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Sample records for adrenal steroid hormone

  1. Gonadal steroid hormones and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Handa, Robert J; Weiser, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents a complex neuroendocrine feedback loop controlling the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Central to its function is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) where neurons expressing corticotropin releasing factor reside. These HPA motor neurons are a primary site of integration leading to graded endocrine responses to physical and psychological stressors. An important regulatory factor that must be considered, prior to generating an appropriate response is the animal's reproductive status. Thus, PVN neurons express androgen and estrogen receptors and receive input from sites that also express these receptors. Consequently, changes in reproduction and gonadal steroid levels modulate the stress response and this underlies sex differences in HPA axis function. This review examines the make up of the HPA axis and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the interactions between the two that should be considered when exploring normal and pathological responses to environmental stressors. PMID:24246855

  2. The effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on adrenal steroid hormone secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers have been demonstrated in the rat adrenal cortex in close association with zona glomerulosa cells. We have studied the effects of VIP on steroid hormone secretion from the outer zones of the normal rat adrenal cortex. Intact capsule-glomerulosa preparations, consisting of the capsule, zona glomerulosa, and a small portion of the zona fasciculata were perifused in vitro. The secretory responsiveness was assessed by measuring aldosterone and corticosterone release following stimulation with the physiological secretagogues ACTH and angiotensin II. The distribution of adrenal VIP receptors was assessed by in vitro autoradiography of {sup 125}I-VIP binding. {sup 125}I-VIP (0.75 and 2.0 nM) binding was concentrated in the capsule and zone glomerulosa, coincident with the distribution of VIP nerve fibers which aborize extensively in this region. The specificity of this binding was demonstrated using unlabelled VIP, ACTH and angiotensin II.

  3. Gonadal steroid hormone receptors and sex differences in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Handa, R J; Burgess, L H; Kerr, J E; O'Keefe, J A

    1994-12-01

    The rapid activation of stress-responsive neuroendocrine systems is a basic reaction of animals to perturbations in their environment. One well-established response is that of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In rats, corticosterone is the major adrenal steroid secreted and is released in direct response to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secreted from the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH in turn is regulated by the hypothalamic factor, corticotropin-releasing hormone. A sex difference exists in the response of the HPA axis to stress, with females reacting more robustly than males. It has been demonstrated that in both sexes, products of the HPA axis inhibit reproductive function. Conversely, the sex differences in HPA function are in part due to differences in the circulating gonadal steroid hormone milieu. It appears that testosterone can act to inhibit HPA function, whereas estrogen can enhance HPA function. One mechanism by which androgens and estrogens modulate stress responses is through the binding to their cognate receptors in the central nervous system. The distribution and regulation of androgen and estrogen receptors within the CNS suggest possible sites and mechanisms by which gonadal steroid hormones can influence stress responses. In the case of androgens, data suggest that the control of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is mediated trans-synaptically. For estrogen, modulation of the HPA axis may be due to changes in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated negative feedback mechanisms. The results of a variety of studies suggest that gonadal steroid hormones, particularly testosterone, modulate HPA activity in an attempt to prevent the deleterious effects of HPA activation on reproductive function. PMID:7729815

  4. The influence of trilostane on steroid hormone metabolism in canine adrenal glands and corpora lutea-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ouschan, C; Lepschy, M; Zeugswetter, F; Möstl, E

    2012-03-01

    Trilostane is widely used to treat hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. Trilostane competitively inhibits the enzyme 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), which converts pregnenolone (P5) to progesterone (P4) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstendione (A4). Although trilostane is frequently used in dogs, the molecular mechanism underlying its effect on canine steroid hormone biosynthesis is still an enigma. Multiple enzymes of 3β-HSD have been found in humans, rats and mice and their presence might explain the contradictory results of studies on the effectiveness of trilostane. We therefore investigated the influence of trilostane on steroid hormone metabolism in dogs by means of an in vitro model. Canine adrenal glands from freshly euthanized dogs and corpora lutea (CL) were incubated with increasing doses of trilostane. Tritiated P5 or DHEA were used as substrates. The resulting radioactive metabolites were extracted, separated by thin layer chromatography and visualized by autoradiography. A wide variety of radioactive metabolites were formed in the adrenal glands and in the CL, indicating high metabolic activity in both tissues. In the adrenal cortex, trilostane influences the P5 metabolism in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while DHEA metabolism and metabolism of both hormones in the CL were unaffected. The results indicate for the first time that there might be more than one enzyme of 3β-HSD present in dogs and that trilostane selectively inhibits P5 conversion to P4 only in the adrenal gland. PMID:22113849

  5. Pilot study of adrenal steroid hormones in hair as an indicator of chronic mental and physical stress

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, E.; Barthel, A; Petrowski, K.; Stalder, T.; Kirschbaum, C.; Bornstein, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the quantitative analysis of moderators affecting the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis in health and sickness is still unreliable. This is, in particular, due to physiological factors such as pulsatile ultradian and circadian glucocorticoid secretion as well as to methodological limitations of the current techniques for steroid hormone determination. Based on this background, the determination of long-term hair steroid concentrations is an important methodological improvement allowing for the quantitative analysis of chronic HPA axis-activation. In order to determine the relationship between chronic mental and physical stress and a chronic activation of the HPA axis, we performed a cross-sectional pilot-study with 40 healthy students and examined the relationships between physical activity, mental burden(s), subjective stress perceptions, depressiveness, anxiety, physical complaints, sense of coherence, resilience, and the long-term integrated steroid hormone levels in hair. The results showed that the concentrations of cortisol, cortisone, and dehydroepiandrosterone in hair were significantly correlated to mental (p = 0.034) and physical stress (p = 0.001) as well as to subjective stress perception (p = 0.006). We conclude that steroid concentrations in hair are decisive predictors for an increase in the long-term-HPA axis activity. Moreover, this biomarker is suitable for capturing the stresslevel after burdening events and physical activity. PMID:27174654

  6. Pilot study of adrenal steroid hormones in hair as an indicator of chronic mental and physical stress.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Petrowski, K; Stalder, T; Kirschbaum, C; Bornstein, S R

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the quantitative analysis of moderators affecting the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis in health and sickness is still unreliable. This is, in particular, due to physiological factors such as pulsatile ultradian and circadian glucocorticoid secretion as well as to methodological limitations of the current techniques for steroid hormone determination. Based on this background, the determination of long-term hair steroid concentrations is an important methodological improvement allowing for the quantitative analysis of chronic HPA axis-activation. In order to determine the relationship between chronic mental and physical stress and a chronic activation of the HPA axis, we performed a cross-sectional pilot-study with 40 healthy students and examined the relationships between physical activity, mental burden(s), subjective stress perceptions, depressiveness, anxiety, physical complaints, sense of coherence, resilience, and the long-term integrated steroid hormone levels in hair. The results showed that the concentrations of cortisol, cortisone, and dehydroepiandrosterone in hair were significantly correlated to mental (p = 0.034) and physical stress (p = 0.001) as well as to subjective stress perception (p = 0.006). We conclude that steroid concentrations in hair are decisive predictors for an increase in the long-term-HPA axis activity. Moreover, this biomarker is suitable for capturing the stresslevel after burdening events and physical activity. PMID:27174654

  7. Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with /sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Inano, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ishii-Ohba, H.; Imada, Y.; Kumagai, R.; Kurihara, S.; Sato, A.

    1989-02-01

    Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth.

  8. Seasonal changes in sex and adrenal steroid hormones of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Ott, J A; Mendonça, M T; Guyer, C; Michener, W K

    2000-02-01

    We sampled a population of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) from May to October 1997 to determine seasonal cycles of steroid hormones (testosterone, T; 17beta-estradiol, E; and progesterone, P) and related them to observations of mating behavior. In males, plasma T levels peaked in July and August and remained elevated through October. This coincides with the reported time of peak mating and spermatogenesis, indicating that males display an associated pattern of reproduction. In females, E levels were high in September and October. Plasma T levels in females were elevated in May, decreased to basal levels in June and July, and rose again in August and September. Elevated E and T levels correspond to the reported time of peak vitellogenic activity, indicating that females also display an associated cycle. Plasma P in females remained basal throughout the active season, suggesting that ovulation occurs in late winter. We also determined levels of corticosterone (B) to assess the influence of capture stress on tortoises and correlated B levels with tortoise activity patterns and sex steroid levels. We found no seasonal variation in levels of B in males or females. Plasma B levels were not correlated with levels of T or E, but were positively correlated with female P levels. Further, we found no relationship between plasma B levels in males and mean distance moved, mean number of burrows used, or mean home range size. However, there was a significant negative correlation between plasma B levels and male body size. In females, there was no relationship between B levels and mean distance moved, but B levels were significantly negatively correlated with the number of burrows females occupied. Lastly, there was no relationship between levels of B and the number of minutes required to obtain blood from an animal. However, B levels increased with the length of time that a tortoise spent in a trap, suggesting that trapped tortoises do exhibit capture stress. PMID

  9. The Effect of Simvastatin on Plasma Steroid Hormone Levels in Metformin-Treated Women with Non-Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, R; Kowalcze, K; Bednarska-Czerwińska, A; Okopień, B

    2016-04-01

    Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH), one of the most common genetic disorders, is often associated with the presence of hyperandrogenism. Recently both simvastatin and metformin were found to reduce plasma steroid hormone levels in this disorder. This study included 8 women with NC-CAH and diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, as well as 12 matched women with similar glucose metabolism abnormalities but normal adrenal function. Both groups of women, receiving metformin for at least 6 months, were then treated with simvastatin (20 mg daily) for the following 12 weeks. Compared to patients with normal adrenal function, metformin-treated women with NC-CAH showed increased plasma levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione and DHEA-S. Simvastatin reduced total and LDL cholesterol levels in both patients with NC-CAH and normal adrenal function. Moreover, in the former group of women, statin therapy decreased plasma levels of testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and tended to reduce 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Our results suggest that metformin-statin combination therapy may be useful in the management of symptomatic women with NC-CAH. PMID:26824284

  10. Adrenal Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is adrenal insufficiency? Did you know? The adrenal glands, located on top of the kidneys, make hormones ... body functions. The outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal glands makes three types of steroid hormones. In adrenal ...

  11. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Alfonse T.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Jorgenson, Laura C.; Smith, Jennifer M.; Aldag, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI) systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interrelations of NEI biomarkers are analyzed before symptomatic onset of RA (pre-RA) versus control (CN) subjects, stratified by sex. Sexual dimorphism was found in serum levels of acute serum amyloid A (ASAA), soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Multiple steroidal and hormonal (neuroendocrine) factors also showed highly (p < 0.001) significant sexual dimorphism in their assayed values, but less for cortisol (p = 0.012), and not for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p = 0.176). After stratification by sex and risk of developing RA, differential NEI correlational patterns were observed in the interplay of the NEI systems between the pre-RA and CN groups, which deserve further investigation. PMID:26693225

  12. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. PMID:25776460

  13. Ample Evidence: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Conversion into Activated Steroid Hormones Occurs in Adrenal and Ovary in Female Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yingqiao; Kang, Jian; Chen, Di; Han, Ningning; Ma, Haitian

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is important for human health, especially for women. All estrogens and practically half of androgens are synthesized from DHEA in peripheral tissues. However, the mechanism and exact target tissues of DHEA biotransformation in the female are not fully clear. The present study showed that maximal content of androstenedione (AD) and testosterone (T) were observed at 3h after DHEA administration in female rats, which was 264% and 8000% above the control, respectively. Estradiol (E2) content significantly increased at 6h after DHEA administration, which was 113% higher than that in control group. Gavage with DHEA could significantly reduce 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) mRNA level at 3-12h and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) mRNA level at 12h in ovary, while increasing aromatase mRNA levels at 6, 24, and 48h. It is interesting that administration of DHEA caused a significant increase of 17β-HSD, 3β-HSD and aromatase mRNA levels in adrenal. The AD and T contents also markedly increased by 537% and 2737% after DHEA administration in ovariectomised rats, in company with a significant increase in 17β-HSD and 3β-HSD mRNA levels and decreased aromatase mRNA level in adrenal. However, DHEA administration did not restore the decreased E2, estrone (E1), and progesterone (P) caused by the removal of the ovaries in females. These results clearly illustrated that exogenous DHEA is preferentially converted into androgens in adrenal, while its conversion to estrogens mainly happens in the ovary through steroidogenic enzyme in female rats. PMID:25962158

  14. Steroid 21 hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nimkarn, Saroj; Lin-Su, Karen; New, Maria I

    2011-10-01

    Steroid 21 hydroxylase deficiency is the most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The severity of this disorder depends on the extent of impaired enzymatic activity, which is caused by various mutations of the 21 hydroxylase gene. This article reviews adrenal steroidogenesis and the pathophysiology of 21 hydroxylase deficiency. The three forms of CAH are then discussed in terms of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment, and genetic basis. Prenatal diagnosis and treatment are also reviewed. The goal of therapy is to correct the deficiency in cortisol secretion and suppress androgen overproduction. Glucocorticoid replacement has been the mainstay of treatment for CAH, but new treatment strategies continue to be developed and studied. PMID:21981961

  15. Advances in bioanalytical techniques to measure steroid hormones in serum.

    PubMed

    French, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Steroid hormones are measured clinically to determine if a patient has a pathological process occurring in the adrenal gland, or other hormone responsive organs. They are very similar in structure making them analytically challenging to measure. Additionally, these hormones have vast concentration differences in human serum adding to the measurement complexity. GC-MS was the gold standard methodology used to measure steroid hormones clinically, followed by radioimmunoassay, but that was replaced by immunoassay due to ease of use. LC-MS/MS has now become a popular alternative owing to simplified sample preparation than for GC-MS and increased specificity and sensitivity over immunoassay. This review will discuss these methodologies and some new developments that could simplify and improve steroid hormone analysis in serum. PMID:27217264

  16. Adrenal steroid, cortisol, adrenocorticotropin, and beta-endorphin responses to human corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test in normal children and children with premature pubarche.

    PubMed

    Ghizzoni, L; Virdis, R; Ziveri, M; Lamborghini, A; Alberini, A; Volta, C; Bernasconi, S

    1989-10-01

    To determine whether CRH affects adrenal androgen, beta-endorphin (B-E), and ACTH secretion in normal children during sexual maturation, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), androstenedione (D4-A), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DS), cortisol, B-E, and ACTH were measured after an iv injection of 1 microgram/kg human CRH. Children with premature pubarche were similarly analyzed to establish whether this condition is accompanied by altered hormonal responses to CRH. CRH produced consistent increases in ACTH, B-EP, and cortisol blood levels, which were comparable at all age intervals in all groups. 17-OHP increased after CRH injection, but its response linearly with age. D4-A levels were not influenced, while DHEA and DS levels were only partially influenced by CRH. The stimulated D4-A to 17-OHP ratio increased with sexual maturation, whereas ratios of cortisol to 17-OHP and D4-A to DHEA remained constant. Children with premature pubarche had hormonal responses similar in magnitude to those of prepubertal children of comparable age. In conclusion, an increase in 17,20-desmolase efficiency occurs with postnatal maturation after CRH challenge. Moreover, CRH does not appear to play an important role in premature pubarche. PMID:2550509

  17. Ectopic and abnormal hormone receptors in adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, A; Ndiaye, N; Tremblay, J; Hamet, P

    2001-02-01

    The mechanism by which cortisol is produced in adrenal Cushing's syndrome, when ACTH is suppressed, was previously unknown and was referred to as being "autonomous." More recently, several investigators have shown that some cortisol and other steroid-producing adrenal tumors or hyperplasias are under the control of ectopic (or aberrant, illicit, inappropriate) membrane hormone receptors. These include ectopic receptors for gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), beta-adrenergic agonists, or LH/hCG; a similar outcome can result from altered activity of eutopic receptors, such as those for vasopressin (V1-AVPR), serotonin (5-HT4), or possibly leptin. The presence of aberrant receptors places adrenal cells under stimulation by a trophic factor not negatively regulated by glucocorticoids, leading to increased steroidogenesis and possibly to the proliferative phenotype. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the abnormal expression and function of membrane hormone receptors are still largely unknown. Identification of the presence of these illicit receptors can eventually lead to new pharmacological therapies as alternatives to adrenalectomy, now demonstrated by the long-term control of ectopic P-AR- and LH/hCGR-dependent Cushing's syndrome by propanolol and leuprolide acetate. Further studies will potentially identify a larger diversity of hormone receptors capable of coupling to G proteins, adenylyl cyclase, and steroidogenesis in functional adrenal tumors and probably in other endocrine and nonendocrine tumors. PMID:11159817

  18. Differential Regulation of Human 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 for Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis by Starvation and Cyclic Amp Stimulation: Studies in the Human Adrenal NCI-H295R Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Gaby; Mullis, Primus E.; Flück, Christa E.

    2013-01-01

    Human steroid biosynthesis depends on a specifically regulated cascade of enzymes including 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD3Bs). Type 2 HSD3B catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone to progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione in the human adrenal cortex and the gonads but the exact regulation of this enzyme is unknown. Therefore, specific downregulation of HSD3B2 at adrenarche around age 6–8 years and characteristic upregulation of HSD3B2 in the ovaries of women suffering from the polycystic ovary syndrome remain unexplained prompting us to study the regulation of HSD3B2 in adrenal NCI-H295R cells. Our studies confirm that the HSD3B2 promoter is regulated by transcription factors GATA, Nur77 and SF1/LRH1 in concert and that the NBRE/Nur77 site is crucial for hormonal stimulation with cAMP. In fact, these three transcription factors together were able to transactivate the HSD3B2 promoter in placental JEG3 cells which normally do not express HSD3B2. By contrast, epigenetic mechanisms such as methylation and acetylation seem not involved in controlling HSD3B2 expression. Cyclic AMP was found to exert differential effects on HSD3B2 when comparing short (acute) versus long-term (chronic) stimulation. Short cAMP stimulation inhibited HSD3B2 activity directly possibly due to regulation at co-factor or substrate level or posttranslational modification of the protein. Long cAMP stimulation attenuated HSD3B2 inhibition and increased HSD3B2 expression through transcriptional regulation. Although PKA and MAPK pathways are obvious candidates for possibly transmitting the cAMP signal to HSD3B2, our studies using PKA and MEK1/2 inhibitors revealed no such downstream signaling of cAMP. However, both signaling pathways were clearly regulating HSD3B2 expression. PMID:23874725

  19. Rapid steroid hormone actions via membrane receptors.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Nofrat; Verma, Anjali; Bivens, Caroline B; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2016-09-01

    Steroid hormones regulate a wide variety of physiological and developmental functions. Traditional steroid hormone signaling acts through nuclear and cytosolic receptors, altering gene transcription and subsequently regulating cellular activity. This is particularly important in hormonally-responsive cancers, where therapies that target classical steroid hormone receptors have become clinical staples in the treatment and management of disease. Much progress has been made in the last decade in detecting novel receptors and elucidating their mechanisms, particularly their rapid signaling effects and subsequent impact on tumorigenesis. Many of these receptors are membrane-bound and lack DNA-binding sites, functionally separating them from their classical cytosolic receptor counterparts. Membrane-bound receptors have been implicated in a number of pathways that disrupt the cell cycle and impact tumorigenesis. Among these are pathways that involve phospholipase D, phospholipase C, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase. The crosstalk between these pathways has been shown to affect apoptosis and proliferation in cardiac cells, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes as well as cancer cells. This review focuses on rapid signaling by 17β-estradiol and 1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 to examine the integrated actions of classical and rapid steroid signaling pathways both in contrast to each other and in concert with other rapid signaling pathways. This new approach lends insight into rapid signaling by steroid hormones and its potential for use in targeted drug therapies that maximize the benefits of traditional steroid hormone-directed therapies while mitigating their less desirable effects. PMID:27288742

  20. Regioselective hydroxylation of steroid hormones by human cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Toshiro; Murayama, Norie; Imagawa, Yurie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews in vitro metabolic activities [including Michaelis constants (Km), maximal velocities (Vmax) and Vmax/Km] and drug-steroid interactions [such as induction and cooperativity (activation)] of cytochromes P450 (P450 or CYP) in human tissues, including liver and adrenal gland, for 14 kinds of endogenous steroid compounds, including allopregnanolone, cholesterol, cortisol, cortisone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol, estrone, pregnenolone, progesterone, testosterone and bile acids (cholic acid). First, we considered the drug-metabolizing P450s. 6β-Hydroxylation of many steroids, including cortisol, cortisone, progesterone and testosterone, was catalyzed primarily by CYP3A4. CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, respectively, are likely the major hepatic enzymes responsible for 2-/4-hydroxylation and 16α-hydroxylation of estradiol and estrone, steroids that can contribute to breast cancer risk. In contrast, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 predominantly metabolized estrone and estradiol to 2- and 4-catechol estrogens, which are endogenous ultimate carcinogens if formed in the breast. Some metabolic activities of CYP3A4, including dehydroepiandrosterone 7β-/16α-hydroxylation, estrone 2-hydroxylation and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, were higher than those for polymorphically expressed CYP3A5. Next, we considered typical steroidogenic P450s. CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP27A1 catalyzed steroid synthesis, including hydroxylation at 17α, 19 and 27 positions, respectively. However, it was difficult to predict which hepatic drug-metabolizing P450 or steroidogenic P450 will be mainly responsible for metabolizing each steroid hormone in vivo based on these results. Further research is required on the metabolism of steroid hormones by various P450s and on prediction of their relative contributions to in vivo metabolism. The findings collected here provide fundamental and useful information on the metabolism of steroid compounds. PMID:25678418

  1. Steroid hormones, steroid receptors, and breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Finlay-Schultz, Jessica; Sartorius, Carol A

    2015-06-01

    The ovarian hormones progesterone and estrogen play important roles in breast cancer etiology, proliferation, and treatment. Androgens may also contribute to breast cancer risk and progression. In recent years, significant advances have been made in defining the roles of these steroid hormones in stem cell homeostasis in the breast. Stem cells are potential origins of breast cancer and may dictate tumor phenotype. At least a portion of breast cancers are proposed to be driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs), cells that mimic the self-renewing and repopulating properties of normal stem cells, and can confer drug resistance. Progesterone has been identified as the critical hormone regulating normal murine mammary stem cell (MaSC) populations and normal human breast stem cells. Synthetic progestins increase human breast cancer risk; one theory speculates that this occurs through increased stem cells. Progesterone treatment also increases breast CSCs in established breast cancer cell lines. This is mediated in part through progesterone regulation of transcription factors, signal transduction pathways, and microRNAs. There is also emerging evidence that estrogens and androgens can regulate breast CSC numbers. The evolving concept that a breast CSC phenotype is dynamic and can be influenced by cell signaling and external cues emphasizes that steroid hormones could be crucial players in controlling CSC number and function. Here we review recent studies on steroid hormone regulation of breast CSCs, and discuss mechanisms by which this occurs. PMID:26265122

  2. Successful treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, characterized by bilateral macronodular adrenal hypertrophy and autonomous cortisol production, is a rare cause of Cushing’s syndrome. Bilateral adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia but obliges the patient to receive lifetime steroid replacement therapy subsequently, and may increase the patient’s risk of adrenal insufficiency. These circumstances require surgeons to carefully consider operative strategies on an individual basis. Case presentation We performed successful laparoscopic adrenalectomy on four patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Computed tomography scans showed bilateral adrenal enlargement in all patients. Case 1: a 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with obvious Cushing’s symptoms during treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Case 2: a 37-year-old Japanese man also presented with Cushing’s symptoms during treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. These patients were diagnosed as Cushing’s syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia based on endocrinologic testing, and underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Case 3: an 80-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized due to unusual weight gain and heightened general fatigue, and was diagnosed as Cushing’s syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. She underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy due to high operative risk. Case 4: a 66-year-old Japanese man was discovered to have bilateral adrenal tumors on medical examination. He did not have Cushing’s symptoms and was diagnosed as subclinical Cushing’s syndrome due to suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone serum levels and loss of cortisol circadian rhythm without abnormal levels of

  3. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  4. Mimicking postmenopausal steroid metabolism in breast cancer cell culture: Differences in response to DHEA or other steroids as hormone sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Following menopause virtually 100% of estrogens are synthesized in peripheral target tissues from precursor steroids of adrenal origin. These steroids are the unique source of sex steroids in these women. This positions some steroid metabolizing enzymes as primary targets for novel therapies for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. However, previous research on the steroid-converting enzymes has been performed using their direct substrate as a hormone source, depending on the facility where studied and the robust signal obtained. These experiments may not always provide an accurate reflection of physiological and post-menopausal conditions. We suggest providing dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) as an intracrinological hormone source, and comparing the role of steroid-converting enzymes using DHEA and their direct substrates when an extensive mechanistic understanding is required. Here, we present a comparative study of these enzymes with the provision of DHEA and the direct substrates, estrone (E1) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or additional steroids as hormone sources, in breast cancer cells. Enzyme knockdown by respective specific siRNAs and observations on the resulting differences in biological function were carried out. Cell biology studies showed no difference in biological function for 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD7 when cultured with different steroid hormones: cell proliferation and estradiol levels decreased, whereas DHT accumulated; cyclinD1, PCNA, and pS2 were down-regulated after knocking down these two enzymes, although the quantitative results varied. However, culture medium supplementation was found to have a marked impact on the study of 3α-HSD3. We demonstrated that provision of different steroids as a substrate or hormone sources may promote modified biological effects: provision of DHEA is the preferred choice to mimic postmenopausal steroid metabolism in cell culture. PMID:26200948

  5. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    PubMed Central

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a drop of about 50% was observed for the sulphated portion. It is suggested that lead interferes with the mechanisms of sulphoconjugation through an effect on the cytosol enzymes sulphotransferase and sulphokinase. PMID:2930732

  6. Steroid disorders in children: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and apparent mineralocorticoid excess

    PubMed Central

    New, Maria I.; Wilson, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    Our research team and laboratories have concentrated on two inherited endocrine disorders, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and apparent mineralocorticoid excess, in thier investigations of the pathophysiology of adrenal steroid hormone disorders in children. CAH refers to a family of inherited disorders in which defects occur in one of the enzymatic steps required to synthesize cortisol from cholesterol in the adrenal gland. Because of the impaired cortisol secretion, adrenocorticotropic hormone levels rise due to impairment of a negative feedback system, which results in hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex. The majority of cases is due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). Owing to the blocked enzymatic step, cortisol precursors accumulate in excess and are converted to potent androgens, which are secreted and cause in utero virilization of the affected female fetus genitalia in the classical form of CAH. A mild form of the 21-OHD, termed nonclassical 21-OHD, is the most common autosomal recessive disorder in humans, and occurs in 1/27 Ashkenazic Jews. Mutations in the CYP21 gene have been identified that cause both classical and nonclassical CAH. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess is a potentially fatal genetic disorder causing severe juvenile hypertension, pre- and postnatal growth failure, and low to undetectable levels of potassium, renin, and aldosterone. It is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the HSD11B2 gene, which result in a deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. In 1998, we reported a mild form of this disease, which may represent an important cause of low-renin hypertension. PMID:10536001

  7. GABA Signaling and Neuroactive Steroids in Adrenal Medullary Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Inoue, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced not only in the brain, but also in endocrine cells by the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67. In rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells only GAD67 is expressed, and GABA is stored in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), but not synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The α3β2/3γ2 complex represents the majority of GABAA receptors expressed in rat and guinea pig chromaffin cells, whereas PC12 cells, an immortalized rat chromaffin cell line, express the α1 subunit as well as the α3. The expression of α3, but not α1, in PC12 cells is enhanced by glucocorticoid activity, which may be mediated by both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GABA has two actions mediated by GABAA receptors in chromaffin cells: it induces catecholamine secretion by itself and produces an inhibition of synaptically evoked secretion by a shunt effect. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid which is secreted from the adrenal cortex, produces a marked facilitation of GABAA receptor channel activity. Since there are no GABAergic nerve fibers in the adrenal medulla, GABA may function as a para/autocrine factor in the chromaffin cells. This function of GABA may be facilitated by expression of the immature isoforms of GAD and GABAA receptors and the lack of expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters (GATs). In this review, we will consider how the para/autocrine function of GABA is achieved, focusing on the structural and molecular mechanisms for GABA signaling. PMID:27147972

  8. GABA Signaling and Neuroactive Steroids in Adrenal Medullary Chromaffin Cells.

    PubMed

    Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Inoue, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced not only in the brain, but also in endocrine cells by the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67. In rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells only GAD67 is expressed, and GABA is stored in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), but not synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The α3β2/3γ2 complex represents the majority of GABAA receptors expressed in rat and guinea pig chromaffin cells, whereas PC12 cells, an immortalized rat chromaffin cell line, express the α1 subunit as well as the α3. The expression of α3, but not α1, in PC12 cells is enhanced by glucocorticoid activity, which may be mediated by both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GABA has two actions mediated by GABAA receptors in chromaffin cells: it induces catecholamine secretion by itself and produces an inhibition of synaptically evoked secretion by a shunt effect. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid which is secreted from the adrenal cortex, produces a marked facilitation of GABAA receptor channel activity. Since there are no GABAergic nerve fibers in the adrenal medulla, GABA may function as a para/autocrine factor in the chromaffin cells. This function of GABA may be facilitated by expression of the immature isoforms of GAD and GABAA receptors and the lack of expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters (GATs). In this review, we will consider how the para/autocrine function of GABA is achieved, focusing on the structural and molecular mechanisms for GABA signaling. PMID:27147972

  9. Effects of chronic treatment with several halogenated bephenyl isomers on thyroid and adrenal hormone secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the consequences of chronic ingestion of several halogenated biphenyl mixtures with variable chlorine content and isomeric composition on rat thyroid and adrenal physiological parameters. Chronic ingestion of the PCB Aroclor 1016, 1242 and 1254 and the PBB hexabromobiphenyl and octabromobiphenyl induced reductions of circulating thyroid hormones. The PCB or PBB containing the highest halogenation and the highest concentration of highly halogenated isomers within the mixture proved to be most toxic. However, the chlorinated compounds were more toxic than the borminated compounds. A series of experiments were designed to address the question of whether the responsiveness of the thyroid gland to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was altered following chronic exposure to Aroclor 1254 or hexabromobiphenyl. The effects of chronically ingested halogenated biphenyls, PCB, 1016, 1242 and 1254 and PBB hexabromobiphenyl and octabromobiphenyl on serum 17-keto steroids of adrenal origin were assessed.

  10. Urine Steroid Metabolomics as a Biomarker Tool for Detecting Malignancy in Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Biehl, Michael; Taylor, Angela E.; Hahner, Stefanie; Libé, Rossella; Hughes, Beverly A.; Schneider, Petra; Smith, David J.; Stiekema, Han; Krone, Nils; Porfiri, Emilio; Opocher, Giuseppe; Bertherat, Jerôme; Mantero, Franco; Allolio, Bruno; Terzolo, Massimo; Nightingale, Peter; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.; Bertagna, Xavier; Fassnacht, Martin; Stewart, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adrenal tumors have a prevalence of around 2% in the general population. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rare but accounts for 2–11% of incidentally discovered adrenal masses. Differentiating ACC from adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) represents a diagnostic challenge in patients with adrenal incidentalomas, with tumor size, imaging, and even histology all providing unsatisfactory predictive values. Objective: Here we developed a novel steroid metabolomic approach, mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling followed by machine learning analysis, and examined its diagnostic value for the detection of adrenal malignancy. Design: Quantification of 32 distinct adrenal derived steroids was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 24-h urine samples from 102 ACA patients (age range 19–84 yr) and 45 ACC patients (20–80 yr). Underlying diagnosis was ascertained by histology and metastasis in ACC and by clinical follow-up [median duration 52 (range 26–201) months] without evidence of metastasis in ACA. Steroid excretion data were subjected to generalized matrix learning vector quantization (GMLVQ) to identify the most discriminative steroids. Results: Steroid profiling revealed a pattern of predominantly immature, early-stage steroidogenesis in ACC. GMLVQ analysis identified a subset of nine steroids that performed best in differentiating ACA from ACC. Receiver-operating characteristics analysis of GMLVQ results demonstrated sensitivity = specificity = 90% (area under the curve = 0.97) employing all 32 steroids and sensitivity = specificity = 88% (area under the curve = 0.96) when using only the nine most differentiating markers. Conclusions: Urine steroid metabolomics is a novel, highly sensitive, and specific biomarker tool for discriminating benign from malignant adrenal tumors, with obvious promise for the diagnostic work-up of patients with adrenal incidentalomas. PMID:21917861

  11. Adrenal Function Testing Following Hormone Therapy for Infantile Spasms: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mytinger, John R.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.

