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Sample records for adrenal endocrine functions

  1. Examining the role of endogenous orexins in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis endocrine function using transient dual orexin receptor antagonism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Michel A; Sciarretta, Carla; Brisbare-Roch, Catherine; Strasser, Daniel S; Studer, Rolf; Jenck, Francois

    2013-04-01

    The orexin neuropeptide system regulates wakefulness and contributes to physiological and behavioral stress responses. Moreover, a role for orexins in modulating hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been proposed. Brain penetrating dual orexin receptor (OXR) antagonists such as almorexant decrease vigilance and have emerged as a novel therapeutic class for the treatment of insomnia. Almorexant was used here as a pharmacological tool to examine the role of endogenous orexin signaling in HPA axis endocrine function under natural conditions. After confirming the expression of prepro-orexin and OXR-1 and OXR-2 mRNA in hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands, the effects of systemic almorexant were investigated on peripheral HPA axis hormone release in the rat under baseline, stress and pharmacological challenge conditions. Almorexant did not alter basal or stress-induced corticosterone release despite affecting wake and sleep stages (detected by radiotelemetric electroencephalography/electromyography) during the stress exposure. Moreover, almorexant did not affect the release of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone at different time points along the diurnal rhythm, nor corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)- and ACTH-stimulated neuroendocrine responses, measured in vivo under stress-free conditions. These results illustrate that dual OXR antagonists, despite modulating stress-induced wakefulness, do not interfere with endocrine HPA axis function in the rat. They converge to suggest that endogenous orexin signaling plays a minor role in stress hormone release under basal conditions and under challenge.

  2. Mechanisms Mediating Environmental Chemical-Induced Endocrine Disruption in the Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to hundreds of man-made chemicals that pollute the environment in addition to multiple therapeutic drug treatments administered throughout life. Some of these chemicals, known as endocrine disruptors (EDs), mimic endogenous signals, thereby altering gene expression, influencing development, and promoting disease. Although EDs are eventually removed from the market or replaced with safer alternatives, new evidence suggests that early-life exposure leaves a fingerprint on the epigenome, which may increase the risk of disease later in life. Epigenetic changes occurring in early life in response to environmental toxicants have been shown to affect behavior, increase cancer risk, and modify the physiology of the cardiovascular system. Thus, exposure to an ED or combination of EDs may represent a first hit to the epigenome. Only limited information is available regarding the effect of ED exposure on adrenal function. The adrenal gland controls the stress response, blood pressure, and electrolyte homeostasis. This endocrine organ therefore has an important role in physiology and is a sensitive target of EDs. We review herein the effect of ED exposure on the adrenal gland with particular focus on in utero exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylehyl) phthalate. We discuss the challenges associated with identifying the mechanism mediating the epigenetic origins of disease and availability of biomarkers that may identify individual or population risks. PMID:25788893

  3. The adrenal glands and their functions.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Deepthi C; Wijesiriwardene, Bandula

    2007-09-01

    The adrenal glands secrete hormones essential for metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, and sodium and glucose homeostasis. Hypo- or hypersecretion of these hormones is life threatening. Understanding the physiological functions of adrenal hormones is a prerequisite to the management of adrenal gland disease.

  4. Functional ectopic adrenal carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jim A; Lee, Maris S; Nicholson, Matthew E; Justin, Robert B

    2014-09-01

    An 11-year-old spayed female pit bull terrier was presented with a 2-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and panting. Serum chemistry, blood and urine analysis, and tests for hyperadrenocorticism suggested an adrenal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound identified a mass caudal to the right kidney. The mass was completely excised and histopathology was consistent with endocrine carcinoma. Three years later there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis.

  5. Computational Model of Adrenal Steroidogenesis to Predict Biochemical Response to Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroids, which have an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, are synthesized primarily in the gonads and adrenal glands through a series of enzyme mediated reactions. The activity of steroidogenic enzymes can be altered by various endocrine disrupters (ED), ...

  6. Endocrine and metabolic emergencies in children: hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment. Importantly, proper diagnosis depends on the collection of blood and urine specimen before nonspecific therapy (intravenous hydration, electrolytes, glucose or calcium injection). At the same time, the taking of precise history and searching for pathognomonic physical findings should be performed. This review was described for fast diagnosis and proper management of hypoglycemic emergencies, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis. PMID:26817004

  7. Practical considerations in the scintigraphic evaluation of endocrine hypertension. The adrenal cortex and medulla.

    PubMed

    Hattner, R S

    1993-09-01

    A nuclear scan maps the distribution of a radiopharmaceutical that is specific for a physiologic property of a targeted tissue. As such, it is not limited by the anatomic changes necessary for CT and MR scans. It is just because of this that maps of specific metabolic precursors of adrenal medullary and cortical hormones offer information crucial to the therapeutic strategy of endocrine hypertension. NP-59 and MIBG scans can specify the nature of abnormalities revealed by anatomic images and because of the ease of surveying the whole body can give transcendent information about lesions remote from the adrenals. In instances when the origin of endocrine hypertension is not forthcoming from CT or MR imaging or when the anatomic and biochemical findings are in conflict, NP-59 or MIBG can almost always provide the answer.

  8. Estimation of the Mechanism of Adrenal Action of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds Using a Computational Model of Adrenal Steroidogenesis in NCI-H295R Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Ryuta; Terasaki, Natsuko; Yamazaki, Makoto; Masutomi, Naoya; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Okamoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal toxicity is one of the major concerns in drug development. To quantitatively understand the effect of endocrine-active compounds on adrenal steroidogenesis and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs, we developed a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma NCI-H295R cells. The model includes cellular proliferation, intracellular cholesterol translocation, diffusional transport of steroids, and metabolic pathways of adrenal steroidogenesis, which serially involve steroidogenic proteins and enzymes such as StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, CYP21A2, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, HSD17B3, and CYP19A1. It was reconstructed in an experimental dynamics of cholesterol and 14 steroids from an in vitro steroidogenesis assay using NCI-H295R cells. Results of dynamic sensitivity analysis suggested that HSD3B2 plays the most important role in the metabolic balance of adrenal steroidogenesis. Based on differential metabolic profiling of 12 steroid hormones and 11 adrenal toxic compounds, we could estimate which steroidogenic enzymes were affected in this mathematical model. In terms of adrenal steroidogenic inhibitors, the predicted action sites were approximately matched to reported target enzymes. Thus, our computer-aided system based on systems biological approach may be useful to understand the mechanism of action of endocrine-active compounds and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:27057163

  9. Adrenal toxicology: a strategy for assessment of functional toxicity to the adrenal cortex and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W; Everett, David J; Springall, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    The adrenal is the most common toxicological target organ in the endocrine system in vivo and yet it is neglected in regulatory endocrine disruption screening and testing. There has been a recent marked increase in interest in adrenal toxicity, but there are no standardised approaches for assessment. Consequently, a strategy is proposed to evaluate adrenocortical toxicity. Human adrenal conditions are reviewed and adrenocortical suppression, known to have been iatrogenically induced leading to Addisonian crisis and death, is identified as the toxicological hazard of most concern. The consequences of inhibition of key steroidogenic enzymes and the possible toxicological modulation of other adrenal conditions are also highlighted. The proposed strategy involves an in vivo rodent adrenal competency test based on ACTH challenge to specifically examine adrenocortical suppression. The H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line is also proposed to identify molecular targets, and is useful for measuring steroids, enzymes or gene expression. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal endocrinology relevant to rodent and human toxicology is reviewed (with an emphasis on multi-endocrine axis effects on the adrenal and also how the adrenal affects a variety of other hormones) and the endocrinology of the H295R cell line is also described. Chemicals known to induce adrenocortical toxicity are reviewed and over 60 examples of compounds and their confirmed steroidogenic targets are presented, with much of this work published very recently using H295R cell systems. In proposing a strategy for adrenocortical toxicity assessment, the outlined techniques will provide hazard assessment data but it will be regulatory agencies that must consider the significance of such data in risk extrapolation models. The cases of etomindate and aminoglutethimide induced adrenal suppression are clearly documented examples of iatrogenic adrenal toxicity in humans. Environmentally, sentinel species, such as

  10. Dynamics for the storage control of a endocrine gland: A model for adrenal epinephrine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, Celia Martins; Neto, Antonio Pires; Motta, Art Adriel E. A.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we are presenting a simple mathematical model to simulate the control dynamics of synthesis, storage and secretion in an endocrine gland. In this, the hormone normally is synthetized from material selected and removed from the blood. In cell, material is processed and the final product, the hormone, can be stored until being released to the blood. The model associates the classical theory enzymatic kinetics to Lotka-Volterra equations. To test the proposed model, we take as an example the regulation of catecholamine synthesis-storage-release in the adrenal medulla.

  11. Anatomical and functional imaging in endocrine hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-01-01

    In endocrine hypertension, hormonal excess results in clinically significant hypertension. The functional imaging (such as radionuclide imaging) complements anatomy-based imaging (such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) to facilitate diagnostic localization of a lesion causing endocrine hypertension. The aim of this review article is to familiarize general radiologists, endocrinologists, and clinicians with various anatomical and functional imaging techniques used in patients with endocrine hypertension. PMID:23087854

  12. Coexistence of Cushing syndrome from functional adrenal adenoma and Addison disease from immune-mediated adrenalitis.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Randall; Jimenez, Rafael E; Farrar, William; Malgor, Ramiro; Kohn, Leonard; Schwartz, Frank L

    2012-06-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented with an incidental adrenal adenoma and physical examination findings that included moderate obesity, a slight cervicothoracic fat pad ("buffalo hump"), increased supraclavicular fat pads, and white abdominal striae. Biochemical workup revealed elevated levels of 24-hour urinary free cortisol but normal serum morning cortisol and suppressed levels of corticotropin, suggestive of adrenal-dependent Cushing syndrome. The resected adrenal gland revealed macronodular cortical hyperplasia with a dominant nodule. Other findings included an absent cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation, presence of serum anti-21-hydroxylase antibodies, and mononuclear cell infiltration--consistent with adrenalitis. The findings represent, to the authors' knowledge, the first known case of a patient with coexistent functional cortisol-secreting macronodular adrenal tumor resulting in Cushing syndrome and immune-mediated adrenalitis resulting in Addison disease.

  13. Serotonin involvement in pituitary-adrenal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Kellar, K. J.; Kent, D.; Gonzales, C.; Berger, P. A.; Barchas, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments clarifying the effects of serotonin (5-HT) in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system are surveyed. Lesion experiments which seek to determine functional maps of serotonergic input to areas involved in regulation are reported. Investigations of the effects of 5-HT levels on the plasma ACTH response to stress and the diurnal variation in basal plasma corticosterone are summarized, and the question of whether serotonergic transmission is involved in the regulation of all aspects of pituitary-adrenal function is considered with attention to the stimulatory and inhibitory action of 5-HT.

  14. Functional zonation of the rat adrenal cortex: the development and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Fumiko

    2014-01-01

    The adrenal cortex of mammals consists of three concentric zones, i.e., the zona glomerulosa (zG), the zona fasciculata (zF), and the zona reticularis (zR), which secrete mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and adrenal androgens, respectively. In 1994, we identified immunohistochemically a new zone between zG and zF of the rat adrenal gland. The zone appeared to be devoid of any significant endocrine functions specific to adrenocortical zones, therefore, we designated the zone as "undifferentiated cell zone (zU)". Further, BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine)-incorporating cells (cells in S-phase) were concentrated at the outer region and the inner region of zU, and these cells proliferated and migrated bidirectionally: toward zG centrifugally and toward zF centripetally. We proposed that cells in and around zU are stem/progenitor cells of the rat adrenal cortex, maintaining functional zonation of the adrenal cortex. The view is consistent with observations reported recently that Sonic hedgehog (Shh), an important factor in embryonic development and adult stem cell maintenance, exists in zU of the rat adrenal gland and the Shh-containing cells seem to migrate bidirectionally.

  15. Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Stefan R.; Allolio, Bruno; Arlt, Wiebke; Barthel, Andreas; Don-Wauchope, Andrew; Hammer, Gary D.; Husebye, Eystein S.; Merke, Deborah P.; Murad, M. Hassan; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Torpy, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This clinical practice guideline addresses the diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency. Participants: The Task Force included a chair, selected by The Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of the Endocrine Society, eight additional clinicians experienced with the disease, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The co-sponsoring associations (European Society of Endocrinology and the American Association for Clinical Chemistry) had participating members. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration in connection with this review. Evidence: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to determine the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Consensus Process: The evidence used to formulate recommendations was derived from two commissioned systematic reviews as well as other published systematic reviews and studies identified by the Task Force. The guideline was reviewed and approved sequentially by the Endocrine Society's Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee and Clinical Affairs Core Committee, members responding to a web posting, and the Endocrine Society Council. At each stage, the Task Force incorporated changes in response to written comments. Conclusions: We recommend diagnostic tests for the exclusion of primary adrenal insufficiency in all patients with indicative clinical symptoms or signs. In particular, we suggest a low diagnostic (and therapeutic) threshold in acutely ill patients, as well as in patients with predisposing factors. This is also recommended for pregnant women with unexplained persistent nausea, fatigue, and hypotension. We recommend a short corticotropin test (250 μg) as the “gold standard” diagnostic tool to establish the diagnosis. If a short corticotropin test is not possible in the first instance, we recommend an initial screening procedure comprising the measurement of morning plasma ACTH

  16. Recovery of Adrenal Function in Patients with Glucocorticoids Induced Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Ha; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic use of glucocorticoids (GC) suppresses function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and often results in secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI). The present study aimed to determine the recovery rate of adrenal function in patients with secondary AI within 1 to 2 years and to assess the factors predictive of adrenal function recovery. Methods This was a retrospective observational study that enrolled patients diagnosed with GC-induced secondary AI between 2007 and 2013. AI was defined by peak serum cortisol levels <18 µg/dL during a standard-dose short synacthen test (SST). A follow-up SST was performed after 1 to 2 years, and responders were defined as those with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated peak serum cortisol levels ≥18 µg/dL. Results Of the total 34 patients diagnosed with GC-induced secondary AI at first, 20 patients (58.8%) recovered normal adrenal function by the time of the follow-up SST (median follow-up period, 16.5 months). Although the baseline serum ACTH and cortisol levels at the first SST did not differ between responders and non-responders, the incremental cortisol response during the first SST was higher in responders than that of non-responders (7.88 vs. 3.56, P<0.01). Additionally, higher cortisol increments during the first SST were an independent predictive factor of the adrenal function recovery (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.46; P<0.05). Conclusion In the present study, adrenal function recovery was achieved frequently in patients with GC-induced secondary AI within 1 to 2 years. Additionally, an incremental cortisol response at the first SST may be an important predictive factor of adrenal function recovery. PMID:26676337

  17. Endocrine system: part 2.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

    2014-06-03

    This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.

  18. Fetal endocrine and metabolic adaptations to hypoxia: the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Newby, Elizabeth A; Myers, Dean A; Ducsay, Charles A

    2015-09-01

    In utero, hypoxia is a significant yet common stress that perturbs homeostasis and can occur due to preeclampsia, preterm labor, maternal smoking, heart or lung disease, obesity, and high altitude. The fetus has the extraordinary capacity to respond to stress during development. This is mediated in part by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and more recently explored changes in perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) in response to hypoxia. Obvious ethical considerations limit studies of the human fetus, and fetal studies in the rodent model are limited due to size considerations and major differences in developmental landmarks. The sheep is a common model that has been used extensively to study the effects of both acute and chronic hypoxia on fetal development. In response to high-altitude-induced, moderate long-term hypoxia (LTH), both the HPA axis and PAT adapt to preserve normal fetal growth and development while allowing for responses to acute stress. Although these adaptations appear beneficial during fetal development, they may become deleterious postnatally and into adulthood. The goal of this review is to examine the role of the HPA axis in the convergence of endocrine and metabolic adaptive responses to hypoxia in the fetus.

  19. Fetal endocrine and metabolic adaptations to hypoxia: the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    PubMed Central

    Newby, Elizabeth A.; Myers, Dean A.

    2015-01-01

    In utero, hypoxia is a significant yet common stress that perturbs homeostasis and can occur due to preeclampsia, preterm labor, maternal smoking, heart or lung disease, obesity, and high altitude. The fetus has the extraordinary capacity to respond to stress during development. This is mediated in part by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and more recently explored changes in perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) in response to hypoxia. Obvious ethical considerations limit studies of the human fetus, and fetal studies in the rodent model are limited due to size considerations and major differences in developmental landmarks. The sheep is a common model that has been used extensively to study the effects of both acute and chronic hypoxia on fetal development. In response to high-altitude-induced, moderate long-term hypoxia (LTH), both the HPA axis and PAT adapt to preserve normal fetal growth and development while allowing for responses to acute stress. Although these adaptations appear beneficial during fetal development, they may become deleterious postnatally and into adulthood. The goal of this review is to examine the role of the HPA axis in the convergence of endocrine and metabolic adaptive responses to hypoxia in the fetus. PMID:26173460

  20. Non-functioning adrenal adenomas discovered incidentally on computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mitnick, J.S.; Bosniak, M.A.; Megibow, A.J.; Naidich, D.P.

    1983-08-01

    Eighteen patients with unilateral non-metastatic non-functioning adrenal masses were studied with computed tomography (CT). Pathological examination in cases revealed benign adrenal adenomas. The others were followed up with serial CT scans and found to show no change in tumor size over a period of six months to three years. On the basis of these findings, the authors suggest certain criteria of a benign adrenal mass, including (a) diameter less than 5 cm, (b) smooth contour, (c) well-defined margin, and (d) no change in size on follow-up. Serial CT scanning can be used as an alternative to surgery in the management of many of these patients.

  1. Brain serotonin and pituitary-adrenal functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Berger, P.; Barchas, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    It had been concluded by Scapagnini et al. (1971) that brain serotonin (5-HT) was involved in the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of the pituitary-adrenal system but not in the stress response. A study was conducted to investigate these findings further by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-HT levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. In a number of experiments brain 5-HT synthesis was inhibited with parachlorophenylalanine. In other tests it was tried to raise the level of brain 5-HT with precursors.

  2. Adrenal cortical and medullary imaging.

    PubMed

    Freitas, J E

    1995-07-01

    Adrenal disease can be manifested by endocrine dysfunction or anatomic abnormalities detected by cross-sectional imaging modalities. With the advent of newer and more reliable in vitro assays and a better understanding of the spectrum of adrenal pathology, the physician can now adopt a more accurate and cost-effective approach to the diagnosis of adrenal disease. Both functional and anatomic imaging modalities can play an important role in the evaluation of the incidental adrenal mass, the early detection of adrenal metastases, differentiation of the various causes of Cushings's syndrome, selection of patients for potentially curative surgery in primary aldosteronism and adrenal hyperandrogenism, and localization of pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. The usefulness of the adrenal cortical radiopharmaceutical, 131I-6-beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol (NP-59), and the adrenal medullary radiopharmaceuticals, 131I and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), is detailed for these various clinical settings and the role of NP-59 and MIBG is contrasted to that of the cross-sectional modalities, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Incidental adrenal masses are common, but malignancies are few. Imaging studies select those patients who require a further evaluation by biopsy examination or adrenalectomy. In the hyperfunctioning endocrine states, such as Cushing's syndrome, primary aldosteronism, adrenal androgenism, and pheochromocytoma, correlation of biochemical findings with both functional and anatomic imaging is necessary to avoid inappropriate and ineffective surgical intervention, yet not miss an opportunity for curative resection. Lastly, MIBG and MRI are complementary in the detection and staging of neuroblastoma.

  3. Adrenal morpho-functional alterations in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Scaroni, C; Selice, R; Benedini, S; De Menis, E; Arosio, M; Ronchi, C; Gasperi, M; Manetti, L; Arnaldi, G; Polenta, B; Boscaro, M; Albiger, N; Martino, E; Mantero, F

    2008-07-01

    Acromegaly is associated with a greater morbidity and higher incidence of tumors, possibly due to the permissive role of elevated GH and IGF-I levels. In the general population, adrenal masses are frequently discovered (prevalence 1-5%) at computed tomography (CT). We evaluated the prevalence of adrenal lesions in patients with acromegaly. We studied 94 acromegalic patients, 54 females (mean age 55.0+/-16.0 yr) and 40 males (mean age 50+/-14 yr) referred to 5 Endocrinology Units between 2001-2003; 49 had active disease and 45 had been treated with surgery and/or were controlled with medical therapy. Abdominal CT showed adrenal lesions in 27 patients; 9 of them had unilateral masses (10%) with benign features (diameter 0.5-3 cm) and 18 had hyperplasia (14 monolateral and 4 bilateral), with no significant differences between patients with active vs controlled disease, and with no correlation between prevalence of masses and duration of disease, GH and IGF-I levels. Hormone study (urinary free cortisol, catecholamines/metanephrines, upright plasma renin activity and aldosterone, morning plasma ACTH and low-dose dexamethasone suppression test) disclosed no major endocrine alterations. During a 1-yr follow-up, the adrenal masses increased in size in 3 cases and 1 patient also developed subclinical Cushing's syndrome. Adrenal lesions seem more frequent in acromegaly than in the general population, but no single factor (GH/IGF-I levels or disease duration) predicts them. The masses appear to be benign and nonhypersecreting, but a longer follow-up is recommended to disclose any changes in their morphofunctional state.

  4. Composite paraganglioma-ganglioneuroma concomitant with adrenal metastasis of medullary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Mutsushi; Sato, Yoshiyasu; Nomura, Takeo; Sato, Fuminori; Uchino, Shinya; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2017-02-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome with major components of medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and hyperparathyroidism. MEN2B is the most aggressive and rarest of the MEN2 variants. Pheochromocytoma in MEN2 is virtually always located in the adrenal medulla, but MEN2-associated extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas (paraganglioma) are rare. A 59-year-old man who has been diagnosed with MEN2B consulted our hospital for surgical treatment of a 10-mm left adrenal mass and a 30-mm retroperitoneal mass. He had paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure and in urinary metanephrine and vanillylmandelic acid values. Laparoscopic excision of the left adrenal gland and retroperitoneal mass was performed. We experienced an extremely rare case of composite paraganglioma-ganglioneuroma concomitant with adrenal metastasis of medullary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with MEN2B.

  5. Temporal changes of the adrenal endocrine system in a restraint stressed mouse and possibility of postmortem indicators of prolonged psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahito; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Abe, Yuki; Ihama, Yoko; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuji; Ogata, Mamoru

    2014-07-01

    We investigated temporal changes of adrenal endocrine systems through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SA) axis in restraint stressed mice. Restraint stress for 1 day to 3 weeks caused a significant increase in serum levels of ACTH and glucocorticoids accompanied with an increase in adrenal weights, indicating activation of the HPA axis. Reflecting the overproduction of glucocorticoids, adrenal cholesterol content decreased. Moreover, adrenal gene expression involved in cholesterol supply, including scavenger receptor-class B type I, HMG-CoA reductase, and hormone-sensitive lipase, was increased over the same period. After 4 weeks stress, all of these changes returned to control levels. In contrast, adrenal gene expression of chromogranin A, which is cosecreted with catecholamine via the SA axis, was increased with 1 day to 2 weeks of stress, and decreased with 3-4 weeks of stress. Our results suggest that analyses of adrenal endocrine systems based on the combination of several markers examined here would be useful for not only proving prolonged psychological stress experience but also determining its duration.

  6. Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex Function During Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, K. F. A.

    1978-01-01

    A proposal to study the function of the adrenal gland in the rat during stress is presented. In the proposed project, three different phases of experimentation will be undertaken. The first phase includes establishment of the circadian rhythm of both brain amines and glucocoticoids, under normal conditions and under chronic and acute stressful conditions. The second phase includes the study of the pharmacokinetics of glucocorticoid binding under normal and stress conditions. The third phase includes brain uptake and binding under different experimental conditions. In the outlined experiments brain biogenic amines will be evaluated, adrenal functions will be measured and stress effect on those parameters will be studied. It is hoped that this investigation can explain some of the complex relationships between the brain neurotransmitter and adrenal function.

  7. Adrenal Function Status in Patients with Paracoccidioidomycosis after Prolonged Post-Therapy Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Tobón, Angela M.; Agudelo, Carlos A.; Restrepo, Carlos A.; Villa, Carlos A.; Quiceno, William; Estrada, Santiago; Restrepo, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed adrenal function in patients with paracoccididioidomycosis who had been treated to determine a possible connection between high antibody titers and adrenal dysfunction attributable to persistence of the fungus in adrenal gland. Adrenal gland function was studied in 28 previously treated patients, 2 (7.1%) of whom were shown to have adrenal insufficiency and 7 (259%) who showed a below normal response to stimuli by adrenocorticotropic hormone. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was detected in the adrenal gland from one of the patients with adrenal insufficiency. Although the study failed to demonstrate a significant difference between high antibody titers and low cortisol levels, the proportion of adrenal insufficiency detected and the subnormal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone confirmed that adrenal damage is an important sequela of paracoccidioidomycosis. Studies with a larger number of patients should be conducted to confirm the hypothesis of persistence of P. brasiliensis in adrenal gland after therapy. PMID:20595488

  8. Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

  9. The Role of Cholesterol Utilization in a Computational Adrenal Steroidogenesis Model to Improve Predictability of Biochemical Responses to Endocrine Active Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroids, which have an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, are synthesized primarily in the gonads and adrenal glands through a series of enzyme-mediated reactions. The activity of steroidogenic enzymes can be altered by a variety of endocrine active chem...

  10. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

    1997-01-01

    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH.

  11. Localization of functional adrenal tumors by computed tomography and venous sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Doppman, J.L.; Gill, J.R. Jr.; Strott, C.A.; Keiser, H.R.; Brennan, M.F.

    1982-02-01

    Fifty-eight patients with functional lesions of the adrenal glands underwent radiographic evaluation. Twenty-eight patients had primary aldosteronism (Conn syndrome), 20 had Cushing syndrome, and 10 had pheochromocytoma. Computed tomography (CT) correctly identified adrenal tumors in 11 (61%) of 18 patients with aldosteronomas, 6 of 6 patients with benign cortisol-producing adrenal tumors, and 5 (83%) of 6 patients with pheochromocytomas. No false-positive diagnoses were encountered among patients with adrenal adenomas. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia appeared on CT scans as normal or prominent adrenal glands with a normal configuration; however, CT was not able to exclude the presence of small adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling was correct in each case, and reliably distinguished adrenal tumors from hyperplasia. Recurrent pheochromocytomas were the most difficult to loclize on CT due to the surgical changes in the region of the adrenals and the frequent extra-adrenal locations.

  12. Endocrine system: part 1.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  13. Mitochondria and endocrine function of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gómez, Gema

    2012-12-01

    Excess of adipose tissue is accompanied by an increase in the risk of developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other complications. Nevertheless, total or partial absence of fat or its accumulation in other tissues (lipotoxicity) is also associated to these complications. White adipose tissue (WAT) was traditionally considered a metabolically active storage tissue for lipids while brown adipose tissue (BAT) was considered as a thermogenic adipose tissue with higher oxidative capacity. Nowadays, WAT is also considered an endocrine organ that contributes to energy homeostasis. Experimental evidence tends to link the malfunction of adipose mitochondria with the development of obesity and T2D. This review discusses the importance of mitochondrial function in adipocyte biology and the increased evidences of mitochondria dysfunction in these epidemics. New strategies targeting adipocyte mitochondria from WAT and BAT are also discussed as therapies against obesity and its complications in the near future.

  14. Percutaneous and video-assisted ablation of endocrine tumors: liver, adrenal, and thyroid.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lucy B; Berber, Eren

    2011-08-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) relies on cell destruction using heat, which is generated by the vibration of electrons as a result of high-frequency electrical energy. RFA was initially employed for the treatment of arrhythmogenic cardiac lesions. It has since been used to treat solid tumors of various organs, both primary and metastatic. Here we review the manner in which RFA technology delivered through minimally invasive techniques has been applied to endocrine problems and discuss some technical points.

  15. Secretory function of adrenal cortex in chronic alcoholis.

    PubMed

    Feher, I

    1999-01-01

    Three groups of male subjects (healthy subjects, chronic alcoholics with liver cirrhosis and patients with acute viral hepatitis) were included in a 24 hour pattern of excretion of the total and some fractions of 17-ketosteroids (KS), basal concentration of 11-hydroxycorticosteroids (11-OHCS) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in plasma, as well as changes of concentration of the same steroids in plasma 15, 30 and 60 minutes after a single i.m. injection of insulin. In regard to healthy subjects and patients with acute viral hepatitis, chronic alcoholics with liver cirrhosis excrete decreased quantities of total and some fractions of 17-KS. In regard to healthy subjects, decreased excretion of the sum androsterone and etiocholanole was established as well as increased DHEA secretion in patients with acute viral hepatitis. In chronic alcoholics with liver cirrhosis basal concentrations of 11-OHCS in plasma and their increase after insulin administration are the same as in healthy subjects, but values of DHEA concentrations in plasma are decreased. It has been pointed to the possibility of damages of the secretory function of adrenal cortex in chronic alcoholics with liver cirrhosis. On the basis of above mentioned results, there is an assumption that adrenal gland primarily provides normal secretion of C21 steroid and thus, satisfying needs for these steroids, increases secretion of DHEA. Follow up of DHEA urinary secretion may provide insight into basal activity of adrenal cortex, whereas the functional state of the liver must be taken into account when interpreting the results.

  16. Comprehensive characterization of expression patterns of protein 4.1 family members in mouse adrenal gland: implications for functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Congrong; Debnath, Gargi; Baines, Anthony J; Conboy, John G; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2010-10-01

    The members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1N, and 4.1B, are encoded by four genes, all of which undergo complex alternative splicing. It is well established that 4.1R, the prototypical member of the family, serves as an adapter that links the spectrin-actin based cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane in red cells. It is required for mechanical resilience of the membrane, and it ensures the cell surface accumulation of selected membrane proteins. However, the function of 4.1 proteins outside erythrocytes remains under-explored, especially in endocrine tissues. Transcripts of all 4.1 homologs have previously been documented to be abundantly expressed in adrenal gland. In order to begin to decipher the function of 4.1 proteins in adrenal gland, we performed a detailed characterization of the expression pattern of various 4.1 proteins and their cellular localization. We show that 4.1R (~80 and ~135 kDa) splice forms are expressed on the membrane of all cells, while a ~160 kDa 4.1G splice form is distributed in the cytoplasm and the membrane of zona glomerulosa and of medullary cells. Two 4.1N splice forms, ~135 and ~95 kDa, are present in the peri-nuclear region of both zona glomerulosa and medullary cells, while a single ~130 kDa 4.1B splice form, is detected in all layers of adrenal gland in both the cytoplasm and the membrane. The characterization of distinct splice forms of various 4.1 proteins with diverse cellular and sub-cellular localization indicates multiple functions for this family of proteins in endocrine functions of adrenal gland.

  17. Autonomic and endocrine control of cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Richard; Gwathmey, Judith K; Xie, Lai-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The function of the heart is to contract and pump oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. To achieve this goal, a normal human heart must beat regularly and continuously for one’s entire life. Heartbeats originate from the rhythmic pacing discharge from the sinoatrial (SA) node within the heart itself. In the absence of extrinsic neural or hormonal influences, the SA node pacing rate would be about 100 beats per minute. Heart rate and cardiac output, however, must vary in response to the needs of the body’s cells for oxygen and nutrients under varying conditions. In order to respond rapidly to the changing requirements of the body’s tissues, the heart rate and contractility are regulated by the nervous system, hormones, and other factors. Here we review how the cardiovascular system is controlled and influenced by not only a unique intrinsic system, but is also heavily influenced by the autonomic nervous system as well as the endocrine system. PMID:25914789

  18. Refractory hypoglycemia in a patient with functional adrenal cortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Katia Regina; Pereira, Maria Adelaide Albergaria; Lichtenstein, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Adrenacarcinomas are rare, and hypoglycemic syndrome resulting from the secretion of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) by these tumors have been described infrequently. This study describes the case of a young woman with severe persistent hypoglycemia and a large adrenal tumor and discusses the physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypoglycemia. The case is described as a 21-year-old woman who presented with 8 months of general symptoms and, in the preceding 3 months, with episodes of mental confusion and visual blurring secondary to hypoglycemia. A functional assessment of the adrenal cortex revealed ACTH-independent hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenism. Hypoglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, low C-peptide and no ketones were also detected. An evaluation of the GH–IGF axis revealed GH blockade (0.03; reference: up to 4.4 ng/mL), greatly reduced IGF-I levels (9.0 ng/mL; reference: 180–780 ng/mL), slightly reduced IGF-II levels (197 ng/mL; reference: 267–616 ng/mL) and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ratio (21.9; reference: ~3). CT scan revealed a large expansive mass in the right adrenal gland and pulmonary and liver metastases. During hospitalization, the patient experienced frequent difficult-to-control hypoglycemia and hypokalemia episodes. Octreotide was ineffective in controlling hypoglycemia. Due to unresectability, chemotherapy was tried, but after 3 months, the patient’s condition worsened and progressed to death. In conclusion, our patient presented with a functional adrenal cortical carcinoma, with hyperandrogenism associated with hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia and blockage of the GH–IGF-I axis. Patient’s data suggested a diagnosis of hypoglycemia induced by an IGF-II or a large IGF-II-producing tumor (low levels of GH, greatly decreased IGF-I, slightly decreased IGF-II and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ratio). Learning points: Hypoglycemyndrome resulting from the secretion of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) by adrenal tumors is a

  19. Executive functioning in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Agoston, A Monica; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria Teresa; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Vanderburg, Nancy; Sarafoglou, Kyriakie

    2017-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a disorder characterized by impaired cortisol synthesis leading to excessive production of adrenal androgens. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to excess androgens may increase neural vulnerability to insult and affect cognitive functions, particularly dopamine-dependent neural circuits responsible for executive functioning (EF). Our study aimed to investigate relationship between more pronounced androgen exposure and EF-related behaviors in children with CAH, as well as sex differences in these associations. Parents of patients with CAH (n=41, boys=17, girls=24; age: M=8.41, SD=4.43) completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), a measure assessing behavioral manifestations of EF. Assessments of bone age advancement, a proxy of cumulative androgen exposure, were analyzed. Advanced bone age predicted more inhibition difficulties in boys but not in girls, and more difficulties in all other BRIEF domains in the total sample. Excessive androgen production affected EF such that more advanced bone age led to more EF-related difficulties. Sex differences in inhibition may result from estrogen exposure moderating the impact of androgens in girls but not in boys. Future interventions may include targeting EF in patients with CAH to enhance quality of life and reduce cognitive consequences associated with this disease.

  20. (/sup 131/I) iodocholesterol scintiscan and a rare functional black adenoma of the adrenal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.M.; Lieberman, L.M.; Gould, H.R.; Hafez, G.R.

    1983-06-01

    A rare functional black adenoma (FBA) of the adrenal cortex was found to be the cause of hypertension and cushingoid features in a 34-yr-old white female., Preoperative studies included (/sup 131/I)iodocholesterol scanning (ICS) of the adrenal glands, which demonstrated the increased release of cortisol from the affected adrenal gland, with the failure of the opposite adrenal gland to record. This is evidence that cortisol was suppressing adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) output by the pituitary gland. This case documents the clinical utility of functional imaging techniques in this clinical setting.

  1. Ferrocene Functionalized Endocrine Modulators as Anticancer Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillard, Elizabeth A.; Vessières, Anne; Jaouen, Gerard

    We present here some of our studies on the synthesis and behaviour of ferrocenyl selective endocrine receptor modulators against cancer cells, particularly breast and prostate cancers. The proliferative/anti-proliferative effects of compounds based on steroidal and non-steroidal endocrine modulators have been extensively explored in vitro. Structure-activity relationship studies of such molecules, particularly the hydroxyferrocifens and ferrocene phenols, have shown the effect of (1) the presence and the length of the N,N-dimethylamino side chain, (2) the presence and position of the phenol group, (3) the role of the ferrocenyl moiety, (4) that of conjugation, (5) phenyl functionalisation and (6) the placement of the phenyl group. Compounds possessing a ferrocene moiety linked to a p-phenol by a conjugated π-system are among the most potent of the series, with IC50 values ranging from 0.090 to 0.6µM on hormone independent breast cancer cells. Based on the SAR data and electrochemical studies, we have proposed an original mechanism to explain the unusual behaviour of these bioorganometallic species and coin the term "kronatropic" to qualify this effect, involving ROS production and bio-oxidation. In addition, the importance of formulation is underlined. We also discuss the behaviour of ferrocenyl androgens and anti-androgens for possible use against prostate cancers. In sum, ferrocene has proven to be a fascinating substituent due to its vast potential for oncology.

  2. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function during perinatal depression.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Phillipe Leff; Flores-Ramos, Mónica; López-Martínez, Margarita; Fuentes, Carlos Cruz; Grajeda, Juan Pablo Reyes

    2015-06-01

    Abnormal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an important pathological finding in pregnant women exhibiting major depressive disorder. They show high levels of cortisol pro-inflammatory cytokines, hypothalamic-pituitary peptide hormones and catecholamines, along with low dehydroepiandrosterone levels in plasma. During pregnancy, the TH2 balance together with the immune system and placental factors play crucial roles in the development of the fetal allograft to full term. These factors, when altered, may generate a persistent dysfunction of the HPA axis that may lead to an overt transfer of cortisol and toxicity to the fetus at the expense of reduced activity of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Epigenetic modifications also may contribute to the dysregulation of the HPA axis. Affective disorders in pregnant women should be taken seriously, and therapies focused on preventing the deleterious effects of stressors should be implemented to promote the welfare of both mother and baby.

  3. Adipose tissue and adrenal glands: novel pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Kargi, Atil Y; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or "adipokines" have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of "cross talk" between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals.

  4. Endocrine disruptors and Leydig cell function.

    PubMed

    Svechnikov, K; Izzo, G; Landreh, L; Weisser, J; Söder, O

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, a large body of information concerning the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on animals and humans has been accumulated. EDCs are of synthetic or natural origin and certain groups are known to disrupt the action of androgens and to impair the development of the male reproductive tract and external genitalia. The present overview describes the effects of the different classes of EDCs, such as pesticides, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, including newly synthesized resveratrol analogs on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. The potential impact of these compounds on androgen production by Leydig cells during fetal development and in the adult age is discussed. In addition, the possible role of EDCs in connection with the increasing frequency of abnormalities in reproductive development in animals and humans is discussed.

  5. Maternal stress alters endocrine function of the feto-placental unit in rats.

    PubMed

    Mairesse, Jérôme; Lesage, Jean; Breton, Christophe; Bréant, Bernadette; Hahn, Tom; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Dickson, Suzanne L; Seckl, Jonathan; Blondeau, Bertrand; Vieau, Didier; Maccari, Stefania; Viltart, Odile

    2007-06-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) can cause early and long-term developmental effects resulting in part from altered maternal and/or fetal glucocorticoid exposure. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of chronic restraint stress during late gestation on feto-placental unit physiology and function in embryonic (E) day 21 male rat fetuses. Chronic stress decreased body weight gain and food intake of the dams and increased their adrenal weight. In the placenta of PS rats, the expression of glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) was decreased, whereas GLUT3 and GLUT4 were slightly increased. Moreover, placental expression and activity of the glucocorticoid "barrier" enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 was strongly reduced. At E21, PS fetuses exhibited decreased body, adrenal pancreas, and testis weights. These alterations were associated with reduced pancreatic beta-cell mass, plasma levels of glucose, growth hormone, and ACTH, whereas corticosterone, insulin, IGF-1, and CBG levels were unaffected. These data emphasize the impact of PS on both fetal growth and endocrine function as well as on placental physiology, suggesting that PS could program processes implied in adult biology and pathophysiology.

  6. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS AS A THREAT TO NEUROLOGICAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disruption is a concept and principle whose origins can be traced to the beginnings of the environmental movement in the 1960s. It began with puzzlement about and the flaring of research on the decline of wildlife, particularly avian species. The proposed causes accented pesticides, especially persistent organochlorines such as DDT. Its scope gradually widened beyond pesticides, and, as endocrine disruption offered an explanation for the wildlife phenomena, it seemed to explain, as well, changes in fertility and disorders of male reproduction such as testicular cancer. Once disturbed gonadal hormone function became the most likely explanation, it provoked other questions. The most challenging arose because of how critical gonadal hormones are to brain function, especially as determinants of brain sexual differentiation. Pursuit of such connections has generated a robust literature embracing a broad swath of chemical classes. How endocrine disrupting chemicals influence the adult and aging brain is a question, so far mostly ignored because of the emphasis on early development, that warrants vigorous investigation. Gonadal hormones are crucial to optimal brain function during maturity and even senescence. They are pivotal to the processes of neurogenesis. They exert protective actions against neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and support smoothly functioning cognitive activities. The limited research conducted so far on endocrine disruptors, aging, and neurogenesis argues that they should be overlooked no longer. PMID:21474148

  7. Endocrine disruptors as a threat to neurological function.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Bernard

    2011-06-15

    Endocrine disruption is a concept and principle whose origins can be traced to the beginnings of the environmental movement in the 1960s. It began with puzzlement about and the flaring of research on the decline of wildlife, particularly avian species. The proposed causes accented pesticides, especially persistent organochlorines such as DDT. Its scope gradually widened beyond pesticides, and, as endocrine disruption offered an explanation for the wildlife phenomena, it seemed to explain, as well, changes in fertility and disorders of male reproduction such as testicular cancer. Once disturbed gonadal hormone function became the most likely explanation, it provoked other questions. The most challenging arose because of how critical gonadal hormones are to brain function, especially as determinants of brain sexual differentiation. Pursuit of such connections has generated a robust literature embracing a broad swath of chemical classes. How endocrine disrupting chemicals influence the adult and aging brain is a question, so far mostly ignored because of the emphasis on early development, that warrants vigorous investigation. Gonadal hormones are crucial to optimal brain function during maturity and even senescence. They are pivotal to the processes of neurogenesis. They exert protective actions against neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and support smoothly functioning cognitive activities. The limited research conducted so far on endocrine disruptors, aging, and neurogenesis argues that they should be overlooked no longer.

  8. Endocrine and exocrine function of the bovine testis. Chapter 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is devoted to the endocrine and exocrine function of the normal bovine male testes. The discussion begins with a historical review of the literature dating back to Aristotle’s (300 BC) initial description of the anatomy of the mammalian testes. The first microscopic examination of the t...

  9. The effects of intra-abdominal hypertension on the secretory function of canine adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian; Fu, XiaoJuan; Chang, MingTao; Zhang, LiangChao; Chen, ZhiQiang; Zhang, LianYang

    2013-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) can damage multiple organ systems, but the explicit impact on the adrenal gland is unclear. To evaluate the effects of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on the secretory function of the adrenal glands, we established canine models of IAH. By comparing morphology; hemodynamics; plasma cortisol, aldosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations; and the expression of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α in adrenal gland tissue from these dogs, we found that hemodynamic instability occurred after IAH and that IAH increased the plasma cortisol, aldosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. Higher IAPs resulted in more significant changes, and the above indicators gradually returned to normal 2 h after decompression. Compared with the sham-operated group, IAH significantly increased IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in adrenal tissue, with larger increases in the presence of higher IAPs. However, the concentrations of these markers remained higher than those in the sham-operated group despite their decrease after 2 h of decompression. Histopathological examination revealed congestion, red blood cell exudation, and neutrophil infiltration in the adrenal glands when IAP was elevated; these conditions became more significant with more severe IAH. These results suggest that the secretion of adrenal hormones and adrenal gland inflammation are positively correlated with IAP and that abdominal decompression effectively corrects adrenal gland function.

  10. Partial adrenalectomy in patients with multiple adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pavlovich, C P; Linehan, W M; Walther, M M

    2001-02-01

    Most adrenal tumors are found incidentally and appear as small solitary nodules on abdominal imaging. Occasionally, work-up demonstrates multifocal or bilateral adrenal tumors. Certain patients are predisposed to multiple lesions, such as those with hereditary forms of pheochromocytoma as seen in von Hippel-Lindau disease, multiple endocrine neoplasia type II, and von Recklinghausen's disease. Partial rather than total adrenalectomy should be considered for these patients in an attempt to preserve endogenous adrenocortical function. Partial adrenalectomy has also been used to resect other types of adrenal tumors, especially in patients with a solitary adrenal gland. A discussion of the indications for partial adrenalectomy and of the surgical technique follows.

  11. Effect of Space Flight on Adrenal Medullary Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelkes, Peter I.

    1999-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity conditions during space flight alter the expression and specific activities of the adrenal medullary CA synthesizing enzymes (CASE). Previously, we examined adrenals from six rats flown for six days aboard STS 54 and reported that microgravity induced a decrease in the expression and specific activity of rat adrenal medullary tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme of CA synthesis, without affecting the expression of other CASE. In the past, we analyzed some of the > 300 adrenals from two previous Space Shuttle missions (PARE 03 and SLS 2). The preliminary results (a) attest to the good state of tissue preservation, thus proving the feasibility of subsequent large-scale evaluation, and (b) confirm and extend our previous findings. With this grant we will be able to expeditiously analyze all our specimens and to complete our studies in a timely fashion.

  12. Serotonin and pituitary-adrenal function. [in rat under stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, P. A.; Barchas, J. D.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to evaluate the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stress stimulus in the rat. In the investigation brain serotonin synthesis was inhibited with p-chlorophenylalanine. In other tests the concentration of serotonin was enhanced with precursors such as tryptophan or 5-hydroxytryptophan. On the basis of the results obtained in the study it is speculated that in some disease states there is a defect in serotonergic neuronal processes which impairs pituitary-adrenal feedback mechanisms.

  13. Update: Systemic Diseases and the Cardiovascular System (II). The endocrine system and the heart: a review.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Soo S; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2011-03-01

    Normal endocrine function is essential for cardiovascular health. Disorders of the endocrine system, consisting of hormone hyperfunction and hypofunction, have multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, with respect to the impact of endocrine dysfunction on the cardiovascular system. We also review the cardiovascular benefits of restoring normal endocrine function.

  14. Non-functioning Well Differentiated Endocrine Carcinoma of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The author reports a typical but rare case of non-functioning well differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain. No hormone-related symptoms were recognized. He has no familiar history of pancreatic neoplasms. Various imaging modalities including US, CT and MRI revealed a tumor of the pancreatic body. Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy were performed. A solid well demarcated tumor was present in the pancreatic body. Peripancreatic lymph nodes showed marked swelling suggestive of metastases. Immunohistyochemically, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and CD56; they were negative for chromogranin, gastrin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. The pathological diagnosis was non-functioning well differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. PMID:27990210

  15. Growth and endocrine function after treatment for medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Brown, I H; Lee, T J; Eden, O B; Bullimore, J A; Savage, D C

    1983-09-01

    Children with medulloblastoma in Bristol are treated surgically and with craniospinal irradiation, and in some cases chemotherapy. Thirteen medium or long term survivors were investigated to determine their growth and endocrine function. Their rate of growth was considerably reduced through the first year of their illness and after spinal irradiation spinal growth was poor. Nine children developed growth hormone deficiency. They were clinically euthyroid but 7 had raised basal thyroid stimulating hormone values. Gonadal function was abnormal in all but the youngest child. The rate of survival is increasing in children with medulloblastoma but this is associated with appreciable endocrine abnormalities. Some of these problems are present shortly after treatment ends but others may develop later and long term surveillance is therefore essential.

  16. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Imrich, R; Rovensky, J; Zlnay, M; Radikova, Z; Macho, L; Vigas, M; Koska, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess basal function and responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis during dynamic testing. Methods: Insulin induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) (Actrapid HM 0.1 IU/kg, as intravenous bolus) was induced in 17 patients and 11 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Concentrations of glucose, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were determined in plasma. Results: Comparable basal cortisol levels were found in the two groups, with a trend to be lower in ankylosing spondylitis. In the ankylosing spondylitis group, there were higher concentrations of IL-6 (mean (SEM): 16.6 (2.8) pg/ml v 1.41 (0.66) pg/ml in controls; p<0.001) and TNFα (8.5 (1.74) pg/ml v 4.08 (0.42) pg/ml in controls; p<0.01). Glucose, insulin, ACTH, DHEAS, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone did not differ significantly from control. The IIH test was carried out successfully in 11 of the 17 patients with ankylosing spondylitis, and the ACTH and cortisol responses were comparable with control. General linear modelling showed a different course of glycaemia (p = 0.041) in the ankylosing spondylitis patients who met the criteria for a successful IIH test compared with the controls. Conclusions: The results suggest there is no difference in basal HPA axis activity and completely preserved responsiveness of the HPA axis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The interpretation of the different course of glycaemia during IIH in ankylosing spondylitis requires further investigation. PMID:15140773

  17. Adrenocortical endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal has been neglected in endocrine disruption regulatory testing strategy. The adrenal is a vital organ, adrenocortical insufficiency is recognised in life threatening "adrenal crises" and Addison's disease, and the consequences of off-target toxicological inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenesis is well recognised in clinical medicine, where drugs such as aminoglutethimide and etomidate killed patients via unrecognised inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenic enzymes (e.g. CYP11B1) along the cortisol and aldosterone pathways. The consequences of adrenocortical dysfunction during early development are also recognised in the congenital salt wasting and adrenogenital syndromes presenting neonatally, yet despite a remit to focus on developmental and reproductive toxicity mechanisms of endocrine disruption by many regulatory agencies (USEPA EDSTAC; REACH) the assessment of adrenocortical function has largely been ignored. Further, every step in the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathway (ACTH receptor, StAR, CYP's 11A1, 17, 21, 11B1, 11B2, and 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Δ4,5 isomerase) is known to be a potential target with multiple examples of chemicals inhibiting these targets. Many of these chemicals have been detected in human and wildlife tissues. This raises the question of whether exposure to low level environmental chemicals may be affecting adrenocortical function. This review examines the omission of adrenocortical testing in the current regulatory frameworks; the characteristics that make the adrenal cortex particularly vulnerable to toxic insult; chemicals and their toxicological targets within the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathways; the typical manifestations of adrenocortical toxicity (e.g. human iatrogenically induced pharmacotoxicological adrenal insufficiency, manifestations in typical mammalian regulatory general toxicology studies, manifestations in wildlife) and models of adrenocortical functional assessment. The utility of the

  18. Adrenal gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Berry, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder. This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated. Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.

  19. Normal adrenal function in an infant following a pregnancy complicated by maternal adrenal cortical carcinoma and mitotane exposure.

    PubMed

    Kojori, Fatemeh; Cronin, Catherine M G; Salamon, Elizabeth; Burym, Craig; Sellers, Elizabeth Ann Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Maternal adrenal cortical carcinoma in pregnancy is rare. We report a case of an infant born to a mother with a history of adrenal cortical carcinoma. The pregnancy was complicated by fetal exposure to mitotane and dexamethasone. Despite the potential teratogenic exposures, there was no evidence of adrenal dysfunction in the infant. Growth and development at 12 months of age are normal and prognosis appears favorable. The long-term impact of fetal exposure to mitotane and glucocorticoid requires further investigation.

  20. [Disorder of adrenal gland function in chronic fatigue syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zarković, Milos; Pavlović, Milorad; Pokrajac-Simeunović, Ana; Cirić, Jasmina; Beleslin, Biljana; Penezić, Zorana; Ognjanović, Sanja; Savić, Slavica; Poluga, Jasmina; Trbojević, Bozo; Drezgić, Milka

    2003-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is defined as constellation of the prolonged fatigue and several somatic symptoms, in the absence of organic or severe psychiatric disease. However, this is an operational definition and conclusive biomedical explanation remains elusive. Similarities between the signs and symptoms of CFS and adrenal insufficiency prompted the research of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) derangement in the pathogenesis of the CFS. Early studies showed mild glucocorticoid deficiency, probably of central origin that was compensated by enhanced adrenal sensitivity to ACTH. Further studies showed reduced ACTH response to vasopressin infusion. The response to CRH was either blunted or unchanged. Cortisol response to insulin induced hypoglycaemia was same as in the control subjects while ACTH response was reported to be same or enhanced. However, results of direct stimulation of the adrenal cortex using ACTH were conflicting. Cortisol and DHEA responses were found to be the same or reduced compared to control subjects. Scott et al found that maximal cortisol increment from baseline is significantly lower in CFS subjects. The same group also found small adrenal glands in some CFS subjects. These varied and inconsistent results could be explained by the heterogeneous study population due to multifactorial causes of the disease and by methodological differences. The aim of our study was to assess cortisol response to low dose (1 microgram) ACTH using previously validated methodology. We compared cortisol response in the CFS subjects with the response in control and in subjects with suppressed HPA axis due to prolonged corticosteroid use. Cortisol responses were analysed in three subject groups: control (C), secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI), and in CFS. The C group consisted of 39 subjects, AI group of 22, and CFS group of nine subjects. Subject data are presented in table 1. Low dose ACTH test was started at 0800 h with the i.v. injection of 1

  1. Functional atrial natriuretic peptide receptor in human adrenal tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Shionoiri, H.; Hirawa, N.; Takasaki, I.; Ishikawa, Y.; Oda, H.; Minamisawa, K.; Sugimoto, K.; Matsukawa, T.; Ueda, S.; Miyajima, E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of synthetic human atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on the release of catecholamines, aldosterone, or cortisol were observed in human adrenal tumors obtained surgically from patients with pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, or Cushing's syndrome, respectively. Each tumor tissue or adjacent normal cortical tissue was sectioned into slices, which were incubated in medium-199 in the presence or absence of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and ANP. The amounts of epinephrine, norepinephrine, aldosterone, or cortisol released into the medium were measured. Existence of ANP receptors on the adrenal tissues was examined by binding assays, affinity labeling, and immunohistochemistry. Release of catecholamines from pheochromocytoma tissues was inhibited by ANP, and the presence of the ANP receptor on pheochromocytoma was further demonstrated by both binding assays and affinity labeling; Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of binding sites for ANP with a Kd of 1.0 nM and a Bmax of 0.4 pmol/mg of protein and the molecular size was estimated as 140 and a 70 kDa under nonreducing and reducing conditions, respectively. The presence of ANP receptors in pheochromocytoma was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. ANP inhibited both basal and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone secretion in the slices of normal cortex, and localization of ANP receptors in zona glomerulosa cells was also demonstrated. However, ANP did not inhibit basal and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone and cortisol secretion in both tissue slices from aldosteronoma and Cushing's adenoma. Consistent with these observations, the absence of ANP receptors in adenoma tissues was determined by binding assays, affinity labeling, and immunohistochemistry.

  2. Evaluating the effects of endocrine disruptors on endocrine function during development.

    PubMed Central

    Bigsby, R; Chapin, R E; Daston, G P; Davis, B J; Gorski, J; Gray, L E; Howdeshell, K L; Zoeller, R T; vom Saal, F S

    1999-01-01

    The major concerns with endocrine disruptors in the environment are based mostly on effects that have been observed on the developing embryo and fetus. The focus of the present manuscript is on disruption of three hormonal systems: estrogens, androgens, and thyroid hormones. These three hormonal systems have been well characterized with regard to their roles in normal development, and their actions during development are known to be perturbed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals. During development, organs are especially sensitive to low concentrations of the sex steroids and thyroid hormones. Changes induced by exposure to these hormones during development are often irreversible, in contrast with the reversible changes induced by transient hormone exposure in the adult. Although it is known that there are differences in embryonic/fetal/neonatal versus adult endocrine responses, minimal experimental information is available to aid in characterizing the risk of endocrine disruptors with regard to a number of issues. Issues discussed here include the hypothesis of greater sensitivity of embryos/fetuses to endocrine disruptors, irreversible consequences of exposure before maturation of homeostatic systems and during periods of genetic imprinting, and quantitative information related to the shape of the dose-response curve for specific developmental phenomena. PMID:10421771

  3. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Parents > Endocrine System A A A ... to help the body function properly. About the Endocrine System The foundations of the endocrine system are the ...

  4. Annexin 1 and the regulation of endocrine function.

    PubMed

    John, Christopher D; Christian, Helen C; Morris, John F; Flower, Roderick J; Solito, Egle; Buckingham, Julia C

    2004-04-01

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) was first identified as a mediator of the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids in the host defence system. Subsequent work revealed that this protein fulfils a wider brief and it is now recognized as an important signalling intermediate in a variety of other systems. Here, we consider the role of ANXA1 in the endocrine system, placing particular emphasis on new insights into the mechanisms and functional significance of the secondary processing of ANXA1, the processes that control the intracellular and transmembrane trafficking of the molecule and the molecular mechanisms of ANXA1 action that have identified a novel role for the protein as a paracrine/juxtacrine mediator of the non-genomic actions of glucocorticoids in the neuroendocrine system.

  5. Anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the adrenal gland in the rat

    PubMed Central

    KIGATA, Tetsuhito; SHIBATA, Hideshi

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal gland is an essential endocrine organ for the stress response. The functions of this organ may be studied by ligation of the adrenal artery or adrenalectomy. However, in prior studies, descriptions of the anatomical variations of the adrenal artery were insufficient and inconsistent. Therefore, anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the adrenal gland were studied in 18 male and 18 female Wistar rats by colored latex injection into the arteries. The vascularization pattern was categorized into 4 types based on the origin of each adrenal artery. The cranial and middle adrenal arteries arose from the caudal phrenic artery in Types 1–3, but the caudal adrenal artery emerged from the caudal phrenic artery in Type 1, from the renal artery in Type 2 and from the abdominal aorta in Type 3. In Type 4, the cranial and middle adrenal arteries stemmed from the cranial phrenic artery, and the caudal adrenal artery arose from the caudal phrenic artery. The number of adrenal arteries varied from 3 to 11 on the left side and from 4 to 12 on the right side, and the total varied from 9 to 20 (predominantly 14) in each individual. There was no sex difference in the vascularization pattern. The results show that more individual variations occur in the adrenal arteries of rats than was previously reported. Such variations should always be considered when experimental treatments of the rat adrenal gland are performed. PMID:27867163

  6. Endocrine Drugs in Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    stresses. common endocrine diseases are diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, nodular goiter , The human adrenal consists of an outer cortex...about 40% goiter or thyroid carcinoma. of patients with primary hypothyroidism. Insulin requirements in diabetics are frequently increased in

  7. Marital Conflict and Endocrine Function: Are Men Really More Physiologically Affected than Women?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessed marital conflict and endocrine function in 90 newlywed couples. Blood samples were examined to provide composite and daytime values for three stress hormones and three related hormones. Data provided a window on endocrine function in couples for whom the day included conflicts. Discusses findings in the context of gender models of marital…

  8. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  9. Endocrine function as a target of perinatal drug effects: methodologic issues.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, C; Ignar, D; Windh, R

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to indicate potential endocrine targets of perinatal drug exposure, to describe the methodologic issues involved in detecting changes in hormone secretion, and to provide examples of several endocrine systems in which exposure to drugs during development significantly impaired normal endocrine development. Finally, we attempted to show that endocrine function is both a target and useful marker for detecting effects of drug of abuse on development that provides the advantages of accurate quantitation and relative response stability across ontogeny.

  10. Adrenal Incidentaloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  11. Differential expression of a stress-modulating gene, BRE, in the adrenal gland, in adrenal neoplasia, and in abnormal adrenal tissues.

