (1) Priming only (Contax), (2) CHX for 15 sec + rinsing + priming (Contax), (3) Etching with priming (Adper Single Bond 2), (4) Etching + CHX for 15 sec + rinsing + priming (Adper Single Bond 2). Resin composite build-ups were made with LuxaCore (DMG) using a bulk method and polymerized for 40 sec. For each condition, half of specimens were submitted to µTBS after 24 hr storage and half of them were submitted to thermocycling of 10,000 cycles between 5℃ and 55℃ before testing. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and independent t-test at a significance level of 95%. Results CHX pre-treatment did not affect the bond strength of specimens tested at the immediate testing period, regardless of dentin surface treatments. However, after 10,000 thermocycling, all groups showed reduced bond strength. The amount of reduction was greater in groups without CHX treatments than groups with CHX treatment. These characteristics were the same in both self-etch adhesive system and total-etch adhesive system. Conclusions 2% CHX application for 15 sec proved to alleviate the decrease of bond strength of dentin bonding systems. No significant difference was shown in µTBS between total-etching system and self-etching system. PMID:23429851

  9. Prostate Dose Escalation by a Innovative Inverse Planning-Driven IMRT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    41, 2008. 5. Mao W, Lee L, Xing L, Design of multi-purpose phantom and automated software analysis tool for quality assurance of onboard kV/MV...Biology and Physics, 70: 599-608, 2008. 3. Mao W, Lee L, Xing L, Design of multi-purpose phantom and automated software analysis tool for quality...using the CBCT and multileaf collimator (MLC) log-files. Methods and Materials: A cylindrical CT phantom was used for calibrating the electron

  10. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser at Different Output Powers on the Micromorphology and the Bond Property of Non-Carious Sclerotic Dentin to Resin Composites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiguo; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Wanshan; Yang, Yanwei; Wei, Jingjing; Shen, Lijuan; Chen, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiated at different powers on the micromorphology and the bonding property of non-carious sclerotic dentin to resin composites. Methods Two hundred bovine incisors characterized by non-carious sclerotic dentin were selected, and the seventy-two teeth of which for surface morphological analysis were divided into nine groups according to various treatments (A: the control group, B: only treated with the adhesive Adper Easy One, C: diamond bur polishing followed by Adper Easy One, D-I: Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiating at 1W, 2W, 3W, 4W, 5W, 6W output power, respectively, followed by Adper Easy One). The surface roughness values were measured by the non-contact three-dimensional morphology scanner, then the surface micromorphologies of surfaces in all groups were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); meanwhile, Image Pro-Plus 6.0 software was used to measure the relative percentage of open tubules on SEM images. The rest, one hundred twenty-eight teeth for bond strength test, were divided into eight groups according to the different treatments (A: only treated with the adhesive Adper Easy One, B: diamond bur polishing followed by the above adhesive, C-H: Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiating at 1 W, 2 W, 3 W, 4 W, 5 W, 6 W output power, respectively, followed by the above adhesive), and each group was subsequently divided into two subgroups according to whether aging is performed (immediately tested and after thermocycling). Micro-shear bond strength test was used to evaluate the bond strength. Results The 4W laser group showed the highest roughness value (30.84±1.93μm), which was statistically higher than the control group and the diamond bur groups (p<0.05). The mean percentages ((27.8±1.8)%, (28.0±2.2)%, (30.0±1.9)%) of open tubules area in the 4W, 5W, 6W group were higher than other groups (p<0.05). The 4W laser group showed the highest micro-shear bond strength not

  11. Shear Bond Strength of Three Orthodontic Bonding Systems on Enamel and Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Jennifer; Schauseil, Michael; Stein, Steffen; Roggendorf, Matthias; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score of two self-etching no-mix adhesives (iBond™ and Scotchbond™) on different prosthetic surfaces and enamel, in comparison with the commonly used total etch system Transbond XT™. Materials and Methods. A total of 270 surfaces (1 enamel and 8 restorative surfaces, n = 30) were randomly divided into three adhesive groups. In group 1 (control) brackets were bonded with Transbond XT primer. In the experimental groups iBond adhesive (group 2) and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (group 3) were used. The SBS was measured using a Zwicki 1120™ testing machine. The ARI and SBS were compared statistically using the Kruskal–Wallis test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Significant differences in SBS and ARI were found between the control group and experimental groups. Conclusions. Transbond XT showed the highest SBS on human enamel. Scotchbond Universal on average provides the best bonding on all other types of surface (metal, composite, and porcelain), with no need for additional primers. It might therefore be helpful for simplifying bonding in orthodontic procedures on restorative materials in patients. If metal brackets have to be bonded to a metal surface, the use of a dual-curing resin is recommended. PMID:27738633

  12. Composite bonding to stainless steel crowns using a new universal bonding and single-bottle systems.

    PubMed

    Hattan, Mohammad Ali; Pani, Sharat Chandra; Alomari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate the shear bond strength of nanocomposite to stainless steel crowns using a new universal bonding system. Material and Methods. Eighty (80) stainless steel crowns (SSCs) were divided into four groups (20 each). Packable nanocomposite was bonded to the lingual surface of the crowns in the following methods: Group A without adhesive (control group), Group B using a new universal adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), and Group C and Group D using two different brands of single-bottle adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were calculated and the types of failure also were recorded. Results. The shear strength of Group B was significantly greater than that of other groups. No significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of Groups C and D. The control group had significantly lower shear bond strength (P < 0.05) to composite than the groups that utilized bonding agents. Conclusion. Composites bonding to stainless steel crowns using the new universal bonding agent (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) show significantly greater shear bond strengths and fewer adhesive failures when compared to traditional single-bottle systems.

  13. Comparison of tensile bond strengths of four one-bottle self-etching adhesive systems with Er:YAG laser-irradiated dentin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qianzhou; Chen, Minle; Ding, Jiangfeng

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction of current one-bottle self-etching adhesives and Er:YAG laser with dentin using a tensile bond strength (TBS) test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in vitro. Two hundred and thirteen dentin discs were randomly distributed to the Control Group using bur cutting and to the Laser Group using an Er:YAG laser (200 mJ, VSP, 20 Hz). The following adhesives were investigated: one two-step total-etch adhesive [Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply)] and four one-step self-etch adhesives [G-Bond plus (GC), XENO V (Dentsply), iBond Self Etch (Heraeus) and Adper Easy One (3 M ESPE)]. Samples were restored with composite resin, and after 24-hour storage in distilled water, subjected to the TBS test. For morphological analysis, 12 dentin specimens were prepared for SEM. No significant differences were found between the control group and laser group (p = 0.899); dentin subjected to Prime & Bond NT, XENOV and Adper Easy One produced higher TBS. In conclusion, this study indicates that Er:YAG laser-prepared dentin can perform as well as bur on TBS, and some of the one-step one-bottle adhesives are comparable to the total-etch adhesives in TBS on dentin.

  14. Effect of reactive and un-reactive substrates on photopolymerization of self-etching adhesives with different aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of reactive (enamel) and un-reactive (glass) substrates on photo-polymerization of self-etching adhesives. Two commercial adhesives Adper Prompt L-Pop (APLP, pH~0.8) and Adper Easy Bond (AEB, pH~2.5) were applied onto prepared enamel and glass substrates using the same protocol. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine the degree of conversion (DC) and the involved mechanism. DC of APLP was dramatically enhanced from ~9.4% to ~82.0% as when changing from glass to enamel, while DC of AEB on both substrates showed no difference. The DC distributions along the adhesive layers of the APLP and AEB on enamel showed descending and constant trends, respectively. Spectral analysis disclosed that the difference in chemical reaction of the two adhesives with enamel might be associated with the results. The chemical reaction of the adhesives with enamel significantly improved the DC of the strong APLP, but not that of the mild AEB.

  15. Effects of silver nanoparticles on the bonding of three adhesive systems to fluorotic enamel.

    PubMed

    Torres-Méndez, Fernando; Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel-Alejandro; Torres-Gallegos, Iranzihuatl; Zavala-Alonso, Norma-Verónica; Patiño-Marin, Nuria; Niño-Martínez, Nereyda; Ruiz, Facundo

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of adding silver nanoparticles into three commercial adhesive systems (Excite™, Adper Prompt L-Pop™ and AdheSE™). Nanoparticles were prepared by a chemical method then mixed with the commercial adhesive systems. This was later applied to the fluorotic enamel, and then micro-tensile bond strength, contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy observations were conducted. The commercial adhesive systems achieved the lowest micro-tensile bond strength (Excite™: 11.0±2.1, Adper Prompt L-Pop™: 14.0±5.4 and AdheSE™: 16.0±3.0 MPa) with the highest adhesive failure mode related with the highest contact angle (46.0±0.6º, 30.0±0.5º and 28.0±0.4º respectively). The bond strength achieved in all the experimental adhesive systems (19.0±5.4, 20.0±4.0 and 19.0±3.5 MPa respectively) was statistically higher (p<0.05) than the control and showed the highest cohesive failures related to the lowest contact angle. Adding silver nanoparticles in order to decrease the contact angle improve the adhesive system wetting and its bond strength.

  16. Morphological evaluation of new total etching and self etching adhesive system interfaces with dentin

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Mithra N; Hegde, Priyadarshini; Chandra, C Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resin-dentin interface, quality of the hybrid layer of total-etching and self-etching adhesive systems under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared in 40 extracted human molars. In Group I XP bond (Dentsply), in Group II Adper Single Bond II (3M ESPE), in Group III Adper Easy One (3M ESPE), and in Group IV Xeno V (Dentsply) were applied. Teeth were restored with resin composite, subjected to thermocycling, and sectioned in Buccolingual plane. The samples were demineralized using 6N HCl, for 30 sec, and deproteinized with 2.5% NaOCl for 10 min, gold sputtered, and viewed using a scanning electron microscope. Results: Among the total-etch systems used, the XP Bond showed a clear, thick hybrid layer, with long resin tags and few voids. Among the self-etch adhesive systems, the Xeno V did not show a clearly recognizable hybrid layer, but there were no voids and continuous adaptation was seen with the dentin. Conclusion: The adaptation of self-etch adhesives to the resin-dentin interface was good without voids or separation of phases; showing a thin, continuous hybrid layer. PMID:22557814

  17. Influence of salivary contamination on the dentin bond strength of two different seventh generation adhesive systems: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Taranjeet Kaur; Asrani, Hemant; Banga, Harpreet; Jain, Aditi; Rawlani, Sudhir S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of salivary contamination on the bond strength of two different seventh generation adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Sixty caries-free human premolars with flat dentin surfaces were randomly divided into six groups of 10 teeth each and bonding was done using seventh-generation bonding agents Adper Easy One (3M ESPE) and Xeno V (Dentsply). Following the bonding procedure, resin composite was bonded to the surfaces using a plastic mould. The prepared specimen with composite cylinders attached were placed in 37°C distilled water for 24 h and then subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) with 0 h universal testing machine and the data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and unpaired t-test. Results: Statistical significant difference between the Groups I, II and III in which Adper Easy One was used and similarly for Groups IV, V, and VI in which Xeno V was used. When an intergroup comparison was made using unpaired t-test Group II and Group V showed the nonsignificant difference. Conclusion: Salivary contamination significantly affects the SBS of both the seventh generation dentin bonding agents. However, 2-hydroxyethyl methacryate based adhesive has higher bond strength. PMID:26752841

  18. Impact of Dilution and Polymerization on Cytotoxicity of Dentin Adhesives to Human Gingival Fibroblasts: Early Exposure Time

    PubMed Central

    Banava, Sepideh; Najibfard, Kaveh; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dilution and curing methods of an etch-and-rinse adhesive and a self-etching primer from the same manufacturer at early exposure time on cytotoxicity of primary human gingival fibroblasts. Materials and methods. Primary human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to different dilutions of Adper Single Bond (ASB) and Adper Prompt L-Pop (APL) (3M ESPE, USA). They were evaluated in unpolymerized mode for 20 s, 5 min and 24 h and in polymerized mode for 24 h and 48 h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using three cytotoxic tests (MTT, cell counting and DNA condensation). Data was analyzed by a one-way ANOVA and Post Hoc Tukey HSD test. Results. Cytotoxicity tests revealed that unpolymerized APL was more cytotoxic compared to ASB after 20 s (P<0.05). By increasing the time to 5 min and 24 h, ASB was more cytotoxic than APL with lower dilutions. Polymerized ASB was more toxic than APL. Conclusion. Both adhesives were cytotoxic in different dilutions, times and curing modes. Cytotoxicity of the unpolymerized self-etching primer (APL) was more than etch-and-rinse adhesive (ASB) in 20 s, which is important clinically and dentists should be aware of the harmful effects and try to minimize it by curing and rinsing soon after composite resin insertion. ASB was more cytotoxic at 5 min and 24h. PMID:26697147

  19. Effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of zirconia to three resin cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadjoo, Nisa