    2015-01-01

    Prednisolone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are “hormone” therapies for infantile spasms. There is limited data on the occurrence of decreased adrenal reserve or signs of clinical adrenal insufficiency after hormone therapy. This is a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to our Infantile Spasms Program. Our standardized infantile spasms management guideline began in September 2012 and initially included a post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function. Medical records were assessed for hormone treatments, adrenal function testing, and signs of adrenal insufficiency. Forty-two patients who received one or both hormone therapies met inclusion criteria. A post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function was done in 14 patients. Of these 14 patients, 2 had an abnormal laboratory assessment of adrenal function, both by adrenal stimulation testing – one after ACTH and one after prednisolone. One patient received hydrocortisone replacement and the other received stress dose hydrocortisone as needed; neither patient developed signs of adrenal insufficiency. Another patient treated with both types of hormone therapy in tandem, who did not have a post-hormone laboratory assessment, developed signs of mild adrenal insufficiency and required replacement hydrocortisone. Our study suggests that adrenal suppression can occur after modern hormone therapy regimens. We found two patients with abnormal adrenal function testing after hormone therapy and another patient with signs adrenal insufficiency. Given the seriousness of adrenal crisis, caregiver education on the signs of adrenal insufficiency is critical. Greater vigilance may be indicated in patients receiving both types of hormone therapy in tandem. Although a routine post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function may not be feasible in all patients, replacement or stress dose hydrocortisone is necessary for all patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. PMID

  12. The Role of Steroid Hormones in the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Cabral-Costa, João Victor; Mazucanti, Caio Henrique; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, while metabolic syndromes, such as diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, such as calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26869995

  13. The Role of Steroid Hormones in the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Cabral-Costa, João Victor; Mazucanti, Caio Henrique; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, while metabolic syndromes, such as diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, such as calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26869995

  14. Sex, stress, and mood disorders: at the intersection of adrenal and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guasti, A; Fiedler, J L; Herrera, L; Handa, R J

    2012-07-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design. PMID:22581646

  15. Sex, Stress, and Mood Disorders: At the Intersection of Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Guasti, A.; Fiedler, J. L.; Herrera, L.; Handa, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design. PMID:22581646

  16. Steroid hormone synthetic pathways in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mostaghel, Elahe A

    2013-09-01

    While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) since the seminal recognition of the disease as androgen-dependent by Huggins and Hodges in 1941, therapy is uniformly marked by progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) over a period of about 18 months, with an ensuing median survival of 1 to 2 years. Importantly, castration does not eliminate androgens from the prostate tumor microenvironment. Castration resistant tumors are characterized by elevated tumor androgens that are well within the range capable of activating the AR and AR-mediated gene expression, and by steroid enzyme alterations which may potentiate de novo androgen synthesis or utilization of circulating adrenal androgens. The dependence of CRPC on intratumoral androgen metabolism has been modeled in vitro and in vivo, and residual intratumoral androgens are implicated in nearly every mechanism by which AR-mediated signaling promotes castration-resistant disease. These observations suggest that tissue based alterations in steroid metabolism contribute to the development of CRPC and underscore these metabolic pathways as critical targets of therapy. Herein, we review the accumulated body of evidence which strongly supports intracrine (tumoral) androgen synthesis as an important mechanism underlying PCa progression. We first discuss the presence and significance of residual prostate tumor androgens in the progression of CRPC. We review the classical and non-classical pathways of androgen metabolism, and how dysregulated expression of these enzymes is likely to potentiate tumor androgen production in the progression to CRPC. Next we review the in vitro and in vivo data in human tumors, xenografts, and cell line models which demonstrate the capacity of prostate tumors to utilize cholesterol and adrenal androgens in the production of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and briefly review the potential role of exogenous

  17. Vitamin D, steroid hormones, and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Paolino, Sabrina; Sulli, Alberto; Smith, Vanessa; Pizzorni, Carmen; Seriolo, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The endogenous serum metabolite of vitamin D (calcitriol, 1,25(OH)2 D3 ) is considered a true steroid hormone (D hormone), and like glucocorticoids (GCs) and gonadal hormones, may exert several immunomodulatory activities. Serum vitamin D deficiency (25(OH) D), and therefore reduced 1,25(OH)2 D3 availability, is considered a risk factor for several chronic/inflammatory or autoimmune conditions, including infectious diseases, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and especially autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD). In ARD in particular, 1,25(OH)2 D3 regulates both innate and adaptive immunity, potentiating the innate response (antimicrobial activity) but reducing adaptive immunity (antigen presentation, T and B cell activities). Regarding a possible synergism between vitamin D and GCs, several studies show that 1,25(OH)2 D3 has significant additive effects on dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of human lymphocyte and monocyte proliferation. Conversely, vitamin D deficiency seems to play a role in increasing autoantibody production by B cells, and seasonal vitamin D declines may trigger flares in ARD, as recently shown. Finally, 1,25(OH)2 D3 seems to reduce aromatase activity and limit the negative effects related to increased peripheral estrogen metabolism (cell proliferation, B cell overactivity). PMID:24739090

  18. Overlapping nongenomic and genomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids

    PubMed Central

    Hammes, Stephen R.; Davis, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The genomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids depend upon primary interactions of the hormones with their specific nuclear receptor proteins. Formation of nuclear co-activator or co-repressor complexes involving the liganded receptors subsequently result in transcriptional events—either activation or suppression—at genes that are specific targets of thyroid hormone or steroids. Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone and steroids are in contrast initiated at binding sites on the plasma membrane or in cytoplasm or organelles and do not primarily require formation of intranuclear receptor protein-hormone complexes. Importantly, hormonal actions that begin nongenomically outside the nucleus often culminate in changes in nuclear transcriptional events that are regulated by both traditional intranuclear receptors as well as other nuclear transcription factors. In the case of thyroid hormone, the extranuclear receptor can be the classical “nuclear” thyroid receptor (TR), a TR isoform, or integrin αvβ3. In the case of steroid hormones, the membrane receptor is usually, but not always, the classical “nuclear” steroid receptor. This concept defines the paradigm of overlapping nongenomic and genomic hormone mechanisms of action. Here we review some examples of how extranuclear signaling by thyroid hormone and by estrogens and androgens modulates intranuclear hormone signaling to regulate a number of vital biological processes both in normal physiology and in cancer progression. We also point out that nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone may mimic effects of estrogen in certain tumors. PMID:26303085

  19. Aberrant expression of hormone receptors in adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Stavroula; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, André

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of adrenal Cushing's syndrome has emerged. The ectopic or aberrant expression of G-protein-coupled hormone receptors in the adrenal cortex was found to play a central role in the regulation of cortisol secretion in ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) and in some unilateral adrenal adenomas. Various aberrant receptors, functionally coupled to steroidogenesis, have been reported: GIP, vasopressin, beta-adrenergic, LH/hCG, and serotonin receptors have been best characterized, but angiotensin, leptin, glucagon, IL-1 and TSH receptors have also been described. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the aberrant expression of these receptors are currently unknown. One or many of these aberrant receptors are present in most cases of AIMAH and in some cases of adrenal adenomas with overt or sub-clinical secretion of cortisol. Clinical protocols to screen for such aberrant receptors have been developed and should be performed in all patients with AIMAH. The identification of such aberrant regulation of steroidogenesis in AIMAH provides the novel opportunity to treat some of these patients with pharmacological agents that either suppress the endogenous ligand or block the aberrant receptor, thus avoiding bilateral adrenalectomy. PMID:16010457

  20. Steroid abnormalities and the developing brain: Declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Maheu, Françoise S.; Merke, Deborah P.; Schroth, Elizabeth A.; Keil, Margaret F.; Hardin, Julie; Poeth, Kaitlin; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2008-01-01

    Summary Steroid hormones modulate memory in animals and human adults. Little is known on the developmental effect of these hormones on the neural networks underlying memory. Using Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) as a naturalistic model of early steroid abnormalities, this study examines the consequences of CAH on memory and its neural correlates for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children. Seventeen patients with CAH and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy children (ages 12 to 14 years) completed the study. Subjects were presented positive, negative and neutral pictures. Memory recall occurred about 30 minutes after viewing the pictures. Children with CAH showed memory deficits for negative pictures compared to healthy children (p < 0.01). There were no group differences on memory performance for either positive or neutral pictures (p’s >0.1). In patients, 24h urinary-free cortisol levels (reflecting glucocorticoid replacement therapy) and testosterone levels were not associated with memory performance. These findings suggest that early steroid imbalances affect memory for negative material in children with CAH. Such memory impairments may result from abnormal brain organization and function following hormonal dysfunction during critical periods of development. PMID:18162329

  1. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene expression, steroid-hormone secretion and proliferative activity of adrenocortical cells in the presence of proteasome inhibitors: in vivo studies on the regenerating rat adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Tortorella, Cinzia; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Nowak, Magdalena; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that proteasome inhibitors promote the accumulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Unexpectedly, this response was associated with a moderate lowering in the corticosterone secretion and proliferation rate of cultured cells. Hence, we studied the effects of proteasome inhibitors MG115 and MG132 on the secretion and proliferative activity of the regenerating adrenal cortex in rats 5 days after surgery. Animals were given two subcutaneous injections of 0.15 or 1.5 nmol/100 g of inhibitors 24 and 12 h before decapitation. Real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that StAR expression, both mRNA and protein, was markedly lower in regenerating adrenals than in the intact gland of sham-operated rats. Neither MG115 nor MG132 affected StAR expression in regenerating gland. Inhibitors induced a slight decrease in the plasma concentrations of aldosterone and corticosterone, but did not significantly alter metaphase index of the regenerating adrenal cortex. Our findings provide the first evidence that down-regulation of StAR occurs during the early stages of adrenal regeneration. Moreover, this suggests that the steroidogenic pathway is more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than that regulating proliferative activity of regenerating adrenal cortex in the rat. PMID:18425351

  2. Diagnosis of Diseases of Steroid Hormone Production, Metabolism and Action

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Biochemical tests have been the basis for investigations of disorders affecting steroid hormones. In recent years it has been possible however to study the genes that determine functional enzymes, cofactors, receptors, transcription factors and signaling systems that are involved in the process. Analyses of mutations are available as a diagnostic service for only a few of these genes although research laboratories may be able to provide a service. Both biochemical and genetic research have brought to light new disorders. Some genes for transcription factors involved in the development of the endocrine organs have also been identified and patients with defects in these processes have been found. This paper will review general aspects of adrenal disorders with emphasis on clinical and laboratory findings. As with all endocrine investigations there are few single measurements that provide a definitive answer to a diagnosis. Timing of samples in relation to age, gender and time of day needs to be considered. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274298

  3. Steroid hormones as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Rooney, A.A.; Crain, D.A.; Orlando, E.F.

    1999-07-01

    Xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of wildlife. Various species exhibit abnormalities of (1) plasma sex steroid hormones, (2) altered steroid synthesis form the gonad in vitro and (3) altered steroidogenic enzyme function. These endpoints are sensitive and relatively easy to measure quantitatively with reliability and precision. These observations have led to the conclusion that sex steroid hormones could be markers of exposure to, and altered function from, endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs). However, there are serious limitations in the use of steroid hormones as generalized markers of EDC exposure. Steroid hormones exhibit seasonal, ontogenetic, gender and species-specific variation. Moreover, the regulation of sex steroid plasma concentrations is a relatively complex phenomenon capable of short-term (minutes-hours) alteration due to environmental inputs, such as acute stress--an activational response. Alterations in steroids synthesis and degradation also can be a response to altered embryonic development due to EDC exposure--an organizational response. If steroid hormones are to be used as biomarkers, then closely controlled, well designed sampling has to be performed. Additionally, an appreciation of the variation possible in endocrine responses among the species to be studied must be obtained.

  4. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Suppression and Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome as a Complication of Epidural Steroid Injections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections are well accepted as a treatment for radicular back pain in appropriate candidates. While overall incidence of systemic side effects has not been well established, at least five biochemically proven cases of iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome have been reported as complications of epidural steroid treatment. We present an additional case of iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome and adrenal suppression in a middle-aged woman who received three epidural steroid injections over a four-month period. We review this case in the context of previous cases and discuss diagnostic and management issues. PMID:23991341

  5. Cellular cholesterol delivery, intracellular processing and utilization for biosynthesis of steroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormones regulate diverse physiological functions such as reproduction, blood salt balance, maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, response to stress, neuronal function and various metabolic processes. They are synthesized from cholesterol mainly in the adrenal gland and gonads in response to tissue-specific tropic hormones. These steroidogenic tissues are unique in that they require cholesterol not only for membrane biogenesis, maintenance of membrane fluidity and cell signaling, but also as the starting material for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. It is not surprising, then, that cells of steroidogenic tissues have evolved with multiple pathways to assure the constant supply of cholesterol needed to maintain optimum steroid synthesis. The cholesterol utilized for steroidogenesis is derived from a combination of sources: 1) de novo synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); 2) the mobilization of cholesteryl esters (CEs) stored in lipid droplets through cholesteryl ester hydrolase; 3) plasma lipoprotein-derived CEs obtained by either LDL receptor-mediated endocytic and/or SR-BI-mediated selective uptake; and 4) in some cultured cell systems from plasma membrane-associated free cholesterol. Here, we focus on recent insights into the molecules and cellular processes that mediate the uptake of plasma lipoprotein-derived cholesterol, events connected with the intracellular cholesterol processing and the role of crucial proteins that mediate cholesterol transport to mitochondria for its utilization for steroid hormone production. In particular, we discuss the structure and function of SR-BI, the importance of the selective cholesterol transport pathway in providing cholesterol substrate for steroid biosynthesis and the role of two key proteins, StAR and PBR/TSO in facilitating cholesterol delivery to inner mitochondrial membrane sites, where P450scc (CYP11A) is localized and where the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone (the common

  6. Sex and stress steroids in adolescence: Gonadal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Green, Matthew R; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2016-08-01

    This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors. HPA function is influenced by both organizational (programming) and activational effects of gonadal hormones. Typically, in adult rats, estradiol increases and androgens decrease the HPA response to stressors, thereby contributing to sex differences in HPA function, and sensitivity of the HPA axis to gonadal steroids is in part determined by exposure to these hormones in early development. Although developmental differences in HPA function are well characterized, the extent to which gonadal steroids contribute to age differences in HPA function is not well understood. Deficits in the understanding of the relationships between the HPA and HPG axes are greatest for the adolescent period of development. The critical outstanding questions are, when do gonadal hormones begin to regulate HPA function in adolescence, and what mechanisms precipitate change in sensitivity of the HPA axis to the HPG axis at this stage of life. PMID:26851306

  7. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anthony H.; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Willets, Jonathon M.; Konje, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    The “endocannabinoid system (ECS)” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed. PMID:24369462

  8. Hormones, context, and "brain gender": a review of evidence from congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Jordan-Young, Rebecca M

    2012-06-01

    Brain organization theory suggests that steroid hormones during fetal development permanently organize the brain for gender, including patterns of sexuality, cognition, temperament, and interests that differ by sex. This widely-accepted theory has important implications for health, ranging from medical management of infants with intersex conditions to suggested etiologies for sex differences in autism, depression, and other mental health problems. Studies of genetic females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in which high prenatal androgens have been linked to both atypical genitals and "masculine" patterns of gender and sexuality, are particularly important. Based on a comprehensive review of research on CAH, this article demonstrates that such studies have neglected four broad categories of variables that plausibly affect psychosexual development: (1) physiological effects of CAH, including complex disruption of steroid hormones from early development onwards; (2) intensive medical intervention and surveillance, which many women with CAH describe as traumatic; (3) direct effects of genital morphology on sexuality (versus indirect effects that "masculine" genitals may have on gender socialization); and (4) expectations of masculinization that likely affect both the development and evaluation of gender and sexuality in CAH. Complex and iterative interactions among postnatal biological variables, medical interventions, and social context provide a more plausible explanation for atypicalities in psychology and behavior that have been reported for genetic females with CAH than the conventional explanation that early androgens have "masculinized" their brains. PMID:21962724

  9. Plasma steroid-binding proteins: primary gatekeepers of steroid hormone action.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Geoffrey L

    2016-07-01

    Biologically active steroids are transported in the blood by albumin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). These plasma proteins also regulate the non-protein-bound or 'free' fractions of circulating steroid hormones that are considered to be biologically active; as such, they can be viewed as the 'primary gatekeepers of steroid action'. Albumin binds steroids with limited specificity and low affinity, but its high concentration in blood buffers major fluctuations in steroid concentrations and their free fractions. By contrast, SHBG and CBG play much more dynamic roles in controlling steroid access to target tissues and cells. They bind steroids with high (~nM) affinity and specificity, with SHBG binding androgens and estrogens and CBG binding glucocorticoids and progesterone. Both are glycoproteins that are structurally unrelated, and they function in different ways that extend beyond their transportation or buffering functions in the blood. Plasma SHBG and CBG production by the liver varies during development and different physiological or pathophysiological conditions, and abnormalities in the plasma levels of SHBG and CBG or their abilities to bind steroids are associated with a variety of pathologies. Understanding how the unique structures of SHBG and CBG determine their specialized functions, how changes in their plasma levels are controlled, and how they function outside the blood circulation provides insight into how they control the freedom of steroids to act in health and disease. PMID:27113851

  10. Cellular and biochemical actions of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones on rat thymic lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Young, D A; Voris, B P; Nicholson, M L

    1981-01-01

    The molecular, biochemical, and cellular effects of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones on thymic lymphocytes are reviewed, with emphasis on their relationship to the growth suppressive and lethal actions that occur in lymphoid tissues when glucocorticoids are administered to the whole animal. The data support the hypothesis that the hormonal inhibition of growth and development is a consequence of its ability to suppress cellular energy production, causing the cells to behave as though they were in a more stringent environment. Slight changes in ratios of adenine and guanine nucleotides appear to account for the reordering of metabolic priorities that occurs, with processes related to growth and development curtailed in favor of those more essential to immediate cell survival. The lethal glucocorticoid actions appear to be the result of the operation of separate mechanisms (unrelated to energy metabolism) that lead to lethal attack at the level of the nuclear membrane. Resistance to the lethal effects appears to occur via the selection (in the case of cancer cells where the animal or patient is undergoing chemotherapy with glucocorticoids) or the normal development (in the case of immunologically noncommitted thymocytes progressing to immunologically committed ones) of cells with hardier membranes. This progression is associated with a change in a few cellular proteins. One such protein appears identical in both kinds of cells, offering itself as a candidate for an intracellular mechanism conferring resistance. Evidence is also presented for the appearance of hormone-induced proteins that could be metabolic regulators that mediate the individual cellular and biochemical actions of glucocorticoids. It is proposed that toxins could alter cellular metabolism through mechanisms similar to those utilized by steroid hormones, or possibly alter the sensitivity of cells to steroids, or vice versa. Images FIGURE 7. FIGURE 9. PMID:6165578

  11. Adrenal-derived 11-Oxygenated 19-Carbon Steroids are the Dominant Androgens in Classic 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Nanba, Aya T.; Chomic, Robert; Upadhyay, Sunil K.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Shields, James J.; Merke, Deborah P.; Rainey, William E.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To comprehensively characterize androgens and androgen precursors in classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) and to gain insight to the mechanisms of their formation. Design Serum samples were obtained from 38 patients (19 men) with classic 21OHD, age 3-59, and 38 sex- and age-matched controls; 3 patients with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency; 4 patients with adrenal insufficiency; and 16 patients (8 men) undergoing adrenal vein sampling. Paraffin-embedded normal (n=5) and 21OHD adrenal tissue (n=3) was used for immunohistochemical studies. Methods We measured 11 steroids in all sera using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Immunofluroescence localized 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) within the normal and 21OHD adrenals. Results Four 11-oxygenated 19-carbon (11oxC19) steroids were significantly higher in male and female 21OHD patients than in controls: 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione, 11-ketoandrostenedione 11β-hydroxytestosterone, and 11-ketotestosterone (3-4-fold, p< 0.0001). For 21OHD patients, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were positively correlated in females, but inversely correlated in males. All 11oxC19 steroids were higher in adrenal vein than in inferior vena cava samples from men and women and rose with cosyntropin stimulation. Only trace amounts of 11oxC19 steroids were found in sera from patients with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency and adrenal insufficiency, confirming their adrenal origin. HSD3B2 and CYB5A immunoreactivities were sharply segregated in the normal adrenal glands, whereas areas of overlapping expression were identified in the 21OHD adrenals. Conclusions All four 11oxC19 steroids are elevated in both men and women with classic 21OHD. Our data suggest that 11oxC19 steroids are specific biomarkers of adrenal-derived androgen excess. PMID:26865584

  12. Convergence of Multiple Mechanisms of Steroid Hormone Action

    PubMed Central

    Mani, S. K.; Mermelstein, P. G.; Tetel, M. J.; Anesetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones modulate a wide array of physiological processes including development, metabolism, and reproduction in various species. It is generally believed that these biological effects are predominantly mediated by their binding to specific intracellular receptors resulting in conformational change, dimerization, and recruitment of coregulators for transcription-dependent genomic actions (classical mechanism). In addition, to their cognate ligands, intracellular steroid receptors can also be activated in a “ligand-independent” manner by other factors including neurotransmitters. Recent studies indicate that rapid, nonclassical steroid effects involve extranuclear steroid receptors located at the membrane, which interact with cytoplasmic kinase signaling molecules and G-proteins. The current review deals with various mechanisms that function together in an integrated manner to promote hormone-dependent actions on the central and sympathetic nervous systems. PMID:22454239

  13. Role of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bacterial-Host Interactions

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Elizabeth; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions. PMID:23509808

  14. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward.

    PubMed

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-03-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary rewards. There was a positive association between the individual changes in testosterone and changes in bilateral insula response to monetary rewards. Our data provide evidence for the involvement of sex-steroid hormones in reward processing. A blunted amygdala response to rewarding stimuli following a rapid decline in sex-steroid hormones may reflect a reduced engagement in positive experiences. Abnormal reward processing may constitute a neurobiological mechanism by which sex-steroid fluctuations provoke mood disorders in susceptible women. PMID:26245498

  15. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  16. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders. PMID:26775014

  17. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to Steroid 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.; Azziz, Ricardo; Baskin, Laurence S.; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Hensle, Terry W.; Merke, Deborah P.; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; Miller, Walter L.; Montori, Victor M.; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Ritzen, Martin; White, Perrin C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We developed clinical practice guidelines for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Participants: The Task Force included a chair, selected by The Endocrine Society Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS), ten additional clinicians experienced in treating CAH, a methodologist, and a medical writer. Additional experts were also consulted. The authors received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus Process: Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions. The guidelines were reviewed and approved sequentially by The Endocrine Society’s CGS and Clinical Affairs Core Committee, members responding to a web posting, and The Endocrine Society Council. At each stage, the Task Force incorporated changes in response to written comments. Conclusions: We recommend universal newborn screening for severe steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency followed by confirmatory tests. We recommend that prenatal treatment of CAH continue to be regarded as experimental. The diagnosis rests on clinical and hormonal data; genotyping is reserved for equivocal cases and genetic counseling. Glucocorticoid dosage should be minimized to avoid iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. Mineralocorticoids and, in infants, supplemental sodium are recommended in classic CAH patients. We recommend against the routine use of experimental therapies to promote growth and delay puberty; we suggest patients avoid adrenalectomy. Surgical guidelines emphasize early single-stage genital repair for severely virilized girls, performed by experienced surgeons. Clinicians should consider patients’ quality of life, consulting mental health professionals as appropriate. At the transition to adulthood, we recommend monitoring for potential complications of CAH. Finally, we recommend judicious use of medication during pregnancy and in symptomatic patients with nonclassic CAH. PMID:20823466

  18. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  19. Synthetic High-Density Lipoprotein (sHDL) Inhibits Steroid Production in HAC15 Adrenal Cells.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew J; Sanjanwala, Aalok R; Morin, Emily E; Rowland-Fisher, Elizabeth; Anderson, Kyle; Schwendeman, Anna; Rainey, William E

    2016-08-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) transported cholesterol represents one of the sources of substrate for adrenal steroid production. Synthetic HDL (sHDL) particles represent a new therapeutic option to reduce atherosclerotic plaque burden by increasing cholesterol efflux from macrophage cells. The effects of the sHDL particles on steroidogenic cells have not been explored. sHDL, specifically ETC-642, was studied in HAC15 adrenocortical cells. Cells were treated with sHDL, forskolin, 22R-hydroxycholesterol, or pregnenolone. Experiments included time and concentration response curves, followed by steroid assay. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to study mRNA of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, lanosterol 14-α-methylase, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, and steroid acute regulatory protein. Cholesterol assay was performed using cell culture media and cell lipid extracts from a dose response experiment. sHDL significantly inhibited production of cortisol. Inhibition occurred in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and in a concentration range of 3μM-50μM. Forskolin (10μM) stimulated cortisol production was also inhibited. Incubation with 22R-hydroxycholesterol (10μM) and pregnenolone (10μM) increased cortisol production, which was unaffected by sHDL treatment. sHDL increased transcript levels for the rate-limiting cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Extracellular cholesterol assayed in culture media showed a positive correlation with increasing concentration of sHDL, whereas intracellular cholesterol decreased after treatment with sHDL. The current study suggests that sHDL inhibits HAC15 adrenal cell steroid production by efflux of cholesterol, leading to an overall decrease in steroid production and an adaptive rise in adrenal cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:27253994

  20. TeBG- and CBG-bound steroid hormones in rabbits are available for influx into uterus in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, G.; Steingold, K.A.; Pardridge, W.M.; Judd, H.L. )

    1988-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of gonadal or adrenal steroid hormones in rabbits often does not bear the expected inverse relationship with hormone binding to testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) or corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). This suggests TeBG or CBG may not impede steroid hormone delivery to tissues. The effects of rabbit plasma proteins on the influxes of {sup 3}H-labeled steroids from the circulation into the rabbit uterus were measured in vivo using a tissue sampling single-injection technique. In the absence of plasma proteins, estradiol (E{sub 2}) and testosterone (T) were freely diffusible through the uterine microvasculature (i.e., extraction >80%). The extractions of dihydrostestosterone (DHT) and corticosterone (B) ranged from 60 to 72%, while that of cortisol (F) was reduced at 40%. Rabbit serum exerted no inhibition of the influxes of the steroids tested. The influxes of T and B greatly exceeded the rates that would be expected if only the free and albumin-bound fractions estimated in vitro were diffusible in vivo. However, the extraction of ({sup 3}H)corticosteroid-binding globulin or bovine ({sup 3}H)albumin were low, consistent with little, if any, extravascular uptake of the plasma proteins. The results indicate both albumin-bound and globulin-bound steroid hormone are available for transport into the uterus in the rabbit in vivo without significant exodus of the plasma protein, per se.

  1. Contribution of body fatness and adipose tissue distribution to the age variation in plasma steroid hormone concentrations in men: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Couillard, C; Gagnon, J; Bergeron, J; Leon, A S; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Després, J P; Bouchard, C

    2000-03-01

    Obesity has been associated with alterations in plasma steroid hormone concentrations in men. Older men present an altered steroid hormone profile compared to younger individuals, and an increase in body fatness and changes in adipose tissue (AT) distribution are noted with advancing age. Thus, there is a need to examine the relative importance of increased body fatness and changes in AT distribution with advancing age to plasma steroid hormone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in men. We, therefore, investigated the relationships among age, body fatness, AT distribution, and the plasma steroid hormone profile in a group of 217 Caucasian men (mean age +/- SD, 36.2 +/- 14.9 yr) who covered a wide age range (17-64 yr). Compared to young adult men, older men were characterized by increased adiposity (P < 0.0001) expressed either as body mass index or total body fat mass assessed by underwater weighing. Differences in AT distribution were also noted with a preferential accumulation of abdominal fat as indicated by a larger waist girth (P < 0.0001) and higher visceral AT accumulation (P < 0.0001), measured by computed tomography, in older subjects. Age was associated with decreases (P < 0.0001) in C19 adrenal steroid levels, namely reduced dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA fatty acid ester, DHEA sulfate, as well as androstenedione levels. Androgens, i.e. dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, were also affected by age, with lower levels of both steroids being found in older individuals (P < 0.0005). When statistical adjustment for body fatness and AT distribution was performed, differences in C19 adrenal steroids between the age groups remained significant, whereas differences in androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations were no longer significant. The present study suggests that age-related differences in plasma steroid hormone levels, especially androgens, are partly mediated by concomitant variation in adiposity in men. PMID:10720034

  2. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies. PMID:606452

  3. Psychological, social, and spiritual effects of contraceptive steroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Hanna; Cortés, Manuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed. When mentioned at all, depression and hypoactive sexual desire are usually treated symptomatically rather than discontinuing their most frequent pharmacological cause, the contraceptive. The rising incidence of premarital sex and cohabitation and decreased marriage rates parallel the use of contraceptive steroids as does decreased church attendance and/or reduced acceptance of Church teaching among Catholics. Lay summary: While there is wide, societal acceptance of hormonal contraceptives to space births, their physical side effects are often downplayed and their impact on emotions and life styles are largely unexamined. Coincidental to the use of “the pill” there has been an increase in depression, low sexual desire, “hook-ups,” cohabitation, delay of marriage and childbearing, and among Catholics, decreased church attendance and reduced religious practice. Fertility is not a disease. Birth spacing can be achieved by natural means, and the many undesirable effects of contraception avoided. PMID:26912936

  4. Psychological, social, and spiritual effects of contraceptive steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Hanna; Cortés, Manuel E

    2015-08-01

    Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed. When mentioned at all, depression and hypoactive sexual desire are usually treated symptomatically rather than discontinuing their most frequent pharmacological cause, the contraceptive. The rising incidence of premarital sex and cohabitation and decreased marriage rates parallel the use of contraceptive steroids as does decreased church attendance and/or reduced acceptance of Church teaching among Catholics. Lay summary: While there is wide, societal acceptance of hormonal contraceptives to space births, their physical side effects are often downplayed and their impact on emotions and life styles are largely unexamined. Coincidental to the use of "the pill" there has been an increase in depression, low sexual desire, "hook-ups," cohabitation, delay of marriage and childbearing, and among Catholics, decreased church attendance and reduced religious practice. Fertility is not a disease. Birth spacing can be achieved by natural means, and the many undesirable effects of contraception avoided. PMID:26912936

  5. Noninvasive Measurement of Steroid Hormones in Zebrafish Holding-Water

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Ana S.; Faustino, Ana I.; Cabral, Eduarda M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a new animal model in neuroendocrinology and behavior (e.g., stress physiology and ecotoxicology studies). In these areas, the concentrations of steroid hormones in the blood are often used to study the endocrinological status of individuals. However, due to the small body size of zebrafish, blood sampling is difficult to perform and the amount of plasma obtained per sample for assaying hormones is very small (ca. 1–5 μL), and therefore most studies have been using whole-body hormone concentrations, which implies sacrificing the individuals and hampers sequential sampling of the same individual. Here a noninvasive method to assay steroid hormones from zebrafish holding-water, based on the fact that steroids are released into the fish holding-water through the gills by passive diffusion, is validated. Cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (KT) were measured in water samples and compared to plasma levels in the same individuals. Cortisol released to holding-water correlates positively with plasma concentrations, but there was a lack of correlation between KT water and circulating levels. However, KT levels showed a highly significant sex difference that can be used to noninvasively sex individuals. An ACTH challenge test demonstrated that an induced increase in circulating cortisol concentration can be reliably detected in holding-water levels, hence attesting the responsiveness of holding-water levels to fluctuations in circulating levels. PMID:23445429

  6. Steroid hormone secretion in inflammatory breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; de Andres, Paloma J; Monsalve, Beatriz; Illera, Maria J; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Silvan, Gema

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) is a special type of breast cancer with a poor survival rate. Though several IBC cell lines have been established, recently a first IMC cell line was established. The aims of this study were: (1) to validate a highly sensitive, reliable, accurate and direct amplified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure several cell-secreted steroid hormones: progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone sulfate (SO4E1) in the culture medium. (2) To assess whether hormone production profile by IPC-366 cells validates the IMC model for human IBC. We validated a non-competitive amplified EIA for inflammatory breast cancer cell lines based on the results of accuracy, precision, sensitivity and parallelism. The low detection limits of the technique were: P4=13.2 pg/well, A4=2.3 pg/well, T=11.4 pg/well, E2=1.9 pg/well and SO4E1=4.5 pg/well. Intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation percentages were <10%. The mean recovery rate of hormone added to the culture medium was >90%. In all hormones studied SUM149 have higher levels (1.4 times, but not significant) than IPC-366, and the correlation index between SUM149 and IPC-366 concentrations were >97%. We can coclude that cells of both cell lines, IPC-366 and SUM149, are capable to produce steroid hormone in culture media. The presented EIA methodology is very valuable for the detection of steroid production in culture media and could be used in hormone regulation studies and therapeutic agents in cell lines of inflammatory and non-inflammatory mammary carcinoma or other cancer cell lines in preclinical studies. PMID:26495931

  7. Functional interactions between steroid hormones and neurotrophin BDNF.

    PubMed

    Numakawa, Tadahiro; Yokomaku, Daisaku; Richards, Misty; Hori, Hiroaki; Adachi, Naoki; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2010-05-26

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a critical neurotrophin, regulates many neuronal aspects including cell differentiation, cell survival, neurotransmission, and synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). Though BDNF has two types of receptors, high affinity tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk)B and low affinity p75 receptors, BDNF positively exerts its biological effects on neurons via activation of TrkB and of resultant intracellular signaling cascades including mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, phospholipase Cγ, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways. Notably, it is possible that alteration in the expression and/or function of BDNF in the CNS is involved in the pathophysiology of various brain diseases such as stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and mental disorders. On the other hand, glucocorticoids, stress-induced steroid hormones, also putatively contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. Interestingly, in addition to the reduction in BDNF levels due to increased glucocorticoid exposure, current reports demonstrate possible interactions between glucocorticoids and BDNF-mediated neuronal functions. Other steroid hormones, such as estrogen, are involved in not only sexual differentiation in the brain, but also numerous neuronal events including cell survival and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, it is well known that estrogen plays a role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and mental illness, while serving to regulate BDNF expression and/or function. Here, we present a broad overview of the current knowledge concerning the association between BDNF expression/function and steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and estrogen). PMID:21540998

  8. Nuclear receptor coactivators: Essential players in steroid hormone action in brain and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tetel, Marc J.

    2009-01-01

    Steroid hormones act in brain and throughout the body to influence behavior and physiology. Many of these effects of steroid hormones are elicited by transcriptional events mediated by their respective receptors. A variety of cell culture studies reveal that nuclear receptor coactivators are critical in modulating steroid receptor-dependent transcription. Thus, in addition to the availability of the hormone and the expression of its receptor, nuclear receptor coactivators are essential for steroid-dependent transactivation of genes. This review will discuss the mounting evidence that nuclear receptor coactivators are critical in modulating steroid hormone action in brain and the regulation of behavior. PMID:19207820

  9. Effects of chronic exposure to low doses of trichloroethylene on steroid hormone and insulin levels in normal men.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, V H; Chia, S E; Ong, C N

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum levels of insulin and some adrenal steroid hormones in men chronically exposed to low doses of trichloroethylene (TCE). A total of 85 workers participated in this study. Each worker had urine collected and analyzed for trichloroacetic acids (UTCA) on the same day that a blood sample was taken for analyses of serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione, cortisol, aldosterone, and insulin. The mean concentration of environmental TCE was 29.6 ppm and the mean UTCA was 22.4 mg/g creatinine (range 0.8-136.4). TCE exposure did not cause any significant changes to the adrenal steroid hormone productions. The results showed that UTCA was significantly correlated to serum insulin levels. Insulin and SHBG responded in tandem, with the highest levels found in workers exposed to TCE for less than 2 years; levels of both parameters were significantly lowered in those exposed for more than 2 years. A triphasic response in insulin levels to TCE, which depended on the duration of exposure, was noted. Initial exposure caused an acute rise in insulin levels. This was followed by a fall to normal levels in those exposed 2-4 years and then a slight rise in those exposed for more than 6 years. The mechanism for this pattern of response to TCE exposure is yet unknown. PMID:9417767

  10. [Adrenalitis].