    PubMed

    Miao, J; Panesar, N S; Chan, K T; Lai, F M; Xia, N; Wang, Y; Johnson, P J; Chan, J Y

    2001-04-01

    Genes that modulate the action of hormones and cytokines play a critical role in stress response, survival, and in growth and differentiation of cells. Many of these biological response modifiers are responsible for various pathological conditions, including inflammation, infection, cachexia, aging, genetic disorders, and cancer. We have previously identified a new gene, BRE, that is responsive to DNA damage and retinoic acid. Using multiple-tissue dot-blotting and Northern blotting, BRE was recently found to be strongly expressed in adrenal cortex and medulla, in testis, and in pancreas, whereas low expression was found in the thyroid, thymus, small intestine and stomach. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining indicated that BRE was strongly expressed in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex, which synthesizes and secretes the mineralocorticoid hormones. It is also highly expressed in the glial and neuronal cells of the brain and in the round spermatids, Sertoli cells, and Leydig cells of the testis, all of which are associated with steroid hormones and/or TNF synthesis. However, BRE expression was downregulated in human adrenal adenoma and pheochromocytoma, whereas its expression was enhanced in abnormal adrenal tissues of rats chronically treated with nitrate or nitrite. These data, taken together, indicate that the expression of BRE is apparently associated with steroids and/or TNF production and the regulation of endocrine functions. BRE may play an important role in the endocrine and immune system, such as the cytokine-endocrine interaction of the adrenal gland.

  12. Effects of intra-abdominal pressure on adrenal gland function and morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Akkapulu, Nezih; Tirnaksiz, Mehmet Bulent; Kulac, Ibrahim; Tezel, Gaye Guler; Hayran, Mutlu; Dogrul, Ahmet Bulent; Cetinkaya, Erdinc; Yorganci, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome (IAH/ACS) are life-threatening conditions and caused by several clinical status. Although there is insufficient data regarding its effects on adrenal glands. This study aimed to identify whether elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) caused any alteration on the morphology and function of adrenal glands in a rat model. Twenty four Sprague-Dawley male rats were included in the study. Animals were allocated into 4 groups. IAP was elevated to 15 mmHg for one hour and four hours in group 2 and 4. Group 1 and 3 were sham groups. Blood samples were taken for the assessment of plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, and corticosterone levels and adrenalectomies were performed to evaluate apoptosis. Blood adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone levels were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the sham groups. However, there were no significant changes in apoptotic index scores in the study groups as compared to sham groups. These results support that increased IAH leads to discharge of catecholamine and corticosterone from the adrenal glands. Failure to demonstrate similar changes in apoptotic index score may be concluded as apoptosis is not a leading pathway for impairment of adrenal glands during IAH period.

  13. Science review: mechanisms of impaired adrenal function in sepsis and molecular actions of glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Prigent, Hélène; Maxime, Virginie; Annane, Djillali

    2004-08-01

    This review describes current knowledge on the mechanisms that underlie glucocorticoid insufficiency in sepsis and the molecular action of glucocorticoids. In patients with severe sepsis, numerous factors predispose to glucocorticoid insufficiency, including drugs, coagulation disorders and inflammatory mediators. These factors may compromise the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (i.e. secondary adrenal insufficiency) or the adrenal glands (i.e. primary adrenal failure), or may impair glucocorticoid access to target cells (i.e. peripheral tissue resistance). Irreversible anatomical damages to the hypothalamus, pituitary, or adrenal glands rarely occur. Conversely, transient functional impairment in hormone synthesis may be a common complication of severe sepsis. Glucocorticoids interact with a specific cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor, which undergoes conformational changes, sheds heat shock proteins and translocates to the nucleus. Glucocorticoids may also interact with membrane binding sites at the surface of the cells. The molecular action of glucocorticoids results in genomic and nongenomic effects. Direct and indirect transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects related to the cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor account for the genomic effects. Nongenomic effects are probably subsequent to cytosolic interaction between the glucocorticoid receptor and proteins, or to interaction between glucocorticoids and specific membrane binding sites.

  14. Effects of intra-abdominal pressure on adrenal gland function and morphology in rats

    PubMed Central

    Akkapulu, Nezih; Tirnaksiz, Mehmet Bulent; Kulac, Ibrahim; Tezel, Gaye Guler; Hayran, Mutlu; Dogrul, Ahmet Bulent; Cetinkaya, Erdinc; Yorganci, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome (IAH/ACS) are life-threatening conditions and caused by several clinical status. Although there is insufficient data regarding its effects on adrenal glands. This study aimed to identify whether elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) caused any alteration on the morphology and function of adrenal glands in a rat model. Twenty four Sprague-Dawley male rats were included in the study. Animals were allocated into 4 groups. IAP was elevated to 15 mmHg for one hour and four hours in group 2 and 4. Group 1 and 3 were sham groups. Blood samples were taken for the assessment of plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, and corticosterone levels and adrenalectomies were performed to evaluate apoptosis. Blood adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone levels were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the sham groups. However, there were no significant changes in apoptotic index scores in the study groups as compared to sham groups. These results support that increased IAH leads to discharge of catecholamine and corticosterone from the adrenal glands. Failure to demonstrate similar changes in apoptotic index score may be concluded as apoptosis is not a leading pathway for impairment of adrenal glands during IAH period. PMID:26045846

  15. Adrenal function in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bianconi, Simona E; Conley, Sandra K; Keil, Meg F; Sinaii, Ninet; Rother, Kristina I; Porter, Forbes D; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-01-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a multiple malformation syndrome due to mutations of the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene (DHCR7), which leads to a deficiency of cholesterol synthesis and an accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol and related metabolites. The SLOS clinical spectrum ranges from multiple major malformations to a mild phenotype with dysmorphic features, intellectual disability and a specific behavioral presentation. Several cases of SLOS with adrenal insufficiency have been described. We performed ovine corticotropin (oCRH) testing in 35 SLOS patients and 16 age- and gender-matched controls. We reviewed prior ACTH stimulation tests of our SLOS patients (19 of 35 available) and reviewed ACTH stimulation tests from additional 10 other SLOS patients. Results from oCRH testing showed that patients with SLOS had significantly higher ACTH baseline values than healthy controls (24.8 ± 15.3 pg/mL vs. 17.8 ± 7.5 pg/mL, p=0.034). However, no statistically significant differences were noted for peak ACTH values (74.4 ± 35.0 pg/mL vs. 64.0 ± 24.9 pg/mL, p=0.303) and for baseline (14.2 ± 7.8 mcg/dL vs. 14.2 ± 6.3 mcg/dL, p=0.992) and peak cortisol values (28.2 ± 7.9 mcg/dL vs. 24.8 ± 8.1 mcg/dL, p=0.156). The area-under-the-curve (AUC) was not significantly different in SLOS patients compared to controls for both ACTH (250.1 ± 118.7 pg/mL vs. 195.3 ± 96.6 pg/mL, p=0.121) as well as cortisol secretion (83.1 ± 26.1 mcg/dL vs. 77.8 ± 25.9 mcg/dL, p=0.499). ACTH stimulation test was normal in 28 of 29 tests. The individual with the abnormal ACTH stimulation test had a normal oCRH test during the same evaluation. The slightly increased baseline ACTH level seen during oCRH testing may be due to compensated mild adrenocortical insufficiency. However, we were able to show that our cohort affected with SLOS had an adequate stress response and that in mild to moderate cases of SLOS stress steroid coverage should not be required. PMID:21990131

  16. The human adrenal gland proteome defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Julia; Botling, Johan; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Djureinovic, Dijana; Uhlén, Mathias; Pontén, Fredrik

    2016-11-30

    The adrenal gland is a composite endocrine organ with vital functions that include the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. To define the molecular landscape that underlies the specific functions of the adrenal gland, we combined a genome-wide transcriptomics approach based on mRNA sequencing of human tissues with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling on tissue microarrays. Approximately two-thirds of all putative protein coding genes were expressed in the adrenal gland and the analysis identified 253 genes with an elevated pattern of expression in the adrenal gland, with only 37 genes showing a markedly higher expression level (>5-fold) in the adrenal gland compared to 31 other normal human tissue types analyzed. The analyses allowed for an assessment of the relative expression levels for well-known proteins involved in adrenal gland function, but also identified previously poorly characterized proteins in the adrenal cortex, such as FERM domain containing 5 (FRMD5) and protein NOV homolog (NOV). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the adrenal gland transcriptome and proteome, with a comprehensive list of genes with elevated expression in the adrenal gland and spatial information with examples of protein expression patterns for corresponding proteins. These genes and proteins constitute important starting points for an improved understanding of the normal function and pathophysiology of the adrenal glands.

  17. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency: functional consequences of four CYP11B1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Menabò, Soara; Polat, Seher; Baldazzi, Lilia; Kulle, Alexandra E; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Grötzinger, Joachim; Fanelli, Flaminia; Balsamo, Antonio; Riepe, Felix G

    2014-05-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common autosomal recessive inherited endocrine disease. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) is the second most common form of CAH. The aim of the study was to study the functional consequences of three novel and one previously described CYP11B1 gene mutations (p.(Arg143Trp), p.(Ala306Val), p.(Glu310Lys) and p.(Arg332Gln)) detected in patients suffering from classical and non-classical 11β-OHD. Functional analyses were performed by using a HEK293 cell in vitro expression system comparing wild type (WT) with mutant 11β-hydroxylase activity. Mutant proteins were examined in silico to study their effect on the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Two mutations (p.(Ala306Val) and p.(Glu310Lys)) detected in patients with classical 11β-OHD showed a nearly complete loss of 11β-hydroxylase activity. The mutations p.(Arg143Trp) and p.(Arg332Gln) detected in patients with non-classical 11β-OHD showed a partial functional impairment with approximately 8% and 6% of WT activity, respectively. Functional mutation analysis allows the classification of novel CYP11B1 mutations as causes of classical and non-classical 11β-OHD. The detection of patients with non-classical phenotypes underscores the importance to screen patients with a phenotype comparable to non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency for mutations in the CYP11B1 gene in case of a negative analysis of the CYP21A2 gene. As CYP11B1 mutations are most often individual for a family, the in vitro analysis of novel mutations is essential for clinical and genetic counselling.

  18. Neonatal hyperleptinaemia programmes adrenal medullary function in adult rats: effects on cardiovascular parameters.

    PubMed

    Trevenzoli, I H; Valle, M M R; Machado, F B; Garcia, R M G; Passos, M C F; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

    2007-04-15

    Epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between stressful events (nutritional, hormonal or environmental) in early life and development of adult diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular failure. It is known that gestation and lactation are crucial periods for healthy growth in mammals and that the sympathoadrenal system is markedly influenced by environmental conditions during these periods. We previously demonstrated that neonatal hyperleptinaemia in rats programmes higher body weight, higher food intake and hypothalamic leptin resistance in adulthood. Using this model of programming, we investigated adrenal medullary function and effects on cardiovascular parameters in male rats in adulthood. Leptin treatment during the first 10 days of lactation (8 microg 100 g(-1) day(-1), s.c.) resulted in lower body weight (6.5%, P < 0.05), hyperleptinaemia (10-fold, P < 0.05) and higher catecholamine content in adrenal glands (18.5%, P < 0.05) on the last day of treatment. In adulthood (150 days), the rats presented higher body weight (5%, P < 0.05), adrenal catecholamine content (3-fold, P < 0.05), tyrosine hydroxylase expression (35%, P < 0.05) and basal and caffeine-stimulated catecholamine release (53% and 100%, respectively, P < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were also higher in adult rats (7% and 6%, respectively, P < 0.05). Our results show that hyperleptinaemia in early life increases adrenal medullary function in adulthood and that this may alter cardiovascular parameters. Thus, we suggest that imprinting factors which increase leptin and catecholamine levels during the neonatal period could be involved in development of adult chronic diseases.

  19. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  20. Effect of placental factors on growth and function of the human fetal adrenal in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Riopel, L.; Branchaud, C.L.; Goodyer, C.G.; Zweig, M.; Lipowski, L.; Adkar, V.; Lefebvre, Y. )

    1989-11-01

    Conditioned medium from human placental monolayer cultures (PM) had a marked stimulatory effect on proliferation (3H-thymidine uptake) of human fetal zone adrenal cells in primary monolayer culture, even in the absence of serum. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) also significantly stimulated fetal adrenal cell growth. However, the effects of PM differed from those of EGF and FGF in several respects: (1) maximal response to PM was 2-5 times greater; (2) mitogenic effects of EGF and FGF were suppressed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), whereas that of 50% PM was not; (3) PM inhibited ACTH-stimulated steroidogenesis (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol), but EGF and FGF did not. Preliminary characterization studies have indicated that approximately half of the placental growth-promoting activity is heat resistant and sensitive to bacterial proteases, and that 50-60% of the activity is lost after dialysis with membranes having a molecular weight cutoff of 3500. These findings suggest a role for the placenta in the growth and differentiated function of the human fetal adrenal gland.

  1. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  2. Acute and chronic methyl mercury poisoning impairs rat adrenal and testicular function

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, G.V.; Meikle, A.W.

    1980-05-01

    Animals poisoned with methyl mercury (CH/sub 3/Hg) exhibit stress intolerance and decreased sexual activity, which suggest both adrenal and testicular dysfunction. Adrenal and testicular function was studied in male rats after treatment with CH/sub 3/Hg. In animals treated chronically, the adrenal glands were markedly hyperplastic with enlargement of the zona fasciculata. The mean basal serum levels of corticosterone were similar in experimental (17.8 ..mu..g/dl) and control (16.8 ..mu..g/dl) groups. However, with ether stress, experimental animals had a subnormal response, and the mean serum levels of corticosterone increased to only 23.9 ..mu../dl compared to 40.6 ..mu..g/dl in the controls. Exogenous ACTH stimulation produced a mean level of 19.0 ..mu..g/dl in the CH/sub 3/Hg-treated animals and 49.7 ..mu..g/dl in the controls. In vitro studies demonstrated a defect in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. A profound impairment in swimming was partially reversed with glucocorticoid therapy. In animals treated with CH/sub 3/Hg, serum testosterone was lower than normal in the basal state. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation increased the mean serum concentration of testosterone to 23.4 ng/ml in controls, but it was only 4.50 ng/ml in experimental animals. The data indicate that CH/sub 3/Hg poisoning impairs adrenal and testicular steroid hormone secretion, which accounts in part for the diminished stress tolerance and decreased sexual activity observed in CH/sub 3/Hg-intoxicated animals.

  3. Functional Zonation of the Adult Mammalian Adrenal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Gavin P.

    2016-01-01

    The standard model of adrenocortical zonation holds that the three main zones, glomerulosa, fasciculata, and reticularis each have a distinct function, producing mineralocorticoids (in fact just aldosterone), glucocorticoids, and androgens respectively. Moreover, each zone has its specific mechanism of regulation, though ACTH has actions throughout. Finally, the cells of the cortex originate from a stem cell population in the outer cortex or capsule, and migrate centripetally, changing their phenotype as they progress through the zones. Recent progress in understanding the development of the gland and the distribution of steroidogenic enzymes, trophic hormone receptors, and other factors suggests that this model needs refinement. Firstly, proliferation can take place throughout the gland, and although the stem cells are certainly located in the periphery, zonal replenishment can take place within zones. Perhaps more importantly, neither the distribution of enzymes nor receptors suggest that the individual zones are necessarily autonomous in their production of steroid. This is particularly true of the glomerulosa, which does not seem to have the full suite of enzymes required for aldosterone biosynthesis. Nor, in the rat anyway, does it express MC2R to account for the response of aldosterone to ACTH. It is known that in development, recruitment of stem cells is stimulated by signals from within the glomerulosa. Furthermore, throughout the cortex local regulatory factors, including cytokines, catecholamines and the tissue renin-angiotensin system, modify and refine the effects of the systemic trophic factors. In these and other ways it more and more appears that the functions of the gland should be viewed as an integrated whole, greater than the sum of its component parts. PMID:27378832

  4. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in Sjögren's syndrome: mechanisms of neuroendocrine and immune system homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth O; Kostandi, Maria; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M

    2006-11-01

    To date, evidence suggests that rheumatic diseases are associated with hypofunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Sjögren's syndrome (SS), the second most common autoimmune disorder, is characterized by diminished lacrimal and salivary gland secretion. To examine HPA axis activity in SS patients, the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) response to ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (oCRH) was used as a direct measure of corticotrophic function, and the plasma cortisol response to the ACTH released during oCRH stimulation as an indirect measure of adrenal function. Significantly lower basal ACTH and cortisol levels were found in patients with SS and were associated with a blunted pituitary and adrenal response to oCRH compared to normal controls. Fibromyalgia (FM) patients demonstrated elevated evening basal ACTH and cortisol levels and a somewhat exaggerated peak, delta, and net integrated ACTH response to oCRH. A subgroup of SS patients also met the diagnostic criteria for FM and demonstrated a pituitary-adrenal response that was intermediate to SS and FM. These findings suggest not only adrenal axis hypoactivity in SS and FM patients, but also that varying patterns of adrenal and thyroid axes dysfunction may exist in patients with different rheumatic diseases.

  5. Adrenal Mitochondria and Steroidogenesis: From Individual Proteins to Functional Protein Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Midzak, Andrew; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex is critical for physiological function as the central site of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid synthesis. It possesses a great degree of specialized compartmentalization at multiple hierarchical levels, ranging from the tissue down to the molecular levels. In this paper, we discuss this functionalization, beginning with the tissue zonation of the adrenal cortex and how this impacts steroidogenic output. We then discuss the cellular biology of steroidogenesis, placing special emphasis on the mitochondria. Mitochondria are classically known as the “powerhouses of the cell” for their central role in respiratory adenosine triphosphate synthesis, and attention is given to mitochondrial electron transport, in both the context of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial steroid metabolism. Building on work demonstrating functional assembly of large protein complexes in respiration, we further review research demonstrating a role for multimeric protein complexes in mitochondrial cholesterol transport, steroidogenesis, and mitochondria–endoplasmic reticulum contact. We aim to highlight with this review the shift in steroidogenic cell biology from a focus on the actions of individual proteins in isolation to the actions of protein assemblies working together to execute cellular functions. PMID:27524977

  6. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

  7. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Meaney, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments.

  8. Functional and physiological consequences of StAR deficiency: role in lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    King, Steven R; Bhangoo, Amrit; Stocco, Douglas M

    2011-01-01

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein is essential for all hormone-stimulated steroid biosynthesis. Accordingly, its absence gives rise to the most severe form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), lipoid CAH. This life-threatening condition typically manifests itself in the perinatal period. Partial loss-of-function StAR mutations incompletely manifest the condition later in life and are a cause of familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 3. Here, we discuss StAR, its expression pattern and the clinical consequences of the loss of its activity.

  9. Functional differences between the outer and inner zones of the guinea pig adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Strott, C A; Goff, A K; Lyons, C D

    1981-12-01

    The guinea pig adrenal cortex is grossly composed of two regions: an outer, yellow zone and an inner, brown zone. These zones, which represent 33% and 66% of the total adrenocortical volume, respectively, can be separated by blunt dissection. It has been previously reported that specific pregnenolone and pregnenolone sulfate binding proteins are present in the high speed supernatant fraction (cytosol) prepared from the whole adrenal cortex of the guinea pig. However, when cytosol was prepared from the separate outer and inner cortical zones, it was found that the steroid-binding proteins were concentrated in the inner zone. This correlated with the level of pregnenolone which was significantly greater in the cytosol of the inner zone where greater than 50% was found to be bound. In contrast, the concentration of cortisol was 30 times greater in the cytosol of the outer cortical zone and less than 4% was found to be bound. These data suggest that cortisol is produced primarily in the outer cortical zone, a region which comprises only one-third of the total cortical volume. On the other hand, the coexistence of pregnenolone and its binding protein in the inner cortical zone, a region which comprises two-thirds or the greatest cortical volume, indicates a different functional status for this zone. The exact hormonal control of these two vastly different regions (chromatically, morphologically, and functionally) remains to be determined. It is speculated that the inner cortical zone of the adult guinea pig adrenal is the counterpart of the fetal cortex which did not involute.

  10. Functional differences between the outer and inner zones of the guinea pig adrenal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Strott, C.A.; Goff, A.K.; Lyons, C.D.

    1981-12-01

    The guinea pig adrenal cortex is grossly composed of two regions: an outer, yellow zone and an inner, brown zone. These zones, which represent 33% and 66% of the total adrenocortical volume, respectively, can be separated by blunt dissection. It has been previously reported that specific pregnenolone and pregnenolone sulfate binding proteins are present in the high speed supernatant fraction (cytosol) prepared from the whole adrenal cortex of the guinea pig. However, when cytosol was prepared from the separate outer and inner cortical zones, it was found that the steroid-binding proteins were concentrated in the inner zone. This correlated with the level of pregnenolone which was significantly greater in the cytosol of the inner zone where greater than 50% was found to be bound. In contrast, the concentration of cortisol was 30 times greater in the cytosol of the outer cortical zone and less than 4% was found to be bound. These data suggest that cortisol is produced primarily in the outer cortical zone, a region which comprises only one-third of the total cortical volume. On the other hand, the coexistence of pregnenolone and its binding protein in the inner cortical zone, a region which comprises two-thirds or the greatest cortical volume, indicates a different functional status for this zone. The exact hormonal control of these two vastly different regions (chromatically, morphologically, and functionally) remains to be determined. It is speculated that the inner cortical zone of the adult guinea pig adrenal is the counterpart of the fetal cortex which did not involute.

  11. Mutations of the p53 gene in human functional adrenal neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu-Ru Lin; Yau-Jiunn Lee; Juei-Hsiung Tsai

    1994-02-01

    To clarify gene alterations in functional human adrenal tumors, the authors performed molecular analysis for p53 abnormalities in 23 cases with adrenal neoplasms. The immunohistochemical study with anti-p53 monoclonal antibody pAb1801 demonstrated that 10 of 23 (43.5%) cases overexpressed p53 protein in the tumor cells. Using a polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism study, 5 of 6 (83.3%) pheochromocytoma tissues (1 malignant and 5 benign) and 11 of 15 (73.3%) adrenocortical adenomas (2 with Cushing`s syndrome and 13 with primary aldosteronism, all benign) showed an apparent electrophoretic mobility shift between the tumor and its paired adjacent normal adrenal tissue. Such differences were detected in exon 4 (12 cases), exon 5 (2 cases), and exon 7 (3 cases). The types of these mutations in exon 4 were a substitution from threonine (ACC) to isoleucine (ATC) at codon 102 in 5 cases, from glutamine (CAG) to histidine (CAC) at codon 104 in 1 case, from glycine (GGG) to alanine (CGG) at codon 117 in 1 case, from glutamate (GAG) to glutamine (CAG) at codon 68 in 1 case, and single base changes resulting in a premature stop codon at codon 100 in 2 cases. A 2-basepair deletion at codon 175 in exon 5 resulting in a frame shift was identified in 1 case. A single point mutation was identified, resulting in the substitution of glutamine (CAG) for arginine (CGG) at codon 248 of exon 7 in 1 case. A single basepair deletion at codon 249 resulted in a frame shift in 2 cases. There was 1 case with malignant pheochromocytoma that combined a single point mutation in exon 4 and a single base deletion in exon 7. Only 2 of 23 cases showed a loss of a normal allele encoding in the p53 gene. Northern blot analysis with 1.8-kilobase p53 cDNA revealed that p53 mRNA was overexpressed in 6 cases. The results indicate that high frequencies of p53 gene mutation, especially in exon 4, exist in functional adrenal tumors. 39 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Morphological and functional manifestations of rat adrenal-cortex response to sodium bromide administration under hypodynamic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirichek, L. T.; Zholudeva, V. I.

    1979-01-01

    Functional and morphological manifestations of adrenal cortex response to hypodynamia (2-hr immobilization on an operating table) under the influence of bromine preparations were studied. The sodium bromide was administered intraperitoneally in 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses once and repeatedly during ten days. The adrenal gland was evaluated functionally by ascorbic acid and cholesterol content and morphologically by coloring it with hematoxylin-eosin and Sudans for lipid revealing at freezing. Results are displayed in two tables and microphotographs. They are summarized as follows: the bromine weakens the functional state of the adrenal cortex in intact rats, causing changes similar to those under stress. During immobilization combined with preliminary bromine administration, a less pronounced stress reaction is noticeable.

  13. Nitric oxide plays a role in the regulation of adrenal blood flow and adrenocorticomedullary functions in the llama fetus

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Raquel A; Sánchez, Gina; Liberona, Leonel; Sanhueza, Emilia M; Giussani, Dino A; Blanco, Carlos E; Hanson, Mark A; Llanos, Aníbal J

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that nitric oxide plays a key role in the regulation of adrenal blood flow and plasma concentrations of cortisol and catecholamines under basal and hypoxaemic conditions in the llama fetus was tested. At 0.6-0.8 of gestation, 11 llama fetuses were surgically prepared for long-term recording under anaesthesia with vascular and amniotic catheters. Following recovery all fetuses underwent an experimental protocol based on 1 h of normoxaemia, 1 h of hypoxaemia and 1 h of recovery. In nine fetuses, the protocol occurred during fetal i.v. infusion with saline and in five fetuses during fetal i.v. treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME. Adrenal blood flow was determined by the radiolabelled microsphere method during each of the experimental periods during saline infusion and treatment with l-NAME. Treatment with l-NAME during normoxaemia led to a marked fall in adrenal blood flow and a pronounced increase in plasma catecholamine concentrations, but it did not affect plasma ACTH or cortisol levels. In saline-infused fetuses, acute hypoxaemia elicited an increase in adrenal blood flow and in plasma ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations. Treatment with l-NAME did not affect the increase in fetal plasma ACTH, but prevented the increments in adrenal blood flow and in plasma cortisol and adrenaline concentrations during hypoxaemia in the llama fetus. In contrast, l-NAME further enhanced the increase in fetal plasma noradrenaline. These data support the hypothesis that nitric oxide has important roles in the regulation of adrenal blood flow and adrenal corticomedullary functions during normoxaemia and hypoxaemia functions in the late gestation llama fetus. PMID:12356897

  14. Effects of short- and long-duration hypothyroidism on function of the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E O; Kamilaris, T C; Calogero, A E; Konstandi, M; Chrousos, G P

    2013-02-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism on the functional integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were investigated in adult male rats. HPA axis function was examined in vivo in sham-thyroidectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats or in thyroidectomized rats for 7 (short-term hypothyroidism) or 60 (long-term hypothyroidism) days. Peripheral ACTH and corticosterone responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and interleukin (IL)-1α stimulation were used to indirectly assess the hypothalamic CRH neuron. Hypothyroidism resulted in exaggerated ACTH responses to both hypoglycemic stress and IL-1α administration. The adrenal cortex of hypothyroid animals showed a significant reduction in adrenal reserves, as assessed by its response to low-dose ACTH, following suppression of the HPA axis with dexamethasone. Hypothyroid rats were also associated with significant decreases in cerebrospinal fluid corticosterone concentrations and decreased adrenal weights. The findings suggest that experimentally induced hypothyroidism is associated with a mild, yet significant, adrenal insufficiency, which involves abnormalities in all components of the HPA axis.

  15. Development and Function of the Human Fetal Adrenal Cortex: A Key Component in the Feto-Placental Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to unraveling the biophysiology and development of the human fetal adrenal cortex, which is structurally and functionally unique from other species. It plays a pivotal role, mainly through steroidogenesis, in the regulation of intrauterine homeostasis and in fetal development and maturation. The steroidogenic activity is characterized by early transient cortisol biosynthesis, followed by its suppressed synthesis until late gestation, and extensive production of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, precursors of placental estrogen, during most of gestation. The gland rapidly grows through processes including cell proliferation and angiogenesis at the gland periphery, cellular migration, hypertrophy, and apoptosis. Recent studies employing modern technologies such as gene expression profiling and laser capture microdissection have revealed that development and/or function of the fetal adrenal cortex may be regulated by a panoply of molecules, including transcription factors, extracellular matrix components, locally produced growth factors, and placenta-derived CRH, in addition to the primary regulator, fetal pituitary ACTH. The role of the fetal adrenal cortex in human pregnancy and parturition appears highly complex, probably due to redundant and compensatory mechanisms regulating these events. Mounting evidence indicates that actions of hormones operating in the human feto-placental unit are likely mediated by mechanisms including target tissue responsiveness, local metabolism, and bioavailability, rather than changes only in circulating levels. Comprehensive study of such molecular mechanisms and the newly identified factors implicated in adrenal development should help crystallize our understanding of the development and physiology of the human fetal adrenal cortex. PMID:21051591

  16. Attenuated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning predicts accelerated pubertal development in girls 1 year later.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby E; Negriff, Sonya; Susman, Elizabeth J; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-08-01

    Accelerated pubertal development has been linked to adverse early environments and may heighten subsequent mental and physical health risks. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning has been posited as a mechanism whereby stress may affect pubertal development, but the literature lacks prospective tests of this mechanism. The current study assessed 277 youth (M = 10.84 years, SD = 1.14), 138 boys and 139 girls, who reported on their pubertal development and underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for Children at baseline and returned to the laboratory approximately 1 year later (M = 1.12 years, range = 0.59-1.98 years). For girls, lower cortisol area under the curve (with respect to ground) at Time 1 predicted more advanced pubertal development at Time 2, controlling for Time 1 pubertal development. This association persisted after additional covariates including age, body mass index, race, and maltreatment history were introduced, and was driven by adrenal rather than gonadal development. Cortisol was not linked to boys' subsequent pubertal development, and no interaction by gender or by maltreatment appeared. These results suggest that attenuated cortisol, reported in other studies of children exposed to early adversity, may contribute to accelerated pubertal tempo in girls.

  17. The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Sylvia P; Hausman, Dorothy B; Hausman, Gary J

    2010-07-08

    White adipose tissue is a mesenchymal tissue that begins developing in the fetus. Classically known for storing the body's fuel reserves, adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ. As such, the secretions from adipose tissue are known to affect several systems such as the vascular and immune systems and play major roles in metabolism. Numerous studies have shown nutrient or hormonal manipulations can greatly influence adipose tissue development. In addition, the associations between various disease states, such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, and disregulation of adipose tissue seen in epidemiological and intervention studies are great. Evaluation of known adipokines suggests these factors secreted from adipose tissue play roles in several pathologies. As the identification of more adipokines and determination of their role in biological systems, and the interactions between adipocytes and other cells types continues, there is little doubt that we will gain a greater appreciation for a tissue once thought to simply store excess energy.

  18. Standards of ultrasound imaging of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Słapa, Rafał Z; Jakubowski, Wiesław S; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna A

    2015-12-01

    Adrenal glands are paired endocrine glands located over the upper renal poles. Adrenal pathologies have various clinical presentations. They can coexist with the hyperfunction of individual cortical zones or the medulla, insufficiency of the adrenal cortex or retained normal hormonal function. The most common adrenal masses are tumors incidentally detected in imaging examinations (ultrasound, tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), referred to as incidentalomas. They include a range of histopathological entities but cortical adenomas without hormonal hyperfunction are the most common. Each abdominal ultrasound scan of a child or adult should include the assessment of the suprarenal areas. If a previously non-reported, incidental solid focal lesion exceeding 1 cm (incidentaloma) is detected in the suprarenal area, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be conducted to confirm its presence and for differentiation and the tumor functional status should be determined. Ultrasound imaging is also used to monitor adrenal incidentaloma that is not eligible for a surgery. The paper presents recommendations concerning the performance and assessment of ultrasound examinations of the adrenal glands and their pathological lesions. The article includes new ultrasound techniques, such as tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, three-dimensional ultrasound, elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and parametric imaging. The guidelines presented above are consistent with the recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society.

  19. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  20. Genetics Home Reference: primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... produced from the GNAS gene helps stimulate the activity of an enzyme called adenylate cyclase. This enzyme is involved in controlling the production of several hormones that help regulate the activity of certain endocrine glands, including the adrenal glands. ...

  1. Ancient history of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    New, Maria I

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many erudite reports on the history of endocrinology and endocrine disorders, the history of congenital adrenal hyperplasia has not been published. I have tried to review ancient as well as modern history of CAH.

  2. The endocrine system in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Alrefai, Hisham; Allababidi, Hisham; Levy, Shiri; Levy, Joseph

    2002-07-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is complex and not fully understood. However, it emerges as an abnormal metabolic condition associated with a systemic damage to the vascular bed. Cumulative evidence also reveals that the endocrine system is not intact in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is not clear whether the changes observed in the endocrine system represent a primary defect or reflect the effects of the impaired insulin action and abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism on the hormonal milieu. Review of the literature reveals that the function of the entire endocrine system including the functions of hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, the vitamin D system, the gonads, and the endocrine function of the adipose tissue, is impaired. Good metabolic control and insulin treatment may reverse some of these abnormalities. It remains unanswered as to what extent these changes in the endocrine system contribute to the vascular pathologies observed in individuals affected by diabetes mellitus and whether part of the abnormalities observed in the endocrine system reflect a basic cellular defect in the diabetic syndrome.

  3. Bilateral adrenal masses: a single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bandgar, Tushar; Khare, Shruti; Jadhav, Swati; Lila, Anurag; Goroshi, Manjunath; Kasaliwal, Rajeev; Khadilkar, Kranti; Shah, Nalini S

    2016-01-01

    Background Bilateral adrenal masses may have aetiologies like hyperplasia and infiltrative lesions, besides tumours. Hyperplastic and infiltrative lesions may have coexisting hypocortisolism. Bilateral tumours are likely to have hereditary/syndromic associations. The data on clinical profile of bilateral adrenal masses are limited. Aims To analyse clinical, biochemical and radiological features, and management outcomes in patients with bilateral adrenal masses. Methods Retrospective analysis of 70 patients with bilateral adrenal masses presenting to a single tertiary care endocrine centre from western India (2002–2015). Results The most common aetiology was pheochromocytoma (40%), followed by tuberculosis (27.1%), primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) (10%), metastases (5.7%), non-functioning adenomas (4.3%), primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (4.3%), and others (8.6%). Age at presentation was less in patients with pheochromocytoma (33 years) and tuberculosis (41 years) compared with PAL (48 years) and metastases (61 years) (P<0.001). The presenting symptoms for pheochromocytoma were hyperadrenergic spells (54%) and abdominal pain (29%), whereas tuberculosis presented with adrenal insufficiency (AI) (95%). The presenting symptoms for PAL were AI (57%) and abdominal pain (43%), whereas all cases of metastasis had abdominal pain. Mean size of adrenal masses was the largest in lymphoma (5.5cm) followed by pheochromocytoma (4.8cm), metastasis (4cm) and tuberculosis (2.1cm) (P<0.001). Biochemically, most patients with pheochromocytoma (92.8%) had catecholamine excess. Hypocortisolism was common in tuberculosis (100%) and PAL (71.4%) and absent with metastases (P<0.001). Conclusion In evaluation of bilateral adrenal masses, age at presentation, presenting symptoms, lesion size, and biochemical features are helpful in delineating varied underlying aetiologies. PMID:27037294

  4. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Imaging for the diagnosis of malignancy in incidentally discovered adrenal masses: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dinnes, Jacqueline; Bancos, Irina; Ferrante di Ruffano, Lavinia; Chortis, Vasileios; Davenport, Clare; Bayliss, Susan; Sahdev, Anju; Guest, Peter; Fassnacht, Martin; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adrenal masses are incidentally discovered in 5% of CT scans. In 2013/2014, 81 million CT examinations were undertaken in the USA and 5 million in the UK. However, uncertainty remains around the optimal imaging approach for diagnosing malignancy. We aimed to review the evidence on the accuracy of imaging tests for differentiating malignant from benign adrenal masses. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index, and ZETOC (January 1990 to August 2015). We included studies evaluating the accuracy of CT, MRI, or 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET compared with an adequate histological or imaging-based follow-up reference standard. Results We identified 37 studies suitable for inclusion, after screening 5469 references and 525 full-text articles. Studies evaluated the accuracy of CT (n=16), MRI (n=15), and FDG-PET (n=9) and were generally small and at high or unclear risk of bias. Only 19 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. Limited data suggest that CT density >10HU has high sensitivity for detection of adrenal malignancy in participants with no prior indication for adrenal imaging, that is, masses with ≤10HU are unlikely to be malignant. All other estimates of test performance are based on too small numbers. Conclusions Despite their widespread use in routine assessment, there is insufficient evidence for the diagnostic value of individual imaging tests in distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses. Future research is urgently needed and should include prospective test validation studies for imaging and novel diagnostic approaches alongside detailed health economics analysis. PMID:27257145

  5. GATA factors in endocrine neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pihlajoki, Marjut; Färkkilä, Anniina; Soini, Tea; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors are structurally-related zinc finger proteins that recognize the consensus DNA sequence WGATAA (the GATA motif), an essential cis-acting element in the promoters and enhancers of many genes. These transcription factors regulate cell fate specification and differentiation in a wide array of tissues. As demonstrated by genetic analyses of mice and humans, GATA factors play pivotal roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of several endocrine organs including the adrenal cortex, ovary, pancreas, parathyroid, pituitary, and testis. Additionally, GATA factors have been shown to be mutated, overexpressed, or underexpressed in a variety of endocrine tumors (e.g., adrenocortical neoplasms, parathyroid tumors, pituitary adenomas, and sex cord stromal tumors). Emerging evidence suggests that GATA factors play a direct role in the initiation, proliferation, or propagation of certain endocrine tumors via modulation of key developmental signaling pathways implicated in oncogenesis, such as the WNT/β-catenin and TGFβ pathways. Altered expression or function of GATA factors can also affect the metabolism, ploidy, and invasiveness of tumor cells. This article provides an overview of the role of GATA factors in endocrine neoplasms. Relevant animal models are highlighted. PMID:26027919

  6. Trauma and the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma.

  7. Adrenomedullin and endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Letizia, C; Rossi, G; Cerci, S

    2003-12-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a recently discovered potent vasodilatory peptide, originally isolated in extracts of human pheochromocytoma, with activities including maintenance of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis through vasodilatation, diuresis and natriuresis. Human AM consists of 52 amino acids with a 6-member ring structure linked by a disulfide bond and amidated COOH terminal, which belongs to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and amylin. The main sites of AM production are the lungs, vascular tissues (both endothelial and smooth muscle cells), heart, kidney, adrenal glands, pancreatic islets, placenta, anterior pituitary gland and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine system. Intravenous injection of AM increases blood flow predominantly in the tissues with the highest AM expression, suggesting that AM functions primarily as a paracrine/autocrine hormone, but it is also important as circulating hormone. The objective of this review is to analyze the evidence that AM may play a role in some endocrine disorders.

  8. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

  9. Changes of Pain Perception, Autonomic Function, and Endocrine Parameters during Treatment of Anorectic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Karl-Jurgen; Boettger, Silke; Wagner, Gerd; Wilsdorf, Christine; Gerhard, Uwe Jens; Boettger, Michael K.; Blanz, Bernhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The underlying mechanisms of reduced pain perception in anorexia nervosa (AN) are unknown. To gain more insight into the pathology, the authors investigated pain perception, autonomic function, and endocrine parameters before and during successful treatment of adolescent AN patients. Method: Heat pain perception was assessed in 15…

  10. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  11. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  12. A comparison of adrenal gland function in lactating dairy cows with or without ovarian follicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Silvia, William J; McGinnis, Angela S; Hatler, T Ben

    2005-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if adrenal secretion of steroids differed between cows that formed ovarian follicular cysts and normal cycling cows. In experiment 1, lactating Jersey and Holstein cows were diagnosed as having ovarian follicular cysts (follicle diameter >or=20 mm) by rectal palpation. Following diagnosis, ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasonography three times weekly to detect subsequent ovulation (n=8) or new cyst formation (n=9). Venous blood samples were collected daily to quantify circulating concentrations of cortisol and progesterone. The average concentration of cortisol during the 10-day period prior to ovulation was not different from the concentration prior to the formation of a new cyst. In experiment 2, secretion of cortisol and progesterone was examined in cows with ovarian follicular cysts (n=4) and cyclic, control cows in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle (n=4). An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was administered to cystic cows 4-7 days after new cyst formation and to cyclic cows in the follicular phase of the cycle (36 h after induction of luteolysis). Jugular venous blood samples were collected at -60, -30, 0, +10, +20, +30, +60, +90, +120, +180, +240, +300 and +360 minutes relative to ACTH administration. A rapid increase in both cortisol and progesterone was observed immediately following administration of ACTH in each treatment group. Peak concentrations of both steroids were achieved within 60 minutes after administration of ACTH. Concentrations of cortisol and progesterone did not differ between cystic and cyclic cows. In summary, no differences in adrenal function were detected between normal cycling cows and cows with ovarian follicular cysts.

  13. Functional reconstitution of prostaglandin E receptor from bovine adrenal medulla with guanine nucleotide binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Negishi, M.; Ito, S.; Yokohama, H.; Hayashi, H.; Katada, T.; Ui, M.; Hayaishi, O.

    1988-05-15

    Prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PEG/sub 2/) was found to bind specifically to a 100,000 x g pellet prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. The PGE receptor was associated with a GTP-binding protein (G-protein) and could be covalently cross-linked with this G-protein by dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) in the 100,000 x g pellet. In order to characterize the G-protein associated with the PGE receptor and reconstitute these proteins in phospholipid vesicles, the authors purified the G-protein to apparent homogeneity from the 100,000 x g pellet. The G-protein served as a substrate of pertussis toxin but differed in its ..cap alpha.. subunit from two known pertussis toxin substrate G-proteins (G/sub i/ and G/sub 0/) purified from bovine brain. The molecular weight of the ..cap alpha.. subunit was 40,000, which is between those of G/sub i/ and G/sub 0/. The purified protein was also distinguished immunologically from G/sub i/ and G/sub 0/ and was referred to as G/sub am/. Reconstitution of the PGE receptor with pure C/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G/sub 0/ in phospholipid vesicles resulted in a remarkable restoration of (/sup 3/H)PGE/sub 2/ binding activity in a GTP-dependent manner. The efficiency of these three G-proteins in this capacity was roughly equal. When pertussis toxin- or N-ethylmaleimide-treated G-proteins, instead of the native ones, were reconstituted into vesicles, the restoration of binding activity was no longer observed. These results indicate that the PGE receptor can couple functionally with G/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G/sub 0/ in phospholipid vesicles and suggest that G/sub am/ may be involved in signal transduction of the PGE receptor in bovine adrenal medulla.

  14. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Eroschenko, V.P.; Fox, G.A.; Fry, D.M.; Gorsline, J.

    1984-01-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  15. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Rattner, B A; Eroschenko, V P; Fox, G A; Fry, D M; Gorsline, J

    1984-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  16. Percutaneous ablation of adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Aradhana M; Locklin, Julia; Dupuy, Damian E; Wood, Bradford J

    2010-06-01

    Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma, and adrenal metastases. Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation, and chemical ablation. Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland's unique anatomic and physiological features. The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed.

  17. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Falchetti, Alberto; Monte, Francesca Del; Sala, Silvia Carbonell; Gozzini, Alessia; Luzi, Ettore; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2006-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours) within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions) is recommended. PMID:17014705

  18. [Adrenal function in different phases of the estrous cycle in the domesticated silver fox, Vulpes fulvus].

    PubMed

    Bazhan, N M; Lutsenko, N D

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were made on silver foxes from a population which had been selected for 10 to 15 generations for the domestic behaviour and on animals from a control, unselected population. In females from both populations, studies were made of the level of 11-OHCS in the blood serum, in vitro production of 11-OHCS, the size of fascicular zone in the adrenal cortex, the volume of cellular nuclei and nucleoli, as well as the reaction of the adrenals in vitro to 2 doses of ACTH (1 and 5 units/g of the adrenals) during anestrus, proestrus and estrus. In control females, all the characters investigated significantly increased from anestrus to proestrus. In domesticated females, no changes in the production of 11-OHCS in vitro or changes in morphological features of the fascicular zone were observed in the course of estrous cycle. During proestrus, the adrenals of the domesticated animals were not able to increase the production of 11-OHCS in vitro after application of ACTH. The decrease in the reactivity of the adrenals to the effect of ACTH is presumably the main cause why in unselected females the adrenal are not activated during proestrus. Therefore, in the course of selection for the domestication type of behaviour, species specific dynamics of activation of the adrenals during estrous cycle is lost.

  19. Bacterial mimetics of endocrine secretory granules as immobilized in vivo depots for functional protein drugs

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, María Virtudes; Fernández, Yolanda; Unzueta, Ugutz; Mendoza, Rosa; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejando; Álamo, Patricia; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Vázquez, Esther; Schwartz, Simó; Abasolo, Ibane; Corchero, José Luis; Mangues, Ramon; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the human endocrine system many protein hormones including urotensin, glucagon, obestatin, bombesin and secretin, among others, are supplied from amyloidal secretory granules. These granules form part of the so called functional amyloids, which within the whole aggregome appear to be more abundant than formerly believed. Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) are non-toxic, nanostructured functional amyloids whose biological fabrication can be tailored to render materials with defined biophysical properties. Since under physiological conditions they steadily release their building block protein in a soluble and functional form, IBs are considered as mimetics of endocrine secretory granules. We have explored here if the in vivo implantation of functional IBs in a given tissue would represent a stable local source of functional protein. Upon intratumoral injection of bacterial IBs formed by a potent protein ligand of CXCR4 we have observed high stability and prevalence of the material in absence of toxicity, accompanied by apoptosis of CXCR4+ cells and tumor ablation. Then, the local immobilization of bacterial amyloids formed by therapeutic proteins in tumors or other tissues might represent a promising strategy for a sustained local delivery of protein drugs by mimicking the functional amyloidal architecture of the mammals’ endocrine system. PMID:27775083

  20. Bacterial mimetics of endocrine secretory granules as immobilized in vivo depots for functional protein drugs.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, María Virtudes; Fernández, Yolanda; Unzueta, Ugutz; Mendoza, Rosa; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejando; Álamo, Patricia; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Vázquez, Esther; Schwartz, Simó; Abasolo, Ibane; Corchero, José Luis; Mangues, Ramon; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-10-24

    In the human endocrine system many protein hormones including urotensin, glucagon, obestatin, bombesin and secretin, among others, are supplied from amyloidal secretory granules. These granules form part of the so called functional amyloids, which within the whole aggregome appear to be more abundant than formerly believed. Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) are non-toxic, nanostructured functional amyloids whose biological fabrication can be tailored to render materials with defined biophysical properties. Since under physiological conditions they steadily release their building block protein in a soluble and functional form, IBs are considered as mimetics of endocrine secretory granules. We have explored here if the in vivo implantation of functional IBs in a given tissue would represent a stable local source of functional protein. Upon intratumoral injection of bacterial IBs formed by a potent protein ligand of CXCR4 we have observed high stability and prevalence of the material in absence of toxicity, accompanied by apoptosis of CXCR4(+) cells and tumor ablation. Then, the local immobilization of bacterial amyloids formed by therapeutic proteins in tumors or other tissues might represent a promising strategy for a sustained local delivery of protein drugs by mimicking the functional amyloidal architecture of the mammals' endocrine system.

  1. Hypertension and adrenal disorders.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, J D

    1993-03-01

    Abnormalities of adrenal cortical and medullary function are important causes of hypertension in adults. Mineralocorticoid hypertension, characterized by spontaneous hypokalemia with excessive kaliuresis and low plasma renin activity, is most commonly caused by aldosterone-producing adenoma or, less frequently, by nonadenomatous adrenal hyperplasia. However, recent evidence indicates that this classification oversimplifies the pathophysiologic diversity of this syndrome. Advances in steroid biochemistry and molecular biology have improved our ability to identify patients with various forms of mineralocorticoid hypertension and also provide evidence that they are underdiagnosed. Pheochromocytomas are most commonly located in the adrenal medulla, where they may overproduce norepinephrine or epinephrine. Appropriate screening of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and their metabolites is essential because tumors that secrete epinephrine exclusively may not present with hypertension and, thus, can be overlooked. Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas are more prevalent than previously considered and pose special problems because they may be multicentric, difficult to locate, and more likely to be malignant than are adrenal pheochromocytomas.

  2. Adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Auron, Moises; Raissouni, Nouhad

    2015-03-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a life-threatening condition that occurs secondary to impaired secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. This condition can be caused by primary destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal glands or impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In children, the most common causes of primary adrenal insufficiency are impaired adrenal steroidogenesis (congenital adrenal hyperplasia) and adrenal destruction or dysfunction (autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome and adrenoleukodystrophy), whereas exogenous corticosteroid therapy withdrawal or poor adherence to scheduled corticosteroid dosing with long-standing treatment constitute the most common cause of acquired adrenal insufficiency. Although there are classic clinical signs (eg, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, hyperpigmentation, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypoglycemia) of adrenal insufficiency, its early clinical presentation is most commonly vague and undefined, requiring a high index of suspicion. The relevance of early identification of adrenal insufficiency is to avoid the potential lethal outcome secondary to severe cardiovascular and hemodynamic insufficiency. The clinician must be aware of the need for increased corticosteroid dose supplementation during stress periods.

  3. [Lumbar pain and bilateral adrenal masses].

    PubMed

    García, Elena; Sánchez, Raquel; Martínez, Guillermo; Bernal, Carmen; Calatayud, M; Partida, M; Hawkins, Federico

    2009-05-01

    Many problems may arise when defining whether adrenal lesions are primary to the adrenal glands or represent other tissue, whether they are benign or malignant and whether they are functioning or nonfunctioning. Adrenal imaging complements the clinical and hormonal evaluation of these patients. We present a patient with lumbar pain and bilateral adrenal masses.

  4. [Body weight and adrenal function in rats with "foster mothers" from the moment of birth].

    PubMed

    Suárez, M M; Perassi, N I

    1990-01-01

    In rats, the effect of the separation from their mothers on the corporal weight and on the levels of adrenal hormones, adrenal and plasmatic corticosterone and adrenal catecholamines was studied. The litters were grouped according to: a) maintained with their biological mothers, and b) maintained with their mothers interchanged immediately after birth (foster mother). All were lactating mother rats. In group b) the corporal weight was lower (p less than 0.001) than in group a) from the 14th to the 28th day of life, their weight increased thereafter. The levels of adrenal corticosterone were higher (p less than 0.01) in group b), but the plasmatic corticosterone levels were similar to that in group a). With respect to catecholamines, the noradrenaline values were higher in group b) (p less than 0.001), whereas the adrenaline levels were lower (p less than 0.01) than those in group a).

  5. Assessment of hypothalamic pituitary function in endocrine disease

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, F. C.; Landon, J.

    1966-01-01

    The insulin test carried out with adequate safeguards under standardized conditions yields valuable information regarding hypothalamic and pituitary function when plasma levels of sugar, cortisol, and growth hormone are determined. The use of a test based on the plasma cortisol response to the infusion of lysine-vasopressin, a polypeptide with a corticotrophin-releasing action, is also of value as a test of pituitary function. Used in conjunction with the insulin test it enables pituitary disorders to be differentiated from those involving the hypothalamus. PMID:4287115

  6. Comparison of pramipexole and modafinil on arousal, autonomic, and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Samuels, E R; Hou, R H; Langley, R W; Szabadi, E; Bradshaw, C M

    2006-11-01

    The noradrenergic locus coeruleus is a major wakefulness-promoting nucleus of the brain, which is also involved in the regulation of autonomic and endocrine functions. The activity of the locus coeruleus is believed to be tonically enhanced by a mesocoerulear dopaminergic pathway arising from the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain. Both modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting drug, and pramipexole, a D(2)/D(3)receptor agonist with sedative properties, may act on this pathway, with modafinil increasing and pramipexole decreasing locus coeruleus activity. The aim of this study was to compare the two drugs on alertness, autonomic and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers. Pramipexole (0.5mg), modafinil (200mg), and their combination were administered to 16 healthy males in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Methods included tests of alertness (pupillographic sleepiness test, critical flicker fusion frequency, visual analogue scales), autonomic functions (resting pupil diameter, light and darkness reflex responses, heart rate, blood pressure, salivation, core temperature), and endocrine functions (blood concentrations of prolactin, growth hormone, and thyroid stimulating hormone). Data were analysed by ANOVA. Pramipexole reduced alertness, caused pupil dilatation, increased heart rate, reduced prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone, and increased growth hormone level. Modafinil caused small increases in blood pressure and core temperature, and reduced prolactin levels. The sedative effect of pramipexole and the autonomic effects of modafinil are consistent with altered activity in the mesocoerulear pathway; the pupil dilatation following pramipexole suggests reduced dopaminergic excitation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.

  7. Assessment of the 21-hydroxylase deficiency and the adrenal functions in young females with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Onder, Asan; Aycan, Zehra; Cetinkaya, Semra; Kendirci, Havva Nur Peltek; Bas, Veysel Nijat; Agladioglu, Sebahat Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    There are few reports of an association between Turner syndrome (TS) and 21-hydroxylase deficiency. However, this association is more frequent in some populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in patients with TS in our population. 21-hydroxylase deficiency was evaluated in 44 TS cases with 45X (n=20) and 24 mosaic cases. A standard dose adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) stimulation test (Synacthen, Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) was performed, and 17 hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and cortisol responses were evaluated. Patients with increased 17OHP responses in the stimulation test also underwent 21-hydroxylase gene analysis. The mean age was 14.6 +/- 4 (2.6-22.4); 37 patients were on growth hormone (GH) treatment. Nine patients were at prepubertal stage, whereas 35 were pubertal (24 on gonadal steroids and 11 spontaneously). Six patients were obese. Only one of our patients had a level of 7.5 ng/mL of 17OHP, and there was no mutation found in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) genetic analysis. In other cases, peak 17OHP levels were < or = 6 ng/mL. The mean peak 17OHP was 2.62 +/- 1.48 (1.19-7.5) ng/mL, the cortisol level was 37.6 +/- 8.43 (23.9-56.2) microg/dL and the DHEAS was 135.2+/- 87.3 (15-413) microg/dL. The increased mean basal and peak cortisol levels (20.5 +/- 10.2 and 37.6 +/- 8.4 microg/dL) were remarkable findings. Whereas basal cortisol was above 20 microg/dL in 38.7% of patients, exaggerated results up to 56.2 microg/dL were obtained in peak cortisol levels. The basal and peak 17OHP cortisol levels were not correlated with the presence of puberty, chromosome structure, gonadal steroid use, obesity or growth hormone use. This trial suggested that 21-hydroxylase deficiency was not common among patients with TS in our population. Adrenal function should be assessed, at least in the presence of clitoral enlargement in patients with TS, particularly if their karyotype

  8. Stress Sensitivity in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Analysis of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, David; Giese-Davis, Janine; Taylor, C. Barr; Kraemer, Helena

    2006-01-01

    The normal diurnal cortisol cycle has a peak in the morning, decreasing rapidly over the day, with low levels during the night, then rising rapidly again to the morning peak. A pattern of flatter daytime slopes has been associated with more rapid cancer progression in both animals and humans. We studied the relationship between the daytime slopes and other daytime cortisol responses to both pharmacological and psychosocial challenges of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function as well as DHEA in a sample of 99 women with metastatic breast cancer, in hopes of elucidating the dysregulatory process. We found that the different components of HPA regulation: the daytime cortisol slope, the rise in cortisol from waking to 30 minutes later, and cortisol response to various challenges, including dexamethasone (DEX) suppression, corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) activation, and the Trier Social Stress Task, were at best modestly associated. Escape from suppression stimulated by 1 mg of dexamethasone administered the night before was moderately but significantly associated with flatter daytime cortisol slopes (r=0..28 to .30 at different times of the post dexamethasone administration day, all p<.01) . Daytime cortisol slopes were also moderately but significant associated with the rise in cortisol from waking to 30 minutes after awakening (r=.29, p=.004, N=96), but not with waking cortisol level (r=−0.13, p=.19). However, we could not detect any association between daytime cortisol slope and activation of cortisol secretion by either CRF infusion or the Trier Social Stress Task. The CRF activation test (following 1.5 mg of dexamethasone to assure that the effect was due to exogenous CRF) produced ACTH levels that were correlated (r=0.66 p<.0001, N = 74) with serum cortisol levels, indicating adrenal responsiveness to ACTH stimulation. Daytime cortisol slopes were significantly correlated with the slope of DHEA (r=.21, p=.04, N=95). Our general findings

  9. Adrenal diseases during pregnancy: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, Mahdi; Mnif, Mouna F; Charfi, Nadia; Kacem, Faten H; Naceur, Basma B; Mnif, Fatma; Dammak, Mohamed; Rekik, Nabila; Abid, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    : Adrenal diseases--including disorders such as Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, pheochromocytoma, primary hyperaldosteronism and congenital adrenal hyperplasia--are relatively rare in pregnancy, but a timely diagnosis and proper treatment are critical because these disorders can cause maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Making the diagnosis of adrenal disorders in pregnancy is challenging as symptoms associated with pregnancy are also seen in adrenal diseases. In addition, pregnancy is marked by several endocrine changes, including activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The aim of this article was to review the pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management of various adrenal disorders during pregnancy.

  10. Purinergic Signaling Pathways in Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine-5′-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5′-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5′-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5′-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. PMID:25960051

  11. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling.

  12. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed.

  13. Sleep and the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed.

  14. The endocrine function of human placenta: an overview.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mariana A

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy, several tightly coordinated and regulated processes take place to enable proper fetal development and gestational success. The formation and development of the placenta is one of these critical pregnancy events. This organ plays essential roles during gestation, including fetal nourishment, support and protection, gas exchange and production of several hormones and other mediators. Placental hormones are mainly secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast, in a highly and tightly regulated way. These hormones are important for pregnancy establishment and maintenance, exerting autocrine and paracrine effects that regulate decidualization, placental development, angiogenesis, endometrial receptivity, embryo implantation, immunotolerance and fetal development. In addition, because they are released into maternal circulation, the profile of their blood levels throughout pregnancy has been the target of intense research towards finding potential robust and reliable biomarkers to predict and diagnose pregnancy-associated complications. In fact, altered levels of these hormones have been associated with some pathologies, such as chromosomal anomalies or pre-eclampsia. This review proposes to revise and update the main pregnancy-related hormones, addressing their major characteristics, molecular targets, function throughout pregnancy, regulators of their expression and their potential clinical interest.

  15. Management of Adrenal Masses.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Hattangadi Sanjay; Tiyadath, Balagopal Nair

    2017-03-01

    An adrenal mass can be either symptomatic or asymptomatic in the form of adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) in up to 8 % in autopsy and 4 % in imaging series. Once a diagnosis of adrenal mass is made, we need to differentiate whether it is functioning or nonfunctioning, benign, or malignant. In this article, we provide a literature review of the diagnostic workup including biochemical evaluation and imaging characteristics of the different pathologies. We also discuss the surgical strategies with laparoscopy as the mainstay with partial adrenalectomy in select cases and adrenalectomy in large masses. Follow-up protocol of AIs and adrenocortical carcinoma is also discussed.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHINYLESTRADIOL-MEDIATED CHANGES IN ENDOCRINE FUNCTION AND REPRODUCTION IMPAIRMENT IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) we...