    Statement of problem: There are no standard guidelines for material selection to obtain acceptable bonding to high-strength zirconium oxide ceramic. Studies suggest resin cements in combination with MDP-containing primer is a reasonable choice, however, the other cements cannot be rejected and need further investigation. Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was the evaluation of the shear bond strength of three composite resin cements to zirconia ceramic after using different surface conditioning methods. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty sintered Y-TZP ceramic (IPS e.max ZirCAD) squares (8 x 8 x 4 mm) were embedded in acrylic molds, then divided into three groups (n=40) based on the type of cement used. Within each group, the specimens were divided into four subgroups (n=10) and treated as follows: (1) Air abrasion with 50microm aluminum oxide (Al2O 3) particles (ALO); (2) Air abrasion + Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SBU); (3) Air abrasion + Monobond Plus (MBP); (4) Air abrasion + Z-Prime Plus (ZPP). Composite cylinders were used as carriers to bond to conditioned ceramic using (1) RelyX Ultimate adhesive resin cement (RX); (2) Panavia SA self-adhesive resin cement (PSA); (3) Calibra esthetic cement (CAL). The bonded specimens were submerged in distilled water and subjected to 24-hour incubation period at 37°C. All specimens were stressed in shear at a constant crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. The bond strength values (MPa), means and standard deviations were calculated and data were analyzed using analysis of variance with Fisher's PLSD multiple comparison test at the 0.05 level of significance. The nature of failure was recorded. Results: The two-way ANOVA showed Panavia SA to have the highest strength at 44.3 +/- 16.9 MPa (p<0.05). The combination of Scotchbond Universal surface treatment with Panavia SA cement showed statistically higher bond strength (p=0.0054). The highest bond

  20. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resin Bonded to Resin-Modified Glass-ionomer Containing Micro- and Nano-hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Moradian, Marzie; Motamedi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The adhesion of resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) to composite resin has a very important role in the durability of sandwich restorations. Hydroxyapatite is an excellent candidate as a filler material for improving the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cement. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding micro- and nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) powder to RMGI on the shear bond strength (SBS) of nanofilled and silorane-based composite resins bonded to RMGI containing micro- and nano-HA. Materials and Method Sixty cylindrical acrylic blocks containing a hole of 5.5×2.5 mm (diameter × height) were prepared and randomly divided into 6 groups as Group 1 with RMGI (Fuji II LC) plus Adper Single Bond/Z350 composite resin (5.5×3.5 mm diameter × height); Group 2 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of micro-HA plus Adper Single Bond/Z350 composite resin; Group3 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of nano-HA plus Adper Single Bond/Z350 composite resin; Group 4 with RMGI plus P90 System Adhesive/P90 Filtek composite resin (5.5×3.5 mm diameter × height); Group 5 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of micro-HA plus P90 System Adhesive/P90Filtek composite resin; and Group 6 with RMGI containing 25 wt% of nano-HA plus P90 System Adhesive/P90 Filtek composite resin. The specimens were stored in water (37° C, 1 week) and subjected to 1000 thermal cycles (5°C/55°C). SBS test was performed by using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0.05). Results There were significant differences between groups 1 and 4 (RMGI groups, p= 0.025), and groups 3 and 6 (RMGI+ nano-HA groups, p= 0.012). However, among Z350 and P90 specimens, no statistically significant difference was detected in the SBS values (p= 0.19, p= 0.083, respectively). Conclusion RMGI containing HA can improve the bond strength to methacrylate-based in comparison to silorane-based composite resins. Meanwhile, RMGI

  1. Effect of different root canal irrigants on the sealing ability of two all-in-one self-etch adhesives: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rashi; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Nagpal, Rajni; Mishra, Chandrakar Chaman; Singh, Udai Pratap

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of different root canal irrigants on the sealing ability of two self-etch adhesives, using dye penetration method, within the pulp chamber. Materials and Methods: 72 extracted human molars were divided into six groups, according to the irrigant and self-etch adhesives used. After de-roofing the pulp chamber with a carborundum disc, the pulp was extirpated using excavator and broaches. In 36 samples, pulp chambers were bonded with Xeno V after irrigation with either 2% CHX (Group1: Xe-CHX) ; 17% EDTA + 5.25% NaOCl (Group2: Xe- EDTA + NaOCl) or normal saline (Group3: Xe-NS) and in other half samples, pulp chambers were bonded with Adper Easy One after irrigation with either 2% CHX (Group 4: Ad-CHX); 17%EDTA + 5.25% NaOCl (Group5: Ad-EDTA+NaOCl) or normal saline (Group 6: Ad-NS). All the samples were restored with Filtek Z350. Ten teeth from each group were assessed for dye penetration. Two samples in each group were viewed under scanning electron microscope to observe resin-dentin interfacial adaptation. Data was statistically analyzed using Mann–Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Mean microleakage scores and standard deviation observed were: Group 1 (Xe-CHX): 2.8 ± 0.42, Group 2 (Xe-EDTA + NaOCl): 2.3 ± 0.82, Group 3 (Xe-NS): 2.9 ± 0.31, Group 4 (Ad-CHX): 1.2 ± 0.91, Group 5 (Ad-EDTA + NaOCl): 0.8 ± 0.63, Group 6 (Ad-NS): 1.9 ± 0.99. Conclusions: Adper Easy One showed significantly less leakage than Xeno V when normal saline was used as an irrigant. EDTA treatment followed by NaOCl application significantly reduced microleakage and improved the interfacial adaptation with Adper Easy One. CHX did not significantly affect the sealing ability of both one-step self-etch adhesives tested. PMID:23112488

  2. Self-etch bonding agent beneath sealant: Bond strength for laser-irradiated enamel

    PubMed Central

    Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Giuntini, Jackelline de Lemes; Contente, Marta Maria Martins Giamatei; Gomes-Silva, Jaciara Miranda; Torres, Carolina Paes; Galo, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the in vitro shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin-based pit-and-fissure sealant (Fluroshield [F], Dentsply/Caulk) associated with either an etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB], 3M/ESPE) or a two-step self-etch adhesive system (Adper SE Plus [SE], 3M/ESPE) on Er: YAG laser-irradiated enamel. Materials and Methods: Seventeen sound third molar crowns were embedded in acrylic resin, and the mesial–distal enamel surfaces were flattened. The enamel sites were irradiated with a 2.94-μm wavelength Er: YAG laser (120 mJ, 4 Hz, noncontact mode/17 mm, 20 s). The specimens were randomly assigned to three groups according to the bonding technique: I - 37% phosphoric acid etching + SB + F; II - SE + F and III - F applied to acid-etched enamel, without an intermediate layer of bonding agent. In all of the groups, a 3-mm diameter enamel-bonding site was demarcated and the sealant cylinders were bonded. After 24 hours in distilled water, the shear bond strength was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. The debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope to assess the failure modes. Results: The mean SBS values in MPa were I = 6.39 (±1.44); II = 9.50 (±2.79); and III = 5.26 (±1.82). No statistically significant differences were observed between groups I and III; SE/F presented a significantly higher SBS than that of the other groups (P = 0.001). With regard to the failure mode, groups I (65%) and II (75%) presented adhesive failures, while group III showed 50% adhesive failure. Cohesive failure did not occur. Conclusion: The application of the two-step self-etch bonding agent (Adper SE Plus) beneath the resin pit-and-fissure sealant placement resulted in a significantly higher bond strength for the Er:YAG laser-irradiated enamel. PMID:24926208

  3. KSC-05PD-0294

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. An overhead crane in the Space Station Processing Facility moves the Thermal Protection System Detailed Test Objective (DTO) box toward the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC) that is situated near the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Donatello. The LMC and DTO will fly on Space Shuttle Discovery for mission STS-114. The DTO contains tile samples that will enable astronauts to test new on- orbit Thermal Protection System repair techniques. The launch window for mission STS-114 is May 12 to June 3.

  4. Conditioning of root canals prior to dowel cementation with composite luting cement and two dentine adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Liberman, R; Ben-Amar, A; Urstein, M; Gontar, G; Fitzig, S

    1989-11-01

    Two hundred and forty root canals of extracted single-rooted teeth were prepared to the same dimension, and Dentatus posts of equal size were cemented without screwing them into the dentine. Five cleansing solutions and two dentine adhesive systems were evaluated prior to post-cementation using chemical-cure composite resin. 'Pull-out' tests were then conducted in order to evaluate the bond strength of these intra-pulpal posts. The use of Conclude (composite luting cement) alone, with or without the cleansing solutions, resulted in significantly lower pull-out forces. Scotchbond Dental Adhesive gave significantly better results, regardless of the cleansing solution used. Gluma Dentine Adhesive significantly increased the pull-out forces only when used with its supplied cleanser or Tubulicid.

  5. Influence of different luting protocols on shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing resin nanoceramic material to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Pigozzo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Scribante, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different luting protocols on shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin nanoceramic (RNC) material to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 30 disks were milled from RNC blocks (Lava Ultimate/3M ESPE) with CAD/CAM technology. The disks were subsequently cemented to the exposed dentin of 30 recently extracted bovine permanent mandibular incisors. The specimens were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 10 teeth each. In Group 1, disks were cemented using a total-etch protocol (Scotchbond™ Universal Etchant phosphoric acid + Scotchbond Universal Adhesive + RelyX™ Ultimate conventional resin cement); in Group 2, disks were cemented using a self-etch protocol (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive + RelyX™ Ultimate conventional resin cement); in Group 3, disks were cemented using a self-adhesive protocol (RelyX™ Unicem 2 Automix self-adhesive resin cement). All cemented specimens were placed in a universal testing machine (Instron Universal Testing Machine 3343) and submitted to a shear bond strength test to check the strength of adhesion between the two substrates, dentin, and RNC disks. Specimens were stressed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's test at a level of significance of 0.05. Results: Post-hoc Tukey testing showed that the highest shear strength values (P < 0.001) were reported in Group 2. The lowest data (P < 0.001) were recorded in Group 3. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, conventional resin cements (coupled with etch and rinse or self-etch adhesives) showed better shear strength values compared to self-adhesive resin cements. Furthermore, conventional resin cements used together with a self-etch adhesive reported the highest values of adhesion. PMID:27076822

  6. Marginal adaptation of composite resins under two adhesive techniques.

    PubMed

    Dačić, Stefan; Veselinović, Aleksandar M; Mitić, Aleksandar; Nikolić, Marija; Cenić, Milica; Dačić-Simonović, Dragica

    2016-11-01

    In the present research, different adhesive techniques were used to set up fillings with composite resins. After the application of etch and rinse or self etch adhesive technique, marginal adaptation of composite fillings was estimated by the length of margins without gaps, and by the microretention of resin in enamel and dentin. The study material consisted of 40 extracted teeth. Twenty Class V cavities were treated with 35% phosphorous acid and restored after rinsing by Adper Single Bond 2 and Filtek Ultimate-ASB/FU 3M ESPE composite system. The remaining 20 cavities were restored by Adper Easy One-AEO/FU 3M ESPE composite system. Marginal adaptation of composite fillings was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The etch and rinse adhesive technique showed a significantly higher percentage of margin length without gaps (in enamel: 92.5%, in dentin: 57.3%), compared with the self-etch technique with lower percentage of margin length without gaps, in enamel 70.4% (p < .001), and in dentin-22.6% (p < .05). In the first technique, microretention was composed of adhesive and hybrid layers as well as resin tugs in interprismatic spaces of enamel, while the dentin microretention was composed of adhesive and hybrid layers with resin tugs in dentin canals. In the second technique, resin tugs were rarely seen and a microgap was dominant along the border of restoration margins. The SEM analysis showed a better marginal adaptation of composite resin to enamel and dentin with better microretention when the etch and rinse adhesive procedure was applied.

  7. Hydroxyapatite Effect on Photopolymerization of Self-etching Adhesives with Different Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the correlation of the acidic monomer/hydroxyapatite (HAp) reaction with the photopolymerization behavior of self-etching adhesives with different aggressiveness. Methods Two commercial self-etching adhesives the strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (APLP, pH~0.8) and the mild Adper Easy Bond (AEB, pH~2.5) were used. HAp powders were incorporated into both adhesives to acquire solutions with concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 wt%. The attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR/FT-IR) technique was employed to collect the in-situ spectra during light-curing, from which the degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization rate (PR) were calculated. The pH of each tested solution was also measured. Results Without HAp incorporation, the DC and PR of the strong APLP (7.8% and 0.12%/s, respectively) were much lower than those of the mild AEB (85.5% and 5.7%/s, respectively). The DC and PR of APLP displayed an apparent increasing trend with the HAp content. For example, the DC increased from 7.8% to 58.4% and the PR increased from 0.12 to 3.8%/s when the HAp content increased from 0 to 7 wt%. In contrast, the DC and PR of AEB were much less affected by the HAp content. The observations were correlated well with the spectral and pH changes, which indicated that APLP underwent a higher extent of chemical reaction with HAp than AEB. Conclusions The results disclosed the important role of the acidic monomer/HAp chemical reaction in improving the photopolymerization of the strong (low-pH) self-etching adhesives such as APLP. The phenomenon of polymerization improvement strongly depended on the adhesive aggressiveness. PMID:22445789

  8. Bond Strength of One-Step Adhesives under Different Substrate Moisture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luís; Fabião, Mayra Melo; Sfalcin, Ravana Angelini; de Souza Meneses, Murilo; Santos-Filho, Paulo César Freitas; Soares, Paulo Vinícius; Martins, Luís Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of one-step adhesive systems to dry or moist dental substrate. Methods Thirty human third molars were sectioned into two halves, in the mesio-distal direction, parallel to the long axis of the tooth. Each half was embedded in a polystyrene resin cylinder so that the buccal/lingual surface remained exposed. This exposed surface was abraded to obtain both flat exposed enamel and dentin. The samples were randomly allocated according to the adhesive system (Xeno III, Adper Prompt and iBond) and moisture condition (dry and moist). The substrates were air-dried for 30 s for dry condition, while the moist substrates were re-wet with 2.5 μl of distilled water after drying. After the adhesive procedures, two resin composite cylinders were build-up on dentin and enamel substrates, totaling four per sample. A shear load was applied to the samples at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Data were statistically analyzed by three-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (α=0.05). Results The evaluated one-step adhesives showed higher bond strength to dentin than enamel. The iBond presented better bond performance to moist substrate and Xeno III to dry substrate. The moisture condition did not interfere in the performance of Adper Prompt. The Xeno III and iBond presented higher bond strength than the other adhesives to both dry and moist substrates. Conclusions The moisture condition of substrate interfered in the performance of one-step self-etching adhesives and the best moisture condition was material dependent. PMID:19826601