    PubMed

    Saeger, W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation of the adrenal glands is caused by autoimmunopathies or infections and can induce adrenal insufficiency. Autoimmune lymphocytic adrenalitis is often combined with other autoimmune diseases and the most frequent cause of Addison's disease; however, it only becomes clinically apparent when more than 90 % of the adrenal cortex has been destroyed. Histological features are characterized by lymphoplasmacytic inflammation leading to an increased destruction of adrenocortical tissue but less severe courses can also occur. The second most frequent form of adrenalitis is adrenal tuberculosis, showing typical granulomatous findings that are nearly always caused by spreading from a tuberculous pulmonary focus. Other bacterial as well as viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and others, generally affect the adrenal glands only in patients with immunodeficiency disorders. In these infections, the adrenal cortex and medulla are frequently involved to roughly the same extent. Although surgical specimens from inflammatory adrenal lesions are extremely rare, the various forms of adrenalitis play an important role in the post-mortem examination of the adrenal glands for clarification of unclear causes of death (e.g. death during an Addisonian crisis). PMID:27099224

  11. Effects of Steroid Hormone in Avian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Caicedo Rivas, R. E.; Nieto, M. Paz-Calderón; Kamiyoshi, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E2) on the production of progesterone (P4) by granulosa cells, and of the E2 on the production of P4 and T by theca internal cells. In the first experiment, granulosa cells isolated from the largest (F1) and third largest (F3) preovulatory follicle were incubated for 4 h in short-term culture system, P4 production by granulosa cells of both F1 and F3 was increased in a dose-dependent manner by ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), but not T or E2. In the second experiment, F1 and F3 granulosa cells cultured for 48 h in the developed monolayer culture system were recultured for an additional 48 h with increasing doses of various physiological active substances existing in the ovary, including T and E2. Basal P4 production for 48 h during 48 to 96 h of the cultured was about nine fold greater by F1 granulosa cells than by F3 granulosa cells. In substances examined oLH, chicken vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (cVIP) and T, but not E2, stimulated in a dose-dependent manner P4 production in both F1 and F3 granulosa cells. In addition, when the time course of P4 production by F1 granulosa cells in response to oLH, cVIP, T and E2 was examined for 48 h during 48 to 96 h of culture, although E2 had no effect on P4 production by granulosa cells of F1 during the period from 48 to 96 h of culture, P4 production with oLH was found to be increased at 4 h of the culture, with a maximal 9.14 fold level at 6 h. By contrast, P4 production with cVIP and T increased significantly (p<0.05) from 8 and 12 h of the culture, respectively, with maximal 6.50 fold response at 12 h and 6, 48 fold responses at 36 h. Furthermore, when F1 granulosa cells were precultured with E2 for various times before 4 h culture with oLH at 96 h of culture, the increase in P4 production in response to oLH with a dose-related manner was only found at a pretreatment time of more than 12 h. In the third experiment, theca

  12. Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

  13. Role of ACTH in the Interactive/Paracrine Regulation of Adrenal Steroid Secretion in Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Hervé; Thomas, Michaël; Duparc, Céline; Bertherat, Jérôme; Louiset, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    In the normal human adrenal gland, steroid secretion is regulated by a complex network of autocrine/paracrine interactions involving bioactive signals released by endothelial cells, nerve terminals, chromaffin cells, immunocompetent cells, and adrenocortical cells themselves. ACTH can be locally produced by medullary chromaffin cells and is, therefore, a major mediator of the corticomedullary functional interplay. Plasma ACTH also triggers the release of angiogenic and vasoactive agents from adrenocortical cells and adrenal mast cells and, thus, indirectly regulates steroid production through modulation of the adrenal blood flow. Adrenocortical neoplasms associated with steroid hypersecretion exhibit molecular and cellular defects that tend to reinforce the influence of paracrine regulatory loops on corticosteroidogenesis. Especially, ACTH has been found to be abnormally synthesized in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia responsible for hypercortisolism. In these tissues, ACTH is detected in a subpopulation of adrenocortical cells that express gonadal markers. This observation suggests that ectopic production of ACTH may result from impaired embryogenesis leading to abnormal maturation of the adrenogonadal primordium. Globally, the current literature indicates that ACTH is a major player in the autocrine/paracrine processes occurring in the adrenal gland in both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27489549

  14. Role of ACTH in the Interactive/Paracrine Regulation of Adrenal Steroid Secretion in Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Hervé; Thomas, Michaël; Duparc, Céline; Bertherat, Jérôme; Louiset, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    In the normal human adrenal gland, steroid secretion is regulated by a complex network of autocrine/paracrine interactions involving bioactive signals released by endothelial cells, nerve terminals, chromaffin cells, immunocompetent cells, and adrenocortical cells themselves. ACTH can be locally produced by medullary chromaffin cells and is, therefore, a major mediator of the corticomedullary functional interplay. Plasma ACTH also triggers the release of angiogenic and vasoactive agents from adrenocortical cells and adrenal mast cells and, thus, indirectly regulates steroid production through modulation of the adrenal blood flow. Adrenocortical neoplasms associated with steroid hypersecretion exhibit molecular and cellular defects that tend to reinforce the influence of paracrine regulatory loops on corticosteroidogenesis. Especially, ACTH has been found to be abnormally synthesized in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia responsible for hypercortisolism. In these tissues, ACTH is detected in a subpopulation of adrenocortical cells that express gonadal markers. This observation suggests that ectopic production of ACTH may result from impaired embryogenesis leading to abnormal maturation of the adrenogonadal primordium. Globally, the current literature indicates that ACTH is a major player in the autocrine/paracrine processes occurring in the adrenal gland in both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27489549

  15. In polycystic ovary syndrome, adrenal steroids are regulated differently in the morning versus in response to nutrient intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate adrenal steroid regulation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). A 5-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a 3-h frequently sampled-intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) were administered to 30 patients with PCOS. Anthropometric parameters (hei...

  16. Independent elaboration of steroid hormone signaling pathways in metazoans.

    PubMed

    Markov, Gabriel V; Tavares, Raquel; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal; Demeneix, Barbara A; Baker, Michael E; Laudet, Vincent

    2009-07-21

    Steroid hormones regulate many physiological processes in vertebrates, nematodes, and arthropods through binding to nuclear receptors (NR), a metazoan-specific family of ligand-activated transcription factors. The main steps controlling the diversification of this family are now well-understood. In contrast, the origin and evolution of steroid ligands remain mysterious, although this is crucial for understanding the emergence of modern endocrine systems. Using a comparative genomic approach, we analyzed complete metazoan genomes to provide a comprehensive view of the evolution of major enzymatic players implicated in steroidogenesis at the whole metazoan scale. Our analysis reveals that steroidogenesis has been independently elaborated in the 3 main bilaterian lineages, and that steroidogenic cytochrome P450 enzymes descended from those that detoxify xenobiotics. PMID:19571007

  17. Tissue-steroid interactions in canine hormone-dependent tumours.

    PubMed

    Evans, C R; Pierrepoint, C G

    1975-12-13

    Mammary tumour tissue from two bitches and an anal adenoma from a dog were investigated for steroid receptor interaction. Both mammary tumours possessed cytoplasmic macromolecules sedimenting with coefficients of 4S and 8S that bound oestradiol-17beta. These receptors had molecular weights of approximately 60,000 and 180,000 respectively. Transfer of the oestrogen to the nucleus was shown and the presence of a 4-5S nuclear protein demonstrated. The anal adenoma had a cytoplasmic receptor, with a sedimentation value in a sucrose density gradient of 4-5S with respect to bovine serum albumin, that bound tritiated 5alpha-androstane-3alpha, 17alpha-diol. No affinity could be demonstrated for other C19-steroids examined. The significance of these findings in terms of the hormone dependence of the tumours investigated and the possible development of these studies to promote rational therapy in such cases is discussed. PMID:173072

  18. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women. PMID:26356576

  19. Domestication Effects on Stress Induced Steroid Secretion and Adrenal Gene Expression in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Fallahsharoudi, Amir; de Kock, Neil; Johnsson, Martin; Ubhayasekera, S J Kumari A; Bergquist, Jonas; Wright, Dominic; Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity is a challenge in contemporary biology. Domestication provides a model for unravelling aspects of the genetic basis of stress sensitivity. The ancestral Red Junglefowl (RJF) exhibits greater fear-related behaviour and a more pronounced HPA-axis reactivity than its domesticated counterpart, the White Leghorn (WL). By comparing hormones (plasmatic) and adrenal global gene transcription profiles between WL and RJF in response to an acute stress event, we investigated the molecular basis for the altered physiological stress responsiveness in domesticated chickens. Basal levels of pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone as well as corticosterone response were lower in WL. Microarray analysis of gene expression in adrenal glands showed a significant breed effect in a large number of transcripts with over-representation of genes in the channel activity pathway. The expression of the best-known steroidogenesis genes were similar across the breeds used. Transcription levels of acute stress response genes such as StAR, CH25 and POMC were upregulated in response to acute stress. Dampened HPA reactivity in domesticated chickens was associated with changes in the expression of several genes that presents potentially minor regulatory effects rather than by means of change in expression of critical steroidogenic genes in the adrenal. PMID:26471470

  20. Domestication Effects on Stress Induced Steroid Secretion and Adrenal Gene Expression in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Fallahsharoudi, Amir; de Kock, Neil; Johnsson, Martin; Ubhayasekera, S. J. Kumari A.; Bergquist, Jonas; Wright, Dominic; Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity is a challenge in contemporary biology. Domestication provides a model for unravelling aspects of the genetic basis of stress sensitivity. The ancestral Red Junglefowl (RJF) exhibits greater fear-related behaviour and a more pronounced HPA-axis reactivity than its domesticated counterpart, the White Leghorn (WL). By comparing hormones (plasmatic) and adrenal global gene transcription profiles between WL and RJF in response to an acute stress event, we investigated the molecular basis for the altered physiological stress responsiveness in domesticated chickens. Basal levels of pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone as well as corticosterone response were lower in WL. Microarray analysis of gene expression in adrenal glands showed a significant breed effect in a large number of transcripts with over-representation of genes in the channel activity pathway. The expression of the best-known steroidogenesis genes were similar across the breeds used. Transcription levels of acute stress response genes such as StAR, CH25 and POMC were upregulated in response to acute stress. Dampened HPA reactivity in domesticated chickens was associated with changes in the expression of several genes that presents potentially minor regulatory effects rather than by means of change in expression of critical steroidogenic genes in the adrenal. PMID:26471470

  1. Inactivation of contraceptive steroid hormones by human intestinal clostridia.

    PubMed

    Bokkenheuser, V D; Winter, J; Cohen, B I; O'Rourke, S; Mosbach, E H

    1983-09-01

    Steroid hormones reduced in ring-A are devoid of hormonal activity. In metabolic experiments we found that human fecal flora reduced the delta 4-3-keto structure of natural progestins to 3 alpha-hydroxy, 5 beta-steroid metabolites (3 alpha,5 beta) and of synthetic progestins to a mixture of 3 alpha,5 beta and 3 beta,5 beta compounds. 3 alpha,5 beta-Reductase was synthesized by Clostridium paraputrificum and had a strong affinity for natural progestins such as progesterone. 3 beta,5 beta-Reductase was synthesized by Clostridium innoculin and had a stronger affinity for synthetic progestins. A third enzyme, 3 beta,5 alpha-reductase, was synthesized by St. Luke's strain 209 (Clostridium species "J-1") but was only observed when pure cultures were used. Ring-A reduction of synthetic progestins was 3 to 10 times slower than that of natural progestins, thus explaining the pharmacological superiority of synthetic progestins over naturally occurring analogs. PMID:6630441

  2. Selective accumulation of meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in steroid-synthesizing cells of the rat adrenal gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo-Benkmann, Mario; Muhm, Markus; Gahlen, Johannes; Vry, Magnus-Sebastian; Deubzer, Hedwig; Holloschi, Andreas; Haffner, Matthias; Heym, Christine; Senninger, Norbert

    1998-04-01

    Rat adrenal glands fluoresce intensely after systemic application of meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). We investigated which parts of the adrenal gland accumulate mTHPC. Furthermore we examined the time course of adrenal mTHPC-accumulation. Ten male Wistar rats each were given 0.5 or 0.7 mg mTHPC kg-1 iv. Each two animals were perfused with normal saline and Zamboni fixative 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after photosensitization. Untreated animals served as controls. Fluorescence was quantified on 20 micrometer frozen sections with CCD-camera and appropriate software. Immunohistochemistry identified specific cell types with antibodies to steroid-synthesizing enzymes. The cortex exhibited an intense fluorescence, with weaker fluorescence of corticocytes in the zona glomerulosa compared to the other zones. Besides intensely fluorescing singly lying scattered cells, the medulla showed a faint mTHPC-induced fluorescence. Immunohistochemistry revealed that intramedullary cells with intense fluorescence were corticocytes, showing a positive reaction to the 21-(beta) -hydroxylase antibody. Peak accumulation of mTHPC was always observed after 24 hours. Our results indicate for the first time that only steroid synthesizing cells of the adrenal gland exhibit an intense photosensitizer-induced fluorescence. Thus mTHPC-application is an uncomplicated method to identify steroid-synthesizing cells, possibly also in other organs.

  3. Comparison between adrenal, gonadal, and pituitary hormones on the behavior of rhesus monkey kidney cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Hull, S; Benghuzzi, H; Tucci, M; Hughes, J

    1999-01-01

    Recently, several studies have indicated that the use of Rhesus Monkey Kidney epithelial cells (RMKEC) in culture could provide significant knowledge regarding the alteration or dysfunction of kidney tissues that often resulted into kidney failure. The interrelationship between various steroid hormones, as well as, growth-promoting hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and RMKEC has not been fully investigated. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cortisol (C), testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), estradiol (E), and GH on the proliferation and viability of RMKEC in culture. The cell line was adapted to grow in Morgan, Morton, and Parker's medium 199 (with 1.68 g/L sodium bicarbonate) supplemented with 1% horse serum. A total of 30 tubes were plated with RMKEC and divided into six equal groups. In-groups 1-5, each well (n = 5) were treated with a physiological dose of C, T, DHEA, E, and GH, respectively. At 24, 48, and 96 hours the cells and supernatants were collected and stored for further analysis. The biochemical markers were assessed using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), catalase, and malinodialdehyde (MDA). Data obtained suggest that: (I) treatment of RMKEC with C and DHEA resulted in an increase in MDA levels compared to the control and other experimental groups, (II) no significant increase was observed in LDH levels in all treated tubes compared to the control group, (III) higher proliferation rate was observed in cells treated with T compared to the control group. However, treatment with C showed suppression to the proliferation rate and no significant difference was observed between DHEA, GH and the control groups. In conclusion this study suggests that steroid hormones regardless of the source of secretion (gonads or adrenals) can influence the functional capacity of RMKEC in culture. PMID:11143395

  4. Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor/translocator protein global knock-out mice are viable with no effects on steroid hormone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tu, Lan N; Morohaku, Kanako; Manna, Pulak R; Pelton, Susanne H; Butler, W Ronald; Stocco, Douglas M; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2014-10-01

    Translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein implicated as essential for cholesterol import to the inner mitochondrial membrane, the rate-limiting step in steroid hormone biosynthesis. Previous research on TSPO was based entirely on in vitro experiments, and its critical role was reinforced by an early report that claimed TSPO knock-out mice were embryonic lethal. In a previous publication, we examined Leydig cell-specific TSPO conditional knock-out mice that suggested TSPO was not required for testosterone production in vivo. This raised controversy and several questions regarding TSPO function. To examine the definitive role of TSPO in steroidogenesis and embryo development, we generated global TSPO null (Tspo(-/-)) mice. Contrary to the early report, Tspo(-/-) mice survived with no apparent phenotypic abnormalities and were fertile. Examination of adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis showed no defects in Tspo(-/-) mice. Adrenal transcriptome comparison of gene expression profiles showed that genes involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis (Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1) were unchanged in Tspo(-/-) mice. Adrenocortical ultrastructure illustrated no morphological alterations in Tspo(-/-) mice. In an attempt to correlate our in vivo findings to previously used in vitro models, we also determined that siRNA knockdown or the absence of TSPO in different mouse and human steroidogenic cell lines had no effect on steroidogenesis. These findings directly refute the dogma that TSPO is indispensable for steroid hormone biosynthesis and viability. By amending the current model, this study advances our understanding of steroidogenesis with broad implications in biology and medicine. PMID:24936060

  5. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    SciTech Connect

    Traina, Maria Elsa . E-mail: Traina@iss.it; Guarino, Maria; Natoli, Alessia; Romeo, Antonella; Urbani, Elisabetta

    2007-05-15

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effects were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage.

  6. Study of urinary steroid hormone disorders: difference between hepatocellular carcinoma in early stage and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Weidong; Yin, Peiyuan; Chen, Ping; Kong, Hongwei; Luo, Ping; Xu, Zhiliang; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2014-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. Discovery of novel biomarkers for early HCC from other liver diseases such as cirrhosis is of great clinical benefit. In this study, a novel steroid hormone metabolomic method based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with logistic regression analysis was applied to study the steroid hormone disorders and to screen potential urinary steroid hormone biomarkers of early HCC. Thirty-six urinary steroid hormones were detected and quantified in healthy controls, cirrhotic patients, and early HCC patients. Heat map analysis and multivariate statistical analysis suggested severe disorders of steroid hormone network and holistically decreased urinary steroid hormone pattern in cirrhotic and early HCC patients. Logistic regression analysis reveals that a panel of two urinary steroid hormones (epitestosterone and allotetrahydrocortisol) displayed excellent diagnostic capability for distinguishing early HCC from cirrhosis with area under the curve (AUC) = 0.938 of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. These results help to overcome the disadvantage of lower sensitivity and specificity of alpha-fetoprotein for distinguishing early HCC from cirrhosis. Our work shows that steroid hormone metabolomics is a promising biomarker tool for biomarker study of early HCC. PMID:24817358

  7. The Insect Prothoracic Gland as a Model for Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Ou, Qiuxiang; Zeng, Jie; Yamanaka, Naoki; Brakken-Thal, Christina; O'Connor, Michael B; King-Jones, Kirst

    2016-06-28

    Steroid hormones are ancient signaling molecules found in vertebrates and insects alike. Both taxa show intriguing parallels with respect to how steroids function and how their synthesis is regulated. As such, insects are excellent models for studying universal aspects of steroid physiology. Here, we present a comprehensive genomic and genetic analysis of the principal steroid hormone-producing organs in two popular insect models, Drosophila and Bombyx. We identified 173 genes with previously unknown specific expression in steroid-producing cells, 15 of which had critical roles in development. The insect neuropeptide PTTH and its vertebrate counterpart ACTH both regulate steroid production, but molecular targets of these pathways remain poorly characterized. Identification of PTTH-dependent gene sets identified the nuclear receptor HR4 as a highly conserved target in both Drosophila and Bombyx. We consider this study to be a critical step toward understanding how steroid hormone production and release are regulated in all animal models. PMID:27320926

  8. Steroid hormones in bovine oviductal fluid during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Julie; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Aprahamian, Fanny; Mermillod, Pascal; Saint-Dizier, Marie

    2016-10-01

    Ovarian steroid hormones are major regulators of the physiology of the oviduct and reproductive events occurring within the oviduct. To establish a whole steroid profiling of the bovine oviductal fluid (OF) during the estrous cycle, contralateral and ipsilateral (to the corpus luteum or preovulatory follicle) oviducts were classified into four stages of the estrous cycle (n = 18-27 cows per stage): postovulatory (Post-ov), mid-luteal (Mid-lut), late luteal (Late-lut), and preovulatory on the basis of the ovarian morphology and intrafollicular steroid concentrations. Steroids were extracted from pools of 150 to 200 μL OF (three to 10 cows per pool; three to four pools per "stage × side" group), purified, fractioned by high-performance liquid chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of progesterone (P4) in ipsilateral OF increased from Post-ov (56.9 ± 13.4 ng/mL) to Mid-lut (120.3 ± 34.3 ng/mL), then decreased from Late-lut (76.7 ± 1.8 ng/mL) to Pre-ov (6.3 ± 1.7 ng/mL), and were four to 16 times higher than in contralateral OF. Most P4 metabolites followed similar patterns of variation. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2) were significantly higher at Pre-ov (290.5 ± 63.2 pg/mL) compared with all other stages (<118.3 pg/mL), with no difference regarding the side of ovulation. Concentrations of androstenedione displayed a pattern similar to that of E2, whereas other androgens, estrone, and corticoids did not vary between stages or sides. In conclusion, a highly concentrated and fluctuating hormonal environment was evidenced in the bovine OF. These results could be useful to improve media for IVF, embryo development, and culture of oviductal cells. PMID:27262884

  9. Cytochrome P450c17 (steroid 17. cap alpha. -hydroxylase/17,20 lyase): cloning of human adrenal and testis cDNAs indicates the same gene is expressed in both tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B.; Picado-Leonard, J.; Haniu, M.; Bienkowski, M.; Hall, P.F.; Shively, J.E.; Miller, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    P450c17 is the single enzyme mediating both 17..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (steroid 17..cap alpha..-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.99.9) and 17,20 lyase activities in the synthesis of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that different P450c17 isozymes mediate these activities in the adrenal gland and testis. The authors sequenced 423 of the 509 amino acids (83%) of the porcine adrenal enzyme; based on this partial sequence, a 128-fold degenerate 17-mer was synthesized and used to screen a porcine adrenal cDNA library. This yielded a 380-base cloned cDNA, which in turn was used to isolate several human adrenal cDNAs. The longest of these, lambda hac 17-2, is 1754 base pairs long and includes the full-length coding region, the complete 3'-untranslated region, and 41 bases of the 5'-untranslated region. This cDNA encodes a protein of 508 amino acids having a predicted molecular weight of 57,379.82. High-stringency screening of a human testicular cDNA library yielded a partial clone containing 1303 identical bases. RNA gel blots and nuclease S1-protection experiments confirm that the adrenal and testicular P450c17 mRNAs are indistinguishable. These data indicate that the testis possesses a P450c17 identical to that in the adrenal. The human amino acid sequence is 66.7% homologous to the corresponding regions of the porcine sequence, and the human cDNA and amino acid sequences are 80.1 and 70.3% homologous, respectively, to bovine adrenal P450c17 cDNA. Both comparisons indicate that a central region comprising amino acid residues 160-268 is hypervariable among these species of P450c17.

  10. Perception of Plant Steroid Hormones at the Cell Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianming

    2013-03-25

    The proposed research had two main objectives: 1) investigating the molecular mechanism by which BRs activate the BRI1-containing steroid receptor; and 2) to investigate the molecular mechanism of BRI1 function. During the course of this project, several research papers were published from other laboratories, which reported studies similar to our proposed experiments. We therefore changed our research direction and focused our research efforts on 1) molecular genetic studies of several extragenic suppressors of a weak bri1-9 mutant (which were named as EMS-mutagenized bri1 suppressor or ebs) and 2) biochemical characterization of the protein products of the cloned EBS genes. This switch turned out to be extremely successful and led to a surprising discovery that the dwarf phenotype of the well-studied bri1-9 mutant is not due to the failure of the bri1 receptor to bind the plant steroid hormone but rather caused by the retention of a structurally-imperfect but biochemically-competent bri1-9 and its subsequent degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum. This initial discovery coupled with subsequent cloning and further studies of additional EBS genes significantly increased our understanding of the protein quality control mechanisms in plants, a severely under-studied research topic in plant biology.

  11. [Vitamin D as an important steroid hormone in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Obermannova, R; Demlová, R; Drábová, K; Melichárková, K; Greplová, K; Mrkvicová, M; Zdražilová-Dubská, L; Vyzula, R; Valík, D

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is the third steroid hormone playing important bio-logical roles in the development of breast cancer. Decreased plasma levels of its 25- hydroxyderivative, 25OHD, display robust associations with higher incidence of breast cancer and shorter overall survival. Although no consensus exists, most authors agree that optimal plasma levels shall be within 75- 150 nmol/ l whereas levels higher than 375 nmol/ l can be potentially toxic with higher risk of hypercalcemia. To date, no data are available on the optimal levels of vitamin D related to the risk of breast cancer development, its phenotype features and the course of the disease. Published studies mostly describe associations among higher levels of 25OHD and lower bio-logically aggressiveness of the tumor. The polymorphism of VDR gene coding for the steroid receptor for vitamin Dmay be associated with higher disease incidence and also be of negative prognostic significance in breast cancer. This review presents an overall summary of the current knowledge and publications on vitamin D and breast cancer. PMID:24945552

  12. Steroid sulfotransferase 2A1 gene transcription is regulated by steroidogenic factor 1 and GATA-6 in the human adrenal.

    PubMed

    Saner, Karla J; Suzuki, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu; Pizzey, John; Ho, Clement; Strauss, Jerome F; Carr, Bruce R; Rainey, William E

    2005-01-01

    Sulfonation is a phase II conjugation reaction responsible for the biotransformation of many compounds including steroids, bile acids, and drugs. Humans are presently known to express at least five cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes, of which only two are hydroxysteroid SULT, SULT2A1, commonly known as steroid sulfotransferase, and the cholesterol sulfotransferase SULT2B1. SULT2A1 is highly expressed in the adrenal where it is responsible for the sulfation of hydroxysteroids including conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and in the liver where it is responsible for sulfation of bile acids and circulating hydroxysteroids. Little is known concerning the transcriptional regulation of human SULT2A1 in adrenal. Herein we demonstrate the role of two transcription factors, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) and GATA-6, in the regulation of SULT2A1 transcription. These transcription factors were quantified by real-time RT-PCR in normal human adrenal tissue. Transient transfection assays with deleted and mutated SULT2A1 promoter constructs allowed for the determination of specific SF1 and GATA binding cis-regulatory elements necessary for transactivation of SULT2A1 promoter, and binding was confirmed by EMSA analysis. Both SF1 and GATA-6 were positive regulators of SULT2A1 promoter constructs. These data support the hypothesis that adrenal SULT2A1 expression is regulated by SF1 and GATA-6. PMID:15388788

  13. Steroid replacement in primary adrenal failure does not appear to affect circulating adipokines.

    PubMed

    Fichna, Marta; Fichna, Piotr; Gryczyńska, Maria; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Żurawek, Magdalena; Ruchała, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Despite continuous efforts for an optimal steroid replacement, recent observations suggest increased cardiometabolic risk and related mortality in primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI). Adipokines are peptides from the adipose tissue, markers of cardiometabolic dysfunction. This study was aimed to evaluate serum levels of adipokines: leptin, adiponectin, and resistin in PAI during conventional steroid substitution. The analysis comprised 63 patients (mean age 42.7 ± 14.1 years) and 63 healthy controls. Serum adipokines, lipid profile, and plasma glucose were assessed in both cohorts. ACTH, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, DHEA-S, cortisol and 24 h urinary free cortisol were determined in PAI. Body mass composition was analyzed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Mean BMI in the control group was 24.1 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) and 23.7 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) in the PAI cohort. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were similar in both groups, whereas resistin appeared significantly lower among affected subjects (p = 0.0002). Its levels were weakly correlated with HOMA-IR (p = 0.048). Leptin was independently correlated with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, BMI, and body fat (p < 0.001). At the multiple regression analysis only weight (p = 0.017), total and HDL cholesterol (p < 0.001) appeared significant predictors of adiponectin level. No adipokine correlations with serum cortisol or daily hydrocortisone dose were found. Patients receiving DHEA substitution displayed lower leptin and adiponectin levels (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our study did not provide evidence of an adverse adipokine profile in patients with PAI under conventional glucocorticoid replacement. Serum adipokines in treated PAI follow similar correlations to those reported in healthy subjects. Further prospective studies are warranted to verify and explain plausible excess of cardiovascular mortality in PAI. PMID:25129652

  14. Variations in urine excretion of steroid hormones after an acute session and after a 4-week programme of strength training.

    PubMed

    Timón Andrada, Rafael; Maynar Mariño, M; Muñoz Marín, D; Olcina Camacho, G J; Caballero, M J; Maynar Mariño, J I

    2007-01-01

    Performing strength exercise, whether acutely or in a training programme, leads to alterations at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes. One way to evaluate these changes is by analysis of the excretion of steroid hormones in the urine. The present study determined the variations in the urine profile of glucuroconjugated steroids after a single session of strength exercise and after a 4-week programme of strength training. The subjects were a group (n = 20) of non-sportsman male university students who worked out 3 days a week [Monday (M), Wednesday (W) and Friday (F)], performing the exercises at 70-75% of one repetition maximum strength (1-RM). Four urine samples were collected per subject: (A) before and (B) after a standard session prior to initiating the training programme, and (C) before and (D) after the same standard session at the end of the study, and they were assayed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the different hormones were determined relatively to the urine creatinine level (ng steroid/mg creatinine) to correct for diuresis. After the exercise sessions, both before and after the training programme, there was a fall in the urine excretion of androgens and estrogens, but no statistically significant changes in the excretion of tetrahydrocortisol (THF) and tetrahydrocortisone (THE). The anabolic/catabolic hormones ratio also decreased after the acute session, although only androstenodione + dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)/THE + THF ratio had a significant decrease (P < 0.05). After the training programme, there was a significant (P < 0.01) improvement in the strength of the muscle groups studied, and an increased urinary excretion of all the androgens with respect to the initial state of repose, with the difference being significant in the case of epitestosterone (Epit) (P < 0.05). The androsterone (A) + etiocholanolone (E)/THE + THF ratio increased significantly (P < 0

  15. The role of feeding rhythm, adrenal hormones and neuronal inputs in synchronizing daily clock gene rhythms in the liver.

    PubMed

    Su, Yan; Cailotto, Cathy; Foppen, Ewout; Jansen, Remi; Zhang, Zhi; Buijs, Ruud; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2016-02-15

    The master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is assumed to distribute rhythmic information to the periphery via neural, humoral and/or behavioral connections. Until now, feeding, corticosterone and neural inputs are considered important signals for synchronizing daily rhythms in the liver. In this study, we investigated the necessity of neural inputs as well as of the feeding and adrenal hormone rhythms for maintaining daily hepatic clock gene rhythms. Clock genes kept their daily rhythm when only one of these three signals was disrupted, or when we disrupted hepatic neuronal inputs together with the adrenal hormone rhythm or with the daily feeding rhythm. However, all clock genes studied lost their daily expression rhythm after simultaneous disruption of the feeding and adrenal hormone rhythm. These data indicate that either a daily rhythm of feeding or adrenal hormones should be present to synchronize clock gene rhythms in the liver with the SCN. PMID:26704081

  16. Adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone rhythms in male golden hamsters on long and short days

    SciTech Connect

    Ottenweller, J.E.; Tapp, W.N.; Pitman, D.L.; Natelson, B.H. New Jersey Medical School, Newark )

    1987-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormones were measured at 4-h intervals around the clock in male hamsters on long (14:10-h light-dark cycle) and short (10:14-h light-dark cycle) days. Plasma corticosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (T{sub 4}), triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and testosterone rhythms were present on long days. The only one of these hormones to have a significant rhythm on short days was cortisol, but even its amplitude was suppressed compared with the cortisol rhythm on long days. Short days also lowered mean plasma levels of cortisol, T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, and testosterone. Finally, short days raised the ratio of corticosterone to cortisol and lowered the ratio of T{sub 4} to T{sub 3}. Both ratios had significant rhythms on long days but not on short days. Because of the many interactions among adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone axes, it is unclear whether the primary effect of short days is on one of these endocrine systems or on another factor that has separate effects on each of the hormone rhythms that was measured. Nonetheless, it is clear that a major effect of short day lengths in hamsters is to suppress hormone rhythms. Explanations of photoperiodic effects that depend on endocrine mediation should take this into account.

  17. In vitro binding of steroid hormones by natural and purified fibers.

    PubMed

    Shultz, T D; Howie, B J

    1986-01-01

    The in vitro binding of estrone, estradiol-17 beta, estriol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estrone-3-glucuronide by wheat, oat, and corn brans, oat hulls, cellulose, lignin, and cholestyramine resin was measured. The extent of steroid sequestration was characteristic and reproducible for each hormone. Cholestyramine bound an average of 90% of all the steroids tested, whereas cellulose bound the least (12%). Of the other substances tested, each bound the following percentage of unconjugated hormones: lignin, 87%; wheat and oat brans, 45% each; corn bran 44%; and oat hulls, 32%. The conjugated steroid was less likely to bind than the unconjugated steroids. Lignin appeared to be an important component in the interaction with steroid hormones. The results support the hydrophobic nature of adsorption and suggest that the components of fiber in diet should be considered separately when evaluating in vivo metabolic effects. PMID:3010251

  18. Spectrum of Adrenal Dysfunction in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Evaluation of Adrenal and Pituitary Reserve with ACTH and Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Testing.

    PubMed

    Freda, P U; Papadopoulos, A D; Wardlaw, S L; Goland, R S

    1997-07-01

    Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been reported to develop abnormalities of the endocrine system and in particular of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To define the abnormalities of HPA function in AIDS patients better, we performed ACTH and ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (oCRH) testing in a group of AIDS patients and oCRH testing in a group of healthy subjects. Our study found that in AIDS patients with normal ACTH testing, oCRH testing revealed a variety of subclinical abnormalities of ACTH and cortisol responses. Although we did not find frank adrenal insufficiency in any of these AIDS patients, it remains to be determined if any of the subclinical abnormalities we identified are predictive of clinically significant adrenal insufficiency; it may be that as AIDS patients live longer, the subclinical abnormalities will progress to adrenal insufficiency. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:173-180). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. PMID:18406803

  19. From molecule to market: steroid hormones and financial risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    Coates, John M.; Gurnell, Mark; Sarnyai, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial decision-making. Here, we survey research on steroid hormones and their cognitive effects, and examine potential links to trader performance in the financial markets. Preliminary findings suggest that cortisol codes for risk and testosterone for reward. A key finding of this endocrine research is the different cognitive effects of acute versus chronic exposure to hormones: acutely elevated steroids may optimize performance on a range of tasks; but chronically elevated steroids may promote irrational risk-reward choices. We present a hypothesis suggesting that the irrational exuberance and pessimism observed during market bubbles and crashes may be mediated by steroid hormones. If hormones can exaggerate market moves, then perhaps the age and sex composition among traders and asset managers may affect the level of instability witnessed in the financial markets. PMID:20026470

  20. [Comparison of chemical and radiochemical methods in determination of steroid hormones].