  17. New Roles of Carboxypeptidase E in Endocrine and Neural Function and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Niamh X.; Wetsel, William C.; Murthy, Saravana R. K.; Park, Joshua J.; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) or carboxypeptidase H was first discovered in 1982 as an enkephalin-convertase that cleaved a C-terminal basic residue from enkephalin precursors to generate enkephalin. Since then, CPE has been shown to be a multifunctional protein that subserves many essential nonenzymatic roles in the endocrine and nervous systems. Here, we review the phylogeny, structure, and function of CPE in hormone and neuropeptide sorting and vesicle transport for secretion, alternative splicing of the CPE transcript, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in humans. With this and the analysis of mutant and knockout mice, the data collectively support important roles for CPE in the modulation of metabolic and glucose homeostasis, bone remodeling, obesity, fertility, neuroprotection, stress, sexual behavior, mood and emotional responses, learning, and memory. Recently, a splice variant form of CPE has been found to be an inducer of tumor growth and metastasis and a prognostic biomarker for metastasis in endocrine and nonendocrine tumors. PMID:22402194

  18. [Hypotension from endocrine origin].

    PubMed

    Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Douillard, Claire; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie

    2012-11-01

    Hypotension is defined by a low blood pressure either permanently or only in upright posture (orthostatic hypotension). In contrast to hypertension, there is no threshold defining hypotension. The occurrence of symptoms for systolic and diastolic measurements respectively below 90 and 60 mm Hg establishes the diagnosis. Every acute hypotensive event should suggest shock, adrenal failure or an iatrogenic cause. Chronic hypotension from endocrine origin may be linked to adrenal failure from adrenal or central origin, isolated hypoaldosteronism, pseudohypoaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, neuro-endocrine tumors (carcinoïd syndrome) or diabetic dysautonomia. Hypotension related to hypoaldosteronism associates low blood sodium and above all high blood potassium levels. They are generally classified according to their primary (hyperreninism) or secondary (hyporeninism) adrenal origin. Isolated primary hypoaldosteronisms are rare in adults (intensive care unit, selective injury of the glomerulosa area) and in children (aldosterone synthase deficiency). Isolated secondary hypoaldosteronism is related to mellitus diabetes complicated with dysautonomia, kidney failure, age, iatrogenic factors, and HIV infections. In both cases, they can be associated to glucocorticoid insufficiency from primary adrenal origin (adrenal failure of various origins with hyperreninism, among which congenital 21 hydroxylase deficiency with salt loss) or from central origin (hypopituitarism with hypo-reninism). Pseudohypoaldosteronisms are linked to congenital (type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism) or acquired states of resistance to aldosterone. Acquired salt losses from enteric (total colectomy with ileostomy) or renal (interstitial nephropathy, Bartter and Gitelman syndromes…) origin might be responsible for hypotension and are associated with hyperreninism-hyperaldosteronism. Hypotension is a rare manifestation of pheochromocytomas, especially during surgical removal when the patient has not been

  19. Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Sun, Fei; Cao, Huang-Ming; Ma, Qin-Yun; Pan, Chun-Ming; Ma, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Jiang, He; Song, Huai-Dong; Chen, Ming-Dao

    2009-12-25

    Obesity is frequently associated with malfunctions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hyperaldosteronism, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Since the adrenal glands are embedded in adipose tissue, direct cross-talk between adipose tissue and the adrenal gland has been proposed. A previous study found that adiponectin receptor mRNA was expressed in human adrenal glands and aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). However, the expression of adiponectin receptors in adrenal glands has not been confirmed at the protein level or in other species. Furthermore, it is unclear whether adiponectin receptors expressed in adrenal cells are functional. We found, for the first time, that adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) mRNA and protein were expressed in mouse adrenal and adrenocortical Y-1 cells. However, adiponectin itself was not expressed in mouse adrenal or Y-1 cells. Furthermore, adiponectin acutely reduced basal levels of corticosterone and aldosterone secretion. ACTH-induced steroid secretion was also inhibited by adiponectin, and this was accompanied by a parallel change in the expression of the key genes involved in steroidogenesis. These findings indicate that adiponectin may take part in the modulation of steroidogenesis. Thus, adiponectin is likely to have physiological and/or pathophysiological significance as an endocrine regulator of adrenocortical function.

  20. Endocrine system and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients.

  1. Endocrine disorders and medically assisted procreation.

    PubMed

    Luk, J

    2011-04-01

    A normal endocrine environment is imperative to maintain normal reproduction in women. The major endocrine organs that play a part in the reproductive system include hypothalamic pituitary axis, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, and the ovary. Each endocrine organ is in close communication and relationship with one another. Any endocrine disorders that significantly affect any of these organs would disrupt reproduction resulting in infertility. In this review, we will provide an overview of the common endocrine disorders and the available medical management including assisted reproductive technology (ART) and hormonal supplementation to overcome the endocrine disorders in order to achieve fertility for the female patients.

  2. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females during pregnancy, parturition and early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Galeano, María G; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Gilman, Christine; Ponzio, Marina F

    2015-03-01

    The chinchilla is a rodent that bears one of the finest and most valuable pelts in the world. The wild counterpart is, however, almost extinct because of a drastic past and ongoing population decline. The present work was developed to increase our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of pregnancy and post-partum estrus in the chinchilla, characterizing the endocrine patterns of urinary progesterone, estradiol, LH and cortisol metabolites throughout gestation and post-partum estrus and estimating the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus. Longitudinal urine samples were collected once per week throughout pregnancy and analyzed for creatinine, cortisol, LH, estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations. To indirectly determine the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus, a second experiment was performed using pregnant females subjected to a post-partum in vivo fertilization scheme. Urinary progestagen metabolites increased above baseline levels in early pregnancy between weeks-8 and -11 respectively to parturition, and slightly declined at parturition time. Urinary estrogens showed rising levels throughout mid- and late pregnancy (weeks-9 to -6 and a further increase at week-5 to parturition) and decreased in a stepwise manner after parturition, returning to baseline levels two weeks thereafter. Cortisol metabolite levels were relatively constant throughout pregnancy with a tendency for higher levels in the last third of gestation and after the pups' birth. Parturition was associated with dramatic reductions in urinary concentrations of sex steroids (especially progestagens). Observations in breeding farms indicated that the females that resulted in a second pregnancy after mating, did so on the second day after parturition. These data were in agreement with an LH peak detected 24h after parturition. Urinary steroid hormone patterns of estrogen and progestagen metabolites provided valuable information on endocrine events during pregnancy and after

  3. Adrenal Imaging: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Colin J; McDermott, Shaunagh; Blake, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys and play an important role in the endocrine system. Each adrenal gland contains an outer cortex, responsible mainly for the secretion of androgens and corticosteroids, and an inner medulla, which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. Here, we review the anatomy of the adrenal glands and explain the current imaging modalities that are most useful for the assessment of the various conditions--both benign and malignant--that can affect these glands. As adrenal lesions are often identified incidentally on cross-sectional imaging performed for other reasons, the management of such adrenal 'incidentalomas' is also discussed. In many cases, adrenal lesions have distinctive imaging features that allow for a full characterization with noninvasive techniques. In some cases, invasive studies such as adrenal vein sampling or adrenal biopsy become necessary. This review should give the reader a wide overview of how various imaging techniques can be useful in the assessment of adrenal pathology.

  4. Delayed Diagnosis of Graves’ Thyrotoxicoisis Presenting as Recurrent Adrenal Crisis in Primary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Dukhabandhu; Jebasingh, K Felix

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal crisis is a potential life threatening complication. The common causes of adrenal crisis are infections, surgical stress and abrupt cessation of steroid medications. Endocrine causes like Graves’ disease with thyrotoxicosis is one of the less common causes of an adrenal crisis. We report a 42-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of adrenal crisis due to delayed diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. She was initially treated with Carbimazole followed by Radio-iodine ablation and currently she is euthyroid. Her adrenal insufficiency was initially treated with hydrocortisone during the time of adrenal crisis followed by Prednisolone 5 mg once daily in the morning along with fludrocortisone 50 mcg once daily. This case highlights the need for high index of suspicion and less common causes like thyrotoxicosis should be ruled out in patients with adrenal crisis. PMID:27190873

  5. Endocrine disruptors and human corpus luteum: in vitro effects of phenols on luteal cells function.

    PubMed

    Romani, Federica; Tropea, Anna; Scarinci, Elisa; Dello Russo, Cinzia; Lisi, Lucia; Catino, Stefania; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are well known to impair fertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (p-NP) on human luteal function in vitro. In particular, in luteal cells isolated from 21 human corpora lutea progesterone, prostaglandin (PG) F2α, PGE2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release, as well as VEGF expression were evaluated. BPA and p-NP negatively affected both luteal steroidogenesis and luteotrophic/ luteolytic factors balance, without influencing VEGF mRNA expression. Actually, BPA and p-NP impaired human luteal cells function in vitro, underlining the already suggested correlation between phenols and reproductive failure.

  6. Positive iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) adrenal images can precede return of adrenocortical function after o,p' DDD treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sparagana, M.; Ackerman, L.

    1988-05-01

    A patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, due to the ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, received a 3-month course of treatment with 1,1 dichloro-2(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p' DDD), which caused adrenal hypofunction requiring steroid therapy. Eleven months later, Cushing's syndrome recurred. His CT scan showed a left adrenal gland that was enlarged and a normal-sized right adrenal gland. However, the NP-59 image showed increased uptake by both glands. Venous effluent was sampled from each adrenal vein. The plasma cortisol level from the left gland was 1392 ng/ml, and that from the right gland was 667 ng/ml. The latter value was not significantly different from the values obtained at peripheral sites (517-744 ng/ml). In the course of recovery from o,p' DDD damage, the ability of the adrenal gland to take up NP-59 may be restored before the return of its biosynthetic and secretory functions. Serial NP-59 adrenal images can anticipate the recurrence of Cushing's syndrome after adrenolytic therapy, thereby permitting early retreatment.

  7. Adrenal Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... three types of steroid hormones. In adrenal insufficiency (AI), the cortex does not make enough steroid hormones. ... unlike “adrenal fatigue.” There are two kinds of AI: • Primary AI, also called Addison’s disease. In this ...

  8. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    PubMed Central

    LENCU, CODRUŢA; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary – cortical, and involuntary – metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection. The respiratory abnormalities in hyperthyroidism as a result of the hypermetabolic action of thyroid hormones are hyperventilation, myopathy and cardiovascular involvement; recent studies have reported pulmonary arterial hypertension in Graves’ disease, as a result of the association of several mechanisms. Thyroid hypertrophy can induce through compression of the upper airways dyspnea, stridor, wheezing and cough. The respiratory disorders in acromegaly are ventilatory dysfunction and sleep apnea, which contribute to an unfavorable evolution of the disease. Respiratory changes in parathyroid, adrenal and reproductive system diseases have been described. Respiratory disorders should be recognized, investigated and monitored by medical practitioners of various specialties (family physicians, internists, endocrinologists, pneumologists, cardiologists). They are frequently severe, causing an unfavorable evolution of the associated endocrine and respiratory disease. PMID:27857512

  9. Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis Functioning in Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) reactivity and proactive and reactive aggression in pre-pubertal children. After a 30-min controlled base line period, 73 7-year-old children (40 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental tasks designed to…

  10. Adolescent Survivors of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Study of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis constitutes an important biological component of the stress response commonly studied through the measurement of cortisol. Limited research has examined HPA axis dysregulation in youth exposed to disasters. Objective: This study examined HPA axis activation in adolescent Hurricane Katrina…

  11. Chronic ethanol consumption depresses hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in aged rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, C.J.; Bestervelt, L.L.; Mousigian, C.A.; Maimansomsuk, P.; Yong Cai; Piper, W.N. )

    1991-01-01

    In separate experiments, nine (n=20) and fifteen (n=12) month old rats were treated with either 6% ethanol or 12% sucrose in the drinking water to examine the effect of chronic ethanol consumption on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of aged rats. Blood was collected and plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Adrenal glands were cleaned, quartered and used to test in vitro responsiveness to ACTH. Anterior pituitary glands from all 15 month old rats and one half of the nine month old rats were collected, frozen and extracted for measurement of tissue ACTH concentration. The remaining anterior pituitary glands from the nine month old rats were challenged with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) to test in vitro responsiveness. In nine month old rats, chronic ethanol consumption decreased plasma ACTH and corticosterone. Pituitary ACTH concentrations were unchanged in treated nine month old rats, but the amount of pituitary ACTH released in response to CRH was decreased in rats consuming ethanol. In vitro responsiveness of the adrenal gland to ACTH in nine month old rats consuming ethanol was unchanged. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations were also decreased in 15 month old rats chronically consuming ethanol. No differences were noted in responsiveness of the adrenal gland or in the amount of pituitary ACTH due to ethanol consumptions in 15 month old rats.

  12. Upregulation of norepinephrine transporter function by prolonged exposure to nicotine in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Hideaki; Toyohira, Yumiko; Ueno, Susumu; Saeki, Satoru; Zhang, Han; Furuno, Yumi; Takahashi, Kojiro; Tsutsui, Masato; Hachisuka, Kenji; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki

    2010-09-01

    Nicotine acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the adrenal medulla and brain, thereby stimulating the release of monoamines such as norepinephrine (NE). In the present study, we examined the effects of prolonged exposure to nicotine on NE transporter (NET) activity in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. Treatment of adrenal medullary cells with nicotine increased [(3)H]NE uptake in both a time- (1-5 days) and concentration-dependent (0.1-10 muM) manner. Kinetic analysis showed that nicotine induced an increase in the V (max) of [(3)H]NE uptake with little change in K (m). This increase in NET activity was blocked by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of ribosomal protein synthesis, but not by actinomycin D, a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor. [(3)H]NE uptake induced by nicotine was strongly inhibited by hexamethonium and mecamylamine but not by alpha-bungarotoxin, and was abolished by elimination of Ca(2+) from the culture medium. KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, attenuated not only nicotine-induced [(3)H]NE uptake but also (45)Ca(2+) influx in the cells. The present findings suggest that long-term exposure to nicotine increases NET activity through a Ca(2+)-dependent post-transcriptional process in the adrenal medulla.

  13. Efficacy of single serum cortisol reading obtained between 9 AM and 10 AM as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Goto, Masahiro; Shibata, Nao; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2016-07-01

    To find a simple method to screen for iatrogenic childhood adrenal insufficiency, we retrospectively examined the results of CRH stimulation tests performed 212 times on 111 subjects (68 males; age at commencement of initial treatment ranged 0.0-19.8 yr; median age, 5.8 yr). Before the commencement of this study, 97 subjects had been treated with glucocorticoids and 14 subjects with West syndrome had been treated with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone. Duration of the primary treatment ranged from 15 to 2150 days. CRH stimulation tests were conducted between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM and peak cortisol values less than 15 µg/dL were considered indicative of adrenal insufficiency. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the optimal basal serum cortisol cut-off values when screening for adrenal suppression ranged from 5.35 to 5.80 µg/dL depending on the primary disease. All subjects having a serum cortisol value of less than 2.3 µg/dL had insufficient adrenal function while all subjects having greater than 11 µg/dL had intact adrenal function. We concluded that single serum cortisol values obtained between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM had the potential to serve as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone.

  14. [Endocrine disease symptoms].

    PubMed

    Reincke, M

    2013-10-01

    Diseases of the endocrine system can be classified according to the prevalence into two categories: very frequent endocrinopathies, which affect a population of several millions in Germany and include diabetes mellitus, endemic goiter, osteoporosis and obesity. On the other hand there are a large number of rare endocrine diseases which share the paradox of other rare diseases: they are also often falsely suspected in patients who are not affected but at the same time there are sometimes long delays in diagnosis in those who do have the disease. In cases of adrenal insufficiency, absolute glucocorticoid deficiency can progress to an adrenal crisis which is fatal if not treated. Patients with de Quervain thyroiditis often suffer from prolonged episodes of fever with tender, diffuse goiter and neck pain. Pheochromocytomas should be recognized early in the course of disease because of life-threatening cardiovascular complications. This article highlights the essential characteristics in order to increase awareness.

  15. GABAA receptor sites modulating catecholamine secretion in the rat adrenal gland: evidence from 3H-muscimol autoradiography and in vivo functional studies.

    PubMed

    Amenta, F; Collier, W L; Erdö, S L; Giuliani, S; Maggi, C A; Meli, A

    1988-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of specific 3H-muscimol binding sites, most probably identical with A type gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, were studied in sections of the rat adrenal gland by light microscope autoradiography. Specific binding was found primarily in the adrenal medulla, in association with chromaffin cells. A limited number of binding sites was also observed within the adrenal cortex. In urethane-anaesthetized hexamethonium-pretreated rats, intravenous GABA produced a set of 'excitatory' cardiovascular effects (increase in heart rate, force of contraction and blood pressure) which were mimicked by intravenous muscimol but not by intravenous baclofen, and were antagonized by pretreatment with bicuculline. The cardiovascular excitatory effects of intravenous GABA were unaffected by reserpine pretreatment, markedly reduced by administration of phentolamine plus propranolol, and almost completely abolished by adrenalectomy. Our findings indicate the presence of GABA receptor sites on adrenal chromaffin cells, whose excitation can produce changes in cardiovascular function.

  16. Transcriptional analysis of the mammalian heart with special reference to its endocrine function

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Monica Forero; de Bold, Adolfo J

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmacological and gene ablation studies have demonstrated the crucial role of the endocrine function of the heart as mediated by the polypeptide hormones ANF and BNP in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. The importance of these studies lies on the fact that hypertension and chronic congestive heart failure are clinical entities that may be regarded as states of relative deficiency of ANF and BNP. These hormones are produced by the atrial muscle cells (cardiocytes), which display a dual secretory/muscle phenotype. In contrast, ventricular cardiocytes display mainly a muscle phenotype. Comparatively little information is available regarding the genetic background for this important phenotypic difference with particular reference to the endocrine function of the heart. We postulated that comparison of gene expression profiles between atrial and ventricular muscles would help identify gene transcripts that underlie the phenotypic differences associated with the endocrine function of the heart. Results Comparison of gene expression profiles in the rat heart revealed a total of 1415 differentially expressed genes between the atria and ventricles based on a 1.8 fold cut-off. The identification of numerous chamber specific transcripts, such as ANF for the atria and Irx4 for the ventricles among several others, support the soundness of the GeneChip data and demonstrates that the differences in gene expression profiles observed between the atrial and ventricular tissues were not spurious in nature. Pathway analysis revealed unique expression profiles in the atria for G protein signaling that included Gαo1, Gγ2 and Gγ3, AGS1, RGS2, and RGS6 and the related K+ channels GIRK1 and GIRK4. Transcripts involved in vesicle trafficking, hormone secretion as well as mechanosensors (e.g. the potassium channel TREK-1) were identified in relationship to the synthesis, storage and secretion of hormones. Conclusion The data developed in this investigation

  17. [The effect of normobaric hypoxia on the functioning of links in the endocrine system].

    PubMed

    Shakhtarin, V V; Kiriachkov, Iu Iu; Palyga, G F; Khmelevskiĭ, Ia M; Sloventantor, V Iu; Simakova, G M; Kruglikov, A P

    1990-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the data on change in the blood level of ACTH, STH, TSH, cortisol, T3, insulin, C-peptide during a 25-minute session of respiration using a gaseous hypoxic mixture with 10% oxygen (GHM-10). The investigation was performed in 23 healthy volunteers. Change in the hormonal status, characteristic of a moderate stress-reaction, was observed in 60% of the examinees. It was found out that during a GHM-10 session a degree of change in function of the studied factors of the endocrine system showed correlation with change in the activity of the autonomic nervous system.

  18. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTER SCREENING AND TESTING ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid function in the male rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations. Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee.

    Stoker TE, Parks LG, Gray LE, Cooper RL.

  19. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands.

  20. Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH) is the most fatal form of CAH, as it disrupts adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. Most cases of lipoid CAH are caused by recessive mutations in the gene encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Affected patients typically present with signs of severe adrenal failure in early infancy and 46,XY genetic males are phenotypic females due to disrupted testicular androgen secretion. The StAR p.Q258X mutation accounts for about 70% of affected alleles in most patients of Japanese and Korean ancestry. However, it is more prevalent (92.3%) in the Korean population. Recently, some patients have been showed that they had late and mild clinical findings. These cases and studies constitute a new entity of 'nonclassic lipoid CAH'. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc (CYP11A1), plays an essential role converting cholesterol to pregnenolone. Although progesterone production from the fetally derived placenta is necessary to maintain a pregnancy to term, some patients with P450scc mutations have recently been reported. P450scc mutations can also cause lipoid CAH and establish a recently recognized human endocrine disorder. PMID:25654062

  1. Effects of short- and long-duration hypothyroidism on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in rats: in vitro and in situ studies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth O; Calogero, Aldo E; Konstandi, Mary; Kamilaris, Themis C; La Vignera, Sandro; Chrousos, George P

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of hypothyroidism on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; the functional integrity of each component of the HPA axis was examined in short-term and long-term hypothyroidism. Neuropeptide synthesis, release, and content were evaluated in vitro both in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, and corticosterone release was assessed in primary adrenal cell cultures at 7 (short-term) and 60 days (long-term hypothyroidism) after thyroidectomy in male rats. Hypothyroid rats showed adrenal insufficiency in several parameters, which were associated with the duration of hypothyroidism. Cerebrospinal (CSF) ACTH was decreased in all hypothyroid animals, while CSF corticosterone levels were significantly decreased only in long-term hypothyroidism. Long-term hypothyroid animals showed decreased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus under both basal and stress conditions, decreased CRH release from hypothalamic organ cultures after KCL and arginine vasopressin stimulation, as well as an increased number of anterior pituitary CRH receptors. In contrast, short-term hypothyroid rats showed changes in anterior pituitary function with an increased responsiveness to CRH that was associated with an increase in CRH receptors. Although both short- and long-term hypothyroidism was associated with significant decreases in adrenal weights, only long-term hypothyroid rats showed changes in adrenal function with a significant decrease of ACTH-induced corticosterone release from cultured adrenal cells. The data suggest that long-term hypothyroidism is associated with adrenal insufficiency with abnormalities in all three components of the HPA axis. Short-term hypothyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with increased pituitary corticotroph responsiveness to CRH.

  2. Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metals--a review.

    PubMed

    Rana, S V S

    2014-07-01

    An attempt has been made to review the endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals. Special emphasis has been given to the adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary and pancreas. Toxic metals can cause structural and functional changes in the adrenal glands. Their effects on steroidogenesis have been reviewed. It has been reported that thyroid hormone kinetics are affected by a number of metallic compounds. Occupational exposure to a few of these metals can cause testicular injury and sex hormone disturbances. Protective effects of a few antioxidants on their reproductive toxicity have also been discussed. Information gathered on female reproductive toxicity of heavy metals shows that exposure to these metals can lead to disturbances in reproductive performance in exposed subjects. Certain metals can cause injury to the endocrine pancreas. Exposure to them can cause diabetes mellitus and disturb insulin homeostasis. The need to develop molecular markers of endocrine toxicity of heavy metals has been suggested. Overall information described in this review is expected to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals.

  3. Long-term effects of treatment on endocrine function in children with brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Duffner, P.K.; Cohen, M.E.; Anderson, S.W.; Voorhess, M.L.; MacGillivray, M.H.; Panahon, A.; Brecher, M.L.

    1983-11-01

    Fourteen children with brain tumors received endocrine evaluations at least one year following completion of cranial irradiation. Treatment consisted of operation (13 patients), craniospinal irradiation (6), whole brain irradiation (5), posterior fossa irradiation (3), and chemotherapy (10). Endocrine evaluation included bone age roentgenography and measurement of growth hormone (using sequential arginine and insulin stimulation), thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, plasma cortisol, testosterone, prolactin, and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Ten of 12 children (83%) had abnormal responses to both tests of growth hormone stimulation. All growth hormone-deficient patients treated prior to puberty and tested at least 2 years following completion of cranial irradiation had decelerated linear growth. Results of thyroid function tests were abnormal in 4 patients: 2 patients had evidence of primary hypothyroidism, and 2 showed secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism. Two patients had inadequate cortisol responses to insulin hypoglycemia. Urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, serum prolactin, and serum testosterone levels were appropriate for age in all patients.

  4. Long-term effects of treatment on endocrine function in children with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Duffner, P K; Cohen, M E; Anderson, S W; Voorhess, M L; MacGillivray, M H; Panahon, A; Brecher, M L

    1983-11-01

    Fourteen children with brain tumors received endocrine evaluations at least one year following completion of cranial irradiation. Treatment consisted of operation (13 patients), craniospinal irradiation (6), whole brain irradiation (5), posterior fossa irradiation (3), and chemotherapy (10). Endocrine evaluation included bone age roentgenography and measurement of growth hormone (using sequential arginine and insulin stimulation), thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, plasma cortisol, testosterone, prolactin, and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Ten of 12 children (83%) had abnormal responses to both tests of growth hormone stimulation. All growth hormone-deficient patients treated prior to puberty and tested at least 2 years following completion of cranial irradiation had decelerated linear growth. Results of thyroid function tests were abnormal in 4 patients: 2 patients had evidence of primary hypothyroidism, and 2 showed secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism. Two patients had inadequate cortisol responses to insulin hypoglycemia. Urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, serum prolactin, and serum testosterone levels were appropriate for age in all patients.

  5. The gastrin-releasing peptide analog bombesin preserves exocrine and endocrine pancreas morphology and function during parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Joseph F.; Neuman, Joshua C.; Brill, Allison L.; Brar, Harpreet K.; Thompson, Mary F.; Cadena, Mark T.; Connors, Kelsey M.; Busch, Rebecca A.; Heneghan, Aaron F.; Cham, Candace M.; Jones, Elaina K.; Kibbe, Carly R.; Davis, Dawn B.; Groblewski, Guy E.; Kudsk, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression. BBS itself had no effect on islet function, as reflected in low expression of BBS receptors in islet samples. Intestinal BBS receptor expression was enhanced in PN with BBS, and circulating active GLP-1 levels were significantly enhanced in BBS-treated PN mice. We hypothesized that BBS preserved islet function indirectly, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. We confirmed the ability of BBS to directly stimulate intestinal enteroid cells to express the GLP-1 precursor preproglucagon. In conclusion, BBS preserves the exocrine and endocrine pancreas functions during PN; however, the endocrine stimulation is likely indirect, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. PMID:26185331

  6. The gastrin-releasing peptide analog bombesin preserves exocrine and endocrine pancreas morphology and function during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph F; Neuman, Joshua C; Brill, Allison L; Brar, Harpreet K; Thompson, Mary F; Cadena, Mark T; Connors, Kelsey M; Busch, Rebecca A; Heneghan, Aaron F; Cham, Candace M; Jones, Elaina K; Kibbe, Carly R; Davis, Dawn B; Groblewski, Guy E; Kudsk, Kenneth A; Kimple, Michelle E

    2015-09-15

    Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression. BBS itself had no effect on islet function, as reflected in low expression of BBS receptors in islet samples. Intestinal BBS receptor expression was enhanced in PN with BBS, and circulating active GLP-1 levels were significantly enhanced in BBS-treated PN mice. We hypothesized that BBS preserved islet function indirectly, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. We confirmed the ability of BBS to directly stimulate intestinal enteroid cells to express the GLP-1 precursor preproglucagon. In conclusion, BBS preserves the exocrine and endocrine pancreas functions during PN; however, the endocrine stimulation is likely indirect, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis.

  7. Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-30

    jo- Rfe 681 ENDOCRINE RESPONSES TO RESISTANCE EXERCISE(U) RIRMY RESERRCH INST OF ENYIRWUIENTAL MEDICINE NATICK M N J KRRENER 30 RUG 87 USARIEN-R59-B...factors have been shown to influence GH release including gonadal. thyroid and adrenal hormones (32). Whether it is via a direct or indirect mechanism

  8. Endocrine function after immunosuppression of pancreatic allograft by ionizing irradiation in the primate

    SciTech Connect

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Louw, G.; Zuurmond, T.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; Du Toit, L.B.

    1986-05-01

    The object of this preliminary study was to evaluate the endocrine function after heterotopic intraperitoneal segmental pancreatic allotransplantation with unligated duct in irradiated, totally pancreatectomized primates. All allograft recipients received, pre- and peroperative donor-specific blood transfusions and peroperative external irradiation from a linear accelerator; 200 rads was administered weekly and increased to a total dose of 1,500 rads. Pancreatic transplantation was performed between 2 and 6 weeks after completion of irradiation and preoperative blood transfusions. As previously reported, only minimal pancreatic allograft survival was achieved following preoperative irradiation. One recipient remained normoglycaemic for greater than 100 days after transplantation, the longest surviving pancreatic allograft recipient reported from this laboratory. Intravenous glucose tolerance test results in this recipient revealed normoglycaemia, reduced K-value, hypoinsulinaemia, normal glucagon response, reduced C-peptide values, and moderate glucose intolerance. Aortography and electron-microscopic examination of allograft biopsy tissue confirmed the presence of a functioning allograft.

  9. Circadian, endocrine, and metabolic effects of prolonged bedrest: Two 56-day bedrest studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    Two bedrest studies of 56 days each have been conducted to evaluate the effects of prolonged bedrest on circadian synchrony and endocrine and metabolic function. Measurements included the pituitary-adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, insulin-glucose-growth hormones, catecholamine excretion, body temperature, and heart rate. The results indicated that a rigorous regimen of exercise did not prevent the endocrine and metabolic effects of prolonged bedrest. Changes in circadian, endocrine, and metabolic functions in bedrest appear to be due to changes in hydrostatic pressure and lack of postural cues rather than to inactivity, confinement, or the bleeding schedule. Prolonged bedrest, particularly beyond 24 days, resulted in rhythm desynchronization in spite of well regulated light/dark cycles, temperature, humidity, activity, and meal times and meal composition and in increased lability of all endocrine parameter measured. It also resulted in an apparent insensitivity of the glucose response to insulin, of cortisol secretion to ACTH, and of growth hormone secretion to hypoglycemia.

  10. Evaluation and management of endocrine dysfunction in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Geenen, Rinie; Jacobs, Johannes W G; Bijlsma, Johannes W J

    2002-05-01

    Fibromyalgia-like symptoms such as muscle pain and tenderness, exhaustion, reduced exercise capacity, and cold intolerance, resemble symptoms associated with endocrine dysfunction like hypothyroidism, and adrenal or growth hormone insufficiency. To investigate the potential of management of endocrine abnormalities for relieve of symptoms of patients with fibromyalgia, we reviewed experimental and clinical studies of endocrine functioning and endocrine treatment. Serum GH, androgen, and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels of patients with fibromyalgia tend to be in the lower part of the normal range, while serum levels of thyroid hormone, female sex hormones, prolactin, and melatonin are normal. With exception of GH, these conclusions are based on studies in small samples. With respect to dynamic responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the dexamethasone suppression test and stimulation with ACTH show normal results, while patients show marked ACTH hypersecretion in response to severe acute stressors, perhaps indicative of chronic CRH hyposecretion. This finding and slightly altered responsiveness of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and prolactin in pharmacologic stimulation tests suggest a central rather than peripheral origin of endocrine deviations. Because hormone level deviations were not severe, occurred in subgroups of patients only, and few controlled clinical trials were performed, there is--unless future research shows otherwise--little support for hormone supplementation as a general therapy in the common patient with fibromyalgia. In patients with clinically overt hormone deficiency, hormonal supplementation is an option. In patients with hormone levels that are in the lower part of the normal range, interventions aimed at pain, fatigue, sleep or mood disturbance, and physical deconditioning may indirectly improve endocrine functioning.

  11. The rat adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Tischler, A S

    1989-01-01

    Adult adrenal medullary cells, in many strains of rats, develop diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and neoplasia under a variety of conditions. Both endogenous and exogenous factors affect the development of these proliferative changes. The former include the animals' strain, age, and sex. The latter include drugs and other environmental agents, diet, and perhaps stress. Adrenal medullary neoplasms which arise under diverse circumstances often closely resemble each other both morphologically and functionally, and exhibit characteristics of immature chromaffin cells. Recent data indicate that normal, mature-appearing epinephrine- and norepinephrine-type chromaffin cells are able to divide, and suggest that signals which regulate chromaffin cell function also regulate cell proliferation. Prolongation of these signals or superimposed abnormalities might initiate pathological proliferative states. It remains to be determined whether the mechanisms which promote or prevent cell proliferation in the adult adrenal are related to those involved in normal development.

  12. Purinergic signalling in endocrine organs.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2014-03-01

    There is widespread involvement of purinergic signalling in endocrine biology. Pituitary cells express P1, P2X and P2Y receptor subtypes to mediate hormone release. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) regulates insulin release in the pancreas and is involved in the secretion of thyroid hormones. ATP plays a major role in the synthesis, storage and release of catecholamines from the adrenal gland. In the ovary purinoceptors mediate gonadotrophin-induced progesterone secretion, while in the testes, both Sertoli and Leydig cells express purinoceptors that mediate secretion of oestradiol and testosterone, respectively. ATP released as a cotransmitter with noradrenaline is involved in activities of the pineal gland and in the neuroendocrine control of the thymus. In the hypothalamus, ATP and adenosine stimulate or modulate the release of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone, as well as arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin. Functionally active P2X and P2Y receptors have been identified on human placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and on neuroendocrine cells in the lung, skin, prostate and intestine. Adipocytes have been recognised recently to have endocrine function involving purinoceptors.

  13. Update of Endocrine Dysfunction following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Reifschneider, Kent; Auble, Bethany A.; Rose, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are common occurrences in childhood, often resulting in long term, life altering consequences. Research into endocrine sequelae following injury has gained attention; however, there are few studies in children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and current literature documenting risk for endocrine dysfunction in children suffering from TBI. Primary injury following TBI often results in disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and antidiuretic hormone production and release, with implications for both acute management and survival. Secondary injuries, occurring hours to weeks after TBI, result in both temporary and permanent alterations in pituitary function. At five years after moderate to severe TBI, nearly 30% of children suffer from hypopituitarism. Growth hormone deficiency and disturbances in puberty are the most common; however, any part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can be affected. In addition, endocrine abnormalities can improve or worsen with time, having a significant impact on children’s quality of life both acutely and chronically. Since primary and secondary injuries from TBI commonly result in transient or permanent hypopituitarism, we conclude that survivors should undergo serial screening for possible endocrine disturbances. High indices of suspicion for life threatening endocrine deficiencies should be maintained during acute care. Additionally, survivors of TBI should undergo endocrine surveillance by 6–12 months after injury, and then yearly, to ensure early detection of deficiencies in hormonal production that can substantially influence growth, puberty and quality of life. PMID:26287247

  14. [Effects of low doses of desmopressin (DDAPV) on gonadal and adrenal development, and on the testicular function and sperm motility].

    PubMed

    García-Pascual, I J; Sánchez-Yagüe, J; Rodríguez Hernández, M C; Paniagua Gómez-Alvárez, R

    1994-04-01

    The present study proved that desmopressin (DDAVP) (1 microgram DDAVP/12 h/5 días) does not affect ovary, testis and adrenal development in immature Wistar rats (17 days old), because the DDAVP does not modify the weight of the aforementioned organs as compared with the control group. Nevertheless, the male adults Wistar rats (80 days old) showed lower serum testosterone concentrations than the control group, after injection of 4 micrograms/day (2 micrograms/12 h) or 8 micrograms/day (4 micrograms/12 h) of DDAVP during a 5 days period time. Moreover, paradoxical significant lower concentrations of serum testosterone were found in 4 micrograms DDAVP/day-treated rats than in 8 micrograms DDAVP/day-treated ones. The former also showed a decreased number of spermatozoa as compared with the latter and with the control group. The percentage of mobile spermatozoa was lower in rats treated with both concentrations of DDAVP as compared with the control group. Therefore, desmopressin does not delay gonadal and adrenal growth in immature rats, but, at low doses, it affects the testicular function and the mobility of the spermatozoa in male adult rats.

  15. [Development of the human adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Folligan, K; Bouvier, R; Targe, F; Morel, Y; Trouillas, J

    2005-09-01

    The human adrenal is an endocrine gland located at the superior part of the kidney. Composed of the adrenal cortex of mesoblastic origin and the adrenal medulla of neuroectoblastic origin, the human fetal adrenal grows considerably during the first three months of development. From 12 to 18 weeks of development (WD), the weight of the adrenals increases seven-fold. The gland's weight doubles from 18 to 28 WD and from 28 to 36 WD. At birth, the two adrenals weigh on average 10 g. At the 8th week, two zones are individualized in the adrenal cortex: the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. At the second trimester, according to ultrastructural and biochemical studies, a third zone, called the transition zone, is individualized between the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. The definitive zone persists, but the origin of the three zones (glomerular, fascicular and reticular) of adult adrenal cortex is not known. The fetal inner zone regresses from the 5th month of gestation and disappears totally one year after birth. At the 8th week, the immature neuroblasts migrate to the definitive zone, then to the fetal inner zone to compose the adrenal medulla, which develops essentially after birth and during the first year. Before the 10th week, the human fetal adrenal is able to produce steroid hormones, in particular dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S); the secretion of cortisol remains discussed. The development of the human fetal adrenal is complex and is under the control of hormones (ACTH, LH and betaHCG), growth factors (ACTH essentially) and transcription factors (essentially SF1 and DAX-1). Knowledge of morphological and molecular phenomena of this development permits to understand the pathophisiology of congenital adrenal deficiencies.

  16. [The sexual peculiarities of aging changes in circannual rhythms of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus functions in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Labunets, I F

    2013-01-01

    The interrelations of circannual rhythms of the functional state of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex, thymus in healthy women and men from 20 to 79 years were studied. Fluctuations of melatonin, ACTH, cortisol and thymic serum factor, which were exchanged in aging (the season peaks of hormones and its acrophase) were found in blood of healthy 20-29 years old people. The changes of rhythmicity of indices were in male earlier (pineal gland and hypophysis over 30 years, thymus and adrenal cortex over 40 years) and more impressive than in women. The aging changes of pineal gland function's rhythm in healthy subjects have important role for changes of interrelations of circannual rhythms hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus.

  17. [Adrenal tumours in childhood].

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, G A; Pozo-Román, J; Argente, J

    2013-09-01

    This special article aims to summarise the current knowledge regarding the two groups of tumours with their origin in the adrenal gland: 1) adrenocortical tumours, derived from the cortex of the adrenal gland and 2) phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, neuroendocrine tumours derived from nodes of neural crest derived cells symmetrically distributed at both sides of the entire spine (paragangliomas [PG]). These PGs can be functioning tumors that secrete catecholamines, which confers their typical dark colour after staining with chromium salts (chromaffin tumors). Among these, the term phaeochromocytoma (PC) is restricted to those PGs derived from the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (intra-adrenal PGs), whereas the term PG is used for those sympathetic or parasympathetic ones in an extra-adrenal location. We analyse the state of the art of their pathogenic and genetic bases, as well as their clinical signs and symptoms, the tests currently available for performing their diagnosis (biochemical, hormonal, imaging and molecular studies) and management (surgery, pre- and post-surgical medical treatment), considering the current and developing strategies in chemo- and radiotherapy.

  18. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  19. SPECIES DIFFERENCES IN ANDROGEN AND ESTROGEN RECEPTOR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION AMONG VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES: INTERSPECIES EXTRAPOLATIONS REGARDING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species Differences in Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Structure and Function Among Vertebrates and Invertebrates: Interspecies Extrapolations regarding Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
    VS Wilson1, GT Ankley2, M Gooding 1,3, PD Reynolds 1,4, NC Noriega 1, M Cardon 1, P Hartig1,...

  20. Adrenal Disorders and the Paediatric Brain: Pathophysiological Considerations and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Polizzi, Agata; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Romeo, Anna Claudia; Dipasquale, Valeria; Chirico, Valeria; Arrigo, Teresa; Ruggieri, Martino

    2014-01-01

    Various neurological and psychiatric manifestations have been recorded in children with adrenal disorders. Based on literature review and on personal case-studies and case-series we focused on the pathophysiological and clinical implications of glucocorticoid-related, mineralcorticoid-related, and catecholamine-related paediatric nervous system involvement. Childhood Cushing syndrome can be associated with long-lasting cognitive deficits and abnormal behaviour, even after resolution of the hypercortisolism. Exposure to excessive replacement of exogenous glucocorticoids in the paediatric age group (e.g., during treatments for adrenal insufficiency) has been reported with neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities (e.g., delayed myelination and brain atrophy) due to potential corticosteroid-related myelin damage in the developing brain and the possible impairment of limbic system ontogenesis. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), a disorder of unclear pathophysiology characterised by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, has been described in children with hypercortisolism, adrenal insufficiency, and hyperaldosteronism, reflecting the potential underlying involvement of the adrenal-brain axis in the regulation of CSF pressure homeostasis. Arterial hypertension caused by paediatric adenomas or tumours of the adrenal cortex or medulla has been associated with various hypertension-related neurological manifestations. The development and maturation of the central nervous system (CNS) through childhood is tightly regulated by intrinsic, paracrine, endocrine, and external modulators, and perturbations in any of these factors, including those related to adrenal hormone imbalance, could result in consequences that affect the structure and function of the paediatric brain. Animal experiments and clinical studies demonstrated that the developing (i.e., paediatric) CNS seems to be particularly vulnerable to alterations induced by adrenal

  1. Adrenal disorders and the paediatric brain: pathophysiological considerations and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Salpietro, Vincenzo; Polizzi, Agata; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Romeo, Anna Claudia; Dipasquale, Valeria; Morabito, Paolo; Chirico, Valeria; Arrigo, Teresa; Ruggieri, Martino

    2014-01-01

    Various neurological and psychiatric manifestations have been recorded in children with adrenal disorders. Based on literature review and on personal case-studies and case-series we focused on the pathophysiological and clinical implications of glucocorticoid-related, mineralcorticoid-related, and catecholamine-related paediatric nervous system involvement. Childhood Cushing syndrome can be associated with long-lasting cognitive deficits and abnormal behaviour, even after resolution of the hypercortisolism. Exposure to excessive replacement of exogenous glucocorticoids in the paediatric age group (e.g., during treatments for adrenal insufficiency) has been reported with neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities (e.g., delayed myelination and brain atrophy) due to potential corticosteroid-related myelin damage in the developing brain and the possible impairment of limbic system ontogenesis. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), a disorder of unclear pathophysiology characterised by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, has been described in children with hypercortisolism, adrenal insufficiency, and hyperaldosteronism, reflecting the potential underlying involvement of the adrenal-brain axis in the regulation of CSF pressure homeostasis. Arterial hypertension caused by paediatric adenomas or tumours of the adrenal cortex or medulla has been associated with various hypertension-related neurological manifestations. The development and maturation of the central nervous system (CNS) through childhood is tightly regulated by intrinsic, paracrine, endocrine, and external modulators, and perturbations in any of these factors, including those related to adrenal hormone imbalance, could result in consequences that affect the structure and function of the paediatric brain. Animal experiments and clinical studies demonstrated that the developing (i.e., paediatric) CNS seems to be particularly vulnerable to alterations induced by adrenal

  2. [Adrenal mass and adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Martínez Albaladejo, M; García López, B; Serrano Corredor, S; Alguacil García, G

    1996-12-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is a non frequent disease, that is declared in young adults and in the most of the cases is produced from an autoimmune mechanism or a tuberculous disease. The incidence of these forms in the different geographic areas is dependent of degree of irradication of the tuberculosis. We report the case of a patient with latent chronic adrenal insufficiency of tuberculous origin who was affected for an addisonian crisis during an intercurrent infectious disease, which permitted the diagnosis of the addisonian crisis, and Mal of Pott was moreover detected. Evolution with corticosteroid and specific treatment was very favorable.

  3. Early-life glucocorticoid exposure: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, placental function, and long-term disease risk.

    PubMed

    Braun, Thorsten; Challis, John R; Newnham, John P; Sloboda, Deborah M

    2013-12-01

    An adverse early-life environment is associated with long-term disease consequences. Adversity early in life is hypothesized to elicit developmental adaptations that serve to improve fetal and postnatal survival and prepare the organism for a particular range of postnatal environments. These processes, although adaptive in their nature, may later prove to be maladaptive or disadvantageous if the prenatal and postnatal environments are widely discrepant. The exposure of the fetus to elevated levels of either endogenous or synthetic glucocorticoids is one model of early-life adversity that contributes substantially to the propensity of developing disease. Moreover, early-life glucocorticoid exposure has direct clinical relevance because synthetic glucocorticoids are routinely used in the management of women at risk of early preterm birth. In this regard, reports of adverse events in human newborns have raised concerns about the safety of glucocorticoid treatment; synthetic glucocorticoids have detrimental effects on fetal growth and development, childhood cognition, and long-term behavioral outcomes. Experimental evidence supports a link between prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids and alterations in fetal development and changes in placental function, and many of these alterations appear to be permanent. Because the placenta is the conduit between the maternal and fetal environments, it is likely that placental function plays a key role in mediating effects of fetal glucocorticoid exposure on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis development and long-term disease risk. Here we review recent insights into how the placenta responds to changes in the intrauterine glucocorticoid environment and discuss possible mechanisms by which the placenta mediates fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal development, metabolism, cardiovascular function, and reproduction.

  4. Endocrine function following high dose proton therapy for tumors of the upper clivus

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, J.D.; Austin-Seymour, M.; Munzenrider, J.; Birnbaum, S.; Carroll, R.; Klibanski, A.; Riskind, P.; Urie, M.; Verhey, L.; Goitein, M.

    1988-09-01

    The endocrine status of patients receiving proton radiation for tumors of the upper clivus was reviewed to evaluate the effect of high dose treatment on the pituitary gland. The fourteen patients had chordomas or low grade chondrosarcomas and were all treated by the same techniques. The median tumor dose was 69.7 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) with a range from 66.6 to 74.4 CGE. (CGE is used because modulated protons have an RBE of 1.1 compared to 60Co). The daily fraction size was 1.8-2.1 CGE. The median follow-up time is 48 months, ranging from 30 to 68 months. All treatments were planned using a computerized multi-dimensional system with the position of the pituitary outlined on the planning CT scan. Review of the dose distribution indicated that the dose to the pituitary ranged from 60.5 to 72.3 CGE, with a median of 67.6 CGE. One female patient had decreased thyroid and gonadotropin function at the time of diagnosis and has been on hormone replacement since that time. The other three females were all pre-menopausal at the time of radiotherapy. At this time four patients (3 males and 1 female) have developed endocrine abnormalities 14 to 45 months after irradiation. All four had evidence of hypothyroidism and two have also developed corticotropin deficiency. The three males had decreased testosterone levels; the female patient developed amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. All four are asymptomatic with ongoing hormone replacement.

  5. Long-term neuro-endocrine sequelae after treatment for childhood medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Heikens, J; Michiels, E M; Behrendt, H; Endert, E; Bakker, P J; Fliers, E

    1998-09-01

    The occurrence of neuro-endocrine deficiencies following craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma is well known, but data concerning the spectrum and prevalence of endocrine abnormalities in adulthood are scarce. We studied endocrine function in 20 (median age 25 years) adult subjects, 8-25 years (median 16 years) after therapy. The radiation dose to the whole cranium and spinal axis was 35 +/- 2.6 Gray (mean +/- standard deviation) with a boost to the posterior fossa of 18 +/- 3.7 Gray. 13 subjects had received additional chemotherapy. In 15 of 20 (75%) subjects, endocrine abnormalities were observed. In 14 (70%), growth hormone (GH) secretion was impaired; 7 (35%) subjects had an absolute GH deficiency, while 7 (35%) showed subnormal responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In contrast, only 20% (4) of these subjects showed impairment of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, while 15% (3) showed central impairment of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function. Central impairment of the HPG axis was associated with impaired GH secretion in all cases. Central adrenal insufficiency was not observed. Basal levels of prolactin were normal in all subjects. Young age at treatment was a determinant of GH deficiency in adulthood (P = 0.014). Neither post-treatment interval, nor the use of chemotherapy were determinants of central endocrine impairment in adulthood. In long-term survivors of medulloblastoma, GH deficiency has a high prevalence. In contrast, impairment of the HPG and HPT axis is less common, while central adrenal insufficiency was not observed.

  6. Impact of aerobic training on immune-endocrine parameters, neurotrophic factors, quality of life and coordinative function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Gold, Stefan M; Witte, Jan; Bartsch, Katharina; Lang, Undine E; Hellweg, Rainer; Reer, Rüdiger; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Heesen, Christoph

    2004-10-15

    In recent years it has become clear that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training but little is known about the effect on functional domains and physiological factors mediating these effects. We studied immunological, endocrine and neurotrophic factors as well as coordinative function and quality of life during an 8-week aerobic bicycle training in a waitlist control design. In the immune-endocrine study (1) 28 patients were included, the coordinative extension study (2) included 39 patients. Training was performed at 60% VO(2)max after determining individual exertion levels through step-by-step ergometry. Metabolic (lactate), endocrine (cortisol, adrendocortico-releasing hormone, epinephrine, norepinephrine), immune (IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor), and neurotrophic (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF)) parameters were compared from a prestudy and a poststudy endurance test at 60% VO(2)max for 30 min. In study (1), lowered lactate levels despite higher workload levels indicated a training effect. Disease-specific quality of life (as measured by the Hamburg Quality of Life Questionnaire for Multiple Sclerosis, HAQUAMS) significantly increased in the training group. No significant training effects were seen for endocrine and immune parameters or neurotrophins. In study (2), two out of three coordinative parameters of the lower extremities were significantly improved. In summary, low-level aerobic training in MS improves not only quality of life but also coordinative function and physical fitness.

  7. Effect of temperament and prolonged transportation on endocrine and functional variables in young beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Fazio, E; Medica, P; Cravana, C; Cavaleri, S; Ferlazzo, A

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged transportation on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, total and free triiodothyronine (T(3), fT(3)) and thyroxine (T(4), fT(4)) concentrations, and functional variables (heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT)) in calm and temperamental Limousin young beef bulls. Exit velocity measurement was used to classify bulls' temperament as calm (group I: consisted of eight slowest bulls) and temperamental (group II: consisted of five fastest bulls). Calm subjects showed an increase of ACTH (P<0.05) and T(4) (P<0.01) concentrations after transportation compared with before transportation values. Temperamental subjects showed higher ACTH (P<0.01) concentrations before transportation, and lower T(4) (P<0.05) and fT(4) (P<0.001) concentrations after transportation than calm subjects. Related to functional variables, temperamental young beef bulls showed a decrease of RT (P<0.05) after transportation compared with before values, higher RT (P<0.001) before transportation, and higher HR (P<0.001) and RR (P<0.01) after transportation than calm subjects. Data obtained suggest that longer periods of transportation could minimise the magnitude and duration of the endocrine and functional responses to stress of young beef bulls; such responses probably decrease or disappear during transport, in accordance with animal temperament.

  8. Fetal signaling through placental structure and endocrine function: illustrations and implications from a nonhuman primate model.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Julienne N

    2009-01-01

    The placenta is a transmitter of fetal need and fetal quality, interfacing directly with maternal physiology and ecology. Plasticity of placental structure and function across the developmental timeframe of gestation may serve as an important tool by which a fetus calibrates its growth to shifting maternal ecology and resource availability, and thereby signals its quality and adaptability to a changing environment. Signals of this quality may be conveyed by the size of the placental interface, an important marker of fetal access to maternal resources, or by production of placental insulin-like growth factor-II, a driver of fetoplacental growth. Litter size variation in the common marmoset monkey offers the opportunity to explore intrauterine resource allocation and placental plasticity in an important nonhuman primate model. Triplet marmosets are born at lower birth weights and have poorer postnatal outcomes and survivorship than do twins; triplet placentas differ in placental efficiency, microscopic morphology, and endocrine function. Through placental plasticity, triplet fetuses are able to adjust functional access to maternal resources in a way that allows pregnancy to proceed. However, the costs of such mechanisms may relate to reduced fetal growth and altered postnatal outcomes, with the potential to lead to adverse adult health consequences, suggesting an important link between the placenta itself and the developmental origins of health and disease.

  9. Renal function and endocrine responses to arm exercise in euhydrated individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Keiko; Ito, Tomoyuki; Goto, Masaki; Shimomatsu, Tomoya; Tajima, Fumihiro

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the renal and endocrine responses to arm exercise in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) under euhydration conditions (ad libitum drinking of water) and determined the physiological effects of exercise on renal function in these subjects. Eleven SCI (spinal lesions between T6 and L1, American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale A) and 14 able-bodied (AB) persons first rested for 1 h in a sitting position, before undergoing 2-h arm-crank ergometer exercise at 60% of maximum oxygen consumption followed by a 2-h recovery period. On another day, all subjects participated in a time control study (5 h of rest condition in sitting position). Urine and blood samples were collected hourly. There were no differences in mean blood pressure between the two groups. SCI patients showed attenuated increase in plasma adrenaline and increase in plasma aldosterone compared with AB controls, but similar changes in human atrial natriuretic polypeptide, plasma renin activity and plasma antidiuretic hormone following the exercise. Creatinine clearance, osmolal clearance, free water clearance and fractional excretion of Na(+) did not change during exercise in any of the subjects. These findings suggested that activated aldosterone and attenuated adrenaline responses during exercise in SCI could be due to adaptation to disordered sympathetic nervous system triggered to maintain renal function. The results showed no exercise-related adverse effects on renal function in hydrated subjects with SCI.

  10. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  11. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin receptors on cultured bovine adrenal fasciculata cells. Role of these peptides on adrenal cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Penhoat, A.; Chatelain, P.G.; Jaillard, C.; Saez, J.M.

    1988-06-01

    We have characterized insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin receptors in cultured bovine adrenal cells by binding and cross-linking affinity experiments. At equilibrium the dissociation constant and the number of binding sites per cell for IGF-I were 1.4 +/- (SE) 0.3 x 10(-9) M and 19,200 +/- 2,100, respectively. Under reduction conditions, disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I to one receptor complex with an Mr of 125,000. Adrenal cells also contain specific insulin receptors with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 10(-9) M. Under reduction conditions (/sup 125/I)iodo-insulin binds to one band with an approximate Mr of 125,000. IGF-I and insulin at micromolar concentrations, but not at nanomolar concentrations, slightly stimulated DNA synthesis, but markedly potentiated the mitogenic action of fibroblast growth factor. Adrenal cells cultured in a serum-free medium containing transferrin, ascorbic acid, and insulin (5 micrograms/ml) maintained fairly constant angiotensin-II (A-II) receptor concentration per cell and increased cAMP release on response to ACTH and their steroidogenic response to both ACTH and A-II. When the cells were cultured in the same medium without insulin, the number of A-II receptors significantly decreased to 65% and the increased responsiveness was blunted. Treatment of such cells for 3 days with increasing concentrations of IGF-I (1-100 ng/ml) produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in A-II receptors and enhanced the cAMP response (3- to 4-fold) to ACTH and the steroidogenic response (4- to 6-fold) to ACTH and A-II. These effects were time and dose dependent (ED50 approximately equal to 10(-9) M). Insulin at micromolar concentrations produced an effect similar to that of IGF-I, but at nanomolar concentrations the effect was far less.

  12. Evidence for chronic stress in captive but not free-ranging cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) based on adrenal morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Terio, Karen A; Marker, Laurie; Munson, Linda

    2004-04-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is highly endangered because of loss of habitat in the wild and failure to thrive in captivity. Cheetahs in zoos reproduce poorly and have high prevalences of unusual diseases that cause morbidity and mortality. These diseases are rarely observed in free-ranging cheetahs but have been documented in cheetahs that have been captured and held in captive settings either temporarily or permanently. Because captivity may be stressful for this species and stress is suspected as contributing to poor health and reproduction, this study aimed to measure chronic stress by comparing baseline concentrations of fecal corticoid metabolites and adrenal gland morphology between captive and free-ranging cheetahs. Additionally, concentrations of estradiol and testosterone metabolites were quantified to determine whether concentrations of gonadal steroids correlated with corticoid concentration and to assure that corticosteroids in the free-ranging samples were not altered by environmental conditions. Concetntrations of fecal corticoids, estradiol, and testosterone were quantified by radioimmunoassay in 20 free-ranging and 20 captive cheetahs from samples collected between 1994 and 1999. Concentrations of baseline fecal corticoids were significantly higher (p = 0.005) in captive cheetahs (196.08 +/- 36.20 ng/g dry feces) than free-ranging cheetahs (71.40 +/- 14.35 ng/g dry feces). Testosterone concentrations were lower in captive male cheetahs (9.09 +/- 2.84 ng/g dry feces) than in free-ranging cheetahs (34.52 +/- 12.11 ng/g dry feces), which suggests suppression by elevated corticoids in the captive males. Evidence for similar sulppression of estradiol concentrations in females was not present. Adrenal corticomedullary ratios were determined on midsagittal sections of adrenal glands from 13 free-ranging and 13 captive cheetahs obtained between 1991 and 2002. The degree of vacuolation of cortical cells in the zona fasciculata was graded for each animal

  13. Gender development in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a function of disorder severity.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Dolezal, Curtis; Baker, Susan W; Ehrhardt, Anke A; New, Maria I

    2006-12-01

    Prenatal-onset classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in 46,XX individuals is associated with variable masculinization/defeminization of the genitalia and of behavior, presumably both due to excess prenatal androgen production. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to extend the gender-behavioral investigation to the mildest subtype of 46,XX CAH, the non-classical (NC) variant, (2) to replicate previous findings on moderate and severe variants of 46,XX CAH using a battery of diversely constructed assessment instruments, and (3) to evaluate the utility of the chosen assessment instruments for this area of work. We studied 63 women with classical CAH (42 with the salt wasting [SW] and 21 with the simple virilizing [SV] variant), 82 women with the NC variant, and 24 related non-CAH sisters and female cousins as controls (COS). NC women showed a few signs of gender shifts in the expected direction, SV women were intermediate, and SW women most severely affected. In terms of gender identity, two SW women were gender-dysphoric, and a third had changed to male in adulthood. All others identified as women. We conclude that behavioral masculinization/defeminization is pronounced in SW-CAH women, slight but still clearly demonstrable in SV women, and probable, but still in need of replication in NC women. There continues a need for improved instruments for gender assessment.

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and the metabolic syndrome X of obesity.

    PubMed

    Gohil, B C; Rosenblum, L A; Coplan, J D; Kral, J G

    2001-07-01

    Obesity has negative health consequences related to fat distribution, particularly the central or visceral accumulation of fat. The major complications associated with visceral obesity, termed the "Metabolic Syndrome of Obesity," or "Syndrome X," are type II diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. As with certain mood disorders, the syndrome may be a consequence of neuroendocrine perturbations typically associated with chronic stress. Our work with bonnet macaque monkeys provides an animal model for the relationship between early stress, behavioral and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, and Syndrome X. During their infant's first half-year, mothers face a variable foraging demand (VFD), in which ample food varies unpredictably in the difficulty of its acquisition, and the offspring show persistent abnormalities in systems known to modulate stress and affective regulation. Early work on the bonnet macaque noted the emergence of a sample of spontaneously obese subjects as they matured. Using the VFD model, the current study showed that there was a clear relationship between early cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor levels and subsequently measured body mass index, supporting the hypotheses regarding the interactive roles of early experience and HPA axis dysregulation in the ontogeny of both metabolic and mood disorders.