  9. Hybridization quality and bond strength of adhesive systems according to interaction with dentin

    PubMed Central

    Salvio, Luciana Andrea; Hipólito, Vinicius Di; Martins, Adriano Luis; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hybridization quality and bond strength of adhesives to dentin. Materials and Methods: Ten human molars were ground to expose the dentin and then sectioned in four tooth-quarters. They were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the adhesive used: Two single-step self-etch adhesives – Adper Prompt (ADP) and Xeno III (XE), two two-step self-etching primer systems – Clearfil SE Bond (SE) and Adhe SE (ADSE), and one one-step etch-and-rinse system – Adper Single Bond (SB). Resin composite (Filtek Z250) crown buildups were made on the bonded surfaces and incrementally light-cured for 20 s. The restored tooth-quarters were stored in water at 37°C for 24 h and then sectioned into beams (0.8 mm2 in cross-section). Maximal microtensile bond strength (μ-TBS) was recorded (0.5 mm/min in crosshead speed). The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Thirty additional teeth were used to investigate the hybridization quality by SEM using silver methenamine or ammoniacal silver nitrate dyes. Results: SE reached significantly higher μ-TBS (P < 0.05); no significance was found between ADSE and XE (P > 0.05), and between SB and ADP (P > 0.05); ADSE and XE were significantly higher than SB and ADP (P < 0.05). The bonding interface of SB showed the most intense silver uptake. SE and ADSE showed more favorable hybridization quality than that observed for ADP and XE. Conclusions: The bond strength and hybridization quality were affected by the interaction form of the adhesives with dentin. The hybridization quality was essential to improve the immediate μ-TBS to dentin. PMID:24926212

  10. Effect of Fluoride-Releasing Adhesive Systems on the Mechanical Properties of Eroded Dentin.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Ana Paula Albuquerque; Moda, Mariana Dias; Suzuki, Thaís Yumi Umeda; Godas, André Gustavo de Lima; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of erosive pH cycling with solutions that simulate dental erosion on Martens hardness (HMV) and elastic modulus (Eit) of dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems. Twenty-seven bovine dentin slabs were restored with three adhesive systems: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch adhesive system, One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect fluoride-containing self-etching adhesive systems. The restorations were made with Filtek Z250. The HMV and Eit values at distances of 10, 30, 50 and 70 µm from the interface were evaluated using a dynamic ultra microhardness tester before and after immersion in deionized water, citric acid and hydrochloric acid (n=9). Data were submitted to repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD tests (=0.05). After erosive cycling, HMV values of dentin decreased in all groups. For dentin restored with Adper Single Bond 2, the lowest values were found closer to the hybrid layer, while for One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect, the values remained unaltered at all distances. For dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems, a decrease in Eit was found, but after 30 µm this difference was not significant. The acid substances were able to alter HMV and Eit of the underlying dentin. For fluoride-releasing adhesives, the greater the distance from bonded interface, the lower the Eit values. The fluoride in One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect was able to protect the underlying dentin closer to the materials. In this way, the fluoride from adhesive systems could have some positive effect in the early stages of erosive lesions.

  11. Degree of conversion of simplified contemporary adhesive systems as influenced by extended air-activated or passive solvent volatilization modes.

    PubMed

    Borges, Boniek C D; Souza-Junior, Eduardo Jose; Brandt, William C; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Montes, Marcos A J R; Puppin-Rontani, Regina M; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of five methods of solvent volatilization on the degree of conversion (DC) of nine one-bottle adhesive systems using Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance (FTIR/ATR) analysis. Nine adhesives were tested: Adper Single Bond 2 (SB), Adper Easy One (EO), One Up Bond F Plus (OUP), One Coat Bond SL (OC), XP Bond (XP), Ambar (AM), Natural Bond (NB), GO, and Stae. The adhesive systems were applied to a zinc-selenide pellet and 1) cured without solvent volatilization, 2) left undisturbed for 10 seconds before curing, 3) left undisturbed for 60 seconds before curing, 4) air-dried with an air stream for 10 seconds before curing, and 5) air-dried with an air stream for 60 seconds before curing. FTIR/ATR spectra were obtained, and the DC was calculated by comparing the aliphatic bonds/reference peaks before and after light activation for 10 seconds (FlashLite 1401). The DC means of each material were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test (p<0.05). The DC of GO and Stae adhesive systems was not affected by the five evaporation conditions. Air-drying for 60 seconds before curing yielded the highest DC for SB, EO, and OC. Extended solvent volatilization time (60 seconds) either with or without air-drying before curing provided the highest DC for AM, NB, XP, and OUP. Thus, the monomer conversion of adhesive systems was material dependent. In general, the 60-second passive or active air-drying modes to volatilize solvents before curing enhanced the degree of conversion for the one-bottle simplified adhesive systems.

  12. Interaction morphology and bond strength of nanofilled simplified-step adhesives to acid etched dentin

    PubMed Central

    Di Hipólito, Vinicius; Reis, André Figueiredo; Mitra, Sumita B.; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of nanofillers incorporated into adhesives on the microtensile bond strength (μ-TBS) and interfacial micromorphology to dentin. Methods: The occlusal enamel of 5 human molars was removed and each tooth sectioned into four quarters. The exposed dentin was treated with one of the following adhesives: Adper Single Bond (SB-unfilled), OptiBond Solo Plus (OS-barium aluminoborosilicate, 400nm Ø), Prime & Bond NT (NT-colloidal silica, 7–40 nm Ø) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2-colloidal silica, 5nm Ø). Cylinders of resin-based composite were constructed on the adhesive layers. After 24-hour storage, the restored tooth-quadrants were sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens (0.8 mm2, cross-sectional area) and submitted to μ-TBS at a cross-speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (alpha = .05). Twenty-eight additional teeth were used for interfacial micro-morphologic analysis by SEM (16-teeth) and TEM (12-teeth). The dentin surfaces of 32 discs were treated with the adhesives (8 discs for adhesive) and laminated to form disc-pairs using a flowable resin composite for SEM/EDS analysis. For TEM, 90nm-thick nondemineralized unstained sections were processed. Results: SB2 showed significant higher bond strength than SB, OS and NT. The SEM/EDS and TEM analysis revealed nanofillers infiltrated within the interfibrillar spaces of the SB2-hybrid layer. Fillers were concentrated around patent tubular orifices and in the adhesive layer for OS and NT. Conclusion: The presence of nanofillers within the interfibrillar spaces of the SB2-hybrid layer suggests its importance in the improvement of the μ-TBS. PMID:23077413

  13. Effect of the application time of phosphoric acid and self-etch adhesive systems to sclerotic dentin

    PubMed Central

    MENA-SERRANO, Alexandra Patricia; GARCIA, Eugenio Jose; PEREZ, Miguel Muñoz; MARTINS, Gislaine Cristine; GRANDE, Rosa Helena Miranda; LOGUERCIO, Alessandro Dourado; REIS, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of application time on the resin-dentin bond strength (µTBS) and etching pattern of adhesive systems applied on sclerotic dentine. Material and Methods: A total of forty-two bovine incisors had their roots removed. The 1-step self-etch GO (SDI), the 2-step self-etch Adper SE Bond (3MESPE) and the 35% phosphoric acid (3MESPE) from the 2-step etch-and-rinse Adper Single Bond 2 (3MESPE) were applied on the bovine incisal surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions or duplicating the recommended conditioning time. After adhesive application, thirty teeth were restored with composite resin, stored for 24 h in distilled water at 37º C, and sectioned into resin-dentin bonded sticks (0.8 mm2) and tested according to the µTBS at 0.5 mm/min. The etching pattern of the remaining twelve teeth (n=4 for each material) was examined under scanning electron microscopy. Each tooth was divided into a buccal-to-lingual direction into three thirds, and each third randomly assigned to the groups: control (no treatment), according to the manufacturers' instructions and duplicating the recommended application time. The µTBS and the relative percentage of the tubule area opening were evaluated by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). Results: The duplication of the conditioning time favored only the GO adhesive (p<0.05). Both application methods significantly increased the tubule area opening (p<0.05) compared to the controls. Conclusions: The efficacy of duplicating the conditioning time was only effective for the 1-step self-etch adhesive system tested. PMID:23739856

  14. In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Tensile Bond Strength of 6th, 7th and 8th Generation Dentin Bonding Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kamble, Suresh S; Kandasamy, Baburajan; Thillaigovindan, Ranjani; Goyal, Nitin Kumar; Talukdar, Pratim; Seal, Mukut

    2015-01-01

    Background: Newer dentin bonding agents were developed to improve the quality of composite restoration and to reduce time consumption in its application. The aim of the present study was to evaluate tensile bond strength of 6th, 7th and 8th generation bonding agents by in vitro method. Materials and Methods: Selected 60 permanent teeth were assigned into 20 in each group (Group I: 6th generation bonding agent-Adper SE plus 3M ESPE, Group II: 7th generation bonding agent-G-Bond GC Corp Japan and Group III: 8th generation dentin adhesives-FuturaBond, DC, Voco, Germany). With high-speed diamond disc, coronal dentin was exposed, and selected dentin bonding agents were applied, followed by composite restoration. All samples were saved in saline for 24 h and tensile bond strength testing was done using a universal testing machine. The obtained data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The tensile bond strength readings for 6th generation bonding agent was 32.2465, for 7th generation was 31.6734, and for 8th-generation dentine bonding agent was 34.74431. The highest tensile bond strength was seen in 8th generation bonding agent compared to 6th and 7th generation bonding agents. Conclusion: From the present study it can be conclude that 8th generation dentine adhesive (Futura DC, Voco, Germany) resulted in highest tensile bond strength compared to 6th (Adper SE plus, 3M ESPE) and 7th generation (G-Bond) dentin bonding agents. PMID:26028901

  15. Effects of etching and adhesive applications on the bond strength between composite resin and glass-ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    PAMIR, Tijen; ŞEN, Bilge Hakan; EVCIN, Özgür

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study determined the effects of various surface treatment modalities on the bond strength of composite resins to glass-ionomer cements. Material and Methods Conventional (KetacTM Molar Quick ApplicapTM) or resin-modified (PhotacTM Fil Quick AplicapTM) glass-ionomer cements were prepared. Two-step etch-rinse & bond adhesive (AdperTM Single Bond 2) or single-step self-etching adhesive (AdperTM PromptTM L-PopTM) was applied to the set cements. In the etch-rinse & bond group, the sample surfaces were pre-treated as follows: (1) no etching, (2) 15 s of etching with 35% phosphoric acid, (3) 30 s of etching, and (4) 60 s of etching. Following the placement of the composite resin (FiltekTM Z250), the bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine and the data obtained were analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey's HSD post hoc analysis (p=0.05). Then, the fractured surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results The bond strength of the composite resin to the conventional glass-ionomer cement was significantly lower than that to the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (p<0.001). No significant differences were determined between the self-etching and etch-rinse & bond adhesives at any etching time (p>0.05). However, a greater bond strength was obtained with 30 s of phosphoric acid application. Conclusions The resin-modified glass-ionomer cement improved the bond strength of the composite resin to the glass-ionomer cement. Both etch-rinse & bond and self-etching adhesives may be used effectively in the lamination of glass-ionomer cements. However, an etching time of at least 30 s appears to be optimal. PMID:23329245

  16. Effect of 38% carbamide peroxide on the microleakage of silorane-based versus methacrylate-based composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Ghavam, Maryam; Mahinfar, Nazanin; Pourhashemi, Seyed Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the effect of 38% carbamide peroxide on the microleakage of class V cavities restored with either a silorane-based composite or two methacrylate-based composites. Materials and Methods A total of 96 class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of extracted human teeth with both enamel and dentin margins and were randomly assigned into three groups of Filtek P90 (3M-ESPE) + P90 system adhesive (3M-ESPE)(group A), Filtek Z250 (3M-ESPE) + Adper Prompt L-Pop (3M-ESPE)(group B) and Filtek Z350XT (3M-ESPE) + Adper Prompt L-Pop (group C). Half of the teeth were randomly underwent bleaching (38% carbamide peroxide, Day White, Discus Dental, applying for 15 min, twice a day for 14 day) while the remaining half (control) were not bleached. Dye penetration was measured following immersion in basic fuchsine. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at a level of 0.05. Results No significant differences were found between composites in the control groups in enamel (p = 0.171) or dentin (p = 0.094) margins. After bleaching, microleakage of Z250 (in enamel [p = 0.867] or dentin [p = 0.590] margins) and Z350 (in enamel [p = 0.445] or dentin [p = 0.591] margins) did not change significantly, but the microleakage of P90 significantly increased in both enamel (p = 0.042) and dentin (p = 0.002) margins. Conclusions No significant differences were noted between the bleached and control subgroups of two methacrylate-based composites in enamel or dentin margins. Microleakage of silorane-based composite significantly increased after bleaching. PMID:25110640

  17. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Waste Management System, Unit 4. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 4 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to explain how transportation, a geologic repository, and the multi-purpose canister will work together to provide short-term and long-term…

  18. Biological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

  19. NUHOMS{reg_sign} update

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, N.

    1995-12-31

    NUHOMS{reg_sign} is the dry spent fuel storage and transportation technology selected to date by the majority of commercial nuclear utilities. The author first gives a system overview of the NUHOMS{reg_sign}. Next she discusses the project status and licensing status. She closes with an update of the multi-purpose canister.