    PubMed

    Menini, E

    1975-06-01

    While in some cases steroids can be measured directly in serum or plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA), in other cases, especially when analyses are carried out in urine, the samples must be processed before RIA can be performed. The operations involved in the preparation of urinary or blood extracts suitable for the RIA of steroid hormones are examined and compared in terms of practicability with the analytical procedures currently used for the chemical determination of the same steroids or their metabolites. PMID:1223934

  1. Differential Responses to Steroid Hormones in Fibroblasts From the Vocal Fold, Trachea, and Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Bando, Hideki; Hirota, Ryuichi; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Hisa, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that fibroblasts are target cells for steroids such as sex hormones and corticoids. The characteristics of fibroblasts vary among tissues and organs. Our aim in this study is to examine differences in responses to steroid hormones among fibroblasts from different cervicothoracic regions. We compared the actions of steroid hormones on cultured fibroblasts from the vocal folds, which are considered to be the primary target of steroid hormones, and the trachea and esophagus in adult male rats. Expression of steroid hormone receptors (androgen receptor, estrogen receptor α, and glucocorticoid receptor) was identified by immunofluorescence histochemistry. Androgen receptor was much more frequently expressed in fibroblasts from the vocal fold than in those from the trachea and esophagus. Cell proliferation analysis showed that administration of testosterone, estradiol, or corticosterone suppressed growth of all 3 types of fibroblasts. However, mRNA expression for extracellular matrix–associated genes, including procollagen I and III and elastin, and hyaluronic acid synthase I was elevated only by addition of testosterone to fibroblasts from the vocal fold. These results indicate that each steroid hormone exerts region-specific effects on cervicothoracic fibroblasts with different properties through binding to specific receptors. PMID:25514085

  2. Adrenal-Derived Hormones Differentially Modulate Intestinal Immunity in Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Patrícia Reis; Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; Basso, Paulo José; Nardini, Viviani; Silva, Angelica; Banquieri, Fernanda; Alves, Vanessa Beatriz Freitas; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Nomizo, Auro; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal glands are able to modulate immune responses through neuroimmunoendocrine interactions and cortisol secretion that could suppress exacerbated inflammation such as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, here we evaluated the role of these glands in experimental colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice subjected to adrenalectomy, with or without glucocorticoid (GC) replacement. Mice succumbed to colitis without adrenals with a higher clinical score and augmented systemic levels of IL-6 and lower LPS. Furthermore, adrenalectomy negatively modulated systemic regulatory markers. The absence of adrenals resulted in augmented tolerogenic lamina propria dendritic cells but no compensatory local production of corticosterone and decreased mucosal inflammation associated with increased IFN-γ and FasL in the intestine. To clarify the importance of GC in this scenario, GC replacement in adrenalectomized mice restored different markers to the same degree of that observed in DSS group. Finally, this is the first time that adrenal-derived hormones, especially GC, were associated with the differential local modulation of the gut infiltrate, also pointing to a relationship between adrenalectomy and the modulation of systemic regulatory markers. These findings may elucidate some neuroimmunoendocrine mechanisms that dictate colitis outcome. PMID:27403034

  3. Adrenal-Derived Hormones Differentially Modulate Intestinal Immunity in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Patrícia Reis; Basso, Paulo José; Nardini, Viviani; Silva, Angelica; Banquieri, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal glands are able to modulate immune responses through neuroimmunoendocrine interactions and cortisol secretion that could suppress exacerbated inflammation such as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, here we evaluated the role of these glands in experimental colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice subjected to adrenalectomy, with or without glucocorticoid (GC) replacement. Mice succumbed to colitis without adrenals with a higher clinical score and augmented systemic levels of IL-6 and lower LPS. Furthermore, adrenalectomy negatively modulated systemic regulatory markers. The absence of adrenals resulted in augmented tolerogenic lamina propria dendritic cells but no compensatory local production of corticosterone and decreased mucosal inflammation associated with increased IFN-γ and FasL in the intestine. To clarify the importance of GC in this scenario, GC replacement in adrenalectomized mice restored different markers to the same degree of that observed in DSS group. Finally, this is the first time that adrenal-derived hormones, especially GC, were associated with the differential local modulation of the gut infiltrate, also pointing to a relationship between adrenalectomy and the modulation of systemic regulatory markers. These findings may elucidate some neuroimmunoendocrine mechanisms that dictate colitis outcome. PMID:27403034

  4. Evidence of steroid hormone activity in the chorioallantoic membrane of a Turtle (Pseudemys nelsoni).

    PubMed

    Cruze, Lori; Hamlin, Heather J; Kohno, Satomi; McCoy, Michael W; Guillette, Louis J

    2013-06-01

    Endocrine properties of extraembryonic membranes have traditionally been viewed as a characteristic of placental amniotes. However, our laboratory recently demonstrated that this ability extends to the extraembryonic membranes of two oviparous amniotes (chicken and alligator) indicating that endocrine extraembryonic membranes are not an innovation of placental amniotes and suggesting that this could be a shared amniote characteristic. In this study, we test our hypothesis that the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) obtained from non-archosaurian obligate oviparous amniotes such as turtles, have the potential for steroid hormone activity. To investigate synthesis of a major placental hormone, we performed explant culture and found that the turtle CAM synthesizes progesterone in vitro in the presence of a steroid precursor. In addition, to examine whether the CAM has the ability to respond to steroid signaling, we quantified mRNA expression of the progesterone, androgen, and two estrogen receptors. Finally, to determine if steroid receptor mRNA is translated to protein, we performed immunolocalization of the progesterone receptor. Our data demonstrate that the turtle CAM exhibits steroid synthesis and has steroid hormone signaling capabilities. To that end, steroid hormone activity has now been demonstrated in the CAMs of three oviparous species that represent three independent lineages within oviparous Reptilia that have never exhibited viviparity; thus these data support our hypothesis that endocrine activity of extraembryonic membranes is a conserved trait of Amniota. PMID:23458289

  5. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival12

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne; Måsbäck, Anna; Hartman, Linda; Nilbert, Mef; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer in an independent data set, hypothesizing that the expression levels and prognostic impact may differ between the subtypes. Results: Expression of PR or AR protein was associated with improved 5-year progression-free (P = .001 for both) and overall survival (P < .001 for both, log-rank test). ERα and ERβ did not provide prognostic information. Patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR had the most favorable prognosis, and this effect was retained in multivariable analyses. Analyses of the corresponding genes using an independent data set revealed differences among the molecular subtypes, but no clear relationship between high coexpression of PGR and AR and prognosis. Conclusions: A favorable outcome was seen for patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR. Gene expression data suggested variable effects in the different molecular subtypes. These findings demonstrate a prognostic role for PR and AR in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer. PMID:26500033

  6. Analysis of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste disposal system.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Yates, Scott R; Bradford, Scott A

    2008-01-15

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause an adverse effect on aquatic species. To better assess the potential risks of hormone contamination resulting from land application of dairy wastes, various steroid hormones were determined in a typical dairy waste disposal system. Quantitative methods using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were developed to monitor low levels of steroid hormones in complex solid and liquid samples contaminated with dairy manure. The preparation method for wastewater analysis consisted of solid-phase extraction and purification steps, which minimized interference from the sample matrices and achieved low detection limits for the studied hormones. In the dairy wastewater and lagoon water, three endogenous hormones-17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, and estrone-were detected. The concentration of 17alpha-estradiol in fresh milk parlor effluent rapidly decreased along the wastewater disposal route, whereas the concentration of estrone increased along this same pathway. This suggests that 17alpha-estradiol was readily oxidized to the metabolite estrone. Levels of total steroid hormones in the sequencing lagoon water were approximately 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than those in the fresh dairy wastewaters, indicating significant removal of these hormones during the transport of dairy wastewater from source to field. In solid dairy waste samples, four steroid hormones were identified and quantified. Increasing the piling time of solid wastes and increasing the residence time of wastewater in sequencing lagoons are suggested to be economical and efficient agriculture practices to extend the degradation time of hormone contaminants and thereby reduce the hormone load to the environment. PMID:18284158

  7. Anaerobic transformation kinetics and mechanism of steroid estrogenic hormones in dairy lagoon water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastewater from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) frequently contains high concentrations of steroid estrogenic hormones. Release of these hormones into the environment may occur when CAFO wastewater is applied to agricultural lands as a nutrient and/or water source for crop production....

  8. INTERLABORATORY STUDY ON THE USE OF STEROID HORMONES IN EXAMINING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been an increased use of the measurement of sex steroid hormone levels in the blood of animals exposed to chemicals as an indicator of reproductive impairment or an alteration in endocrine function. Although levels of hormones are often compared among ...

  9. AN INTERLABORATORY STUDY ON THE USE OF STEROID HORMONES IN EVALUATING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been an increased use of the measurement of sex steroid hormone levels in the blood of animals exposed to chemicals as an indicator of reproductive impairment or an alteration in endocrine function. Although levels of hormones are often compared among a...

  10. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Marta C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  11. In vitro adrenal bioactivation and effects on steroid metabolism of DDT, PCBs and their metabolites in the gray seal (Halichoerus grypus)

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, B.O. . Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

    1994-06-01

    The irreversible binding of the DDT metabolites o,p[prime]-DDD [2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] and MeSO[sub 2]-DDE [3-methylsulfonyl-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene], as well as their potential to inhibit mitochondrial steroid 11[beta]-hydroxylation in the gray seal adrenal gland, was studied. The adrenal bioactivated both o,p[prime]-DDD and MeSO[sub 2[minus

  12. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and Reference Intervals.

    PubMed

    Hart, Leslie B; Wells, Randall S; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Lamb, Stephen V; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-01-01

    Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones commonly associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these reference intervals will be used to gauge an individual's response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000-2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91-4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32-6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of Sarasota Bay

  13. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Leslie B.; Wells, Randall S.; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lamb, Stephen V.; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.

    2015-01-01

    Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones commonly associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these reference intervals will be used to gauge an individual’s response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000–2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91–4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32–6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of

  14. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-01

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600 ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390 ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  15. Developmental and Functional Effects of Steroid Hormones on the Neuroendocrine Axis and Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Zubeldia-Brenner, L; Roselli, C E; Recabarren, S E; Gonzalez Deniselle, M C; Lara, H E

    2016-07-01

    This review highlights the principal effects of steroid hormones at central and peripheral levels in the neuroendocrine axis. The data discussed highlight the principal role of oestrogens and testosterone in hormonal programming in relation to sexual orientation, reproductive and metabolic programming, and the neuroendocrine mechanism involved in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype. Moreover, consistent with the wide range of processes in which steroid hormones take part, we discuss the protective effects of progesterone on neurodegenerative disease and the signalling mechanism involved in the genesis of oestrogen-induced pituitary prolactinomas. PMID:27262161

  16. Interactions Between Adrenal and Calcium-Regulatory Hormones in Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jenifer M.; Vaidya, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review To summarize evidence characterizing the interactions between adrenal- and calcium-regulating hormones, and the relevance of these interactions to human cardiovascular and skeletal health. Recent Findings Human studies support the regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS): angiotensin II may stimulate PTH secretion via an acute and direct mechanism, whereas aldosterone may exert a chronic stimulation of PTH secretion. Studies in primary aldosteronism, congestive heart failure, and chronic kidney disease have identified associations between hyperaldosteronism, hyperparathyroidism, and bone loss, which appear to improve when inhibiting the RAAS. Conversely, elevated PTH and insufficient vitamin D status have been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, which may be mediated by the RAAS. Studies of primary hyperparathyroidism implicate PTH-mediated stimulation of the RAAS, and recent evidence shows that the vitamin D-vitamin D receptor (VDR) complex may negatively regulate renin expression and RAAS activity. Ongoing human interventional studies are evaluating the influence of RAAS inhibition on PTH and the influence of VDR agonists on RAAS activity. Summary While previously considered independent endocrine systems, emerging evidence supports a complex web of interactions between adrenal and calcium-regulating hormones, with implications for human cardiovascular and skeletal health. PMID:24694551

  17. Role of Protein Phosphorylation and Tyrosine Phosphatases in the Adrenal Regulation of Steroid Synthesis and Mitochondrial Function.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gorostizaga, Alejandra; Castillo, Ana F; Mori Sequeiros García, M Mercedes; Maloberti, Paula M; Orlando, Ulises D; Mele, Pablo G; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J

    2016-01-01

    In adrenocortical cells, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) promotes the activation of several protein kinases. The action of these kinases is linked to steroid production, mainly through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), whose expression and activity are dependent on protein phosphorylation events at genomic and non-genomic levels. Hormone-dependent mitochondrial dynamics and cell proliferation are functions also associated with protein kinases. On the other hand, protein tyrosine dephosphorylation is an additional component of the ACTH signaling pathway, which involves the "classical" protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), such as Src homology domain (SH) 2-containing PTP (SHP2c), and members of the MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) family, such as MKP-1. PTPs are rapidly activated by posttranslational mechanisms and participate in hormone-stimulated steroid production. In this process, the SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase plays a crucial role in a mechanism that includes an acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl4), arachidonic acid (AA) release and StAR induction. In contrast, MKPs in steroidogenic cells have a role in the turn-off of the hormonal signal in ERK-dependent processes such as steroid synthesis and, perhaps, cell proliferation. This review analyzes the participation of these tyrosine phosphates in the ACTH signaling pathway and the action of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and steroid production. In addition, the participation of kinases and phosphatases in the signal cascade triggered by different stimuli in other steroidogenic tissues is also compared to adrenocortical cell/ACTH and discussed. PMID:27375556

  18. Altered diurnal pattern of steroid hormones in relation to various behaviors, external factors and pathologies: A review.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K; Baillot, A; Forget, H; Coquerel, A; Rieth, N; Vibarel-Rebot, N

    2016-10-01

    The adrenal and gonadal stress steroids [i.e., cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] have gathered considerable attention in the last few decades due to their very broad physiological and psychological actions. Their diurnal patterns have become a particular focus following new data implicating altered diurnal hormone patterns in various endocrine, behavioral and cardiovascular risk profiles. In this review of the current literature, we present a brief overview of the altered diurnal patterns of these hormones that may occur in relation to chronic stress, nutritional behaviors, physical exercise, drugs and sleep deprivation/shift. We also present data on the altered diurnal hormone patterns implicated in cardiometabolic and psychiatric/neurologic diseases, cancer and other complex pathologies. We consider the occasionally discrepant results of the studies, and summarize the current knowledge in this new field of interest, underlining the potential effects on both biological and psychological functioning, and assess the implications of these effects. Last, we conclude with some practical considerations and perspectives. PMID:27235338

  19. The Metabolism, Analysis, and Targeting of Steroid Hormones in Breast and Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Capper, Cameron P; Rae, James M; Auchus, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Breast and prostate cancers are malignancies in which steroid hormones drive cellular proliferation. Over the past century, this understanding has led to successful treatment strategies aimed to inhibit hormone-mediated tumor growth. Nonetheless, disease relapse and progression still pose significant clinical problems, with recurrent and metastatic tumors often exhibiting resistance to current drug therapies. The central role of androgens and estrogens in prostate and breast cancer etiology explains not only why endocrine therapies are often initially successful but also why many tumors ultimately become resistant. It is hypothesized that reducing the concentration of active hormones in the systemic circulation may be insufficient to block cancer progression, as this action selects for tumor cells that can generate active steroids from circulating precursors. This review aims to highlight the currently known differences of steroid biosynthesis in normal physiology versus hormone-dependent cancers, modern approaches to the assessment and targeting of these pathways, and priorities for future research. PMID:26969590

  20. Synthesis and chemical reactions of the steroidal hormone 17α-methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, El-Sayed Ibrahim; Reyad, Mahmoud; Afsah, Elsayed Mohammed; Dawidar, Abdel-Aziz Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Structural modifications of natural products with complex structures like steroids require great synthetic effort. A review of literature is presented on the chemistry of the steroidal hormone 17α-methyltestosterone that is approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States as an androgen for estrogen-androgen hormone replacement therapy treatment. The analog also offers special possibilities for the prevention/treatment of hormone-sensitive cancers. The testosterone skeleton has important functionalities in the molecule that can act as a carbonyl component, an active methylene compound, α,β-unsaturated enone and tertiary hydroxyl group in various chemical reactions to access stereoisomeric steroidal compounds with potent activity. In addition, microbiological methods of synthesis and transformation of this hormone are presented. PMID:26639430

  1. In vivo evidence for the crucial role of SF1 in steroid-producing cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Buaas, F. William; Gardiner, Jennifer R.; Clayton, Sally; Val, Pierre; Swain, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adrenal and gonadal steroids are essential for life and reproduction. The orphan nuclear receptor SF1 (NR5A1) has been shown to regulate the expression of enzymes involved in steroid production in vitro. However, the in vivo role of this transcription factor in steroidogenesis has not been elucidated. In this study, we have generated steroidogenic-specific Cre-expressing mice to lineage mark and delete Sf1 in differentiated steroid-producing cells of the testis, the ovary and the adrenal gland. Our data show that SF1 is a regulator of the expression of steroidogenic genes in all three organs. In addition, Sf1 deletion leads to a radical change in cell morphology and loss of identity. Surprisingly, sexual development and reproduction in mutant animals were not compromised owing, in part, to the presence of a small proportion of SF1-positive cells. In contrast to the testis and ovary, the mutant adult adrenal gland showed a lack of Sf1-deleted cells and our studies suggest that steroidogenic adrenal cells during foetal stages require Sf1 to give rise to the adult adrenal population. This study is the first to show the in vivo requirements of SF1 in steroidogenesis and provides novel data on the cellular consequences of the loss of this protein specifically within steroid-producing cells. PMID:23136395

  2. In vitro binding of steroid hormones by natural and purified fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, T.D.; Howie, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    The in vitro binding of estrone, estradiol-17..beta.., estriol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estrone-3-glucuronide by wheat, oat and corn brans, oat hulls, cellulose, lignin, and cholestyramine resin was measured. Steroid binding was carried out by mixing 50 mg of binding substance with varying substrate quantities (0.037 ..mu..Ci; 0.50-2.51 pmol/incubation) of /sup 3/H-estrone, /sup 3/H-estradiol-17..beta.., /sup 3/H-estriol, /sup 3/H-estrone-3-glucuronide, /sup 4/H-testosterone, and /sup 370/C for 1 hr with shaking. Following centrifugation of the reaction mixture, a 1 ml aliquot was analyzed for radioactivity. The extent of steroid sequestration was characteristic and reproducible for each hormone. Cholestyramine bound an average of 90% of all the steroids tested, whereas cellulose bound the least (12%). Of the other substances tested, lignin bound 87%; wheat and oat grans, 45% each; corn bran, 44%; and oat hulls, 32% of the unconjugated hormones. The conjugated steroid was less likely to bind than the unconjugated steroids. Lignin appeared to be an important component in the interaction with steroid hormones. The results support the hydrophobic of nature of adsorption and suggest that the components of the fiber in diet should be considered separately when evaluating in vivo metabolic effects. Implications include the possible modification of hormone-dependent cancer risk through dietary intervention.

  3. [Combined modality therapy for a patient with primary adrenal lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Teppei; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Jomen, Wataru; Yoshida, Masahiro; Yamada, Michiko; Sato, Masanori; Abe, Tomoyuki; Sakurai, Tamaki; Fujii, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Masahiro; Fujita, Miri; Nagashima, Kazuo; Nojiri, Shuichi; Arihara, Yohei; Kato, Junji

    2014-04-01

    A 71-year-old man with malaise, anorexia, and weight loss was referred to our hospital from a clinic. Abdominal computed tomography(CT)revealed bilateral adrenal masses. An ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the adrenal grand indicated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)test revealed primary adrenal failure. Rituximab-cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisolone(common name, R-CHOP)therapy accompanied by intrathecal treatment was initiated along with steroid replacement therapy. After the fourth courses, a CT scan showed a reduction of the adrenal masses, and there was no[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)uptake in the adrenal masses. The patient has remained in metabolic complete remission. Subsequently, both adrenal lymphomas were irradiated. The patient has been disease-free for 6 months after the diagnosis of primary adrenal lymphoma. The combined modality of chemoradiation therapy plus intrathecal treatment could be effective for primary adrenal lymphoma with a poor prognosis. PMID:24743371

  4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadal steroids regulate transcription factor mRNA expression in primary pituitary and immortalized gonadotrope cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weiming; Grafer, Constance M; Kim, Jonathan; Halvorson, Lisa M

    2015-03-01

    Hormonal regulation of pituitary gonadotropin gene expression has been attributed to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-mediated stimulation of immediate early gene expression and gonadal steroid interactions with their respective nuclear receptors. A number of orphan nuclear receptors including steroidogenic factor 1, liver receptor homologue 1, dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1, and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors I/II as well as the GATA family members, GATA2 and GATA4, have also been implicated in transcriptional regulation of the gonadotropin genes. We hypothesized that hormonally mediated changes in these latter transcription factors may provide an additional mechanism for mediating hormonal effects beyond the more classically appreciated pathways. In these studies, we demonstrate significant regulation of orphan nuclear receptor and GATA messenger RNA levels by GnRH, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, and progesterone in both cultured primary pituitary cells and gonadotrope-derived cell line, LβT2. These results advance our understanding of the complex mechanisms by which GnRH and steroid hormones achieve precise regulation of anterior pituitary function. PMID:25563755

  5. Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Steroids KidsHealth > For Kids > Steroids Print A A A ... a good idea to avoid them. What Are Steroids? "Steroids" has more than one meaning. Your body ...

  6. SEX-STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE LAKES IN FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-...

  7. Body Mass Changes Associated With Hyper-Gravity are Independent of Adrenal Derived Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Wang, Tommy J.; Baer, Lisa A.; Yuan, Fang; Fung, Cyra K.; Stein, T. Peter; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to hyper-gravity results in a number of metabolic changes associated with increases in catecholamines and corticosterone. These changes result in a loss of body and fat mass. To assess the role of hormones derived from the adrenal gland in the changes we studied sham operated (SO) and adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats exposed to hyper-gravity of 2 G for 14 days. Control groups at 1 G were also studied. Urinary epinephrine (EPI) and corticosterone (CORT) were reduced in ADX animals. In response to 2 G there was an increase in urinary EPI and CORT in SO rats, while levels were unchanged in ADX animals. Both groups of animals had similar increases in urinary norepinephrine levels. The reductions of body mass gain in response to 2 G were the same in both groups. The decrease in relative fat mass was greater in ADX. Energy intake and expenditure were not different between groups. In response of returning to 1 G for 24 hours and reexposure to hyper-gravity there were no differences between SO and ADX in the changes of food and water intake, body mass or activity. The changes in metabolism with exposure to hyper-gravity do not appear to require hormones derived from the adrenal gland. The increase in lypolysis and alterations body and fat mass appear to be modulated by sympathetically derived norepinehrine.

  8. Serotonergic neurons respond to nutrients and regulate the timing of steroid hormone biosynthesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    The temporal transition of development is flexibly coordinated in the context of the nutrient environment, and this coordination is essential for organisms to increase their survival fitness and reproductive success. Steroid hormone, a key player of the juvenile-to-adult transition, is biosynthesized in a nutrient-dependent manner; however, the underlying genetic mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that the biosynthesis of insect steroid hormone, ecdysteroid, is regulated by a subset of serotonergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. These neurons directly innervate the prothoracic gland (PG), an ecdysteroid-producing organ and share tracts with the stomatogastric nervous system. Interestingly, the projecting neurites morphologically respond to nutrient conditions. Moreover, reduced activity of the PG-innervating neurons or of serotonin signalling in the PG strongly correlates with a delayed developmental transition. Our results suggest that serotonergic neurons form a link between the external environment and the internal endocrine system by adaptively tuning the timing of steroid hormone biosynthesis. PMID:25502946

  9. LC-MS based analysis of endogenous steroid hormones in human hair.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Grass, Juliane; Stalder, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    The quantification of endogenous steroid hormone concentrations in hair is increasingly used as a method for obtaining retrospective information on long-term integrated hormone exposure. Several different analytical procedures have been employed for hair steroid analysis, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) being recognized as a particularly powerful analytical tool. Several methodological aspects affect the performance of LC-MS systems for hair steroid analysis, including sample preparation and pretreatment, steroid extraction, post-incubation purification, LC methodology, ionization techniques and MS specifications. Here, we critically review the differential value of such protocol variants for hair steroid hormones analysis, focusing on both analytical quality and practical feasibility issues. Our results show that, when methodological challenges are adequately addressed, LC-MS protocols can not only yield excellent sensitivity and specificity but are also characterized by relatively simple sample processing and short run times. This makes LC-MS based hair steroid protocols particularly suitable as a high-quality option for routine application in research contexts requiring the processing of larger numbers of samples. PMID:26718873

  10. Serum and Tissue Steroid Hormone Levels in Canine Mammary Tumours: Clinical and Prognostic Implications.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, F L; Pérez-Alenza, D; González-Gil, A; Silván, G; Peña, L; Illera, J C

    2015-10-01

    Hormonal dependency of canine mammary tumours (CMT) has been studied over the last few decades. However, studies assessing the prognostic and predictive potential of serum and/or tissue steroid hormone levels are still scarce in CMT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report relating serum and tissue levels of steroid hormones and prognosis in dogs. Serum and tumour tissue from 45 female dogs with spontaneous CMT were included in the study. Moreover, serum and normal mammary tissue from 13 healthy female dogs were also included as controls. Steroid hormones were determined by competitive enzyme immunoassay. Overall, levels of steroid hormones in serum and tissue homogenates were significantly different between malignant and benign mammary tumours (p < 0.01), except for progesterone (P4) serum levels that revealed no statistical differences between groups. In malignant tumours, oestrone sulphate (SO4E1), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T) and P4 elevated tissue concentrations were significantly associated with tumour relapse and/or distant metastasis during follow-up. A significant association was found between elevated tissue SO4E1 (p = 0.003), 17β-oestradiol (E2) (p = 0.036), DHEA (p = 0.022), A4 (p = 0.001) and P4 (p = 0.013) concentrations and shorter disease-free survival and overall survival in female dogs with malignant mammary tumours. The high levels of tissue steroids found in cases of poor prognosis open the possibility of additional new therapeutic approaches. Future clinical trials will be needed to clarify the usefulness of targeting steroid hormones in the treatment of this neoplastic disease. PMID:26332137

  11. Responses of sex steroid hormones to different intensities of exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji; Kanao, Yoji; Saito, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute exercise elevates sex steroid hormone concentrations in rodents and that sprint exercise increases circulating testosterone in healthy young men. However, the effect of different exercise intensities on sex steroid hormone responses at different levels of physical fitness is still unclear. In this study, we compared circulating sex steroid hormone responses at different exercise intensities in athletes and non-athletes. Eight male endurance athletes and 11 non-athletes performed two 15 min sessions of submaximal exercise at 40 and 70% peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)), respectively, and exercised at 90% V̇(O2peak) until exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected during the last minute of each submaximal exercise session and immediately after exhaustion. Acute exercise at 40, 70 and 90% V̇(O2peak) induced significant increases in serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and free testosterone concentrations in non-athletes. On the contrary, only 90% V̇O2 peak exercise led to an increase in serum DHEA and free testosterone concentrations in athletes. Serum 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased with 90% V̇(O2peak) exercise in both athletes and non-athletes. Additionally, serum estradiol concentrations were significantly increased at moderate and high exercise intensities in both athletes and non-athletes. These results indicate that in endurance athletes, serum sex steroid hormone concentrations, especially serum DHEA and 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations, increased only with high-intensity exercise, suggesting that different responses of sex steroid hormone secretion are induced by different exercise intensities in individuals with low and high levels of physical fitness. In athletes, therefore, high-intensity exercise may be required to increase circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations. PMID:26518151

  12. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  13. Postpartum blues: relationship between not-protein bound steroid hormones in plasma and postpartum mood changes.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, A; Schleyer, M; Spingler, H; Albert, P; Knoche, M; Fritze, J; Lanczik, M

    1994-02-01

    The relationship between non-bound steroid hormone levels in plasma and the occurrence of postpartum mood changes was investigated in 26 newly delivered mothers throughout the first 5 days postpartum. Studies with saliva samples had reported higher concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone on the days of symptoms in women experiencing postpartum blues. As there had been a controversy as to how far saliva concentrations reflect free hormone levels in plasma, free hormone levels of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone were determined in plasma using ultrafiltration. No significant difference concerning free hormone levels could be found between women with and without postpartum blues. PMID:8201129

  14. The Role of Steroid Receptor Coactivators in Hormone Dependent Cancers and Their Potential as Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Lonard, David M; O'Malley, Bert W

    2016-08-01

    Steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family members (SRC-1, SRC-2, SRC-3) interact with nuclear receptors (NRs) and many transcription factors to enhance target gene transcription. Deregulation of SRCs is widely implicated in NR mediated diseases, especially hormone dependent cancers. By integrating steroid hormone signaling and growth factor pathways, SRC proteins exert multiple modes of oncogenic regulation in cancers and represent emerging targets for cancer therapeutics. Recent work has identified SRC-targeting agents that show promise in blocking tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, and have the potential to function as powerful and broadly encompassing treatments for different cancers. PMID:27125199

  15. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foods you eat Sexual function Reproduction Mood Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal ...

  16. Effect of the growth hormone-secreting tumor StW5 on pituitary and adrenal gland function in rats.

    PubMed

    Coyne, M D; Alpert, L C; Harter, K C; Nunez, A

    1981-01-01

    A growth hormone-secreting tumor (StW5 was implanted into male rats and resulted in a tripling of adrenal weight concomitant with a 30% decrement in pituitary weight. Plasma concentrations of corticosterone in tumor-bearing (TB) rats were significantly elevated at rest or after ACTH injections or the stress of either anesthesia. The rise in plasma concentrations of corticosterone was due mainly to the large increment in adrenal size although a significant increase in adrenal responsiveness to ACTH was demonstrated in vitro. In addition, plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher in TB rats despite both a doubling of the blood volume and a 50% increase in liver capacity to metabolize corticosterone. Pituitary ACTH content was significantly lower in TB rats, but these pituitary glands could still release near-normal quantities of ACTH as shown both by in vitro incubations and adrenal corticosterone output following ether stress. PMID:6266940

  17. Effects of steroid hormone on estrogen sulfotransferase and on steroid sulfatase expression in endometriosis tissue and stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Piccinato, Carla A; Neme, Rosa M; Torres, Natália; Sanches, Lívia Renta; Derogis, Priscilla Bento Mattos Cruz; Brudniewski, Heloísa F; Rosa e Silva, Júlio C; Ferriani, Rui A

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease that afflicts about 10% of women in their reproductive age, causing severe pain and infertility. The potential roles of female steroid hormones in modulating key estrogen-metabolizing enzymes, steroid sulfatase (STS) and estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), were investigated. The expression of STS and SULT1E1 mRNA in biopsy samples (n=78) of superficial and deep endometriotic lesions, eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis and endometrium from control patients were compared according to the menstrual cycle phase. Increased STS gene expression was detected in superficial and deep-infiltrating lesions and a reduced SULT1E1 expression was also observed in the eutopic endometrium relative to the superficial lesions. Additionally, a significantly positive correlation was detected between STS and SULT1E1 mRNA expression levels in biopsy specimens collected from the endometriosis patients, and not in control individuals. The actions of female steroid hormones on SULT1E1 and STS expression were evidenced in endometriosis, revealed by increased expression levels in the luteal phase of the cycle. There was an increased STS expression in primary eutopic and ectopic endometrial stromal cells treated with estradiol and progesterone (representative of the luteal phase, n=3). Although an increased STS mRNA expression was observed in hormone-induced endometrial stromal cells in vitro, no difference could be detected between the hormone treatment groups in estradiol formation from estradiol sulfate measured by LC-MS-MS. Interestingly, a greater expression of STS was observed in stromal cells from eutopic endometrium with an agreement in estradiol formation originated from estradiol sulfate. The differential regulation of STS and SULT1E1 could provide insights for novel studies of the therapeutic use of STS inhibitors. PMID:26723541

  18. Role of Protein Phosphorylation and Tyrosine Phosphatases in the Adrenal Regulation of Steroid Synthesis and Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gorostizaga, Alejandra; Castillo, Ana F.; Mori Sequeiros García, M. Mercedes; Maloberti, Paula M.; Orlando, Ulises D.; Mele, Pablo G.; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J.

    2016-01-01

    In adrenocortical cells, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) promotes the activation of several protein kinases. The action of these kinases is linked to steroid production, mainly through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), whose expression and activity are dependent on protein phosphorylation events at genomic and non-genomic levels. Hormone-dependent mitochondrial dynamics and cell proliferation are functions also associated with protein kinases. On the other hand, protein tyrosine dephosphorylation is an additional component of the ACTH signaling pathway, which involves the “classical” protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), such as Src homology domain (SH) 2-containing PTP (SHP2c), and members of the MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) family, such as MKP-1. PTPs are rapidly activated by posttranslational mechanisms and participate in hormone-stimulated steroid production. In this process, the SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase plays a crucial role in a mechanism that includes an acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl4), arachidonic acid (AA) release and StAR induction. In contrast, MKPs in steroidogenic cells have a role in the turn-off of the hormonal signal in ERK-dependent processes such as steroid synthesis and, perhaps, cell proliferation. This review analyzes the participation of these tyrosine phosphates in the ACTH signaling pathway and the action of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and steroid production. In addition, the participation of kinases and phosphatases in the signal cascade triggered by different stimuli in other steroidogenic tissues is also compared to adrenocortical cell/ACTH and discussed. PMID:27375556

  19. Growth hormone deficiency due to traumatic brain injury in a patient with X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Engiz, Ozlem; Ozön, Alev; Riepe, Felix; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Gönç, Nazli; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2010-01-01

    X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency and is frequently associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The production of other pituitary hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], growth hormone [GH], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], and prolactin [PRL]) is usually normal. Mutations of the DAX-1 gene have been reported in patients with AHC and HH. We present a 13-year-old male patient with AHC caused by a nonsense mutation in the DAX-1 gene who developed GH deficiency following head trauma. He showed signs of adrenal insufficiency at the age of 23 months, and glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid treatment was started. His parents reported head trauma due to a traffic accident at the age of 21 months. Adrenal computed tomography revealed hypoplasia of the left and agenesis of the right adrenal gland. Decreased growth rate was noted at the age of 12.5 years while receiving hydrocortisone 15 mg/m2/day. His height was 139.9 cm (-1.46 SD), body weight was 54.9 kg, pubic hair was Tanner stage 1, and testis size was 3 ml. His bone age was 7 years. His gonadotropin (follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], luteinizing hormone [LH]) and testosterone levels were prepubertal. The evaluation of GH/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion at the age of 13 years revealed GH deficiency. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a hypoplastic hypophysis (< 2.5 mm) and a normal infundibulum. GH treatment (0.73 IU/kg/week) was started. This paper reports a patient with genetically confirmed AHC demonstrating GH deficiency possibly due to a previous head trauma. Complete pituitary evaluation should be performed in any child who has survived severe traumatic brain injury. PMID:20718192

  20. A KINETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CONFORMATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF STEROID HORMONES

    EPA Science Inventory

    For a set of 10 androgen steroids and estradiol (E2), the kinetic feasibility of conformation flexibility of the cyclic moieties was studied under the constraint of maintaining the B/C trans and C/D trans ring fusion of the natural and biologically active enantiomer. To this end,...