  15. Drug-induced endocrine disorders in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Zachariah; Bandali, Farooq; McCowen, Karen; Malhotra, Atul

    2010-06-01

    The neuroendocrine response to critical illness is key to the maintenance of homeostasis. Many of the drugs administered routinely in the intensive care unit significantly impact the neuroendocrine system. These agents can disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, cause thyroid abnormalities, and result in dysglycemia. Herein, we review major drug-induced endocrine disorders and highlight some of the controversies that remain in this area. We also discuss some of the more rare drug-induced syndromes that have been described in the intensive care unit. Drugs that may result in an intensive care unit admission secondary to an endocrine-related adverse event are also included. Unfortunately, very few studies have systematically addressed drug-induced endocrine disorders in the critically ill. Timely identification and appropriate management of drug-induced endocrine adverse events may potentially improve outcomes in the critically ill. However, more research is needed to fully understand the impact of medications on endocrine function in the intensive care unit.

  16. Lithium attenuated the depressant and anxiogenic effect of juvenile social stress through mitigating the negative impact of interlukin-1β and nitric oxide on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.

    PubMed

    Haj-Mirzaian, A; Amiri, S; Kordjazy, N; Momeny, M; Razmi, A; Rahimi-Balaei, M; Amini-Khoei, H; Haj-Mirzaian, A; Marzban, H; Mehr, S E; Ghaffari, S H; Dehpour, A R

    2016-02-19

    The neuroimmune-endocrine dysfunction has been accepted as one of fundamental mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the involvement of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, interleukin-1β, and nitrergic system in mediating the negative behavioral impacts of juvenile social isolation stress (SIS) in male mice. We also investigated the possible protective effects of lithium on behavioral and neurochemical changes in socially isolated animals. Results showed that experiencing 4-weeks of juvenile SIS provoked depressive and anxiety-like behaviors that were associated with hyper responsiveness of HPA axis, upregulation of interleukin-1β, and nitric oxide (NO) overproduction in the pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus. Administration of lithium (10 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the depressant and anxiogenic effects of SIS in behavioral tests. Lithium also restored the negative effects of SIS on cortical and hippocampal interleukin-1β and NO as well as HPA axis deregulation. Unlike the neutralizing effects of l-arginine (NO precursor), administration of l-NAME (3 mg/kg) and aminoguanidine (20 mg/kg) potentiated the positive effects of lithium on the behavioral and neurochemical profile of isolated mice. In conclusion, our results revealed that juvenile SIS-induced behavioral deficits are associated with abnormalities in HPA-immune function. Also, we suggest that alleviating effects of lithium on behavioral profile of isolated mice may be partly mediated by mitigating the negative impact of NO on HPA-immune function.

  17. Endocrine and metabolic function in male Carioca High-conditioned Freezing rats.

    PubMed

    Mousovich-Neto, F; Lourenço, A L; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Corrêa da Costa, V M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Carioca High-conditioned Freezing rats (CHF) regarding their endocrine and metabolic backgrounds. We found an increase in serum corticosterone (CTRL: 96.7 ± 21.65 vs CHF: 292.0 ± 4 0.71 ng/ml) and leptin (CTRL: 9.5 ± 1.51 vs CHF: 19.2 ± 4.32 ng/ml). Serum testosterone (CTRL: 3.3 ± 0.29 vs CHF: 2.0 ± 0.28 ng/ml) and T3 (CTRL: 52.4 ± 2.74 vs CHF: 42.7 ± 2.94 ng/dl) were decreased in the CHF group, but serum TSH and T4 were unaffected. Body weight and food intake were unchanged, nevertheless retroperitoneal fat (CTRL: 2.2 ± 0.24 vs CHF: 4.8 ± 0.64 g) and epididymal fat (CTRL: 2.6 ± 0.20 vs CHF: 4.8 ± 0.37 g) depot weights were around 2-fold higher in CHF animals. BAT weight was similar in both groups. Serum triglycerides (CTRL: 41.4 ± 6.03 vs CHF: 83.2 ± 17.09 mg/dl) and total cholesterol (CTRL: 181.6 ± 5.61 vs CHF: 226.4 ± 13.04 mg/dl) were higher in the CHF group. Fasting glycemia (CTRL: 68.7 ± 3.04 vs CHF: 82.3 ± 2.99 mg/dl) was also higher in the CHF group, however glucose tolerance test response and serum insulin levels were similar between the groups. Oxygen consumption (CTRL: 10.5 ± 0.40 vs CHF: 7.9 ± 0.58 VO2ml/min/kg(0.75)) and BAT D2 activity (CTRL: 0.7 ± 0.17 vs CHF: 0.3 ± 0.04 fmolT4/min/mg ptn) were lower in the CHF group. Our data show that anxiety could impair endocrine and metabolic functions and may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases.

  18. Physiological and therapeutical roles of ginger and turmeric on endocrine functions.

    PubMed

    Al-Suhaimi, Ebtesam A; Al-Riziza, Noorah A; Al-Essa, Reham A

    2011-01-01

    The natural product ginger (Zingiber officinale) has active constituents gingerol, Shogaol and Zerumbone, while turmeric (Curcuma longa) contains three active major curcuminoids, namely, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. They have the same scientific classification and are reported to have anti-inflammatory and many therapeutic effects. This article reviews the physiological and therapeutic effects of ginger and turmeric on some endocrine gland functions, and signal pathways involved to mediate their actions. With some systems and adipose tissue, ginger and turmeric exert their actions through some/all of the following signals or molecular mechanisms: (1) through reduction of high levels of some hormones (as: T4, leptin) or interaction with hormone receptors; (2) by inhibition of cytokines/adipokine expression; (3) acting as a potent inhibitor of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzymes, which play an essential role between inflammation and progression of diseases; (4) mediation of their effects through the inhibition of signaling transcription factors; and/or (5) decrease the proliferative potent by down-regulation of antiapoptotic genes, which may suppress tumor promotion by blocking signal transduction pathways in the target cells. These multiple mechanisms of protection against inflammation and oxidative damage make ginger and curcumin particularly promising natural agents in fighting the ravages of aging and degenerative diseases, and need to be paid more attention by studies.

  19. Endocrine disrupters as obesogens

    PubMed Central

    Grün, Felix; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in obesity rates is an alarming global health trend that consumes an ever increasing portion of health care budgets in Western countries. The root cause of obesity is thought to be a prolonged positive energy balance. Hence, the major focus of preventative programs for obesity has been to target overeating and inadequate physical exercise. Recent research implicates environmental risk factors, including nutrient quality, stress, fetal environment and pharmaceutical or chemical exposure as relevant contributing influences. Evidence points to endocrine disrupting chemicals that interfere with the body's adipose tissue biology, endocrine hormone systems or central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as suspects in derailing the homeostatic mechanisms important to weight control. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms of action for these compounds and areas of future research needed to evaluate the significance of their contribution to obesity. PMID:19433244

  20. Opioids and endocrine dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The endocrine effects of opioids used for the management of persistent pain are poorly understood by clinicians and patients, and hormone levels are rarely measured. It is recognized that opioids exert this effect via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Additional effects on adrenal hormones, weight, blood pressure and bone density may also occur. Symptoms and signs of sex hormone deficiency occur in both men and women but are under-reported and are often clinically unrecognized. The potential effects of long term opioid therapy on the endocrine system should be explained to patients before opioid therapy is commenced. Monitoring of sex hormones is recommended; if there are deficiencies opioids should be tapered and withdrawn, if this is clinically acceptable. If opioid therapy has to continue, hormone replacement therapy should be initiated and monitored by an endocrinologist. PMID:26516462

  1. Thymus-Associated Parathyroid Hormone Has Two Cellular Origins with Distinct Endocrine and Immunological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhijie; Farley, Alison; Chen, Lizhen; Kirby, Beth J.; Kovacs, Christopher S.; Blackburn, C. Clare; Manley, Nancy R.

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of extracellular calcium and inorganic phosphorus homeostasis. Although the parathyroid glands were thought to be the only source of PTH, extra-parathyroid PTH production in the thymus, which shares a common origin with parathyroids during organogenesis, has been proposed to provide an auxiliary source of PTH, resulting in a higher than expected survival rate for aparathyroid Gcm2 −/− mutants. However, the developmental ontogeny and cellular identity of these “thymic” PTH–expressing cells is unknown. We found that the lethality of aparathyroid Gcm2 −/− mutants was affected by genetic background without relation to serum PTH levels, suggesting a need to reconsider the physiological function of thymic PTH. We identified two sources of extra-parathyroid PTH in wild-type mice. Incomplete separation of the parathyroid and thymus organs during organogenesis resulted in misplaced, isolated parathyroid cells that were often attached to the thymus; this was the major source of thymic PTH in normal mice. Analysis of thymus and parathyroid organogenesis in human embryos showed a broadly similar result, indicating that these results may provide insight into human parathyroid development. In addition, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) express PTH in a Gcm2-independent manner that requires TEC differentiation and is consistent with expression as a self-antigen for negative selection. Genetic or surgical removal of the thymus indicated that thymus-derived PTH in Gcm2 −/− mutants did not provide auxiliary endocrine function. Our data show conclusively that the thymus does not serve as an auxiliary source of either serum PTH or parathyroid function. We further show that the normal process of parathyroid organogenesis in both mice and humans leads to the generation of multiple small parathyroid clusters in addition to the main parathyroid glands, that are the likely source of physiologically relevant

  2. Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kai; Gomez Hernandez, Karen; Mete, Ozgur

    2015-03-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease.

  3. Corticomedullary mixed tumor of the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Wieneke, J A; Thompson, L D; Heffess, C S

    2001-10-01

    Corticomedullary mixed tumors of the adrenal gland are quite rare, with only five well-documented cases reported in the literature.(1-4) Herein, we report the light microscopic and immunohistochemical features of two cases of this rare tumor. Patient 1 is a 34-year-old woman who presented with hypertension, hair loss, and amenorrhea of 1-year duration. Patient 2 is a 52-year-old woman who presented with flank pain and what appeared to be a renal mass on arteriogram with no history of hypertension, Cushing's syndrome, or other endocrine abnormalities. At surgery, the tumor was noted to arise from the adrenal gland rather than the kidney and adrenalectomy was performed. In both cases, the surgically resected specimens consisted of a well-circumscribed, single adrenal mass surrounded by a rim of uninvolved adrenal cortical tissue. The tumors were composed of adrenal cortical cells intimately admixed with pheochromocytes. Immunohistochemical studies highlighted these two cellular components. The pheochromocytes were strongly reactive with chromogranin and the sustentacular cells with S-100 protein, whereas the adrenal cortical cells reacted specifically with inhibin. Thus, we report two additional cases of mixed corticomedullary tumor of the adrenal gland. Ann Diagn Pathol 5:304-308, 2001. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use.

  4. Endocrine function and bone disease during long-term chelation therapy with deferasirox in patients with β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Casale, Maddalena; Citarella, Serena; Filosa, Aldo; De Michele, Elisa; Palmieri, Francesco; Ragozzino, Alfonso; Amendola, Giovanni; Pugliese, Umberto; Tartaglione, Immacolata; Della Rocca, Filomena; Cinque, Patrizia; Nobili, Bruno; Perrotta, Silverio

    2014-12-01

    Iron overload in β-thalassemia major (TM) typically results in iron-induced cardiomyopathy, liver disease, and endocrine complications. We examined the incidence and progression of endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism, diabetes, hypoparathyroidism, hypogonadism), growth and pubertal delay, and bone metabolism disease during long-term deferasirox chelation therapy in a real clinical practice setting. We report a multicenter retrospective cohort study of 86 transfusion-dependent patients with TM treated with once daily deferasirox for a median duration of 6.5 years, up to 10 years. No deaths or new cases of hypothyroidism or diabetes occurred. The incidence of new endocrine complications was 7% (P = 0.338, for change of prevalence from baseline to end of study) and included hypogonadism (n = 5) and hypoparathyroidism (n = 1). Among patients with hypothyroidism or diabetes at baseline, no significant change in thyroid parameters or insulin requirements were observed, respectively. Mean lumbar spine bone mineral density increased significantly (P < 0.001) and the number of patients with lumbar spine osteoporosis significantly decreased (P = 0.022) irrespective of bisphosphonate therapy, hormonal replacement therapy, and calcium or vitamin D supplementation. There were no significant differences in the number of pediatric patients below the 5th centile for height between baseline and study completion. Six pregnancies occurred successfully, and four of them were spontaneous without ovarian stimulation. This is the first study evaluating endocrine function during the newest oral chelation therapy with deferasirox. A low rate of new endocrine disorders and a stabilization of those pre-exisisting was observed in a real clinical practice setting.

  5. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  6. Adrenal Pathology in the Adult: A Urological Pathologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Donna E; Reuter, Victor E

    2016-09-01

    Adrenal gland diagnostics can pose significant challenges. In most academic and community practice settings, adrenal gland resections are encountered less frequently than other endocrine or genitourinary specimens, leading to less familiarity with evolving classifications and criteria. The unique dichotomy between cortical and medullary lesions reflects the developmental evolution of these functionally independent components. Adrenal cortical lesions at resection include hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma, with some cases straddling the boundary between these distinct clinical classifications. The lack of immunohistochemical or molecular markers to definitively categorize these intermediate lesions enhances the diagnostic challenge. In addition, modified terminology for oncocytic and myxoid cortical lesions has been proposed. Medullary lesions are somewhat easier to categorize; however, the prediction of aggressive behavior in pheochromocytomas remains a challenge due to a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers. Recent work by the Cancer Genome Atlas Project and other research groups has identified a limited subset of molecular and signaling pathway alterations in these 2 major neoplastic categories. Ongoing research to better define prognostic and predictive biomarkers in cortical and medullary lesions has the potential to enhance both pathologic diagnosis and patient therapy.

  7. The agonistic adrenal: melatonin elicits female aggression via regulation of adrenal androgens

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Lauren M.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Demas, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    Classic findings have demonstrated an important role for sex steroids as regulators of aggression, but this relationship is lacking within some environmental contexts. In mammals and birds, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a non-gonadal precursor of biologically active steroids, has been linked to aggression. Although females, like males, use aggression when competing for limited resources, the mechanisms underlying female aggression remain understudied. Here, we propose a previously undescribed endocrine mechanism regulating female aggression via direct action of the pineal hormone melatonin on adrenal androgens. We examined this in a solitary hamster species, Phodopus sungorus, in which both sexes are highly territorial across the seasons, and display increased aggression concomitant with decreased serum levels of sex steroids in short ‘winter-like' days. Short- but not long-day females had increased adrenal DHEA responsiveness co-occurring with morphological changes in the adrenal gland. Further, serum DHEA and total adrenal DHEA content were elevated in short days. Lastly, melatonin increased DHEA and aggression and stimulated DHEA release from cultured adrenals. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that DHEA is a key peripheral regulator of aggression and that melatonin coordinates a ‘seasonal switch’ from gonadal to adrenal regulation of aggression by direct action on the adrenal glands. PMID:26582025

  8. The agonistic adrenal: melatonin elicits female aggression via regulation of adrenal androgens.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Nikki M; Rudolph, Lauren M; Sengelaub, Dale R; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-11-22

    Classic findings have demonstrated an important role for sex steroids as regulators of aggression, but this relationship is lacking within some environmental contexts. In mammals and birds, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a non-gonadal precursor of biologically active steroids, has been linked to aggression. Although females, like males, use aggression when competing for limited resources, the mechanisms underlying female aggression remain understudied. Here, we propose a previously undescribed endocrine mechanism regulating female aggression via direct action of the pineal hormone melatonin on adrenal androgens. We examined this in a solitary hamster species, Phodopus sungorus, in which both sexes are highly territorial across the seasons, and display increased aggression concomitant with decreased serum levels of sex steroids in short 'winter-like' days. Short- but not long-day females had increased adrenal DHEA responsiveness co-occurring with morphological changes in the adrenal gland. Further, serum DHEA and total adrenal DHEA content were elevated in short days. Lastly, melatonin increased DHEA and aggression and stimulated DHEA release from cultured adrenals. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that DHEA is a key peripheral regulator of aggression and that melatonin coordinates a 'seasonal switch' from gonadal to adrenal regulation of aggression by direct action on the adrenal glands.

  9. Association of adrenal medullar and cortical nodular hyperplasia: a report of two cases with clinical and morpho-functional considerations.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Gloria; Roessler, Eric; Salazar, Iván; Rosenberg, Helmar; Fardella, Carlos; Martínez, Pedro; Velasco, Alfredo; Velasco, Soledad; Orellana, Pilar

    2006-12-01

    Arterial hypertension of adrenal etiology is mainly attributed to primary hyperaldosteronism. However, subtle expressions of hyperadrenergic or glucocorticoid excess can also generate arterial hypertension. The present report describes two hypertensive patients cataloged as resistant essential hypertensives, in whom adrenal masses were found incidentally, who highlight the need to recognize these tenuous clinical or laboratory presentations. Case 1 was a 50-yr-old female with hyperadrenergic hypertension associated to a left adrenal node, normal cortisol and aldosterone:renin ratio, marginally increased urinary normetanephrine, and a positive 131I MIBG radioisotope scan. Adrenalectomy normalized blood pressure and urinary metanephrines. Pathology showed a hyperplastic adrenal medulla associated to a multinodular cortical hyperplasia. Case 2 was a 62- yr-old female with progressive hypertension, a slight Cushing phenotype, non-suppressible hypercortisolism, normal urinary metanephrines, and bilateral adrenal nodes. Bilateral adrenalectomy and subsequent replacement normalized blood pressure and phenotypic stigmata. Pathology demonstrated bilateral cortical multinodular hyperplasia and medullary hyperplasia. The clinical study in both patients was negative for MEN. The apparently rare association of cortical and medullary lesions presented by both patients is probably overlooked in routine pathology exams, but should be meticulously searched since the crosstalk between the adrenal cortex and medulla may prompt dual abnormalities.

  10. Circadian rhythm of the Leydig cells endocrine function is attenuated during aging.

    PubMed

    Baburski, Aleksandar Z; Sokanovic, Srdjan J; Bjelic, Maja M; Radovic, Sava M; Andric, Silvana A; Kostic, Tatjana S

    2016-01-01

    Although age-related hypofunction of Leydig cells is well illustrated across species, its circadian nature has not been analyzed. Here we describe changes in circadian behavior in Leydig cells isolated from adult (3-month) and aged (18- and 24-month) rats. The results showed reduced circadian pattern of testosterone secretion in both groups of aged rats despite unchanged LH circadian secretion. Although arrhythmic, the expression of Insl3, another secretory product of Leydig cells, was decreased in both groups. Intracellular cAMP and most important steroidogenic genes (Star, Cyp11a1 and Cyp17a1), together with positive steroidogenic regulator (Nur77), showed preserved circadian rhythm in aging although rhythm robustness and expression level were attenuated in both aged groups. Aging compromised cholesterol mobilization and uptake by Leydig cells: the oscillatory transcription pattern of genes encoding HDL-receptor (Scarb1), hormone sensitive lipase (Lipe, enzyme that converts cholesterol esters from lipid droplets into free cholesterol) and protein responsible for forming the cholesterol esters (Soat2) were flattened in 24-month group. The majority of examined clock genes displayed circadian behavior in expression but only a few of them (Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Per3 and Rev-Erba) were reduced in 24-month-old group. Furthermore, aging reduced oscillatory expression pattern of Sirt1 and Nampt, genes encoding key enzymes that connect cellular metabolism and circadian network. Altogether circadian amplitude of Leydig cell's endocrine function decreased during aging. The results suggest that clock genes are more resistant to aging than genes involved in steroidogenesis supporting the hypothesis about peripheral clock involvement in rhythm maintenance during aging.

  11. Occult adrenal insufficiency in surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hubay, C A; Weckesser, E C; Levy, R P

    1975-01-01

    Eight patients admitted to a University hospital with acute surgical problems and related adrenal insufficiency were reviewed and three are presented in detail. Surgical stress and continued sepsis played major roles in the lack of responsiveness to usual modes of therapy until the adrenal insufficiency was corrected. The patients fell into three major clinical categories of adrenal insufficiency. Chronic illness and sepsis are shown to affect steroid production and metabolism, as well as adrenal responsiveness to ACTH. Pharmacologic amounts of steroids are often needed in patients with shock, gram negative sepsis and prolonged illnesses, even if normal or elevated serum cortisols are present. Therapeutic trials of cortisol administration are shown to be confusing when not accompanied by easily performed diagnostic tests of adrenal function. It is emphasized that a pretreatment serum cortisol should be obtained whenever possible. The evaluation of adrenal function is of lifelong importance to the patient. PMID:165792

  12. [Genetics and phenogenetics of hormonal characteristics of animals. VIII. Analysis of the variability of the corticosteroid function of the adrenal cortex of silver foxes during their domestication].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, D K; Os'kina, I N; Trut, L N; Bazhan, N M

    1988-04-01

    The contribution of genetic and environmental components in phenotype variety of corticosteroid adrenal function was studied in undomesticated and domesticated silver foxes during postnatal ontogenesis. The variation of basal and stress plasma corticosteroid level in animals aged 2, 4, 6, 8 months and in vitro secretion of the adrenal gland at the age 8 months was analysed. Significant genotype-depended variability was only demonstrated in undomesticated foxes under stress stimulation conditions. This phenomenon is manifested from the fourth month of life. However, significant genotype-depended variability was already revealed under basal conditions in domesticated foxes, on initial steps of postnatal ontogenesis. The peculiarities of genetic variability of adrenocortical function in foxes selected for domestication are discussed.

  13. Developmental and Contextual Considerations for Adrenal and Gonadal Hormone Functioning During Adolescence: Implications for Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone–behavior associations during key developmental transitions. PMID:24729154

  14. Spatial function in adolescents and young adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: clinical phenotype and implications for the androgen hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Rovet, Joanne F

    2015-04-01

    Females with the classic form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are said to perform better than unaffected female controls on tests of mental rotation or other visuospatial abilities, but findings are conflicting. We studied 31 adolescents and young adults with CAH and 19 unaffected sibling controls, who were given standardized spatial tests and tests of other sexually differentiated cognitive functions (verbal fluency, perceptual speed). The possible role of CAH subtype (salt-wasting or simple-virilizing) was evaluated. Only females with the more severe, salt-wasting form of CAH, but not females with the simple-virilizing form, performed significantly better than sex-matched sibling controls on measures of mental rotation. Subtype differences were not significant for verbal fluency or perceptual speed. Severity of prenatal genital virilization, but not postnatal age when medication was started, predicted accuracy on the Mental Rotations Test. Results are consistent with the possibility of an organizational effect of androgens in the central nervous system that impacts the development of spatial abilities. Implications for the timing of the hypothetical critical period are discussed.

  15. Developmental and contextual considerations for adrenal and gonadal hormone functioning during adolescence: Implications for adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Essex, Marilyn J; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-01

    Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone-behavior associations during key developmental transitions.

  16. Integration of endocrine and mechanical signals in the regulation of myometrial functions during pregnancy and labour.

    PubMed

    Shynlova, Oksana; Tsui, Prudence; Jaffer, Shabana; Lye, Stephen J

    2009-05-01

    In this review, we describe a new model to explain the regulation of myometrial function during pregnancy and labour. We propose that the myometrium undergoes dramatic changes in phenotype from early pregnancy until the onset of labour, characterized by an early proliferative phase, an intermediate phase of cellular hypertrophy and matrix elaboration, a third phase in which the cells assume a contractile phenotype and the final phase in which cells become highly active and committed to labour. The last phase of myometrial differentiation is postpartum uterine involution, completing the reproductive cycle following pregnancy and labour by returning the uterus to its non-pregnant receptive state. We further propose that phenotypic modulation of the uterine myocytes is the result of integration of endocrine signals and mechanical stimulation of the uterus by the growing fetus. Our previous studies have shown that these signals are important in regulating the onset of labour and we now have indications that they regulate earlier myometrial smooth muscle differentiation. We show that the high rate of myometrial cell proliferation in early pregnancy which reflects important aspects of many smooth muscle populations during development. The proliferative phenotype was associated with dramatic changes in the expression of IGF family proteins and coincided with an up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic pathway. Preliminary evidence suggests that myometrial hyperplasia was controlled by the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. The modulation of the mTOR pathway by rapamycin blocked the proliferative activity of the uterine myocytes. The growth and remodeling of the myometrium during pregnancy was associated with increased synthesis of extra cellular matrix (ECM) proteins and their corresponding integrin receptors. Our results show a decrease in expression of fibrillar collagens and a coordinated temporal increase in expression of components of the basement membrane near term

  17. Functional and Morphological Changes in Endocrine Pancreas following Cola Drink Consumption in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aim We report the effects of long-term cola beverage drinking on glucose homeostasis, endocrine pancreas function and morphology in rats. Methods Wistar rats drank: water (group W), regular cola beverage (group C, sucrose sweetened) or “light” cola beverage (group L, artificially sweetened). After 6 months, 50% of the animals in each group were euthanized and the remaining animals consumed water for the next 6 months when euthanasia was performed. Biochemical assays, insulinemia determination, estimation of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), morphometry and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed in pancreas. Results Hyperglycemia (16%, p<0.05), CoQ10 (coenzyme-Q10) decrease (−52%,p<0.01), strong hypertriglyceridemia (2.8-fold, p<0.01), hyperinsulinemia (2.4 fold, p<0.005) and HOMA-IR increase (2.7 fold, p<0.01) were observed in C. Group C showed a decrease in number of α cells (−42%, p<0.01) and β cells (−58%, p<0.001) and a moderate increase in α cells’ size after wash-out (+14%, p<0.001). Group L showed reduction in β cells’ size (−9%, p<0.001) and only after wash-out (L12) a 19% increase in size (p<0.0001) with 35% decrease in number of α cells (p<0.01). Groups C and L showed increase in α/β-cell ratio which was irreversible only in C (α/β = +38% in C6,+30% in C12, p<0.001vs.W6). Regular cola induced a striking increase in the cytoplasmic expression of Trx1 (Thioredoxin-1) (2.25-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2.7-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001) and Prx2 (Peroxiredoxin-2) (3-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001). Light cola induced increase in Trx1 (3-fold) and Prx2 (2-fold) after wash-out (p<0.0001, L12 vs. W12). Conclusion Glucotoxicity may contribute to the loss of β cell function with depletion of insulin content. Oxidative stress, suggested by increased expression of thioredoxins and low circulating levels of CoQ10, may follow sustained hyperglycemia. A likely similar panorama may result from the effects of artificially

  18. A Case Report of Bilateral Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of Adrenal Glands With Adrenal Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Nagase, Mamiko; Takami, Saki; Araki, Asuka; Ishikawa, Nahoko; Koike, Chiaki; Shiina, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Riruke

    2016-12-01

    Adrenocortical carcinomas are relatively rare, but they are considered to be highly aggressive malignant tumors. Sarcomatoid carcinomas represent an even more aggressive type. Bilateral malignant adrenal tumors are extraordinary rare, except for those that represent metastatic spread from a primary neoplasm. Here we report a case of a 69-year-old woman who presented symptoms that raised strong suspicions of adrenal insufficiency. Bilateral adrenal masses, identified in the imaging study, were responsible for the clinical manifestation and surgically resected. Surgical specimens of the bilateral adrenal tumors shared histological features compatible with sarcomatoid carcinoma. It was very difficult to confirm that the sarcomatoid carcinomas were derived from the cortex of the adrenal glands, but careful morphological observation and the panel of antibodies used for immunohistochemistry made the diagnosis possible. This is the first report of sarcomatoid carcinomas involving both adrenal glands. It should be emphasized that sarcomatoid carcinoma can arise bilaterally from even functionally impaired adrenal glands.

  19. Short-term growth and adrenal function in children with asthma treated with inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane-134a.

    PubMed

    Wolthers, O D

    2006-12-01

    Inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) with the propellant hydrofluoroalkane-134a (HFA) has been designed to be equivalent in terms of safety to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-formulated metered dose inhalers (MDI). The aim was to assess whether BDP HFA MDI 100 microg twice daily was equivalent to BDP CFC MDI 100 microg twice daily in terms of effects on short-term lower leg growth rate (LLGR) and measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function. The study consisted of a randomized double-blind cross-over trial with three active, a run-in and two wash-out periods each consisting of 2 wk. The place of study was a secondary referral outpatient clinic. The subjects involved were 14 boys and 10 girls with asthma, aged 7-12 yr. They were all administered BDP HFA 100 microg, BDP CFC 100 microg and 200 microg twice daily. The outcome measures included LLGR and 24-h urine-free cortisol (UFC) and total cortisol metabolites (TCM). Mean (SD) LLGR during run-in and BDP HFA 100 microg, BDP CFC 100 microg and 200 microg twice daily periods were 0.43 (0.23), 0.09 (0.29), 0.10 (0.45) and 0.08 (0.27) mm/wk. The one-sided 97.5% confidence interval for the difference in LLGR between BDP HFA 100 microg and BDP CFC 100 microg was 0.24, thus, below the predefined criterion of 0.20 mm/week. Inter-period comparisons of active treatments showed no differences between means of LLGR, UFC or TCM. Though non-inferiority between BDP HFA and CFC 100 microg twice daily in terms of effects on LLGR was not found, equivalence was suggested by comparisons of LLGR during run-in and active treatments and by HPA function measures.

  20. Functional studies of novel CYP21A2 mutations detected in Norwegian patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Brønstad, Ingeborg; Breivik, Lars; Methlie, Paal; Wolff, Anette S B; Bratland, Eirik; Nermoen, Ingrid; Løvås, Kristian; Husebye, Eystein S

    2014-01-01

    In about 95% of cases, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by mutations in CYP21A2 gene encoding steroid 21-hydroxylase (21OH). Recently, we have reported four novel CYP21A2 variants in the Norwegian population of patients with CAH, of which p.L388R and p.E140K were associated with salt wasting (SW), p.P45L with simple virilising (SV) and p.V211M+p.V281L with SV to non-classical (NC) phenotypes. We aimed to characterise the novel variants functionally utilising a newly designed in vitro assay of 21OH enzyme activity and structural simulations and compare the results with clinical phenotypes. CYP21A2 mutations and variants were expressed in vitro. Enzyme activity was assayed by assessing the conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. PyMOL 1.3 was used for structural simulations, and PolyPhen2 and PROVEAN for predicting the severity of the mutants. The CYP21A2 mutants, p.L388R and p.E140K, exhibited 1.1 and 11.3% of wt 21OH enzyme activity, respectively, in vitro. We could not detect any functional deficiency of the p.P45L variant in vitro; although prediction tools suggest p.P45L to be pathogenic. p.V211M displayed enzyme activity equivalent to the wt in vitro, which was supported by in silico analyses. We found good correlations between phenotype and the in vitro enzyme activities of the SW mutants, but not for the SV p.P45L variant. p.V211M might have a synergistic effect together with p.V281L, explaining a phenotype between SV and NC CAH. PMID:24671123

  1. Visually induced nausea causes characteristic changes in cerebral, autonomic and endocrine function in humans

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Adam D; Ban, Vin F; Coen, Steven J; Sanger, Gareth J; Barker, Gareth J; Gresty, Michael A; Giampietro, Vincent P; Williams, Steven C; Webb, Dominic L; Hellström, Per M; Andrews, Paul L R; Aziz, Qasim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An integrated understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in the genesis of nausea remains lacking. We aimed to describe the psychophysiological changes accompanying visually induced motion sickness, using a motion video, hypothesizing that differences would be evident between subjects who developed nausea in comparison to those who did not. A motion, or a control, stimulus was presented to 98 healthy subjects in a randomized crossover design. Validated questionnaires and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were used for the assessment of anxiety and nausea. Autonomic and electrogastrographic activity were measured at baseline and continuously thereafter. Plasma vasopressin and ghrelin were measured in response to the motion video. Subjects were stratified into quartiles based on VAS nausea scores, with the upper and lower quartiles considered to be nausea sensitive and resistant, respectively. Twenty-eight subjects were exposed to the motion video during functional neuroimaging. During the motion video, nausea-sensitive subjects had lower normogastria/tachygastria ratio and cardiac vagal tone but higher cardiac sympathetic index in comparison to the control video. Furthermore, nausea-sensitive subjects had decreased plasma ghrelin and demonstrated increased activity of the left anterior cingulate cortex. Nausea VAS scores correlated positively with plasma vasopressin and left inferior frontal and middle occipital gyri activity and correlated negatively with plasma ghrelin and brain activity in the right cerebellar tonsil, declive, culmen, lingual gyrus and cuneus. This study demonstrates that the subjective sensation of nausea is associated with objective changes in autonomic, endocrine and brain networks, and thus identifies potential objective biomarkers and targets for therapeutic interventions. Key points Nausea is a highly individual and variable experience. The reasons for this variability are incompletely understood although

  2. Myth vs. Fact: Adrenal Fatigue

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  3. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kiriyama, Yoshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors. H2S generated from D-cysteine reduces disulfide bonds in receptors and potentiates their activity. Aberrant receptor activity is related to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are detected in parts of the endocrine system, such as the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and testis. D-Aspartate is being investigated for the regulation of hormone release from various endocrine organs. Here we focused on recent findings regarding the synthesis and physiological functions of D-amino acids in the nervous and endocrine systems. PMID:28053803

  4. Inpatient hyponatraemia: adequacy of investigation and prevalence of endocrine causes.

    PubMed

    Tzoulis, Ploutarchos; Bouloux, Pierre Marc

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the effect of endocrine input on the investigation of hyponatraemia and examined the prevalence of endocrine causes of hyponatraemia. This single-centre, retrospective study included 139 inpatients (median age, 74 years) with serum sodium (Na) levels ≤128 mmol/l during hospitalisation at a UK teaching hospital over a three-month period. In total, 61.9% of patients underwent assessment of volume status and 28.8% had paired serum and urine osmolality, and Na measured. In addition, 14.4% of patients received endocrine input; 80% of these patients underwent full work-up of hyponatraemia compared with 5% of patients not referred to endocrine services (p < 0.001; relative risk, 15.86; 95% confidence interval, 7.17-31.06). The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency was 0.7%, but basal serum cortisol levels were not measured in around two-thirds of patients. Despite 26.7% of patients having abnormal thyroid function tests, no patient was diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism. More widespread provision of expert input should be considered.

  5. Occult endocrine dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis of liver

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. V. S. Hari; Pawah, A. K.; Manrai, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Background: Liver dysfunction leads to endocrine disturbance due to the alteration in protein metabolism or synthesis. We studied the presence of occult endocrine dysfunction in liver cirrhosis and compared the same with underlying etiology. Materials and Methods: We evaluated thirty patients with liver cirrhosis in this cross-sectional, observational study. All subjects were assessed for pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, and gonadal function. The patients were divided into Group 1 (cirrhosis, n = 30) and Group 2 (controls, n = 15) and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The study participants (20 males, 10 females) had a mean age of 54.5 ± 12.4 years and duration of the cirrhosis 5.1 ± 2.7 years. Four patients were in Child Class A, 11 and 15 patients were in Child Classes B and C, respectively. Eleven out of thirty patients (37%) had endocrine disorders, that include subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 3), primary hypothyroidism (n = 1), Sick Euthyroid syndrome (n = 3), central hypothyroidism (n = 2), secondary hypogonadism (n = 3) and growth hormone deficiency in three patients. Two patients had partial hypopituitarism and one patient had complete hypopituitarism. Conclusion: Occult endocrine dysfunction of thyroid and gonadal axes is common in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. The hormonal abnormalities are not different based on the etiology of the cirrhosis. PMID:28217586

  6. Long-term endocrine sequelae after treatment of medulloblastoma: prospective study of growth and thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Oberfield, S E; Allen, J C; Pollack, J; New, M I; Levine, L S

    1986-02-01

    Endocrine evaluations were performed prospectively in 22 patients with medulloblastoma (ages 2 1/2 to 23 1/2 years at diagnosis), after craniospinal radiation with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. The mean craniospinal hypothalamic-pituitary). and thyroid radiation doses were 3600 and 2400 rads, respectively. Fourteen (73%) of 19 patients who had not yet completed their growth experienced a decrease in growth velocity. However, only three of 10 of these children, who underwent growth hormone stimulation tests, had evidence of deficient growth hormone responses, suggesting that growth hormone secretory or regulatory dysfunction, rather than absolute growth hormone deficiency, is present in the majority of these children. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were noted in 15 of 22 patients; one patient had hypothalamic hypothyroidism. Thus, the late effects of therapy for medulloblastoma include frequent endocrine morbidity involving hypothalamic-pituitary and thyroid dysfunction.

  7. Adrenal myelolipoma: Controversies in its management

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vasanth G.; Thota, Anuroop; Shankar, Ravi; Desai, Mallikarjun G.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipomas (AMLs) are rare, benign neoplasms of the adrenal gland with varied clinical presentations. The rarity of these tumors precludes any case-controlled or randomized study into their management. The available literature is limited to case reports and short series from referral centers. This review is an effort to put the available literature into perspective such that clinical decision making can be done with some clarity. The PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched with key words Adrenal Myelolipoma, Adrenal Incidentaloma (AI) and Adrenal Collision Tumor (ACT). From over 1300 search results, 547 relevant publications dating from 1954 to 2014 were reviewed. Details of about 1231 AMLs in the indexed literature were analyzed. Increasing usage of imaging studies has significantly increased the discovery of AMLs. Although AMLs are benign tumors, those measuring larger than 6 cm are prone to rupture and hemorrhage. Thorough endocrine work-up may benefit a selected group of patients, especially those who are hypertensive, diabetic/pre-diabetic, young patients (<50 years) and those with bilateral AML. Regular observation is needed for AML patients who are being treated non-operatively, as many of them may require surgery during follow-up. Although the AACE/AAES guidelines for AI (2009) exclude AML from mandatory metabolic work-up for a newly discovered AI, we feel that a significant number of patients with AML would benefit from metabolic work-up. In the literature, endocrine dysfunction in AML is 7% as compared with 11% in AI. Endocrine dysfunction in AML is probably underdiagnosed. PMID:25878407

  8. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  9. Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated In Vitro From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Devices In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ambruzs, Dana M.; Moorman, Mark A.; Bhoumik, Anindita; Cesario, Rosemary M.; Payne, Janice K.; Kelly, Jonathan R.; Haakmeester, Carl; Srijemac, Robert; Wilson, Alistair Z.; Kerr, Justin; Frazier, Mauro A.; Kroon, Evert J.; D’Amour, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    The PEC-01 cell population, differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), contains pancreatic progenitors (PPs) that, when loaded into macroencapsulation devices (to produce the VC-01 candidate product) and transplanted into mice, can mature into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells and other pancreatic endocrine cells involved in glucose metabolism. We modified the protocol for making PEC-01 cells such that 73%–80% of the cell population consisted of PDX1-positive (PDX1+) and NKX6.1+ PPs. The PPs were further differentiated to islet-like cells (ICs) that reproducibly contained 73%–89% endocrine cells, of which approximately 40%–50% expressed insulin. A large fraction of these insulin-positive cells were single hormone-positive and expressed the transcription factors PDX1 and NKX6.1. To preclude a significant contribution of progenitors to the in vivo function of ICs, we used a simple enrichment process to remove remaining PPs, yielding aggregates that contained 93%–98% endocrine cells and 1%–3% progenitors. Enriched ICs, when encapsulated and implanted into mice, functioned similarly to the VC-01 candidate product, demonstrating conclusively that in vitro-produced hESC-derived insulin-producing cells can mature and function in vivo in devices. A scaled version of our suspension culture was used, and the endocrine aggregates could be cryopreserved and retain functionality. Although ICs expressed multiple important β cell genes, the cells contained relatively low levels of several maturity-associated markers. Correlating with this, the time to function of ICs was similar to PEC-01 cells, indicating that ICs required cell-autonomous maturation after delivery in vivo, which would occur concurrently with graft integration into the host. Significance Type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects approximately 1.25 million people in the U.S. alone and is deadly if not managed with insulin injections. This paper describes the production of insulin

  10. Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Ansah, Eunice Oparebea; Kyei, Ishmael

    2017-01-01

    Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0) with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64) years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population. PMID:28326101

  11. Enhancing offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation via systematic novelty exposure: the influence of maternal HPA function.

    PubMed

    Dinces, Sarah M; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S; Tang, Akaysha C

    2014-01-01

    In the rat, repeated brief exposures to novelty early in life can induce long-lasting enhancements in adult cognitive, social, emotional, and neuroendocrine function. Family-to-family variations in these intervention effects on adult offspring are predicted by the mother's ability to mount a rapid corticosterone (CORT) response to the onset of an acute stressor. Here, in Long-Evans rats, we investigated whether neonatal and adulthood novelty exposure, each individually and in combination, can enhance offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation. Using a 2 × 2 within-litter design, one half of each litter were exposed to a relatively novel non-home environment for 3-min (Neo_Novel) daily during infancy (PND 1-21) and the other half of the litter remained in the home cage (Neo_Home); we further exposed half of these two groups to early adulthood (PND 54-63) novelty exposure in an open field and the remaining siblings stayed in their home cages. Two aspects of HPA regulation were assessed: the ability to maintain a low level of resting CORT (CORTB) and the ability to mount a large rapid CORT response (CORTE) to the onset of an acute stressor. Assessment of adult offspring's ability to regulate HPA regulation began at 370 days of age. We further investigated whether the novelty exposure effects on offspring HPA regulation are sensitive to the context of maternal HPA regulation by assessing maternal HPA regulation similarly beginning 7 days after her pups were weaned. We found that at the population level, rats receiving neonatal, but not early adulthood exposure or both, showed a greater rapid CORTE than their home-staying siblings. At the individual family level, these novelty effects are positively associated with maternal CORTE. These results suggest that early experience of novelty can enhance the offspring's ability to mount a rapid response to environmental challenge and the success of such early life intervention is critically dependent upon the

  12. Acupuncture Relieves the Excessive Excitation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axis Function and Correlates with the Regulatory Mechanism of GR, CRH, and ACTHR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Qie, Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    It had been indicated in the previous studies that acupuncture relieved the excessive excitation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis (HPAA) function induced by stress stimulation. But the changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) induced by acupuncture have not been detected clearly. The objective of the study was to observe the impacts of acupuncture on the protein expressions of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR), and GR under the physiological and stress states. The results showed that under the stress state, acupuncture upregulated the protein expression of GR in the hippocampus, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and pituitary gland, downregulated the protein expression of GR in the adrenal cortex, and obviously reduced the protein expressions of CRH and ACTHR. Under the physiological state, acupuncture promoted GR protein expression in the hippocampus and CRH protein expression in the hippocampus and PVN. The results explained that acupuncture regulated the stress reaction via promoting the combination of glucocorticoids (GC) with GR, and GR protein expression. The increase of GR protein expression induced feedback inhibition on the overexpression of CRH and ACTHR, likely decreased GC level, and caused the reduction of GR protein expression in the adrenal cortex.

  13. Noncoding RNAs in endocrine malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kentwell, Jessica; Gundara, Justin S; Sidhu, Stan B

    2014-05-01

    Only recently has it been uncovered that the mammalian transcriptome includes a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. Among numerous kinds of ncRNAs, short noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs, have been extensively investigated with regard to their biogenesis, function, and importance in carcinogenesis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have only recently been implicated in playing a key regulatory role in cancer biology. The deregulation of ncRNAs has been demonstrated to have important roles in the regulation and progression of cancer development. In this review, we describe the roles of both short noncoding RNAs (including microRNAs, small nuclear RNAs, and piwi-interacting RNAs) and lncRNAs in carcinogenesis and outline the possible underlying genetic mechanisms, with particular emphasis on clinical applications. The focus of our review includes studies from the literature on ncRNAs in traditional endocrine-related cancers, including thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine malignancies. The current and potential future applications of ncRNAs in clinical cancer research is also discussed, with emphasis on diagnosis and future treatment.

  14. Adrenal Steroidogenesis and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for over 90% of CAH cases and when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. This review discusses in detail the epidemiology, genetics, diagnostic, clinical aspects and management of 21OHD. PMID:26038201

  15. How Is Adrenal Surgery Performed?

    MedlinePlus

    HOME ADRENAL GLANDS Background Where are the adrenal glands? What do the adrenal glands do? Is this adrenal tumor a genetic problem? Primary hyperaldosteronism (aldosterone-producing tumor) What is primary hyperaldosteronism? Signs ...

  16. Clonidine-induced suppression of plasma catecholamines in states of adrenal medulla hyperfunction.

    PubMed

    Gross, M D; Shapiro, B; Sisson, J C; Zweifler, A

    1987-08-01

    To assess adrenal medulla activity in states of hyperfunction, a single 0.3 mg oral dose of clonidine hydrochloride (Catapres) was given to twelve patients with varying evidence of familial adrenal medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytomas from kindreds with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2 syndrome (MEN-2), seven patients with sporadic pheochromocytomas and six normal subjects. Mean arterial blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels were lower than baseline values 2 h after clonidine in the normal subjects. Plasma epinephrine (E) rose in one normal but fell in the remainder after clonidine administration. In sporadic pheochromocytoma patients, E fell slightly in 4 and NE fell in 3 while mean arterial blood pressure was not significantly lower than baseline values in 7 patients 2 h after clonidine. In MEN-2, mean arterial blood pressure fell and there was a variable response of plasma E and NE to clonidine, which appears to be related to the presence of detectable anatomic (CT scan) and functional (131I-mlBG scintigraphy) abnormalities of the adrenal medulla. These findings are thus compatible with the spectrum of adrenal medulla dysfunction and the presumed development of pheochromocytoma in this syndrome.

  17. Functions and dysfunctions of receptors for adrenal corticoids in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, A F; Ortí, E; Moses, D F; Magariños, A M; Coirini, H

    1987-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) have several known effects on the function of the nervous system, and GC receptors have been identified in regions responding to hormonal action. In the spinal cord, GC receptors have been characterized in vitro, which share several biochemical properties in common with receptors in better studied areas such as the hippocampus. Moreover, enzymes which are induced by GC in the hippocampus, such as glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase and ornithine decarboxylase, are also under specific GC control in the spinal cord. Yet GC receptors in the latter tissue divert from those in hippocampus during some in vivo as well as in vitro studies. In vivo, uptake of [3H]corticosterone by purified cell nuclei was 5-8-fold higher in the hippocampus as compared to the cord. In vitro, a higher percentage of GC receptors previously transformed by heating, showed affinity towards DNA-cellulose in the spinal cord than in the hippocampus. The enzyme RNAse A effectively increased receptor binding to DNA-cellulose in hippocampus, whereas the cord was insensitive to its action. These results suggest that there is a "receptor dysfunction" in the spinal cord, the significance of which is poorly understood in terms of the accepted model of steroid hormone action.

  18. Endocrine Disruptors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and wildlife. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are thought to cause endocrine disruption, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and other pesticides, and plasticizers such as bisphenol A. Endocrine disruptors ...

  19. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  20. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  1. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... malignant. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  2. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System A A A ... is called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  3. Exposure to methylphenidate during peri-adolescence affects endocrine functioning and sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Guarraci, Fay A; Holifield, Caroline; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Greene, Kasera; Brown, Jeanette; Lopez, Rebecca; Crandall, Christina; Gibbs, Nicole; Vela, Rebekah; Delgado, Melissa Y; Frohardt, Russell J

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to test the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) exposure on the maturation of endocrine functioning and sexual behavior. Female rat pups received either MPH (2.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline twice daily between postnatal days 20-35. This period of exposure represents the time just prior to puberty as well as puberty onset. Approximately five weeks after the last injection of MPH or saline, female subjects were hormone-primed and tested during their first sexual experience. Subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male or a sexually receptive female rat (i.e., the partner-preference test). The partner-preference paradigm allows us to assess multiple aspects of female sexual behavior. MPH exposure during peri-adolescence delayed puberty and, when mated for the first time, affected sexual behavior (e.g., increased time spent with the male stimulus and decreased the likelihood of leaving after mounts) during the test of partner preference. When monitoring estrous cyclicity, female subjects treated with MPH during peri-adolescence frequently experienced irregular estrous cycles. The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli.

  4. Effects of sleep deprivation on autonomic and endocrine functions throughout the day and on exercise tolerance in the evening.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masaki; Endo, Naoya; Numao, Shigeharu; Takagi, Shun; Miyashita, Masashi; Midorikawa, Taishi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on autonomic and endocrine functions during the day and on exercise tolerance in the evening. Ten healthy young males completed two, 2-day control and sleep deprivation trials. For the control trial, participants were allowed normal sleep from 23:00 to 07:00 h. For the sleep deprivation trial, participants did not sleep for 34 h. Autonomic activity was measured from 19:00 h on day 1 to 16:00 h on day 2 by frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability. Endocrine function was examined by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol from venous blood samples collected on day 2 at 09:00, 13:00, and 17:00 h and immediately after an exercise tolerance testing. Autonomic regulation, particularly parasympathetic regulation estimated from the high-frequency component of heart rate variability analysis, was significantly higher in the sleep deprivation trial than in the control trial in the morning and afternoon of day 2. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations were significantly higher at 09:00 and 13:00 h of day 2 under sleep deprivation. Heart rate during exercise was significantly lower following sleep deprivation. Therefore, the effects of sleep deprivation on autonomic regulation depend on the time of the day.

  5. GABA Signaling and Neuroactive Steroids in Adrenal Medullary Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Inoue, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced not only in the brain, but also in endocrine cells by the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67. In rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells only GAD67 is expressed, and GABA is stored in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), but not synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The α3β2/3γ2 complex represents the majority of GABAA receptors expressed in rat and guinea pig chromaffin cells, whereas PC12 cells, an immortalized rat chromaffin cell line, express the α1 subunit as well as the α3. The expression of α3, but not α1, in PC12 cells is enhanced by glucocorticoid activity, which may be mediated by both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GABA has two actions mediated by GABAA receptors in chromaffin cells: it induces catecholamine secretion by itself and produces an inhibition of synaptically evoked secretion by a shunt effect. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid which is secreted from the adrenal cortex, produces a marked facilitation of GABAA receptor channel activity. Since there are no GABAergic nerve fibers in the adrenal medulla, GABA may function as a para/autocrine factor in the chromaffin cells. This function of GABA may be facilitated by expression of the immature isoforms of GAD and GABAA receptors and the lack of expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters (GATs). In this review, we will consider how the para/autocrine function of GABA is achieved, focusing on the structural and molecular mechanisms for GABA signaling. PMID:27147972

  6. Non-coding RNAs: Functions and applications in endocrine-related cancer.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Suresh, Padmanaban S; Tsutsumi, Rie

    2015-11-15

    A significant fraction of the human genome is transcribed as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). This non-coding transcriptome has challenged the notion of the central dogma and its involvement in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is well established. Interestingly, several ncRNAs are dysregulated in cancer and current non-coding transcriptome research aims to use our increasing knowledge of these ncRNAs for the development of cancer biomarkers and anti-cancer drugs. In endocrine-related cancers, for which survival rates can be relatively low, there is a need for such advancements. In this review, we aimed to summarize the roles and clinical implications of recently discovered ncRNAs, including long ncRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs, tRNA- and Y RNA-derived ncRNAs, and small nucleolar RNAs, in endocrine-related cancers affecting both sexes. We focus on recent studies highlighting discoveries in ncRNA biology and expression in cancer, and conclude with a discussion on the challenges and future directions, including clinical application. ncRNAs show great promise as diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets, but further work is necessary to realize the potential of these unconventional transcripts.

  7. Impact of study design on the evaluation of inhaled and intranasal corticosteroids' effect on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Ma, Lian; Pippins, Jennifer; Limb, Susan; Xu, Yun; Sahajwalla, Chandrahas G

    2014-10-01

    In part I of this review, an overview of the designs of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis studies in the setting of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or intranasal corticosteroids (INS) use was discussed. Part II provides detailed discussion on the HPA axis evaluation results for each common ICS and INS, and how these results are possibly affected by the factors of study design. Significant adrenal suppression at conventional ICS/INS doses appears to be rare in clinical settings. The magnitude of cortisol suppression varies widely among different study designs. Factors potentially impacting this variability include: the choice of dose, dosing duration, assay sensitivity, statistical methodology, study population, and compliance. All of these factors have the potential to affect the extent of HPA axis effects detected and should be considered when designing or interpreting the results of a HPA axis study.

  8. Functional-morphological parallels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system response reaction to long-term hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsvetov, Y. P.; Razin, S. I.; Rychko, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of 2 and 4 week hypokinesia regimens on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system (HPAS) was investigated in 110 inbred mice. Progressive exhaustion and pathological reorganization of the HPAS morphofunctional structures was revealed. On the basis of established facts of interlineary and interspecies differences in the HPAS response, it is suggested that the animal body response reaction to the long term effects of hypokinesia depends largely on its HPAS resistance and the values of this system's defensive adaptation potential.

  9. Bilateral adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with adrenal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R; Read, D

    2000-01-01

    A 74 year old women presented with lethargy and weight loss and was found to have profound adrenal insufficiency and bilateral adrenal mass lesions. Histological examination revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was no evidence of lymphoma outside the adrenal glands. Isolated bilateral adrenal masses may rarely be due to primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is often associated with adrenal insufficiency.


Keywords: lymphoma; adrenal insufficiency PMID:10908383

  10. Relative functions of Gαs and its extra-large variant XLαs in the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Bastepe, M

    2012-09-01

    Gαs is a ubiquitous signaling protein necessary for the actions of many neurotransmitters, hormones, and autocrine/paracrine factors. Loss-of-function mutations within the gene encoding Gαs, GNAS, are responsible for multiple human diseases, including Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy, progressive osseous heteroplasia, and pseudohypoparathyroidism. Gain-of-function mutations in the same gene are found in various endocrine and nonendocrine tumors and in patients with McCune-Albright Syndrome and fibrous dysplasia of bone. In addition to Gαs, GNAS gives rise to multiple additional coding and noncoding transcripts. Among those, XLαs is a paternally expressed product that is partially identical to Gαs. This article reviews the cellular actions of Gαs and XLαs, focusing on the significance of XLαs relative to Gαs in mammalian physiology and human disease.

  11. The Environmental Pollutant Tributyltin Chloride Disrupts the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis at Different Levels in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L; Sena, Gabriela C; de Araújo, Julia F P; Lima, Leandro C F; Alves, Izabela S S; Gama-de-Souza, Letícia N; Pelição, Renan; Rodrigues, Lívia C M; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Pires, Rita G W; Martins-Silva, Cristina; Alarcon, Tamara A; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Graceli, Jones B

    2016-08-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an environmental contaminant that is used as a biocide in antifouling paints. TBT has been shown to induce endocrine-disrupting effects. However, studies evaluating the effects of TBT on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are especially rare. The current study demonstrates that exposure to TBT is critically responsible for the improper function of the mammalian HPA axis as well as the development of abnormal morphophysiology in the pituitary and adrenal glands. Female rats were treated with TBT, and their HPA axis morphophysiology was assessed. High CRH and low ACTH expression and high plasma corticosterone levels were detected in TBT rats. In addition, TBT leads to an increased in the inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in the hypothalamus of TBT rats. Morphophysiological abnormalities, including increases in inflammation, a disrupted cellular redox balance, apoptosis, and collagen deposition in the pituitary and adrenal glands, were observed in TBT rats. Increases in adiposity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ protein expression in the adrenal gland were observed in TBT rats. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that TBT leads to functional dissociation between CRH, ACTH, and costicosterone, which could be associated an inflammation and increased of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in hypothalamus. Thus, TBT exerts toxic effects at different levels on the HPA axis function.

  12. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  13. Low-dose Bisphenol A Activates Cyp11a1 Gene Expression and Corticosterone Secretion in Adrenal Gland via the JNK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hsin-Chieh; Lin, I-Wen; Yang, Zhi-Jie; Lin, Jyun-Hong

    2015-11-01

    Certain commonly used compounds that interfere with the functions of the endocrine system are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Bisphenol A (BPA) is an EDC that is widely used in food containers. BPA levels in human sera are commonly observed to be approximately 1-100 nM. Compared with the effects of BPA on the gonads, its effects on the adrenal gland are poorly understood. To investigate the influence of BPA on steroidogenesis, we examined the activity of the steroidogenic gene Cyp11a1 and its regulatory pathways in mouse Y1 adrenal cortex cells. Treatment with BPA at < 100 µM did not cause cell death. However, increased promoter activity and protein expression of Cyp11a1 were induced by low doses of BPA (10-1000 nM). Moreover, BPA induced c-Jun phosphorylation, and a specific inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) significantly suppressed BPA-induced steroidogenesis. Thus, treatment of adrenal cells with low doses of BPA activated Cyp11a1 and increased corticosterone production through the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway. Identical results were observed in rats after BPA injection. The abnormal induction of hormone synthesis by BPA in the adrenal gland might be linked to human metabolic defects and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Phytosteroids beyond estrogens: Regulators of reproductive and endocrine function in natural products.

    PubMed

    Dean, Matthew; Murphy, Brian T; Burdette, Joanna E

    2017-02-15

    Foods and botanical supplements can interfere with the endocrine system through the presence of phytosteroids - chemicals that interact with steroids receptors. Phytoestrogens are well studied, but compounds such as kaempferol, apigenin, genistein, ginsenoside Rf, and glycyrrhetinic acid have been shown to interact with non-estrogen nuclear receptors. These compounds can have agonist, antagonist, or mixed agonist/antagonist activity depending on compound, receptor, cell line or tissue, and concentration. Some phytosteroids have also been shown to inhibit steroid metabolizing enzymes, resulting in biological effects through altered endogenous steroid concentrations. An interesting example, compound A (4-[1-chloro-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenyl acetate hydrochloride (1:1)) is a promising selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM) based on a phytosteroid isolated from Salsola tuberculatiformis Botschantzev. Given that $6.9 billion of herbal supplements are sold each year, is clear that further identification and characterization of phytosteroids is needed to ensure the safe and effective use of botanical supplements.

  15. Ovarian and placental morphology and endocrine functions in the pregnant giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Wilsher, S; Stansfield, F; Greenwood, R E S; Trethowan, P D; Anderson, R A; Wooding, F B W; Allen, W R

    2013-06-01

    Gross, histological and immunocytochemical examinations carried out on maternal and fetal reproductive tissues from two pregnant giraffes at an estimated 8 and 13.5 months of gestation (term=15 months) revealed a typically ruminant macrocotyledonary placenta with binucleate trophoblast cells scattered sparsely in the placentome where they stained intensely with a prolactin antiserum. Binucleate cells were present in greater numbers in the intercotyledonary allantochorion where they did not stain for prolactin whereas the uninucleate trophoblast still did. A single large corpus luteum of pregnancy and several small luteinised follicles were present in the maternal ovaries while the fetal ovaries at 13.5 months gestation showed an assortment of enlarging antral follicles and partially and completely lutenised follicles, the granulosa and luteal cells of which stained positively for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17,20 lyase, prolactin, progesterone receptor and androgen receptor, but negatively for aromatase. The uninucleate trophoblast of the placentome and intercotyledonary allantochorion, the epithelium of the maternal endometrial glands, the seminiferous epithelium in the fetal testis at 8 months of gestation and the zonae fasciculata and reticularis of the fetal adrenal at 13.5 months also stained positively for 3β-HSD and negatively for aromatase. Endocrinologically, it appears that the giraffe placenta is more similar to that of the sheep than the cow with a placental lactogen as the likely driver of the considerable degree of luteinisation seen in both the maternal and the fetal ovaries.