  20. Crewmember working on the spacelab Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    View showing Payload Specialists Bonnie Dunbar and Larry DeLucas in the aft section of the U. S. Microgravity Laboratory-1. Dunbar is preparing to load a sample in the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) Integrated Furnace Experiment Assembly (IFEA) in rack 9 of the Microgravity Laboratory. DeLucas is checking out the multi-purpose Glovebox Facility.

  1. A School District Should---Should Not---Own its Buses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olfson, Lewy

    1970-01-01

    Increasing multi-purpose utilization of school buses is forcing costs upward, and some school officials are considering contracting with outside agencies for their transportation needs. Two school business managers air contrasting opinions on ownership vs. leasing of school buses. (DE)

  2. Research study: Space vehicle control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likins, P. W.; Longman, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    From the control point of view, spacecraft are classified into two main groups: those for which the spacecraft is fully defined before the control system is designed; and those for which the control system must be specified before certain interchangeable parts of a multi-purpose spacecraft are selected for future missions. Consideration is given to both classes of problems.

  3. 78 FR 32991 - Connect America Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ...-looking model of the cost of constructing modern multi-purpose networks.'' In particular, the Commission... Phase II model-based support and adopts the procedures for a price cap carrier to elect to make a state... business hours in the FCC Reference Center, Room CY-A257, 445 12th Street SW., Washington, DC 20554, or...

  4. 78 FR 26269 - Connect America Fund; High-Cost Universal Service Support

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... offer broadband service. 52. We adopt a model platform that estimates the cost of an IP- enabled network... conclude that the appropriate forward-looking way to model a network today that provides voice service is... constructing modern multi-purpose networks.'' Using the cost model to ``estimate the support necessary to...

  5. Forage and bioenergy feedstock production from hybrid forage sorghum and sorghum x sudangrass hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the bioenergy industry expands, producers choosing to shift current forage crop production to dedicated biomass crops will find it advantageous to grow low risk multi-purpose crops that maximize management options. Hybrid forage sorghums (HFS) and sorghum by sudangrass hybrids (SSG) are capable...

  6. Bending of I-beam with the transvers shear effect included - FEM calculated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Lewiński, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    The paper is devoted to three-point bending of an I-beam with include of transvers shear effect. Numerical calculations were conducted independently with the use of the SolidWorks system and the multi-purpose software package ANSYS The results of FEM study conducted with the use of two systems were compared and presented in tables and figures.

  7. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  8. 76 FR 70888 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... finalizing approval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the... Quality Management District--SCAQMD) (1) Rule 1143, ``Consumer Paint Thinners & Multi-purpose Solvents... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air...

  9. 76 FR 54384 - California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District... to the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerned South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1143, Consumer Paint Thinner & Multi-Purpose Solvents and Rule 1144,...

  10. Development of hybrid sweet sorghum for the Southeast USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the Southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol. The grain a...

  11. Heterosis and combining ability for yield components in hybrid sweet sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol....

  12. Evaluation of hybrid sweet sorghum as a biofuel crop for the southeast USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the Southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol. The grain a...

  13. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 1212 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and injury from accidental fires started by children playing with multi-purpose lighters. The Commission has identified 196 fires that occurred from 1995 through 1998 that were started by children under... children under age 5 are those which the standard would most effectively reduce. B. The approximate...

  14. A Computer Study for the Allocation of Channels and the Placement of Transmitters for 2500 MHz Fixed-Station Service in a Metropolitan Area Containing Many Eligible Applicants for Licensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boecklen, Warren A.; And Others

    The North Circle Project demonstrates the feasibility of a multi-purpose, multi-channel television network attained through cooperative efforts of an educational community. The study was necessitated by the likelihood of congestion of airwaves on educational channels in urban areas. In 1966 the Federal Communications Commission called a meeting of…

  15. Functional Literacy Projects and Project Proposals: Selected Examples. A Special Study for the World Conference on Education for All (Thailand, March 5-9, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Kjell

    Part I of this report describes projects in progress in nine countries: Bangladesh (Mass Education through Small Local Organizations), China (Multi-purpose Adult Education Schools and Resource Centres), Ethiopia (Literacy and Post-Literacy Programme), Jamaica (Jamaican Movement for the Advancement of Literacy), Nepal (Training for Vocational…

  16. Developing a Software for Fuzzy Group Decision Support System: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, A. Fevzi; Kuscu, Dincer; Han, Kerem

    2009-01-01

    The complex nature and uncertain information in social problems required the emergence of fuzzy decision support systems in social areas. In this paper, we developed user-friendly Fuzzy Group Decision Support Systems (FGDSS) software. The software can be used for multi-purpose decision making processes. It helps the users determine the main and…

  17. Innovating and Adapting: New Financing Strategies for Colleges and Universities. Topical Paper No. 25. Selected Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Higher Education (9th, Center for the Study of Higher Education, University of Arizona, Tucson, May 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert A., Ed.

    Innovative financial strategies for higher education institutions are considered in three articles based on presentations to a national conference at the University of Arizona. In "Innovations in State Level Formulas: Established and Emerging Trends," Dennis P. Jones discusses both the general (multi-purpose) and the special purpose components of…

  18. Nuclear Site Security in the Event of Terrorist Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, M.L.; Sims, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper, presented as a poster, identifies why ballistic protection should now be considered at nuclear sites to counter terrorist threats. A proven and flexible form of multi purpose protection is described in detail with identification of trial results that show its suitability for this role. (authors)

  19. ICAM (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing) Conceptual Design for Computer-Integrated Manufacturing. Volume 2, Part 1. Task B. Establishment of the Factory of the Future Conceptual Framework Scoping Document (SD).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This document, Volume II, Part I, of the Final Technical Report contains the Factory of the Future Conceptual Framework Scoping Document. This...configuration management) in the 1995 timeframe. (2) An overall conceptual framework of the FOF for the 1995 timeframe, to include multi-purpose

  20. Integrating environment, safety and health training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    In a multi-purpose research laboratory, innovation and creativity are required to satisfy the training requirements for hazards to people and the environment. A climate that encourages excellence in research and enhances hazard minimization skills is created by combining technical expertise with instructional design talent.

  1. Integrating environment, safety and health training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    In a multi-purpose research laboratory, innovation and creativity are required to satisfy the training requirements for hazards to people and the environment. A climate that encourages excellence in research and enhances hazard minimization skills is created by combining technical expertise with instructional design talent.

  2. 76 FR 19067 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Interior enters into to furnish water and power.\\3\\ Congress enacted the Reclamation Laws for purposes that... feature of the multi-purpose water projects authorized under the Reclamation Laws.\\5\\ No contract entered.... Due to the high demand for Western's power and limited amount of available power under...

  3. On-line mass storage system functional design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earnest, D.

    1975-01-01

    A functional system definition for an on-line high density magnetic tape data storage system is provided. This system can be implemented in a multi-purpose, multi-host environment, and satisfy the requirements of economical data storage in the range of 2 to 50 billion bytes.

  4. Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses agricultural pesticide application equipment. The three sections of the publication are Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment. In the section discussing power sprayers, subtopics include hydraulic sprayers, component parts, multi-purpose farm…

  5. Satellite Communications for U.S. Schools; A Proposed Public Service Offering by Private Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Lloyd I.

    The Federal Communications Commission has asked that companies seeking authorization to construct and operate communications satellite facilities for multi-purpose commercial uses in the United States give consideration to the communications needs of schools. In response to this request, MCI Lockheed Satellite Corporation proposes a low-cost…

  6. 16 CFR 1212.13 - Certification tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification tests. 1212.13 Section 1212.13... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1212.13 Certification tests. (a) General... include: (A) Qualification tests, which must be performed on surrogates of each model of...

  7. The 2.5-Dimensional Photoionization Code ``PAN'' for Modeling of Axially Symmetric Nebulae: The Distinctive Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokach, Oleg V.

    2005-11-01

    A multi-purpose spectrum synthesis code ``PAN'' (``Photoionized Axisymmetric Nebula'') is presented. The code allows computing of self-consistent steady-state models of morphologically-realistic axisymmetric gaseous, dust or gas+dust envelopes. Only the main features of the code ``PAN'' are enumerated here.

  8. 78 FR 29428 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision (ROD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) From Earth Orbit to a Location in the Pacific Ocean AGENCY... Corporation for the reentry of the Orion MPCV from Earth orbit to a location in the Pacific Ocean. FOR FURTHER... environmental consequences of the Orion MPCV reentering the Earth's atmosphere and landing in the Pacific...

  9. The Interview Project: Reinforcing Business Communication Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Ruark, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Business communication instructors understand the value of helping students learn, discuss, apply, and manipulate communication strategies on the basis of purpose and audience. This rhetorical bent encourages active learning through activities and multi-purpose projects, but active learning often works best when students believe they are engaging…

  10. The Development of the Hawaii State Senior Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amor, Charles W.

    A multi-purpose senior center within a community college setting is the focus of this presentation. The following points are discussed: (1) the historical development of the Hawaii State Senior Center with respect to national and local programs on aging; (2) the financial means of expanding and supporting the various stages of development; (3) the…

  11. 77 FR 52766 - Technology and Trading Roundtable

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Technology and Trading Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of... day roundtable entitled ``Technology and Trading: Promoting Stability in Today's Markets'' to discuss... technologies. The roundtable discussion will be held in the multi-purpose room of the Securities and...

  12. Solid-state Distributed Temperature Control for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon B.; Reagan, Shawn E.; Day, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed solid-state temperature controller will offer greater flexibility in the thermal control of aerospace vehicle structures. A status of the hardware development along with its implementation on the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module will be provided. Numerous advantages of the device will also be discussed with regards to current and future flight vehicle implementations.

  13. 16 CFR 1212.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.2 Definitions. As used in this... child resistance (including operation and the force(s) required for operation), within reasonable... resistance. Lighter characteristics that may affect child resistance include, but are not limited to,...

  14. 16 CFR 1212.1 - Scope, application, and effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope, application, and effective date. 1212.1 Section 1212.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.1...

  15. 16 CFR 1212.1 - Scope, application, and effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope, application, and effective date. 1212.1 Section 1212.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.1...

  16. 16 CFR 1212.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Findings. 1212.5 Section 1212.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.5 Findings. (a) Before issuing a...

  17. 16 CFR 1212.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Findings. 1212.5 Section 1212.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.5 Findings. (a) Before issuing a...

  18. 16 CFR 1212.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.2 Definitions. As used in this... child resistance (including operation and the force(s) required for operation), within reasonable... resistance. Lighter characteristics that may affect child resistance include, but are not limited to,...

  19. Single nucleotide variants and indels identified from whole-genome re-sequencing of Guzerat, Gyr, Girolando and Holstein cattle breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-genome re-sequencing, alignment and annotation analyses were undertaken for 12 sires representing four important cattle breeds in Brazil: Guzerat (multi-purpose), Gyr, Girolando and Holstein (dairy production). A total of approximately 4.3 billion reads from an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer ge...

  20. 16 CFR 1212.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Findings. 1212.5 Section 1212.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.5 Findings. (a) Before issuing a...

  1. 16 CFR 1212.1 - Scope, application, and effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scope, application, and effective date. 1212.1 Section 1212.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.1...

  2. 16 CFR 1212.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Findings. 1212.5 Section 1212.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.5 Findings. (a) Before issuing a...

  3. 16 CFR 1212.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Findings. 1212.5 Section 1212.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.5 Findings. (a) Before issuing a...

  4. 16 CFR 1212.1 - Scope, application, and effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scope, application, and effective date. 1212.1 Section 1212.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.1...

  5. 16 CFR 1212.1 - Scope, application, and effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scope, application, and effective date. 1212.1 Section 1212.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.1...

  6. Training Caribbean Trawlermen for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Equipped with two multi-purpose fishing vessels, the Caribbean Fishery Development Institute has begun training 45 persons in an 11-month course ranging from navigation to seamanship, from engineering to biology, law, andeconomics. The program description provided by the article is supplemented by figures offering specific curricular and…

  7. Adult Day Care--Extended Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    This pamphlet describes a multi-purpose day-care center for the elderly in Abilene, Texas which is intended to fill the "extended family" role of offering companionship, medical attention, and other aspects of concern to older persons in the community. The goals of the program are as follows: (1) to keep individuals out of institutions…

  8. Managing the Columbia Basin for Sustainable Economy, Society, Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) is a vast region of the Pacific Northwest covering parts of the United States, Canada and Tribal lands. As the Columbia River winds its way from Canada into the US, the river passes through numerous multi-purpose reservoirs and hydroelectric genera...

  9. Fathers' Participation in the Domestic Activities of Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Maria Clelia; Bruzzese, Dario

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the data from the multi-purpose survey on household "Time Use" conducted by Istat (the Italian National Statistical Institute) in 2002-2003 and the data from this same survey conducted in 1988-1989 will be analysed with the purpose of describing the fathers' daily participation in the domestic activities and of…

  10. Radiation Test Results on COTS and non-COTS Electronic Devices for NASA-JSC Space Flight Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allums, Kimberly K.; O'Neill, P. M.; Reddell, B. D.; Nguyen, K. V.; Bailey, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation reports the results of recent proton and heavy ion Single Event Effect (SEE) testing on a variety of COTS and non-COTs electronic devices and assemblies tested for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV).

  11. 77 FR 24264 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming Left-Hand Drive 2006 Land Rover...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Nonconforming Left-Hand Drive 2006 Land Rover Range Rover Multi-Purpose Passenger Vehicles Manufactured Prior to... Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that left-hand drive (LHD) 2006 Land..., DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery or Courier: West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New...