  1. Cloning and expression of cDNA encoding a bovine adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for steroid 21-hydroxylation.

    PubMed Central

    White, P C; New, M I; Dupont, B

    1984-01-01

    We isolated a cDNA clone encoding a bovine adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for steroid 21-hydroxylation (P-450C21). Serum from rabbits immunized with purified P-450C21 precipitated a single protein from the products of an in vitro translation reaction using bovine adrenal mRNA. This protein migrated with P-450C21 on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After sucrose gradient sedimentation, mRNA encoding P-450C21 was found in the 19S fraction. This fraction was reverse transcribed into double-stranded cDNA and inserted into the Pst I site of pBR322 by the dC X dG tailing procedure. Escherichia coli cells transformed with recombinant plasmids were screened with an in situ immunoassay using anti-P-450C21 serum and 125I-labeled staphylococcal protein A. Two colonies consistently bound anti-P-450C21 serum. They were identified as carrying the same plasmid by restriction mapping. This plasmid, pC21a, contains an insert of 520 base pairs. It hybridizes with mRNA encoding P-450C21. The peptide encoded by the insert in pC21a is highly homologous to two peptides isolated from porcine P-450C21 and shows limited homology to the P-450 induced by phenobarbital in rat liver. This clone may be useful in studying the molecular genetics of human congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Images PMID:6609358

  2. Chemometric evaluation of urinary steroid hormone levels as potential biomarkers of neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Plenis, Alina; Miękus, Natalia; Olędzka, Ilona; Bączek, Tomasz; Lewczuk, Anna; Woźniak, Zofia; Koszałka, Patrycja; Seroczyńska, Barbara; Skokowski, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are uncommon tumors which can secrete specific hormone products such as peptides, biogenic amines and hormones. So far, the diagnosis of NETs has been difficult because most NET markers are not specific for a given tumor and none of the NET markers can be used to fulfil the criteria of high specificity and high sensitivity for the screening procedure. However, by combining the measurements of different NET markers, they become highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. The aim of the work was to identify whether urinary steroid hormones can be identified as potential new biomarkers of NETs, which could be used as prognostic and clinical course monitoring factors. Thus, a rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC) with UV detection has been developed for the determination of cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, testosterone, epitestosterone and progesterone in human urine. The method has been validated for accuracy, precision, selectivity, linearity, recovery and stability. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.5 and 1 ng mL-1 for each steroid hormone, respectively. Linearity was confirmed within a range of 1-300 ng mL-1 with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.9995 for all analytes. The described method was successfully applied for the quantification of six endogenous steroid levels in human urine. Studies were performed on 20 healthy volunteers and 19 patients with NETs. Next, for better understanding of tumor biology in NETs and for checking whether steroid hormones can be used as potential biomarkers of NETs, a chemometric analysis of urinary steroid hormone levels in both data sets was performed. PMID:24135941

  3. Dairy Wastewater, Aquaculture, and Spawning Fish as Sources of Steroid Hormones in the Aquatic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziej, E. P.; Harter, T.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2004-12-01

    A suite of androgens, estrogens, and progestins were measured in samples from dairy farms, aquaculture facilities, and surface waters with actively spawning fish using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) to assess the potential importance of these sources of steroid hormones to surface waters. In a dairy waste lagoon, the endogenous estrogens 17beta-estradiol and estrone, and the androgens testosterone and androstenedione were detected at concentrations as high as 650 ng/L. Samples from nearby groundwater monitoring wells demonstrated removal of steroid hormones in the subsurface. Samples from nearby surface waters and tile drains likely impacted by animal wastes demonstrated the sporadic presence of the steroids 17beta-estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and medroxyprogesterone, usually at concentrations near or below 1 ng/L. The endogenous steroids estrone, testosterone, and androstenedione were detected in the raceways and effluents of three fish hatcheries at concentrations near 1 ng/L. Similar concentrations were detected in a river containing spawning adult Chinook salmon. These results indicate that dairy wastewater, aquaculture effluents, and even spawning fish are sources that can lead to detectable concentrations of steroid hormones in surface waters and that the concentrations of these compounds exhibit considerable temporal and spatial variation.

  4. Neuroprotection by gonadal steroid hormones in acute brain damage requires cooperation with astroglia and microglia.

    PubMed

    Johann, Sonja; Beyer, Cordian

    2013-09-01

    The neuroactive steroids 17β-estradiol and progesterone control a broad spectrum of neural functions. Besides their roles in the regulation of classical neuroendocrine loops, they strongly influence motor and cognitive systems, behavior, and modulate brain performance at almost every level. Such a statement is underpinned by the widespread and lifelong expression pattern of all types of classical and non-classical estrogen and progesterone receptors in the CNS. The life-sustaining power of neurosteroids for tattered or seriously damaged neurons aroused interest in the scientific community in the past years to study their ability for therapeutic use under neuropathological challenges. Documented by excellent studies either performed in vitro or in adequate animal models mimicking acute toxic or chronic neurodegenerative brain disorders, both hormones revealed a high potency to protect neurons from damage and saved neural systems from collapse. Unfortunately, neurons, astroglia, microglia, and oligodendrocytes are comparably target cells for both steroid hormones. This hampers the precise assignment and understanding of neuroprotective cellular mechanisms activated by both steroids. In this article, we strive for a better comprehension of the mutual reaction between these steroid hormones and the two major glial cell types involved in the maintenance of brain homeostasis, astroglia and microglia, during acute traumatic brain injuries such as stroke and hypoxia. In particular, we attempt to summarize steroid-activated cellular signaling pathways and molecular responses in these cells and their contribution to dampening neuroinflammation and neural destruction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'CSR 2013'. PMID:23196064

  5. Pentachlorophenol disrupts steroid hormone metabolism at concentrations that reduce survival and fecundity of Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, L.G.; LeBlanc, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    Alterations in steroid metabolism by environmental endocrine disrupters can significantly affect steroid hormone-dependent processes such as growth and reproduction. Exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been shown to elicit a variety of endocrine-related adverse effects. The present study was undertaken to establish whether concentrations of PCP that adversely affect survival, growth, or reproduction of Daphnia magna during chronic exposure also elicit changes in steroid hormone metabolism. Survival and/or reproduction of daphnids was significantly reduced from exposure to 1.0, 0.50 and 0.25 mg/L PCP. Following chronic exposure to PCP, daphnids were incubated with [{sup 14}C]testosterone and the testosterone metabolites eliminated were identified and quantified. The rate of testosterone hydroxyl-metabolite elimination was not significantly different from controls. However, elimination of two of the glucose-conjugated metabolites of testosterone decreased in a PCP concentration-dependent manner. Adult daphnids were next exposed to these concentrations of PCP for only 48 hours and effects on steroid metabolism assessed. As observed following chronic exposure, PCP had no effect on the elimination of hydroxyl-metabolites. However, elimination of glucose and sulfate conjugates of testosterone were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that, (1) PCP alters steroid biotransformation activities at concentrations that affect survival and reproduction, and (2) effects on steroid metabolism can be detected following short-term exposure to PCP. Thus, this biochemical parameter may serve as a biomarker of chronic toxicity associated with PCP.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of the expression of genes involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis and action

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormones participate in organ development, reproduction, body homeostasis, and stress responses. The steroid machinery is expressed in a development- and tissue-specific manner, with the expression of these factors being tightly regulated by an array of transcription factors (TFs). Epigenetics provides an additional layer of gene regulation through DNA methylation and histone tail modifications. Evidence of epigenetic regulation of key steroidogenic enzymes is increasing, though this does not seem to be a predominant regulatory pathway. Steroid hormones exert their action in target tissues through steroid nuclear receptors belonging to the NR3A and NR3C families. Nuclear receptor expression levels and post-translational modifications regulate their function and dictate their sensitivity to steroid ligands. Nuclear receptors and TFs are more likely to be epigenetically regulated than proteins involved in steroidogenesis and have secondary impact on the expression of these steroidogenic enzymes. Here we review evidence for epigenetic regulation of enzymes, transcription factors, and nuclear receptors related to steroid biogenesis and action. PMID:20156469

  7. Positive correlation of steroid hormones and EGF in canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, Felisbina L; Pérez-Alenza, Dolores; Silvan, Gema; Peña, Laura; Illera, Juan C

    2009-05-01

    There are no published studies focused on the potential crosstalk between steroid hormones and EGF in canine mammary tumourigenesis. The objective was to investigate the role of EGF in canine mammary tumours (CMT) and the relationship with steroid hormones. Sixty-three CMT (39 malignant including 10 inflammatory mammary carcinomas (IMC); 19 benign and 5 dysplasias), and 13 normal mammary glands from dogs without history of neoplastic disease were analysed. Levels of EGF and steroid hormones [progesterone (P4); 17beta-estradiol (E2); androstenedione (A4) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)], were analysed by EIA in CMT homogenates. Levels of EGF were significantly higher in malignant compared with benign tumours, dysplasias and normal mammary glands (p<0.001). IMC presented the highest EGF levels, with statistical significant difference between IMC and non-IMC cases (p<0.05). Steroid hormone levels were also significantly higher in malignant tumours compared with benign tumours, dysplasias and normal mammary glands (p<0.001). In malignant tumours (non-IMC and IMC), a strong correlation was observed between EGF and: P4 (r=0.452; p=0.003); E2 (r=0.624; p=0.023); A4 (r=0.496; p=0.038); DHEA (r=0.431; p=0.005). These results suggest that EGF is implicated in canine mammary tumourigenesis. The positive correlation observed, opens an interesting perspective of interaction that should be further investigated. PMID:19429455

  8. Steer responses to feeding soybean hulls and steroid hormone implantation on toxic tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling steers were grazed on endophyte-infected ‘Kentucky-31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) pastures for 77 days in 2007 and for 86 days in 2008 to evaluate effects of feeding pelleted soybean hulls (PSBH) and steroid hormone implants (SHI) on steer performance and physiology. Steers were str...

  9. Histological and sex steroid hormone receptor changes in testes of immature, mature, and aged chickens.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos, María G; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2008-11-01

    Sex steroid hormone receptors play a central role in the regulation of reproduction in male chickens. In this work, we evaluated by histomorphometric methods and Western blot analysis changes in the number of the different cell populations and in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in testes from immature (1.5-month-old), mature (12-month-old), and aged (48-month-old) chickens. The number of Sertoli cells, germ cells, and Leydig cells per area of testicular tissue markedly changed according to chicken age. The highest number of Sertoli and Leydig cells was found in testes of immature chickens, with a dramatic decrease in those of mature chickens; however, the number of germ cells was the highest in mature chickens in comparison with other ages. The content of androgen receptor diminished in testes of mature and aged animals in comparison with that of immature chickens. In contrast, the content of estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor was higher in testes of mature animals than in other ages. Both progesterone receptor isoforms were expressed in a similar proportion in testes of immature and mature animals. Interestingly, progesterone receptor isoform A was the predominant isoform in aged animals. These results suggest that there are marked age-dependent changes in chicken testes histology and in sex steroid hormone receptors content that should contribute to sex steroid hormone actions, in this tissue throughout the lifespan of chickens. PMID:18815005

  10. Steroid Hormone (20-Hydroxyecdysone) Modulates the Acquisition of Aversive Olfactory Memories in Pollen Forager Honeybees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Lisa H.; McQuillan, H. James; Aiken, Alastair; Vergoz, Vanina; Mercer, Alison R.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we examine effects of the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E), on associative olfactory learning in the honeybee, "Apis mellifera." 20-E impaired the bees' ability to associate odors with punishment during aversive conditioning, but did not interfere with their ability to associate odors with a food reward (appetitive…

  11. Determination of steroid hormones in biological and environmental samples using green microextraction techniques: an overview.

    PubMed

    Aufartová, Jana; Mahugo-Santana, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan; Nováková, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2011-10-17

    Residues of steroid hormones have become a cause for concern because they can affect the biological activity of non-target organisms. Steroid hormones are a potential risk for wildlife and humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Their determination requires extraction and clean-up steps, prior to detection, to reach low concentration levels. In recent years, a great effort has been made to develop new analytical methodologies, such as microextraction techniques, that reduce environmental pollution. Researchers have modified old methods to incorporate procedures that use less-hazardous chemicals or that use smaller amounts of them. They are able to do direct analysis using miniaturised equipment and reduced amounts of solvents and wastes. These accomplishments are the main objectives of green analytical chemistry. In this overview, we focus on microextraction techniques for the determination of steroid hormones in biological (e.g., human urine, human serum, fish, shrimp and prawn tissue and milk) and environmental (e.g., wastewaters, surface waters, tap waters, river waters, sewage sludges, marine sediments and river sediments) samples. We comment on the most recent applications in sorptive-microextraction modes, such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and microextraction in packed sorbent (MEPS). We also describe liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) approaches reported in the literature that are applied to the determination of steroid hormones. PMID:21907019

  12. Steroid hormones in biosolids and poultry litter: A comparison of potential environmental inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steroid hormones can act as potent endocrine disruptors when released into the environment. The main sources of these chemicals are thought to be wastewater treatment plant discharges and waste from animal feeding operations. While these compounds have frequently been found in wastewater effluents...

  13. Fate of steroid hormones in sewage sludge and poultry litter prior to land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steroid hormones can act as potent endocrine disruptors when released into the environment. The main sources of these chemicals are thought to be wastewater treatment plant discharges and waste from animal feeding operations. While these compounds have frequently been found in wastewater effluents...

  14. Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system.

    PubMed

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

    2014-10-01

    The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system. PMID:25148584

  15. Anaerobic transformation kinetics and mechanism of steroid estrogenic hormones in dairy lagoon water.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Xiaolin; Yates, Scott R; Bradford, Scott A

    2012-05-15

    Wastewater from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) frequently contains high concentrations of steroid estrogenic hormones. Release of these hormones into the environment may occur when CAFO wastewater is applied to agricultural lands as a nutrient and water source for crop production. To assess the potential risk of hormone contaminants derived from animal wastewater, we investigated the transformation kinetics and mechanisms of three natural estrogenic hormones (17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, and estrone) in aqueous solutions blended with dairy lagoon water under anaerobic conditions. Initial transformations of the three hormones in the dairy lagoon water were dominated by biodegradation and the degradation rates were temperature-dependent. The total amounts of hormones (initial concentration at 5 mg L(-1)) remaining in the solution after 52 days at 35 °C accounted for approximately 85%, 78%, and 77% of the initial amounts of 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, and estrone, respectively. This observation suggests that these hormones are relatively stable over time and may accumulate in anaerobic or anoxic environments and anaerobic CAFO lagoons. A racemization reaction between 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol via estrone was observed in aqueous solutions in the presence of CAFO wastewater under anaerobic conditions. The initial hormone concentrations did not affect this degradation mechanism. A reversible reaction kinetic model was applied to fit the observed transformation dynamics. The degradation and regeneration of the parent hormone and its metabolites were successfully simulated by this model. The information in this study is useful for assessing the environmental risk of steroid hormones released from CAFO wastewater and to better understand why these hormone contaminants persist in many aquatic environments. PMID:22519517

  16. Effects of Adrenal Cortical Steroids and Osmotic Blood-Brain Barrier Opening on Methotrexate Delivery to Gliomas in the Rodent: The Factor of the Blood-Brain Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuwelt, Edward A.; Barnett, Peggy A.; Bigner, Darrell D.; Frenkel, Eugene P.

    1982-07-01

    The effect of adrenal cortical steroids and osmotic blood-brain barrier modification on methotrexate delivery to normal and glioma-bearing rats was studied. In animals with the avian sarcoma virus-induced glioma, osmotic blood-brain barrier modification resulted in significantly increased delivery of methotrexate to the tumor-bearing hemisphere (including the tumor, the brain around the tumor, and the brain distant to the tumor), compared to the nonmodified hemisphere or to control animals. The administration of adrenal steroids, followed by intracarotid methotrexate, resulted in slightly decreased chemotherapeutic agent (methotrexate) delivery to the tumor, the brain around the tumor, and the brain distant to the tumor. When adrenal steroids were given prior to barrier modification and methotrexate therapy, the level of methotrexate was significantly less in the tumor. These studies provide evidence that the blood-brain barrier exists in tumors and is a factor in drug delivery to tumors. Steroid administration greatly interferes with the enhancement of drug delivery to tumors that can be achieved with osmotic blood-brain barrier modification.

  17. Ketoconazole inhibition of testicular secretion of testosterone and displacement of steroid hormones from serum transport proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, D S; Boyden, T W; Pamenter, R W; Johnson, D G; Stevens, D A; Galgiani, J N

    1983-01-01

    In vivo perfusion of canine testes with ketoconazole inhibited the stimulation of testosterone production by human chorionic gonadotropin in a dose-dependent manner. Ketoconazole also selectively displaced steroids from serum-binding globulins. Dihydrotestosterone and estradiol binding to sex hormone-binding globulin were inhibited by ketoconazole. Cortisol binding to corticosteroid-binding globulin was unaffected. The concentrations of ketoconazole that inhibited human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation of testicular androgen production and displaced sex steroids from sex hormone-binding globulin were in the range of blood levels found in patients on higher therapeutic dosage regimens. Suppression of testicular testosterone synthesis and displacement of estrogens from sex hormone-binding globulin may decrease the androgen/estrogen ratio of the blood and contribute to the development of gynecomastia that has been reported in some ketoconazole-treated patients. PMID:6301363

  18. Expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in human adrenal tumors and cell lines: antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, C G; Brown, J W; Schally, A V; Erler, A; Gebauer, L; Treszl, A; Young, L; Fishman, L M; Engel, J B; Willenberg, H S; Petersenn, S; Eisenhofer, G; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Bornstein, S R

    2009-09-15

    Peptide analogues targeting various neuropeptide receptors have been used effectively in cancer therapy. A hallmark of adrenocortical tumor formation is the aberrant expression of peptide receptors relating to uncontrolled cell proliferation and hormone overproduction. Our microarray results have also demonstrated a differential expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in tumor subtypes of human pheochromocytoma. In light of these findings, we performed a comprehensive analysis of relevant receptors in both human adrenomedullary and adrenocortical tumors and tested the antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues targeting these receptors. Specifically, we examined the receptor expression of somatostatin-type-2 receptor, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor or GHRH receptor splice variant-1 (SV-1) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor at the mRNA and protein levels in normal human adrenal tissues, adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors, and cell lines. Cytotoxic derivatives of somatostatin AN-238 and, to a lesser extent, AN-162, reduced cell numbers of uninduced and NGF-induced adrenomedullary pheochromocytoma cells and adrenocortical cancer cells. Both the splice variant of GHRH receptor SV-1 and the LHRH receptor were also expressed in adrenocortical cancer cell lines but not in the pheochromocytoma cell line. The GHRH receptor antagonist MZ-4-71 and LHRH antagonist Cetrorelix both significantly reduced cell growth in the adrenocortical cancer cell line. In conclusion, the expression of receptors for somatostatin, GHRH, and LHRH in the normal human adrenal and in adrenal tumors, combined with the growth-inhibitory effects of the antitumor peptide analogues, may make possible improved treatment approaches to adrenal tumors. PMID:19717419

  19. Zonal corticosteroid hormone biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex in rats exposed to emotional stress combined with salt loading

    SciTech Connect

    Shul'ga, V.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors study the pattern of biosynthesis of corticosteroid hormones in the zona glomerulosa and the combined zona fasciculata + zona reticularis of the adrenals, which are responsible for the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid function of the glands, during simultaneous exposure of animals to salt loading and emotional stress. Experiments were carried out on rats. The adrenals were divided into parts and samples were incubated in vitro with the addition of /sup 3/H-progesterone to each sample. The specific activity of the /sup 3/H-labeled corticosteroids decreased significantly in rats with a normal salt intake exposed to emotional stress.

  20. Conditional steroidogenic cell-targeted deletion of TSPO unveils a crucial role in viability and hormone-dependent steroid formation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jinjiang; Campioli, Enrico; Midzak, Andrew; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Translocator protein (TSPO) is a key member of the mitochondrial cholesterol transport complex in steroidogenic tissues. To assess the function of TSPO, we generated two lines of Cre-mediated Tspo conditional knockout (cKO) mice. First, gonadal somatic cell-targeting Amhr2-Cre mice were crossed with Tspo-floxed mice to obtain F1 Tspo Amhr2 cKO mice (Tspofl/fl;Amhr2-Cre/+). The unexpected Mendelian ratio of 4.4% cKO mice was confirmed by genotyping of 12.5-day-postcoitum (dpc) embryos. As Amhr2-Cre is expressed in gonads at 12.5 dpc, these findings suggest preimplantation selection of embryos. Analysis of expression databases revealed elevated levels of Amhr2 in two- and eight-cell zygotes, suggesting ectopic Tspo silencing before the morula stage and demonstrating elevated embryonic lethality and involvement of TSPO in embryonic development. To circumvent this issue, steroidogenic cell-targeting Nr5a1-Cre mice were crossed with Tspo-floxed mice. The resulting Tspofl/fl;Nr5a1-Cre/+ mice were born at a normal Mendelian ratio. Nr5a1-driven Tspo cKO mice exhibited highly reduced Tspo levels in adrenal cortex and gonads. Treatment of mice with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) resulted in increased circulating testosterone levels despite extensive lipid droplet depletion. In contrast, Nr5a1-driven Tspo cKO mice lost their ability to form corticosterone in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Important for ACTH-dependent steroidogenesis, Mc2r, Stard1, and Cypa11a1 levels were unaffected, whereas Scarb1 levels were increased and accumulation of lipid droplets was observed, indicative of a blockade of cholesterol utilization for steroidogenesis. TSPO expression in the adrenal medulla and increased epinephrine production were also observed. In conclusion, TSPO was found necessary for preimplantation embryo development and ACTH-stimulated steroid biosynthesis. PMID:26039990

  1. Steroid hormone receptors in prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khalid, B A; Nurshireen, A; Rashidah, M; Zainal, B Y; Roslan, B A; Mahamooth, Z

    1990-06-01

    One hundred and six prostatic tissue samples obtained from transurethral resection were analysed for androgen and estrogen receptors. In 62 of these, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were also assayed. Steroid receptors were assayed using single saturation dose 3H-labelled ligand assays. Ninety percent of the 97 prostatic hyperplasia tissues and six of the nine prostatic carcinoma tissues were positive for androgen receptors. Estrogen receptors were only present in 19% and 33% respectively. Progesterone receptors were present in 70% of the tissues, but glucocorticoid receptors were present in only 16% of prostatic hyperplasia and none in prostatic carcinoma. PMID:1725553

  2. Sex steroid hormones regulate constitutive expression of Cyp2e1 in female mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    CYP2E1 is of paramount toxicological significance because it metabolically activates a large number of low-molecular-weight toxicants and carcinogens. In this context, factors that interfere with Cyp2e1 regulation may critically affect xenobiotic toxicity and carcinogenicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of female steroid hormones in the regulation of CYP2E1, as estrogens and progesterone are the bases of contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy in menopausal women. Interestingly, a fluctuation in the hepatic expression pattern of Cyp2e1 was revealed in the different phases of the estrous cycle of female mice, with higher Cyp2e1 expression at estrus (E) and lower at methestrus (ME), highly correlated with that in plasma gonadal hormone levels. Depletion of sex steroids by ovariectomy repressed Cyp2e1 expression to levels similar to those detected in males and cyclic females at ME. Hormonal supplementation brought Cyp2e1 expression back to levels detected at E. The role of progesterone appeared to be more prominent than that of 17β-estradiol. Progesterone-induced Cyp2e1 upregulation could be attributed to inactivation of the insulin/PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 signaling pathway. Tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen, repressed Cyp2e1 expression potentially via activation of the PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 and GH/STAT5b-linked pathways. The sex steroid hormone-related changes in hepatic Cyp2e1 expression were highly correlated with those observed in Hnf-1α, β-catenin, and Srebp-1c. In conclusion, female steroid hormones are clearly involved in the regulation of CYP2E1, thus affecting the metabolism of a plethora of toxicants and carcinogenic agents, conditions that may trigger several pathologies or exacerbate the outcomes of various pathophysiological states. PMID:23548611

  3. Salivary steroid hormone response to whole-body cryotherapy in elite rugby players.

    PubMed

    Grasso, D; Lanteri, P; Di Bernardo, C; Mauri, C; Porcelli, S; Colombini, A; Zani, V; Bonomi, F G; Melegati, G; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G

    2014-01-01

    Saliva represents a low stress, not-invasively collected matrix that allows steroid hormone monitoring in athletes by reflecting type, intensity and duration of exercise. Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of short whole-body exposures to extremely cold air (-110° to -140°C) which, despite being initially used to treat inflammatory diseases, is currently acquiring increasing popularity in sports medicine. Cryostimulation practice is now widely accepted as an effective treatment to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this work was to study the changes of steroid hormones in saliva of rugby players after both 2 and 14 consecutive WBC sessions, in order to investigate the effects of the treatment on their salivary steroid hormonal profile. Twenty-five professional rugby players, belonging to the Italian National Team, underwent a 7-day cryotherapy protocol consisting of 2 daily sessions. Saliva samples were taken in the morning prior to the start of the WBC, in the evening after the end of the second WBC, and in the morning of the day after the last WBC session. The samples were analyzed for cortisol, DHEA, testosterone and estradiol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cortisol and DHEA showed a reduction already after the 2 WBC sessions of the first day; after 14 consecutive WBC sessions cortisol, DHEA, and estradiol levels decreased, while testosterone increased as did the testosterone to cortisol ratio. These results were confirmed by the fact that the majority of subjects showed variations exceeding the critical difference (CD). In conclusion, we found that WBC acutely affects the salivary steroid hormone profile, and the results are evident already after only one twice-daily session. Most significantly, after one-week of consecutive twice-daily WBC sessions, all the hormones were modified. This is the first experimental report that links changes in the hormonal asset to WBC. PMID:25001661

  4. Sorption, fate, and transport of endogenous steroid hormones in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural hormones 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) are present in animal manures that are applied to agricultural land as fertilizer and, potentially, may act as endocrine disruptors. Laboratory incubation, batch, and column experiments have been conducted on a series of soils and wer...

  5. Divergence in Sex Steroid Hormone Signaling between Sympatric Species of Japanese Threespine Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Jun; Kawagishi, Yui; Mori, Seiichi; Peichel, Catherine L.; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado; Kusakabe, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids mediate the expression of sexually dimorphic or sex-specific traits that are important both for mate choice within species and for behavioral isolation between species. We investigated divergence in sex steroid signaling between two sympatric species of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): the Japan Sea form and the Pacific Ocean form. These sympatric forms diverge in both male display traits and female mate choice behaviors, which together contribute to asymmetric behavioral isolation in sympatry. Here, we found that plasma levels of testosterone and 17β-estradiol differed between spawning females of the two sympatric forms. Transcript levels of follicle-stimulating hormone-β (FSHβ) gene were also higher in the pituitary gland of spawning Japan Sea females than in the pituitary gland of spawning Pacific Ocean females. By contrast, none of the sex steroids examined were significantly different between nesting males of the two forms. However, combining the plasma sex steroid data with testis transcriptome data suggested that the efficiency of the conversion of testosterone into 11-ketotestosterone has likely diverged between forms. Within forms, plasma testosterone levels in males were significantly correlated with male body size, a trait important for female mate choice in the two sympatric species. These results demonstrate that substantial divergence in sex steroid signaling can occur between incipient sympatric species. We suggest that investigation of the genetic and ecological mechanisms underlying divergence in hormonal signaling between incipient sympatric species will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of speciation in animals. PMID:22216225

  6. Analysis of the hormone-binding domain of steroid receptors using chimeras generated by homologous recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Elisabeth D.; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Danielsen, Mark . E-mail: dan@bc.georgetown.edu

    2005-08-15

    The glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor are members of the steroid receptor family that exhibit ligand cross-reactivity. Specificity of steroid receptor action is investigated in the present work by the construction and characterization of chimeras between the glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor. We used an innovative approach to make novel steroid receptor proteins in vivo that in general, contrary to our expectations, show increased ligand specificity compared to the parental receptors. We describe a receptor that is specific for the potent synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide and does not bind aldosterone. A further set of chimeras has an increased ability to discriminate between ligands, responding potently to mineralocorticoids and only very weakly to synthetic glucocorticoids. A chimera with the fusion site in the hinge highlights the importance of the region between the DNA-binding and the hormone-binding domains since, unlike both the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, it only responds to mineralocorticoids. One chimera has reduced specificity in that it acts as a general corticoid receptor, responding to glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids with similar potency and efficacy. Our data suggest that regions of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor hormone-binding domains are functionally non-reciprocal. We present transcriptional, hormone-binding, and structure-modeling evidence that suggests that receptor-specific interactions within and across domains mediate aspects of specificity in transcriptional responses to steroids.

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymer applied to the selective isolation of urinary steroid hormones: an efficient tool in the control of natural steroid hormones abuse in cattle.