  16. Syndromes that Link the Endocrine System and Genitourinary Tract.

    PubMed

    Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs.

  17. [Pediatric emergency: adrenal insufficiency and adrenal crisis].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Alicia; Pasqualini, Titania; Stivel, Mirta; Heinrich, Juan Jorge

    2010-04-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is defined by impaired secretion of adrenocortical hormones. It is classified upon the etiology in primary and secondary. Rapid recognition and therapy of adrenocortical crisis are critical to survival. Patients often have nonspecific symptoms: anorexia, vomiting, weakness, fatigue and lethargy. They are followed by hypotension, shock, hypoglicemia, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. All patients with adrenal insufficiency require urgent fluid reposition, correction of hypoglycemia and glucocorticoid replacement, in order to avoid serious consequences of adrenal crisis. After initial crisis treatment, maintenance dose of corticoids should be indicated. Mineralocorticoids replacement, if necessary, should also be initiated.

  18. [Functional morphology of the adrenal cortex and incretory kidney structures in the salt-losing form of adrenogenital syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    Tsibel', B N; Padalko, N L

    1986-01-01

    The adrenals and kidney incretory structures (the juxtaglomerular apparatuses and renomedullary interstitial cells) were studied in 12 cases of a desalinization form of the adrenogenital syndrome in children who died at the age of 1-6 mos of acute water-electrolytic disturbances in order to assess function of the structures involved in the regulation of the water-salt equilibrium. The adrenals and kidneys from 7 children of the same age who died of mechanical asphyxia, were taken as controls. The depth of adrenocortical zones, volumes of nuclei and nucleoli in different cortical zones were determined; the juxtaglomerular index, cell count (including vacuolized cells), the area of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and mesangium were determined in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. The amount of cell lipid granules (the interstitial-cellular index), the mean granule volume and the total granule volume were counted in renomedullary interstitial cells. The results were statistically processed, and a paired correlation analysis of all the studied parameters was performed. In the desalinization form of the adrenogenital syndrome morphometric investigation of the glomerular and fascicular zones revealed compensatory processes, not of hyperplastic nature but mainly of hypertrophic nature; morphological and morphometric characteristics of the kidney incretory structures indicated tension of the renin-angiotensin system and probably a decrease in prostaglandin synthesis in salt and water loss. In the control group parameters of structures related to the regulation of the water-salt equilibrium, especially in the adrenal cortex, showed good correlation. In the desalinization form of the adrenogenital syndrome some other relationships between these structures developed.

  19. Clinical and Biochemical Data of Adult Thalassemia Major patients (TM) with Multiple Endocrine Complications (MEC) versus TM Patients with Normal Endocrine Functions: A long-term Retrospective Study (40 years) in a Tertiary Care Center in Italy

    PubMed Central

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elsedfy, Heba; Soliman, Ashraf T.; Elhakim, Ihab Zaki; Kattamis, Christos; Soliman, Nada A.; Elalaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the older generation of adult TM patients has a higher incidence of morbidities and co-morbidities. At present, little information is available on adult TM patients with multiple endocrine complications (MEC). The main objectives of this longitudinal retrospective survey were: 1) to establish the incidence and progression of MEC (3 or more) in TM patients; 2) to compare the clinical, laboratory and imaging data to a sex and age-matched group of TM patients without MEC; 3) to assess the influence of iron overload represented by serum ferritin (peak and mean annual value at the last endocrine observation). Patients and methods The study was started in January 1974 and was completed by the same physician at the end of December 2015. The registry database of the regularly followed TM patients from diagnosis included 145 adults (> 18 years). All TM patients were of Italian ethnic origin. Eleven out of 145 patients (7.5 %) developed MEC. Twenty-four other patients (12 females and 12 males) had a normal endocrine function (16.5 %) and served as controls. Results In our survey, four important, relevant aspects emerged in the MEC group. These included the late age at the start of chelation therapy with desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO); the higher serum ferritin peak (8521.8 ± 5958.9 vs 3575.2 ± 1801.4 ng/ml); the upper proportion of splenectomized (81.8 % vs. 28.5%) patients and poor compliance registered mainly during the peripubertal and pubertal age (72.7 % vs.16.6 %) in TM patients developing MEC versus those without endocrine complications. Furthermore, a negative correlation was observed in all TM patients between LIC and final height (r: −0.424; p = 0.031). Conclusions Our study supports the view that simultaneous involvement of more than one endocrine gland is not uncommon (7.5 %). It mainly occurred in TM patients who started chelation therapy with DFO late in life and who had irregular/poor compliance to treatment. Therefore

  20. Endothelial Cells from Bovine Adrenal Medulla Develop Capillary-Like Growth Patterns in Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Dipak K.; Ornberg, Richard L.; Youdim, Moussa B. H.; Heldman, Eli; Pollard, Harvey B.

    1985-07-01

    The endocrine barrier between chromaffin cells and the blood stream in the adrenal medulla is made of capillary endothelial cells. We have now succeeded in isolating endothelial cells from adrenal medullary tissue, which are probably derived from this barrier. These cells grow on plastic surfaces in the absence of special growth factors or collagen overlays and differentiate into organized structures quite similar to true capillaries. The cells contain factor VIII:R, a marker for endothelial cells, and form intercellular junctions characteristic of capillary endothelial cells. They also synthesize and secrete basal lamina structures and engage in transcytosis, a characteristic ultrastructural and functional combination of exocytosis and endocytosis across the thin endothelial cell processes. These endothelial cells can take up and deaminate catecholamines by A-type monoamine oxidase, an enzyme functionally distinct from the B-type monoamine oxidase found in chromaffin cells. These data indicate that the chromaffin cell and its endothelial cell neighbor may constitute the functional unit of catecholamine metabolism in the adrenal medulla.

  1. A case of adrenal Cushing’s syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ya-Wun; Hwu, Chii-Min; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Chu, Chia-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Summary A functional lesion in corticotrophin (ACTH)-independent Cushing’s syndrome is difficult to distinguish from lesions of bilateral adrenal masses. Methods for distinguishing these lesions include adrenal venous sampling and 131I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (131I-NP-59) scintigraphy. We present a case of a 29-year-old Han Chinese female patient with a history of hypercholesterolaemia and polycystic ovary syndrome. She presented with a 6month history of an 8kg body weight gain and gradual rounding of the face. Serial examinations revealed loss of circadian rhythm of cortisol, elevated urinary free-cortisol level and undetectable ACTH level (<5pg/mL). No suppression was observed in both the low- and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests. Adrenal computed tomography revealed bilateral adrenal masses. Adrenal venous sampling was performed, and the right-to-left lateralisation ratio was 14.29. The finding from adrenal scintigraphy with NP-59 was consistent with right adrenal adenoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, and the pathology report showed adrenocortical adenoma. Her postoperative cortisol level was 3.2μg/dL, and her Cushingoid appearance improved. In sum, both adrenal venous sampling and 131I-NP-59 scintigraphy are good diagnostic methods for Cushing’s syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses. Learning points The clinical presentation of Cushing’ syndrome includes symptoms and signs of fat redistribution and protein-wasting features. The diagnosis of patients with ACTH-independent Cushing’s syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses is challenging for localisation of the lesion. Both adrenal venous sampling and 131I-NP-59 scintigraphy are good methods to use in these patients with Cushing’s syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses. PMID:27252858

  2. miR-375 Negatively Regulates the Synthesis and Secretion of Catecholamines by Targeting Sp1 in Rat Adrenal Medulla.

    PubMed

    Gai, Yedan; Zhang, Jinglin; Wei, Chao; Cao, Wei; Cui, Yan; Cui, Sheng

    2017-03-29

    Adrenal gland is a crucial endocrine gland, and the most important function is to synthesize and secrete catecholamines (CATs) which play crucial roles in balancing homeostasis and the responding to stress. microRNA-375 (miR-375) has been detected to highly express in the adrenal, however its role and underlying mechanism are currently unclear. Herein, our results showed that miR-375 was specifically localized to the rat adrenal medulla chromaffin cells, and miR-375 expressing level decreased, when the rats were exposed to stress. The further functional studies demonstrated that the inhibition of endogenous miR-375 induced the secretion of CATs in primary rat medulla chromaffin cells and in PC12 cells, and over-expression of miR-375 resulted in decline of the CATs secretion. Furthermore, the results showed that miR-375 negatively regulated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and mediated adrenomedullary CATs biosynthesis. Sp1(a transcriptional activator of TH and DBH) was involved in mediating the regulation of TH and DBH as miR-375 direct target gene. These novel findings suggest that miR-375 acts as a potent negative mediator in regulating the synthesis and secretion of CATs in the adrenal medulla during the maintenance of homeostasis under stress.

  3. Exocrine and endocrine testicular function during the treatment of experimental orchitis and nonspecific orchoepididymitis by low-energy laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznikov, Leonid L.; Pupkova, Ludmila S.; Bell, H.; Murzin, Alexander G.

    1995-05-01

    Investigations into the biological effects of low-energy laser radiation (LLR) are characterized by a score of challenges, which are due primarily to a cascade of laser-induced and sometimes antagonistic processes. To investigate these processes on various biologic levels, we analyzed local and general effects of LLR on the exocrine and endocrine functions of the accessory sex glands in experimentally induced orchitis and orchoepididymitis in rabbits, and in clinical studies on male patients. The results indicate that LLR may alter the inflammatory response, including the exudative reaction, macrophage migration, and fibroblast activity. Furthermore, LLR may result in changes in serum concentrations of LH, FSH, and ACTH, prolactin, testosterone, cortisol and aldosterone. Some of these changes may be at least partially responsible for the well-known anti-inflammatory effects of LLR.

  4. Long-term effects of cranial irradiation on endocrine function in children with brain tumors. A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Duffner, P.K.; Cohen, M.E.; Voorhess, M.L.; MacGillivray, M.H.; Brecher, M.L.; Panahon, A.; Gilani, B.B.

    1985-11-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the endocrine function of 11 children treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) for brain tumors. All tumors were remote from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Children were studied before treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the completion of CRT. T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, plasma cortisol, and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone values were normal before and after treatment in all patients. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency was identified in 0 of 7 patients before treatment, in 2 of 7 patients 3 months post-CRT, in 9 of 11 patients 6 months post-CRT, and in 7 of 8 patients 12 months post-CRT. Growth deceleration was identified in five of seven prepubertal patients. GH deficiency is an extremely common sequelae of CRT, beginning as early as 3 months after the completion of CRT. The deficit is progressive over time.

  5. [Clinical and preclinical aspects of adrenal Cushing syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, B; Re, T; Passini, E; Peverelli, S; Sartorio, A; Colombo, P

    1995-03-01

    Cushing's syndrome of adrenal origin encompasses different entities: besides the occurrence of adenoma and carcinoma, a not homogeneous group includes the ACTH-independent macro- or micronodular bilateral hyperplasia and the familial pigmented nodular hyperplasia (Carney's syndrome). Moreover, isolated cases of immunological origin and food-dependence have recently described. On clinical grounds no major characteristics may help to identify the adrenal origin of Cushing's syndrome, except for few situations as carcinoma or nodular dysplasia. Laboratory investigations of patients with adrenocortical tumor are based on ACTH and cortisol determinations in basal conditions and in response to high dose dexamethasone and CRH tests. However, isolated diagnostic problems may occur, as the presence of a black adrenocortical adenoma or the uncommon persistence of a circadian rhythmicity of glucocorticoid secretion. The evaluation of new markers of bone turnover (BGP, ICTP) and of collagen turnover (PIIINP) confirms the existence of corticosteroid-induced bone and collagen damages and may also be a useful prognostic index after treatment. Although up to now food-dependent Cushing's syndrome appears to be very rare, the adrenocortical sensitivity to GIP has been investigated in patients with either pituitary Cushing's disease, or clinically silent adrenal masses. No evidence of GIP-dependent cortisol secretion during the peptide infusion or after endogenous stimulation by OGTT was observed in any case. Since the wide availability of sensitive and noninvasive imaging techniques (CT and NMR), in recent years the finding of incidentalomas has become fairly common. In patients with incidentaloma abnormalities of the endocrine function are frequently encountered, and the "preclinical" Cushing's syndrome is increasingly recognized.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Kallmann syndrome as models for studying hormonal regulation of human testicular endocrine functions.

    PubMed

    Trabado, Séverine; Lamothe, Sophie; Maione, Luigi; Bouvattier, Claire; Sarfati, Julie; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Young, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Men with Kallmann syndrome (KS) and those with congenital isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with normal olfaction share a chronic, usually profound deficit, in FSH and LH, the two pituitary gonadotropins. Many studies indicate that this gonadotropin deficiency is already present during fetal life, thus explaining the micropenis, cryptorchidism and marked testicular hypotrophy already present at birth. In addition, neonatal activation of gonadotropin secretion is compromised in boys with severe CHH/Kallmann, preventing the first phase of postnatal testicular activation. Finally, CHH is characterized by the persistence, in the vast majority of cases, of gonadotropin deficiency at the time of puberty and during adulthood. This prevents the normal pubertal testicular reactivation required for physiological sex steroid and testicular peptide production, and for spermatogenesis. CHH/KS thus represents a pathological paradigm that can help to unravel, in vivo, the role of each gonadotropin in human testicular exocrine and endocrine functions at different stages of development. Recombinant gonadotropins with pure LH or FSH activity have been used to stimulate Leydig's cells and Sertoli's cells, respectively, and thereby to clarify their paracrine interaction in vivo. The effects of these pharmacological probes can be assessed by measuring the changes they provoke in circulating testicular hormone concentrations. This review discusses the impact of chronic gonadotropin deficiency on the endocrine functions of the interstitial compartment, which contains testosterone-, estradiol- and INSL3-secreting Leydig's cells. It also examines the regulation of inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) secretion in the seminiferous tubules, and the insights provided by studies of human testicular stimulation with recombinant gonadotropins, used either individually or in combination.

  7. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented.

  8. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    PubMed

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish.

  9. Effects of acute exercise on pancreatic endocrine function in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, S H; Karstoft, K; Winding, K; Holst, J J; Pedersen, B K; Solomon, T P J

    2015-02-01

    We determined the effects of exercise on pancreatic endocrine responses to metabolic stimuli in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and examined the influence of subjects' diabetic status. Fourteen subjects underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) infusion and arginine injection, the morning after a 1-h walk or no exercise. Subjects were stratified by high and low fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, as well as by current use/non-use of antidiabetic medication. In the entire cohort, exercise did not alter insulin secretion, while glucagon levels were increased in all clamp phases (p < 0.05 to <0.01). In subjects with low FPG levels, exercise increased GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion (p < 0.05), with the same trend being observed for arginine (p = 0.08). The same trends were seen for subjects with low HbA1c levels. Furthermore, exercise increased GLP-1- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion (p < 0.05) in subjects who were antidiabetic drug-naïve. Exercise-induced increases in insulin secretion are blunted in subjects with T2D with high rates of hyperglycaemia and in those using antidiabetic drugs.

  10. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus): Changes in baseline activity, reactivity, and fecal excretion of glucocorticoids across the diurnal cycle

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Breanna N.; Saltzman, Wendy; de Jong, Trynke R.; Milnes, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The California mouse, Peromyscus californicus, is an increasingly popular animal model in behavioral, neural, and endocrine studies, but little is known about its baseline hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity or HPA responses to stressors. We characterized plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in P. californicus under baseline conditions across the diurnal cycle, in response to pharmacological manipulation of the HPA axis, and in response to a variety of stressors at different times of day. In addition, we explored the use of fecal samples to monitor adrenocortical activity non-invasively. California mice have very high baseline levels of circulating CORT that change markedly over 24 hours, but that do not differ between the sexes. This species may be somewhat glucocorticoid-resistant in comparison to other rodents as a relatively high dose of dexamethasone (5 mg/kg, s.c.) was required to suppress plasma CORT for 8 h post-injection. CORT responses to stressors and ACTH injection differed with time of day, as CORT concentrations were elevated more readily during the morning (inactive period) than in the evening (active period) when compared to time-matched control. Data from 3H-CORT injection studies show that the time course for excretion of fecal CORT, or glucocorticoid metabolites, differs with time of injection. Mice injected in the evening excreted the majority of fecal radioactivity 2–4 h post-injection whereas mice injected during the morning did so at 14–16 h post-injection. Unfortunately, the antibody we used does not adequately bind the most prevalent fecal glucocorticoid metabolites and therefore we could not validate its use for fecal assays. PMID:23026495

  11. DIFFERENCES IN THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF FATHEAD MINNOW AND HUMAN ERA: IMPLICATIONS FOR IN VITRO TESTING OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammalian receptors and assay systems are generally used for in vitro analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) with the assumption that minor differences in amino acid sequences among species do not translate into significant differences in receptor function. We have fou...

  12. [Influence of methyl 0-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamoyl) reserpate (CD-3400) on the gonadal and adrenal functions in rat (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Higashi, S; Kogo, H; Aizawa, Y

    1980-01-01

    Influence of CD-3400, which has been developed as a new antihypertensive agent in the class of rauwolfia alkaloids, was studied and effects were compared to those seen with reserpine. A single, oral administration of CD-3400 in a dose of 50 mg/kg to female rats had no effects on ovarian estradiol levels in contrast to the significant decrease at 6 and 18 hr seen after reserpine administration. CD-3400 given in a dose of 50 mg/kg to female rats increased to a lesser degree the adrenal corticosterone level at 1 hour than did reserpine. While the serum corticosterone level in the female rats was not changed with CD-3400 administration, a large increase was detected in the case of reserpine. Administration of CD-3400 or reserpine in a dose of 100 mg/kg to male rats produced no change in the testicular testosterone level, but in both cases induced a significant decrease in the testicular estradiol levels. This inhibition was higher in the case of reserpine treatment. In addition, the serum corticosterone level in male rats treated with reserpine was higher than levels after administration of CD-3400. Our results indicate that CD-3400 exerts a weaker effect than does reserpine on gonadal and adrenal functions of both sexes of rats.

  13. Children with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia have decreased amygdala volume: potential prenatal and postnatal hormonal effects.

    PubMed

    Merke, Deborah P; Fields, Jeremy D; Keil, Margaret F; Vaituzis, A Catherine; Chrousos, George P; Giedd, Jay N

    2003-04-01

    Children with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have multiple endocrine imbalances, including prenatal glucocorticoid and adrenomedullary deficiency and androgen excess, with possible postnatal iatrogenic glucocorticoid excess, hyperandrogenism, and adrenomedullary hypofunction. Prenatal masculinization of the brain has been suggested in girls with classic CAH. Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sex hormones interact with extrahypothalamic regulatory centers of the brain, including the amygdala and hippocampus. The amygdala is important in the processing of emotion and generation of fear, whereas the hippocampus plays an important role in memory. Chronic hypercortisolemia has been shown to be associated with hippocampal damage, while glucocorticoids and corticotropin-releasing factor play a major role in the regulation of amygdala function. We performed magnetic resonance imaging of the brain on 27 children with classic CAH and 47 sex- and age-matched controls. Volumes of the cerebrum, ventricles, temporal lobe, amygdala, and hippocampus were quantified. Females with CAH did not have brains with male-specific characteristics. In contrast, a significant decrease in amygdala volume was observed in both males and females with CAH (males, P = 0.01; females, P = 0.002). Iatrogenic effects on the hippocampus due to glucocorticoid therapy were not observed in children with CAH. These results suggest that prenatal glucocorticoid deficiency with resulting alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, sex steroid excess, or some combination of these preferentially affect the growth and development of the amygdala, a structure with major functional implications that warrant further exploration.

  14. Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla

    PubMed Central

    Dum, Richard P.; Levinthal, David J.; Strick, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Modern medicine has generally viewed the concept of “psychosomatic” disease with suspicion. This view arose partly because no neural networks were known for the mind, conceptually associated with the cerebral cortex, to influence autonomic and endocrine systems that control internal organs. Here, we used transneuronal transport of rabies virus to identify the areas of the primate cerebral cortex that communicate through multisynaptic connections with a major sympathetic effector, the adrenal medulla. We demonstrate that two broad networks in the cerebral cortex have access to the adrenal medulla. The larger network includes all of the cortical motor areas in the frontal lobe and portions of somatosensory cortex. A major component of this network originates from the supplementary motor area and the cingulate motor areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere. These cortical areas are involved in all aspects of skeletomotor control from response selection to motor preparation and movement execution. The second, smaller network originates in regions of medial prefrontal cortex, including a major contribution from pregenual and subgenual regions of anterior cingulate cortex. These cortical areas are involved in higher-order aspects of cognition and affect. These results indicate that specific multisynaptic circuits exist to link movement, cognition, and affect to the function of the adrenal medulla. This circuitry may mediate the effects of internal states like chronic stress and depression on organ function and, thus, provide a concrete neural substrate for some psychosomatic illness. PMID:27528671

  15. Severe hyponatremia caused by hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Shibata, T; Oeda, T; Saito, Y

    1999-05-01

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted with severe hyponatremia. Basal values of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid hormone and cortisol were normal on admission. Impairment of water diuresis was observed by water loading test. Initially, we diagnosed her condition as the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). By provocation test, we finally confirmed that the hyponatremia was caused by hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency. The basal values of ACTH and cortisol might not be sufficient to exclude the possibility of adrenal insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate adrenal function by provocation test or to re-evaluate it after recovery from hyponatremia.

  16. Adrenal adrenoceptors in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    de Lucia, Claudio; Femminella, Grazia D.; Gambino, Giuseppina; Pagano, Gennaro; Allocca, Elena; Rengo, Carlo; Silvestri, Candida; Leosco, Dario; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a chronic clinical syndrome characterized by the reduction in left ventricular (LV) function and it represents one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite considerable advances in pharmacological treatment, HF represents a severe clinical and social burden. Sympathetic outflow, characterized by increased circulating catecholamines (CA) biosynthesis and secretion, is peculiar in HF and sympatholytic treatments (as β-blockers) are presently being used for the treatment of this disease. Adrenal gland secretes Epinephrine (80%) and Norepinephrine (20%) in response to acetylcholine stimulation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors on the chromaffin cell membranes. This process is regulated by adrenergic receptors (ARs): α2ARs inhibit CA release through coupling to inhibitory Gi-proteins, and β ARs (mainly β2ARs) stimulate CA release through coupling to stimulatory Gs-proteins. All ARs are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and GPCR kinases (GRKs) regulate their signaling and function. Adrenal GRK2-mediated α2AR desensitization and downregulation are increased in HF and seem to be a fundamental regulator of CA secretion from the adrenal gland. Consequently, restoration of adrenal α2AR signaling through the inhibition of GRK2 is a fascinating sympatholytic therapeutic strategy for chronic HF. This strategy could have several significant advantages over existing HF pharmacotherapies minimizing side-effects on extra-cardiac tissues and reducing the chronic activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone and endothelin systems. The role of adrenal ARs in regulation of sympathetic hyperactivity opens interesting perspectives in understanding HF pathophysiology and in the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:25071591

  17. How Is Adrenal Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... exam will give other information about signs of adrenal gland cancer and other health problems. Your doctor will ... an adrenal cancer will spread outside of the adrenal gland. Imaging tests Chest x-ray A chest x- ...

  18. Spontaneous proliferative lesions of the adrenal medulla in aging Long-Evans rats. Comparison to PC12 cells, small granule-containing cells, and human adrenal medullary hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Tischler, A S; DeLellis, R A; Perlman, R L; Allen, J M; Costopoulos, D; Lee, Y C; Nunnemacher, G; Wolfe, H J; Bloom, S R

    1985-10-01

    Aging rats of the Long-Evans strain spontaneously develop diffuse and nodular hyperplasia of the adrenal medulla in association with other abnormalities commonly encountered in human multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. The cells which comprise the adrenal nodules resemble those in the parent tumor of the rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line in that they show varying degrees of spontaneous or nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth in culture and they contain little or no epinephrine. In addition, cells from at least some of the nodules contain immunoreactive neurotensin and neuropeptide-Y, which are also found in PC12 cells. There are a number of striking resemblances between the cells in adrenal nodules and the small granule-containing cells in the normal rodent adrenal. The findings suggest that spontaneous rat adrenal medullary nodules and PC12 cells might be derived from small granule-containing cells, or that cells within the nodules might regain properties of immature chromaffin cells and acquire characteristics of small granule-containing cells and of PC12 cells in the course of neoplastic progression. They further suggest a possible relationship between proliferative capacity and neurotransmitter phenotype in the adult rat adrenal medulla. By virtue of their sparse epinephrine content and their small granules, the cells in adrenal medullary nodules of Long-Evans rats differ from those in adrenal medullary nodules of humans with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes.

  19. Image-guided ablation of adrenal lesions.

    PubMed

    Yamakado, Koichiro

    2014-06-01

    Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy has remained the standard of care for the treatment for adrenal tumors, percutaneous image-guided ablation therapy, such as chemical ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and microwave ablation, has been shown to be clinically useful in many nonsurgical candidates. Ablation therapy has been used to treat both functioning adenomas and malignant tumors, including primary adrenal carcinoma and metastasis. For patients with functioning adenomas, biochemical and symptomatic improvement is achieved in 96 to 100% after ablation; for patients with malignant adrenal neoplasms, however, the survival benefit from ablation therapy remains unclear, though good initial results have been reported. This article outlines the current role of ablation therapy for adrenal lesions, as well as identifying some of the technical considerations for this procedure.

  20. A rare adrenal incidentaloma: adrenal schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Adas, Mine; Ozulker, Filiz; Adas, Gokhan; Koc, Bora; Ozulker, Tamer; Sahin, Ilknur Mansuroglu

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal schwannoma is an extremely uncommon cause of incidentaloma. It originates from neural sheath Schwann cells of the adrenal gland. We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 32-year-old woman during examination of bloated feeling and stomach ache. The patient was incidentally found to have a left adrenal mass of 9 cm on abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) were also performed. Metabolic evaluation was unremarkable. Due to the large size of the tumor, left adrenalectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination established the diagnosis of schwannoma. This diagnosis was supported by immunohistochemistry of S-100 and vimentin positivity. In conclusion, adrenal schwannoma is an extremely rare entity and can grow considerably in size. The present case report emphasizes that clinicians should be aware of the possibility of retroperitoneal schwannoma. Total excision of benign schwannoma is associated with a favorable outcome. To our knowledge, there are case reports of schwannoma with CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the literature, although this is the first schwannoma case with PET-CT imaging.

  1. Functional characterization of two novel point mutations in the CYP21 gene causing simple virilizing forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krone, Nils; Riepe, Felix G; Grötzinger, Joachim; Partsch, Carl-Joachim; Sippell, Wolfgang G

    2005-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders most often caused by deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase due to mutations in the CYP21 gene. We studied the functional and structural consequences of two novel missense mutations in the CYP21 gene, detected in two simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients. Both the male and female patient were compound heterozygous for the novel I77T and A434V point mutations, respectively. The in vitro expression analysis in COS-7 cells revealed a reduced 21-hydroxylase activity in the I77T mutant of 3 +/- 2% (sd) for the conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol and of 5 +/- 3% for the conversion of progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone. The A434V mutant had a residual enzyme activity of 14 +/- 2% for 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 12 +/- 6% for progesterone. Substrate affinity was similar in the mutants as in the CYP21 wild-type protein, whereas reaction velocity was markedly decreased in both mutants. These effects could be readily explained by structural changes induced by the mutations, which were rationalized by a three-dimensional-model structure of the CYP21 protein. We hypothesize that the I77T mutation markedly decreases the reaction product release and/or substrate entrance to the enzyme's active site, whereas the A434V mutant reduces both the catalytic capacity and reaction velocity. Studying the enzyme function in vitro helps to understand the phenotypical expression and disease severity of 21-hydroxylase deficiency and also provides new insights into cytochrome P450 structure-function relationships.

  2. Endocannabinoids and the Endocrine System in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Hillard, Cecilia J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the earliest reports of the effects of cannabis consumption on humans were related to endocrine system changes. In this review, the effects of cannabinoids and the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the regulation of the following endocrine systems are discussed: the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin and oxytocin, thyroid hormone and growth hormone, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Preclinical and human study results are presented.

  3. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function in relation to biomarkers of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper in men.

    PubMed Central

    Telisman, S; Cvitković, P; Jurasović, J; Pizent, A; Gavella, M; Rocić, B

    2000-01-01

    Blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), blood cadmium (BCd), serum zinc (SZn), seminal fluid zinc (SfZn), serum copper (SCu), and parameters of semen quality and of reproductive endocrine function were measured in 149 healthy male industrial workers 20-43 years of age. The group contained 98 subjects with slight to moderate occupational exposure to Pb and 51 reference subjects. All of the subjects lived in Zagreb, Croatia. Significant (p < 0.05) correlations of BPb, ALAD, and/or EP with reproductive parameters indicated a Pb-related decrease in sperm density, in counts of total, motile, and viable sperm, in the percentage and count of progressively motile sperm, in parameters of prostate secretory function (SfZn, acid phosphatase, and citric acid in seminal fluid), and an increase in abnormal sperm head morphology, serum testosterone, and estradiol. These associations were confirmed by results of multiple regression, which also showed significant (p < 0. 05) influence of BCd, SZn, SCu, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, or age on certain reproductive parameters. These effects were mainly of lower rank and intensity as compared to Pb-related reproductive effects, whereas BCd contributed to a decrease in sperm motility and an increase in abnormal sperm morphology and serum testosterone. No significant Pb- or Cd-related influence was found on levels of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C(4) and fructose in seminal fluid or on follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin in serum. The seminal fluid concentrations of Pb (SfPb) and Cd (SfCd) were measured in 118 of the 149 subjects, and a highly significant (p < 0.0001) correlation was found between BPb and SfPb levels (r = 0.571) and between BCd and SfCd levels (r = 0.490). The overall study results indicate that even moderate exposures to Pb (BPb < 400 microg/L) and Cd (BCd < 10 microg/L) can significantly reduce human

  4. Combined Loss of the GATA4 and GATA6 Transcription Factors in Male Mice Disrupts Testicular Development and Confers Adrenal-Like Function in the Testes

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Maria B.; Jiang, Tianyu; Morse, Deborah A.; Fox, Shawna C.; Hatch, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    The roles of the GATA4 and GATA6 transcription factors in testis development were examined by simultaneously ablating Gata4 and Gata6 with Sf1Cre (Nr5a1Cre). The deletion of both genes resulted in a striking testicular phenotype. Embryonic Sf1Cre; Gata4flox/flox Gata6flox/flox (conditional double mutant) testes were smaller than control organs and contained irregular testis cords and fewer gonocytes. Gene expression analysis revealed significant down-regulation of Dmrt1 and Mvh. Surprisingly, Amh expression was strongly up-regulated and remained high beyond postnatal day 7, when it is normally extinguished. Neither DMRT1 nor GATA1 was detected in the Sertoli cells of the mutant postnatal testes. Furthermore, the expression of the steroidogenic genes Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, and Hsd17b3 was low throughout embryogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a prominent reduction in cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1)- and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-positive (3βHSD) cells, with few 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase-positive (CYP17A1) cells present. In contrast, in postnatal Sf1Cre; Gata4flox/flox Gata6flox/flox testes, the expression of the steroidogenic markers Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b6 was increased, but a dramatic down-regulation of Hsd17b3, which is required for testosterone synthesis, was observed. The genes encoding adrenal enzymes Cyp21a1, Cyp11b1, Cyp11b2, and Mcr2 were strongly up-regulated, and clusters containing numerous CYP21A2-positive cells were localized in the interstitium. These data suggest a lack of testis functionality, with a loss of normal steroidogenic testis function, concomitant with an expansion of the adrenal-like cell population in postnatal conditional double mutant testes. Sf1Cre; Gata4flox/flox Gata6flox/flox animals of both sexes lack adrenal glands; however, despite this deficiency, males are viable in contrast to the females of the same genotype, which die shortly after birth. PMID:25668066

  5. Double NF1 Inactivation Affects Adrenocortical Function in NF1Prx1 Mice and a Human Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kobus, Karolina; Hartl, Daniela; Ott, Claus Eric; Osswald, Monika; Huebner, Angela; von der Hagen, Maja; Emmerich, Denise; Kühnisch, Jirko; Morreau, Hans; Hes, Frederik J.; Mautner, Victor F.; Harder, Anja; Tinschert, Sigrid; Mundlos, Stefan; Kolanczyk, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1, MIM#162200) is a relatively frequent genetic condition, which predisposes to tumor formation. Apart from tumors, individuals with NF1 often exhibit endocrine abnormalities such as precocious puberty (2,5–5% of NF1 patients) and some cases of hypertension (16% of NF1 patients). Several cases of adrenal cortex adenomas have been described in NF1 individuals supporting the notion that neurofibromin might play a role in adrenal cortex homeostasis. However, no experimental data were available to prove this hypothesis. Materials and Methods We analysed Nf1Prx1 mice and one case of adrenal cortical hyperplasia in a NF1patient. Results In Nf1Prx1 mice Nf1 is inactivated in the developing limbs, head mesenchyme as well as in the adrenal gland cortex, but not the adrenal medulla or brain. We show that adrenal gland size is increased in NF1Prx1 mice. Nf1Prx1 female mice showed corticosterone and aldosterone overproduction. Molecular analysis of Nf1 deficient adrenals revealed deregulation of multiple proteins, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), a vital mitochondrial factor promoting transfer of cholesterol into steroid making mitochondria. This was associated with a marked upregulation of MAPK pathway and a female specific increase of cAMP concentration in murine adrenal lysates. Complementarily, we characterized a patient with neurofibromatosis type I with macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with ACTH-independent cortisol overproduction. Comparison of normal control tissue- and adrenal hyperplasia- derived genomic DNA revealed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild type NF1 allele, showing that biallelic NF1 gene inactivation occurred in the hyperplastic adrenal gland. Conclusions Our data suggest that biallelic loss of Nf1 induces autonomous adrenal hyper-activity. We conclude that Nf1 is involved in the regulation of adrenal cortex function in mice and humans. PMID:25775093

  6. Isolation of neural crest derived chromaffin progenitors from adult adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kuei-Fang; Sicard, Flavie; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Hermann, Andreas; Storch, Alexander; Huttner, Wieland B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2009-10-01

    Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are neural crest-derived cells of the sympathoadrenal lineage. Unlike the closely-related sympathetic neurons, a subpopulation of proliferation-competent cells exists even in the adult. Here, we describe the isolation, expansion, and in vitro characterization of proliferation-competent progenitor cells from the bovine adrenal medulla. Similar to neurospheres, these cells, when prevented from adherence to the culture dish, grew in spheres, which we named chromospheres. These chromospheres were devoid of mRNA specific for smooth muscle cells (MYH11) or endothelial cells (PECAM1). During sphere formation, markers for differentiated chromaffin cells, such as phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase, were downregulated while neural progenitor markers nestin, vimentin, musashi 1, and nerve growth factor receptor, as well as markers of neural crest progenitor cells such as Sox1 and Sox9, were upregulated. Clonal analysis and bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-incorporation analysis demonstrated the self-renewing capacity of chromosphere cells. Differentiation protocols using NGF and BMP4 or dexamethasone induced neuronal or endocrine differentiation, respectively. Electrophysiological analyses of neural cells derived from chromospheres revealed functional properties of mature nerve cells, such as tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels and action potentials. Our study provides evidence that proliferation and differentiation competent chromaffin progenitor cells can be isolated from adult adrenal medulla and that these cells might harbor the potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease.

  7. [The central mechanisms of the stimulating influence of intervalic hypoxic conditioning on the endocrine function of the pancreas in rats].

    PubMed

    Abramov, A V

    1997-01-01

    In the investigation of Wistar rats the morpho-functional state of the neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of n. vagus (DVC), locus coeruleus (LC) and peptidergic neurons of medical parvocellular subnuclei of paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVHmp) in the conditions of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) (6 hours a day on the altitude 6000 m for 21 day) was studied. Immunocytochemical method was used to determine the functional state of peptidergic neurons of PVMmp and of the median eminence of hypothalamus, which are synthesizing neurotensin, cholecystokinin, bombesin, leu- and met-enkephalins, calcitonin-gene-related peptide and vasointestinal peptide. It was established that IHT leads to the activation of peptidergic neurons of PVHmp, neurons of DVC and to the lesser restrain of LC. It is demonstrated that these structures may take part in realisation of IHT's stimulating effect on the state of pancreatic beta-cells. In consists of insulin-stimulating and insulocyteprotective effects, that can be realised by the hypothalamic and neuroconducting ways of regulation of endocrine pancreas, with direct participation of hypothalamic neuropeptides.

  8. Deviations in the endocrine system and brain of patients with fibromyalgia: cause or consequence of pain and associated features?

    PubMed

    Geenen, Rinie; Bijlsma, Johannes W J

    2010-04-01

    The brain and endocrine system are crucial interfaces responding to pathological and psychological processes. This review discusses whether endocrine deviations and structural and functional changes in the brain are a cause or consequence of fibromyalgia. Studies in patients with fibromyalgia virtually uniformly observed subtle alterations in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal functioning, hyporeactive autonomic nervous system responsiveness to stressors, and structural and functional changes in the brain. Our model proposes that predisposing factors, such as genetic vulnerability and trauma, have led to an alteration of the nociceptive system including several neuroendocrine changes. The resulting pain and associated symptoms, such as sleep disturbance, low fitness, fatigue, stress, and distress, are a cause of new neuroendocrine changes. The model predicts that favorable neuroendocrine changes are to be expected after successful pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions that target pain and associated symptoms.

  9. No improvement of pancreas transplant endocrine function by exogenous insulin infusion (islet rest) in the postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, D C; Campbell, D A; Rosenberg, L; Merion, R M; Ucros, I; Vinik, A I; Klandorf, H; Turcotte, J G

    1989-07-01

    The concept of islet exhaustion maintains that exposure of pancreatic islets to hyperglycemia and other stresses leads to islet dysfunction and irreparable damage. The process of pancreatic transplantation places many stresses on islets (e.g., counter-regulatory hormones, steroids, cyclosporine toxicity). As practiced by some centers, it may be important to administer exogenous insulin in the postoperative period to provide islet rest. Using a porcine pancreas transplant model that simulates clinical transplantation, we studied 2 groups: 1 group (n = 8) received constant insulin infusion for 7 days after transplantation; the control group (n = 5) received vehicle only. The islets in the insulin infusion group were rested as evidenced by a significantly decreased mean C-peptide level (0.27 +/- 0.04 ng/ml) as compared to the control group (0.66 +/- 0.08 ng/ml) (P less than 0.05). After insulin infusion was discontinued, intravenous glucose tolerance testing found insulin, C-peptide and glucagon responses were not different between groups. Glucose clearance was also comparable; K values were -1.79 and -1.60 in the insulin infusion and control groups, respectively. In conclusion, islet rest by insulin infusion for 7 postoperative days did not improve subsequent pancreas transplant endocrine function.

  10. An unusual presentation of Carney complex with diffuse primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease on one adrenal gland and a nonpigmented adrenocortical adenoma and focal primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease on the other.

    PubMed

    Tung, Shih-Chen; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Yang, Joseph W; Chen, Wei-Jen; Lee, Chien-Te

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old female patient with cushingoid appearance was admitted in May 2000. The endocrine studies showed ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. A 2-day high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) revealed paradoxical increase of 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a left adrenal nodule (3 x 2 cm in diameter). An adrenal scintigram with ¹³¹I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol showed uptake of the isotope in the left adrenal gland and non-visualization in the right adrenal gland throughout the examination course. A retroperitoneoscopic left total adrenalectomy was performed in July 2000. The cut surface of the left adrenal was yellow-tan grossly. Microscopically, the left adrenal nodule contained a nonpigmented adrenocortical adenoma (NP) and another focal primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, FP) mixed lesion. The immunohistochemical studies of CYP17 demonstrate positive in NP and FP of the left adrenal gland. Very low baseline morning plasma cortisol (0.97 μg/dL) and subnormal ACTH (8.16 pg/mL) levels were measured 1.5 months after left adrenalectomy. Right adrenal gland recovered its function 6 months after left adrenalectomy. Plasma cortisol could be suppressed to 3.47 μg/dL by overnight low-dose dexamethasone suppression test 65 months after left adrenalectomy. Cushingoid features still did not appear 122 months after left adrenalectomy. In May 2011, this patient was readmitted due to cushingoid characteristics. Paradoxical rise of 24-h UFC to 2-day HDDST was demonstrated. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed bilateral thyroid cysts. Subtotal right adrenalectomy about 80% of right adrenal was performed. Diffuse PPNAD of the right adrenal was proved pathologically. Immunohischemical stain for CYP17 is positive in the right adrenal gland but weaker positive than that in the left adrenal gland. The genetic study of the peripheral blood, left adrenocortical nodule, and right PPNAD all showed p.R16X

  11. [Neurotrophic control in the development and function of two endocrine organs: the ovary and the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vásquez, Siraam

    2007-01-01

    Neurotrophins (NTs) are important for the survival, differentiation and function of sympathetic and sensorial neurons of central and peripheral nervous system. However, similar functions have been described of NTs in non-neural organs. Nerve Growth factor (NGF) participates in the foliculogenesis and ovulation in the ovary, as well as in the islet morphogenesis and insulin secretion of the pancreatic beta cell. The NTs act by binding to two distinct classes of transmembranal receptors: p75 and Trks. Both receptor types lead to activation of intracellular signaling cascades that end with cell survival or apoptosis. In this review different actions of the NTs in the ovarian and the pancreas are described.

  12. Primary Adrenal Insufficiency Misdiagnosed as Hypothyroidism in a Patient with Polyglandular Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Upala, Sikarin; Yong, Wai Chung; Sanguankeo, Anawin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a rare condition that causes a variety of clinical symptoms due to autoimmune processes involving multiple endocrine organs. Its vague presentation can cause missed or delayed treatment for adrenal insufficiency, resulting in a life-threatening adrenal crisis. Case Report: A 21-yr-old man presented with lethargy, hypotension, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. He was binge drinking the day before presentation. No significant response to initial treatment with levothyroxine and dextrose occurred. Diagnostic workup later revealed primary adrenal insufficiency. All initial symptoms completely resolved following treatment with hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and levothyroxine. Conclusion: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome causes dysfunction of multiple endocrine organs such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and pancreas. Initial diagnosis of APS is crucial and difficult because of its vague, acute presentation, which often involves hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. Delayed treatment of adrenal insufficiency can result in a life-threatening adrenal crisis. A diagnostic workup for adrenal insufficiency should be performed in patients who do not respond to hypothyroidism treatment. PMID:27298818

  13. Metabolism of adrenal cholesterol in man

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Abraham; Delcroix, Claude; Levin, Sam

    1972-01-01

    The synthesis of adrenal cholesterol, its esterification and the synthesis of the glucocorticosteroid hormones were studied in vitro on human adrenal tissue. It was found that the synthesis of adrenal cholesterol may normally be small in the zona “fasciculata,” particularly when compared with the synthesis of the glucocorticosteroid hormones, that it is several times higher in the zona “reticularis” where esterified cholesterol is less abundant, and that under ACTH stimulation it increases strikingly and proportionally to the degree of esterified adrenal cholesterol depletion. On the other hand, the relative rate of esterification as well as the concentration of free adrenal cholesterol are remarkably stable: they do not differ according to the adrenal zonation and are unaffected by ACTH. Furthermore, from a qualitative point of view, the relative proportions of Δ1 and Δ2 cholesteryl esters formed in situ are similar to those anticipated from their relative concentrations, suggesting that the characteristic fatty acid distribution of the adrenal cholesteryl esters results from an in situ esterification rather than from a selective uptake of the plasma cholesteryl esters. Besides, the in vitro esterification reveals a propensity to the formation of the most unsaturated cholesteryl esters. Regarding hydrocortisone and corticosterone, their synthesis tends to be more elevated in the zona “fasciculata.” Despite its higher cholesterol concentration the zona “fasciculata” should not therefore be viewed as a quiescent functional complement to the zona “reticularis” and the cortical distribution of glucocorticosteroid hormone synthesis is quite distinct from that of adrenal cholesterol synthesis. PMID:4338120

  14. [Xenoestrogens: endocrine disrupting compounds].

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Milena; Murias, Marek

    2008-11-01

    In recent years much attention has been paid to the issues of chemicals that disrupt the normal function of endocrine system, namely xenoestrogens. These chemicals can mimic the activity of endogenous estrogens, antagonize their interaction with estrogen receptors or disrupt the synthesis, metabolism and functions of endogenous female hormones. Due to the fact that they act thanks to many different mechanisms, it is very difficult to estimate their estrogenic activity by means of a simple tests. The important issue remains the fact that xenoestrogens may have a positive or negative influence on the function of the endocrine system. It seems to be very important that there are many sources of xenoestrogens, that is not only vegetables and fruit (phytoestrogens), but also metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb), dental appliances (alkilphenols), food containers or blood containers (PVC--polyvinyl chloride, DEHP--di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), cosmetics (parabens) and pesticides (DDT--dichlor-diphenyl-trichlorethylane, endosulfane).

  15. Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Inomoto, Chie; Sato, Haruhiro; Kanai, Genta; Hirukawa, Takashi; Shoji, Sunao; Terachi, Toshiro; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Osamura, Robert Yoshiyuki

    2010-07-20

    Functioning black adrenal adenoma (BAA) rarely causes preclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS). In the present case, a 46-year-old Japanese Peruvian woman presented with left flank pain and hypertension. Abdominal computed tomography showed that she had a 15-mm in diameter, round, left adrenal adenoma. She had no physical features of CS, such as moon face, buffalo hump, truncal obesity, or purple striae. Endocrinological examination showed that the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level was below the detectable level, despite a serum cortisol level within the normal range. A normal cortisol circadian rhythm was not present. Dexamethasone (1 mg and 8 mg) suppression testing did not decrease serum cortisol levels to the reference levels. These findings were compatible with preclinical CS. The left adrenal adenoma was laparoscopically removed. Examination of the surgical specimen revealed unilateral double adrenal adenomas of the left adrenal gland, one of which was a BAA. The BAA measured 20 × 11 × 10 mm. Microscopically, the BAA showed proliferation of compact cells containing numerous brown-pigmented granules. There were also foci of myelolipomatous degenerative changes in the tumor. The compact cell zones remained in the adrenal cortex adjacent to the BAA showed atrophic change. These findings indicated that BAA appeared to have caused preclinical CS in this patient.

  16. Effect of surgery and radiotherapy on visual and endocrine function in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Colao, A; Cerbone, G; Cappabianca, P; Ferone, D; Alfieri, A; Di Salle, F; Faggiano, A; Merola, B; de Divitiis, E; Lombardi, G

    1998-05-01

    The effect of surgery alone or followed by radiotherapy in recovering visual abnormalities, debulking tumor mass and restoring hormone impairments was evaluated in 84 patients with clinical nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) subjected to 1-10 yr follow-up. All patients underwent surgery via transsphenoidal (in 69) or transcranic-pterional approach (in 15). Radiotherapy was performed after surgery in 59 of 72 patients with incomplete tumor removal. The assessment of pituitary function was performed in all patients before and every 1-2 yr after surgery and/or radiotherapy. Radiological and ophthalmologic assessment was performed before and 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery, then yearly. At diagnosis, headache and visual disturbances occurred in 63 and 58 patients, respectively, while deficiency of GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH and ADH was documented in 55, 7, 19 47 and 6 patients, respectively. After surgery, gonadal function recovered in 12 women, visual disturbances improved in 43 patients (15 regained normal vision), pituitary function improved in 8 of 62 patients, worsened in 34 patients. At MRI, complete tumor removal was documented in 12 of 84 patients. After surgery alone, tumor regrowth was observed in 7 patients between 3-7 yr. After radiotherapy, vision improved in 9, remained unchanged in 49 and worsened in 1 of 59 patients. After radiotherapy, tumor regrowth was documented in 9 patients between 2-12 yr and the prevalence of hypopituitarism raised from 28.8% to 92% after 1 and 10 yr. In conclusion, surgery alone is effective only in a minority of patients (14.3%) and radiotherapy causes hypopituitarism in rather the totality of patients after 10 yr. The prevalence of tumor regrowth was similar in irradiated ones (15%) and non irradiated patients (28%; chi(2), p = 0.4). Therefore, a careful radiological followup is suggested after surgery so that radiotherapy can be performed promptly on the basis of clinical data, tumor regrowth and/or invasiveness

  17. Precerebellin-related genes and precerebellin 1 peptide in endocrine glands of the rat - pattern of their expression.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-01-01

    The hexadecapeptide cerebellin (CER) is derived from a larger protein, cerebellin 1 precursor protein (Cbln1). At present four precerebellins (Cbln1-4) are known. They are highly expressed in the brain, in particular in the cerebellum. Since CER is involved in regulating endocrine functions, present studies aimed to investigate, by means of molecular biology techniques (RT-PCR, QPCR, Western blotting) the expression of Cbln related genes and Cbln1 protein in classic endocrine glands of the rat. RT-PCR revealed the presence of Cbln1 and Cbln3 mRNAs in all endocrine glands tested; hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, thyroid, adrenal cortex, testis, ovary and pancreatic islets. Expression of Cbln2 gene was demonstrated only in the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and adrenal cortex and in cerebral cortex, which was studied as a positive control organ. On the contrary, expression of Cbln4 gene was found only in the cerebral cortex. Using QPCR, the highest expression of Cbln1 gene was demonstrated in hypothalamus and pancreatic islets, a somewhat lower one in the anterior pituitary and thyroid, while the lowest was in adrenal cortex, testis and ovary. In general, the Cbln3 gene exhibited a similar pattern of expression, with the highest level in pancreatic islets and somewhat lower in the hypothalamus. Cbln2 gene expression was high in the hypothalamus, lower in the anterior pituitary and very low in adrenal cortex. In general, the pattern of Cbln1 protein expression was similar to that of Cbln1 mRNA. Further experiments aimed to check possible association of Cbln1 with cell membrane. Such association is suggested by differences in Cbln1 protein amount after extraction with RIPA and TRIS buffers. Bioinformatic methods predicting transmembrane topology (HMMTOP and SPLIT 4.0 servers) suggest transmembrane localisation of Cbln1, with transmembrane domain sequence responsible for the formation of an alpha-helix. These findings suggest possible physiological roles of Cbln

  18. Glucocorticoid treatment and endocrine pancreas function: implications for glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rafacho, Alex; Ortsäter, Henrik; Nadal, Angel; Quesada, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are broadly prescribed for numerous pathological conditions because of their anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and immunosuppressive effects, among other actions. Nevertheless, GCs can produce undesired diabetogenic side effects through interactions with the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Under conditions of excess and/or long-term treatment, GCs can induce peripheral insulin resistance (IR) by impairing insulin signalling, which results in reduced glucose disposal and augmented endogenous glucose production. In addition, GCs can promote abdominal obesity, elevate plasma fatty acids and triglycerides, and suppress osteocalcin synthesis in bone tissue. In response to GC-induced peripheral IR and in an attempt to maintain normoglycaemia, pancreatic β-cells undergo several morphofunctional adaptations that result in hyperinsulinaemia. Failure of β-cells to compensate for this situation favours glucose homeostasis disruption, which can result in hyperglycaemia, particularly in susceptible individuals. GC treatment does not only alter pancreatic β-cell function but also affect them by their actions that can lead to hyperglucagonaemia, further contributing to glucose homeostasis imbalance and hyperglycaemia. In addition, the release of other islet hormones, such as somatostatin, amylin and ghrelin, is also affected by GC administration. These undesired GC actions merit further consideration for the design of improved GC therapies without diabetogenic effects. In summary, in this review, we consider the implication of GC treatment on peripheral IR, islet function and glucose homeostasis.

  19. Effects of DDT on bobwhite quail adrenal gland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehman, J.W.; Peterle, T.J.; Mulls, C.M.

    1974-01-01

    A wide range of responses to sublethal levels of DDT exist, many of which are species specific and vary within each species depending upon age, sex, and physiological state. Sublethal levels of DDT do cause an increase in the adrenal cortical tissue of bobwhite quail, which may cause increased secretion of corticosteroids, and in turn affect reproduction. A delicate homeostatic balance exists within the avian endocrine system which may be disturbed by feeding sublethal levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. This adverse effect on the endocrine system may cause subtle reproductive failures which go unnoticed until the population is greatly reduced.

  20. Endocrine Effects of Circadian Disruption.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Nelson, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms, provoked by artificial lighting at night, inconsistent sleep-wake schedules, and transmeridian air travel, is increasingly prevalent in modern society. Desynchrony of biological rhythms from environmental light cycles has dramatic consequences for human health. In particular, disrupting homeostatic oscillations in endocrine tissues and the hormones that these tissues regulate can have cascading effects on physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic disruption of circadian organization of endocrine function may lead to metabolic, reproductive, sleep, and mood disorders. This review discusses circadian control of endocrine systems and the consequences of distorting rhythmicity of these systems.

  1. Adrenal Diagnostics: An Endocrinologist’s Perspective focused on Hyperaldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    The era of sophisticated high resolution imaging with the consequent identification of previously unrecognised adrenal masses (adrenal incidentalomas), has emphasised the need for an appropriate biochemical approach to define adrenal function. The focus of this testing is on catecholamines from the adrenal medulla (testing that has been rendered relatively straightforward by plasma metanephrine measurements) and the physiological corticosteroids, cortisol and aldosterone, synthesised by the adrenal cortex. The diagnosis of hypercortisolism remains a challenge and has been extensively reviewed. In the context of hypertension and an adrenal incidentaloma, the exclusion of hyperaldosteronism has an importance beyond simple blood pressure control. This review focuses on the recommended approaches to both the diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism and the characterisation of its aetiology. Monogenetic causes of mineralocorticoid hypertension are discussed as are recent developments with respect to both the molecular aetiology and the differential diagnosis of aldosterone-producing adenomas. PMID:24353356

  2. Managing Adrenal Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body. • Surgical removal of the adrenals Temporary AI is caused by some medications, infections, and/or surgeries. Causes of temporary AI include the following: • Transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing’s disease ...

  3. Acute adrenal crisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition that occurs when there is not enough cortisol. This is a hormone produced by the adrenal ... parts. The outer portion, called the cortex, produces cortisol. This is an important hormone for controlling blood ...

  4. Endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Hordon, L D; Wright, V

    1992-02-01

    The effect of thyroxine replacement therapy on bone mass continues to attract attention. Although the advice of the American Thyroid Association to normalize serum thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations is recommended, even physiologic doses of thyroxine may have an adverse effect on bone mass. The diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot is aided by magnetic resonance imaging, and long-term review of cases of diabetic femoral neuropathy emphasizes the good prognosis. Adrenal insufficiency as a complication of antiphospholipid syndrome is reviewed, and a useful physical sign, the acromegalic rosary, rediscovered. The association of sex steroids, oral contraception, and parity with rheumatoid arthritis is discussed. The outcome of pregnancy in women with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is good, and quiescent disease does not appear to be permanently reactivated. Calcium deficiency, rather than vitamin D deficiency, is a cause of rickets in some Nigerian children.

  5. Endocrine radionuclide scintigraphy with fusion single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ka-Kit; Gandhi, Arpit; Viglianti, Benjamin L; Fig, Lorraine M; Rubello, Domenico; Gross, Milton D

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the benefits of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) hybrid imaging for diagnosis of various endocrine disorders. METHODS: We performed MEDLINE and PubMed searches using the terms: “SPECT/CT”; “functional anatomic mapping”; “transmission emission tomography”; “parathyroid adenoma”; “thyroid cancer”; “neuroendocrine tumor”; “adrenal”; “pheochromocytoma”; “paraganglioma”; in order to identify relevant articles published in English during the years 2003 to 2015. Reference lists from the articles were reviewed to identify additional pertinent articles. Retrieved manuscripts (case reports, reviews, meta-analyses and abstracts) concerning the application of SPECT/CT to endocrine imaging were analyzed to provide a descriptive synthesis of the utility of this technology. RESULTS: The emergence of hybrid SPECT/CT camera technology now allows simultaneous acquisition of combined multi-modality imaging, with seamless fusion of three-dimensional volume datasets. The usefulness of combining functional information to depict the bio-distribution of radiotracers that map cellular processes of the endocrine system and tumors of endocrine origin, with anatomy derived from CT, has improved the diagnostic capability of scintigraphy for a range of disorders of endocrine gland function. The literature describes benefits of SPECT/CT for 99mTc-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy and 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy, 123I- or 131I-radioiodine for staging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, 111In- and 99mTc- labeled somatostatin receptor analogues for detection of neuroendocrine tumors, 131I-norcholesterol (NP-59) scans for assessment of adrenal cortical hyperfunction, and 123I- or 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging for evaluation of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. CONCLUSION: SPECT/CT exploits the synergism between the functional information from radiopharmaceutical imaging and anatomy

  6. Adrenal gland and bone.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S

    2010-11-01

    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  7. Artemisia scoparia Enhances Adipocyte Development and Endocrine Function In Vitro and Enhances Insulin Action In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P.; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPARγ activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPARγ LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPARγ target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor α on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial

  8. Circumventricular organs: definition and role in the regulation of endocrine and autonomic function.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    2000-01-01

    1. The circumventricular organs (CVO) are structures that permit polypeptide hypothalamic hormones to leave the brain without disrupting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and permit substances that do not cross the BBB to trigger changes in brain function. 2. In mammals, CVO include only the median eminence and adjacent neurohypophysis, organum vasculosum lamina terminalis, subfornical organ and the area postrema. 3. The CVO are characterized by their small size, high permeability and fenestrated capillaries. The subcommissural organ is not highly permeable and does not have fenestrated capillaries, but new evidence indicates that it may be involved in the hypertension produced by aldosterone acting on the brain. 4. Feedback control of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion is exerted by free steroids diffusing into the brain, but substances such as cytokines and angiotensin II act on CVO to produce increases in CRH secretion. Gonadal steroids also diffuse into the brain to regulate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone secretion is regulated by thyroid hormones transported across cerebral capillaries. However, CVO may be involved in the negative feedback control of growth hormone and prolactin secretion.