  12. Taking the Next Step: From ’Unmanned’ to True Autonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    LAMPS Mk III and CV-helo programs embodied in the SH -60B and SH - 60F aircraft respectively, and today in the MH-60R and MH-60S aircraft. Collectively...DASH led directly to the Navy’s LAMPS (Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System), first the LAMPS Mk I system embodied in the SH -2F aircraft, later the

  13. Early Childhood and Family Development Programs Improve the Quality of Life for Low-Income Families. Report to the Congress of the United States by the Comptroller General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This report to Congress has been acknowledged by Department of Health, Education and Welfare officials as an accurate and comprehensive view of child development issues in the United States, circa 1979. Chapter 1 lists multi- purposes of the review, recapitulates Congressional interest in early childhood and family development programs, defines…

  14. 75 FR 44247 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Concentrate 067517-00004 Insecticide Mist Pyrethrins, Piperonyl butoxide 067517-00012 Dairy Spray Pyrethrins... 067517-00061 Permethrin 10% Permethrin W.B. Multi- Purpose Concentrate 067517-00080 Permethrin 10% Oil Permethrin Base Concentrate Table 2 includes the names and addresses of record for all registrants of...

  15. Autonomous Vehicle Panel 2011 Pacific Operations Science and Technology Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    Transportable Robot System (MTRS) POR Multi- Mission Unmanned Ground Vehicle (MM- UGV) CDD Husky Mounted Detection System (HMDS) POR...Battlefield Extraction Assist Robot (BEAR) Initiative Squad Multi- purpose Equipment Transport (SMET) CDD Exoskeleton (XOS) CDD Autonomous Mobility...Appliqué System (AMAS) CDD M160 Light Flail POR 3 CPD To be released Ground Robotics Capability Sets (photos are notional representations

  16. Language Arts & Environmental Awareness: 100+ Integrated Books and Activities for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Patricia L.

    This multi-purpose book is for teachers, librarians, and parents who want to develop children's awareness of environmental matters while building and refining their language arts skills. In response to the challenge for school districts to integrate environmental education into the curriculum, this book presents environmental awareness topics to…

  17. The Use of ETV. A Handbook for Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Tony

    Educational television (ETV) has become a multi-purpose tool--more flexible, more accessible, less costly than ever before. This book discusses the kind of "eye to eye" rapport and communication which is possible through ETV. The growth and functions today of ETV in the learning situation are reviewed. Solutions and innovations are examined which…

  18. The Government Assistance Center: A Vehicle for Transitioning to the Host Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    culinary skills under the supervi- sion of their vocational trainers. This type of work is classified as multi-purpose in that running a kitchen... culinary activity, DDR processing, etc.). Above all else, DDR personnel absolutely need the capability to design and produce certificates rapidly. The

  19. 76 FR 12122 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Information Collection: Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) Budget Workload Reports and... evaluation, audit, budget formulation and budget approval. Form CMS-102 is a multi-purpose form designed to capture and record all budget and expenditure data. Form CMS-105 captures the annual projected...

  20. 75 FR 79000 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) Budget Workload Reports and Supporting Regulations in 42 CFR 493.1-.2001... for surveys conducted. Use of the information includes program evaluation, audit, budget formulation and budget approval. Form CMS-102 is a multi-purpose form designed to capture and record all...

  1. Regional Workshop on Strengthening Linkages and Networks through Community Learning Centres (CLCs) (Bandung, Indonesia, September 5-9, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Community Learning Centre (CLC) Project has been carried out since 1998 within the framework of the Asia Pacific Program of Education for All (APPEAL). CLC is a multi-purpose learning center that serves as a local venue for adults, youth and children to engage in all kinds of learning. After a few years' implementation, some countries have…

  2. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Schempf, H.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  3. Small Boats in an Ocean of School Activities: Towards a European Vision on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalba, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the concept of schools as "multi-purpose learning centres", proposed by the European Commission in the year 2000 as part of the Lisbon Strategy to improve competitiveness. This concept was arguably the "European vision" for school education and was meant to drive the modernization of school education.…

  4. Homesteading on the Web: The Queensland Department of Education Virtual Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Jennifer; Allison, Myrl

    1996-01-01

    The Queensland Department of Education (Australia) developed a homesteading model as an alternative to the urban-built environment model of large multi-purpose networks. This resulted in the in-house development of a low-cost, stand-alone server and homepage. The charette technique was used to plan and design the Queensland Department of Education…

  5. The Role of Rubrics in Advancing and Assessing Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kenneth; Stevens, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    A rubric is a multi-purpose scoring guide for assessing student products and performances. This tool works in a number of different ways to advance student learning, and has great potential in particular for non-traditional, first generation, and minority students. In addition, rubrics improve teaching, contribute to sound assessment, and are an…

  6. KSC-05PD-1290

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. After dawn on Launch Pad 39B, the payload canister carrying payloads that will launch aboard Space Shuttle Discovery's Return to Flight mission STS-114 is lifted up to the Payload Changeout Room. There the payloads will be removed. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Discoverys launch window extends from July 13 through July 31.

  7. KSC-05PD-1450

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, the payload bay doors on Space Shuttle Discovery are being closed for launch. Payload bay door closure is a significant milestone in the preparations for the first Return to Flight mission, STS-114. During its 12-day mission, Discoverys seven-person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC supports a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Launch of mission STS-114 was set for July 13 at the conclusion of the Flight Readiness Review yesterday.

  8. KSC-05PD-1441

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, Mission Specialists Charles Camarda (left) and Wendy Lawrence take a final look at the payloads in Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay before launch. During its 12-day mission, Discoverys seven-person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Launch of Discovery on its Return to Flight mission STS- 114 is set for July 13.

  9. KSC-05PD-0728

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, the CELA (Cargo Element Lifting Assembly) lowers the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2) into the payload canister. The ESP-2 will travel to Launch Pad 39B with its fellow payload elements the Lightweight MPESS Carrier (Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure) and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello in the canister. Once at the pad, the three payloads will be transferred to the payload bay of Discovery for flight. The ESP-2 is carrying replacement parts to the International Space Station. The platform will be deployed and attached to the Stations airlock and used as a permanent spare parts facility. STS-114 is targeted for launch during a window that extends from May 15 through June 3.

  10. KSC-05PD-1287

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the dark before dawn, the payloads that will launch aboard Space Shuttle Discovery's Return to Flight mission STS-114 roll past the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASAs Kennedy Space Center. Enclosed in a payload canister, the payloads are heading for Launch Pad 39B. The canister will be lifted up alongside the Rotating Service Structure to the Payload Changeout Room where the STS-114 payloads will be removed. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Discoverys launch window extends from July 13 through July 31.

  11. KSC-05PD-1438

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, STS-114 Mission Specialists Stephen Robinson (left) and Andrew Thomas discuss the payloads in Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay with a technician. The STS-114 crew is conducting a final inspection of their mission payloads before launch. During its 12-day mission, Discoverys seven-person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Launch of Discovery on its Return to Flight mission STS-114 is set for July 13.

  12. KSC-05PD-1444

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, STS-114 Commander Eileen Collins (left) inspects the payloads in Space Shuttle Discovery's payload bay as Mission Specialists Charles Camarda and Wendy Lawrence (kneeling) look on. During its 12-day mission, Discoverys seven-person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Launch of Discovery on its Return to Flight mission STS-114 is set for July 13.

  13. KSC-05PD-0725

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, the CELA (Cargo Element Lifting Assembly) moves the External Stowage Platform-2 launching aboard Space Shuttle Discovery on Return to Flight mission STS-114 to the payload canister. The ESP-2 will travel to Launch Pad 39B with its fellow payload elements the Lightweight MPESS Carrier (Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure) and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello in the canister. Once at the pad, the three payloads will be transferred to the payload bay of Discovery for flight. The ESP-2 is carrying replacement parts to the International Space Station. The platform will be deployed and attached to the Stations airlock and used as a permanent spare parts facility. STS-114 is targeted for launch during a window that extends from May 15 through June 3.

  14. KSC-05PD-1317

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, the payload canister that delivered payloads launching aboard Space Shuttle Discovery's Return to Flight mission STS-114 is lowered from the Payload Changeout Room. The payloads will be installed into Discovery, scheduled to arrive at the pad later today. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Discoverys launch window extends from July 13 through July 31.

  15. KSC-05PD-1445

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, STS-114 Mission Specialist Soichi Noguchi (kneeling) inspects the payloads in Space Shuttle Discovery's payload bay as Mission Specialist Charles Camarda (left) looks on. During its 12-day mission, Discoverys seven-person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Launch of Discovery on its Return to Flight mission STS-114 is set for July 13.

  16. KSC-05PD-1288

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the dark before dawn, the payload canister carrying payloads that will launch aboard Space Shuttle Discovery's Return to Flight mission STS-114 rolls toward Launch Pad 39B. There, it will be lifted up alongside the Rotating Service Structure to the Payload Changeout Room where the payloads will be removed. Discoverys payloads include the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Discoverys launch window extends from July 13 through July 31.

  17. KSC-05PD-1458

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, United Space Alliance Flight Crew Systems engineer John Biegert uncovers a sleep restraint to be installed inside Space Shuttle Discovery, a final step in launch preparations. Launch of Discovery on its Return to Flight mission STS-114 is set for July 13, just days away. During its 12-day mission, Discoverys seven-person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts.

  18. KSC-05PD-1443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, STS-114 Mission Specialist Soichi Noguchi (prone) inspects the payloads in Space Shuttle Discovery's payload bay. During its 12-day mission, Discoverys seven-person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Launch of Discovery on its Return to Flight mission STS-114 is set for July 13.

  19. KSC-05PD-0726

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, the CELA (Cargo Element Lifting Assembly) carrying the External Stowage Platform-2 launching aboard Space Shuttle Discovery on Return to Flight mission STS-114 stops above the payload canister. The ESP-2 will travel to Launch Pad 39B with its fellow payload elements the Lightweight MPESS Carrier (Multi- Purpose Experiment Support Structure) and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello in the canister. Once at the pad, the three payloads will be transferred to the payload bay of Discovery for flight. The ESP-2 is carrying replacement parts to the International Space Station. The platform will be deployed and attached to the Stations airlock and used as a permanent spare parts facility. STS-114 is targeted for launch during a window that extends from May 15 through June 3.

  20. KSC-05PD-1451

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, the payload bay doors on Space Shuttle Discovery are closed for launch. Payload bay door closure is a significant milestone in the preparations for the first Return to Flight mission, STS-114. During its 12- day mission, Discoverys seven-person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC supports a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Launch of mission STS-114 was set for July 13 at the conclusion of the Flight Readiness Review yesterday.

  1. KSC-05PD-1289

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. On Launch Pad 39B, lights on the Rotating Service Structure brighten the night as the payload canister carrying payloads that will launch aboard Space Shuttle Discovery's Return to Flight mission STS-114 is moved into position. The canister will be lifted up to the Payload Changeout Room where the STS-114 payloads will be removed. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Discoverys launch window extends from July 13 through July 31.

  2. KSC-05PD-1447

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), supporting the Control Moment Gyroscope (right) and a tile repair sample box, is viewed before the orbiter's payload bay doors are closed for launch. Payload bay door closure is a significant milestone in the preparations of Discovery for the first Return to Flight mission, STS-114. Other payloads in the bay include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). During its 12-day mission, Discoverys seven- person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Launch of STS-114 was set for July 13 at the conclusion of the mission's Flight Readiness Review yesterday.

  3. KSC-05PD-1291

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. After dawn on Launch Pad 39B, the payload canister carrying payloads that will launch aboard Space Shuttle Discovery's Return to Flight mission STS-114 is lifted up to the Payload Changeout Room. There the payloads will be removed. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Discoverys launch window extends from July 13 through July 31.

  4. KSC-05PD-1459

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, United Space Alliance Flight Crew Systems engineer John Biegert passes a sleep restraint to a technician inside Space Shuttle Discovery for installation, a final step in launch preparations. Launch of Discovery on its Return to Flight mission STS-114 is set for July 13, just days away. During its 12-day mission, Discoverys seven- person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts.

  5. KSC-05PD-1286

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. The payloads that will launch aboard Space Shuttle Discovery's Return to Flight mission STS-114 leave the Operations and Checkout Building at NASAs Kennedy Space Center for a two-hour journey to Launch Pad 39B. Enclosed in a payload canister, the payloads are heading for Launch Pad 39B. There, the canister will be lifted up alongside the Rotating Service Structure to the Payload Changeout Room where the STS-114 payloads will be removed. Discoverys payloads include the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Discoverys launch window extends from July 13 through July 31.

  6. KSC-05PD-1318

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, the payload canister that delivered payloads launching aboard Space Shuttle Discovery's Return to Flight mission STS-114 is lowered from the Payload Changeout Room. The payloads will be installed into Discovery, scheduled to arrive at the pad later today. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Discoverys launch window extends from July 13 through July 31.

  7. KSC-05PD-1440

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, STS-114 Commander Eileen Collins (leaning forward) discusses the payloads in Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay with Mission Specialist Wendy Lawrence (right) looking on behind her. The STS-114 crew is conducting a final inspection of their mission payloads before launch. During its 12-day mission, Discoverys seven-person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Launch of Discovery on its Return to Flight mission STS- 114 is set for July 13.

  8. KSC-05PD-0724

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, technician Fred Parisi is attaching the CELA (Cargo Element Lifting Assembly) down rods to the External Stowage Platform -2 (ESP-2) in preparation for lifting the ESP-2 from its transportation container and installing it into the Payload Transportation Canister. At right, above, is Scott Kisner, task leader. The ESP-2 will travel to Launch Pad 39B with its fellow payload elements the Lightweight MPESS Carrier (Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure) and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello in the canister. Once at the pad, the three payloads will be transferred to the payload bay of Discovery for flight. The ESP-2 is carrying replacement parts to the International Space Station. The platform will be deployed and attached to the Stations airlock and used as a permanent spare parts facility. STS-114 is targeted for launch during a window that extends from May 15 through June 3.