    PubMed

    Doué, Mickael; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Pichon, Valérie; Chapuis-Hugon, Florence; Lesellier, Eric; West, Caroline; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2012-12-28

    The use of anabolic substances to promote growth in livestock is prohibited within the European Union as laid down in Directive 96/22/EC. Nowadays, efficient methods such as steroid profiling or isotopic deviation measurements allow to control natural steroid hormones abuse. In both cases, urine is often selected as the most relevant matrix and, due to its relatively high content of potential interferents, its preparation before analysis is considered as a key step. In this context, the use of a selective sorbent such as molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was investigated. A MIP was synthesized based on 17β-estradiol, methacrylic acid and acetonitrile as template, monomer and porogen, respectively. Two approaches were then tested for non-conjugated (aglycons and glucuronides deconjugated) steroid purification: (i) molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) and (ii) semi-preparative supercritical fluid chromatography with a commercial MIP as stationary phase (SFC-MIP). Parameters for both approaches were optimized based on the main bovine metabolites of testosterone, estradiol, nandrolone and boldenone. The MISPE protocol developed for screening purposes allowed satisfactory recoveries (upper 65% for the 12 target steroids) with sufficient purification for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. For confirmatory purposes, the use of isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) requires a higher degree of purity of the target compounds, which can be reached by the SFC-MIP protocol with three steps less compared to the official and current method. Purity, concentration and absence of isotopic fractionation of target steroids extracted from urine of treated cattle (treated with testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, and boldenone) allowed the measurement of (13)C/(12)C isotopic ratios of corresponding metabolites and endogenous reference compounds (ERC) and proved the relevance of the strategy. PMID:23195708

  8. Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Methods Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. Results The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11β-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement

  9. Sex steroids, growth hormone, leptin and the pubertal growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Rogol, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    A normal rate for the linear growth of a child or adolescent is a strong statement for the good general health of that child. Normal growth during childhood is primarily dependent on adequate nutrition, an adequate psychosocial environment, the absence of disease and adequate amounts thyroid hormone and growth hormone (and its downstream product, IGF-1). At adolescence there is the reawakening of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its interaction with the GH/IGF-1 axis to subserve the pubertal growth spurt. The fat tissue-derived hormone, leptin and its receptor are likely involved in at least two aspects of pubertal development - sexual development itself and the alterations in body composition including the regional distribution of fat and bone mineralization. During the prepubertal years the male female differences in body composition are quite modest, but change remarkably during pubertal development with boys showing a relative decrement in fat percentage and girls a marked increase in concert with rising levels of circulating leptin. The boys show a much greater increase in lean body tissue and the relative proportions of water, muscle and bone. These may be observed as the differential growth of the shoulders and hips. The net effect of these pubertal changes is that the young adult woman has approximately 25% body fat in the 'gynoid' distribution while the male has much more muscle, especially in the shoulders and upper body but only approximately 13% body fat. PMID:19955758

  10. Regulation of IL-17 Family Members by Adrenal Hormones During Experimental Sepsis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bosmann, Markus; Meta, Fabien; Ruemmler, Robert; Haggadone, Mikel D.; Sarma, J. Vidya; Zetoune, Firas S.; Ward, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Severe sepsis is a life-threatening disease that causes major morbidity and mortality. Catecholamines and glucocorticoids often have been used for the treatment of sepsis. Several recent studies have suggested a potential role of IL-17 during the development and progression of sepsis in small animal models. In this study, the cross-talk of catecholamines and glucocorticoids with members of the IL-17 family was investigated during sepsis in C57BL/6 mice. The concentrations in plasma of IL-17A, IL-17F, and the IL-17AF heterodimer all were increased greatly in mice after endotoxemia or cecal ligation and puncture as compared with sham mice. Surprisingly, when compared with IL-17A (487 pg/mL), the concentrations of IL-17F (2361 pg/mL) and the heterodimer, IL-17AF (5116 pg/mL), were much higher 12 hours after endotoxemia. After surgical removal of the adrenal glands, mice had much higher mortality after endotoxemia or cecal ligation and puncture. The absence of endogenous adrenal gland hormones (cortical and medullary) was associated with 3- to 10-fold higher concentrations of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17AF, and IL-23. The addition of adrenaline, noradrenaline, hydrocortisone, or dexamethasone to lipopolysaccharide-activated peritoneal macrophages dose-dependently suppressed the expression and release of IL-17s. The production of IL-17s required activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, which was antagonized by both catecholamines and glucocorticoids. These data provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of immune modulation by catecholamines and glucocorticoids during acute inflammation. PMID:23499051

  11. Intramuscular sex steroid hormones are associated with skeletal muscle strength and power in women with different hormonal status

    PubMed Central

    Pöllänen, Eija; Kangas, Reeta; Horttanainen, Mia; Niskala, Paula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen (E2)-responsive peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, may suffer from hormone deficiency after menopause potentially contributing to the aging of muscle. However, recently E2 was shown to be synthesized by muscle and its systemic and intramuscular hormone levels are unequal. The objective of the study was to examine the association between intramuscular steroid hormones and muscle characteristics in premenopausal women (n = 8) and in postmenopausal monozygotic twin sister pairs (n = 16 co-twins from eight pairs) discordant for the use of E2-based hormone replacement. Isometric skeletal muscle strength was assessed by measuring knee extension strength. Explosive lower body muscle power was assessed as vertical jump height. Due to sequential nature of enzymatic conversion of biologically inactive dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to testosterone (T) and subsequently to E2 or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), separate linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each hormone with muscle characteristics. Intramuscular E2, T, DHT, and DHEA proved to be significant, independent predictors of strength and power explaining 59–64% of the variation in knee extension strength and 80–83% of the variation of vertical jumping height in women (P < 0.005 for all models). The models were adjusted for age, systemic E2, and total body fat mass. The statistics used took into account the lack of statistical independence of twin sisters. Furthermore, muscle cells were shown to take up and actively synthesize hormones. Present study suggests intramuscular sex steroids to associate with strength and power regulation in female muscle providing novel insight to the field of muscle aging. PMID:25645687

  12. A Comparison of Salivary Steroid Levels during Diagnostic Tests for Adrenal Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Dušková, Michaela; Šimůnková, Kateřina; Vítků, Jana; Sosvorová, Lucie; Jandíková, Hana; Pospíšilová, Hana; Šrámková, Monika; Kosák, Mikuláš; Kršek, Michal; Hána, Václav; Žánová, Magdaléna; Springer, Drahomíra; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-01-01

    Numerous diagnostic tests are used to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). The gold standard is still considered the insulin tolerance test (ITT), but this test has many limitations. Current guidelines therefore recommend the Synacthen test first when an HPA axis insufficiency is suspected. However, the dose of Synacthen that is diagnostically most accurate and sensitive is still a matter of debate. We investigated 15 healthy men with mean/median age 27.4/26 (SD±4.8) years, and mean/median BMI (body mass index) 25.38/24.82 (SD±3.2) kg/m2. All subjects underwent 4 dynamic tests of the HPA axis, specifically 1 μg, 10 μg, and 250 μg Synacthen (ACTH) tests and an ITT. Salivary cortisol, cortisone, pregnenolone, and DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. During the ITT maximum salivary cortisol levels over 12.5 nmol/l were found at 60 minutes. Maximum cortisol levels in all of the Synacthen tests were higher than this; however, demonstrating that sufficient stimulation of the adrenal glands was achieved. Cortisone reacted similarly as cortisol, i.e. we did not find any change in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone. Pregnenolone and DHEA were higher during the ITT, and their peaks preceded the cortisol peak. There was no increase of pregnenolone or DHEA in any of the Synacthen tests. We demonstrate that the 10 μg Synacthen dose is sufficient stimulus for testing the HPA axis and is also a safe and cost-effective alternative. This dose also largely eliminates both false negative and false positive results. PMID:26995200

  13. Does administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug determine morphological changes in adrenal cortex: ultrastructural studies

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Włodzimierz

    2010-01-01

    Rofecoxib (Vioxx© made by Merck Sharp & Dohme, the USA) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which belongs to the group of selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenasis-2, i.e., coxibs. Rofecoxib was first registered in the USA, in May 1999. Since then the drug was received by millions of patients. Drugs of this group were expected to exhibit increased therapeutic action. Additionally, there were expectations concerning possibilities of their application, at least as auxiliary drugs, in neoplastic therpy due to intensifying of apoptosis. In connection with the withdrawal of Vioxx© (rofecoxib) from pharmaceutical market, attempts were made to conduct electron-microscopic evaluation of cortical part of the adrenal gland in preparations obtained from animals under influence of the drug. Every morning animals from the experimental group (15 rats) received rofecoxib (suspension in physiological saline)—non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (Vioxx©, Merck Sharp and Dohme, the USA), through an intragastric tube in the dose of 1.25 mg during 8 weeks. In the evaluated material, there was found a greater number of secretory vacuoles and large, containing cholesterol and other lipids as well as generated glucocorticoids, lipid drops in cytoplasm containing prominent endoplasmic reticulum. There were also found cells with cytoplasm of smaller density—especially in apical and basal parts of cells. Mitochondria occasionally demonstrated features of delicate swelling. The observed changes, which occurred on cellular level with application of large doses of the drug, result from mobilization of adaptation mechanisms of the organism. PMID:20721677

  14. Transsynaptic trophic effects of steroid hormones in an avian model of adult brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Brenowitz, Eliot A.

    2014-01-01

    The avian song control system provides an excellent model for studying transsynaptic trophic effects of steroid sex hormones. Seasonal changes in systemic testosterone (T) and its metabolites regulate plasticity of this system. Steroids interact with the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to influence cellular processes of plasticity in nucleus HVC of adult birds, including the addition of newborn neurons. This interaction may also occur transsynpatically; T increases the synthesis of BDNF in HVC, and BDNF protein is then released by HVC neurons on to postsynaptic cells in nucleus RA where it has trophic effects on activity and morphology. Androgen action on RA neurons increases their activity and this has a retrograde trophic effect on the addition of new neurons to HVC. The functional linkage of sex steroids to BDNF may be of adaptive value in regulating the trophic effects of the neurotrophin and coordinating circuit function in reproductively relevant contexts. PMID:25285401

  15. Immunolocalization of steroid hormone receptors in normal and tumour cells: mechanisms of their cellular traffic.

    PubMed

    Perrot-Applanat, M; Guiochon-Mantel, A; Milgrom, E

    1992-01-01

    Experimental conditions are described for the detection of steroid receptors in tissue sections or cells at the light microscope level. Current knowledge about the ultrastructural distribution of these receptors is summarized; the mechanisms of their nuclear localization are described. Karyophilic signals involved in nuclear translocation are characterized by means of in vitro mutagenesis of steroid receptor cDNAs. Studies analysing the subcellular distribution of various transfected receptor mutants in energy depleted cells together with fusion experiments provide evidence for nucleoplasmic shuttling of progesterone receptors. We conclude that the "nuclear" location of the wild type progesterone receptor reflects a dynamic equilibrium between active nuclear import and outward diffusion. We also describe the use of immunocytochemistry in pathology, especially for the detection of steroid receptors in hormone dependent tumours. PMID:1423330

  16. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2000-06-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function.

  17. Steroid hormones alter neuroanatomy and aggression independently in the tree lizard.

    PubMed

    Kabelik, David; Weiss, Stacey L; Moore, Michael C

    2008-02-27

    Steroid hormones effect changes in both neuroanatomy and aggressive behavior in animals of various taxa. However, whether changes in neuroanatomy directly underlie changes in aggression is unknown. We investigate this relationship among steroid hormones, neuroanatomy, and aggression in a free-living vertebrate with a relatively simple nervous system, the tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus). Weiss and Moore [1] manipulated testosterone and progesterone levels in adult male tree lizards and found that both hormones facilitated aggressive behavior toward a conspecific. In this study, we examined the brains of a subset of these animals to determine whether changes in limbic morphology were associated with hormone-induced changes in aggressive behavior. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone and/or progesterone cause changes in neural morphology that are necessary for the expression of testosterone's effects on aggressive behavior. We found that both hormones increased aggression; however, only testosterone induced changes in neuroanatomy. Testosterone increased the size of both the amygdala and nucleus sphericus. However, we could detect no individual correlations between neuroanatomy and aggression levels suggesting that the observed large-scale changes in neuroanatomy are not precisely reflective of changes in mechanisms underlying aggression. PMID:17996258

  18. Embryonic sex steroid hormones accumulate in the eggshell of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shohei; Saito, Yoshimichi; Osawa, Akihisa; Katsumata, Etsuko; Karaki, Isuke; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-12-01

    Steroids hormones such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) are involved in gonadal differentiation of oviparous animals with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), and are greatly distributed. This hypothesizes that these embryonic steroid hormones probably accumulate in the eggshell throughout blood or/and chorioallantoic fluid in sea turtle species with TSD, producing females at higher temperature. To demonstrate this hypothesis, concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma from the hatchling loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and in their eggshells were measured by radioimmunoassay. In the present study we propose that both concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma are correlated with amounts of these sex steroids in the eggshell. Moreover, contents of E2 in the eggshell showed a significant positive correlation with mean incubation temperatures during a thermosensitive period in the experimental nests, whereas T contents in the eggshell did not. Taken together, these findings indicated that embryonic E2 and T that accumulated in the eggshell can be extracted and measured. Furthermore, the present study suggested that contents of E2 in the eggshell may differ between male and female, and monitoring of these steroids is a useful method to identify the sex of loggerhead sea turtle hatchling. PMID:26050561

  19. Steroid hormone inactivation is required during the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Rewitz, Kim F; Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B

    2010-12-14

    Steroid hormones are systemic signaling molecules that regulate juvenile-adult transitions in both insects and mammals. In insects, pulses of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) are generated by increased biosynthesis followed by inactivation/clearance. Although mechanisms that control 20E synthesis have received considerable recent attention, the physiological significance of 20E inactivation remains largely unknown. We show that the cytochrome P450 Cyp18a1 lowers 20E titer during the Drosophila prepupal to pupal transition. Furthermore, this reduction of 20E levels is a prerequisite to induce βFTZ-F1, a key factor in the genetic hierarchy that controls early metamorphosis. Resupplying βFTZ-F1 rescues Cyp18a1-deficient prepupae. Because Cyp18a1 is 20E-inducible, it appears that the increased production of steroid is responsible for its eventual decline, thereby generating the regulatory pulse required for proper temporal progression of metamorphosis. The coupling of hormone clearance to βFTZ-F1 expression suggests a general mechanism by which transient signaling drives unidirectional progression through a multistep process. PMID:21145504

  20. G-protein-coupled receptor controls steroid hormone signaling in cell membrane

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Di; Zhao, Wen-Li; Cai, Mei-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in animal steroid hormone signaling, but their mechanism is unclear. In this research, we report that a GPCR called ErGPCR-2 controls steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling in the cell membrane of the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. ErGPCR-2 was highly expressed during molting and metamorphosis. 20E, via ErGPCR-2, regulated rapid intracellular calcium increase, protein phosphorylation, gene transcription, and insect metamorphosis. ErGPCR-2 was located in the cell surface and was internalized by 20E induction. GPCR kinase 2 participated in 20E-induced ErGPCR-2 phosphorylation and internalization. The internalized ErGPCR-2 was degraded by proteases to desensitize 20E signaling. ErGPCR-2 knockdown suppressed the entrance of 20E analog [3H] ponasterone A ([3H]Pon A) into the cells. ErGPCR-2 overexpression or blocking of ErGPCR-2 internalization increased the entrance of [3H]Pon A into the cells. However, ErGPCR-2 did not bind to [3H]Pon A. Results suggest that ErGPCR-2 transmits steroid hormone 20E signaling and controls 20E entrance into cells in the cell membrane. PMID:25728569

  1. Inhibition of catechol estrogen formation in rat liver microsomes by hormonal steroids and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Quail, J A; Newcombe, A M; Jellinck, P H

    1988-10-01

    The inhibitory action of a number of different hormonal steroids and related compounds on the 2-hydroxylation of estradiol by male rat liver microsomes was examined by a radiometric assay. Progesterone, Diethylstilbestrol, testosterone and 4-androstenedione were found to be the most potent of the compounds tested but inhibition was also observed with other steroids and a group of androgen analogs which are aromatization inhibitors. The kinetic constant Ki for those steroids which gave linear double reciprocal plots when added to [2-3H]estradiol was determined and the products from [14C]estradiol in the presence of the inhibitors were examined by TLC and autoradiography. The addition of steroids with a 17-hydroxyl group such as testosterone or dihydroequilin resulted in the formation of mainly 2-hydroxyestradiol with smaller amounts of other metabolites while those with a reducible ketonic group such as progesterone, 4-androstenedione, equilin or equilenin gave rise to considerable amounts of estrone in addition to the catechol estrogens. Further purification of the liver microsomes did not alter this effect. The possible role of progesterone and the catechol estrogens in the control of estrogen hydroxylation in liver as well as other aspects of steroid interaction are discussed. PMID:2845195

  2. Insulin insensitivity in adrenal hyperplasia due to nonclassical steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Speiser, P W; Serrat, J; New, M I; Gertner, J M

    1992-12-01

    To determine whether hyperandrogenism caused by an inborn error of adrenal steroidogenesis could produce insulin resistance, we examined insulin sensitivity in females with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Minimal modelling was used to analyze the results of tolbutamide-modified, frequently sampled, iv glucose tolerance testing. Insulin sensitivity [Si; (min-1) (microU/mL)-1] was plotted against body mass index (BMI; defined as kilograms per m2). Six patients with nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (mean age, 27 yr; mean BMI, 23.2) underwent testing. None of these patients was in active puberty, nor was any patient being treated with glucocorticoids at the time of the study. Twelve eumenorrheic nonhyperandrogenic young adult female control subjects (mean age, 27 yr; mean BMI, 22.4) were also tested. The basal 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentration, but not the total serum testosterone level, was significantly different in the two groups (mean +/- SEM, 11,987 +/- 2,761 vs. 4,059 +/- 802 pmol/L; P < 0.05). As a group the patients' Si values were significantly lower than those of the controls (mean +/- SEM, 4.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 9.7 +/- 1.2; P < 0.05). There was no correlation between Si and basal serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, or dehydroepiandrosterone. We conclude that chronic hypersecretion of androgen precursors due to an inborn error of metabolism can induce a reduction in insulin sensitivity. PMID:1464643

  3. CYP18A1 regulates tissue-specific steroid hormone inactivation in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqian; Ge, Xie; Ling, Lin; Zeng, Baosheng; Xu, Jun; Aslam, Abu F M; You, Lang; Palli, Subba Reddy; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2014-11-01

    Insect development and metamorphosis are regulated by two major hormones, juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids. Despite being the key regulator of insect developmental transitions, the metabolic pathway of the primary steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), especially its inactivation pathway, is still not completely elucidated. A cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP18A1, has been shown to play key roles in insect steroid hormone inactivation through 26-hydroxylation. Here, we identified two CYP18 (BmCYP18A1 and BmCYP18B1) orthologs in the lepidopteran model insect, Bombyx mori. Interestingly, BmCYP18A1 gene is predominantly expressed in the middle silk gland (MSG) while BmCYP18B1 expresses ubiquitously in B. mori. BmCYP18A1 is induced by 20E in vitro, suggesting its role in 20E metabolism. Using the binary Gal4/UAS transgenic system, we ectopically overexpressed BmCYP18A1 in a MSG-specific manner with a Sericin1-Gal4 (Ser-Gal4) driver or in a ubiquitous manner with an Actin3-Gal4 (A3-Gal4) driver. Ectopic overexpression of BmCYP18A1 in MSG or in all tissues resulted in developmental arrestment of transgenic animals during the final instar larval stage. The 20E titers in the transgenic animals expressing BmCYP18A1 were lower compared to the levels in the control animals. Although the biological significance of MSG-specific expression of BmCYP18A1 is unclear, our results provide the first evidence that BmCYP18A1, which is conserved in most arthropods, is involved in a tissue-specific steroid hormone inactivation in B. mori. PMID:25173591

  4. Peripheral vs. Central Sex Steroid Hormones in Experimental Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Simon; Gillies, Glenda E.

    2011-01-01

    The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD), which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyze the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females) or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatized to estrogen centrally) have negligible effects on dopaminergic neuron survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realize the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for future studies

  5. CYP18A1 regulates tissue-specific steroid hormone inactivation in Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqian; Ge, Xie; Ling, Lin; Zeng, Baosheng; Xu, Jun; Aslam, Abu F.M.; You, Lang; Palli, Subba Reddy; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2015-01-01

    Insect development and metamorphosis are regulated by two major hormones, juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids. Despite being the key regulator of insect developmental transitions, the metabolic pathway of the primary steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), especially its inactivation pathway, is still not completely elucidated. A cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP18A1, has been shown to play key roles in insect steroid hormone inactivation through 26-hydroxylation. Here, we identified two CYP18 (BmCYP18A1 and BmCYP18B1) orthologs in the lepidopteran model insect, Bombyx mori. Interestingly, BmCYP18A1 gene is predominantly expressed in the middle silk gland (MSG) while BmCYP18B1 expresses ubiquitously in B. mori. BmCYP18A1 is induced by 20E in vitro, suggesting its role in 20E metabolism. Using the binary Gal4/UAS transgenic system, we ectopically overexpressed BmCYP18A1 in a MSG-specific manner with a Sericin1-Gal4 (Ser-Gal4) driver or in a ubiquitous manner with an Actin3-Gal4 (A3-Gal4) driver. Ectopic overexpression of BmCYP18A1 in MSG or in all tissues resulted in developmental arrestment of transgenic animals during the final instar larval stage. The 20E titers in the transgenic animals expressing BmCYP18A1 were lower compared to the levels in the control animals. Although the biological significance of MSG-specific expression of BmCYP18A1 is unclear, our results provide the first evidence that BmCYP18A1, which is conserved in most arthropods, is involved in a tissue-specific steroid hormone inactivation in B. mori. PMID:25173591

  6. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (<0.7-μm GF filter), and, to a lesser extent bound to the suspended-particle phase. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  7. Hormonally-mediated Epigenetic Changes to Steroid Receptors in the Developing Brain: Implications for Sexual Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, allow environmental influences to alter long-term gene expression patterns and therefore may be a potential mediator of estradiol-induced organization of the neonatal brain. Here we review data that demonstrate sex and estradiol-induced differences in DNA methylation on the estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and progesterone receptor (PR) promoters in sexually dimorphic brain regions across development. Contrary to the overarching view of DNA methylation as a permanent modification directly tied to gene expression, these data demonstrate that methylation patterns on steroid hormone receptors change across the life span and do not necessarily predict expression. Although further exploration into the mechanism and significance of estradiol-induced alterations in DNA methylation patterns in the neonatal brain is necessary, these results provide preliminary evidence that epigenetic alterations can occur in response to early hormone exposure and may mediate estradiol-induced organization of sex differences in the neonatal brain. PMID:20800064

  8. [Electron paramagnetic resonance study of the interactions between steroid hormones and binding proteins].

    PubMed

    Basset, M; Chambaz, E M; Defaye, G; Metz, B

    1978-01-01

    Interaction of a spin labeled corticosteroid (desoxycorticosterone nitroxyde: DOC -NO) with three purified proteins (albumin, transcortin, progesterone binding protein: PBG) was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. DOC-NO was competitive with natural corticosteroids and therefore bound at the same site to specific binding proteins. ESR spectra in the presence of each of the proteins showed an immobilized (bound) form of the spin labeled steroid and allowed the calculation of the corresponding association constant (Ka) at equilibrium. The three binding proteins could be characterized by the ESR parameters of the DOC-NO bound form. The thermodynamic parameters (deltaH, deltaS) of the steroid-protein interactions were calculated from the ESR data obtained within a wide temperature range (3--40 degrees C). The ESR spectra width (2T) was used to evaluate the polarity of the spin label environment within the steroid binding site: a hydrophobic character was observed for transcortin whereas PBG exhibited a more hydrophilic steroid binding sits. The rotational correlation time of the three protein DOC-NO complexes at equilibrium were calculated from ESR data; the results were correlated with the protein molecular size and suggested a non spherical shape for the binding macromolecule in solution. Spin labelling of biologically active steroids thus provides a novel approach for the study of the interaction of these hormones with their binding protein. Providing a suitable spin label, the ESR parameters may allow the characterization of several types of binding sites of different biological significance for the same hormone, in biological fluids as well as in target tissues. PMID:83166

  9. Accumulation of steroid hormones in soil and its adjacent aquatic environment from a typical intensive vegetable cultivation of North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Song; Xie, Yun-Feng; Li, Xue-Wen; Wang, Dai-Yi; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Nie, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-12-15

    Steroid hormones released from manure agricultural application are a matter of global concern. The residual levels of steroid hormones were studied in a typical intensive vegetable cultivation area in northeast China, with a long history of heavy manure application. Seven steroids (estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, testosterone, androstendione and progesterone) were analyzed from soil sampled from vegetable greenhouses, from sediments and water from the adjacent drainage ditch and from the groundwater. The results showed that target steroids were detected in the soil samples, with detection frequencies varying from 3.13 to 100%. The steroid concentrations varied substantially in soils, ranging from below the detection limit to 109.7μg·kg(-1). Three steroids-progesterone, androstendione and estrone-were found to have relatively high residue concentrations in soil, with maximum concentrations of 109.7, 9.83 and 13.30μg·kg(-1), respectively. In adjacent groundwater, all the steroids, with the exception of estrone, were detected in one or more of the 13 groundwater samples. The concentrations of steroids in groundwater ranged from below the method detection limit to 2.38ng·L(-1). Six of the seven (excluding androstendione) were detected in drainage ditch water samples, with concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 14ng·L(-1). Progesterone, androstendione and estrone accumulated relatively easily in soils; their concentrations in groundwater were lower than those of other steroids. The concentrations of testosterone and estriol were relatively low in soil, while in groundwater were higher than those of other steroids. The residual levels of steroids in soil and groundwater showed a clear spatial variation in the study area. The residual levels of steroid hormones in soil varied substantially between differently planted greenhouses. PMID:26318226

  10. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands on top of each kidney called the adrenal glands . These glands produce a variety of hormones that ... disorder is adrenal insufficiency, which occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones. Adrenal insufficiency typically ...

  11. Steroid induction of a peptide hormone gene leads to orchestration of a defined behavioral sequence.

    PubMed

    Zitnan, D; Ross, L S; Zitnanova, I; Hermesman, J L; Gill, S S; Adams, M E

    1999-07-01

    At the end of each molt, insects shed the old cuticle by performing preecdysis and ecdysis behaviors. Regulation of these centrally patterned movements involves peptide signaling between endocrine Inka cells and the CNS. In Inka cells, we have identified the cDNA and gene encoding preecdysis-triggering hormone (PETH) and ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH), which activate these behaviors. Prior to behavioral onset, rising ecdysteroid levels induce expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ETH gene in Inka cells and evoke CNS sensitivity to PETH and ETH. Subsequent ecdysteroid decline is required for peptide release, which initiates three motor patterns in specific order: PETH triggers preecdysis I, while ETH activates preecdysis II and ecdysis. The Inka cell provides a model for linking steroid regulation of peptide hormone expression and release with activation of a defined behavioral sequence. PMID:10433264

  12. Predicting Treatment Response for Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Using Pre-treatment Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Shenk, Chad E.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Kolko, David J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Noll, Jennie G.; Bukstein, Oscar G.

    2016-01-01

    Variations in adrenal and gonadal hormone profiles have been linked to increased rates of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). These relationships suggest that certain hormone profiles may be related to how well children respond to psychological treatments for ODD and CD. The current study assessed whether pre-treatment profiles of adrenal and gonadal hormones predicted response to psychological treatment of ODD and CD. One hundred five children, 6 – 11 years old, participating in a randomized, clinical trial provided samples for cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione. Diagnostic interviews of ODD and CD were administered up to three years post-treatment to track treatment response. Group-based trajectory modeling identified two trajectories of treatment response: 1) a High-response trajectory where children demonstrated lower rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up, and 2) a Low-response trajectory where children demonstrated higher rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up. Hierarchical logistic regression predicting treatment response demonstrated that children with higher pre-treatment concentrations of testosterone were four times more likely to be in the Low-response trajectory. No other significant relationship existed between pre-treatment hormone profiles and treatment response. These results suggest that higher concentrations of testosterone are related to how well children diagnosed with ODD or CD respond to psychological treatment over the course of three years.

  13. An improved micro-method for the measurement of steroid profiles by APPI-LC-MS/MS and its use in assessing diurnal effects on steroid concentrations and optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency and CAH.

    PubMed

    Stolze, Brian R; Gounden, Verena; Gu, Jianghong; Elliott, Elizabeth A; Masika, Likhona S; Abel, Brent S; Merke, Deborah P; Skarulis, Monica C; Soldin, Steven J

    2016-09-01

    Our goals were to (1) develop an improved micro-method usable for neonates for steroid profile measurements and a method to measure androsterone, a key steroid in the recently described androgen backdoor pathway together, with dehydroepiandrosterone and (2) to assess if dehydroepiandrosterone diurnal concentration fluctuations exist potentially necessitating strict adherence to time of blood sample draw and requirement of separate time-dependent reference intervals. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed with an atmospheric pressure photoionization source [1]. For each sample 50μL (100μL for the backdoor pathway) of serum was deproteinized by adding 75μL (150μL for the backdoor pathway) of acetonitrile containing the internal standards. After centrifugation, 75μL (150μL for the backdoor pathway) of supernatant was diluted with 250μL of water and injected onto a Poroshell 120 EC-C8 column (SB-C8 column for the backdoor pathway). Within-run coefficients of variation ranged from 2.4 to 10.4% and between-day coefficients of variation from 2.9 to 11.2%. Comparison studies yielded correlation coefficient between 0.97 and 1.00 with recoveries of 90% or greater. Our methods analyze a 9 steroid profile and an additional 2 steroid profile (backdoor pathway) with minimal sample volume (usable in neonates optimizing early diagnosis of endocrinopathies and genetic diseases). Low limits of quantitation make these methods ideal for steroid measurement in women and prepubertal children. As diurnal variations of dehydroepiandrosterone and other steroids [2] concentrations are clinically significant we recommend that separate reference intervals be developed for 8 am, 8 pm, and midnight sample draws. The use of this approach in improving the diagnosis of patients with adrenal insufficiency and congenital adrenal hyperplasia is discussed. PMID:26721696

  14. Adrenal imaging (Part 2): Medullary and secondary adrenal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dhamija, Ekta; Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J.; Gupta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal malignancies can be either primary adrenal tumors or secondary metastases, with metastases representing the most common malignant adrenal lesion. While imaging cannot always clearly differentiate between various adrenal malignancies, presence of certain imaging features, in conjunction with appropriate clinical background and hormonal profile, can suggest the appropriate diagnosis. The second part of the article on adrenal imaging describes adrenal medullary tumors, secondary adrenal lesions, bilateral adrenal lesions, adrenal incidentalomas and provides an algorithmic approach to adrenal lesions based on current imaging recommendations. PMID:25593821

  15. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  16. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  17. HPLC-MS/MS analysis of steroid hormones in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Avar, P; Maasz, G; Takács, P; Lovas, S; Zrinyi, Z; Svigruha, R; Takátsy, A; Tóth, L G; Pirger, Z

    2016-01-01

    Today, freshwaters, such as lakes and rivers, are subject to controlled pollution. Steroid hormones are chemically very stable highly lipophilic molecules. Their biological properties have a strong impact on the endocrine regulation of species. Steroids have estrogenic, androgenic, thyroidogenic or progestogenic effects and based on them, they could disturb the physiological mechanisms of freshwater species. We focused on progestins as they are the main active ingredients of contraceptive pharmaceuticals. Progestins have been shown to impair reproduction in fish, amphibians, and mollusks at low ng/L concentrations. Certain progestins, such as levonorgestrel (LNG) have androgenic properties also. We selected the most used active substances drospirenone (DRO), LNG, and progesterone (PRG) and then developed and optimized a liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method with solid-phase extraction to measure them. Using our sensitive method (LOQ 0.03-0.11 ng/L) we could measure steroids even between 0.1 and 1 ng/L. Analyzing freshwater samples from the Lake Balaton catchment area, we found influents where the concentration of these hormones was 0.26-4.30 (DRO), 0.85-3.40 (LNG), and 0.23-13.67 (PRG) ng/L. Out of 53 collecting places, 21 contained measurable progestin levels, which clearly demonstrates the applicability of our method, legitimates toxicology experiments with effected species, and indicates monitoring efforts. PMID:26059287

  18. A Drosophila Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Regulators of Steroid Hormone Production and Developmental Timing.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Thomas; Moeller, Morten E; Yamanaka, Naoki; Ou, Qiuxiang; Laursen, Janne M; Soenderholm, Caecilie; Zhuo, Ran; Phelps, Brian; Tang, Kevin; Zeng, Jie; Kondo, Shu; Nielsen, Christian H; Harvald, Eva B; Faergeman, Nils J; Haley, Macy J; O'Connor, Kyle A; King-Jones, Kirst; O'Connor, Michael B; Rewitz, Kim F

    2016-06-20

    Steroid hormones control important developmental processes and are linked to many diseases. To systematically identify genes and pathways required for steroid production, we performed a Drosophila genome-wide in vivo RNAi screen and identified 1,906 genes with potential roles in steroidogenesis and developmental timing. Here, we use our screen as a resource to identify mechanisms regulating intracellular levels of cholesterol, a substrate for steroidogenesis. We identify a conserved fatty acid elongase that underlies a mechanism that adjusts cholesterol trafficking and steroidogenesis with nutrition and developmental programs. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of an autophagosomal cholesterol mobilization mechanism and show that activation of this system rescues Niemann-Pick type C1 deficiency that causes a disorder characterized by cholesterol accumulation. These cholesterol-trafficking mechanisms are regulated by TOR and feedback signaling that couples steroidogenesis with growth and ensures proper maturation timing. These results reveal genes regulating steroidogenesis during development that likely modulate disease mechanisms. PMID:27326933

  19. [THE EFFECT OF HORMONAL STIMULATION OF STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS L.) ON STEROID LEVELS IN TISSUE INCUBATES].

    PubMed

    Bayunova, L V

    2016-01-01

    Sex steroids and corticol levels in Leibovitz's L-15 media samples after incubation of intact female and male sterlet (Acipenser rhutenus L.) tissue fragments and those if fishes treated with a superactive analogue of mammalian luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH-A) were compared. 17,20β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20βS) levels were significantly higher in the media samples after incubation of ovarian follicles taken from females 5 h after treatment with LH-RH-A in comparison with 20βS levels in intact female samples. 20βS levels also increased after 1 μM progesterone (P4) adding to the media before incubation of ovarian follicles. Cortisol and testosterone levels in the media samples demonstrated the same tendency. Significant elevation of cortisol levels was observed in the blood serum samples of females 5 h after LH-RH-A treatment. The androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) levels after incubation of testicular and liver fragments were high in the media samples in males who had high serum levels of these androgens before hormonal stimulation. Sex steroids and cortisol production was stimulated by P4 adding to the media before incubation of gonad fragments. 20βS media levels increased after P4 adding before incubation of liver fragments. PMID:27220236

  20. Effect of steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on epithelial mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer development.