  9. Comparison of pramipexole with and without domperidone co-administration on alertness, autonomic, and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Ebony R; Hou, Ruihua H; Langley, Robert W; Szabadi, Elemer; Bradshaw, Christopher M

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject It is known that the dopamine receptor agonist pramipexole, used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, often causes nausea that can be treated in patients by the co-administration of an antiemetic, for example domperidone. In experimental studies of pramipexole it may be necessary to administer domperidone alongside pramipexole to alleviate nausea, and as such it is necessary to know how the co-administration of domperidone may alter the observed effects of pramipexole. What this study adds Results from our study indicate that the co-administration of pramipexole and domperidone may reduce the likelihood of observing an effect that is present when pramipexole is administered alone. Although domperidone is mainly a peripherally acting drug, it appears that a high enough concentration of the drug crosses the blood–brain barrier to partially antagonize some of the autonomic actions of pramipexole. Therefore, this report provides a cautionary note to the use of domperidone alongside pramipexole where the results of interest are those from pramipexole alone. Aims To investigate the effects of the D2-receptor agonist pramipexole with and without the co-administration of the peripherally acting D2-receptor antagonist domperidone on measures of alertness, autonomic and endocrine function. Methods Sixteen male volunteers participated in four weekly sessions of pramipexole 0.5 mg, domperidone 40 mg, their combination, and placebo administered according to a balanced, double-blind design. Alertness (visual analogue scales (VAS), critical flicker fusion frequency, pupillographic sleepiness test), autonomic (pupil diameter, light and darkness reflexes, blood pressure, heart rate, salivation, temperature) and endocrine (prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH)) functions were assessed. Data were analyzed with anova with multiple comparisons. Results The pre-post treatment changes in VAS alertness were

  10. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function with regard to blood cadmium in Croatian male subjects.

    PubMed

    Jurasović, Jasna; Cvitković, Petar; Pizent, Alica; Colak, Bozo; Telisman, Spomenka

    2004-12-01

    In 123 Croatian men with no occupational exposure to metals, the influence of cadmium on reproductive parameters was examined after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, and biomarkers of lead, copper, zinc, and selenium. The following variables were measured: blood cadmium (BCd), blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum copper (SCu), serum zinc (SZn), serum selenium (SSe), activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in blood, testis size, semen quality (including sperm concentration, motility, viability, and morphology), indicators in seminal fluid (the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C4, fructose, zinc, acid phosphatase, and citric acid), and hormones in serum (follicle-stimulating hormone--FSH, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol). The median and range BCd values were 2.94 (0.49-11.93) microg/L in 61 smokers and 0.59 (0.20-3.71) microg/L in 62 nonsmokers (p < 0.0001). Smoking habits (cigarettes/day) highly significantly correlated with BCd (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for potential confounding variables by multiple regression, BCd was significantly associated with a decrease in testis size (p < 0.03) and an increase in serum estradiol (p < 0.005), FSH (p < 0.03), and testosterone (p < 0.04). Smoking was significantly associated with a decrease in serum prolactin (p < 0.006) and LDH-C4 in seminal fluid (p < 0.03). Several reproductive parameters were significantly associated with BPb and ALAD, biomarkers of lead, and/or with SCu, SZn, SSe, and GPx. The necessity of controlling for various metals, and other potential confounders when assessing the influence of a particular metal on reproductive function in men, is emphasized.

  11. Effects of nutritional restriction on metabolic, endocrine, and ovarian function in llamas (Lama glama).

    PubMed

    Norambuena, M C; Silva, M; Urra, F; Ulloa-Leal, C; Fernández, A; Adams, G P; Huanca, W; Ratto, M H

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of nutritional restriction on ovarian function in llamas. Mature female llamas were assigned randomly to a Control group, fed 100% of maintenance energy requirements (MER) (n=8), or a Restricted group (n=8) fed from 70% to 40% of MER until a body condition score of 2.5 was attained. Blood samples were taken every-other-day to determine plasma concentrations of LH, estradiol, leptin and metabolic markers, and follicular dynamics were monitored daily by ultrasonography for 30 days (Experiment 1). Llamas were then treated with GnRH to compare the ovulatory response and corpus luteus (CL) development between groups (Experiment 2). Blood samples were taken to measure LH, leptin, progesterone and metabolic markers and ovarian structures were assessed as in Experiment 1. Llamas in the Restricted group had lower body mass and body condition scores than those in the Control group (P<0.001). Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, and urea were higher in the Restricted group (P<0.05) than in the Control group. The day-to-day diameter profiles of the dominant follicles were smaller (P<0.05) in the Restricted group than in the Control group but plasma estradiol concentration did not differ. The ovulation rate and LH secretion in response to GnRH did not differ. Day-to-day profiles of CL diameter, plasma progesterone and leptin concentrations were smaller (P<0.01) in the Restricted group. In conclusion, nutritional restriction in llamas was associated with suppressed follicle and CL development, and lower plasma concentrations of progesterone and leptin.

  12. μ and κ Opioid receptor distribution in the monogamous titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus): Implications for social behavior and endocrine functioning

    PubMed Central

    Ragen, Benjamin J.; Freeman, Sara M.; Laredo, Sarah A.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Bales, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    The opioid system is involved in infant-mother bonds and adult-adult bonds in many species. We have previously shown that μ opioid receptors (MOR) and κ opioid receptors (KOR) are involved in regulating the adult attachment of the monogamous titi monkey. The present study sought to determine the distribution of MOR and KOR in the titi monkey brain using receptor autoradiography. We used [3H]DAMGO to label MORs and [3H]U69,593 to label KORs. MOR binding was heterogeneous throughout the titi monkey brain. Specifically, MOR binding was observed in the cingulate gyrus, striatum, septal regions, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and thalamus. Binding was particularly dense in the septum, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, mediodorsal thalamus with moderate binding in the nucleus accumbens. Consistent with other primate species, MOR were also observed in “neurochemically unique domains of the accumbens and putamen” (NUDAPs). In general KOR binding was more homogenous. KORs were primarily found in the cingulate gyrus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus. Dense KOR binding was observed in the claustrum. Relative MOR and KOR binding in the titi monkey striatum was similar to other humans and primates, but was much lower compared to rodents. Relative MOR binding in the titi monkey hypothalamus was much greater than that found in rodents. This study was the first to examine MOR and KOR binding in a monogamous primate. The location of these receptors gives insight into where ligands may be acting to regulate social behavior and endocrine function. PMID:25637809

  13. μ and κ opioid receptor distribution in the monogamous titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus): implications for social behavior and endocrine functioning.

    PubMed

    Ragen, B J; Freeman, S M; Laredo, S A; Mendoza, S P; Bales, K L

    2015-04-02

    The opioid system is involved in infant-mother bonds and adult-adult bonds in many species. We have previously shown that μ opioid receptors (MORs) and κ opioid receptors (KORs) are involved in regulating the adult attachment of the monogamous titi monkey. The present study sought to determine the distribution of MOR and KOR in the titi monkey brain using receptor autoradiography. We used [(3)H][D-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to label MORs and [(3)H]U69,593 to label KORs. MOR binding was heterogeneous throughout the titi monkey brain. Specifically, MOR binding was observed in the cingulate gyrus (CG), striatum, septal regions, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and thalamus. Binding was particularly dense in the septum, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, mediodorsal thalamus with moderate binding in the nucleus accumbens. Consistent with other primate species, MOR were also observed in "neurochemically unique domains of the accumbens and putamen" (NUDAPs). In general KOR binding was more homogenous. KORs were primarily found in the CG, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus. Dense KOR binding was observed in the claustrum. Relative MOR and KOR binding in the titi monkey striatum was similar to other humans and primates, but was much lower compared to rodents. Relative MOR binding in the titi monkey hypothalamus was much greater than that found in rodents. This study was the first to examine MOR and KOR binding in a monogamous primate. The location of these receptors gives insight into where ligands may be acting to regulate social behavior and endocrine function.

  14. Bromocriptine and endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Spark, R F; Dickstein, G

    1979-06-01

    Bromocriptine, a dopaminergic agonist, has been used to treat many endocrine disorders. In hyperprolactinemia associated with galactorrhea, amenorrhea, oligospermia, and impotence, bromocriptine reduces prolactin levels to normal and allows for satisfactory return of sexual and reproductive function in 90% of patients. In acromegaly, bromocriptine brings about subjective improvement in 75% of patients with reduction in growth-hormone levels to normal in 22% of patients. Bromocriptine has been used in premenstrual tension, functional infertility, Nelson's syndrome, and Cushing's disease with variable benefit. In low doses, side-effects are minimal. In higher doses, digital vasospasm and gastrointestinal bleeding have occurred. Although bromocriptine has been used in a wide variety of endocrine disorders, it appears to be most useful in treatment of male and female infertility associated with hyperprolactinemia.

  15. Molecular regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult male guinea pigs after prenatal stress at different stages of gestation.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Leen, Jason; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-09-01

    Studies in humans and animals have demonstrated that maternal stress during fetal development can lead to altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and behaviour postnatally. We have previously shown adult male guinea pigs that were born to mothers exposed to a stressor during the phase of rapid fetal brain growth (gestational days (GD) 50, 51 and 52; prenatal stress (PS)50) exhibit significantly increased basal plasma cortisol levels. In contrast, male guinea pig offspring whose mothers were exposed to stress later in gestation (GD60, 61 and 62; PS60) exhibited a significantly higher plasma cortisol response to activation of the HPA axis. In the present study, we hypothesized that the endocrine changes in HPA axis function observed in male guinea pig offspring would be reflected by altered molecular regulation of the HPA axis. Corticosteroid receptors in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary were measured, as well as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and adrenal enzymes in the paraventricular nucleus, pituitary and adrenal cortex, respectively, by in situ hybridization and Western blot. PS50 male offspring exhibited a significant reduction in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA (P <0.01) in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and significantly increased POMC mRNA (P <0.05) in the pituitary, consistent with the increase in basal HPA axis activity observed. In line with elevated activity of the HPA axis, both PS50 and PS60 male offspring exhibited significantly higher steroidogenic factor (SF)-1 (P <0.001) and melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2-R) mRNA (P <0.001) in the adrenal cortex. This study demonstrates that short periods of prenatal stress during critical windows of neuroendocrine development affect the expression of key regulators of HPA axis activity leading to the changes in endocrine function observed in prenatally stressed male offspring. Further, these changes are dependent on the timing of the maternal

  16. FDOPA Patterns in Adrenal Glands: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Aurélie; Giraudet, Anne Laure; Kryza, David; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Bournaud-Salinas, Claire; Mognetti, Thomas; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Combemale, Patrick; Giammarile, Francesco; Houzard, Claire

    2017-05-01

    F-FDOPA is a well-established tool to explore pheochromocytomas. It tends to replace I-MIBG scan in metastatic pheochromocytomas, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-related tumors, succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit-negative tumors, and succinate dehydrogenase[ZERO WIDTH SPACE]-positive lesions. To our knowledge, no study has characterized physiological and pathological adrenal glands with F-FDOPA from a quantitative point of view. We report the features of different normal and pathological adrenal glands with F-FDOPA. Within our series, only pheochromocytomas present a significantly increased uptake reflecting the high specificity of this tracer. Tumors such as adenomas or myelolipomas present no F-FDOPA significant accumulation. Interestingly, adrenal gland hyperplasia and solitary glands do not demonstrate compensatory uptake.

  17. Neonatal repetitive pain in rats leads to impaired spatial learning and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in later life

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mengying; Xia, Dongqing; Min, Cuiting; Zhao, Xiaoke; Chen, Yinhua; Liu, Li; Li, Xiaonan

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a major health issue. As part of their life-saving care, most preterm infants require hospitalization and are inevitably exposed to repetitive skin-breaking procedures. The long-term effects of neonatal repetitive pain on cognitive and emotional behaviors involving hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in young and adult rats are unknown. From P8 to P85, mechanical hypersensitivity of the bilateral hindpaws was observed in the Needle group (P < 0.001). Compared with the Tactile group, the Needle group took longer to find the platform on P30 than on P29 (P = 0.03), with a decreased number of original platform site crossings during the probe trial of the Morris water maze test (P = 0.026). Moreover, the Needle group spent more time and took longer distances in the central area than the Tactile group in the Open-field test, both in prepubertal and adult rats (P < 0.05). The HPA axis function in the Needle group differed from the Tactile group (P < 0.05), with decreased stress responsiveness in prepuberty and puberty (P < 0.05) and increased stress responsiveness in adulthood (P < 0.05). This study indicates that repetitive pain that occurs during a critical period may cause severe consequences, with behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances developing through prepuberty to adult life. PMID:27966656

  18. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of a Single Session of Swedish Massage on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal and Immune Function in Normal Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schettler, Pamela; Bresee, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Massage therapy is a multi–billion dollar industry in the United States with 8.7% of adults receiving at least one massage within the last year; yet, little is known about the physiologic effects of a single session of massage in healthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of a single session of Swedish massage on neuroendocrine and immune function. It was hypothesized that Swedish Massage Therapy would increase oxytocin (OT) levels, which would lead to a decrease in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) activity and enhanced immune function. Design The study design was a head-to-head, single-session comparison of Swedish Massage Therapy with a light touch control condition. Serial measurements were performed to determine OT, arginine-vasopressin (AVP), adrenal corticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CORT), circulating phenotypic lymphocytes markers, and mitogen-stimulated cytokine production. Setting This research was conducted in an outpatient research unit in an academic medical center. Subjects Medically and psychiatrically healthy adults, 18–45 years old, participated in this study. Intervention The intervention tested was 45 minutes of Swedish Massage Therapy versus a light touch control condition, using highly specified and identical protocols. Outcome measures The standardized mean difference was calculated between Swedish Massage Therapy versus light touch on pre- to postintervention change in levels of OT, AVP, ACTH, CORT, lymphocyte markers, and cytokine levels. Results Compared to light touch, Swedish Massage Therapy caused a large effect size decrease in AVP, and a small effect size decrease in CORT, but these findings were not mediated by OT. Massage increased the number of circulating lymphocytes, CD 25+ lymphocytes, CD 56+ lymphocytes, CD4 + lymphocytes, and CD8+ lymphocytes (effect sizes from 0.14 to 0.43). Mitogen-stimulated levels of interleukin (IL)–1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10

  19. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Beierwaltes, W.H.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, and is the only noninvasive method of detecting unilateral adrenocortical hypofunction. The newest and most popular use is in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic masses in the region of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally with CT scan (incidentalomas). In this situation, the NP-59 scan can define whether the tumor is in the adrenal gland and if it is functional or nonfunctional. The authors believe that, in the future, radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors might offer better diagnostic imaging of the adrenal cortex, although these agents will probably not be available for routine use for some time. The development of a radioiodinated guanethidine analog, /sup 131/I-MIBG, has allowed differentiation of normal adrenal medullary function from bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia before the development of hypertension or tachycardia, diagnostic increases in plasma or urinary catecholamines, or abnormal CT scans. The search for a pheochromocytoma should begin with /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. While over 90% of primary pheochromocytomas occur in the abdomen, neither a survey of the abdomen nor the finding of a single tumor should conclude the search.

  20. Dynamics of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript containing cell changes in the adrenal glands of two kidney, one clip rats.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, Irena; Piotrowska, Zaneta; Janiuk, Izabela; Zbucki, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Taking into consideration the homeostatic disorders resulting from renal hypertension and the essential role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in maintaining homeostasis by regulating many functions of the body, the question arises as to what extent the renovascular hypertension affects the morphology and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands. The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution, morphology, and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands of "two kidney, one clip" (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model in rats. The studies were carried out on the adrenal glands of rats after 3, 14, 28, 42, and 91 days from the renal artery clipping procedure. To identify neuroendocrine cells, immunohistochemical reaction was performed with the use of a specific antibody against CART. It was revealed that renovascular hypertension causes changes in the endocrine cells containing CART in the adrenal glands of rats. The changes observed in the endocrine cells depend on the time when the rats with experimentally induced hypertension were examined. In the first period of hypertension, the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells were decreased, while from the 28-day test, it significantly increased, as compared to the control rats. CART is relevant to the regulation of homeostasis in the cardiovascular system and seems to be involved in renovascular hypertension. The results of the present work open the possibility of new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of arterial hypertension, since CART function is involved in their pathophysiology.

  1. Role of adrenal imaging in surgical management

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Haynie, T.P. )

    1990-03-01

    Adrenal imaging using radiopharmaceuticals is a functional test that can contribute significantly to surgical management and follow-up of patients with either benign or malignant conditions of the adrenal cortex and medulla. Imaging of the cortex is achieved by iodine-131-labeled iodomethyl nor-cholesterol (NP-59), while adrenal medulla imaging can be successfully accomplished by 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), which localizes in the adrenergic nerve terminal with norepinephrine. Both tests carry high sensitivity and specificity for functional tumors and hyperplasia, and often better than CT scanning. This article reviews the current status and clinical utility of nuclear imaging of the adrenal cortex in congenital hyperplasia, low renin hypertension and aldosteronism, and Cushing's syndrome. Adrenal medulla imaging is reviewed in light of our experience at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, and other neuroectodermal tumors. Investigation of {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy of metastatic tumors of neuroectodermal origin potentially offers a means of at least controlling symptoms of hormonal secretion in these patients. 40 references.

  2. Effect of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin, on blood pressure, the renin-angiotensin system and sympatho-adrenal function in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Zabludowski, J R; Zoccali, C; Isles, C G; Murray, G D; Robertson, J I; Inglis, G C; Fraser, R; Ball, S G

    1984-01-01

    Ketanserin, a 5-HT type 2 receptor antagonist, was administered intravenously to nine patients with essential hypertension in a double-blind placebo controlled study to investigate the drug's effects on blood pressure, heart rate, the renin-angiotensin system and sympatho-adrenal function. Average blood-pressure for the group prior to injection of the drug was 150 +/- 7/94 +/- 4 (s.e. mean) mm Hg and decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) to 137 +/- 8/88 +/- 5 mm Hg during the 2 h after injection; heart rate increased immediately after injection of ketanserin, reaching a maximum of 81 +/- 4 beats/min. After drug administration systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased on tilting, but the heart rate response was not different from that with placebo. Ketanserin did not affect the blood pressure response to graded infusion of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Plasma active renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone concentrations increased slightly but not significantly after the drug; plasma noradrenaline increased transiently. 5-HT may be important in the maintenance of blood pressure but alternative mechanisms for the action of ketanserin in reducing blood pressure require investigation. PMID:6712863

  3. Adrenal-preserving minimally invasive surgery: update on the current status of laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Disick, Grant I S; Munver, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    Adrenalectomy is the standard of care for hormonally active adrenal masses. In recent years, minimally invasive laparoscopic excision has become a preferred management option. As with advances in parenchymal-sparing renal surgery, investigators have begun to examine adrenal-sparing procedures to preserve functional adrenal tissue. This article reviews the recent literature and reports on intermediate results with laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy (LPA).

  4. Myth vs. Fact: Adrenal Fatigue

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs Fact Scientific Statements Social Media Resources Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal ... Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs Fact Scientific Statements Social Media Resources Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal ...

  5. What Is Adrenal Cortical Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... include pheochromocytomas (which are most often benign) and neuroblastomas . This document is about tumors and cancers of ... does not discuss tumors of the adrenal medulla. Neuroblastoma s are covered in a separate document . Adrenal cortex ...

  6. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Merke, Deborah P; Bornstein, Stefan R

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to deficiency of 21-hydroxylase is a disorder of the adrenal cortex characterised by cortisol deficiency, with or without aldosterone deficiency, and androgen excess. Patients with the most severe form also have abnormalities of the adrenal medulla and epinephrine deficiency. The severe classic form occurs in one in 15,000 births worldwide, and the mild non-classic form is a common cause of hyperandrogenism. Neonatal screening for CAH and gene-specific prenatal diagnosis are now possible. Standard hormone replacement fails to achieve normal growth and development for many children with CAH, and adults can experience iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome, hyperandrogenism, infertility, or the development of the metabolic syndrome. This Seminar reviews the epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of CAH, and provides an overview of clinical challenges and future therapies.

  7. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testicular Function in 8 Boys with Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita (AHC) Due to NR0B1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Galeotti, Caroline; Lahlou, Zineb; Goullon, Domitille; Sarda-Thibault, Hélène; Cahen-Varsaux, Juliette; Bignon-Topalovic, Joëlle; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken; Brauner, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Background Boys carrying mutations in the NR0B1 gene develop adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and impaired sexual development due to the combination of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and primary defects in spermatogenesis. Methods We analysed the evolution of hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular function of 8 boys with AHC due to NR0B1 mutations. Our objective was to characterize and monitor the progressive deterioration of this function. Results The first symptoms appeared in the neonatal period (n = 5) or between 6 months and 8.7 years (n = 3). Basal plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentrations increased in all boys, whilst cortisol levels decreased in one case. The natremia was equal or below 134 mmol/L and kaliemia was over 5 mmol/L. All had increased plasma renin. In 3 of 4 patients diagnosed in the neonatal period and evaluated during the first year, the basal plasma gonadotropins concentrations, and their response to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) test (n = 2), and those of testosterone were normal. The plasma inhibin B levels were normal in the first year of life. With the exception of two cases these concentrations decreased to below the normal for age. Anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations were normal for age in all except one case, which had low concentrations before the initiation of testosterone treatment. In 3 of the 8 cases the gene was deleted and the remaining 5 cases carried frameshift mutations that are predicted to introduce a downstream nonsense mutation resulting in a truncated protein. Conclusions The decreases in testosterone and inhibin B levels indicated a progressive loss of testicular function in boys carrying NR0B1 mutations. These non-invasive examinations can help to estimate the age of the testicular degradation and cryopreservation of semen may be considered in these cases as investigational procedure with the aim of restoring fertility. PMID:22761912

  8. Cognitive function in postmenopausal breast cancer patients one year after completing adjuvant endocrine therapy with letrozole and/or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Aldridge, Julie; Ribi, Karin; Sun, Zhuoxin; Thompson, Alastair; Harvey, Vernon; Thürlimann, Beat; Cardoso, Fatima; Pagani, Olivia; Coates, Alan S.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Price, Karen N.; Gelber, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine therapy for breast cancer may affect cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine whether cognitive function improves after cessation of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Change in cognitive function was assessed in 100 postmenopausal breast cancer patients in the BIG 1-98 trial, who were randomized to receive 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole alone or in sequence. Cognitive function was evaluated by computerized tests during the fifth year of trial treatment (Y5) and 1 year after treatment completion (Y6). Cognitive test scores were standardized according to age-specific norms and the change assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. There was significant improvement in the composite cognitive function score from Y5 to Y6 (median of change = 0.22, effect size = 0.53, P < 0.0001). This improvement was consistent in women taking either tamoxifen or letrozole at Y5 (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0002, respectively). For postmenopausal patients who received either adjuvant letrozole or tamoxifen alone or in sequence, cognitive function improved after cessation of treatment. PMID:21046229

  9. [Quantitative histoenzymatic analysis of the adenohypophysis and adrenal cortex during the early stages of involution].

    PubMed

    Prochukhanov, R A; Rostovtseva, T I

    1977-11-01

    A method of quantitative histenzymatic analysis was applied for determination of the involution changes of the neuroendocrine system. The activity of NAD- and NADP-reductases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, glucose-6-phosphoric dehydrogenase, 3-OH-steroid-dehydrogenase, 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases was investigated in the adenohypophysis and in the adrenal cortex of rats aged 4 and 12 months. There were revealed peculiarities attending the structural-metabolic provision of physiological reconstructions of the neuro-endocrine system under conditions of the estral cycle at the early involution stages. An initial reduction of the cell ular-vascular transport with the retention of the functional activity of the intracellular organoids was demonstrated in ageing animals.

  10. Hypothalamic-pituitary, ovarian and adrenal contributions to polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baskind, N Ellissa; Balen, Adam H

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent heterogeneous disorder linked with disturbances of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic function. The definition and aetiological hypotheses of PCOS are continually developing to incorporate evolving evidence of the syndrome, which appears to be both multifactorial and polygenic. The pathophysiology of PCOS encompasses inherent ovarian dysfunction that is strongly influenced by external factors including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and hyperinsulinaemia. Neuroendocrine abnormalities including increased gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse frequency with consequent hypersecretion of luteinising hormone (LH) affects ovarian androgen synthesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte development. Disturbed ovarian-pituitary and hypothalamic feedback accentuates the gonadotrophin abnormalities, and there is emerging evidence putatively implicating dysfunction of the Kiss 1 system. Within the follicle subunit itself, there are intra-ovarian paracrine modulators, cytokines and growth factors, which appear to play a role. Adrenally derived androgens may also contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS, but their role is less defined.

  11. Changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress responsiveness before and after puberty in rats.

    PubMed

    Klein, Zoe A; Romeo, Russell D

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Many endocrine changes are associated with pubertal and adolescent development. One such change is the responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to physical and/or psychological stressors. Recent human and non-human animal studies have shown that hormonal stress reactivity increases significantly throughout puberty and adolescence. Specifically, exposure to various stressors results in greater adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and glucocorticoid responses in peripubertal compared to adult animals. This review will focus on how stress reactivity changes throughout puberty and adolescence, as well as potential mechanisms that mediate these changes in stress responsiveness. Though the implications of these pubertal shifts in stress responsiveness are not fully understood, the significant increase in stress-related mental and physical dysfunctions during this stage of development highlights the importance of studying pubertal and adolescent maturation of HPA function and its reactivity to stress.

  12. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    PubMed

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  13. Once and for all, LXRα and LXRβ are gatekeepers of the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Maqdasy, Salwan; Trousson, Amalia; Tauveron, Igor; Volle, David H; Baron, Silvère; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A

    2016-06-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) α and β are nuclear receptors whose transcriptional activity is regulated by oxysterols, the oxidized forms of cholesterol. Described in the late 1990s as lipid sensors, both LXRs regulate cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Over the years, deep phenotypic analyses of mouse models deficient for LXRα and/or LXRβ have pointed out various other physiological functions including glucose homeostasis, immunology, and neuroprotection. This review enlightens the "endocrine" functions of LXRs; they deeply impact plasma glucose directly and by modulating insulin signaling, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, thyroid and pituitary hormone levels, and bone homeostasis. Besides, LXR signaling is also involved in adrenal physiology, steroid synthesis, and male and female reproduction. Hence, LXRs are definitely involved in the endocrine system and could thus be considered as endocrine receptors, even though oxysterols do not fully correspond to the definition of hormones. Finally, because they are ligand-regulated transcription factors, LXRs are potential pharmacological targets with promising beneficial metabolic effects.

  14. Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Franco, Carlos Andrés; Román-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Velez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Echeverri-Isaza, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or the independent adrenocorticotropic hormone bilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause hypercortisolism, its diagnosis is challenging and there is no clear way to decide the best therapeutic approach. Adrenal venous sampling is commonly used to distinguish the source of hormonal production in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. It could be a useful tool in this context because it might provide information to guide the treatment. We report the case of a patient with ACTH independent Cushing syndrome in whom the use of adrenal venous sampling with some modifications radically modified the treatment and allowed the diagnosis of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:26309345

  15. Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Builes-Montaño, Carlos Esteban; Villa-Franco, Carlos Andrés; Román-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Velez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Echeverri-Isaza, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or the independent adrenocorticotropic hormone bilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause hypercortisolism, its diagnosis is challenging and there is no clear way to decide the best therapeutic approach. Adrenal venous sampling is commonly used to distinguish the source of hormonal production in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. It could be a useful tool in this context because it might provide information to guide the treatment. We report the case of a patient with ACTH independent Cushing syndrome in whom the use of adrenal venous sampling with some modifications radically modified the treatment and allowed the diagnosis of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.

  16. Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Law and science combine in the estimation of risks from endocrine disruptors (EDs) and actions for their regulation. For both, dose–response models are the causal link between exposure and probability (or percentage change) of adverse response. The evidence that leads to either regulations or judicial decrees is affected by uncertainty and limited knowledge, raising difficult policy issues that we enumerate and discuss. In the United States, some courts have dealt with EDs, but causation based on animal studies has been a stumbling block for plaintiffs seeking compensation, principally because those courts opt for epidemiological evidence. The European Union (EU) has several regulatory tools and ongoing research on the risks associated with bisphenol A, under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation and other regulations or directives. The integration of a vast (in kind and in scope) number of research papers into a statement of causation for either policy or to satisfy legal requirements, in both the United States and the EU, relies on experts. We outline the discursive dilemma and issues that may affect consensus-based results and a Bayesian causal approach that accounts for the evolution of information, yielding both value of information and flexibility associated with public choices. PMID:26740809

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Stem/Progenitor Cell Maintenance in the Adrenal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Finco, Isabella; LaPensee, Christopher; Hammer, Gary Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The adrenal cortex is characterized by three histologically and functionally distinct zones: the outermost zona glomerulosa (zG), the intermediate zona fasciculata, and the innermost zona reticularis. Important aspects of the physiology and maintenance of the adrenocortical stem/progenitor cells have emerged in the last few years. Studies have shown that the adrenocortical cells descend from a pool of progenitors that are localized in the subcapsular region of the zG. These cells continually undergo a process of centripetal displacement and differentiation, which is orchestrated by several paracrine and endocrine cues, including the pituitary-derived adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and angiotensin II. However, while several roles of the endocrine axes on adrenocortical function are well established, the mechanisms coordinating the maintenance of an undifferentiated progenitor cell pool with self-renewal capacity are poorly understood. Local factors, such as the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with embedded signaling molecules, and the activity of major paracrine effectors, including ligands of the sonic hedgehog and Wnt signaling pathways, are thought to play a major role. Particularly, the composition of the ECM, which exhibits substantial differences within each of the three histologically distinct concentric zones, has been shown to influence the differentiation status of adrenocortical cells. New data from other organ systems and different experimental paradigms strongly support the conclusion that the interactions of ECM components with cell-surface receptors and secreted factors are key determinants of cell fate. In this review, we summarize established and emerging data on the paracrine and autocrine regulatory loops that regulate the biology of the progenitor cell niche and propose a role for bioengineered ECM models in further elucidating this biology in the adrenal. PMID:28386245

  18. Cystic Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Adrenal Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Abdulsalam, Mohammed Shafi; Satish, Priyanka; Janakiraman, Raghunath Keddy; Singh, Shivshankar

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are usually solid tumours. But it can present as cystic lesions in the adrenal gland. Cystic lesions in adrenal gland with hypertension needs attention to rule out pheochromocytoma. If ignored, it may lead to hypertensive emergency, multisystem crisis and death. Early diagnosis with biochemistry, Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of abdomen, proper functional imaging like Meta Iodo Benzyl Guanidine (MIBG) scan is essential. Proper preoperative preparation is important to prevent hypertensive crisis during and after surgery. We are reporting a case of cystic pheochromocytoma in a young male. PMID:28050427

  19. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  20. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children, but much shorter ...

  1. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  2. The steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway as a target for endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, J Thomas

    2006-11-01

    Various chemicals found in the human and wildlife environments have the potential to disrupt endocrine functions in exposed organisms. Increasingly, the enzymes involved in the steroid biosynthesis pathway are being recognized as important targets for the actions of various endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Interferences with steroid biosynthesis may result in impaired reproduction, alterations in (sexual) differentiation, growth, and development and the development of certain cancers. Steroid hormone synthesis is controlled by the activity of several highly substrate-selective cytochrome P450 enzymes and a number of steroid dehydrogenases and reductases. Particularly aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, has been the subject of studies into the mechanisms by which chemicals interfere with sex steroid hormone homeostasis and function, often related to (de)feminization and (de)masculinazation processes. Studies in vivo and in vitro have focussed on ovarian and testicular function, with less attention given to other steroidogenic organs, such as the adrenal cortex. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which chemicals interfere with the function of steroidogenic enzymes in various tissues and organisms. The endocrine toxicities and mechanisms of action related to steroidogenesis of a number of classes of drugs and environmental contaminants are discussed. In addition, several potential in vitro bioassays are reviewed for their usefulness as screening tools for the detection of chemicals that can interfere with steroidogenesis. Analysis of the currently scattered state of knowledge indicates that still relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms of interference of chemicals with steroidogenesis and their potential toxicity in steroidogenic tissues, neither in humans nor in wildlife. Considerably more detailed and systematic research in this area of

  3. Embryological and molecular development of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ian L; Louw, Graham J

    2015-03-01

    In this mini review, the embryological and functional development of the adrenal glands is presented from a molecular perspective. While acknowledging that this is a highly complex series of events, the processes are described in simple and broad strokes in a single text for the reader who is interested in this field but is not an active researcher. The origin of the adrenal glands is in the mesodermal ridge as early as the fourth week of gestation. Between the eighth and ninth weeks of gestation, the adrenal glands are encapsulated and this results in the presence of a distinct organ. There have been great strides in deciphering the very complicated molecular aspects of adrenal gland development in which multiple transcription factors have been identified, directing the adrenogonadal primordium into the adrenal cortex, kidney, or bipotential gonad. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone is critical for early development of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. Several mutations in transcription factors, responsible for normal adrenal gland development have been found to induce the familial syndrome of congenital adrenal hypoplasia or neoplasia.

  4. Adrenal incidentaloma in thalassemia: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Maria Rita; Prandini, Napoleone; Chiodi, Elisabetta; Farneti, Carlotta; Garani, Maria Chiara

    2011-03-01

    In the last 30 years the development and widespread use of modern imaging techniques has caused a 20-time increase in the diagnosis of adrenal incidentaloma (AI). Among AIs myelolipoma (ML) is reported with a frequency up to 10%. In the literature 8 patients with adrenal masses in thalassaemia or chronic haemolytic anaemia have been reported: five cases were shown to have extramedullary haematopoiesis (EH) and 3 ML. We describe here a case of an adult male affected by beta thalassaemia intermedia and large bilateral lipomatous adrenal masses. The patient was referred to our ward at the age of 55 and underwent hormonal testing, MRI, and SPECT/CT scans. Adrenal masses were hormonally inactive, and fat-containing on MRI and CT scans. SPECT/CT examination with 99mTccolloid demonstrated the presence of marrow tissue. ML and EH are the only two tumours with marrow tissue among lipomatous adrenal masses. In our patient a brown nodular mass was resected and histologically classified as ML. In benign adrenal masses, radiological follow-up is indicated; in case of large bilateral masses adrenal function tests are suggested periodically in order to detect possible adrenal hypofunction.

  5. Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ribes, Diana; Fuentes, Silvia; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, M. Teresa; Domingo, Jose L.

    2010-02-15

    Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

  6. [Current operative techniques and strategies in endocrine surgery].

    PubMed

    Gürtler, Thomas; Weber, Markus

    2011-06-01

    Technical advances and focusing on subsets modified endocrine surgery in the last ten years tremendously. There is on one side a clear trend towards minimal invasive approaches, first of all in the surgery of the adrenal glands, where the transperitoneal or retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard for tumors up to a size of 10 cm in diameter. But also in pancreatic endocrine surgery for small tumors localized in the pancreas tail and up to a certain extend in thyroid and parathyroid surgery, laparoscopic or video assisted techniques are used. On the other side more precise techniques allow a more complete and radical removal of endocrine tissue, especially in thyroid surgery. This article presents a summary of current operative techniques and strategies in endocrine surgery.

  7. [Effect of high-altitude climate therapy on the adrenal cortex function in patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Brimkulov, N N; Bakirova, A N; Chaltabaev, K S

    1990-06-01

    132 bronchial asthma patients living in Frunze (760 m above the sea level) and those on adaptation days 3-5 and 25-30 to the climate of North Tien Shan (3200 m above the sea level) underwent clinical and functional examination involving assessment of ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone levels. The patients showed clinical response and improvement of bronchial permeability associated with a pronounced growth of plasma cortisol levels starting on adaptation days 3-5. By adaptation days 25-30 cortisol levels were still on the increase while ACTH concentration tended to reduction.

  8. [ALLOCATION OF ZINC, MAGNESIUM AND COPPER IN GRANULOCYTES AND SERUM OF RABBITS WHILE INTRODUCTION OF SUBSTANCES THAT CHANGE THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF ADRENAL CORTEX AND THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM].

    PubMed

    Grigorova, N V

    2015-01-01

    It was investigate the content of zinc, magnesium and copper in granulocytes and blood serum of the rabbits, that were injected with substances, that change the functional state of adrenal cortex, sympathetic-adrenal and parasympathetic nervous systems. It has been found that adrenaline, prednisolone and pilocarpine caused the multidirectional changes of these metals content in cells and in extracellular space. In this significant increase of zinc concentration by 33 - 42%, magnesium--by 33 -50%, and also decrease of copper content by 25-50% was observed in granulocytes of animals after adrenal hormones injections. Under the influence of cholinomimetics content of zinc and magnesium were essential decreased in granulocytes of the rabbits, by 58% and by 33% respectively, and content of copper was risen by 43% (P < 0.001). The opposite pattern was observed in serum. Adrenaline and prednisolone prescription caused a significant decrease of zinc concentration by 20-24%, magnesium--by 22-33%, and increase of copper content by 36-43%. Pilocarpine injection caused a decrease of zinc and magnesium content by 28 and 33% (P < 0.01) respectively, and an increase of copper concentration by 43% (P < 0.001). The obtained results also indicate a synergistic relationship between zinc and magnesium in cells, but antagonistic--these metals with copper.

  9. The endocrine control of reproduction in Nereidae: a new multi-hormonal model with implications for their functional role in a changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, A. J.; Soame, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Nereidae are vital to the functioning of estuarine ecosystems and are major components in the diets of over-wintering birds and commercial fish. They use environmental cues to synchronize reproduction. Photoperiod is the proximate cue, initiating vitellogenesis in a temperature-compensated process. The prevailing paradigm in Nereidae is of a single ‘juvenile’ hormone controlling growth and reproduction. However, a new multi-hormone model is presented here that integrates the environmental and endocrine control of reproduction. This is supported by evidence from in vitro bioassays. The juvenile hormone is shown to be heat stable and cross reactive between species. In addition, a second neuro-hormone, identified here as a gonadotrophic hormone, is shown to be present in mature females and is found to promote oocyte growth. Furthermore, dopamine and melatonin appear to switch off the juvenile hormone while serotonin and oxytocin promote oocyte growth. Global warming is likely to uncouple the phase relationship between temperature and photoperiod, with significant consequences for Nereidae that use photoperiod to cue reproduction during the winter in northern latitudes. Genotypic adaptation of the photoperiodic response may be possible, but significant impacts on fecundity, spawning success and recruitment are likely in response to short-term extreme events. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals may also impact on putative steroid hormone pathways in Nereidae with similar consequences. These impacts may have significant implications for the functional role of Nereidae and highlight the importance of comparative endocrinology studies in these and other invertebrates. PMID:19833648

  10. Endocrine controls of keratin expression.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Yuval; Paus, Ralf; Tiede, Stephan; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2009-04-01

    Keratins are a family of intermediate filaments that serve various crucial roles in skin physiology. For mammalian skin to function properly, and to produce epidermal and hair keratins that are optimally adapted for their environment, it is critical that keratin gene and protein expression are stringently controlled. Given that the skin is not only targeted by multiple hormones, but also constitutes a veritable peripheral endocrine organ, it is not surprizing that intracutaneous keratin expression is underlined by tight endocrine controls. These controls encompass thyroid hormones, steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids (GCs), retinoic acid (RA) and vitamin D, and several neuroendocrine mediators. Here, we review why a better understanding of the endocrine controls of keratin expression is not only required for an improved insight into normal human skin and hair function, but may also open new therapeutic avenues in a wide range of skin and hair diseases.

  11. Effects of hypophysectomy and administration of pituitary hormones on luteal function and uptake of high density lipoproteins by luteinized ovaries and adrenals of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.D.; Rajkumar, K.; McKibbin, P.E.; Macdonald, G.J.; Buhr, M.M.; Grinwich, D.L.

    1985-04-01

    The role of plasma lipoproteins and hypophyseal hormones in the maintenance of progesterone secretion by the rat corpus luteum was investigated. In the first experiment, rats were treated daily from days 1-6 of pregnancy with 5 mg/kg 4-aminopyrozolopyramidine (4APP), a blocker of hepatic lipoprotein secretion, or with 5 mg/kg 4APP and 1 or 2 mg ovine PRL or 0.1 ml 0.5% phosphoric acid (4APP vehicle). The administration of 4APP reduced serum cholesterol and progesterone levels on days 2-6 of pregnancy and ovarian progesterone on day 6. The reduced progesterone secretion had no effect on embryo implantation. PRL, in the doses used, was incapable of abrogating the effects of 4APP on circulating or ovarian progesterone levels. Ovaries and adrenals, but not kidneys, of pseudopregnant rats exhibited specific and saturable uptake of porcine high density lipoprotein (HDL). Time-course studies indicated that the uptake of HDL was rapid in ovaries compared to that in adrenals. Ovaries from rats not only exhibited uptake of porcine HDL, but also were capable of using it for progesterone synthesis. Treatment with 4APP increased the adrenal uptake of HDL, but ovarian uptake was not different from that in the control group. Hypophysectomy reduced both adrenal and ovarian uptake of HDL. In adrenals only ACTH at the dose employed ameliorated reduction of HDL uptake induced by hypophysectomy, while in the ovaries, both PRL and LH reversed the effect of hypophysectomy. The effect of PRL on uptake was specific to (/sup 125/I)HDL and did not alter (/sup 125/I)albumin uptake. It is concluded that: 1) hypophysectomy reduces HDL uptake in the luteinized rat ovary; and 2) PRL and LH replacement therapy maintain ovarian uptake of HDL, suggesting a direct effect of these luteotropins on lipoprotein uptake.

  12. Role of Protein Phosphorylation and Tyrosine Phosphatases in the Adrenal Regulation of Steroid Synthesis and Mitochondrial Function.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gorostizaga, Alejandra; Castillo, Ana F; Mori Sequeiros García, M Mercedes; Maloberti, Paula M; Orlando, Ulises D; Mele, Pablo G; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J

    2016-01-01

    In adrenocortical cells, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) promotes the activation of several protein kinases. The action of these kinases is linked to steroid production, mainly through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), whose expression and activity are dependent on protein phosphorylation events at genomic and non-genomic levels. Hormone-dependent mitochondrial dynamics and cell proliferation are functions also associated with protein kinases. On the other hand, protein tyrosine dephosphorylation is an additional component of the ACTH signaling pathway, which involves the "classical" protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), such as Src homology domain (SH) 2-containing PTP (SHP2c), and members of the MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) family, such as MKP-1. PTPs are rapidly activated by posttranslational mechanisms and participate in hormone-stimulated steroid production. In this process, the SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase plays a crucial role in a mechanism that includes an acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl4), arachidonic acid (AA) release and StAR induction. In contrast, MKPs in steroidogenic cells have a role in the turn-off of the hormonal signal in ERK-dependent processes such as steroid synthesis and, perhaps, cell proliferation. This review analyzes the participation of these tyrosine phosphates in the ACTH signaling pathway and the action of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and steroid production. In addition, the participation of kinases and phosphatases in the signal cascade triggered by different stimuli in other steroidogenic tissues is also compared to adrenocortical cell/ACTH and discussed.

  13. The first simultaneous kidney-adrenal gland-pancreas transplantation: outcome at 1 year.

    PubMed

    Vouillarmet, J; Buron, F; Houzard, C; Carlier, M C; Chauvet, C; Brunet, M; Thivolet, C; Morelon, E; Badet, L

    2013-07-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a rare but life-threatening disease. Replacement therapy sometimes fails to prevent an acute adrenal crisis and most often does not lead to restoration of well-being. We report here the 1-year outcome of the first simultaneous kidney-adrenal gland-pancreas transplantation in a 33-year-old patient with type 1 diabetes and concomitant autoimmune adrenal insufficiency. En bloc left adrenal gland and kidney grafts were anastomosed on the left iliac vessels in normal vascular conditions and the pancreas graft was anastomosed on the right iliac vessels. The immunosuppressive regimen was not modified by the addition of the adrenal gland. We observed no additional morbidity due to the adrenal gland transplantation, as there were no surgical complications. One-year kidney and pancreas graft functions were satisfactory (estimated glomerular filtration rate: 55 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and HbA1c: 4.8%). The adrenal graft functioned well at 12 months with a normalization of cortisol and aldosterone baseline levels. Functional imaging at 3 months showed good uptake of [(123) I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine by the adrenal graft. Transplantation of the adrenal gland en bloc with the left kidney appears to be a good therapeutic option in patients with adrenal insufficiency awaiting kidney or kidney-pancreas transplantation.

  14. Role of Protein Phosphorylation and Tyrosine Phosphatases in the Adrenal Regulation of Steroid Synthesis and Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gorostizaga, Alejandra; Castillo, Ana F.; Mori Sequeiros García, M. Mercedes; Maloberti, Paula M.; Orlando, Ulises D.; Mele, Pablo G.; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J.

    2016-01-01

    In adrenocortical cells, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) promotes the activation of several protein kinases. The action of these kinases is linked to steroid production, mainly through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), whose expression and activity are dependent on protein phosphorylation events at genomic and non-genomic levels. Hormone-dependent mitochondrial dynamics and cell proliferation are functions also associated with protein kinases. On the other hand, protein tyrosine dephosphorylation is an additional component of the ACTH signaling pathway, which involves the “classical” protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), such as Src homology domain (SH) 2-containing PTP (SHP2c), and members of the MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) family, such as MKP-1. PTPs are rapidly activated by posttranslational mechanisms and participate in hormone-stimulated steroid production. In this process, the SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase plays a crucial role in a mechanism that includes an acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl4), arachidonic acid (AA) release and StAR induction. In contrast, MKPs in steroidogenic cells have a role in the turn-off of the hormonal signal in ERK-dependent processes such as steroid synthesis and, perhaps, cell proliferation. This review analyzes the participation of these tyrosine phosphates in the ACTH signaling pathway and the action of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and steroid production. In addition, the participation of kinases and phosphatases in the signal cascade triggered by different stimuli in other steroidogenic tissues is also compared to adrenocortical cell/ACTH and discussed. PMID:27375556

  15. CT demonstration of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-08-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.

  16. Introduction to the Endocrine System

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... in Balance › Hormones and Health › Journey Through the Endocrine System Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine-related Organs ...

  17. Endocrine disorders: causes of hyponatremia not to neglect.

    PubMed

    Liamis, George; Milionis, Haralampos J; Elisaf, Moses

    2011-05-01

    Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte abnormality with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Endocrine disorders, including adrenal deficiency and hypothyroidism, are uncommon causes of hyponatremia. Primary adrenal insufficiency (i.e. Addison's disease) may well be recognized by clear hall-marks of the disease, such as pigmentation, salt craving, hypotension, and concomitant hyperkalemia. Addison's disease is an important diagnosis not to be missed since the consequences can be grave. On the other hand, hypothyroidism and secondary adrenocortical insufficiency originating from diseases of the hypothalamus and/or pituitary (hypopituitarism) require a high index of suspicion, because the clinical signs can be quite subtle. This review focuses on clinical and pathophysiological aspects of hyponatremia due to endocrine disorders.

  18. Radioguided Adrenal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Deus, Javier; Millera, Alfonso; Andrés, Alejandro; Prats, Enrique; Gil, Ismael; Suarez, Manuel; Salcini, José L.; Lahoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered as the procedure of choice for the treatment of adrenal hyperplasia and tumor lesions. However, some special situations may limit the use of this method due to the difficulty to locate the gland and perform the lesion excision. We analyze 2 patients of a left adrenal tumor, explaining how they have overcome the difficulties in both situations. The first case was a patient with a history of intra-abdominal surgery and the other patient suffered from severe obesity. We performed with the use of the gamma probe, and the 2 cases, was of great help to access and glandular localization. The help of gamma probe test was achieved in the surgical bed, that removal was complete. The use of the portable gamma probe facilitated the access to the left adrenal gland as well as conducting the glandular excision without delay, despite the difficulties due to the intra abdominal surgery caused by the previous surgery, and in the case of severe obesity. PMID:26426608

  19. The molecular classification of hereditary endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lei; Ning, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary endocrine diseases are an important group of diseases with great heterogeneity. The current classification for hereditary endocrine disease is mostly based upon anatomy, which is helpful for pathophysiological interpretation, but does not address the pathogenic variability associated with different underlying genetic causes. Identification of an endocrinopathy-associated genetic alteration provides evidence for differential diagnosis, discovery of non-classical disease, and the potential for earlier diagnosis and targeted therapy. Molecular diagnosis should be routinely applied when managing patients with suspicion of hereditary disease. To enhance the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hereditary endocrine diseases, we propose categorization of endocrine diseases into three groups based upon the function of the mutant gene: cell differentiation, hormone synthesis and action, and tumorigenesis. Each category was further grouped according to the specific gene function. We believe that this format would facilitate practice of precision medicine in the field of hereditary endocrine diseases.

  20. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

  1. Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids mimic direct but not receptor-mediated inhibitory effects of estrogens and phytoestrogens on testicular endocrine function. Possible significance for Leydig cell insufficiency in alcohol addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Stammel, W.; Thomas, H. ); Staib, W.; Kuehn-Velten, W.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Possible effects of various tetrahydroisoquinolines (TIQs) on rat testicular endocrine function were tested in vitro in order to prove whether these compounds may be mediators of the development of Leydig cell insufficiency. TIQ effects on different levels of regulation of testis function were compared in vitro with estrogen effects, since both classes of compounds have structural similarities. Gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production by testicular Leydig cells was inhibited by tetrahydropapaveroline and isosalsoline, the IC{sub 50} values being comparable to those of estradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, and the phytoestrogens, coumestrol and genistein; salsolinol and salsoline were less effective, and salsolidine was ineffective. None of these TIQs interacted significantly with testicular estrogen receptor as analyzed by estradiol displacement. However, tetrahydropapaveroline, isosalsoline and salsolinol competitively inhibited substrate binding to cytochrome P45OXVII, with similar efficiency as the estrogens did; salsoline and salsolidine were again much less effective.

  2. Role of endocrine and inflammatory alterations in comorbid somatic diseases of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Rohleder, N; Karl, A

    2006-12-01

    Since its first description in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been characterized as a disorder of altered affective functioning which causes tremendous distress. In addition, it has been recognized that PTSD is not only accompanied by ''poor health'' but also by a number of specific and non-specific ''somatic'' pathologies, such as cardiovascular, autoimmune and physical complaints/chronic pain. It has been hypothesized that alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) and the immune system may mediate or facilitate these somatic conditions. The aims of this review are to summarize studies that report altered somatic functioning in PTSD and to review how endocrine and immune function differentially affect PTSD-related somatic malfunction. It is hypothesized that alterations of HPA axis and SAM system permit disinhibition of inflammatory mechanisms, which in turn foster the development of somatic diseases as well as self-reported physical complaints.

  3. [Reaction of the endocrine system to continuous and intermittent electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Zagorskaia, E A

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews Soviet and foreign data about the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields of continuous and intermittent generation on the endocrine system of animals and humans. It has been shown that the pituitary-adrenal, pituitary-thyroid and reproductive systems are sensitive to these effects. It is postulated that the endocrine responses to electromagnetic effects are similar to the general adaptive reactions to various pathophysiological exposures.

  4. Adrenal steroid metabolism in birds: anatomy, physiology, and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system in birds is anatomically and functionally different from that in mammals. The adrenal gland structure and corticosteroid hormone physiology of birds will be reviewed. The anatomy and physiology sections of this article will be important for better understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and possible treatment of primary or secondary adrenal gland disease. Causes of hyper- and hypoadrenocorticism in birds also will be reviewed. The article will conclude with current indications and complications to the clinical use of glucocorticoids in birds.

  5. Effects of Wastewater Discharges on Endocrine and Reproductive Function of Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) and Implications for the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Olivier, Heather M.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Alvarez, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Santa Ana River (SAR) in southern California is impacted by effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which are sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and urban runoff. The Santa Ana River is one of only three river basins supporting native populations of the federally listed Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus santaanae) at the time the fish was included on the list 2000. In 2004 and 2005, a U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service study was undertaken to determine if the threatened Santa Ana sucker was potentially exposed to OWCs and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the SAR by using the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a surrogate fish model. Four Santa Ana River sites were chosen along a gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents: (1) a point source of tertiary treated wastewater effluent (TTWE), (2) Rialto Drain (just below a WWTP), (3) Prado Dam (11 kilometers [km] below WWTPs), and (4) Sunnyslope Creek (no WWTP but having urban runoff influence). A reference site having no WWTPs or urban runoff, Thousand Palms, was also sampled. Chemical analyses of passive sampler extracts results showed that 15 OWCs and EDCs were detected in water from the Santa Ana River sites. Many of these compounds contributed to activity from an estrogenic in-vitro assay that showed a significant potential for impacting endocrine and reproductive systems compared to the 25 organochlorine compounds detected in aquatic biota. The site showing compounds having highest influence on sex steroid hormone activities was the point source for TTWE. Sex steroid hormone levels, secondary sex characteristics, organosomatic indices, and sperm quality parameters indicated impairment of endocrine and reproductive function of male western mosquitofish in the Santa Ana River. Exposure to EDCs and consequent impairment in mosquitofish followed the gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents, where the most significant effects were found at TTWE point source and

  6. Development of adrenal cortex zonation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yewei; Lerario, Antonio M; Rainey, William; Hammer, Gary D

    2015-06-01

    The human adult adrenal cortex is composed of the zona glomerulosa (zG), zona fasciculata (zF), and zona reticularis (zR), which are responsible for production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and adrenal androgens, respectively. The final completion of cortical zonation in humans does not occur until puberty with the establishment of the zR and its production of adrenal androgens; a process called adrenarche. The maintenance of the adrenal cortex involves the centripetal displacement and differentiation of peripheral Sonic hedgehog-positive progenitors cells into zG cells that later transition to zF cells and subsequently zR cells.

  7. [Sonography of the adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Rüeger, R

    2005-03-02

    In the abdominal ultrasonography, the representation of normal adrenal glands is frequently problematic, also for experienced practitioners in ultrasonography. During a seminary at the congress of the SGUM in Davos, in June 2004, it was specially entered to this problematic by anatomical illustrations and live demonstrations. These statements will be summarized in the following article. Also, the technics of examination of the adrenal glands will be explained, especially in comparison to anatomical cut-preparations. It will be entered to particular pathological statements of the adrenal glands. The proceeding will be described by the localisation of accidentally detected tumours of adrenal glands.

  8. Adrenal crisis secondary to bilateral adrenal haemorrhage after hemicolectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Venessa H M; Kabir, Shahrir; Ip, Julian C Y

    2016-01-01

    Summary Adrenal haemorrhage is a rare cause of adrenal crisis, which requires rapid diagnosis, prompt initiation of parenteral hydrocortisone and haemodynamic monitoring to avoid hypotensive crises. We herein describe a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage after hemicolectomy in a 93-year-old female with high-grade colonic adenocarcinoma. This patient’s post-operative recovery was complicated by an acute hypotensive episode, hypoglycaemia and syncope, and subsequent computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Given her labile blood pressure, intravenous hydrocortisone was commenced with rapid improvement of blood pressure, which had incompletely responded with fluids. A provisional diagnosis of hypocortisolism was made. Initial heparin-induced thrombocytopenic screen (HITTS) was positive, but platelet count and coagulation profile were both normal. The patient suffered a concurrent transient ischaemic attack with no neurological deficits. She was discharged on a reducing dose of oral steroids with normal serum cortisol levels at the time of discharge. She and her family were educated about lifelong steroids and the use of parenteral steroids should a hypoadrenal crisis eventuate. Learning points: Adrenal haemorrhage is a rare cause of hypoadrenalism, and thus requires prompt diagnosis and management to prevent death from primary adrenocortical insufficiency. Mechanisms of adrenal haemorrhage include reduced adrenal vascular bed capillary resistance, adrenal vein thrombosis, catecholamine-related increased adrenal blood flow and adrenal vein spasm. Standard diagnostic assessment is a non-contrast CT abdomen. Intravenous hydrocortisone and intravenous substitution of fluids are the initial management. A formal diagnosis of primary adrenal insufficiency should never delay treatment, but should be made afterwards. PMID:27855238

  9. Chronic restraint stress in adolescence differentially influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Barha, Cindy K; Brummelte, Susanne; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2011-11-01

    corticosterone levels and reduced body weight, as adults they showed a slight increase in cell survival and no effect of adolescent stress on basal corticosterone levels. These results suggest that stress during adolescence can have effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and hippocampus plasticity in adulthood, particularly in female rats.

  10. Traumatic and non-traumatic adrenal emergencies.

    PubMed

    Chernyak, Victoria; Patlas, Michael N; Menias, Christine O; Soto, Jorge A; Kielar, Ania Z; Rozenblit, Alla M; Romano, Luigia; Katz, Douglas S

    2015-12-01

    Multiple traumatic and non-traumatic adrenal emergencies are occasionally encountered during the cross-sectional imaging of emergency department patients. Traumatic adrenal hematomas are markers of severe polytrauma, and can be easily overlooked due to multiple concomitant injuries. Patients with non-traumatic adrenal emergencies usually present to an emergency department with a non-specific clinical picture. The detection and management of adrenal emergencies is based on cross-sectional imaging. Adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal infection, or rupture of adrenal neoplasm require immediate detection to avoid dire consequences. More often however, adrenal emergencies are detected incidentally in patients being investigated for non-specific acute abdominal pain. A high index of suspicion is required for the establishment of timely diagnosis and to avert potentially life-threatening complications. We describe cross-sectional imaging findings in patients with traumatic and non-traumatic adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal infarctions, adrenal infections, and complications of adrenal masses.

  11. Non Hodgkin's lymphoma involving the adrenal glands and the central nervous system (CNS): a particular evolution after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vélayoudom, F-L; Cardot-Bauters, C; Decouvelaere, A-V; Vlaeminck, V; Bauters, F; Wémeau, J-L

    2005-12-01

    Adrenal lymphoma is extremely rare. The prognostic depends on involvement of other organs (such as the central nervous system) responsible for lower median survival. We report the case of a 51-year-old man with non Hodgkin's Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the central nervous system (CNS) and the adrenal glands simultaneously. The endocrine exploration revealed a partial adrenal insufficiency and ruled out a pheochromocytoma. Computerized tomographic (CT) scan directed needle biopsy of the adrenal gland allowed the diagnostic of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). CNS biopsies showed similar histopathologic lesions. After aggressive polychemotherapy and methotrexate intrathecal injection, a dissociated therapeutic response was observed with a decrease of the cerebral lesion and an increase of the adrenal mass. This result may be explained by the efficacy of corticosteroid therapy on cerebral edema. The prognosis was poor with tumor infiltration of the leptomeninges and death 16 months after diagnosis.

  12. Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with adrenal incidentaloma: clinical and biochemical features.