  9. KSC-05PD-1320

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, the payload canister that delivered payloads launching aboard Space Shuttle Discovery's Return to Flight mission STS-114 is lowered from the Payload Changeout Room onto a transporter. The payloads will be installed into Discovery, scheduled to arrive at the pad later today. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Discoverys launch window extends from July 13 through July 31.

  10. KSC-05PD-1319

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, the payload canister that delivered payloads launching aboard Space Shuttle Discovery's Return to Flight mission STS-114 is lowered from the Payload Changeout Room. The payloads will be installed into Discovery, scheduled to arrive at the pad later today. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Discoverys launch window extends from July 13 through July 31.

  11. KSC-05PD-1439

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, STS-114 Pilot James Kelly discusses the payloads in Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay with his fellow crew members before launch. The STS-114 crew is conducting a final inspection of their mission payloads before launch. During its 12-day mission, Discoverys seven-person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Launch of Discovery on its Return to Flight mission STS- 114 is set for July 13.

  12. KSC-05PD-1442

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Launch Pad 39B, STS-114 Commander Eileen Collins (right) takes a final look at the payloads in Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay before launch. During its 12- day mission, Discoverys seven-person crew will test new hardware and techniques to improve Shuttle safety, as well as deliver supplies to the International Space Station. Discoverys payloads include the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC), and the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2). Raffaello will deliver supplies to the International Space Station including food, clothing and research equipment. The LMC will carry a replacement Control Moment Gyroscope and a tile repair sample box. The ESP-2 is outfitted with replacement parts. Launch of Discovery on its Return to Flight mission STS-114 is set for July 13.

  13. KSC-05PD-0727

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, the CELA (Cargo Element Lifting Assembly) lowers the External Stowage Platform-2 (ESP-2) into the payload canister. The ESP-2 will travel to Launch Pad 39B with its fellow payload elements the Lightweight MPESS Carrier (Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure) and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello in the canister. Once at the pad, the three payloads will be transferred to the payload bay of Discovery for flight. The ESP-2 is carrying replacement parts to the International Space Station. The platform will be deployed and attached to the Stations airlock and used as a permanent spare parts facility. STS-114 is targeted for launch during a window that extends from May 15 through June 3.

  14. The STS-108 crew look over MPLM during Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The STS-108 crew look into the hatch of the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello. From left are Commander Dominic L. Gorie, Pilot Mark E. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Linda A. Godwin and Daniel M. Tani. The four astronauts are taking part in Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) activities at KSC. The CEIT provides familiarization with the launch vehicle and payload. Mission STS-108 is a Utilization Flight (UF-1), carrying the Expedition Four crew plus Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello to the International Space Station. The Expedition Four crew comprises Yuri Onufriyenko, commander, Russian Aviation and Space Agency, and astronauts Daniel W. Bursch and Carl E. Walz. Endeavour is scheduled to launch Nov. 29 on mission STS-108.

  15. Orion Suit Loop Variable Pressure Regulator Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Michael; Lewis, John F.; Campbell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) integrates the cabin and pressure suits with the core life support systems to provide life support during contingency depressurized cabin operations. To provide the multiple suit pressures between nominal pressurized cabin suited operations, suit leak checks, depressurized cabin suited operations, and elevated suit pressure for denitrification, a variable pressure regulator is needed. This paper documents the development of the suit loop regulator for Orion.

  16. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-08

    hydraulic brake linkage is connected separately to the actuating brakes of the front and rear axles . In case of hermetic-seal failure in one of the...safety. Designers had this in mind when they used polypropylene to fabricate the steering wheel and used a joint to connect the steering wheel shaft...good lubrication of the bearing needles. The casing lever of the front- axle rotary cam has been reinforced. The well-known, multi-purpose GAZ-66

  17. Reverberance of AN Existing Hall in Relation to both Subsequent Reverberation Time and Spl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HASE, S.; TAKATSU, A.; SATO, S.; SAKAI, H.; ANDO, Y.

    2000-04-01

    The reverberance of sound fields was evaluated by psychological tests in a multi-purpose hall with 400 seats. Both the subsequent reverberation time (Tsub) and sound pressure level (SPL) were changed, and the scale values of reverberance for both the music and speech signals were obtained by using the paired comparison method. This study found that Tsuband SPL have an independent influence on the scale value of reverberance. The reverberance increases when both Tsuband SPL are increased.

  18. A New Generation of Magneto-Rheological Fluid Dampers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    suspension systems [20]. Many of the studies on semi-active suspension systems consider dampers using electro-hydraulic valves but recently magneto...HMMWV prove that the power absorbed by the driver is reduced up to 70% [21]. MRF dampers do not need any movable valve to change a force characteristic...external magnetic field to valves . Recently, an MRF damper for a High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) has been developed at the

  19. 75 FR 77659 - Notice of Realty Action; Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification for Conveyance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has examined and found suitable for classification for conveyance to San Juan County, under the provisions of the Recreation and Public Purposes (R&PP) Act, as amended, a 2.5 acre parcel of public land in San Juan County, Utah. San Juan County proposes to maintain a multi-purpose municipal building in Mexican Hat, Utah, to include fire and emergency services......

  20. Negotiating Peace with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in the Southern Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    there are also success stories like the ELAP-USAID seaweed farming project in Sulu, the multi-purpose cooperative, and the SPCPD-UN-NEDA Livelihood... cultivating a culture of peace in the region gives a bright hope to the peace process. The Mindanaw Peace Weavers, a coalition of about eight civil...property rights are obstacles to retaking the lands from registered owners who cleared, cultivated , and nurtured the land for decades. Instead, an

  1. Ames Infusion Stories for NASA Annual Technology Report: Development of an Ablative 3D Quartz / Cyanate Ester Composite Multi-Functional Material for the Orion Spacecraft Compression Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brandon; Jan, Darrell Leslie; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles re-entering Earth's atmosphere require protection from the heat of atmospheric friction. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) has more demanding thermal protection system (TPS) requirements than the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions, especially in regions where the structural load passes through. The use of 2-dimensional laminate materials along with a metal insert, used in EFT1 flight test for the compression pad region, are deemed adequate but cannot be extended for Lunar return missions.

  2. Orion Flight Test Architecture Benefits of MBSE Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Don; Simpson, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) is an unmanned first orbital flight test of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Mission s purpose is to: Test Orion s ascent, on-orbit and entry capabilities Monitor critical activities Provide ground control in support of contingency scenarios Requires development of a large scale end-to-end information system network architecture To effectively communicate the scope of the end-to-end system a model-based system engineering approach was chosen.

  3. Prostate Dose Escalation by Innovative Inverse Planning-Driven IMRT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    cases. In Fig. 3 we show the results of a digital phantom experiment, in which an image (1a) is intentionally deformed into two dramatically different...CBCT scanning (Appendix 13). To assure the functionality of the system we have also developed an image phantom and software tool for the onboard...Mao W, Xing L, Design of Multi-Purpose Phantom and Automated Software Analysis Tool for Quality Assurance of Onboard kV/MV Imaging System, Medical

  4. Mussel-inspired plasmonic nanohybrids for light harvesting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minah; Kim, Jong Uk; Lee, Joon Seok; Lee, Byung Il; Shin, Jonghwa; Park, Chan Beum

    2014-07-09

    Core-shell plasmonic nanohybrids are synthesized through a simple solutionbased process utilizing mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA). The multi-purpose PDA not only facilitates plasmonic metal formation, but also serves as a scaffold to incorporate photosensitizers around the metal cores, as well as an adhesive between the nanohybrids and the substrate. The resulting plasmonic assembly exhibits highly enhanced light absorption in photo catalytic systems to augment artificial photosynthesis.

  5. KSC-03PD-0015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-114 Mission Specialist Stephen Robinson checks out equipment in Atlantis that will fly on the STS-114 mission. STS-114 is a utilization and logistics flight (ULF-1) that will carry Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the External Stowage Platform (ESP-2), as well as the Expedition 7 crew, to the International Space Station. Launch is targeted for March 1, 2003..

  6. KSC-03PD-0019

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-114 crew members check out the hardware in Atlantis that will fly on the STS-114 mission. STS- 114 is a utilization and logistics flight (ULF-1) that will carry Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the External Stowage Platform (ESP-2), as well as the Expedition 7 crew, to the International Space Station. Launch is targeted for March 1, 2003.

  7. KSC-03PD-0020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-114 crew members check out the hardware in Atlantis that will fly on the STS-114 mission. STS- 114 is a utilization and logistics flight (ULF-1) that will carry Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the External Stowage Platform (ESP-2), as well as the Expedition 7 crew, to the International Space Station. Launch is targeted for March 1, 2003.

  8. Search for double electron capture on 124Xe with the XMASS-I detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraide, Katsuki; XMASS Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The XMASS project is a multi-purpose experiment using highly-purified liquid xenon scintillator located underground at the Kamioka Observatory in Japan. A search for two-neutrino double electron capture on 124Xe is performed using 165.9 days of data collected with the XMASS-I detector. No significant excess above background was observed and we set a lower limit on the half-life as 4.7 × 1021 years at 90% confidence level.

  9. Compact RF ion source for industrial electrostatic ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2016-02-15

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex is developing a single-ended electrostatic ion accelerator to irradiate gaseous ions, such as hydrogen and nitrogen, on materials for industrial applications. ELV type high voltage power supply has been selected. Because of the limited space, electrical power, and robust operation, a 200 MHz RF ion source has been developed. In this paper, the accelerator system, test stand of the ion source, and its test results are described.

  10. Virtual Environment Training on Mobile Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Modeling, virtual environments and simulation MSAT Multi-purpose supporting arms trainer MTO Message to observer MVC Model-view-controller O&M...V. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT A. BACKGROUND Examining SAT-M through the lens of the model-view-controller ( MVC ) design pattern was the first step in...CFF VEs, primarily ObserverSim. 1. Model-View-Controller MVC assigns the software objects that make up a program “one of three roles: model, view, or

  11. Systems Analysis Applications at the Hydrologic Engineering Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    out at higher flows. In 1978, an existing single- reservoir simulation model was imbedded within a nonlinear programming algorithm to search for optimal...Potential for Increasing the Output of Monongaheta River Basin Existing Hydroelectric Plants TP-119 Multi-Purpose, Multi- Reservoir Simulation on a TP-79...was used to identify disposal sites for dredged material. A nonlinear mathematical programming algorithm was used in conjunction with a reservoir

  12. Simulation of Reservoir Systems with HEC-5 on a Personal Computer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    purpose, Multi- reservoir Simulation on a PC Technical Paper No. 123, Developing and Managing a Comprehensive Reservoir Analysis Model 2 INFIVE ORCOED...Program HEC-5..." and " Reservoir Simulation has begun:" (Figure 10). ’ l i ’ :I’ I , Figure 10. Interactive HEC-5: Main Screen 24 During simulation, an...April 1988. 14. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering Center, "Multi-Purpose, Multi- Reservoir Simulation on a PC ", Technical Paper No

  13. STS-105 MPLM is moved into the PCR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Workers on Launch Pad 39A move the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo out of the payload canister into the payload changeout room. The MPLM is the primary payload on mission STS-105 to the International Space Station. The mission includes a crew changeover on the Space Station. Expedition Three will be traveling on Discovery to replace Expedition Two, who will return to Earth on board Discovery. Launch of STS-105 is scheduled for Aug. 9.

  14. KSC-04PD-2310

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers stand by as the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo is lowered toward the Cargo Element Work Stand that Raffaello recently vacated. The payload canister was a temporary location during the switch. Three MPLMs were built by the Italian Space Agency Donatello, Leonardo and Raffaello to serve as a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system to resupply and return cargo requiring a pressurized environment to the International Space Station.

  15. KSC-05PD-0574

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At NASAs Kennedy Space Center, Russell Romanella (in the foreground), deputy director of ISS and Payload Processing, talks to the 2004 class of astronaut candidates on their tour of the Space Station Processing Facility. In the background is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Donatello. The class of 14 candidates includes three candidates from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency as well as three educator astronauts, who were school teachers chosen from thousands of applicants.

  16. KSC-04PD-2311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers guide the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo as it is lowered toward the Cargo Element Work Stand that Raffaello recently vacated. The payload canister was a temporary location during the switch. Three MPLMs were built by the Italian Space Agency Donatello, Leonardo and Raffaello to serve as a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system to resupply and return cargo requiring a pressurized environment to the International Space Station.

  17. KSC-04PD-2312

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers stand by as the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo settles onto the Cargo Element Work Stand that Raffaello recently vacated. The payload canister was a temporary location during the switch. Three MPLMs were built by the Italian Space Agency Donatello, Leonardo and Raffaello to serve as a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system to resupply and return cargo requiring a pressurized environment to the International Space Station.

  18. The STS-105 crew check out the payload and orbiter during CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- During Crew Equipment Interface Test activities, STS-105 Commander Scott Doc Horowitz checks out the orbiter Discovery in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 2. STS-105 is the 11th mission to the International Space Station. The payload includes the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo, which was built by the Italian Space Agency. Leonardo will be outfitted with 12 racks of experiments and equipment. Discovery is scheduled to launch July 12 from Launch Pad 39A.