    PubMed

    Jeon, So-Ye; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    As the primary female sex steroid hormones, estrogens and progesterone play important roles to regulate growth, differentiation, and function of a broad range of target tissues in the human body and maintain the function of female reproductive tissues. Ovarian cancer is the most cause of cancer death in gynecological malignancy. Despite enormous outcomes in the understanding of ovarian cancer pathology, this disease has resulted in poor survival rates since most patients are asymptomatic until the disease has been metastasized. The exact molecular events leading to metastasis of ovarian tumor cells have not yet been well elucidated, although it is recognized that the acquisition of capacity for migration and invasiveness would be a necessary prerequisite. During metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process, in which epithelial cells lose their intracellular adhesion and cell polarity and acquire increased motility and invasive properties to become mesenchymal like cells. The process of cancer cells to undergo EMT is regulated through the up- and down- regulation of a multiple cellular markers and signaling proteins. In this review, we focused the roles of women sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, in ovarian cancer, especially the ovarian cancer undergoing EMT and metastatic process. All things considered, we may suggest that progesterone is a potent hormone which inhibits the growth of human ovarian cancer cells and development to metastasis whereas estrogen may act as a risk factor of ovarian cancer progression and that progesterone therapy may be an alternative clinically effective tool for the treatment of human ovarian cancer. PMID:26873134

  1. Hormonal regulation of capillary fenestrae in the rat adrenal cortex: quantitative studies using objective lens staging scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Apkarian, R P; Curtis, J C

    1986-01-01

    High magnification studies of the fenestrated capillary endothelium in the zona fasciculata (ZF) of rat adrenal glands were performed using the objective lens stage of an analytical scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a lanthanum hexaboride emitter (LaB6). Resolution of surface substructure of the luminal membrane obtained with specimens decorated with gold/palladium (Au/Pd) was compared with that observed in others sputter coated with tantalum (Ta). High magnification (50,000x) of the fenestrated endothelium demonstrates that tantalum coating of the cryofractured adrenals improves the substructural detail compared to that seen in Au/Pd decorated specimens. The procedures used in specimen preparation, metal deposition and secondary electron imaging (SEI) are described. Quality imaging achieved using the objective lens stage is a result of the elimination of the SE-III component derived from backscattered electrons. Rat adrenals exhibited uniformly patent capillaries. High magnification micrographs of capillary walls were randomly recorded in two morphometric studies of the fenestral content of capillaries in the rat adrenal cortex. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), when administered to rats following dexamethasone (DEX) treatment, significantly reduced the fenestrae/micron 2 of endothelial surface and increased the mean size of fenestrae. After hypophysectomy, the number of fenestrae/micron 2 declined over 48 h; within 2 h after ACTH was given to rats hypophysectomized 48 hours earlier, the fenestrae/micron 2 had increased two-fold. These studies indicate that ACTH plays an important role in modulating fenestral content of the capillary endothelium in the adrenal cortex. PMID:3027881

  2. The role of endogenous steroid hormones in the generation of T helper 2‐mediated autoimmunity in mercuric chloride‐treated Brown–Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Macphee, I A M; Turner, D R; Oliveira, D B G

    2000-01-01

    Injection of Brown–Norway rats with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) activates a T helper type 2 (Th2) autoimmune response, with production of a number of autoantibodies and vasculitis primarily affecting the gut. Glucocorticoids have been shown to suppress Th1 and to promote the development of Th2‐type responses. Conversely dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) promotes Th1 responses with suppression of Th2 responses. This study set out to define the role of these hormones in this animal model. Rats were adrenalectomized (Adx) with no steroid replacement (n = 11), Adx with basal steroid replacement given by a 25 mg corticosterone pellet inserted subcutaneously (n = 13), or sham‐Adx (n = 14) prior to administration of HgCl2. In both groups of Adx animals there was a delay in the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and serum concentrations on day 9 were marginally lower (P = 0·035, repeated measures anova). All of the animals Adx with no steroid replacement and two Adx animals with steroid replacement died between 10 and 14 days after HgCl2 challenge. There was no difference in the severity of caecal vasculitis between the groups. A significant increase in adrenal size was noted following administration of HgCl2. Administration of subcutaneous DHEA implants (100 mg and 200 mg) had no significant effect on IgE concentrations or severity of vasculitis. These observations do not support the hypothesis that corticosterone and DHEA play a central role in setting the Th1/Th2 balance in this experimental Th2‐mediated autoimmune disease; in contrast with the Th1‐mediated autoimmune disease experimental allergic encephalomyelitis where corticosterone plays a key role in immunoregulation. PMID:10651952

  3. Synthetic Steroid Hormones Regulated Cell Proliferation Through MicroRNA-34a-5p in Human Ovarian Endometrioma.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Yi; Hsieh, Tsung-Hua; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Hung-Sheng; Liang, Peir-In; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is the hormone-dependent product of endometrial tissue found outside the uterus. Recently, micro-RNAs (miRNAs) were shown to play a role in endometriotic lesion development. However, the mechanism of steroid hormones responsible for miRNA remains obscure. In the present study, we assayed for the effects of synthetic steroid hormones (danazol, progesterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate [MPA]) on miRNAs in endometriosis. We used a global miRNA expression profile microarray to evaluate miRNA expression in endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EN-MSCs) of ovarian endometrioma following treatment with 1 μM danazol, progesterone, or MPA. Furthermore, we selected candidate miRNAs whose expression changed more than fivefold and compared the effects of danazol, progesterone, and MPA treatments and also compared those results with controls in EN-MSCs. Among those with a fivefold change, we found 13 ectopically upregulated miRNAs in EN-MSCs. To understand the function of these 13 miRNAs, we subjected their sequences to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. According to both the etiology and pathogenesis of endometriosis, we found that miR-199a-5p and miR-34a-5p showed specific association with the disease, including molecular and cellular functions. Steroid hormone treatment elevated the levels of miR-199a-5p and miR-34a-5p. An inhibitor of miR-34a-5p also reduced the synthetic steroid hormones effects on cell proliferation. In vivo data revealed that miRNA levels in endometriotic lesions correlated with findings following in vitro synthetic hormone treatment. Our data show the effects of synthetic steroid hormones on miRNA regulation. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular impact of the synthetic steroid hormones and suggest a potential mechanism for endometriosis treatment. PMID:26819477

  4. Occurrence and distribution of steroids, hormones and selected pharmaceuticals in South Florida coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Singh, Simrat P; Azua, Arlette; Chaudhary, Amit; Khan, Shabana; Willett, Kristine L; Gardinali, Piero R

    2010-02-01

    The common occurrence of human derived contaminants like pharmaceuticals, steroids and hormones in surface waters has raised the awareness of the role played by the release of treated or untreated sewage in the water quality along sensitive coastal ecosystems. South Florida is home of many important protected environments ranging from wetlands to coral reefs which are in close proximity to large metropolitan cities. Because, large portions of South Florida and most of the Florida Keys population are not served by modern sewage treatment plants and rely heavily on the use of septic systems, a comprehensive survey of selected human waste contamination markers was conducted in three areas to assess water quality with respect to non-traditional micro-constituents. This study documents the occurrence and distribution of fifteen hormones and steroids and five commonly detected pharmaceuticals in surface water samples collected from different near shore environments along South Florida between 2004 and 2006. The compounds most frequently detected were: cholesterol, caffeine, estrone, DEET, coprostanol, biphenol-A, beta-estradiol, and triclosan. The concentration detected for estrone and beta-estradiol were up to 5.2 and 1.8 ng/L, respectively. Concentrations of caffeine (5.5-68 ng/L) and DEET (4.8-49 ng/L) were generally higher and more prevalent than were the steroids. Distribution of microconstituents was site specific likely reflecting a diversity of sources. In addition to chemical analysis, the yeast estrogen screen assay was used to screen the samples for estrogen equivalency. Overall, the results show that water collected from inland canals and restricted circulation water bodies adjacent to heavily populated areas had high concentrations of multiple steroids, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products while open bay waters were largely devoid of the target analytes. PMID:19779818

  5. Causes and consequences of age-related steroid hormone changes: insights gained from nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Sorwell, K G; Urbanski, H F

    2013-11-01

    Similar to humans, rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are large, long-lived diurnal primates, and show similar age-related changes in the secretion of many steroid hormones, including oestradiol, testosterone, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Consequently, they represent a pragmatic animal model in which to examine the mechanisms by which these steroidal changes contribute to perturbed sleep-wake cycles and cognitive decline in the elderly. Using remote serial blood sampling, we have found the circulating levels of DHEA sulphate, as well as oestradiol and testosterone, decline markedly in old monkeys. Furthermore, using the real-time polymerase chain reaction, we have shown that the genes for the enzymes associated with the conversion of DHEA to oestradiol and testosterone (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase) are highly expressed in brain areas associated with cognition and behaviour, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Taken together, these findings suggest that the administration of supplementary DHEA in the elderly may have therapeutic potential for cognitive and behavioural disorders, although with fewer negative side effects outside of the central nervous system. To test this, we have developed a novel steroid supplementation paradigm for use in old animals; this involves the oral administration of DHEA and testosterone at physiologically relevant times of the day to mimic the circadian hormone patterns observed in young adults. We are currently evaluating the efficacy of this steroid supplementation paradigm with respect to reversing age-associated disorders, including perturbed sleep-wake cycles and cognitive decline, as well as an impaired immune response. PMID:23796387

  6. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams.

    PubMed

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Ryan, Joseph N; Barber, Larry B

    2011-09-01

    Stream biofilms play an important role in geochemical processing of organic matter and nutrients, however, the significance of this matrix in sorbing trace organic contaminants is less understood. This study focused on the role of stream biofilms in sorbing steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from surface waters using biofilms colonized in situ on artificial substrata and subsequently transferred to the laboratory for controlled batch sorption experiments. Steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds readily sorb to stream biofilms as indicated by organic matter partition coefficients (K(om), L kg(-1)) for 17β-estradiol (10(2.5-2.8) L kg(-1)), 17α-ethynylestradiol (10(2.5-2.9) L kg(-1)), 4-nonylphenol (10(3.4-4.6) L kg(-1)), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (10(3.5-4.0) L kg(-1)), and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (10(3.9-4.3) L kg(-1)). Experiments using water quality differences to induce changes in the relative composition of periphyton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stream biofilm did not significantly affect the sorptive properties of the stream biofilm, providing additional evidence that stream biofilms will sorb trace organic compounds under of variety of environmental conditions. Because sorption of the target compounds to stream biofilms was linearly correlated with organic matter content, hydrophobic partition into organic matter appears to be the dominant mechanism. An analysis of 17β-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol hydrophobic partition into water, biofilm, sediment, and dissolved organic matter matrices at mass/volume ratios typical of smaller rivers showed that the relative importance of the stream biofilm as a sorptive matrix was comparable to bed sediments. Therefore, stream biofilms play a primary role in attenuating these compounds in surface waters. Because the stream biofilm represents the base of the stream ecosystem, accumulation of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds in the stream biofilm may be an exposure pathway for

  7. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, J.H.; Ryan, J.N.; Barber, L.B.

    2011-01-01

    Stream biofilms play an important role in geochemical processing of organic matter and nutrients, however, the significance of this matrix in sorbing trace organic contaminants is less understood. This study focused on the role of stream biofilms in sorbing steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from surface waters using biofilms colonized in situ on artificial substrata and subsequently transferred to the laboratory for controlled batch sorption experiments. Steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds readily sorb to stream biofilms as indicated by organic matter partition coefficients (K om, L kg-1) for 17??-estradiol (102.5-2.8 L kg-1), 17??-ethynylestradiol (102.5-2.9 L kg -1), 4-nonylphenol (103.4-4.6 L kg-1), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (103.5-4.0 L kg-1), and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (103.9-4.3 L kg-1). Experiments using water quality differences to induce changes in the relative composition of periphyton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stream biofilm did not significantly affect the sorptive properties of the stream biofilm, providing additional evidence that stream biofilms will sorb trace organic compounds under of variety of environmental conditions. Because sorption of the target compounds to stream biofilms was linearly correlated with organic matter content, hydrophobic partition into organic matter appears to be the dominant mechanism. An analysis of 17??-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol hydrophobic partition into water, biofilm, sediment, and dissolved organic matter matrices at mass/volume ratios typical of smaller rivers showed that the relative importance of the stream biofilm as a sorptive matrix was comparable to bed sediments. Therefore, stream biofilms play a primary role in attenuating these compounds in surface waters. Because the stream biofilm represents the base of the stream ecosystem, accumulation of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds in the stream biofilm may be an exposure pathway for organisms in higher trophic

  8. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, Jeffrey H.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Barber, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Stream biofilms play an important role in geochemical processing of organic matter and nutrients, however, the significance of this matrix in sorbing trace organic contaminants is less understood. This study focused on the role of stream biofilms in sorbing steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from surface waters using biofilms colonized in situ on artificial substrata and subsequently transferred to the laboratory for controlled batch sorption experiments. Steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds readily sorb to stream biofilms as indicated by organic matter partition coefficients (Kom, L kg-1) for 17β-estradiol (102.5-2.8 L kg-1), 17α-ethynylestradiol (102.5-2.9 L kg-1), 4-nonylphenol (103.4-4.6 L kg-1), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (103.5-4.0 L kg-1), and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (103.9-4.3 L kg-1). Experiments using water quality differences to induce changes in the relative composition of periphyton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stream biofilm did not significantly affect the sorptive properties of the stream biofilm, providing additional evidence that stream biofilms will sorb trace organic compounds under of variety of environmental conditions. Because sorption of the target compounds to stream biofilms was linearly correlated with organic matter content, hydrophobic partition into organic matter appears to be the dominant mechanism. An analysis of 17β-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol hydrophobic partition into water, biofilm, sediment, and dissolved organic matter matrices at mass/volume ratios typical of smaller rivers showed that the relative importance of the stream biofilm as a sorptive matrix was comparable to bed sediments. Therefore, stream biofilms play a primary role in attenuating these compounds in surface waters. Because the stream biofilm represents the base of the stream ecosystem, accumulation of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds in the stream biofilm may be an exposure pathway for organisms in higher trophic

  9. Data for stable formulation of steroid hormone receptor-targeted liposomes for cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Narayan, Kumar Pranav

    2016-01-01

    A detailed description of steroid hormone ligand containing liposomes and their stability has been given. Liposomes were complexed with β-gal DNA and used to transfect cancer and non-cancer cells. The stability of the liposomes and lipoplexes were analysed using dynamic light scattering and DNA-binding gel images. The formulations were used to assess the delivery of anticancer gene, p53 in cancer cells. The dataset consists of DNA-binding gel images, transfection, cytotoxicity and reverse transcriptase PCR images. PMID:27006974

  10. Data for stable formulation of steroid hormone receptor-targeted liposomes for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Narayan, Kumar Pranav

    2016-06-01

    A detailed description of steroid hormone ligand containing liposomes and their stability has been given. Liposomes were complexed with β-gal DNA and used to transfect cancer and non-cancer cells. The stability of the liposomes and lipoplexes were analysed using dynamic light scattering and DNA-binding gel images. The formulations were used to assess the delivery of anticancer gene, p53 in cancer cells. The dataset consists of DNA-binding gel images, transfection, cytotoxicity and reverse transcriptase PCR images. PMID:27006974

  11. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  12. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in ‘atypical’ mammals

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A.; Mustoe, Aaryn C.; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in ‘atypical’ female mammals. PMID:24167314

  13. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals. PMID:24167314

  14. Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  15. Presence of a putative steroidal allosteric site on glycoprotein hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mario; Dimida, Antonio; Ferrarini, Eleonora; Silvano, Elena; De Marco, Giuseppina; Agretti, Patrizia; Aloisi, Gabriella; Simoncini, Tommaso; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Tonacchera, Massimo; Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto

    2009-11-25

    In a previous work we found that the insecticide 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), inhibits the accumulation of cAMP as induced by the bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) in cells transfected with the TSH receptor. In this work, we demonstrate that the DDT molecular analogues, diethylstilbestrol and quercetine, are more potent inhibitors of the TSH receptor activity than DDT itself. The notion that all these compounds interfere with nuclear estrogen receptors, as either agonists (DDT and diethylstilbestrol) or antagonists (quercetin), prompted us to test the ability of the steroid hormone 17-beta-estradiol to inhibit the TSH receptor activity. We found that estrogen exposure causes a modest but significant inhibition of the bTSH induced cAMP accumulation both in transfected CHO-TSH receptor and Fischer Rat Thyroid Low Serum 5% (FRTL-5) cells. When applied to CHO cells transfected with the luteinizing hormone receptor, 17-beta-estradiol proved capable of inhibiting the hCG induced cAMP accumulation at a concentration as low as 10nM, though the effect was not greater than 35%. The effect of 17-beta-estradiol was not estrogen receptors mediated, as co-transfection of the estrogen receptor alpha and beta subunits with LH receptor caused cAMP to increase above the level attained by the sole hCG stimulation, and not to decrease it as expected. These data suggest the presence of a steroidal-like allosteric binding site on glycoprotein hormone receptors. PMID:19766106

  16. Ovarian steroid hormone-regulated uterine remodeling occurs independently of macrophages in mice.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Ingman, Wendy V; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Jasper, Melinda J; Robertson, Sarah A

    2014-09-01

    Macrophages are abundant in the uterine stroma and are intimately juxtaposed with other cell lineages comprising the uterine epithelial and stromal compartments. We postulated that macrophages may participate in mediating or amplifying the effects of ovarian steroid hormones to facilitate the uterine remodeling that is a characteristic feature of every estrus cycle and is essential for pregnancy. Using the Cd11b-Dtr transgenic mouse model with an ovariectomy and hormone replacement strategy, we depleted macrophages to determine their role in hormone-driven proliferation of uterine epithelial and stromal cells and uterine vascular development. Following diphtheria toxin (DT) administration, approximately 85% of EMR1-positive (EMR1⁺) macrophages, as well as 70% of CD11C⁺ dendritic cells, were depleted from Cd11b-Dtr mice. There was no change in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into epithelial cells induced to proliferate by administration of 17beta-estradiol (E2) to ovariectomized mice or into stromal cells induced to proliferate in response to E2 and progesterone (P4), and the resulting sizes and structures of the luminal epithelial and stromal cell compartments were not altered compared with those of leukocyte replete controls. Depletion of CD11B⁺ myeloid cells failed to alter the density or pattern of distribution of uterine blood vessels, as identified by staining PECAM1-positive endothelial cells in the uterine stroma of E2- or E2 combined with P4 (E2P4)-treated ovariectomized mice. These experiments support the interpretation that macrophages are dispensable to regulation of proliferative events induced by steroid hormones in the cycling and early pregnant mouse uterus to establish the epithelial, stromal, and vascular architecture which is critical for normal reproductive competence. PMID:25061095

  17. Steroid hormone related effects of marine persistent organic pollutants in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Rijk, Jeroen C W; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T; Murk, Albertinka J

    2015-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) 126 and 153, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tributyltin (TBT), and methylmercury (MeHg) can be accumulated in seafood and then form a main source for human exposure. Some POPs have been associated with changes in steroid hormone levels in both humans and animals. This study describes the in vitro effects of these POPs and mixtures thereof in H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Relative responses for 13 steroid hormones and 7 genes involved in the steroidogenic pathway, and CYP1A1, were analyzed. PFOS induced the most pronounced effects on steroid hormone levels by significantly affecting 9 out of 13 hormone levels measured, with the largest increases found for 17β-estradiol, corticosterone, and cortisol. Furthermore, TCDD, both PCBs, and TBT significantly altered steroidogenesis. Increased steroid hormone levels were accompanied by related increased gene expression levels. The differently expressed genes were MC2R, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, and CYP19A1 and changes in gene expression levels were more sensitive than changes in hormone levels. The POP mixtures tested showed mostly additive effects, especially for DHEA and 17β-estradiol levels. This study shows that some seafood POPs are capable of altering steroidogenesis in H295R cells at concentrations that mixtures might reach in human blood, suggesting that adverse health effects cannot be excluded. PMID:25765474

  18. Sex-specific chronic stress response at the level of adrenal gland modifies sexual hormone and leptin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Balog, Marta; Miljanović, Milan; Blažetić, Senka; Labak, Irena; Ivić, Vedrana; Viljetić, Barbara; Borbely, Attila; Papp, Zoltán; Blažeković, Robert; Vari, Sandor G.; Fagyas, Miklós; Heffer, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare cardiometabolic risk-related biochemical markers and sexual hormone and leptin receptors in the adrenal gland of rat males, non-ovariectomized females (NON-OVX), and ovariectomized females (OVX) under chronic stress. Methods Forty six 16-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into male, NON-OVX, and OVX group and exposed to chronic stress or kept as controls. Weight, glucose tolerance test (GTT), serum concentration of glucose, and cholesterol were measured. Adrenal glands were collected at the age of 28 weeks and immunohistochemical staining against estrogen beta (ERβ), progesterone (PR), testosterone (AR), and leptin (Ob-R) receptors was performed. Results Body weight, GTT, serum cholesterol, and glucose changed in response to stress as expected and validated the applied stress protocol. Stressed males had significantly higher number of ERβ receptors in comparison to control group (P = 0.028). Stressed NON-OVX group had significantly decreased AR in comparison to control group (P = 0.007). The levels of PR did not change in any consistent pattern. The levels of Ob-R increased upon stress in all groups, but the significant difference was reached only in the case of stressed OVX group compared to control (P = 0.033). Conclusion Chronic stress response was sex specific. OVX females had similar biochemical parameters as males. Changes upon chronic stress in adrenal gland were related to a decrease in testosterone receptor in females and increase in estrogen receptor in males. PMID:25891869

  19. Modelling the binding affinity of steroids to zebrafish sex hormone-binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A K; Devillers, J; Pery, A R R; Beaudouin, R; Balaramnavar, V M; Ahmed, S

    2014-01-01

    The circulating endogenous steroids are transported in the bloodstream. These are bound to a highly specific sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and in lower affinity to proteins such as the corticosteroid-binding protein and albumin in vertebrates, including fish. It is generally believed that the glycoprotein SHBG protects these steroids from rapid metabolic degradation and thus intervenes in its availability at the target tissues. Endocrine disrupters binding to SHBG affect the normal activity of natural steroids. Since xenobiotics are primarily released in the aquatic environment, there is a need to evaluate the binding affinity of xenosteroid mimics on fish SHBG, especially in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish originating in India and widely employed in ecotoxicology, toxicology, and genetics. In this context, a zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) homology model was developed using the human SHBG (hSHBG) receptor structure as template. It was shown that interactions with amino acids Ser-36, Asp-59 and Thr-54 were important for binding affinity. A ligand-based pharmacophore model was also developed for both zfSHBG and hSHBG inhibitors that differentiated binders from non-binders, but also demonstrated structural requirements for zfSHBG and hSHBG ligands. The study provides insights into the mechanism of action of endocrine disruptors in zebrafish as well as providing a useful tool for identifying anthropogenic compounds inhibiting zfSHBG. PMID:24874994

  20. Metabolic profiling of cholesterol and sex steroid hormones to monitor urological diseases.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Man Ho; Kim, Jayoung

    2016-10-01

    Cholesterol and sex steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens play a critical role in the development and progression of urological diseases such as prostate cancer. This disease remains the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor in men and is the leading cause of death from different cancers. Attempts to understand the role of cholesterol and steroid metabolism in urological diseases have been ongoing for many years, but despite this, our mechanistic and translational understanding remains elusive. In order to further evaluate the problem, we have taken an interest in metabolomics; a discipline dedicated to the systematic study of biologically active metabolites in cells, tissues, hair and biofluids. Recently, we provided evidence that a quantitative measurement of cholesterol and sex steroid metabolites can be successfully achieved using hair of human and mouse models. The overall goal of this short review article is to introduce current metabolomic technologies for the quantitative biomarker assay development and also to provide new insight into understanding the underlying mechanisms that trigger the pathological condition. Furthermore, this review will place a particular emphasis on how to prepare biospecimens (e.g., hair fiber), quantify molecular profiles and assess their clinical significance in various urological diseases. PMID:27580660

  1. Pigments, Parasites and Personalitiy: Towards a Unifying Role for Steroid Hormones?

    PubMed Central

    Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida Beitnes; Braastad, Bjarne Olai; Øverli, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or “animal personalities”. Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed. PMID:22493685

  2. Expression of steroid hormone receptors in the genital structures of a true hermaphrodite pug dog.

    PubMed

    Bartel, C; Meyer, F; Schäfer-Somi, S; Walter, I

    2015-02-01

    Hermaphroditism is a rare and a not well-understood disordered sexual development (DSD) in dogs. The objective of the study was to analyse the sex steroid hormone receptor (STHR) expression patterns in the internal genital structures, because the responsiveness of the different tissue types to the steroid hormones may have a key role in pathological alterations based on DSDs. Furthermore, the adhesion molecule β-catenin was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry because of its important role in development, tissue integrity and disease. Molecular sexing was performed via PCR targeting DBX/DBY genes to identify the pug dog as a true XX hermaphrodite. The portions of uterine tissue revealed comparable expression patterns for STHRs as investigated in normal female reproductive tissue. In the male parts, β-catenin showed strong expression in the Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules; this was in contrast to normal testicular tissue. Likewise, the layers of smooth muscle actin-positive cells surrounding the seminiferous tubules were reduced in the hermaphrodite. The results of this study deepen the knowledge of tissue characteristics in a hermaphrodite dog and highlight the importance of early diagnosis because the STH responsiveness in maldeveloped reproductive tissue might lead to serious problems for the dog. PMID:25472589

  3. In vivo absorption of steroidal hormones from smart polymer based delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sibao; Pederson, Daniel; Oak, Mayura; Singh, Jagdish

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop smart polymer based controlled delivery systems to deliver steroidal hormones after single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection at predetermined rates over extended period of time. In vivo absorption and pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel (LNG) and testosterone (TSN) were investigated from the thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymeric controlled delivery systems. A selective, reliable, and rapid method for determination of serum LNG concentration was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandom mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (HPLC-MS-MS with APCI), while TSN in serum samples was detected and quantified by a competitive immunoassay. The delivery systems controlled the absorption of LNG in rabbits up to 6 weeks from thermosensitive and approximately 4 weeks from phase sensitive polymeric delivery systems. In vivo study of TSN delivery systems in castrated rabbits controlled the release of TSN for at least 2 months from both thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymers. Thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymer formulations significantly (p < 0.05) increased relative bioavailability of steroidal hormones compared to control. In conclusion, thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymer based delivery systems controlled the release in vivo in rabbits for longer duration after single s.c. injection. PMID:20213838

  4. Mitochondrial fusion but not fission regulates larval growth and synaptic development through steroid hormone production

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Hector; Yao, Chi-Kuang; Chen, Kuchuan; Jaiswal, Manish; Donti, Taraka; Lin, Yong Qi; Bayat, Vafa; Xiong, Bo; Zhang, Ke; David, Gabriela; Charng, Wu-Lin; Yamamoto, Shinya; Duraine, Lita; Graham, Brett H; Bellen, Hugo J

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial fusion and fission affect the distribution and quality control of mitochondria. We show that Marf (Mitochondrial associated regulatory factor), is required for mitochondrial fusion and transport in long axons. Moreover, loss of Marf leads to a severe depletion of mitochondria in neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Marf mutants also fail to maintain proper synaptic transmission at NMJs upon repetitive stimulation, similar to Drp1 fission mutants. However, unlike Drp1, loss of Marf leads to NMJ morphology defects and extended larval lifespan. Marf is required to form contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum and/or lipid droplets (LDs) and for proper storage of cholesterol and ecdysone synthesis in ring glands. Interestingly, human Mitofusin-2 rescues the loss of LD but both Mitofusin-1 and Mitofusin-2 are required for steroid-hormone synthesis. Our data show that Marf and Mitofusins share an evolutionarily conserved role in mitochondrial transport, cholesterol ester storage and steroid-hormone synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03558.001 PMID:25313867

  5. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay To Detect Steroid Hormone Traces in Milk.

    PubMed

    Varriale, Antonio; Pennacchio, Anna; Pinto, Gabriella; Oliviero, Giorgia; D'Errico, Stefano; Majoli, Adelia; Scala, Andrea; Capo, Alessandro; Pennacchio, Angela; Di Giovanni, Stefano; Staiano, Maria; D'Auria, Sabato

    2015-10-21

    Steroids are a class of hormones improperly used in livestock as growth-promoting agents. Due to their high risk for human health, the European Union (EU) has strictly forbidden the administration of all natural and synthetic steroid hormones to food-producing animals, and the development of new rapid detection methods are greatly encouraged. This work reports a novel fluorescence polarization assay, ready to use, capable of detecting 17β-estradiol directly in milk samples with a low limit of detection of <10 pmol. It is based on the coupling of monospecific antibodies against 17β-estradiol and fluorophores, capable of modulating the fluorescence polarization emission on the basis of the specific binding of antibodies to fluorescence-labeled 17β-estradiol derivative. The successful detection of 17β-estradiol has disclosed the development of an efficient method, easily extensible to any food matrix and having the potential to become a milestone in food quality and safety. PMID:26434254

  6. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome. It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases excess amounts of the hormone cortisol. Causes ... hormone cortisol. This hormone is made in the adrenal glands . Too much cortisol can be due to various ...

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS) Stimulates the First Step in the Biosynthesis of Steroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Neunzig, Jens; Bernhardt, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is the most abundant circulating steroid in human, with the highest concentrations between age 20 and 30, but displaying a significant decrease with age. Many beneficial functions are ascribed to DHEAS. Nevertheless, long-term studies are very scarce concerning the intake of DHEAS over several years, and molecular investigations on DHEAS action are missing so far. In this study, the role of DHEAS on the first and rate-limiting step of steroid hormone biosynthesis was analyzed in a reconstituted in vitro system, consisting of purified CYP11A1, adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase. DHEAS enhances the conversion of cholesterol by 26%. Detailed analyses of the mechanism of DHEAS action revealed increased binding affinity of cholesterol to CYP11A1 and enforced interaction with the electron transfer partner, adrenodoxin. Difference spectroscopy showed Kd-values of 40±2.7 µM and 24.8±0.5 µM for CYP11A1 and cholesterol without and with addition of DHEAS, respectively. To determine the Kd-value for CYP11A1 and adrenodoxin, surface plasmon resonance measurements were performed, demonstrating a Kd-value of 3.0±0.35 nM (with cholesterol) and of 2.4±0.05 nM when cholesterol and DHEAS were added. Kinetic experiments showed a lower Km and a higher kcat value for CYP11A1 in the presence of DHEAS leading to an increase of the catalytic efficiency by 75%. These findings indicate that DHEAS affects steroid hormone biosynthesis on a molecular level resulting in an increased formation of pregnenolone. PMID:24586990

  8. Increased steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone levels in post-mortem brain samples of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, Olli; Häkkinen, Merja R; Auriola, Seppo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Tiihonen, Jari; Storvik, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Intra-tissue levels of steroid hormones (e.g., dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], pregnenolone [PREGN], and testosterone [T]) may influence the pathological changes seen in neurotransmitter systems of alcoholic brains. Our aim was to compare levels of these steroid hormones between the post-mortem brain samples of alcoholics and non-alcoholic controls. We studied steroid levels with quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in post-mortem brain samples of alcoholics (N = 14) and non-alcoholic controls (N = 10). Significant differences were observed between study groups in DHEA and PREGN levels (p values 0.0056 and 0.019, respectively), but not in T levels. Differences between the study groups were most prominent in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and anterior insula (AINS). DHEA levels were increased in most alcoholic subjects compared to controls. However, only a subgroup of alcoholics showed increased PREGN levels. Negative Spearman correlations between tissue levels of PREGN and previous reports of [(3)H]naloxone binding to μ-opioid receptors were observed in the AINS, ACC, NAC, and frontal cortex (R values between -0.6 and -0.8; p values ≤ 0.002), suggesting an association between the opioid system and brain PREGN levels. Although preliminary, and from relatively small diagnostic groups, these results show significantly increased levels of DHEA and PREGN in the brains of alcoholics, and could be associated with the pathology of alcoholism. PMID:27139239

  9. Estimation of the Mechanism of Adrenal Action of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds Using a Computational Model of Adrenal Steroidogenesis in NCI-H295R Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Ryuta; Terasaki, Natsuko; Yamazaki, Makoto; Masutomi, Naoya; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Okamoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal toxicity is one of the major concerns in drug development. To quantitatively understand the effect of endocrine-active compounds on adrenal steroidogenesis and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs, we developed a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma NCI-H295R cells. The model includes cellular proliferation, intracellular cholesterol translocation, diffusional transport of steroids, and metabolic pathways of adrenal steroidogenesis, which serially involve steroidogenic proteins and enzymes such as StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, CYP21A2, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, HSD17B3, and CYP19A1. It was reconstructed in an experimental dynamics of cholesterol and 14 steroids from an in vitro steroidogenesis assay using NCI-H295R cells. Results of dynamic sensitivity analysis suggested that HSD3B2 plays the most important role in the metabolic balance of adrenal steroidogenesis. Based on differential metabolic profiling of 12 steroid hormones and 11 adrenal toxic compounds, we could estimate which steroidogenic enzymes were affected in this mathematical model. In terms of adrenal steroidogenic inhibitors, the predicted action sites were approximately matched to reported target enzymes. Thus, our computer-aided system based on systems biological approach may be useful to understand the mechanism of action of endocrine-active compounds and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:27057163

  10. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    PubMed Central

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (−5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05). PMID:26075039

  11. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas.

    PubMed

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (-5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05). PMID:26075039

  12. Effect of growth promotants on the occurrence of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones on feedlot soils and in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplements and growth promotants containing steroid hormones are routinely administered to beef cattle to improve feeding efficiency, reduce behavioral problems, and enhance production. As a result, beef cattle manure will contain both synthetic steroids as well as a range of endogenous steroids i...

  13. Effects of female steroid hormones on A-type K+ currents in murine colon.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Elizabeth A H; McCloskey, Conor; O'Kane, Neil; Sanders, Kenton M; Koh, Sang Don

    2006-06-01

    Idiopathic constipation is higher in women of reproductive age than postmenopausal women or men, suggesting that female steroid hormones influence gastrointestinal motility. How female hormones affect motility is unclear. Colonic motility is regulated by ion channels in colonic myocytes. Voltage-dependent K(+) channels serve to set the excitability of colonic muscles. We investigated regulation of Kv 4.3 channel expression in response to acute or chronic changes in female hormones. Patch clamp experiments and quantitative PCR were used to compare outward currents and transcript expression in colonic myocytes from male, non-pregnant, pregnant and ovariectomized mice. Groups of ovariectomized mice received injections of oestrogen or progesterone to investigate the effects of hormone replacement. The capacitance of colonic myocytes from non-pregnant females was larger than in males. Net outward current density in male and ovariectomized mice was higher than in non-pregnant females and oestrogen-treated ovariectomized mice. Current densities in late pregnancy were lower than in female controls. Progesterone had no effect on outward currents. A-type currents were decreased in non-pregnant females compared with ovariectomized mice, and were further decreased by pregnancy or oestrogen replacement. Kv 4.3 transcripts did not differ significantly between groups; however, expression of the potassium channel interacting protein KChIP1 was elevated in ovariectomized mice compared with female controls and oestrogen-treated ovariectomized mice. Delayed rectifier currents were not affected by oestrogen. In the mouse colon, oestrogen suppresses A-type currents, which are important for regulating excitability. These observations suggest a possible link between female hormones and altered colonic motility associated with menses, pregnancy and menopause. PMID:16581861

  14. Steroid Assays in Paediatric Endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274330

  15. Efficacy of single serum cortisol reading obtained between 9 AM and 10 AM as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Goto, Masahiro; Shibata, Nao; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2016-07-01

    To find a simple method to screen for iatrogenic childhood adrenal insufficiency, we retrospectively examined the results of CRH stimulation tests performed 212 times on 111 subjects (68 males; age at commencement of initial treatment ranged 0.0-19.8 yr; median age, 5.8 yr). Before the commencement of this study, 97 subjects had been treated with glucocorticoids and 14 subjects with West syndrome had been treated with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone. Duration of the primary treatment ranged from 15 to 2150 days. CRH stimulation tests were conducted between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM and peak cortisol values less than 15 µg/dL were considered indicative of adrenal insufficiency. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the optimal basal serum cortisol cut-off values when screening for adrenal suppression ranged from 5.35 to 5.80 µg/dL depending on the primary disease. All subjects having a serum cortisol value of less than 2.3 µg/dL had insufficient adrenal function while all subjects having greater than 11 µg/dL had intact adrenal function. We concluded that single serum cortisol values obtained between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM had the potential to serve as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone. PMID:27507908

  16. Efficacy of single serum cortisol reading obtained between 9 AM and 10 AM as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Masahiro; Shibata, Nao; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. To find a simple method to screen for iatrogenic childhood adrenal insufficiency, we retrospectively examined the results of CRH stimulation tests performed 212 times on 111 subjects (68 males; age at commencement of initial treatment ranged 0.0–19.8 yr; median age, 5.8 yr). Before the commencement of this study, 97 subjects had been treated with glucocorticoids and 14 subjects with West syndrome had been treated with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone. Duration of the primary treatment ranged from 15 to 2150 days. CRH stimulation tests were conducted between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM and peak cortisol values less than 15 µg/dL were considered indicative of adrenal insufficiency. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the optimal basal serum cortisol cut-off values when screening for adrenal suppression ranged from 5.35 to 5.80 µg/dL depending on the primary disease. All subjects having a serum cortisol value of less than 2.3 µg/dL had insufficient adrenal function while all subjects having greater than 11 µg/dL had intact adrenal function. We concluded that single serum cortisol values obtained between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM had the potential to serve as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone. PMID:27507908

  17. Steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone promotes higher calcium mobilization to induce apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Pei, Xu-Yang; Zhao, Wen-Li; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-07-01

    Calcium ions are essential secondary messengers that regulate diverse cellular processes including gene transcription, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) promotes programmed cell death during insect metamorphosis, whereas juvenile hormone (JH) counteracts 20E activity to prevent metamorphosis. Both 20E and JH can induce cellular calcium increase; however, the mechanisms and physiological consequences resulting from calcium increase caused by the two counteracting hormones are unclear. Here, using Helicoverpa armigera epidermal cell line, we show that 20E via a G-protein-coupled receptor induced a major calcium rise in the cells, whereas JH via receptor tyrosine kinase induced a minor calcium increase. The calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (Orai1) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels were necessary for 20E-induced rapid calcium influx. A higher calcium level was maintained in a long time and more genes including Orai1 and TRP channels showed elevated expression after the treatment of 20E than did after JH treatment. Caspase3/7 activation, cell death and pro-apoptotic gene expression were elicited by 20E induction, but not by JH. JH could repress 20E-induced calcium influx, caspase3/7 activation and gene expression. Higher calcium levels induced apoptosis. These results suggest that 20E and JH via different pathways regulate calcium mobilization and homeostasis at different levels, thus inform different gene expression and cellular responses. PMID:27209368

  18. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of human adrenal vein corticosteroids before and after ACTH stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Rege, Juilee; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Morimoto, Ryo; Kennedy, Michael R; Ahlem, Clarence N; Honma, Seijiro; Sasano, Hironobu; Rainey, William E

    2014-01-01

    Context Although steroid hormones produced by the adrenal gland play critical roles in human physiology, a detailed quantitative analysis of the steroid products has not been reported. The current study uses a single methodology (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, LC-MS/MS) to quantify ten corticosteroids in adrenal vein (AV) samples pre and post adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. Design/methods Three men and six women with a diagnosis of an adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) were included in the study. Serum was collected from the iliac vein (IV) and the adrenal vein (AV) contralateral to the diseased adrenal. Samples were collected, before and after administration of ACTH. LC-MS/MS was then used to quantify serum concentrations of unconjugated corticosteroids and their precursors. Results Prior to ACTH stimulation the four most abundant steroids in AV were cortisol (90%), cortisone (4%), corticosterone (3%) and 11-deoxycortisol (0.8%). Post ACTH administration, cortisol remained the major adrenal product (79%), however, corticosterone became the second most abundantly produced adrenal steroid (11%) followed by pregnenolone (2.5%) and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone (2%). ACTH significantly increased the absolute adrenal output of all ten corticosteroids measured (P<0.05). The four largest post ACTH increases were pregnenolone (300-fold), progesterone (199-fold), 17α-hydroxypregnenolone (187-fold) and deoxycorticosterone (82-fold). Conclusion Using LC-MS/MS we successfully measured 10 corticosteroids in peripheral and adrenal vein serum samples under pre and post ACTH stimulation. This study demonstrates the primary adrenal steroid products and their response to ACTH. PMID:22150161

  19. ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES AND DECIDUAL INDUCTION IN THE REGULATION OF ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN RAT ENDOMETRIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on enzyme activity, adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT) was measured in endometrial nuclei isolated on estrus and on d 4 from rats ovariectomized on estrus (d 0) and treated d 0-3 with (a) vehicle, (b) 1 ug estrone/d (E)...