    PubMed

    Rossi, R; Tauchmanova, L; Luciano, A; Di Martino, M; Battista, C; Del Viscovo, L; Nuzzo, V; Lombardi, G

    2000-04-01

    Incidentally discovered adrenal masses are mostly benign, asymptomatic lesions, often arbitrarily considered as nonfunctioning tumors. Recent studies, however, have reported increasing evidence that subtle cortisol production and abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are more frequent than previously thought. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and hormonal features of patients with incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas, in relation to their clinical outcome. Fifty consecutive patients with incidentally detected adrenal adenomas, selected from a total of 65 cases of adrenal incidentalomas, were prospectively evaluated. All of them underwent abdominal computed tomography scan and hormonal assays of the HPA axis function: circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol and ACTH, urinary cortisol excretion, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androgens, corticotropin stimulation test and low-dose (2 mg) dexamethasone test. The patients were reevaluated at regular intervals (6, 12, and 24 months) for a median period of 38 months. Subtle hypercortisolism, defined as abnormal response to at least 2 standard tests of the HPA axis function in the absence of clinical signs of Cushing's syndrome (CS), was defined as subclinical CS. Mild-to-severe hypertension was found in 24 of 50 (48%) patients, type-2 diabetes in 12 of 50 (24%), and glucose intolerance in 6 of 50 (12%) patients. Moreover, 18 of 50 patients (36%) were diffusely obese (body mass index, determined as weight/height2, > 25), and 14 patients (28%) had serum lipid concentration abnormalities (cholesterol > or = 6.21 mmol/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol > or = 4.14 mmol/L and/or triglycerides > or = 1.8 mmol/L). Compared with a healthy population, bone mineral density Z-score, determined by the DEXA technique, tended to be slightly (but not significantly) lower in patients with adrenal adenoma (-0.41 SD). Endocrine data were compared with 107 sex- and age-matched controls, and

  13. Perioperative Severe Hypotension in a Patient with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type IIb and Bilateral Adrenalectomies: Time to Review the Evidence for Stress Dose Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Acsa; Hagan, Katherine B.; Van Meter, Antoinette; Williams, Uduak Ursula; Zhang, Wei; Owusu-Agyemang, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb (MEN IIb) is an endocrine disorder which can manifest with tumors such as pheochromocytomas and neuromas. We present the case of a patient with MEN IIb, after bilateral adrenalectomies, on maintenance steroid replacement, who underwent a neuroma resection and developed severe hypotension. There is persistent controversy regarding the general administration of perioperative “stress dose” steroids for patients with adrenal insufficiency. While the most recent literature suggests that stress dose steroids are unnecessary for secondary adrenal insufficiency, the rarer form of primary adrenal insufficiency always requires supplemental steroids, specifically hydrocortisone, when undergoing surgical procedures. PMID:27900224

  14. Pheochromocytomas in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Venessa H M; Tacon, Lyndal J; Learoyd, Diana L; Robinson, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PC) is a neuroendocrine tumor that originates from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. The production of catecholamines, including epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, may lead to haemodynamic instability. Over 30% of PCs are associated with germline mutations, including re-arranged in transfection (RET) mutations seen in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndromes. Around 40% of individuals with MEN2 develop PC, though it is rarely the presenting feature. Compared to sporadic PC, MEN2-associated PC is more likely to be epinephine secreting and demonstrate bilateral adrenal involvement, and is less likely to be malignant. The diagnosis of PC requires clinical suspicion and biochemical testing, followed by imaging studies. Novel nuclear medicine modalities, including FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and 68Ga DOTATATE PET have added to the conventional techniques of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanindine (MIBG) scintigraphy, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment of PC is surgical and requires peri-operative alpha and, frequently, beta blockade. Novel surgical techniques, such as adrenal sparing surgery and a laparoscopic approach, have decreased peri-operative morbidity. Surveillance for PC is life long, due to the risk of metastatic disease.

  15. Probing the binding of an endocrine disrupting compound-Bisphenol F to human serum albumin: Insights into the interactions of harmful chemicals with functional biomacromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Fang; Xu, Tianci; Yang, Lijun; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Lei

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol F (BPF) as an endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) pollutant in the environment poses a great threat to human health. To evaluate the toxicity of BPF at the protein level, the effects of BPF on human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated at three temperatures 283, 298, and 308 K by multiple spectroscopic techniques. The experimental results showed that BPF effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA via static quenching. The number of binding sites, the binding constant, the thermodynamic parameters and the binding subdomain were measured, and indicated that BPF could spontaneously bind with HSA on subdomain IIA through H-bond and van der Waals interactions. Furthermore, the conformation of HSA was demonstrably changed in the presence of BPF. The work provides accurate and full basic data for clarifying the binding mechanisms of BPF with HSA in vivo and is helpful for understanding its effect on protein function during its transportation and distribution in blood.

  16. Endocrine FGFs: Evolution, Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hiroya; Konishi, Morichika

    2015-01-01

    The human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family comprises 22 structurally related polypeptides that play crucial roles in neuronal functions, development, and metabolism. FGFs are classified as intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine FGFs based on their action mechanisms. Paracrine and endocrine FGFs are secreted signaling molecules by acting via cell-surface FGF receptors (FGFRs). Paracrine FGFs require heparan sulfate as a cofactor for FGFRs. In contrast, endocrine FGFs, comprising FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, require α-Klotho or β-Klotho as a cofactor for FGFRs. Endocrine FGFs, which are specific to vertebrates, lost heparan sulfate-binding affinity and acquired a systemic signaling system with α-Klotho or β-Klotho during early vertebrate evolution. The phenotypes of endocrine FGF knockout mice indicate that they play roles in metabolism including bile acid, energy, and phosphate/active vitamin D metabolism. Accumulated evidence for the involvement of endocrine FGFs in human genetic and metabolic diseases also indicates their pathophysiological roles in metabolic diseases, potential risk factors for metabolic diseases, and useful biomarkers for metabolic diseases. The therapeutic utility of endocrine FGFs is currently being developed. These findings provide new insights into the physiological and pathophysiological roles of endocrine FGFs and potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases. PMID:26483756

  17. The Effects of Nanomaterials as Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Leso, Veruscka; Bergamaschi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, nanoparticles have been increasingly used in several industrial, consumer and medical applications because of their unique physico-chemical properties. However, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that these properties are also closely associated with detrimental health effects. There is a serious lack of information on the potential nanoparticle hazard to human health, particularly on their possible toxic effects on the endocrine system. This topic is of primary importance since the disruption of endocrine functions is associated with severe adverse effects on human health. Consequently, in order to gather information on the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on endocrine organs, we reviewed the data available in the literature regarding the endocrine effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure to different types of nanoparticles. Our aim was to understand the potential endocrine disrupting risks posed by nanoparticles, to assess their underlying mechanisms of action and identify areas in which further investigation is needed in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the role of nanoparticles as endocrine disruptors. Current data support the notion that different types of nanoparticles are capable of altering the normal and physiological activity of the endocrine system. However, a critical evaluation of these findings suggests the need to interpret these results with caution since information on potential endocrine interactions and the toxicity of nanoparticles is quite limited. PMID:23949635

  18. The significance of Ciona intestinalis as a stem organism in integrative studies of functional evolution of the chordate endocrine, neuroendocrine, and nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shin; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Tsubasa; Aoyama, Masato; Osugi, Tomohiro; Shiraishi, Akira; Satake, Honoo

    2016-02-01

    Ascidians are the closest phylogenetic neighbors to vertebrates and are believed to conserve the evolutionary origin in chordates of the endocrine, neuroendocrine, and nervous systems involving neuropeptides and peptide hormones. Ciona intestinalis harbors various homologs or prototypes of vertebrate neuropeptides and peptide hormones including gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), tachykinins (TKs), and calcitonin, as well as Ciona-specific neuropeptides such as Ciona vasopressin, LF, and YFV/L peptides. Moreover, molecular and functional studies on Ciona tachykinin (Ci-TK) have revealed the novel molecular mechanism of inducing oocyte growth via up-regulation of vitellogenesis-associated protease activity, which is expected to be conserved in vertebrates. Furthermore, a series of studies on Ciona GnRH receptor paralogs have verified the species-specific regulation of GnRHergic signaling including unique signaling control via heterodimerization among multiple GnRH receptors. These findings confirm the remarkable significance of ascidians in investigations of the evolutionary processes of the peptidergic systems in chordates, leading to the promising advance in the research on Ciona peptides in the next stage based on the recent development of emerging technologies including genome-editing techniques, peptidomics-based multi-color staining, machine-learning prediction, and next-generation sequencing. These technologies and bioinformatic integration of the resultant "multi-omics" data will provide unprecedented insights into the comprehensive understanding of molecular and functional regulatory mechanisms of the Ciona peptides, and will eventually enable the exploration of both conserved and diversified endocrine, neuroendocrine, and nervous systems in the evolutionary lineage of chordates.

  19. The Spatiotemporal Pattern of Glis3 Expression Indicates a Regulatory Function in Bipotent and Endocrine Progenitors during Early Pancreatic Development and in Beta, PP and Ductal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hong Soon; Takeda, Yukimasa; Jeon, Kilsoo

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Glis-similar 3 (Glis3) has been implicated in the development of neonatal, type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Glis3 protein during embryonic and neonatal pancreas development as well as its function in PP cells. To obtain greater insights into the functions of Glis3 in pancreas development, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Glis3 protein in a knockin mouse strain expressing a Glis3-EGFP fusion protein. Immunohistochemistry showed that Glis3-EGFP was not detectable during early pancreatic development (E11.5 and E12.5) and at E13.5 and 15.5 was not expressed in Ptf1a+ cells in the tip domains indicating that Glis3 is not expressed in multipotent pancreatic progenitors. Glis3 was first detectable at E13.5 in the nucleus of bipotent progenitors in the trunk domains, where it co-localized with Sox9, Hnf6, and Pdx1. It remained expressed in preductal and Ngn3+ endocrine progenitors and at later stages becomes restricted to the nucleus of pancreatic beta and PP cells as well as ductal cells. Glis3-deficiency greatly reduced, whereas exogenous Glis3, induced Ppy expression, as reported for insulin. Collectively, our study demonstrates that Glis3 protein exhibits a temporal and cell type-specific pattern of expression during embryonic and neonatal pancreas development that is consistent with a regulatory role for Glis3 in promoting endocrine progenitor generation, regulating insulin and Ppy expression in beta and PP cells, respectively, and duct morphogenesis. PMID:27270601

  20. Characterisation of CART-containing neurons and cells in the porcine pancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, adrenal and thyroid glands

    PubMed Central

    Wierup, Nils; Gunnarsdóttir, Anna; Ekblad, Eva; Sundler, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Background The peptide CART is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, as well as in endocrine cells. Known peripheral sites of expression include the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. In rodent pancreas CART is expressed both in islet endocrine cells and in nerve fibers, some of which innervate the islets. Recent data show that CART is a regulator of islet hormone secretion, and that CART null mutant mice have islet dysfunction. CART also effects GI motility, mainly via central routes. In addition, CART participates in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis. We investigated CART expression in porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland using immunocytochemistry. Results CART immunoreactive (IR) nerve cell bodies and fibers were numerous in pancreatic and enteric ganglia. The majority of these were also VIP IR. The finding of intrinsic CART containing neurons indicates that pancreatic and GI CART IR nerve fibers have an intrinsic origin. No CART IR endocrine cells were detected in the pancreas or in the GI tract. The adrenal medulla harboured numerous CART IR endocrine cells, most of which were adrenaline producing. In addition CART IR fibers were frequently seen in the adrenal cortex and capsule. The capsule also contained CART IR nerve cell bodies. The majority of the adrenal CART IR neuronal elements were also VIP IR. CART IR was also seen in a substantial proportion of the C-cells in the thyroid gland. The majority of these cells were also somatostatin IR, and/or 5-HT IR, and/or VIP IR. Conclusion CART is a major neuropeptide in intrinsic neurons of the porcine GI-tract and pancreas, a major constituent of adrenaline producing adrenomedullary cells, and a novel peptide of the thyroid C-cells. CART is suggested to be a regulatory peptide in the porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal gland and thyroid. PMID:17625001

  1. [Adrenal carcinoma induced hypoglycemia].

    PubMed

    Soutelo, Jimena; Saban, Melina; Borghi Torzillo, Florencia; Lutfi, Ruben; Leal Reyna, Mariela

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal carcinoma is a rare malignancy of poor prognosis. The most common clinical presentation is secondary to hormone production, while the development of symptomatic hypoglycemia is exceptional. We report the case of a 37 year old-woman admitted to hospital with severe hypoglycemia, hypertension, hypokalemia and amenorrhea. In the laboratory we found hypoglycemia, with low insulin levels, and androgen levels in tumor range. CT of abdomen and pelvis showed a heterogeneous lesion of solid appearance without a cleavage plane relative to liver parenchyma, and intense contrast enhancement. Retroperitoneal mass was removed, and the patient evolved without complications, blood glucose and potassium were normalized, blood pressure stabilized and menstrual cycles recovered.

  2. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee (SRPC) Points to Consider*: Histopathology Evaluation of the Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function Assay (OPPTS 890.1450, OPPTS 890.1500) in Rats to Screen for Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Kevin A.; Parker, George A.; Regan, Karen S.; Picut, Catherine; Dixon, Darlene; Creasy, Dianne; Giri, Dipak; Hukkanen, Renee R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is a multitiered approach to determine the potential for environmental chemicals to alter the endocrine system. The Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Intact Juvenile/Peripubertal Female and Male Rats (OPPTS 890.1450, 890.1500) are 2 of the 9 EDSP tier 1 test Guidelines, which assess upstream mechanistic pathways along with downstream morphological end points including histological evaluation of the kidneys, thyroid, and select male/female reproductive tissues (ovaries, uterus, testes, and epididymides). These assays are part of a battery of in vivo and in vitro screens used for initial detection of test article endocrine activity. In this Points to Consider article, we describe tissue processing, evaluation, and nomenclature to aid in standardization of assay results across laboratories. Pubertal assay end points addressed include organ weights, estrous cyclicity, clinical pathology, hormonal assays, and histological evaluation. Potential treatment-related findings that may indicate endocrine disruption are reviewed. Additional tissues that may be useful in assessment of endocrine disruption (vagina, mammary glands, and liver) are discussed. This Points to Consider article is intended to provide information for evaluating peripubertal tissues within the context of individual assay end points, the overall pubertal assay, and tier I assays of the EDSP program. PMID:25948506

  3. Clinical application of SPECT in adrenal imaging with iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimura, J.; Kawanaka, M.; Fukuchi, M.

    1989-04-01

    Forty-one patients with or without adrenocortical disorders were studied to evaluate the clinical usefulness of SPECT in adrenal imaging with I-131 Adosterol. In the SPECT images from this study, all glands with either normally functioning or hyperfunctioning adrenal cortices could be detected, while those glands with hypofunctioning adrenal cortices could not be detected. Particularly in transaxial and sagittal slices, the adrenal gland was identified posteriorly and was clearly distinguished from the gallbladder. In preliminary results using SPECT by a standard method, uptake in 68 detectable glands ranged from 1.7% to 4.9% in four glands with Cushing's syndrome, from 1.1% to 1.3% in seven glands with primary aldosteronism, and were distributed below 1.0% in the remaining glands with normally functioning adrenal cortices. These data show that it is possible to evaluate the adrenocortical functioning status simply by analyzing the SPECT images of the adrenal.

  4. Adrenal clocks and the role of adrenal hormones in the regulation of circadian physiology.

    PubMed

    Leliavski, Alexei; Dumbell, Rebecca; Ott, Volker; Oster, Henrik

    2015-02-01

    The mammalian circadian timing system consists of a master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subordinate clocks that disseminate time information to various central and peripheral tissues. While the function of the SCN in circadian rhythm regulation has been extensively studied, we still have limited understanding of how peripheral tissue clock function contributes to the regulation of physiological processes. The adrenal gland plays a special role in this context as adrenal hormones show strong circadian secretion rhythms affecting downstream physiological processes. At the same time, they have been shown to affect clock gene expression in various other tissues, thus mediating systemic entrainment to external zeitgebers and promoting internal circadian alignment. In this review, we discuss the function of circadian clocks in the adrenal gland, how they are reset by the SCN and may further relay time-of-day information to other tissues. Focusing on glucocorticoids, we conclude by outlining the impact of adrenal rhythm disruption on neuropsychiatric, metabolic, immune, and malignant disorders.

  5. Variation among species in the endocrine control of mammary growth and function: the roles of prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, I A

    1986-03-01

    Prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen form a family of structurally related hormones, which may have evolved from a common ancestral peptide. Prolactin and growth hormone are present in all mammals, but the biological activity associated with placental lactogen has been detected in only some groups. Attempts to detect placental lactogen using bioassay and radioreceptor assay are reported and have been unsuccessful in an insectivore (the shrew), a bat, an edentate (the armadillo), a lagomorph (the rabbit), several carnivores (dog, cat, ferret), perissodactyls (horse, zebra, rhino), and, within the artiodactyls, pigs. Placental lactogenic activity has been detected in primates (chimpanzee, orangutan), rodents (voles, Pinon mouse, guinea-pig, mara), and in numerous artiodactyls (llama, giraffe, several species of deer, antelope, gnu, gazelle, musk ox, cape buffalo, Barbary sheep, several sheep of the genus Ovis, goat, and cow). These results confirm and extend the work of others and are discussed in relation to the evolution of these hormones. In synergism with steroid and thyroid hormones, protein hormones of the prolactin and growth hormone family play a crucial role in stimulating the development of the mammary gland, the differentiation and function of mammary cells to secrete milk, and in the systemic adjustments in maternal metabolism in pregnancy and lactation. Studies in vitro have shown that mammary tissues from several species synthesize milk components in response to insulin plus adrenal corticoid plus prolactin. However, there are also species differences in minimal hormonal requirements for lactogenesis. In vivo, for example, rabbits will initiate or sustain lactation in response to prolactin alone, whereas sheep and goats require prolactin plus growth hormone plus adrenal corticoid plus thyroid hormone. Measurement of hormone concentrations in the plasma of pregnant animals shows considerable differences among species in the pattern of

  6. Life-threatening endocrine emergencies during pregnancy - management and therapeutic features.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Birgit; Rahvar, Amir-Hossein; Danneberg, Sven; Schütt, Morten; Sayk, Friedhelm

    2017-03-31

    Endocrine emergencies during pregnancy may be life-threatening events for both mother and fetus. Besides pregnancy-associated endocrine disorders, several pre-existing endocrinopathies such as type-1 diabetes and Grave's disease or adrenal failure may acutely deteriorate during pregnancy. Since "classical" signs are often modified by pregnancy, early diagnosis and management may be hampered. In addition, laboratory tests show altered physiologic ranges and pharmacologic options are limited while therapeutic goals are mostly tighter than in the non-pregnant patient. Though subclinical endocrinopathies are more frequent and worth consideration due to their related adverse sequelae, this article focuses on endocrine emergencies complicating pregnancy.

  7. Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, E.; Leder, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease.

  8. Computational Steroidogenesis Model To Predict Biochemical Responses to Endocrine Active Chemicals: Model Development and Cross Validation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroids, which have an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, are synthesized primarily in the gonads and adrenal glands through a series of enzyme-mediated reactions. The activity of steroidogenic enzymes can be altered by a variety of endocrine active chem...

  9. Sporadic bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia: apparent false positive MIBG scan and expected MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Yung, B C; Loke, T K; Tse, T W; Tsang, M W; Chan, J C

    2000-10-01

    Adrenal medullary hyperplasia is a rare cause of clinical symptoms and biochemical findings identical to pheochromocytoma occurring mostly in multiple endocrine neoplasia patients. The scenario of positive MIBG scan, but no focal lesion found on CT and MRI led to diagnostic and management difficulties. Like pheochromocytoma, surgical excision can lead to clinical and biochemical recovery. We report this unusual case of sporadic bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia, with hypertension and biochemical abnormalities alleviated after surgical adrenalectomy. Based on T2 values reported in literature, high signal focal lesions may not appear on T2-weighted MRI images until development of frank pheochromocytoma. MIBG scan remains the most sensitive imaging modality for this condition.

  10. Endocrine glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which ...

  11. [Postpartum endocrine syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Châtel, P; Luton, D

    2008-05-01

    Postpartum endocrine syndromes occur in the year after delivery. They are due to immunologic and vascular modifications during pregnancy. The Sheehan syndrome is the first described postpartum endocrine syndrome and consists on a hypophyse necrosis in relation with a hypovolemic shock during delivery. The immunologic consequences of the pregnancy are the most frequent, sometimes discrete and transitory. The physiological evolution of the endocrine glands during pregnancy and the most frequent post-partum endocrine syndromes are discussed: postpartum lymphocytic hypophysitis, thyroiditis and Sheehan' syndrome.

  12. The Interplay between Estrogen and Fetal Adrenal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Ward, Wendy E.

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroid hormone that regulates embryogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation, organogenesis, the timing of parturition, and fetal imprinting by carrying chemical messages from glands to cells within tissues or organs in the body. During development, placenta is the primary source of estrogen production but estrogen can only be produced if the fetus or the mother supplies dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the estrogen prohormone. Studies show that the fetal zone of the fetal adrenal cortex supplies 60% of DHEA for placental estrogen production, and that placental estrogen in turn modulates the morphological and functional development of the fetal adrenal cortex. As such, in developed countries where humans are exposed daily to environmental estrogens, there is concern that the development of fetal adrenal cortex, and in turn, placental estrogen production may be disrupted. This paper discusses fetal adrenal gland development, how endogenous estrogen regulates the structure and function of the fetal adrenal cortex, and highlights the potential role that early life exposure to environmental estrogens may have on the development and endocrinology of the fetal adrenal cortex. PMID:22536492

  13. [The potential dangers of endocrinal disorders].

    PubMed

    Kaufman, E; Garfunkel, A; Findler, M; Malamed, S F; Zusman, S P; Elad, S; Galili, D

    2002-01-01

    The symptoms of most endocrine system diseases are usually clearly recognizable and most of the times are accompanied by a rich medical history. Many general practitioners are reluctant to treat such cases and prefer to refer these patients to specialists who are trained in management of the medically compromised thus increasing the chances of dental treatment without complications. However, sometimes endocrinal diseases develop slowly and their clinical manifestations are hidden or subclinical in nature. In these cases, neither the patient nor the dentist are aware of the condition and there is the potential of life threatening, emergency situations in what at first seem as simple, straightforward dental procedures. Therefore, the dentist must be able to recognize the clinical problem, differentiate between the different symptoms and initiate the proper management protocol. The most unstable endocrinal disorders that should be treated with great care are diabetes mellitus, mainly hypoglycemia, hyperthyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. The general practitioner dentist can treat patients suffering from these disorders providing the disease is well controlled and balanced and that the dental treatment is not very traumatic.

  14. Hyponatraemia secondary to nivolumab-induced primary adrenal failure

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Harris; Hulse, Paul; Higham, Claire E; Trainer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary Checkpoint inhibitors, such as ipilimumab and pembrolizumab, have transformed the prognosis for patients with advanced malignant melanoma and squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, and their use will only expand as experience is gained in a variety of other malignancies, for instance, renal and lymphoma. As the use of checkpoint inhibitors increases, so too will the incidence of their unique side effects, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can affect dermatological, gastrointestinal, hepatic, endocrine and other systems. Nivolumab is a monoclonal antibody that blocks the human programmed death receptor-1 ligand (PD-L1) found on many cancer cells and is licensed for the treatment of advanced malignant melanoma. We describe the first case of nivolumab-induced adrenalitis resulting in primary adrenal failure presenting with hyponatraemia in a 43-year-old man with malignant melanoma. The case highlights the potentially life-threatening complications of checkpoint inhibitors and the need for patient education and awareness of irAEs among the wider clinical community because such side effects require prompt recognition and treatment. Learning points: Nivolumab can cause primary adrenal insufficiency. Not all cases of hyponatraemia in patients with malignancy are due to SIADH. Any patient on a checkpoint inhibitor becoming unwell should have serum cortisol urgently measured and if in doubt hydrocortisone therapy should be initiated. Although hyponatraemia can occur in patients with ACTH deficiency, the possibility of primary adrenal failure should also be considered and investigated by measurement of renin, aldosterone and ACTH. Patients receiving checkpoint inhibitors require education on the potential risks of hypocortisolaemia. PET imaging demonstrated bilateral increased activity consistent with an autoimmune adrenalitis. PMID:27857838

  15. Adrenal involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Paling, M.R.; Williamson, B.R.J.

    1983-08-01

    Adrenal masses are described in seven cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a series of 173 patients. In all seven patients the lymphoma was diffuse rather than nodular. Three patients had adrenal masses at the time of presentation, whereas in four cases the adrenal gland was a site of tumor recurrence after therapy. Three patients had simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement by tumor. No characteristic features were recognized that might have distinguished these tumors from other adrenal masses. Appropriate therapy successfully resolved the adrenal masses in all but one case. The latter patient was the only one with evidence of adrenal insufficiency.

  16. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine system produces hormones which are powerful natural chemicals that regulate important life processes. Endocrine disruptors are human-made chemicals distributed globally which have the potential to interfere with the endocrine system and produce serious biological e...

  17. Ultrasonographic adrenal gland findings in healthy semi-captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Kirberger, Robert M; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-05-01

    Cheetahs in captivity are believed to suffer from stress predisposing them to poor health. To date fecal glucocorticoids have been used as a non-invasive indicator of chronic stress. This study examines, the feasibility of transabdominal adrenal gland ultrasonography in cheetahs and determined normal adrenal measurements that can potentially be used as a more reliable indicator of chronic stress and/or adrenal function. Thirty-three adult cheetahs, aged between 2 and 13 years, accommodated in large off-display camps were examined over 9 days under general anesthesia. The adrenals were readily identified, with the right adrenal being more difficult to find and measure than the left, and were smaller than those expected in similar sized dogs. The left adrenal was shorter and slightly more oval shaped than the right with a length and cranial pole width at a 95% prediction interval of 16.3-22.4 and 4.1-8.7 mm. The same measurements for the right adrenal were 16.8-26.2 and 3.4-10.8 mm, respectively. Corticomedullary ratios were larger for the left adrenal. When corrected for body size, females had significantly longer and greater left adrenal corticomedullary ratios than males. Adrenal measurements did not correlate with left renal length, body size measurements, or enclosure size. Measurements that increased with age included the cortical and total adrenal widths. Adrenal ultrasonography offers potential benefits in assessment of individual cheetah adrenal pathology or the evaluation of stress induced adrenomegally especially in combination with other evaluations such as non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid analyses. Zoo Biol. 35:260-268, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, T H; Brown, R; Brugger, K E; Campbell, P M; Holt, M; Länge, R; McCahon, P; Tattersfield, L J; van Egmond, R

    2000-01-01

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals proposes a tiered approach for the ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors, integrating exposure and hazard (effects) characterization. Exposure assessment for endocrine disruptors should direct specific tests for wildlife species, placing hazard data into a risk assessment context. Supplementing the suite of mammalian screens now under Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) validation, high priority should be given to developing a fish screening assay for detecting endocrine activity in oviparous species. Taking into account both exposure characterization and alerts from endocrine screening, higher tier tests are also a priority for defining adverse effects. We propose that in vivo mammalian and fish assays provide a comprehensive screening battery for diverse hormonal functions (including androgen, estrogen, and thyroid hormone), whereas Amphibia should be considered at higher tiers if there are exposure concerns. Higher tier endocrine-disruptor testing should include fish development and fish reproduction tests, whereas a full life-cycle test could be subsequently used to refine aquatic risk assessments when necessary. For avian risk assessment, the new OECD Japanese quail reproduction test guideline provides a valuable basis for developing a test to detecting endocrine-mediated reproductive effects; this species could be used, where necessary, for an avian life-cycle test. For aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, data from existing developmental and reproductive tests remain of high value for ecological risk assessment. High priority should be given to research into comparative endocrine physiology of invertebrates to support data extrapolation to this diverse fauna. PMID:11102288

  19. The endocrine quiz.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P; Nagesh, V Sri

    2014-05-01

    With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject.

  20. The endocrine quiz

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P.; Nagesh, V. Sri

    2014-01-01

    With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject. PMID:24944922

  1. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  2. Phosphodiesterases and Adrenal Cushing in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Szarek, E.; Stratakis, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of benign adrenal cortex lesions leading to Cushing syndrome are associated to one or another abnormality of the cAMP/cGMP-phosphodiesterase signaling pathway. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are key regulatory enzymes of intracellular cAMP/cGMP levels. These second messengers play important regulatory roles in controlling steroidogenesis in the adrenal. Disruption of PDEs has been associated with a number of adrenal diseases. Specifically, genetic mutations have been associated with benign adrenal lesions, leading to Cushing syndrome and/or related adrenal hyperplasias. A Genome Wide Association study, in 2006, led to the identification of mutations in 2 PDE genes: PDE8B and PDE11A; mutations in these 2 genes modulate steroidogenesis. Further human studies have identified PDE2 as also directly regulating steroidogenesis. PDE2 decreases aldosterone production. This review focuses on the most recent knowledge we have gained on PDEs and their association with adrenal steroidogenesis and altered function, through analysis of patient cohorts and what we have learned from mouse studies. PMID:25232906

  3. Ontogeny of adrenal steroid biosynthesis: why girls will be girls

    PubMed Central

    White, Perrin C.

    2006-01-01

    Male and female external genitalia appear identical early in gestation. Testosterone exposure at 8–12 weeks’ gestation causes male differentiation. Female fetuses virilize if their adrenals secrete excessive levels of androgens, as occurs in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. This can be ameliorated by administering dexamethasone to the mother. A study by Goto et al. in this issue of the JCI provides a rationale for this treatment by demonstrating that the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is fully functional when the genitalia differentiate (see the related article beginning on page 953). Dexamethasone suppresses this axis, reducing abnormal secretion of adrenal androgens. Their results also show that cortisol synthesis by the fetal adrenal decreases after this period, allowing the adrenal to secrete high levels of dehydroepiandrosterone, an androgen precursor. However, this does not virilize female fetuses because androgens are aromatized to estrogens in the placenta. Thus normal sexual differentiation requires exquisite timing of fetal cortisol and androgen secretion versus placental capacity for aromatization. PMID:16585958

  4. Synchronous adrenocortical neoplasms, paragangliomas, and pheochromocytomas: syndromic considerations regarding an unusual constellation of endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Melissa; Tabrizi, Mohsen; Kapsner, Patricia; Hanson, Joshua Anspach

    2014-12-01

    The most common clinical syndromes presenting with paragangliomas and/or pheochromocytomas as their endocrine components are multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis, Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, Carney-Stratakis syndrome, Carney triad, and the recently described hereditary paraganglioma syndrome. Only Carney triad is known to also present with adrenocortical adenomas, currently representing the only described syndrome in which all 3 of the aforementioned tumors are found together. In most cases, prototypical lesions of the triad such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor and pulmonary chondromas are also seen. We present a case of a young woman with synchronous paragangliomas, adrenal/extra-adrenal cortical neoplasms, and pheochromocytoma without genetic mutations for multiple endocrine neoplasia 2, Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, neurofibromatosis, and succinate dehydrogenase. We speculate that this represents a previously undescribed presentation of Carney triad and, at the very least, indicates the need for monitoring for the development of other tumors of the triad.

  5. Erythropoietin (EPO) ameliorates obesity and glucose homeostasis by promoting thermogenesis and endocrine function of classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kodo, Kazuki; Sugimoto, Satoru; Nakajima, Hisakazu; Mori, Jun; Itoh, Ikuyo; Fukuhara, Shota; Shigehara, Keiichi; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Kosaka, Kitaro; Hosoi, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO), clinically used as a hematopoietic drug, has received much attention due to its nonhematopoietic effects. EPO reportedly has beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT: main part of classical BAT) could play a role in EPO's anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in diet-induced obese mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD-Con), and half were additionally given an intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human EPO (200 IU/kg) (HFD-EPO) thrice a week for four weeks. At 8 weeks, EPO-injected mice showed significantly reduced body weight with reduced epididymal and subcutaneous white fat mass and unchanged caloric intake and locomotor activity. HOMA-IR (insulin resistance index) and glucose levels during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were significantly lower in HFD-EPO mice than in HFD-Con mice. EPO-injected mice also showed increased oxygen consumption, indicative of metabolic rate, and skin temperature around iBAT tissue masses. EPO significantly upregulated the PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16 (PRDM16), a transcriptional factor with a crucial role in brown adipocyte differentiation. EPO significantly increased phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is downstream of erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and known to stabilize PRDM16. EPO's suppression of myocyte enhancer factor 2c (Mef2c) and microRNA-133a (miR-133a) via β3-adrenergic receptor caused PRDM16 upregulation. EPO-mediated enhancement of EpoR/STAT3 and β-adrenergic receptor/Mef2c/miR-133 pathways dramatically increases total uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), an essential enzyme for BAT thermogenesis. Furthermore, EPO activated BAT's endocrine functions. EPO facilitated fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and excretion in iBAT, associated with reduction of liver gluconeogenesis-related genes. Thus, EPO

  6. Erythropoietin (EPO) ameliorates obesity and glucose homeostasis by promoting thermogenesis and endocrine function of classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) in diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Kodo, Kazuki; Sugimoto, Satoru; Mori, Jun; Itoh, Ikuyo; Fukuhara, Shota; Shigehara, Keiichi; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Kosaka, Kitaro; Hosoi, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO), clinically used as a hematopoietic drug, has received much attention due to its nonhematopoietic effects. EPO reportedly has beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT: main part of classical BAT) could play a role in EPO’s anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in diet-induced obese mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD-Con), and half were additionally given an intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human EPO (200 IU/kg) (HFD-EPO) thrice a week for four weeks. At 8 weeks, EPO-injected mice showed significantly reduced body weight with reduced epididymal and subcutaneous white fat mass and unchanged caloric intake and locomotor activity. HOMA-IR (insulin resistance index) and glucose levels during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were significantly lower in HFD-EPO mice than in HFD-Con mice. EPO-injected mice also showed increased oxygen consumption, indicative of metabolic rate, and skin temperature around iBAT tissue masses. EPO significantly upregulated the PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16 (PRDM16), a transcriptional factor with a crucial role in brown adipocyte differentiation. EPO significantly increased phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is downstream of erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and known to stabilize PRDM16. EPO’s suppression of myocyte enhancer factor 2c (Mef2c) and microRNA-133a (miR-133a) via β3-adrenergic receptor caused PRDM16 upregulation. EPO-mediated enhancement of EpoR/STAT3 and β-adrenergic receptor/Mef2c/miR-133 pathways dramatically increases total uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), an essential enzyme for BAT thermogenesis. Furthermore, EPO activated BAT’s endocrine functions. EPO facilitated fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and excretion in iBAT, associated with reduction of liver gluconeogenesis-related genes. Thus, EPO

  7. Delayed adrenal insufficiency long after unilateral adrenalectomy: prolonged glucocorticoid therapy reduced reserved secretory capacity of cortisol.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Itsuro; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Ohiwa, Takafumi; Sanayama, Kyo; Nagata, Mikio

    2005-06-01

    A 51-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome underwent unilateral adrenalectomy for left adrenal adenoma. After 7 years of prednisolone treatment (with some interruptions), followed by 4 years of total withdrawal from prednisolone treatment, she presented with hypotension, weight loss, general fatigue, nausea, hyponatremia and hypoglycemia. These clinical features together with a low response in the rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone test led to the diagnosis of acute adrenal insufficiency. Relatively low serum adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in the face of increased demand for cortisol during adrenal crisis suggested a disordered hypothalamic-pituitary function, indicating secondary adrenal insufficiency. This patient demonstrated the etiology of acute adrenal insufficiency long after unilateral adrenalectomy in association with subsequent glucocorticoid therapy. A reduction in the reserved secretory capacity of cortisol after prolonged prednisolone treatment was considered to have induced secondary adrenal insufficiency, even after 4 years of total withdrawal from prednisolone.

  8. Brain activation during fear conditioning in humans depends on genetic variations related to functioning of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis: first evidence from two independent subsamples

    PubMed Central

    Ridder, S.; Treutlein, J.; Nees, F.; Lang, S.; Diener, S.; Wessa, M.; Kroll, A.; Pohlack, S.; Cacciaglia, R.; Gass, P.; Schütz, G.; Schumann, G.; Flor, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Enhanced acquisition and delayed extinction of fear conditioning are viewed as major determinants of anxiety disorders, which are often characterized by a dysfunctional hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Method In this study we employed cued fear conditioning in two independent samples of healthy subjects (sample 1: n=60, sample 2: n=52). Two graphical shapes served as conditioned stimuli and painful electrical stimulation as the unconditioned stimulus. In addition, guided by findings from published animal studies on HPA axis-related genes in fear conditioning, we examined variants of the glucocorticoid receptor and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 genes. Results Variation in these genes showed enhanced amygdala activation during the acquisition and reduced prefrontal activation during the extinction of fear as well as altered amygdala–prefrontal connectivity. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of the involvement of genes related to the HPA axis in human fear conditioning. PMID:22410078

  9. [Pheochromocytomas as adrenal gland incidentalomas].

    PubMed

    Cerović, Snezana; Cizmić, Milica; Milović, Novak; Ajdinović, Boris; Brajusković, Goran

    2002-07-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are a heterogeneous group of pathological entities, including benign or malignant adrenocortical or medullary tumors, hormonally active or inactive lesions, which are identified incidentally during the examination of nonadrenal-related abdominal complaints. About 1.5% to 23% of adrenal incidentalomas are pheochromocytomas. Composite pheochromocytoma is a rare tumour of adrenal medulla with divergente clinical course. This type of pheochromocytoma is designated "composite" or "mixed," depending on whether pheochromocytoma and nonpheochromocytoma components show the same embryologic origin. Nonpheochromocytoma components found in the composite pheochromocytoma include ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, and malignant schwannoma. The biologic behavior of composite pheochromocytomas may be as difficult to predict as more traditional pheochromocytomas; based on the number of cases reported to date the presence of areas resembling ganglioneuroblastoma or neuroblastoma does not necessary indicate a poor prognosis. Some may behave in a malignant fashion with metastasis by a component of the tumour which has neural features. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are well-defined entities. Some of their nonsporadic associations and unusual morphological appearances are not universally appreciated. We report on a rare association of left adrenal CP, with typical right adrenal phochromocytoma and retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and a review of literature. We analyzed the clinical and immunohistochemical features in a 24-year-old woman with composite pheochromocytoma localized in the left adrenal gland and associated with blood pressure of 200/140 mmHg. Abdominal computed tomography and 131-J MIBG revealed a 65 x 60 mm mass in the right adrenal gland, but no revealed 45 x 40 mm retroperitoneal mass and 20 x 20 mm mass in the left adrenal region. Serum and urinary adrenaline levels were high, and catecholamine levels in the blood sample of

  10. Potency matters: thresholds govern endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Borgert, Christopher J; Baker, Stephen P; Matthews, John C

    2013-10-01

    Whether thresholds exist for endocrine active substances and for endocrine disrupting effects of exogenous chemicals has been posed as a question for regulatory policy by the European Union. This question arises from a concern that the endocrine system is too complex to allow estimations of safe levels of exposure to any chemical with potential endocrine activity, and a belief that any such chemical can augment, retard, or disrupt the normal background activity of endogenous hormones. However, vital signaling functions of the endocrine system require it to continuously discriminate the biological information conveyed by potent endogenous hormones from a more concentrated background of structurally similar, endogenous molecules with low hormonal potential. This obligatory ability to discriminate important hormonal signals from background noise can be used to define thresholds for induction of hormonal effects, without which normal physiological functions would be impossible. From such thresholds, safe levels of exposure can be estimated. This brief review highlights how the fundamental principles governing hormonal effects - affinity, efficacy, potency, and mass action - dictate the existence of thresholds and why these principles also define the potential that exogenous chemicals might have to interfere with normal endocrine functioning.

  11. [Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Adults].

    PubMed

    Vrbíková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a life-long disease requiring an integrated therapy. It may negatively influence the quality of life. In childhood, the main problems of the care of these patients involve sex determination and ensuring optimum growth and puberty. The therapeutic goals for adults are the prevention of Addisonian crisis and ensuring the best possible quality of life, including fertility.Key words: androgens - cardiovascular risk - congenital adrenal hyperplasia - bone density - testicular rest tumors.

  12. Budesonide-related adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Arntzenius, Alexander; van Galen, Louise

    2015-10-01

    Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency is a potential harmful side effect of treatment with corticosteroids. It manifests itself when an insufficient cortisol response to biological stress leads to an Addisonian crisis: a life-threatening situation. We describe a case of a patient who developed an Addisonian crisis after inappropriate discontinuation of budesonide (a topical steroid used in Crohn's disease) treatment. Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency due to budesonide use has been rarely reported. Prescribers should be aware of the resulting risk for an Addisonian crisis.

  13. Predicting chemical impacts on vertebrate endocrine systems.

    PubMed

    Nichols, John W; Breen, Miyuki; Denver, Robert J; Distefano, Joseph J; Edwards, Jeremy S; Hoke, Robert A; Volz, David C; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Animals have evolved diverse protective mechanisms for responding to toxic chemicals of both natural and anthropogenic origin. From a governmental regulatory perspective, these protective responses complicate efforts to establish acceptable levels of chemical exposure. To explore this issue, we considered vertebrate endocrine systems as potential targets for environmental contaminants. Using the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as case examples, we identified features of these systems that allow them to accommodate and recover from chemical insults. In doing so, a distinction was made between effects on adults and those on developing organisms. This distinction was required because endocrine system disruption in early life stages may alter development of organs and organ systems, resulting in permanent changes in phenotypic expression later in life. Risk assessments of chemicals that impact highly regulated systems must consider the dynamics of these systems in relation to complex environmental exposures. A largely unanswered question is whether successful accommodation to a toxic insult exerts a fitness cost on individual animals, resulting in adverse consequences for populations. Mechanistically based mathematical models of endocrine systems provide a means for better understanding accommodation and recovery. In the short term, these models can be used to design experiments and interpret study findings. Over the long term, a set of validated models could be used to extrapolate limited in vitro and in vivo testing data to a broader range of untested chemicals, species, and exposure scenarios. With appropriate modification, Tier 2 assays developed in support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program could be used to assess the potential for accommodation and recovery and inform the development of mechanistically based models.

  14. Endocrine disorders & female infertility.

    PubMed

    Unuane, David; Tournaye, Herman; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Poppe, Kris

    2011-12-01

    Female infertility occurs in about 37% of all infertile couples and ovulatory disorders account for more than half of these. The ovaries are in continuous interaction with the other endocrine organs. The interplay may account for infertility occurring at different levels and may render the diagnosis of infertility a difficult exercise for the involved physician. A hypothalamic cause of female infertility should be considered in an appropriate clinical context, with tests pointing to a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It can be functional, physiological or related to organic causes. Hyperprolactinemia has well characterized effects on the normal gonadal function and treatment is well established. Acromegaly and Cushing's disease may impair fertility at different levels, mechanisms involved however remain ill defined. Thyroid disorders, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, can interact with the ovaries, through a direct effect on ovarian function, but autoimmunity may be involved, as well as alterations of the sex hormone binding protein levels. Primary ovarian disorders, such as the polycystic ovary syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency are frequent diseases, for which novel treatments are currently being developed and discussed. We will propose an algorithm for the diagnosis and approach of the female patient presenting with infertility on the basis of the available evidence in literature.

  15. Obesity and Endocrine Dysfunction Programmed by Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; de Oliveira, Elaine; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic, and maternal smoking has been shown to be associated with the development of childhood obesity. Overall, approximately 40% of children worldwide are exposed to tobacco smoke at home. It is well known that environmental changes within a critical window of development, such as gestation or lactation, can initiate permanent alterations in metabolism that lead to diseases in adulthood, a phenomenon called programming. It is known that programming is based on epigenetic alterations (changes in DNA methylation, histone acetylation, or small interfering RNA expression) that change the expression pattern of several genes. However, little is known concerning the mechanisms by which smoke exposure in neonatal life programs the adipose tissue and endocrine function. Here, we review several epidemiological and experimental studies that confirm the association between maternal nicotine or tobacco exposure during gestation or lactation and the development of obesity and endocrine dysfunction. For example, a positive correlation was demonstrated in rodents between increased serum leptin in the neonatal period and exposure of the mothers to nicotine during lactation, and the further development of leptin and insulin resistance, and thyroid and adrenal dysfunction, in adulthood in the same offspring. Thus, a smoke-free environment during the lactation period is essential to improving health outcomes in adulthood and reducing the risk for future diseases. An understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of smoking on programming can provide new insights into therapeutic strategies for obesity. PMID:23181022

  16. Endocrine vasculatures are preferable targets of an antitumor ineffective low dose of anti-VEGF therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Yang, Yunlong; Hosaka, Kayoko; Huang, Guichun; Zang, Jingwu; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Yun; Samani, Nilesh J.; Cao, Yihai

    2016-01-01

    Anti-VEGF–based antiangiogenic drugs are designed to block tumor angiogenesis for treatment of cancer patients. However, anti-VEGF drugs produce off-tumor target effects on multiple tissues and organs and cause broad adverse effects. Here, we show that vasculatures in endocrine organs were more sensitive to anti-VEGF treatment than tumor vasculatures. In thyroid, adrenal glands, and pancreatic islets, systemic treatment with low doses of an anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody caused marked vascular regression, whereas tumor vessels remained unaffected. Additionally, a low dose of VEGF blockade significantly inhibited the formation of thyroid vascular fenestrae, leaving tumor vascular structures unchanged. Along with vascular structural changes, the low dose of VEGF blockade inhibited vascular perfusion and permeability in thyroid, but not in tumors. Prolonged treatment with the low-dose VEGF blockade caused hypertension and significantly decreased circulating levels of thyroid hormone free-T3 and -T4, leading to functional impairment of thyroid. These findings show that the fenestrated microvasculatures in endocrine organs are more sensitive than tumor vasculatures in response to systemic anti-VEGF drugs. Thus, our data support the notion that clinically nonbeneficial treatments with anti-VEGF drugs could potentially cause adverse effects. PMID:27035988

  17. Endocrine responses to space flights.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Kvetnansky, R; Fickova, M; Kolena, J; Knopp, J; Tigranian, R A; Popova, I A; Grogoriev, A I

    2001-07-01

    Simultaneously with human space flights several series of observations were performed by using experimental animals--mainly rats--exposed to space flights on board of special satellites BION-COSMOS or in Shuttle Transportation Systems (STS). The aims of these experiments were to study in more details: the mechanisms of the changes in bones and skeletal muscle, the alterations of the function of immune system, the radiation effects on organism, the mechanism of the changes of endocrine functions, the evaluation of the role of hormones in alteration of metabolic processes in organism. The advantages of these animal experiments were the possibilities to analyze not only the plasma samples, but it was possible to obtain samples of organs or tissues: for morphological and biochemical analysis for studies of the changes in enzyme activities and in gene expressions, for measurement of metabolic processes and for investigation of the hormone production in endocrine glands and estimation of the response of tissues to hormones. It was also possible to compare the endocrine response to spaceflight and to other stress stimuli. These animal studies are interesting for verification of some hypothesis in the mechanism of adaptation of human organism to the changes of gravity. The disadvantage was, however, that the animals in almost all experiments could be examined only after space flight. The actual inflight changes were investigated only in two SLS flights. In this short review it is not possible to evaluate all hormonal data available on the response of endocrine system to the conditions of space flights. Therefore we will concentrate on the response of pituitary adrenocortical system, pituitary thyroid and pituitary gonadal functions.

  18. Microbiome impact on metabolism and function of sex, thyroid, growth and parathyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Michał; Gabrych, Anna; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2016-01-01

    Commensal bacteria and their genes associated with host are known as microbiome. In recent years, microbial influence on host endocrine system has been under detailed investigation. The role of microbiome in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity, the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and secretion of hormones regulating appetite is well described in world literature. In this article we discuss poorly reviewed issues: the microbiome role in modulation of non-peptide (sex and thyroid) and peptide (growth hormone and parathyroid hormone) functions. Understanding complex bidirectional relations between host endocrine system and bacteria is of fundamental importance to understanding microbial impact on host reproduction, risk of endocrine-related cancers, pathogenesis of non-thyroidal illness syndrome, growth failure in children and hormonal changes during chronic kidney disease. This article also highlights effects of dietary compounds on microbiome composition and bacterial enzymes activity, and thus host hormonal status.

  19. One-pot synthesized functionalized mesoporous silica as a reversed-phase sorbent for solid-phase extraction of endocrine disrupting compounds in milks.

    PubMed

    Gañán, Judith; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Marina, María Luisa; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-01-08

    A new procedure for the determination of 12 naturally occurring hormones and some related synthetic chemicals in milk, commonly used as growth promoters in cattle, is reported. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a new one-pot synthesized ordered mesoporous silica (of the SBA-15 type) functionalized with octadecyl groups (denoted as SBA-15-C18-CO) as reversed-phase sorbent. The analytes were eluted with methanol and then submitted to HPLC with diode array detection. Under optimal conditions, the method quantification limit for the analytes ranged from 0.023 to 1.36μg/mL. The sorbent affored the extraction of estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, progesterone, hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, ethinylestradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, nandrolone, prednisolone and testosterone with mean recoveries ranging from 72% to 105% (except for diethylstilbestrol) with RSD<11%. These results were comparable and, in some cases, even better than those obtained with other extraction methods, therefore SBA-15-C18-CO mesoporous silica possess a high potential as a reversed-phase sorbent for SPE of the 12 mentioned endocrine disrupting compounds in milk samples.

  20. Adrenal cortical adenoma with adrenalin-type neurosecretory granules clinically mimicking a pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Ivsic, Tomislav; Komorowski, Richard A; Sudakoff, Gary S; Wilson, Stuart D; Datta, Milton W

    2002-12-01

    Adrenal tumors often present with clinical features that are specific and unique to their endocrine metabolism. When these features are in conflict with the pathologic appearance of the tumor, there can be great consternation for both the pathologist and the surgeon. In the case reported herein, an adrenalectomy was performed for clinical features of pheochromocytoma that on gross and histologic examination had the pathologic features of an adrenal cortical adenoma. Electron microscopy subsequently revealed that the tumor cells contained adrenalin-type granules, explaining the clinical outcome. It is crucial for both the surgeon and the surgical pathologist to be aware of this possibility when the clinical and pathologic features of an adrenal tumor are not congruent.

  1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter.

  2. Outcome of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kuhnle, U; Bullinger, M

    1997-09-01

    In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, affected girls are born with ambiguous genitalia due to increased secretion of androgens in utero by the defective adrenal gland. Even though it is generally accepted that there are differences between male and female brain development, determining factors have been difficult to identify. Girls with CAH have frequently been studied to evaluate the impact of prenatal androgen exposure on psychological, psychosocial, and psychosexual development, and impairments in various areas have been identified. However, there is no comprehensive study available regarding the outcome of this chronic disorder in adult life. We studied the quality of life in women with CAH, with particular emphasis on how they cope with genital malformations, genital operations, and chronic disease as well as lifelong medication. The patients filled out questionnaires covering their physical state, psychological well-being, social relationships, and functional capacity, as well as questionnaires on psychosexual identification and psychosocial integration. The results were evaluated using a computerized statistical program for social studies. Out of a total of 94 patients above 18 years of age, 45 agreed to participate and were compared to 46 healthy, age-matched controls. Age at diagnosis was 2. 31 +/- 1.55 years and 38% suffered from the simple-virilizing, 45% from the salt-wasting, and 17.0% from the late-onset form of CAH. About one-third of patients had Prader stage 3 or 4 genital virilization. While the overall quality of life did not differ significantly, CAH patients were more often single (47.8% vs. 66.7%) and fewer of them had children (22.2% vs. 38.6%) compared to controls. Significant impairments were found in regard to body image and attitudes toward sexuality, but there was no increased homosexual preference. The women were successful in adjusting to illness and receiving social support. It is speculated that

  3. Antidiuretic action of angiotensin II in the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis: evidence for endocrine control of kidney function in cyclostomes.

    PubMed

    Cobb, C S; Brown, J A; Rankin, J C

    2010-10-01

    Intravenous infusion of angiotensin II ([Asn¹ Val⁵]-Ang II) at 10⁻⁹ mol min⁻¹ kg⁻¹ body mass produced a significant antidiuresis in river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis, captured during upstream migration and maintained in fresh water. Although the renin-angiotensin hormonal system (RAS) is now recognized in jawless fishes, until this study, the role of homologous Ang II in L. fluviatilis kidney function had not been examined. This study provides the first evidence for an antidiuretic action of Ang II in cyclostomes and, in evolutionary terms, suggests a renal function for the RAS in early vertebrates.

  4. Crossover of the Hypothalamic Pituitary–Adrenal/Interrenal, –Thyroid, and –Gonadal Axes in Testicular Development

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda Cortés, Diana C.; Langlois, Valerie S.; Fernandino, Juan I.

    2014-01-01

    Besides the well-known function of thyroid hormones (THs) for regulating metabolism, it has recently been discovered that THs are also involved in testicular development in mammalian and non-mammalian species. THs, in combination with follicle stimulating hormone, lead to androgen synthesis in Danio rerio, which results in the onset of spermatogenesis in the testis, potentially relating the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) gland to the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axes. Furthermore, studies in non-mammalian species have suggested that by stimulating the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), THs can be induced by corticotropin-releasing hormone. This suggests that the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal/interrenal gland (HPA) axis might influence the HPT axis. Additionally, it was shown that hormones pertaining to both HPT and HPA could also influence the HPG endocrine axis. For example, high levels of androgens were observed in the testis in Odonthestes bonariensis during a period of stress-induced sex-determination, which suggests that stress hormones influence the gonadal fate toward masculinization. Thus, this review highlights the hormonal interactions observed between the HPT, HPA, and HPG axes using a comparative approach in order to better understand how these endocrine systems could interact with each other to influence the development of testes. PMID:25221542

  5. [The role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of endocrine function and in the control of energy balance in humans].

    PubMed

    Komorowski, Jan; Stepień, Henryk

    2007-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been recently recognized as an important modulatory system in the function of brain, endocrine, and immune tissues. It appears to play a very important regulatory role in the secretion of hormones related to reproductive functions and response to stress. The important elements of this system are: endocannabinoid receptors (types CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (N-arachidonoylethanolamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol), enzymes involved in their synthesis and degradation, as well as cannabinoid antagonists. In humans this system also controls energy homeostasis and mainly influences the function of the food intake centers of the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract activity. The endocannabinoid system regulates not only the central and peripheral mechanisms of food intake, but also lipids synthesis and turnover in the liver and adipose tissue as well as glucose metabolism in muscle cells. Rimonabant, a new and selective central and peripheral cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1) blocker, has been shown to reduce body weight and improve cardiovascular risk factor (metabolic syndrome) in obese patients by increasing HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin blood levels as well as decreasing LDL-cholesterol, leptin, and C-reactive protein (a proinflammatory marker) concentrations. It is therefore possible to speculate about a future clinical use of CB1 antagonists, as a means of improving gonadotrophin pulsatility and fertilization capacity as well as the prevention of cardiovasculary disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs acting as agonists of CB1 receptors (Dronabinol, Dexanabinol) are currently proposed for evaluation as drugs to treat neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), epilepsy, anxiety, and stroke.

  6. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: long-term evaluation of feminizing genitoplasty and psychosocial aspects.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D K; Shilpa, Sharma; Amini, A C; Gupta, M; Aggarwal, Gautam; Deepika, Gupta; Kamlesh, Khatri

    2006-11-01

    Analyzing the long-term outcome in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is crucial to evaluate effectiveness of treatment strategies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term results in patients with CAH after feminizing surgery from the pediatric intersex clinic. Of 163 patients of CAH being followed (1980-2005), 50 responded for review. The patients had undergone feminizing genitoplasty and hormonal therapy. Evaluation included filling a detailed questionnaire along with physical examination and a structured interview in privacy. Assessment was performed for cosmetic results (50), psychosocial adjustment (42) above 5-year age, and functional outcome in 19 cases above 14-year age. Mean age at clitoroplasty was 3.6 years (1-16 years) and at time of the study was 14.6 years (4-23 years), with a mean post-op follow up of 6 years after the final surgery (6 months-17 years). The cosmetic outcome of clitoroplasty was excellent in 37, satisfactory in 10, and poor in 3. Gender identity was female, male, and mixed in 45, 4, and 1, respectively. The attitude to self and life was positive in 36 and negative in 6. The functional outcome of vaginoplasty was satisfactory, unsatisfactory, and undetermined in 11, 4, and 4, respectively. Endocrine control was satisfactory in 36/50. A novel assessment system has been adopted for analyzing the results of clitoroplasty and vaginoplasty. Endocrine control and surgical treatment are complimentary to each other to achieve satisfactory results in majority of CAH patients.

  7. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, glucose metabolism and TNF-α in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Maurovich-Horvat, Eszter; Keckeis, Marietta; Lattová, Zuzana; Kemlink, David; Wetter, Thomas-Christian; Schuld, Andreas; Sonka, Karel; Pollmächer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a deficiency in the production of hypocretin/orexin, which regulates sleep and wakefulness, and also influences appetite, neuroendocrine functions and metabolism. In this case-control study, 11 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy and 11 healthy adults underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, and dexamethasone suppression/corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test. The average age of patients and controls was 35.1 ± 13.2 and 41.0 ± 2.9 years, respectively, body mass index was 28.1 ± 6.6 and 25.5 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) . We did not find evidence of a significantly increased prevalence of disturbed glucose tolerance in patients with narcolepsy. After hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, the number of non-suppressors did not differ between the groups, indicating normal negative feedback sensitivity. The level of cortisol after dexamethasone suppression was significantly lower in patients with narcolepsy, suggesting a slight basal downregulation and/or a slightly increased negative feedback sensitivity of the major endocrine stress system in narcolepsy. Following corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation, there were no significant differences in levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone or cortisol, and in adrenocortical responsivity to adrenocorticotropic hormone. Finally, patients with narcolepsy displayed significantly higher plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha, soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor p55, soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor p75 and interleukin 6 after adjustment for body mass index. The present study confirms that narcolepsy by itself is not associated with disturbances of glucose metabolism, but goes along with a subtle dysregulation of inflammatory cytokine production. We also found that dynamic hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system response is not altered, whereas negative feedback to dexamethasone might be slightly enhanced.

  8. Value of the CT "capsular sign" as a potential indicator of acute adrenal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Pignatelli, Armando; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Acute adrenal ischemia represents a rare cause of adrenal insufficiency which should be promptly diagnosed in order to preserve adrenal vitality and function. Our study aims to retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the CT capsular sign as an indicator of adrenal ischemia and its association with vascular involvement. Between January 2013 and January 2014, 69 consecutive patients (47 men, 22 women; mean age 46; range 22-67) with suspected adrenal insufficiency based on clinical and biochemical data underwent 320-row CT examination in our Emergency Department. Written informed consent was obtained for the CT examinations, and the institutional review board approval was obtained for our retrospective study. CT multi-planar images were retrospectively and independently analyzed by two radiologists searching for the patency of adrenal vessels, enlarged adrenals, the presence of the "capsular sign" represented by a peripheral subtle hyperdense line around a hypodense enlarged adrenal, and the presence of any periadrenal inflammatory changes. All CT findings were then compared with the surgical findings (n = 5), follow-up examinations (n = 20), or autopsy (n = 4). Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy (DA), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the "capsular sign" and were further evaluated by ROC analysis. Acute adrenal ischemia occurred in 29/69 patients (42 %), unilateral in 20, and bilateral in 9. Forty of sixty-nine patients (58 %) had no evidence of adrenal disease on CT. Thrombosis of the main adrenal vein was found in 20/29 (69 %) and non-venous ischemia in 9/29 (31 %). The capsular sign was found in 24/29 patients (83 %). Sensitivity, specificity, DA, PPV, and NPV values of 83, 100, 93, 100, and 89 %, respectively, were obtained. The capsular sign represents a CT indicator of acute adrenal ischemia, with a specificity of 100 % and leading to a prompt diagnosis in the early

  9. Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: Epidemiology and prognosis of pancreatic endocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Rubin, Joseph; Farnell, Michael B.; Grant, Clive S.; Petersen, Gloria M.