  19. SU-E-T-239: Monte Carlo Modelling of SMC Proton Nozzles Using TOPAS

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, K; Kim, J; Shin, J; Han, Y; Ju, S; Hong, C; Kim, D; Kim, H; Shin, E; Ahn, S; Chung, S; Choi, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To expedite and cross-check the commissioning of the proton therapy nozzles at Samsung Medical Center using TOPAS. Methods: We have two different types of nozzles at Samsung Medical Center (SMC), a multi-purpose nozzle and a pencil beam scanning dedicated nozzle. Both nozzles have been modelled in Monte Carlo simulation by using TOPAS based on the vendor-provided geometry. The multi-purpose nozzle is mainly composed of wobbling magnets, scatterers, ridge filters and multi-leaf collimators (MLC). Including patient specific apertures and compensators, all the parts of the nozzle have been implemented in TOPAS following the geometry information from the vendor.The dedicated scanning nozzle has a simpler structure than the multi-purpose nozzle with a vacuum pipe at the down stream of the nozzle.A simple water tank volume has been implemented to measure the dosimetric characteristics of proton beams from the nozzles. Results: We have simulated the two proton beam nozzles at SMC. Two different ridge filters have been tested for the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) generation of wobbling mode in the multi-purpose nozzle. The spot sizes and lateral penumbra in two nozzles have been simulated and analyzed using a double Gaussian model. Using parallel geometry, both the depth dose curve and dose profile have been measured simultaneously. Conclusion: The proton therapy nozzles at SMC have been successfully modelled in Monte Carlo simulation using TOPAS. We will perform a validation with measured base data and then use the MC simulation to interpolate/extrapolate the measured data. We believe it will expedite the commissioning process of the proton therapy nozzles at SMC.

  20. Integrating Operational Energy Implications into System-Level Combat Effects Modeling: Assessing the Combat Effectiveness and Fuel Use of ABCT 2020 and Current ABCT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Combat Effects Modeling Assessing the Combat Effectiveness and Fuel Use of ABCT 2020 and Current ABCT C O R P O R A T I O N Report Documentation...Assessing the Combat Effectiveness and Fuel Use of ABCT 2020 and Current ABCT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ABCT) 2020 : GCV, the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle, the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle, the Paladin Inte- grated Management program vehicle, and the

  1. Ship Production Symposium Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on August 26-28, 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    for Building the Multi-Purpose Mobilization Ship, PD 214, in a Shipyard of the People’s Republic of China H.M. Bunch, Member, Transportation Research...the evalu- ation stage. (2) Improvement of work environment o Working Area Enclosing Mobile Structure IHI has made all the zone out- fitting areas...weather proof (all weather type) by establishing mobile structures over them. o Simplified Scaffolding Units IHI abolished conventional scaffoldings and

  2. Using the Indian National Sample Survey data in public health research.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Anuradha; Singh, Prabal V; Samarth, Amit; Bergkvist, Sofi; Rao, Mala

    2013-01-01

    The National Sample Survey (NSS), instituted in 1950, was the brainchild of Professor Mahalanobis, widely regarded as the father of Indian statistics.1 His ambition was to obtain and quantify comprehensive information on an annual basis on the socio- economic, demographic, agricultural and other profiles of the country, both at the national and state levels. The NSS is a multi- stage, multi-subject and multi-purpose cross-sectional survey, which is conducted annually and covers topics of current interest.

  3. Water Quality Studies: Hartwell Lake 1991 Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    resource development plan for the Savannah River basin. Located between Georgia and South Carolina, Hartwell Lake is a multi-purpose project and one...Environmental Statement for the Operation and Maintenance of Hartwell Lake , Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...release; distribution is unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Hartwell Lake , located between Georgia and South Carolina along the Savannah River

  4. Army Combat Vehicles: Industrial Base Study’s Approach Met Research Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE... Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle BAE BAE Systems, Inc. DOD Department of Defense GDLS General Dynamics Land Systems Contents This is a work of...findings of the Army’s study included: • There is excess capacity in facilities with the ability to machine large, complex metal structures for the

  5. Effect of Self-etching Adhesives on the Bond Strength of Glass-Ionomer Cements

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Panahandeh, Narges; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Zahra Sadat; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Statement of Problem: Adequate bond strength between glass ionomer cements and composite resin is necessary for the success of the sandwich technique. Purpose of Study: This study assessed the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to glass-ionomer cements (GIC) using self-etch adhesives with different pH values. Materials and Methods: One hundred specimens (6×4×2 mm) were made using Fuji II and Fuji II LC GICs and treated with different adhesives as follows: Group 1:Fuji II+ Adper Prompt L-Pop, Group-2: Fuji II+SE bond, Group-3: Fuji II + AdheSE, Group-4:Fuji II+ Protect bond, Group-5: Fuji II + Single bond, Group-6:Fuji II LC+ Adper Prompt LPop, Group-7: Fuji II LC+SE bond, Group-8:Fuji II LC+ AdheSE, Group-9: Fuji II LC+ Protect bond, and Group-10: Fuji II LC+ Single bond. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. A cylinder of Z100 composite resin was placed on each sample and light cured. After 24 hours of water storage (37°C), the specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength tests (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The mean micro-shear bond strength of groups 1–10 was 11.66±1.79, 16.50±1.85, 18.47±1.77, 13.95±1.77, 15.27±1.49, 15.14±0.90, 20.03±1.19, 17.48±3.00, 16.24±1.98 and 16.03±1.49 MPa, respectively. There were significant differences between groups 1 and 7 (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups (P>0.05). Fuji II LC showed higher bond strength than Fuji II (P<0.05). Conclusion: Type of self-etch adhesive had no significant effect on micro-shear bond strength of glass-ionomer to composite resin. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) exhibited higher bond strength than the conventional GIC. PMID:25628698

  6. Assessment of the Shear Bond Strength between Nanofilled Composite Bonded to Glass-ionomer Cement Using Self-etch Adhesive with Different pHs and Total-Etch Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Choobineh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem In the sandwich technique, the undesirable bond between the composite resin and glass-ionomer cement (GIc) is one of the most important factors which lead to the failure of restoration. Total-etch and self-etch adhesives may improve the bond strength based on their pH. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between the nanofilled composite resin and GIc using different adhesives. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 40 specimens (6×6mm) in 4 groups (n=10) were prepared in acrylic mold. Each specimen contained conventional GI ChemFil Superior with a height of 3mm, bonded to Z350 composite resin with a height measured 3mm. In order to bond the composite to the GI, the following adhesives were used, respectively: A: mild Clearfil SE Bond self-etch (pH=2), B: intermediate OptiBond self-etch (pH=1.4), C: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=1), and D: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch (pH=7.2). The shear bond strength was measured by using universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used to analyze the data (p< 0.05). Results The shear bond strength in group A was significantly higher than group B (p= 0.002), C (p< 0.001), and D (p< 0.001). Moreover, the shear bond strength of groups A and B (self-etch) was significantly different from group D (total-etch) (p< 0.001); and C (self-etch) with D (p= 0.024). Conclusion The results of this study showed that applying the mild self-etch adhesive between the composite and the GIc results in stronger shear bond strength compared to intermediate and strong self-etch adhesives. Moreover, the self-etch adhesive increased the shear bond strength between composite resin and GIc more significantly than total-etch adhesive. PMID:26966701

  7. Adhesive bond strengths to enamel and dentin using recommended and extended treatment times.

    PubMed

    Kimmes, Nicole S; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of different enamel and dentin conditioning times on the shear bond strength of a resin composite using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were determined following treatment of flat ground human enamel and dentin surfaces (4000 grit) with 11 adhesive systems: 1) AdheSE One Viva Pen-(ASE), 2) Adper Prompt L-Pop-(PLP), 3) Adper Single Bond Plus-(SBP), 4) Clearfil SE Bond-(CSE), 5) Clearfil S3 Bond-(CS3), 6) OptiBond All-In-One-(OBA), 7) OptiBond Solo Plus-(OBS), 8) Peak SE-(PSE), 9) Xeno IV-(X4), 10) Xeno V-(X5) and 11) XP Bond-(XPB) using recommended treatment times and an extended treatment time of 60 seconds (n = 10/group). Composite (Z100) to enamel and dentin bond strengths (24 hours) were determined using Ultradent fixtures and debonded with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The data were analyzed with a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's LSD post hoc test. The highest shear bond strengths (MPa) to enamel were achieved by the three etch-and-rinse systems at both the recommended treatment time (SBP-40.5 +/- 6.1; XPB-38.7 +/- 3.7; OBS- 35.2 +/- 6.2) and the extended treatment time (SBP-44.5 +/- 8.1; XPB-40.9 +/- 5.7; OBS-35.0 +/- 4.5). Extending the enamel treatment time did not produce a significant change (p > 0.05) in bond strength for the 11 adhesive systems tested. OBS generated the highest (46.2 +/- 7.9) bond strengths to dentin at the recommended treatment time. At the extended treatment time X4 (42.2 +/- 11.7), PSE (42.1 +/- 9.7) and OBS (41.4 +/- 8.0) produced the highest bond strengths to dentin. The bond strength change between recommend and extended treatment times was significant (p < 0.05) for PSE, but the other 10 systems did not exhibit any significant change.

  8. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Bond Strength of a Self-Etch Primer and an Etch and Rinse Adhesive to Surface and Deep Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Salehi, Raha; Feizi, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Composite bond to dentin is crucial in many clinical conditions particularly in deep cavities without enamel margins due to insufficient penetration of adhesive into demineralized dentin. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the shear bond strength (SBS) of a methacrylate-based and a silorane-based composite resin to surface and deep dentin after pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Materials and Method: Eighty extracted human premolars were randomly divided into two groups of flat occlusal dentin with different cuts as A: surface group (sections just below the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and B: deep group (2 mm below DEJ). Each group was randomly assigned to 4 subgroups and their samples were restored with Adper Single bond (ASB) and Filtek Z350 or Silorane system Adhesive (SA) and Filtek P90 composite resins, using a 3×3mm cylindrical plastic mold. following these steps , the subgroups were assigned as SubgroupA1: surface dentin+ Silorane System Primer (SSP)+ Silorane System Bonding (SSB)+ P90; Subgroup A2: surface dentin+ 37% etchant (E37%) + Adper Single Bond (ASB)+ Z350; Subgroup A3: surface dentin+ DMSO+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup A4: surface dentin+ E37%+ DMSO+ ASB+ Z350; Subgroup B1: deep dentin+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup B2: deep dentin+ E37%+ ASB+ Z350; Subgroup B3: deep dentin+ DMSO+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup B4:dentin +E37% +DMSO +ASB +Z350. The specimens were thermocycled at 5± 2/55± 2°C for 1000 cycles and then tested for SBS. Results: Using DMSO as dentin conditioner increased SBS of ASB to deep dentin (p< 0.001) and SBS of SA to surface dentin (p= 0.003) but had no effect on SBS of SA to deep dentin (p= 1.00). Conclusion: The ability of DMSO to increase SBS of ASB to deep dentin provides a basis for improving bonding of this composite resin in deep cavities. PMID:27840836

  9. Kinetics of pulpal temperature rise during light curing of 6 bonding agents from different generations, using light emitting diode and quartz-tungsten-halogen units: An in-vitro simulation

    PubMed Central

    Khaksaran, Najmeh Khatoon; Kashi, Tahereh Jafarzadeh; Rakhshan, Vahid; Zeynolabedin, Zahra Sadat; Bagheri, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Application of bonding agents (BA) into deep cavities and light curing them might increase pulpal temperature and threaten its health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate temperature rise of pulp by light curing six BA using two different light curing units (LCU), through a dent in wall of 0.5 mm. Materials and Methods: This in vitro experiment was carried out on 96 slices of the same number of human third molars (6 BAs × 2 LCUs × 8 specimens in each group). There were 6 groups of BAs: N Bond, G-Bond, OptiBond XTR, Clearfil SE, Adper Single Bond 2 and V Bond. Each group of BA (n = 16) had two subgroups of light emitting diode (LED) and quartz-tungsten-halogen light cure units (n = 8). Each of these 16 specimens were subjected to light emitting for 20 s, once without any BAs (control) and later when a BA was applied to surface of disk. Temperature rises in 140 s were evaluated. Their mean temperature change in first 20 s were calculated and analyzed using two-way repeated-measures and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey (α = 0.05). Furthermore rate of temperature increase was calculated for each material and LCU. Results: Minimum and maximum temperature rises in all subgroups were 1.7 and 2.8°C, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that both of adhesive and LCU types had significant effect on temperature rise after application of adhesives. Tukey post-hoc analysis showed Clearfil SE showed significantly higher temperature rise in comparison with Adper Single bond 2 (P = 0.047) and N Bond (P = 0.038). Temperature rose in a linear fashion during first 30-40 s and after that it was non-linear. Conclusion: 20 s of light curing seems safe for pulpal health (with critical threshold of 5.5°C). However, in longer durations and especially when using LED units, the process should be broken to two sessions. PMID:25878684

  10. Shear bond strength and ultrastructural interface analysis of different adhesive systems to Er:YAG laser-prepared dentin.