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (PETs) are uncommon tumors with an annual incidence less than 1 per 100,000 persons per year in the general population. PETs that produce hormones resulting in symptoms are designated as functional. The majority of PETs are nonfunctional. Of the functional tumors, insulinomas are the most common, followed by gastrinomas. The clinical course of patients with PETs is variable and depends on the extent of the disease and the treatment rendered. Patients with completely resected tumors generally have a good prognosis, and aggressive surgical therapy in patients with advanced disease may also prolong survival. The epidemiology, prognosis and established and novel prognostic markers of PETs are reviewed. PMID:18508996

  10. Endocrine manifestations and management of Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Emerick, Jill E; Vogt, Karen S

    2013-08-21

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder, caused by lack of expression of genes on the paternally inherited chromosome 15q11.2-q13. In infancy it is characterized by hypotonia with poor suck resulting in failure to thrive. As the child ages, other manifestations such as developmental delay, cognitive disability, and behavior problems become evident. Hypothalamic dysfunction has been implicated in many manifestations of this syndrome including hyperphagia, temperature instability, high pain threshold, sleep disordered breathing, and multiple endocrine abnormalities. These include growth hormone deficiency, central adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and complications of obesity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes the recent literature investigating optimal screening and treatment of endocrine abnormalities associated with PWS, and provides an update on nutrition and food-related behavioral intervention. The standard of care regarding growth hormone therapy and surveillance for potential side effects, the potential for central adrenal insufficiency, evaluation for and treatment of hypogonadism in males and females, and the prevalence and screening recommendations for hypothyroidism and diabetes are covered in detail. PWS is a genetic syndrome in which early diagnosis and careful attention to detail regarding all the potential endocrine and behavioral manifestations can lead to a significant improvement in health and developmental outcomes. Thus, the important role of the provider caring for the child with PWS cannot be overstated.

  11. Research on Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA researchers are developing innovative approaches, tools, models and data to improve the understanding of potential risks to human health and wildlife from chemicals that could disrupt the endocrine system.

  12. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes By Patricia A. Daly, MD, University of Virginia;Front Royal Internal Medicine, VA ; Lewis Landsberg, MD, Northwestern University NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: Click ...

  13. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body handles stress and responds to the environment. Results of animal and human scientific studies support a link between EDCs and ... to cause endocrine, reproductive, or neurological problems in humans. ... environmental contamination. For example, in 1976 an industrial accident ...

  14. A consensus endocrine profile for chronically stressed wild animals does not exist.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Romero, L Michael

    2013-09-15

    Given the connection between chronic stress and health, there has been a growing emphasis on identifying chronically stressed wild animals, especially in relation to anthropogenic disturbances. There is considerable confusion, however, in how to identify chronically stressed wild animals, but the most common assumption is that measures of glucocorticoid (GC) function will increase. In an attempt to determine an "endocrine profile" of a chronically stressed wild animal, this review collected papers from the literature that measured baseline GC, stress-induced GC, measures of integrated GC, negative feedback, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis sensitivity, and/or body weight in chronically stressed animals. The collected studies encompassed laboratory and field studies, numerous diverse species, and multiple techniques for inducing chronic stress. Each paper was ranked according to its relevance to wild animals and scored as to whether the measured response increased, decreased, or stayed the same after exposure to chronic stress. The analyses uncovered so much variation between studies that the literature does not support a generalized endocrine profile in how wild animals respond to chronic stress. The common predictions appear to be based almost entirely on theoretical models rather than empirical data. The three most important variables affecting GC responses were the stressors used to induce chronic stress, the potential for those stressors to induce habituation, and the taxon of the focal species. The best approach for identifying a chronically stressed population appears to be documentation of changes at multiple levels of GC regulation, but the direction of the change (increase or decrease) may be relatively unimportant compared to the fact that the response changes at all. The conclusion is that a consistent, predictable, endocrine response to chronic stress, regardless of the protocol used to induce chronic stress and the species under study, does not

  15. Compensatory adrenal growth - A neurally mediated reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallman, M. F.; Engeland, W. C.; Shinsako, J.

    1976-01-01

    The responses of young rats to left adrenalectomy or left adrenal manipulation were compared to surgical sham adrenalectomy in which adrenals were observed but not touched. At 12 h right adrenal wet weight, dry weight, DNA, RNA, and protein content were increased (P less than 0.05) after the first two operations. Left adrenal manipulation resulted in increased right adrenal weight at 12 h but no change in left adrenal weight. Sequential manipulation of the left adrenal at time 0 and the right adrenal at 12 h resulted in an enlarged right adrenal at 12 h (P less than 0.01), and an enlarged left adrenal at 24 h (P less than 0.05), showing that the manipulated gland was capable of response. Bilateral adrenal manipulation of the adrenal glands resulted in bilateral enlargement of 12 h (P less than 0.01). Taken together with previous results, these findings strongly suggest that compensatory adrenal growth is a neurally mediated reflex.

  16. Functional Connections of the Vestibulo-spino-adrenal Axis in the Control of Blood Pressure Via the Vestibulosympathetic Reflex in Conscious Rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huan-Jun; Li, Mei-Han; Li, Mei-Zhi; Park, Sang Eon; Kim, Min Sun; Jin, Yuan-Zhe; Park, Byung Rim

    2015-09-01

    Significant evidence supports the role of the vestibular system in the regulation of blood pressure during postural movements. In the present study, the role of the vestibulo-spino-adrenal (VSA) axis in the modulation of blood pressure via the vestibulosympathetic reflex was clarified by immunohistochemical and enzyme immunoassay methods in conscious rats with sinoaortic denervation. Expression of c-Fos protein in the intermediolateral cell column of the middle thoracic spinal regions and blood epinephrine levels were investigated, following microinjection of glutamate receptor agonists or antagonists into the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and/or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced hypotension. Both microinjection of glutamate receptor agonists (NMDA and AMPA) into the MVN or rostral ventrolateral medullary nucleus (RVLM) and SNP-induced hypotension led to increased number of c-Fos positive neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of the middle thoracic spinal regions and increased blood epinephrine levels. Pretreatment with microinjection of glutamate receptor antagonists (MK-801 and CNQX) into the MVN or RVLM prevented the increased number of c-Fos positive neurons resulting from SNP-induced hypotension, and reversed the increased blood epinephrine levels. These results indicate that the VSA axis may be a key component of the pathway used by the vestibulosympathetic reflex to maintain blood pressure during postural movements.

  17. Regulation of synaptic functions in central nervous system by endocrine hormones and the maintenance of energy homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhiping P; Han, Weiping

    2012-10-01

    Energy homoeostasis, a co-ordinated balance of food intake and energy expenditure, is regulated by the CNS (central nervous system). The past decade has witnessed significant advances in our understanding of metabolic processes and brain circuitry which responds to a broad range of neural, nutrient and hormonal signals. Accumulating evidence demonstrates altered synaptic plasticity in the CNS in response to hormone signals. Moreover, emerging observations suggest that synaptic plasticity underlies all brain functions, including the physiological regulation of energy homoeostasis, and that impaired synaptic constellation and plasticity may lead to pathological development and conditions. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of postsynaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid), NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) receptors, and the presynaptic components by hormone signals. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms by which hormones regulate energy homoeostasis may lead to novel strategies in treating metabolic disorders.

  18. Review: the role of neural crest cells in the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Adams, Meghan Sara; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest is a pluripotent population of cells that arises at the junction of the neural tube and the dorsal ectoderm. These highly migratory cells form diverse derivatives including neurons and glia of the sensory, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems, melanocytes, and the bones, cartilage, and connective tissues of the face. The neural crest has long been associated with the endocrine system, although not always correctly. According to current understanding, neural crest cells give rise to the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, chief cells of the extra-adrenal paraganglia, and thyroid C cells. The endocrine tumors that correspond to these cell types are pheochromocytomas, extra-adrenal paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although controversies concerning embryological origin appear to have mostly been resolved, questions persist concerning the pathobiology of each tumor type and its basis in neural crest embryology. Here we present a brief history of the work on neural crest development, both in general and in application to the endocrine system. In particular, we present findings related to the plasticity and pluripotency of neural crest cells as well as a discussion of several different neural crest tumors in the endocrine system.

  19. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome. It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases excess amounts of the hormone cortisol. Causes ... hormone cortisol. This hormone is made in the adrenal glands . Too much cortisol can be due to various ...

  20. Selenium and endocrine systems.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Geoffrey J; Arthur, John R

    2005-03-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) is capable of exerting multiple actions on endocrine systems by modifying the expression of at least 30 selenoproteins, many of which have clearly defined functions. Well-characterized selenoenzymes are the families of glutathione peroxidases (GPXs), thioredoxin reductases (TRs) and iodothyronine deiodinases (Ds). These selenoenzymes are capable of modifying cell function by acting as antioxidants and modifying redox status and thyroid hormone metabolism. Se is also involved in cell growth, apoptosis and modifying the action of cell signalling systems and transcription factors. During thyroid hormone synthesis GPX1, GPX3 and TR1 are up-regulated, providing the thyrocytes with considerable protection from peroxidative damage. Thyroidal D1 in rats and both D1 and D2 in humans are also up-regulated to increase the production of bioactive 3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T3). In the basal state, GPX3 is secreted into the follicular lumen where it may down-regulate thyroid hormone synthesis by decreasing hydrogen peroxide concentrations. The deiodinases are present in most tissues and provide a mechanism whereby individual tissues may control their exposure to T3. Se is also able to modify the immune response in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Low sperm production and poor sperm quality are consistent features of Se-deficient animals. The pivotal link between Se, sperm quality and male fertility is GPX4 since the enzyme is essential to allow the production of the correct architecture of the midpiece of spermatozoa. Se also has insulin-mimetic properties, an effect that is probably brought about by stimulating the tyrosine kinases involved in the insulin signalling cascade. Furthermore, in the diabetic rat, Se not only restores glycaemic control but it also prevents or alleviates the adverse effects that diabetes has on cardiac, renal and platelet function.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTION AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS IN LARGE-MOUTH BASS FROM FLORIDA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous efforts from this laboratory, have documented altered endocrine function and sexual differentiation for alligators and turtles from Lake Apopka in Central Florida. This lake has been exposed to a variety of contaminants which are potentially endocrine-disrupting. Therefo...

  2. COMPARISON OF FATHEAD MINNOW AND HUMAN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens have the potential to disrupt endocrine function in a myriad of species. However, in vitro assays designed to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) typically utilize mammalian estrogen receptors. Our overall objective is to charac...

  3. Adrenal gland disease in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Adrenal gland disease in ferrets is unique to this species, with clinical signs and pathophysiology different from those seen in the dog. Its prevalence is increasing; 70% of pet ferrets in the United States were affected in 2003. The exact causes of the adrenal gland changes that lead to the disease are not known. Early oophorohysterectomies and neutering, combined with the artificially prolonged photoperiod experienced by indoor pet ferrets, and a possible genetic component, may be contributing factors. Signs of adrenal gland disease include progressive hair loss, pruritus, lethargy, atrophy, and, in female ferrets, vulvar swelling. An understanding of the signs and physiologic changes is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. A review of anatomy, physiology, and current surgical and medical options is presented.

  4. Adrenal cortex dysfunction: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Huebener, K.H.; Treugut, H.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of the adrenal gland was studied in 302 patients with possible endocrinologic disease and 107 patients undergoing CT for nonendocrinologic reasons. Measurements of adrenal size were also made in 100 adults with no known adrenal pathology. CT proved to be a sensitive diagnostic tool in combination with clinical studies. When blood hormone levels are increased, CT can differentiate among homogeneous organic hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, benign adenoma, and malignant cortical adenoma. When blood hormone levels are decreased, CT can demonstrate hypoplasia or metastatic tumorous destruction. Calcifications can be demonstrated earlier than on plain radiographs. When hormone elimination is increased, the morphologic substrate can be identified; tumorous changes can be localized and infiltration of surrounding organs recognized.

  5. Atypical Manifestation of LPS-Responsive Beige-Like Anchor Deficiency Syndrome as an Autoimmune Endocrine Disorder without Enteropathy and Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiar, Shahrzad; Ruemmele, Frank; Charbit-Henrion, Fabienne; Lévy, Eva; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Bader, Peter; Paetow, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Monogenic primary immunodeficiency syndromes can affect one or more endocrine organs by autoimmunity during childhood. Clinical manifestations include type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and vitiligo. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency was described in 2012 as a novel primary immunodeficiency, predominantly causing immune dysregulation and early onset enteropathy. We describe the heterogeneous clinical course of LRBA deficiency in two siblings, mimicking an autoimmune polyendocrine disorder in one of them in presence of the same underlying genetic mutation. The third child of consanguineous Egyptian parents (Patient 1) presented at 6 months of age with intractable enteropathy and failure to thrive. Later on, he developed symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and infectious complications due to immunosuppressive treatment. The severe enteropathy was non-responsive to the standard treatment and led to death at the age of 22 years. His younger sister (Patient 2) presented at the age of 12 to the endocrinology department with decompensated hypothyroidism, perioral vitiligo, delayed pubertal development, and growth failure without enteropathy and immunodeficiency. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous frameshift mutation (c.6862delT, p.Y2288MfsX29) in the LRBA gene in both siblings. To our knowledge, our patient (Patient 2) is the first case of LRBA deficiency described with predominant endocrine phenotype without immunodeficiency and enteropathy. LRBA deficiency should be considered as underlying disease in pediatric patients presenting with autoimmune endocrine symptoms. The same genetic mutation can manifest with a broad phenotypic spectrum without genotype–phenotype correlation. The awareness for disease symptoms among non-immunologists might be a key to early diagnosis. Further functional studies in LRBA deficiency are

  6. Atypical Manifestation of LPS-Responsive Beige-Like Anchor Deficiency Syndrome as an Autoimmune Endocrine Disorder without Enteropathy and Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, Shahrzad; Ruemmele, Frank; Charbit-Henrion, Fabienne; Lévy, Eva; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Bader, Peter; Paetow, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Monogenic primary immunodeficiency syndromes can affect one or more endocrine organs by autoimmunity during childhood. Clinical manifestations include type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and vitiligo. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency was described in 2012 as a novel primary immunodeficiency, predominantly causing immune dysregulation and early onset enteropathy. We describe the heterogeneous clinical course of LRBA deficiency in two siblings, mimicking an autoimmune polyendocrine disorder in one of them in presence of the same underlying genetic mutation. The third child of consanguineous Egyptian parents (Patient 1) presented at 6 months of age with intractable enteropathy and failure to thrive. Later on, he developed symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and infectious complications due to immunosuppressive treatment. The severe enteropathy was non-responsive to the standard treatment and led to death at the age of 22 years. His younger sister (Patient 2) presented at the age of 12 to the endocrinology department with decompensated hypothyroidism, perioral vitiligo, delayed pubertal development, and growth failure without enteropathy and immunodeficiency. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous frameshift mutation (c.6862delT, p.Y2288MfsX29) in the LRBA gene in both siblings. To our knowledge, our patient (Patient 2) is the first case of LRBA deficiency described with predominant endocrine phenotype without immunodeficiency and enteropathy. LRBA deficiency should be considered as underlying disease in pediatric patients presenting with autoimmune endocrine symptoms. The same genetic mutation can manifest with a broad phenotypic spectrum without genotype-phenotype correlation. The awareness for disease symptoms among non-immunologists might be a key to early diagnosis. Further functional studies in LRBA deficiency are

  7. Adrenal myelolipoma with osseous metaplasia and hypercortisolism

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ujwal; Priyadarshi, Shivam; Tomar, Vinay; Vohra, Rishi Raj

    2017-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipomas are rare adrenal tumors generally diagnosed incidentally. A 42-year-old female reported to us with complaints of left flank pain attributable to her left ureteric calculi. On evaluation, a large adrenal mass was diagnosed along with hypercortisolism. After adrenalectomy, the histopathology revealed adrenal myelolipoma along with osseous metaplasia not reported in English literature, to the best of our knowledge till date. PMID:28216934

  8. Model of pediatric pituitary hormone deficiency separates the endocrine and neural functions of the LHX3 transcription factor in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Stephanie C.; Malik, Raleigh E.; Showalter, Aaron D.; Sloop, Kyle W.; Rhodes, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of most pediatric hormone deficiency diseases is poorly understood. Children with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) have insufficient levels of multiple anterior pituitary hormones causing short stature, metabolic disease, pubertal failure, and often have associated nervous system symptoms. Mutations in developmental regulatory genes required for the specification of the hormone-secreting cell types of the pituitary gland underlie severe forms of CPHD. To better understand these diseases, we have created a unique mouse model of CPHD with a targeted knockin mutation (Lhx3 W227ter), which is a model for the human LHX3 W224ter disease. The LHX3 gene encodes a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, which has essential roles in pituitary and nervous system development in mammals. The introduced premature termination codon results in deletion of the carboxyl terminal region of the LHX3 protein, which is critical for pituitary gene activation. Mice that lack all LHX3 function do not survive beyond birth. By contrast, the homozygous Lhx3 W227ter mice survive, but display marked dwarfism, thyroid disease, and female infertility. Importantly, the Lhx3 W227ter mice have no apparent nervous system deficits. The Lhx3 W227ter mouse model provides a unique array of hormone deficits and facilitates experimental approaches that are not feasible with human patients. These experiments demonstrate that the carboxyl terminus of the LHX3 transcription factor is not required for viability. More broadly, this study reveals that the in vivo actions of a transcription factor in different tissues are molecularly separable. PMID:21149718

  9. Testosterone-Mediated Endocrine Function and TH1/TH2 Cytokine Balance after Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate: By Sex Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shou-Qiang; Chen, Zan-Xiong; Kong, Min-Li; Xie, Yan-Qi; Zhou, Yang; Qin, Xiao-Di; Paul, Gunther; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Little information exists about the evaluation of potential developmental immunotoxicity induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a synthetic persistent and increasingly ubiquitous environmental contaminant. To assess potential sex-specific impacts of PFOS on immunological health in the offspring, using male and female C57BL/6 mice, pups were evaluated for developmental immunotoxic effects after maternal oral exposure to PFOS (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg PFOS/kg/day) during Gestational Days 1–17. Spontaneous TH1/TH2-type cytokines, serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were evaluated in F1 pups at four and eight weeks of age. The study showed that male pups were more sensitive to the effects of PFOS than female pups. At eight weeks of age, an imbalance in TH1/TH2-type cytokines with excess TH2 cytokines (IL-4) was found only in male pups. As for hormone levels, PFOS treatment in utero significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels only in male pups, and a significant interaction between sex and PFOS was observed for serum testosterone at both four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0049) and eight weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0227) and for estradiol alternation at four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0351). In conclusion, testosterone-mediated endocrine function may be partially involved in the TH1/TH2 imbalance induced by PFOS, and these deficits are detectable among both young and adult mice and may affect males more than females. PMID:27626407

  10. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment. PMID:27275469

  11. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M. Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-04-15

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture.

  12. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady; Azoulay, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment.

  13. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and 24-h blood pressure profile in obese men with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Gláucia; Togeiro, Sônia Maria; Hayashi, Lílian F; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Ribeiro, Artur Beltrame; Tufik, Sérgio; Zanella, Maria Teresa

    2008-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation may be the mechanism of this relationship. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in obese men with and without OSAS and to determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy (nCPAP) influenced responses. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and overnight cortisol suppression test with 0.25 mg of dexamethasone were performed in 16 obese men with OSAS and 13 obese men controls. Nine men with severe apnea were reevaluated 3 mo after nCPAP therapy. Body mass index and blood pressure of OSAS patients and obese controls were similar. In OSAS patients, the percentage of fall in systolic blood pressure at night (P = 0.027) and salivary cortisol suppression postdexamethasone (P = 0.038) were lower, whereas heart rate (P = 0.022) was higher compared with obese controls. After nCPAP therapy, patients showed a reduction in heart rate (P = 0.036) and a greater cortisol suppression after dexamethasone (P = 0.001). No difference in arterial blood pressure (P = 0.183) was observed after 3 mo of nCPAP therapy. Improvement in cortisol suppression was positively correlated with an improvement in apnea-hypopnea index during nCPAP therapy (r = 0.799, P = 0.010). In conclusion, men with OSAS present increased postdexamethasone cortisol levels and heart rate, which were recovered by nCPAP.

  14. Pesticides as endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are designed to be bioactive against certain targets but can cause toxicity to nontarget species by a variety of other modes of action including disturbance of endocrine function. As such, pesticides have been found to bind and alter the function of hormone receptors, ...

  15. Chronic effects of mercuric chloride ingestion on rat adrenocortical function

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Chansouria, J.P.N. )

    1989-09-01

    Mercurial contamination of environment has increased. Mercury accumulates in various organs and adversely affects their functions. Some of the most prominent toxic effects of inorganic mercury compounds include neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Besides this, mercury has also been reported to affect various endocrine glands like pituitary, thyroid, gonadal and adrenal glands. There have been no reports on the toxic effects of chronic oral administration of varying doses of mercuric chloride on adrenocortical function in albino rats. The present work was undertaken to study the adrenocortical response to chronic oral administration of mercuric chloride of varying dose and duration in albino rats.

  16. Evidence for persistent organochlorine pollutants in the human adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fommei, Enza; Turci, Roberta; Ripoli, Andrea; Balzan, Silvana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Morelli, Luca; Coi, Alessio

    2017-03-23

    Environmental pollutants may act as endocrine disruptors in animals. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) enter the food chain and may accumulate in the fatty animal tissues, including adrenals. To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated their presence in the human normal adrenal (NA) cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). Surgical fragments of APA from 11 patients and NA from 8 kidney donors were analyzed for 16 PCBs congeners and 10 OCPs. A Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion (MSPD) method for simultaneous determination of the target compounds in cortex homogenates was developed. A gas-chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (Triple Quad GC-MS) system was used for the analysis. Data were analyzed using Random Forest and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. OCPs and PCBs were found in specimens from both types. A subset of pollutants characterized APA more than NA. Higher concentrations (μg g(-1) ) in APA were observed for α-, β-, and γ- Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1.48 ± 3.32 vs. 0.17 ± 0.19, P = 0.028; 2.81 ± 2.10 vs. 0.96 ± 0.98, P = 0.011; 2.16 ± 4.85 vs. 0.17 ± 0.26, P = 0.004, respectively), as well as for Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and for PCBs 28, 52 and 101 (3.41 ± 3.11 vs. 0.97 ± 1.06, P = 0.021; 2.34 ± 4.68 vs. 0.25 ± 0.22, P = 0.039; 0.58 ± 1.19 vs. 0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.002; 0.26 ± 0.43 vs. 0.05 ± 0.00, P = 0.001, respectively). Environmental organochlorine pollutants were shown to be present in the human normal and abnormal adrenal cortex, deserving future investigation on their possible role as adrenal endocrine disruptors in human disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Various neuroendocrine tumors in a family with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1].

    PubMed

    Sepp, Krisztián; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna

    2013-12-22

    When multiple endocrine tumors are detected more tests are required to diagnose endocrine tumor syndromes. The authors report the case history of a patient with clinical manifestation of multiplex endocrine neoplasia type 1 (parathyroid adenoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, pituitary tumor, adrenal gland tumors and thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma). Genetic screening proved a novel stop codon mutation of the MEN1 gene in the patient and in two other members of the family. The son of the index patient showed clinical symptoms of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (insulinoma) and parathyroid adenoma. One of the two daughters was also positive for the same mutation, however, she had no clinical symptoms. The authors review current knowledge on the genetic background of multiple endocrine syndrome type 1, the role of menin and the usefulness of gene mutation screening.

  18. Modulating the pituitary-adrenal response to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Serotonin is believed to be a transmitter or regulator of neuronal function. A possible relationship between the pituitary-adrenal secretion of steroids and brain serotonin in the rat was investigated by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-hydroxy tryptamine (HT) levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. The approach was either to inhibit brain 5-HT synthesis with para-chlorophenyl alanine or to raise its level with precursors such as tryptophan or 5-hydroxy tryptophan.

  19. Effects of a Short-term Exposure to the Fungicide Prochloraz on Endocrine Function and Gene Expression in Female Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prochloraz is a fungicide known to cause endocrine disruption through effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To determine the short-term impacts of prochloraz on gene expression and steroid production, adult female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exp...

  20. EFFECT OF THE ANTI-ANDROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR VINCLOZOLIN ON EMBRYONIC TESTIS CORD FORMATION AND POSTNATAL TESTIS DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION. (R827405)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vinclozolin is a systemic dicarboximide fungicide that is used on fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, and turf grass. Vinclozolin and its metabolites are known to be endocrine disruptors and act as androgen receptor antagonists. The hypothesis tested in the current study is...

  1. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Kovach, M.B.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL) are a major source of cholesterol for adrenal cortical steroid hormones synthesis. To test whether LDL labelled with Tc-99m could be used to assess adrenal cortical function, the authors prepared Tc-99m-LDL by dithionite reduction of Tc0/sub 4//sup -/ in the presence of LDL. About 80% of the Tc-LDL bonds were covalent. Purified Tc-99m-LDL was injected intravenously into 16 rabbits (4 t 8mCi/rabbit). External imaging was carried out 16 to 18 hrs later, at which time the adrenals were visualized clearly; the animals were sacrificed, the organs dissected out, weighed, and counted. The biodistribution demonstrated that 0.8l +- 0.19% of the injected radioactivity was taken up per gm of whole adrenal gland. This compared with an uptake of 0.19 +- 0.02% per gm by liver, 0.22 +- 0.04% per gm by spleen, and 0.11 +- 0.02% per gm by kidney. To verify that they were indeed imaging the adrenals, additional rabbits were tested with dexamethasone. First they were injected with Tc-99m-LDL; 28 hrs later the adrenals were again well visualized. Then the rabbits were given dexamethasone for 5 days to suppress adrenal cortical function. The adequacy of suppression was monitored by serum cortisol measurements. When Tc-99m-LDL was injected again, the adrenals could not be seen 18 hrs later. Counts of the adrenals from the suppressed rabbits were at background levels. These data indicate that Tc-99m-LDL is a useful radiopharmaceutical for evaluating adrenal cortical function.

  2. REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS USING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A growing body of scientific information has shown that man-made industrial chemicals and pesticides may interfere with the normal functioning of human and wildlife endocrine systems. These agents are referred to collectively as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and they are ...

  3. Update on the Mammalian Tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Protocols

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine system provides a number of target sites that may be susceptible to disruption by environmental agents. In response to emerging concerns that environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on human health by altering the function of the endocrine system (http://w...

  4. [Frequency of Kongenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Prader, M; Kofler, J; Glatzl, J; Geir, W

    1979-01-01

    The frequency of homozygous congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Tyrol is found to be 1 : 8991, the gene-frequency for congenital adrenal hyperplasia 1 : 95 and the frequency of heterozygous congenital adrenal hyperplasia 1 : 48. Our data is compared on a numerical and statistical base with that in Zürich and Munich with regard to the frequency of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, to its distribution with and without salt loss and to its sex-distribution. According to our study one may assume a frequency of homozygous congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Tyrol, Zürich and Munich of 1 : 7000--10,000.

  5. Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... used if the diagnosis remains unclear. What other tests might a health care provider perform after diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency? After ... skin. A nurse or lab technician performs the test in a health care provider’s office; a patient does not need anesthesia. ...

  6. Kidney-Tonifying Recipe Can Repair Alterations in Adrenal Medullary Chromaffin Cells in Asthmatic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Cheng-Ping; Zou, Jun-Tao; Zou, Ye-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Zhao; Feng, Jun-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine suggests that renal deficiency is a causative factor of asthma, and tonifying kidney drugs are believed to be an appropriate and beneficial treatment. The adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (AMCC) transition to the neuronal phenotype is known to occur in asthma, as evidenced by degranulation of chromaffin granules, decline of epinephrine (EPI) and phenylethanolamine-n-methyl transferase (PNMT), and obvious alterations in cellular architecture. In this study, rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin, then treated with Kidney-Tonifying Recipe (KTR) to evaluate the therapeutic effect. Tissues were evaluated for changes in pathology and EPI, PNMT, and peripherin expression. Degranulation of chromaffin granules and appearance of neurite-like process were found in AMCC from asthmatic rats, and these changes were corrected by KTR treatment. EPI and PNMT expressions were decreased in asthmatic rats and increased by KTR treatment. Peripherin expression was increased in asthmatic rats and decreased in the KTR-treated group. Morphological changes and decreases in EPI were observed when cultured AMCC were exposed to sera from asthmatic rats in vitro, and these changes were attenuated with the addition of sera from KRT-treated rats. These results suggest that the Kidney-Tonifying Recipe is capable of repairing asthma-associated alterations in endocrine function and the ultrastructure of AMCC. PMID:22474509

  7. Fecal steroid monitoring for assessing gonadal and adrenal activity in the golden eagle and peregrine falcon.

    PubMed

    Staley, Airica M; Blanco, Juan M; Dufty, Alfred M; Wildt, David E; Monfort, Steven L

    2007-08-01

    We examined the efficacy of noninvasive monitoring of endocrine function via fecal steroid immunoassays in the golden eagle and peregrine falcon. High-pressure liquid chromatography analyses of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM) revealed that minor percentages of immunoreactive fGCM co-eluted with [(3)H]corticosterone in both sexes of the eagle (2.5-2.7%) and falcon (7.5-11.9%). In contrast, most fecal estrogen metabolites in eagle and falcon females co-eluted with radiolabeled estradiol-17beta ([(3)H]; 57.6, 64.6%, respectively) or estrone ([(3)H]; 26.9, 4.1%, respectively). Most fecal progestin metabolite immunoreactivity in the female eagle (24.8%) and falcon (21.7%) co-eluted with progesterone ([(14)C]). Most fecal androgen metabolite immunoreactivity in eagle (55.8%) and falcon (63.7%) males co-eluted with testosterone ([(14)C]). Exogenous adrenocorticotropin hormone induced increased fGCM excretion above pre-treatment in both species, but only significantly (P < 0.05) in the eagle. Both species showed increased fGCM after saline administration, suggesting the detection of 'handling stress.' Both species exhibited enterohepatic and renal recirculation of administered steroids as demonstrated by biphasic and triphasic excretion patterns. Thus, noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring is a valid and promising tool for assessing gonadal and adrenal status in rare and threatened birds-of-prey.

  8. Effect of pituitary graft-induced hyperprolactinemia on adrenal circadian rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Villanúa, M A; Tresguerres, J A; Esquifino, A I

    1988-01-01

    Prolactin is involved in the regulation of several endocrine functions. In this study, the possible influence of hyperprolactinemia on circadian corticosterone secretion has been investigated. Pituitary grafted male and female rats exhibited increased plasma PRL levels at 1000 when compared to sham-operated controls. This increase was only maintained over the 24 h period in grafted female rats but not in males, thus suggesting a different sex dependent modification of the regulatory mechanisms of prolactin. The corticosterone secretion pattern in sham operated male and female rats was similar to those described earlier but was altered by hyperprolactinemia according to the sex of the animal. There was a significant decrease in the total amount of corticosterone secreted in a 24 h period in grafted males as compared to control animals, whereas no significant differences were observed in grafted female rats as compared to controls. Grafted females showed a 4 h delay in the 24 h secretion rhythm as compared to control animals. These data suggest that pituitary transplant induced hyperprolactinemia, directly or through modifications in catecholamine turnover, is able to modify adrenal rhythmicity.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: multiple endocrine neoplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 4 Genomics Education Programme (UK): Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 Genomics Education Programme (UK): Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2A MalaCards: multiple endocrine ...

  10. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Pont, Allan

    1980-01-01

    The multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes consist of three distinct disease entities. They have in common adenomatous, carcinomatous or hyperplastic involvement of a variety of endocrine glands, and an autosomal dominant inheritance. MEN I includes hyperparathyroidism, islet cell and pituitary tumors. The components of MEN IIa are hyperparathyroidism, medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. MEN IIb includes multiple neuromas, medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. Effective tests are available for the early detection of components of the syndromes in potentially affected patients. Screening can lead to therapeutic intervention before clinical sequelae ensue. PMID:6247851

  11. [Genetics and phenogenetics of the hormonal characteristics of animals. VI. Functional activity of certain chemoreceptors connected with the pituitary-adrenal system of silver foxes selected for their behavior].

    PubMed

    Naumenko, E V; Trut, L N; Pavlova, S I; Beliaev, D K

    1980-01-01

    Seasonal differences in the reaction of the pituitary-adrenal system in domesticated and non-domesticated silver foxes of both sexes to substances activating alpha-, beta-adrenoreceptors, and serotonin receptors were studied. It was shown that the reactivity of the pituitary-adrenal system in silver foxes of either type of behaviour is due, at least partially, to seasonal differences in the state of adrenergic and serotoninergic mechanisms. At the same time, in silver foxes selected for behaviour to man the reaction of the pituitary-adrenal system to the injection of substances activating adrenergic and serotoninergic receptors differs, during the year, from the reaction to these compounds in non-selected animals. The conclusion was made, that in the process of domestication changes take place in the state of serotonin- and noradrenaline mechanisms connected with the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal complex.

  12. Scintigraphic portrayal of the syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Yobbagy, J.J.; Levatter, R.; Sisson, J.C.; Shulkin, B.L.; Polley, T.

    1988-06-01

    The scintigraphic appearance of the neoplasms in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN-2B) and the interpretations of the image patterns are described. An 18-year-old male patient with the MEN-2B syndrome underwent TI-201 imaging that showed concentrations of TI-201 in the primary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) tumor and in cervical lymph node metastases. After total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection, the TI-201 image was normal. Catecholamine levels in the blood and urine were only borderline elevated. Yet, greater than normal concentrations of I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) were present in both adrenal glands. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed normal adrenal glands. These results were consistent with the diagnosis of adrenal medullary hyperplasia, a precursor of pheochromocytoma. No operation was indicated to remove the adrenal glands. Imaging with TI-201 appears to be useful in identifying sites of MTC in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome. I-131 MIBG imaging, in conjunction with computed tomography of the adrenal glands and appropriate catecholamine measurements, should be performed in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome to determine the status of the adrenal medullae, which then may be classified as normal, hyperplastic, or tumorous with pheochromocytoma.

  13. Adrenal Gland Microenvironment and Its Involvement in the Regulation of Stress-Induced Hormone Secretion during Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Sue, Mariko; Bornstein, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress, adrenal gland rapidly responds with increased secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure, and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation. Sepsis resulting from microbial infections is a sustained and extreme example of stress situation. In many critical ill patients, levels of both corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin, the two major regulators of adrenal hormone production, are suppressed. Levels of GCs, however, remain normal or are elevated in these patients, suggesting a shift from central to local intra-adrenal regulation of adrenal stress response. Among many mechanisms potentially involved in this process, reduced GC metabolism and activation of intra-adrenal cellular systems composed of adrenocortical and adrenomedullary cells, endothelial cells, and resident and recruited immune cells play a key role. Hence, dysregulated function of any of these cells and cellular compartments can ultimately affect adrenal stress response. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight recent insights into our understanding of the adrenal gland microenvironment and its role in coordination of stress-induced hormone secretion.

  14. Adrenal Gland Microenvironment and Its Involvement in the Regulation of Stress-Induced Hormone Secretion during Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Sue, Mariko; Bornstein, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the sympathetic–adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress, adrenal gland rapidly responds with increased secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure, and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation. Sepsis resulting from microbial infections is a sustained and extreme example of stress situation. In many critical ill patients, levels of both corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin, the two major regulators of adrenal hormone production, are suppressed. Levels of GCs, however, remain normal or are elevated in these patients, suggesting a shift from central to local intra-adrenal regulation of adrenal stress response. Among many mechanisms potentially involved in this process, reduced GC metabolism and activation of intra-adrenal cellular systems composed of adrenocortical and adrenomedullary cells, endothelial cells, and resident and recruited immune cells play a key role. Hence, dysregulated function of any of these cells and cellular compartments can ultimately affect adrenal stress response. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight recent insights into our understanding of the adrenal gland microenvironment and its role in coordination of stress-induced hormone secretion. PMID:28018291

  15. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... an X-ray Your Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Endocrine System Print A A A en ...

  16. The eye as a window to rare endocrine disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rupali; Chander, Ashish; Jacob, Jubbin J.

    2012-01-01

    The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves’ disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman's syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove's syndrome, Cushing's disease, and Addison's disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner's, Rothmund's, and Klinefelter's syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner's, Cockayne's, Wolfram's, Kearns Sayre's, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases. PMID:22629495

  17. Hormonal supplementation in endocrine dysfunction in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Duława, Anna; Bułdak, Łukasz; Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2007-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for a physician is a critically ill patient. Regardless of the reason for an admission to the Intensive Care Units (ICU) (e.g. myocardial infarction, severe pneumonia, trauma or many others) each of the above-mentioned conditions impairs homeostasis including instability of the endocrine system. The observed alterations in serum glucose level or clinical signs of hormonal imbalance alarm practitioners and prompt them to an intervention. However, side-effects of administered drugs have to be always considered, because every intervention in the endocrine system may have various consequences or prove itself maleficent. Since critical condition causes numerous changes in the hormonal system, the definition of endocrine gland failure in the ICU patients should differ from the definition related to the general population. This review is aimed at describing alterations, diagnosis and treatment options for an impaired carbohydrate metabolism and inadequate response of the adrenal and thyroid endocrine axis. It has been written in order to aid the choice between "the watch and wait strategy" and aggressive pharmacological intervention. Furthermore, several standard and innovative therapeutic procedures were described and, if possible, compared. Recent articles have been included in order to show current views on the up-to-date clinical approach.

  18. Chronic stress induces adrenal hyperplasia and hypertrophy in a subregion-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Figueiredo, Helmer F; Ostrander, Michelle M; Choi, Dennis C; Engeland, William C; Herman, James P

    2006-11-01

    The adrenal gland is an essential stress-responsive organ that is part of both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. Chronic stress exposure commonly increases adrenal weight, but it is not known to what extent this growth is due to cellular hyperplasia or hypertrophy and whether it is subregion specific. Moreover, it is not clear whether increased production of adrenal glucocorticoid after chronic stress is due to increased sensitivity to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) vs. increased maximal output. The present studies use a 14-day chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm in adult male rats to assess the effects of chronic stress on adrenal growth and corticosterone steroidogenesis. Exogenous ACTH administration (0-895 ng/100 g body wt) to dexamethasone-blocked rats demonstrated that CVS increased maximal plasma and adrenal corticosterone responses to ACTH without affecting sensitivity. This enhanced function was associated with increased adrenal weight, DNA and RNA content, and RNA/DNA ratio after CVS, suggesting that both cellular hyperplasia and hypertrophy occurred. Unbiased stereological counting of cells labeled for Ki67 (cell division marker) or 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (nuclear marker), combined with zone specific markers, showed that CVS induced hyperplasia in the outer zona fasciculata, hypertrophy in the inner zona fasciculata and medulla, and reduced cell size in the zona glomerulosa. Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased adrenal weight after CVS is due to hyperplasia and hypertrophy that occur in specific adrenal subregions and is associated with increased maximal corticosterone responses to ACTH. These chronic stress-induced changes in adrenal growth and function may have implications for patients with stress-related disorders.

  19. The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in endocrine regulation and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Uberto; Marsicano, Giovanni; Cota, Daniela; Lutz, Beat; Pasquali, Renato

    2006-02-01

    During the last few years, the endocannabinoid system has emerged as a highly relevant topic in the scientific community. Many different regulatory actions have been attributed to endocannabinoids, and their involvement in several pathophysiological conditions is under intense scrutiny. Cannabinoid receptors, named CB1 receptor and CB2 receptor, first discovered as the molecular targets of the psychotropic component of the plant Cannabis sativa, participate in the physiological modulation of many central and peripheral functions. CB2 receptor is mainly expressed in immune cells, whereas CB1 receptor is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the brain. CB1 receptor is expressed in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, and its activation is known to modulate all the endocrine hypothalamic-peripheral endocrine axes. An increasing amount of data highlights the role of the system in the stress response by influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and in the control of reproduction by modifying gonadotropin release, fertility, and sexual behavior. The ability of the endocannabinoid system to control appetite, food intake, and energy balance has recently received great attention, particularly in the light of the different modes of action underlying these functions. The endocannabinoid system modulates rewarding properties of food by acting at specific mesolimbic areas in the brain. In the hypothalamus, CB1 receptor and endocannabinoids are integrated components of the networks controlling appetite and food intake. Interestingly, the endocannabinoid system was recently shown to control metabolic functions by acting on peripheral tissues, such as adipocytes, hepatocytes, the gastrointestinal tract, and, possibly, skeletal muscle. The relevance of the system is further strenghtened by the notion that drugs interfering with the activity of the endocannabinoid system are considered as promising candidates for the treatment of various diseases

  20. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Endocrine System A A A en español Tu sistema endocrino ... a pea, is the "master gland" of the endocrine system. It makes and releases a bunch of hormones ...

  1. Effects of Alcohol on the Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The endocrine system ensures a proper communication between various organs of the body to maintain a constant internal environment. The endocrine system also plays an essential role in enabling the body to respond and appropriately cope with changes in the internal or external environments, such as respond to stress and injury. These functions of the endocrine system to maintain body homeostasis are aided by its communication with the nervous system, immune system and body’s circadian mechanism. Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiological and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. PMID:24011889

  2. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  3. Exercise and the Regulation of Endocrine Hormones.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system has profound regulatory effects within the human body and thus the ability to control and maintain appropriate function within many physiological systems (i.e., homeostasis). The hormones associated with the endocrine system utilize autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions on the cells of their target tissues within these physiologic systems to adjust homeostasis. The introduction of exercise as a stressor to disrupt homeostasis can greatly amplify and impact the actions of these hormones. To that end, the endocrine response to an acute exercise session occurs in a progression of phases with the magnitude of the response being relative to the exercise work intensity or volume. Various physiologic mechanisms are considered responsible for these responses, although not all are completely understood or elucidated. Chronic exercise training does not eliminate the acute exercise response but may attenuate the overall effect of the responsiveness as the body adapts in a positive fashion to the training stimulus. Regrettably, an excessive intensity and/or volume of training may lead to maladaptation and is associated with inappropriate endocrine hormonal responses. The mechanisms leading to a deleterious maladaptive state are not well understood and require additional research for elucidation.

  4. The Endocrine Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillman, David

    1987-01-01

    Promotes a reductionist approach to teaching about the endocrine system in high school biology and anatomy courses. Encourages the study of how hormones travel to the cells and affect them. Provides suggestions for activities and discussion questions, along with sample diagrams and flow charts. (TW)

  5. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    For more than ten years, major international efforts have been aimed at understanding the mechanism and extent of endocrine disruption in experimental models, wildlife, and people; its occurrence in the real world; and in developing tools for screening and prediction of risk. Mu...

  6. Endocrine stress responses and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Azaz; Madhu, S V; Sharma, S B; Desai, N G

    2015-08-13

    This study was carried to ascertain whether stress responses are associated with abnormalities in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell function and risk of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Salivary cortisol, a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and salivary α-amylase, a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) were compared in 125 subjects of newly detected diabetes mellitus (NDDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects who were diagnosed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Assessment of stress in them was done through stress scales - presumptive stressful life events scale (PSLES), perceived stress scale (PSS) and sense of coherence (SOC) and correlated with these and other stress response markers. Significantly higher 10 pm salivary cortisol and post dexamethasone salivary cortisol were found in NDDM subjects as compared to NGT. 10 pm salivary cortisol correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2h PG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) while post dex salivary cortisol correlated with 2h PG, HbA1c and salivary α-amylase with 2h PG. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index (OR: 1.840), SOC (OR: 0.688) and 10 pm salivary cortisol (OR: 1.427) were the strongest predictors of NDDM. The results of the present study indicate that NDDM subjects display significantly higher chronic stress and stress responses when compared to subjects with NGT. Chronic stress and endocrine stress responses are significantly associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

  7. Endocrine stress responses and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Azaz; Madhu, S V; Sharma, S B; Desai, N G

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried to ascertain whether stress responses are associated with abnormalities in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell function and risk of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Salivary cortisol, a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and salivary α-amylase, a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) were compared in 125 subjects of newly detected diabetes mellitus (NDDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects who were diagnosed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Assessment of stress in them was done through stress scales - presumptive stressful life events scale (PSLES), perceived stress scale (PSS) and sense of coherence (SOC) and correlated with these and other stress response markers. Significantly higher 10 pm salivary cortisol and post dexamethasone salivary cortisol were found in NDDM subjects as compared to NGT. 10 pm salivary cortisol correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2h PG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) while post dex salivary cortisol correlated with 2h PG, HbA1c and salivary α-amylase with 2h PG. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index (OR: 1.840), SOC (OR: 0.688) and 10 pm salivary cortisol (OR: 1.427) were the strongest predictors of NDDM. The results of the present study indicate that NDDM subjects display significantly higher chronic stress and stress responses when compared to subjects with NGT. Chronic stress and endocrine stress responses are significantly associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

  8. Unmasking the truth behind endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    DiDiego, Michele Lamse; Eggert, Julia A; Pruitt, Rosanne H; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2005-10-01

    The increase in reproductive cancers and developmental problems over the past 70 years has led researchers to suspect environmental influences as a root cause. Evidence from wildlife and laboratory studies suggests that exposure to endocrine disruptors (EnDs) may be the cause. An EnD is a foreign substance or mixture that alters the function of the endocrine system. They can be found in food, water, soil, or air. Research into their possible role provides an opportunity to decrease modifiable risk factors.

  9. Novel insights into the potential involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in endocrine dysregulation in stress-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Terrón, José A

    2014-01-01

    A hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a common feature of stress-related disorders, and the brain serotonin (5-HT) system plays a major role in HPA axis modulation. Glucocorticoids and stress profoundly affect the 5-HT system so it is possible that alterations of endocrine 5-HT mechanisms may underlie HPA axis overdrive in stress-related diseases. Available evidence suggests a role of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A/2C and 5-HT7 receptors in HPA system activation, and pharmacological blockade of 5-HT7 receptors produces a fast-acting antidepressant-like action and shortens the onset of antidepressant-like effects of various classes of antidepressants. The mechanisms involved in this effect have not been elucidated, but recent findings suggest a role of 5-HT7 receptors in the development of HPA axis overdrive as a result of chronic stress. Remarkably, clinical findings have shown an association between corticosteroid-producing adenomas and expression of ectopic 5-HT7 receptors in corticosteroid-producing adrenocortical cells. These observations might therefore reveal an endocrine mechanism for the antidepressant-like action of 5-HT7 receptor blockers, possibly through normalization of HPA axis function. If such a preliminary hypothesis is confirmed, the potential therapeutic usefulness of 5-HT7 receptor antagonists could extend beyond depression to include other diseases, the pathophysiology of which has been associated with chronic stress and HPA axis dysregulation.

  10. [Novel concepts in biology of diffuse endocrine system: results and future investigations].

    PubMed

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse endocrine system is a largest part of endocrine system of vertebrates. Recend findings showed that DES-cells are not neuroectodermal but have ectodermal, mesodermal, and entodermal ontogeny. The article reviews novel concept of diffuse endocrine system anatomy and physiology, functional role of DES hormones and poorly investigated aspects like DES-cell morphology, hormones secretion in normal and pathologic conditions. Further research of diffuse endocrine system has a great significance for biochemistry, morphology, and clinical medicine.

  11. Epigenetic alterations in endocrine-related cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodero, Sandra; Delgado-Álvarez, Elías; Fernández, Agustín F; Fernández-Morera, Juan L; Menéndez-Torre, Edelmiro; Fraga, Mario F

    2014-08-01

    Aberrant epigenetics is a hallmark of cancer, and endocrine-related tumors are no exception. Recent research has been identifying an ever-growing number of epigenetic alterations in both genomic DNA methylation and histone post-translational modification in tumors of the endocrine system. Novel microarray and ultra-deep sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of genome-wide epigenetic patterns in some tumor types such as adrenocortical, parathyroid, and breast carcinomas. However, in other cancer types, such as the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes and thyroid cancer, tumor information is limited to candidate genes alone. Future research should fill this gap and deepen our understanding of the functional role of these alterations in cancer, as well as defining their possible clinical uses.

  12. Quantitative Relations of Fetal and Maternal Pitiutary - Adrenal Systems I. EFFECTS OF MATERNAL HYPOPHYSECTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, B. T.; Rauschecker, H. F. J.; Piasecki, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    Even though certain aspects of the fetal pituitary-adrenal system have been extensively studied, much remains to be learned of its basic development and function. In the present work, the effect of maternal hypophysectomy upon quantitative pituitary-adrenal relations in mother and fetus was investigated in pregnant beagle dogs. At 57 days gestation in each of seven normal animals and seven animals 3 wk posthypophysectomy, a cannula for collection of adrenal effluent was placed in a single fetus in utero under halothane anesthesia. A timed fetal adrenal sample was obtained; ACTH (10 mU) was injected into the fetus; 3 min thereafter a second fetal adrenal sample was collected and fetal and maternal peripheral arterial samples were drawn. All fetuses and their adrenal glands were weighed. Concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were determined by a modification of the double-isotope dilution derivative method of Kliman and Peterson. Mean peripheral cortisol concentrations in mother and fetus were 92 and 94 ng/ml, respectively (ratio 1.0), in normal pregnancies and 11 and 54 ng/ml, respectively (ratio 0.2), in maternal hypophysectomy pregnancies. Weights of fetal adrenal gland pairs of 32 and 44 mg, respectively, in normal and hypophysectomy pregnancies indicate increased fetal ACTH secretion in response to lowered circulating cortisol in the fetus secondary to maternal hypophysectomy. These data demonstrate the presence of an active pituitary-adrenal feedback mechanism in the dog fetus which is partly influenced by maternal pituitary-adrenal function. The shift in the maternal-fetal ratio of peripheral cortisol concentrations from 1.0 to 0.2 occasioned by maternal hypophysectomy neither supports nor rules out the presence of specific placental mechanisms affecting relative concentrations of cortisol in mother and fetus. It does suggest, however, that the relative steroid input into maternal and fetal compartments is one of the factors which influences such

  13. Environmental endocrine disruption: an effects assessment and analysis.

    PubMed

    Crisp, T M; Clegg, E D; Cooper, R L; Wood, W P; Anderson, D G; Baetcke, K P; Hoffmann, J L; Morrow, M S; Rodier, D J; Schaeffer, J E; Touart, L W; Zeeman, M G; Patel, Y M

    1998-02-01

    This report is an overview of the current state of the science relative to environmental endocrine disruption in humans, laboratory testing, and wildlife species. Background information is presented on the field of endocrinology, the nature of hormones, and potential sites for endocrine disruption, with specific examples of chemicals affecting these sites. An attempt is made to present objectively the issue of endocrine disruption, consider working hypotheses, offer opposing viewpoints, analyze the available information, and provide a reasonable assessment of the problem. Emphasis is placed on disruption of central nervous system--pituitary integration of hormonal and sexual behavioral activity, female and male reproductive system development and function, and thyroid function. In addition, the potential role of environmental endocrine disruption in the induction of breast, testicular, and prostate cancers, as well as endometriosis, is evaluated. The interrelationship of the endocrine and immune system is documented. With respect to endocrine-related ecological effects, specific case examples from the peer-reviewed literature of marine invertebrates and representatives of the five classes of vertebrates are presented and discussed. The report identifies some data gaps in our understanding of the environmental endocrine disruption issue and recommends a few research needs. Finally, the report states the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Policy Council's interim position on endocrine disruption and lists some of the ongoing activities to deal with this matter.

  14. Environmental endocrine disruption: an effects assessment and analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, T M; Clegg, E D; Cooper, R L; Wood, W P; Anderson, D G; Baetcke, K P; Hoffmann, J L; Morrow, M S; Rodier, D J; Schaeffer, J E; Touart, L W; Zeeman, M G; Patel, Y M

    1998-01-01

    This report is an overview of the current state of the science relative to environmental endocrine disruption in humans, laboratory testing, and wildlife species. Background information is presented on the field of endocrinology, the nature of hormones, and potential sites for endocrine disruption, with specific examples of chemicals affecting these sites. An attempt is made to present objectively the issue of endocrine disruption, consider working hypotheses, offer opposing viewpoints, analyze the available information, and provide a reasonable assessment of the problem. Emphasis is placed on disruption of central nervous system--pituitary integration of hormonal and sexual behavioral activity, female and male reproductive system development and function, and thyroid function. In addition, the potential role of environmental endocrine disruption in the induction of breast, testicular, and prostate cancers, as well as endometriosis, is evaluated. The interrelationship of the endocrine and immune system is documented. With respect to endocrine-related ecological effects, specific case examples from the peer-reviewed literature of marine invertebrates and representatives of the five classes of vertebrates are presented and discussed. The report identifies some data gaps in our understanding of the environmental endocrine disruption issue and recommends a few research needs. Finally, the report states the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Policy Council's interim position on endocrine disruption and lists some of the ongoing activities to deal with this matter. PMID:9539004

  15. Chronic cardiac pressure overload induces adrenal medulla hypertrophy and increased catecholamine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Johanna; Lother, Achim; Hein, Lutz; Gilsbach, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    Increased activity of the sympathetic system is an important feature contributing to the pathogenesis and progression of chronic heart failure. While the mechanisms and consequences of enhanced norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves have been intensely studied, the role of the adrenal gland in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and progression of heart failure is less well known. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of chronic cardiac pressure overload in mice on adrenal medulla structure and function. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in wild-type mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 8 weeks. After TAC, the degree of cardiac hypertrophy correlated significantly with adrenal weight and adrenal catecholamine storage. In the medulla, TAC caused an increase in chromaffin cell size but did not result in chromaffin cell proliferation. Ablation of chromaffin α(2C)-adrenoceptors did not affect adrenal weight or epinephrine synthesis. However, unilateral denervation of the adrenal gland completely prevented adrenal hypertrophy and increased catecholamine synthesis. Transcriptome analysis of microdissected adrenal medulla identified 483 up- and 231 downregulated, well-annotated genes after TAC. Among these genes, G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 (Grk2) and 6 and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pnmt) were significantly upregulated by TAC. In vitro, acetylcholine-induced Pnmt and Grk2 expression as well as enhanced epinephrine content was prevented by inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent signaling. Thus, activation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves innervating the adrenal medulla plays an essential role in inducing adrenal hypertrophy, enhanced catecholamine synthesis and induction of Grk2 expression after cardiac pressure overload.

  16. Delayed behavioral and endocrine effects of sarin and stress exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Mach, Mojmir; Grubbs, Robert D; Price, William A; Nagaoka, Maya; Dubovický, Michal; Lucot, James B

    2008-03-01

    The organophosphorus agent sarin is a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. Experiments tested the influence of exposure to low doses of sarin along with psychological stress on delayed behavioral and endocrine changes in mice. Motor activity, acoustic startle response (ASR), pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of ASR, activity of cholinesterase in blood and catecholamine levels in adrenals were evaluated after low dose sarin exposure (3 x 0.4 LD50 subcutaneously) combined with chronic intermittent stress in C57BL/6J mice. While sarin alone produced depression of motor activity, no interaction of the stress with sarin exposure was observed. Cholinesterase activity was significantly reduced 24 h after exposure to sarin; however, the basal activity was re-established 3 weeks later. The combination of low dose sarin exposure and stress produced delayed behavioral change manifested as excessive grooming together with endocrine alterations in adrenals 7 weeks after exposure. The size of the adrenals in the combined exposure group was increased and the concentration of catecholamines was significantly decreased. In conclusion, these findings indicate that sarin in low doses is more dangerous when combined with shaker stress inducing delayed behavioral and endocrine changes.

  17. A concise genetic and clinical guide to multiple endocrine neoplasias and related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Stratakis, C A; Ball, D W

    2000-05-01

    Several familial neoplastic syndromes are associated with endocrine gland oncogenesis. The main ones are: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1), which affects primarily the pituitary, pancreas, and parathyroid glands; MEN 2A and MEN 2B, which involve mainly the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the adrenal medulla; familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC), which affects only the thyroid gland; and, finally, Carney complex, which affects the adrenal cortex, pituitary, thyroid gland, and the gonads. Carney complex is also associated with pigmentation abnormalities and myxoid and other neoplasms of mesenchymal origin. Thus, this syndrome also belongs to another group of genetic disorders, those associated with pigmentation defects and multiple tumors, including tumors of the endocrine glands. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and Cowden disease are just two of these disorders that have recently been elucidated at the molecular level. von Hippel-Lindau disease is another condition that affects the pancreas and adrenal medulla and its gene is also known. The inheritance of the MENs, Carney complex, and related syndromes is autosomal dominant. Clinical recognition of these syndromes at a young age improves clinical outcome and prognosis of the various tumors and decreases associated morbidity and mortality. This review considers a wider, more inclusive view of the MEN syndromes, summarizes their clinical features and presents the newest information on their molecular elucidation.

  18. Rare adrenal tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Mihai, Radu

    2014-04-01

    Apart from neuroblastomas, adrenal tumors are exceedingly rare in children and young adults. In this age group, the vast majority of patients present with clinical signs associated with excess hormone production. The most common tumor to arise from the adrenal cortex is an adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Similar to the situation in adults, this tumor is frequently diagnosed at a late stage and carries a very poor prognosis. ACCs require extensive/aggressive local resection followed by mitotane chemotherapy. A multidisciplinary approach is essential, and these children should be referred to units that have previous experience in managing ACCs. International registries are an invaluable source for evidence-based care, and such collaborations should be further developed in the future. Pheochromocytomas are derived from the adrenal medulla and present with symptoms caused by high secretion of catecholamines. At least one-third of these children will be found to carry genetic mutations, most commonly the RET gene (MEN2 syndrome) or the VHL gene. Open radical adrenalectomy should be offered to children with adrenocortical cancers. For all other cases, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice. It is possible that the retroperitoneoscopic approach will gain increasing favor. The role of robotic adrenalectomy remains controversial.

  19. Primitive neuroectodermal adrenal gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y P; Lang, Brian H H; Tam, S C; Wong, K P

    2014-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, also called primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland, is extremely rare. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report on a woman with adult-onset primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland presenting with progressive flank pain. Computed tomography confirmed an adrenal tumour with invasion of the left diaphragm and kidney. Radical surgery was performed and the pain completely resolved; histology confirmed the presence of primitive neuroectodermal tumour, for which she was given chemotherapy. The clinical presentation of this condition is non-specific, and a definitive diagnosis is based on a combination of histology, as well as immunohistochemical and cytogenic analysis. According to the literature, these tumours demonstrate rapid growth and aggressive behaviour but there are no well-established guidelines or treatment strategies. Nevertheless, surgery remains the mainstay of local disease control; curative surgery can be performed in most patients. Adjuvant chemoirradiation has been advocated yet no consensus is available. The prognosis of patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumours remains poor.

  20. Laparoscopic Resection of an Adrenal Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinos, Toutouzas G.; Panagiotis, Kekis B.; Nikolaos, Michalopoulos V.; Ioannis, Flessas; Andreas, Manouras; Geogrios, Zografos

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Schwannomas are tumors originating from Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve sheath (neurilemma) of the neuroectoderm. Rarely, schwannomas can arise from the retroperitoneum and adrenal medulla. We describe a case of a 71-y-old woman who presented with an incidentally discovered adrenal tumor. Methods: Ultrasound and computed tomogr