    PubMed

    Guven, Yeliz; Aktoren, Oya

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of a microhybrid composite resin bonded with three different adhesive systems to Er:YAG laser- (EL) or bur-prepared dentin surfaces and to analyze the quality and ultrastructure of the adhesive-dentin interfaces by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specimens prepared for SBS test and SEM analysis were randomly assigned to eight groups (G1-G8): G1, EL (Fidelis PlusIII, Fotona) + Clearfil S3 Bond (C3S); G2, EL + AdperSE Plus (SE); G3, EL + laser etch + Adper Single Bond2 (SB2); G4, EL + acid etch + SB2; G5, EL + SB2 (no etching); G6, bur + acid etch + SB2; G7, bur + S3; G8, bur + SE. Laser was used in very short pulse mode at a setting of 200 mJ/20 Hz for dentin preparation and at 80 mJ/10 Hz for dentin etching. Bond strength test: 3.5 × 2.0 mm cylindrical molds were placed onto adhesives and filled with the composites. After 24 h in distilled water, SBS was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. SEM analysis: The dentin-adhesive interfaces were evaluated for the ultrastructure of hybrid layer. Data of SBS (MPa) were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey HSD. ER:YAG laser-prepared dentin has demonstrated significantly more SBS (p < 0.01) for SE when compared to bur-prepared dentin. No significancies (p > 0.05) in SBS have been determined between the total-etch adhesive applied groups with regard to etching types. SEM analysis revealed that hybrid layers obtained in Er:YAG laser-irradiated dentin exhibited more irregular and non-homogeneous pattern than the conventionally prepared dentin. In conclusion, SE Bond demonstrated superior results in Er:YAG laser-ablated dentin compared to bur-prepared dentin.

  11. Optimal Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Generation using Non-linear Programming Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, R.; Jothiprakash, V.

    2012-05-01

    Hydropower generation is one of the vital components of reservoir operation, especially for a large multi-purpose reservoir. Deriving optimal operational rules for such a large multi-purpose reservoir serving various purposes like irrigation, hydropower and flood control are complex, because of the large dimension of the problem and the complexity is more if the hydropower production is not an incidental. Thus optimizing the operations of a reservoir serving various purposes requires a systematic study. In the present study such a large multi-purpose reservoir, namely, Koyna reservoir operations are optimized for maximizing the hydropower production subject to the condition of satisfying the irrigation demands using a non-linear programming model. The hydropower production from the reservoir is analysed for three different dependable inflow conditions, representing wet, normal and dry years. For each dependable inflow conditions, various scenarios have been analyzed based on the constraints on the releases and the results are compared. The annual power production, combined monthly power production from all the powerhouses, end of month storage levels, evaporation losses and surplus are discussed. From different scenarios, it is observed that more hydropower can be generated for various dependable inflow conditions, if the restrictions on releases are slightly relaxed. The study shows that Koyna dam is having potential to generate more hydropower.

  12. Ethanol wet-bonding challenges current anti-degradation strategy.

    PubMed

    Sadek, F T; Braga, R R; Muench, A; Liu, Y; Pashley, D H; Tay, F R

    2010-12-01

    The long-term effectiveness of chlorhexidine as a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor may be compromised when water is incompletely removed during dentin bonding. This study challenged this anti-bond degradation strategy by testing the null hypothesis that wet-bonding with water or ethanol has no effect on the effectiveness of chlorhexidine in preventing hybrid layer degradation over an 18-month period. Acid-etched dentin was bonded under pulpal pressure simulation with Scotchbond MP and Single Bond 2, with water wet-bonding or with a hydrophobic adhesive with ethanol wet-bonding, with or without pre-treatment with chlorhexidine diacetate (CHD). Resin-dentin beams were prepared for bond strength and TEM evaluation after 24 hrs and after aging in artificial saliva for 9 and 18 mos. Bonds made to ethanol-saturated dentin did not change over time with preservation of hybrid layer integrity. Bonds made to CHD pre-treated acid-etched dentin with commercial adhesives with water wet-bonding were preserved after 9 mos but not after 18 mos, with severe hybrid layer degradation. The results led to rejection of the null hypothesis and highlight the concept of biomimetic water replacement from the collagen intrafibrillar compartments as the ultimate goal in extending the longevity of resin-dentin bonds.

  13. Ethanol Wet-bonding Challenges Current Anti-degradation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, F.T.; Braga, R.R.; Muench, A.; Liu, Y.; Pashley, D.H.; Tay, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    The long-term effectiveness of chlorhexidine as a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor may be compromised when water is incompletely removed during dentin bonding. This study challenged this anti-bond degradation strategy by testing the null hypothesis that wet-bonding with water or ethanol has no effect on the effectiveness of chlorhexidine in preventing hybrid layer degradation over an 18-month period. Acid-etched dentin was bonded under pulpal pressure simulation with Scotchbond MP and Single Bond 2, with water wet-bonding or with a hydrophobic adhesive with ethanol wet-bonding, with or without pre-treatment with chlorhexidine diacetate (CHD). Resin-dentin beams were prepared for bond strength and TEM evaluation after 24 hrs and after aging in artificial saliva for 9 and 18 mos. Bonds made to ethanol-saturated dentin did not change over time with preservation of hybrid layer integrity. Bonds made to CHD pre-treated acid-etched dentin with commercial adhesives with water wet-bonding were preserved after 9 mos but not after 18 mos, with severe hybrid layer degradation. The results led to rejection of the null hypothesis and highlight the concept of biomimetic water replacement from the collagen intrafibrillar compartments as the ultimate goal in extending the longevity of resin-dentin bonds. PMID:20940353

  14. Microcomputed Tomography Evaluation of Polymerization Shrinkage of Class I Flowable Resin Composite Restorations.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, C S; Chiu, K-J; Farrokhmanesh, E; Janal, M; Puppin-Rontani, R M; Giannini, M; Bonfante, E A; Coelho, P G; Hirata, R

    The present study aimed to characterize the pattern and volume of polymerization shrinkage of flowable resin composites, including one conventional, two bulk fill, and one self-adhesive. Standardized class I preparations (2.5 mm depth × 4 mm length × 4 mm wide) were performed in 24 caries-free human third molars that were randomly divided in four groups, according to the resin composite and adhesive system used: group 1 = Permaflo + Peak Universal Bond (PP); group 2 = Filtek Bulk Fill + Scotchbond Universal (FS); group 3 = Surefil SDR + XP Bond (SX); and group 4 = Vertise flow self-adhering (VE) (n=6). Each tooth was scanned three times using a microcomputed tomography (μCT) apparatus. The first scan was done after the cavity preparation, the second after cavity filling with the flowable resin composite before curing, and the third after it was cured. The μCT images were imported into three-dimensional rendering software, and volumetric polymerization shrinkage percentage was calculated for each sample. Data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance and post hoc comparisons. No significant difference was observed among PP, FS, and VE. SX bulk fill resin composite presented the lowest values of volumetric shrinkage. Shrinkage was mostly observed along the occlusal surface and part of the pulpal floor. In conclusion, polymerization shrinkage outcomes in a 2.5-mm deep class I cavity were material dependent, although most materials did not differ. The location of shrinkage was mainly at the occlusal surface.

  15. Relationship between mechanical properties and bond durability of short fiber-reinforced resin composite with universal adhesive.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between mechanical properties and bond durability of short fiber-reinforced resin composite with universal adhesive. As controls, micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites were tested. The universal adhesives used were Scotchbond Universal, Adhese Universal, and G-Premio Bond. The fracture toughness and flexural properties of resin composites, and shear bond strength and shear fatigue strength of universal adhesive with resin composite using both total-etch and self-etch modes were determined. In the results, short fiber-reinforced resin composite showed significantly higher fracture toughness than did micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites. The flexural strength and modulus of short fiber-reinforced and nano-hybrid resin composites were significantly lower than were those of micro-hybrid resin composites. Regardless of etching mode, the shear bond strength of universal adhesives with short fiber-reinforced resin composite did not show any significant differences from micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites. The shear fatigue strength of universal adhesives with short fiber-reinforced resin composite and micro-hybrid resin composites were significantly higher than that of nano-hybrid resin composites. The results of this study suggest that the mechanical properties of short fiber-reinforced resin composite improve their bond durability with universal adhesive.

  16. Carbodiimide inactivation of MMPs and effect on dentin bonding.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, A; Apolonio, F M; Saboia, V P A; Santi, S; Angeloni, V; Checchi, V; Curci, R; Di Lenarda, R; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Breschi, L

    2014-03-01

    The use of protein cross-linking agents during bonding procedures has been recently proposed to improve bond durability. This study aimed to use zymography and in situ zymography techniques to evaluate the ability of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) cross-linker to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The hypotheses tested were that: (1) bonding procedures increase dentin gelatinolytic activity and (2) EDC pre-treatment prevents this enzymatic activity. The zymographic assay was performed on protein extracts obtained from dentin powder treated with Optibond FL or Scotchbond 1XT with or without 0.3M EDC pre-treatment. For in situ zymography, adhesive/dentin interfaces were created with the same adhesives applied to acid-etched dentin slabs pre-treated or not with EDC conditioner. Zymograms revealed increased expression of dentin endogenous MMP-2 and -9 after adhesive application, while the use of EDC as a primer inactivated dentin gelatinases. Results of in situ zymograpy showed that hybrid layers of tested adhesives exhibited intense collagenolytic activity, while almost no fluorescence signal was detected when specimens were pre-treated with EDC. The correlative analysis used in this study demonstrated that EDC could contribute to inactivate endogenous dentin MMPs within the hybrid layer created by etch-and-rinse adhesives.

  17. Self-assembled Nano-layering at the Adhesive interface.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Y; Yoshihara, K; Nagaoka, N; Hayakawa, S; Torii, Y; Ogawa, T; Osaka, A; Meerbeek, B Van

    2012-04-01

    According to the 'Adhesion-Decalcification' concept, specific functional monomers within dental adhesives can ionically interact with hydroxyapatite (HAp). Such ionic bonding has been demonstrated for 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) to manifest in the form of self-assembled 'nano-layering'. However, it remained to be explored if such nano-layering also occurs on tooth tissue when commercial MDP-containing adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray; Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE) were applied following common clinical application protocols. We therefore characterized adhesive-dentin interfaces chemically, using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and ultrastructurally, using (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM). Both adhesives revealed nano-layering at the adhesive interface, not only within the hybrid layer but also, particularly for Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray), extending into the adhesive layer. Since such self-assembled nano-layering of two 10-MDP molecules, joined by stable MDP-Ca salt formation, must make the adhesive interface more resistant to biodegradation, it may well explain the documented favorable clinical longevity of bonds produced by 10-MDP-based adhesives.

  18. Initial and long-term bond strengths of one-step self-etch adhesives with silane coupling agent to enamel-dentin-composite in combined situation.

    PubMed

    Mamanee, Teerapong; Takahashi, Masahiro; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of adding silane coupling agent on initial and long-term bond strengths of one-step self-etch adhesives to enamel-dentin-composite in combined situation. Cervical cavities were prepared on extracted molars and filled with Clearfil AP-X. After water-storage for one-week, the filled teeth were sectioned in halves to expose enamel, dentin and composite surfaces and then enamel-dentin-composite surface was totally applied with one of adhesive treatments (Clearfil SE One, Clearfil SE One with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator, Beautibond Multi, Beautibond Multi with Beautibond Multi PR Plus and Scotchbond Universal). After designed period, micro-shear bond strengths (µSBSs) to each substrate were determined. For each period of water-storage, additive silane treatments significantly increased µSBS to composite (p<0.001). On the other hand, they significantly decreased µSBS to dentin (p<0.001), although did not have adverse effect on µSBS to enamel (p>0.05). Moreover, the stability of µSBS was depended on materials and substrates used.

  19. Influence of previous acid etching on bond strength of universal adhesives to enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Zanatta, Rayssa Ferreira; Silva, Tatiane Josefa; Huhtala, Maria Filomena Rocha Lima; Borges, Alessandra Bühler

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acid pretreatment on the bond strength of composite resin bonded to enamel and dentin with 2 different universal self-etching adhesives. The null hypothesis was that the acid treatment performed prior to adhesive application would not significantly change the bond strength to enamel or dentin for either universal adhesive tested. A sample of 112 bovine incisors were selected and embedded in acrylic resin. Half were ground until a flat enamel surface was obtained, and the other half were polished until a 6 × 6-mm area of dentin was exposed, resulting into 2 groups (n = 56). The enamel and dentin groups were divided into 2 subgroups according to the adhesive system applied: Futurabond U or Scotchbond Universal. Each of these subgroups was divided into 2 additional subgroups (n = 14); 1 subgroup received phosphoric acid pretreatment, and 1 subgroup did not. The bond strength was assessed with a microtensile test. Data from enamel and dentin specimens were analyzed separately using 1-way analysis of variance. The acid pretreatment did not significantly change the bond strength of the adhesives tested, either to enamel (P = 0.4161) or to dentin (P = 0.4857). The acid etching pretreatment did not affect the bond strength to dentin and enamel when the tested universal multipurpose adhesive systems were used.

  20. Comparison of shear bond strength of reattached incisor fragment using Er,Cr:YSGG laser etching and conventional acid etching: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gyanendra; Goswami, Mridula; Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this invitro study is to evaluate the shear bond strength of reattached fractured incisor fragments using Er,Cr:YSGG laser and conventional acid etching without additional tooth preparation. Materials and methods: Forty extracted human teeth were divided in two groups of 20 each (Groups A and B). In Group A, fractured surface was treated by an Er, Cr: YSGG laser system (Waterlase MD, Biolase Technology Inc., San Clemente, CA, USA) operating at a wavelength of 2,780 nm and frequency of 20 Hz. In Group B, fractured surface was etched using 37% phosphoric acid (Scotchbond, 3M). In both the groups, further subdivision with 10 sample each was made based on horizontal and oblique fracture. After laser or acid etching, all the samples were reattached using flowable composite resin and light cured. The samples were tested for shear bond strength. Results: Mean shear bond strength for Group A (94.70±39.158) was lower as compared to Group B (121.25±49.937), although the difference was not statistically significant(p value=0.121). Similarly no statistical significant difference was observed amongst the subgroups. (p>0.05) Conclusion: Er,Cr:YSGG laser etching in reattachment of fractured incisor fragment is a good alternative to conventional acid etching. Er,Cr:YSGG showed comparable efficiency in rebonding of fractured teeth fragment as acid etching. PMID:27721563