  20. Transcriptional regulation of insect steroid hormone biosynthesis and its role in controlling timing of molting and metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Yuko S; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2016-01-01

    The developmental transition from juvenile to adult is often accompanied by many systemic changes in morphology, metabolism, and reproduction. Curiously, both mammalian puberty and insect metamorphosis are triggered by a pulse of steroid hormones, which can harmonize gene expression profiles in the body and thus orchestrate drastic biological changes. However, understanding of how the timing of steroid hormone biosynthesis is regulated at the molecular level is poor. The principal insect steroid hormone, ecdysteroid, is biosynthesized from dietary cholesterol in the specialized endocrine organ called the prothoracic gland. The periodic pulses of ecdysteroid titers determine the timing of molting and metamorphosis. To date, at least nine families of ecdysteroidogenic enzyme genes have been identified. Expression levels of these genes correlate well with ecdysteroid titers, indicating that the transcriptional regulatory network plays a critical role in regulating the ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway. In this article, we summarize the transcriptional regulation of ecdysteroid biosynthesis. We first describe the development of prothoracic gland cells during Drosophila embryogenesis, and then provide an overview of the transcription factors that act in ecdysteroid biosynthesis and signaling. We also discuss the external signaling pathways that target these transcriptional regulators. Furthermore, we describe conserved and/or diverse aspects of steroid hormone biosynthesis in insect species as well as vertebrates. PMID:26667894

  1. Influence of dioxin exposure upon levels of prostate-specific antigen and steroid hormones in Vietnamese men.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian Liang; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Okamoto, Rie; Manh, Ho Dung; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nakano, Takeshi; Koh, Eitetsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Nhu, Dang Duc; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on the relationship between Agent Orange and prostate cancer have focused on US veterans of the Vietnam War. There have been few studies focusing on the relationship between levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and dioxins or steroid hormones in Vietnamese men. In 2009-2011, we collected blood samples from 97 men who had resided in a "dioxin hotspot" and 85 men from a non-sprayed region in Vietnam. Then levels of PSA, dioxins, and steroid hormones were analyzed. Levels of most dioxins, furans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls were higher in the hotspot than those in the non-sprayed region. Levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estradiol differed significantly between the hotspot and the non-sprayed region, but there were no correlations between levels of PSA and steroid hormones and dioxins in either of the two regions. Our findings suggest that PSA levels in Vietnamese men are not associated with levels of dioxin or steroid hormones in these two regions. PMID:26758301

  2. Performance and physiology of steers grazing toxic tall fescue as influenced by feeding soybean hulls and implanting with steroid hormones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A grazing experiment with steers grazing toxic tall fescue indicated that feeding pelleted soybean hulls in conjunction with steroid hormone implants can increase steer weight gain, and feeding soyben hulls can reduce the severity of fescue toxicosis Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte...

  3. Quantitative assessment of steroid hormone binding sites by thaw-mount autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.; Zuber, T.J.; Soini, E.; Tuohimaa, P.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for the quantitative assessment of nuclear receptors for steroid hormones--and other substances--in individual cells is presented. Thaw-mount autoradiography, a procedure developed earlier in our laboratory, is utilized. The silver grain yield (specific activity) is 16.6 disintegrations per silver as determined fo tritium in guinea pig uterine tissues. An integrated formula is presented and applied for /sup 3/H-estradiol, /sup 3/H-diethylstilbestrol, and /sup 3/H-aldosterone in sampled tissue. A comparison with data derived from the literature that are based on the homogenization of whole uteri and biochemical analysis shows comparable values wtih the autoradiographic data if the latter are pooled. The pooled ata indicated 12-14,00 molecules of /sup 3/H-estradiol per uterine nucleus, while subpopulations of target cells vary between 5,000 and 28,000 per nucleus.

  4. Steroidal hormones in agricultural runoff: Lessons from studies at multiple scales in Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, S. P.; Aga, D.; Dutta, S.; Vaicunas, R.

    2012-12-01

    Emerging contaminants such as steroidal hormones have raised considerable environmental concerns and in elevated concentrations have been shown to cause physiological and reproductive disorders in aquatic and wildlife species. Large or concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in agricultural landscapes can be an important source of steroidal hormones, especially, if animal waste or manure is applied to the land and runs off with surface waters. Delaware is a state with a large poultry industry where a significant portion of poultry litter is applied to agricultural lands as fertilizer. Over the past four years, we have investigated the potential threat posed by hormones in agricultural landscapes by determining the concentrations of estrogens at various scales - field plots (Dutta et al. 2010; Journal of Environmental Quality); watershed scale (Dutta et al., 2012; Water Air Soil Pollution) and statewide surveys of surface waters (Vaicunas et al., submitted; Journal of American Water Resources Association). This talk summarizes the key lessons that we have learnt from these studies. Special emphasis was placed on evaluating the pollution potential under typical agronomic conditions and under natural storm and runoff conditions. Estrogen analysis was performed using LC-MS/MS. The key questions that we addressed were: (a) What are the concentrations and forms (free versus conjugate) of estrogens in runoff? Do the concentrations exceed environmental thresholds? (b) How do the concentrations in runoff change with time after land-application of manure? (c) How do the estrogens concentrations vary across different landscape positions and what are the key runoff flow paths? Our results suggest that concentrations of estrogens in runoff were low and much below the levels that have been used for exposure or toxicological assays. Concentrations of conjugated forms of estrogens were higher than the free, more toxic, forms. However, since these forms are inter

  5. Nuclear Receptor DHR4 Controls the Timing of Steroid Hormone Pulses During Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Qiuxiang; Magico, Adam; King-Jones, Kirst

    2011-01-01

    In insects, precisely timed periodic pulses of the molting hormone ecdysone control major developmental transitions such as molts and metamorphosis. The synthesis and release of ecdysone, a steroid hormone, is itself controlled by PTTH (prothoracicotopic hormone). PTTH transcript levels oscillate with an 8 h rhythm, but its significance regarding the timing of ecdysone pulses is unclear. PTTH acts on its target tissue, the prothoracic gland (PG), by activating the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway through its receptor Torso, however direct targets of this pathway have yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila Hormone Receptor 4 (DHR4), a nuclear receptor, is a key target of the PTTH pathway and establishes temporal boundaries by terminating ecdysone pulses. Specifically, we show that DHR4 oscillates between the nucleus and cytoplasm of PG cells, and that the protein is absent from PG nuclei at developmental times when low titer ecdysone pulses occur. This oscillatory behavior is blocked when PTTH or torso function is abolished, resulting in nuclear accumulation of DHR4, while hyperactivating the PTTH pathway results in cytoplasmic retention of the protein. Increasing DHR4 levels in the PG can delay or arrest development. In contrast, reducing DHR4 function in the PG triggers accelerated development, which is caused by precocious ecdysone signaling due to a failure to repress ecdysone pulses. Finally, we show that DHR4 negatively regulates the expression of a hitherto uncharacterized cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6t3. Disruption of Cyp6t3 function causes low ecdysteroid titers and results in heterochronic phenotypes and molting defects, indicating a novel role in the ecdysone biosynthesis pathway. We propose a model whereby nuclear DHR4 controls the duration of ecdysone pulses by negatively regulating ecdysone biosynthesis through repression of Cyp6t3, and that this repressive function is temporarily overturned via the PTTH pathway by removing DHR4 from the nuclear

  6. Role of phospholipases in adrenal steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bollag, Wendy B

    2016-04-01

    Phospholipases are lipid-metabolizing enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids. In some cases, their activity results in remodeling of lipids and/or allows the synthesis of other lipids. In other cases, however, and of interest to the topic of adrenal steroidogenesis, phospholipases produce second messengers that modify the function of a cell. In this review, the enzymatic reactions, products, and effectors of three phospholipases, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, and phospholipase A2, are discussed. Although much data have been obtained concerning the role of phospholipases C and D in regulating adrenal steroid hormone production, there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Furthermore, little is known about the involvement of phospholipase A2, perhaps, in part, because this enzyme comprises a large family of related enzymes that are differentially regulated and with different functions. This review presents the evidence supporting the role of each of these phospholipases in steroidogenesis in the adrenal cortex. PMID:26878860

  7. Effect Modification of Obesity on Associations between Endogenous Steroid Sex Hormones and Arterial Calcification in Women at Midlife

    PubMed Central

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.; Matthews, Karen; Powell, Lynda; Hollenberg, Steven M.; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether obesity modify the effects of endogenous steroid sex hormones on arterial calcification in women at midlife. Methods Associations between estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free androgen index and the presence and extent of coronary and aortic calcification were evaluated in 187 obese (body mass index ≥30) and 281 non-obese (body mass index <30) women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Logistic and linear regressions were used as appropriate. Results Prevalence rates of coronary and aortic calcification were significantly higher among obese compared to non-obese (P <0.001, for both). In multivariable analyses, steroid sex hormones were not associated with presence of coronary calcification. However, for extent of coronary calcification, significant interactions were found between obesity and both sex hormone binding globulin (P<0.0001) and free androgen index (P=0.008). In non-obese women, higher sex hormone binding globulin (P=0.0006) and lower free androgen index (P=0.01) were associated with greater extent of coronary calcification while lower sex hormone binding globulin was associated with greater extent of coronary calcification in obese women (P=0.05). For aortic calcification outcomes, higher sex hormone binding globulin was associated with presence of aortic calcification among non-obese (OR:1.64, 95%CI:1.16, 2.32, for each 1-SD greater sex hormone binding globulin). Conclusions Associations between endogenous steroid sex hormones and arterial calcification vary by obesity status among perimenopausal women. Further research is needed to better understand the possible mechanisms. PMID:21471825

  8. Steroid hormone receptors and prostate cancer: role of structural dynamics in therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) act in cell type- and gene-specific manner through interactions with coregulatory proteins to regulate numerous physiological and pathological processes at the level of gene regulation. Binding of steroid receptor modulator (SRM) ligand leads to allosteric changes in SHR to exert positive or negative effects on the expression of target genes. Due, in part, to the fact that current SRMs generally target ligand binding domain (LBD)/AF2 and neglect intrinsically disordered (ID) N-terminal domain (NTD)/AF1, clinically relevant SRMs lack selectivity and are also prone to the development of resistance over time. Therefore, to maximize the efficacy of SHR-based therapeutics, the possibility of developing unique modulators that act to control AF1 activity must be considered. Recent studies targeting androgen receptor's (AR's) ID AF1 domain for the castration-resistant prostate cancer has provided the possibility of therapeutically targeting ID NTD/AF1 surfaces by allosteric modulations to achieve desired effects. In this review article, we discuss how inter- and intra- molecular allosteric regulations controlled by AR's structural flexibility and dynamics particularly the ID NTD/AF1 is an emerging area of investigation, which could be exploited for drug development and therapeutic targeting of prostate cancer. PMID:27364545

  9. The corpus luteum of the dog: source and target of steroid hormones?

    PubMed

    Papa, P C; Hoffmann, B

    2011-08-01

    Aim of this paper is to review our present understanding on the endocrine control of luteal function in the bitch and to add some new data generated in our laboratories in support of the hypothesis of a paracrine/autocrine role of corpus luteum (CL) derived steroid hormones. Luteal lifespan in non-pregnant dogs often exceeds that of pregnant dogs, where luteal regression terminates in a rapid luteolysis, immediately prior to parturition. In non-pregnant dogs, luteal regression occurs independently of a uterine luteolysin and in spite of increased gonadotropic support during the last third of dioestrus. The CL is the only source of progesterone (P(4)) maintaining pregnancy, and they have the capacity to synthesize oestrogens as substantiated by expression of the CYP19 (aromatase) gene observed in this study. Our data demonstrated that lutein and non-lutein cells of the canine CL express in a rather constant manner the progesterone receptor (PR) and the oestrogen receptor, classifying them as targets for an autocrine/paracrine activity of CL-derived steroids. Therefore, a functional role of P(4) within a positive loop feedback system, including StAR and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, has been postulated. PMID:21332829

  10. Steroid hormone receptors and prostate cancer: role of structural dynamics in therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) act in cell type- and gene-specific manner through interactions with coregulatory proteins to regulate numerous physiological and pathological processes at the level of gene regulation. Binding of steroid receptor modulator (SRM) ligand leads to allosteric changes in SHR to exert positive or negative effects on the expression of target genes. Due, in part, to the fact that current SRMs generally target ligand binding domain (LBD)/AF2 and neglect intrinsically disordered (ID) N-terminal domain (NTD)/AF1, clinically relevant SRMs lack selectivity and are also prone to the development of resistance over time. Therefore, to maximize the efficacy of SHR-based therapeutics, the possibility of developing unique modulators that act to control AF1 activity must be considered. Recent studies targeting androgen receptor's (AR's) ID AF1 domain for the castration-resistant prostate cancer has provided the possibility of therapeutically targeting ID NTD/AF1 surfaces by allosteric modulations to achieve desired effects. In this review article, we discuss how inter- and intra- molecular allosteric regulations controlled by AR's structural flexibility and dynamics particularly the ID NTD/AF1 is an emerging area of investigation, which could be exploited for drug development and therapeutic targeting of prostate cancer. PMID:27364545

  11. Highly sensitive simultaneous quantification of estrogenic tamoxifen metabolites and steroid hormones by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Johänning, Janina; Heinkele, Georg; Precht, Jana C; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eichelbaum, Michel; Schwab, Matthias; Schroth, Werner; Mürdter, Thomas E

    2015-09-01

    Tamoxifen is a mainstay in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and is metabolized to more than 30 different compounds. Little is known about in vivo concentrations of estrogenic metabolites E-metabolite E, Z-metabolite E, and bisphenol and their relevance for tamoxifen efficacy. Therefore, we developed a highly sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method for tamoxifen metabolites bisphenol, E-metabolite E, and Z-metabolite E as well as for the sex steroid hormones estradiol, estrone, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone. Plasma samples were subjected to protein precipitation followed by solid phase extraction. Upon derivatization with 3-[(N-succinimide-1-yl)oxycarbonyl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide, all analytes were separated on a sub-2-μm column with a gradient of acetonitrile in water with 0.1 % of formic acid. Analytes were detected on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Our method demonstrated high sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The lower limits of quantification were 12, 8, and 25 pM for bisphenol, E-metabolite E, and Z-metabolite E, respectively, and 4 pM for estradiol and estrogen, 50 pM for testosterone and androstenedione, and 25 pM for progesterone. The method was applied to plasma samples of postmenopausal patients taken at baseline and under tamoxifen therapy. Graphical Abstract Sample preparation and derivatization for highly sensitive quantification of estrogenic tamoxifen metabolites and steroid hormones by HPLC-MS/MS. PMID:26206706

  12. Sex-steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from contaminated and reference lakes in Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grain, D.A.; Guillette, L.J., Jr.; Pickford, D.B.; Percival, H.F.; Woodward, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-171?? (E2), testosterone (T), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) in juvenile alligators (60-140 cm total length) from two contaminated lakes and one reference lake in Florida. First, the data were analyzed by comparing hormone concentrations among males and females from the different lakes. Whereas there were no differences in plasma E2 concentrations among animals of the three lakes, male alligators from the contaminated lakes (Lake Apopka and Lake Okeechobee) had significantly lower plasma T concentrations compared 10 males from the reference take (Lake Woodruff). Concentrations of thyroid hormones also differed in animals of the three lakes, with T4 concentrations being elevated in Lake Okeechobee males compared to Lake Woodruff males. Second, the relationship between body size and hormone concentration was examined using regression analysis. Most notably for steroid hormones, no clear relationship was detected between E2 and total length in Apopka females (r2 0.09, p = 0.54) or between T and total length in Apopka males (r2 = 0.007, p = 0.75). Females from Apopka (r2 = 0.318, p = 0.09) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.222, p = 0.09) exhibited weak correlations between T3 and total length. Males from Apopka (r2 = 0.015, p = 0.66) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.128, p = 0.19) showed no correlation between T4 and total length. These results indicate: some of the previously reported abnormalities in steroid hormones of hatchling alligators persist, at least, through the juvenile years; steroid and thyroid hormones are related to body size in juvenile alligators from the reference lake, whereas alligators living in lakes Apopka and Okeechobee experience alterations in circulating thyroid and steroid

  13. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  14. Protein Biomarkers for Breast Cancer Risk Are Specifically Correlated with Local Steroid Hormones in Nipple Aspirate Fluid.

    PubMed

    Shidfar, Ali; Fatokun, Tolulope; Ivancic, David; Chatterton, Robert T; Khan, Seema A; Wang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The local endocrine environment of the breast may have stronger relations to breast cancer risk than systemic hormones. Nipple aspiration fluid (NAF) provides a window into this milieu. We hypothesized that the correlations between proteins and steroid hormones in NAF are stronger, and specific relationships may reveal links to breast cancer risk. NAF and blood samples were obtained simultaneously from 54 healthy women and from the contralateral unaffected breast of 60 breast cancer patients. The abundance of five proteins, superoxide dismutase (SOD1), C-reactive protein (CRP), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL40), cathepsin D (CatD), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in NAF was measured using ELISA. The NAF and serum concentrations of estradiol, estrone, progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrostrerone (DHEA) were measured using ELISA or RIA. The correlations between proteins and hormones revealed that NAF proteins correlated with each other: SOD1 with CRP (R = 0.276, P = 0.033) and CatD (R = 0.340, P = 0.0036), and bFGF with CRP (R = 0.343, P = 0.0021). NAF proteins displayed significant correlations with NAF steroids, but not with serum steroids: SOD1 with DHEA (R = 0.333, P = 0.019), YKL40 with testosterone (R = 0.389, P = 0.0012), and bFGF negatively correlated with testosterone (R = -0.339, P = 0.015). The regulation of YKL40 and bFGF by testosterone was confirmed in breast cancer cell lines. In summary, NAF proteins were more strongly related to local hormone levels than to systematic hormone levels. Some proteins were specifically correlated with different NAF steroids, suggesting that these steroids may contribute to breast cancer risk through different mechanisms. PMID:27094399

  15. Beyond the HPA-axis: The role of the gonadal steroid hormone receptors in modulating stress-related responses in an animal model of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Fenchel, Daphna; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Vainer, Ella; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a major role in the response to stress, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis are closely linked with the ability to inhibit the other. Testosterone, a product of the HPG, has many beneficial effects beyond its functions as a sex hormone including anti-anxiety properties. In this study we examined the effect of stress exposure on gonadal hormones, and their efficacy in modulating anxiety-like response in an animal model of PTSD. Male rats were exposed to predator scent stress, followed by analysis of brain expression of androgen receptor (AR) receptor and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The behavioral effects of immediate treatment with testosterone, testosterone receptor antagonist (flutamide) or vehicle were evaluated using the elevated plus-maze, acoustic startle response and trauma-cue response. Levels of circulating corticosterone and testosterone were also measured after treatment. The behavioral effects of delayed testosterone treatment were explored in the same manner. We report that animals whose behavior was extremely disrupted (EBR) selectively displayed significant down-regulation of AR and ERα in the hippocampus. Immediate treatment with flutamide or delayed treatment with testosterone significantly increased prevalence rates of minimal behavioral response (MBR) and decreased prevalence of EBR with favorable behavioral results. Testosterone levels were higher in control un-exposed animals, while corticosterone was higher in control exposed animals. This study suggests that gonadal steroid hormones are involved in the neurobiological response to predator scent stress and thus warrant further study as a potential therapeutic avenue for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders. PMID:25771251

  16. Sex steroid induced apoptosis as a rational strategy to treat anti-hormone resistant breast and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Jordan, V Craig; Fan, Ping; Abderrahman, Balkees; Maximov, Philipp Y; Hawsawi, Yousef M; Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Pokharel, Niranjana

    2016-05-01

    The combined incidence and the extended disease course of breast and prostate cancer is a major challenge for health care systems. The solution for society requires an economically viable treatment strategy to maintain individuals disease free and productive, so as to avoid the fracture of the family unit. Forty years ago, translational research using the antiestrogen tamoxifen was targeted to estrogen receptor (ER) positive micrometastatic tumor cells and established the long-term antihormone adjuvant treatment strategy used universally today. The antihormone strategy was the accepted structure of cancer biology. Sex steroid deprivation therapy remains the orthodox strategy for the treatment of both breast and prostate cancer. Despite major initial therapeutic success, the strategies of long term anti-hormone therapies with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors (AI) or antiandrogens or abiraterone for breast and prostate cancer, respectively, eventually lead to a significant proportion of anti-hormone resistant or stimulated tumor growth. Remarkably, a general principle of anti-hormone resistance has emerged for both breast and prostate cancer based primarily on clinical and supportive laboratory data. Paradoxically, anti-hormone resistant cell populations emerge and grow but are vulnerable to the cytotoxicity of estrogen or androgen-induced apoptosis for both breast and prostate cancer, respectively. These consistent anticancer actions of sex steroids appear to recapitulate the more complex mechanism of bone remodeling in elderly men and women during sex steroid deprivation. Estrogen is the key hormone in both sexes because in men androgen is first converted to estrogen. Estrogen regulates and triggers apoptosis in osteoclasts that develop during estrogen deprivation and destroy bone to cause osteoporosis. Sex steroid deprived breast and prostate cancer has recruited a streamlined natural apoptotic program from the human genome, but this is suppressed in the

  17. Differentiating Isobaric Steroid Hormone Metabolites Using Multi-Stage Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedmon, Lauren; Barnes, Jeremy S.; Nguyen, Hien P.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2013-03-01

    Steroid hormones and their metabolites are currently undergoing clinical trials as potential therapeutics for traumatic brain injury (TBI). To support this work, it is necessary to develop improved procedures for differentiating isobaric species in this compound class. Equilin sulfate (E-S), estrone sulfate (E1-S), 17α-dihydroequilin sulfate (ADHE-S), and 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate (BDHE-S) are primary constituents in hormone replacement therapies, such as Premarin, which are among pharmaceuticals being investigated for TBI treatment. The latter three compounds are isomers and can be difficult to differentiate in trace analytical determinations. In this work, a systematic study of the fragmentation of ADHE-S, BDHE-S, E1-S, and E-S under different stages of higher order tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) and variation of collision energy, allowed optimization of conditions for distinguishing the isomeric structures. For epimeric variants (e.g., ADHE-S versus BDHE-S; α- versus β-stereoisomerization in the C-17 position), differentiation was achieved at MS4 and fragmentation was demonstrated through MS5. Computational analysis was performed to further explore differences in the fragmentation pathways due to changes in stereochemistry.

  18. Hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone and ovarian steroids in women with recurrent early miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Watson, H; Kiddy, D S; Hamilton-Fairley, D; Scanlon, M J; Barnard, C; Collins, W P; Bonney, R C; Franks, S

    1993-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) which has been implicated in the aetiology of early pregnancy loss. Although 82% of women with recurrent early loss have polycystic ovaries on ultrasound imaging, random serum LH concentrations are normal. In the present study, we have obtained further information from serial samples concerning the cyclical patterns of gonadotrophin and sex steroid secretion in these women. Twenty-one women with recurrent early pregnancy loss and 10 multiparous controls were investigated; 81% of them and one of ten control subjects had polycystic ovaries. Mean mid-follicular and mid-luteal serum LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were similar in both groups. Seventeen women with pregnancy loss had either raised urinary LH excretion or a premature LH surge; one control subject had a premature LH surge. Total LH excretion during the cycle and mean follicular phase serum testosterone was significantly greater with early pregnancy loss than in the control group, the difference in LH being greatest in the early luteal phase. Urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide excretion was raised in the early luteal phase of the cycle in the group with early pregnancy loss; there was no difference between the groups in pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide excretion. These data demonstrate abnormalities in LH secretion in 81% of women with recurrent fetal loss. Inappropriately raised LH levels may have adverse effects on the developing oocyte or endometrium either directly, or indirectly by causing an elevation in testosterone and oestrogen levels. PMID:8345070

  19. Endocrinology of Uterine Fibroids: Steroid Hormones, Stem Cells, and Genetic Contribution

    PubMed Central

    Moravek, Molly B.; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Uterine fibroids are extremely common, and can cause significant morbidity, yet the exact etiology of these tumors remains elusive and there are currently no long-term treatments available. In this review we aim to provide an overview of steroid hormones, genetic abnormalities, and stem cells in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids. Recent Findings A universal feature of fibroids is responsiveness to estrogen and progesterone, and most of the currently available therapies exploit this characteristic. Ulipristal acetate has recently shown particular promise for providing long-term relief from uterine fibroids. Additionally, fibroid stem cells were isolated and appear to be necessary for growth. The recent discovery of somatic mutations involving MED12 or HMGA2 in the majority of fibroids and the links to their pathophysiology were also significant advances. Summary The recent shift in focus from hormones to fibroid stem cells and genetic aberrations should lead not only to a deeper understanding of the specific etiology of fibroids, but also to the discovery of new therapeutic targets. Targeting the products of genetic mutations or fibroid stem cells has the potential to achieve both better control of current tumors and the prevention of new fibroids. PMID:26107781

  20. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments

    PubMed Central

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark–recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation. PMID:27293619

  1. Extensive esterification of adrenal C19-delta 5-sex steroids to long-chain fatty acids in the ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, R.; Poirier, D.; Merand, Y.; Theriault, C.; Belanger, A.; Labrie, F.

    1989-06-05

    Estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cells (ZR-75-1) were incubated with the 3H-labeled adrenal C19-delta 5-steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its fully estrogenic derivative, androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol (delta 5-diol) for various time intervals. When fractionated by solvent partition, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and silica gel TLC, the labeled cell components were largely present (40-75%) in three highly nonpolar, lipoidal fractions. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of these lipoidal derivatives yielded either free 3H-labeled DHEA or delta 5-diol. The three lipoidal fractions cochromatographed with the synthetic DHEA 3 beta-esters, delta 5-diol 3 beta (or 17 beta)-monoesters and delta 5-diol 3 beta,17 beta-diesters of long-chain fatty acids. DHEA and delta 5-diol were mainly esterified to saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. For delta 5-diol, the preferred site of esterification of the fatty acids is the 3 beta-position while some esterification also takes place at the 17 beta-position. Time course studies show that ZR-75-1 cells accumulate delta 5-diol mostly (greater than 95%) as fatty acid mono- and diesters while DHEA is converted to delta 5-diol essentially as the esterified form. Furthermore, while free C19-delta 5-steroids rapidly diffuse out of the cells after removal of the precursor (3H)delta 5-diol, the fatty acid ester derivatives are progressively hydrolyzed, and DHEA and delta 5-diol thus formed are then sulfurylated prior to their release into the culture medium. The latter process however is rate-limited, since new steady-state levels of free steroids and fatty acid esters are rapidly reached and maintained for extended periods of time after removal of precursor, thus maintaining minimal concentrations of intracellular steroids.

  2. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

  3. ACTH Regulation of Adrenal SR-B1

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Azhar, Salman; Kraemer, Fredric B.

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal gland is one of the prominent sites for steroid hormone synthesis. Lipoprotein-derived cholesterol esters (CEs) delivered via SR-B1 constitute the dominant source of cholesterol for steroidogenesis, particularly in rodents. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates steroidogenesis through downstream actions on multiple components involved in steroidogenesis. Both acute and chronic ACTH treatments can modulate SR-B1 function, including its transcription, posttranscriptional stability, phosphorylation and dimerization status, as well as the interaction with other protein partners, all of which result in changes in the ability of SR-B1 to mediate HDL-CE uptake and the supply of cholesterol for conversion to steroids. Here, we provide a review of the recent findings on the regulation of adrenal SR-B1 function by ACTH. PMID:27242666

  4. Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin: steroid transport by a laminin G-like domain

    PubMed Central

    Grishkovskaya, Irina; Avvakumov, George V.; Sklenar, Gisela; Dales, David; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Muller, Yves A.

    2000-01-01

    Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) transports sex steroids in blood and regulates their access to target tissues. In biological fluids, SHBG exists as a homodimer and each monomer comprises two laminin G-like domains (G domains). The crystal structure of the N–terminal G domain of SHBG in complex with 5α–dihydrotestosterone at 1.55 Å resolution reveals both the architecture of the steroid-binding site and the quaternary structure of the dimer. We also show that G domains have jellyroll topology and are struc– turally related to pentraxin. In each SHBG monomer, the steroid intercalates into a hydrophobic pocket within the β–sheet sandwich. The steroid and a 20 Å distant calcium ion are not located at the dimer interface. Instead, two separate steroid-binding pockets and calcium-binding sites exist per dimer. The structure displays intriguing disorder for loop segment Pro130–Arg135. In all other jellyroll proteins, this loop is well ordered. If modelled accordingly, it covers the steroid-binding site and could thereby regulate access of ligands to the binding pocket. PMID:10675319

  5. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation are Modulated by Adrenal-Derived Stress Hormones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone exposure promotes pulmonary injury and inflammation. Previously we have characterized systemic changes that occur immediately after acute ozone exposure and are mediated by neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Both HPA axis and sympathetic tone alterations induce the rel...

  6. Proteoglycans in Leiomyoma and Normal Myometrium: Abundance, Steroid Hormone Control, and Implications for Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Barker, Nichole M; Carrino, David A; Caplan, Arnold I; Hurd, William W; Liu, James H; Tan, Huiqing; Mesiano, Sam

    2016-03-01

    Uterine leiomyoma are a common benign pelvic tumors composed of modified smooth muscle cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM). The proteoglycan composition of the leiomyoma ECM is thought to affect pathophysiology of the disease. To test this hypothesis, we examined the abundance (by immunoblotting) and expression (by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) of the proteoglycans biglycan, decorin, and versican in leiomyoma and normal myometrium and determined whether expression is affected by steroid hormones and menstrual phase. Leiomyoma and normal myometrium were collected from women (n = 17) undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy. In vitro studies were performed on immortalized leiomyoma (UtLM) and normal myometrial (hTERT-HM) cells with and without exposure to estradiol and progesterone. In leiomyoma tissue, abundance of decorin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were 2.6-fold and 1.4-fold lower, respectively, compared with normal myometrium. Abundance of versican mRNA was not different between matched samples, whereas versican protein was increased 1.8-fold in leiomyoma compared with myometrium. Decorin mRNA was 2.4-fold lower in secretory phase leiomyoma compared with proliferative phase tissue. In UtLM cells, progesterone decreased the abundance of decorin mRNA by 1.3-fold. Lower decorin expression in leiomyoma compared with myometrium may contribute to disease growth and progression. As decorin inhibits the activity of specific growth factors, its reduced level in the leiomyoma cell microenvironment may promote cell proliferation and ECM deposition. Our data suggest that decorin expression in leiomyoma is inhibited by progesterone, which may be a mechanism by which the ovarian steroids affect leiomyoma growth and disease progression. PMID:26423601

  7. Developmental and Contextual Considerations for Adrenal and Gonadal Hormone Functioning During Adolescence: Implications for Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone–behavior associations during key developmental transitions. PMID:24729154

  8. Metabolism of Oral Turinabol by Human Steroid Hormone-Synthesizing Cytochrome P450 Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Lina; Brixius-Anderko, Simone; Hannemann, Frank; Zapp, Josef; Neunzig, Jens; Thevis, Mario; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-02-01

    The human mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP11A1, CYP11B1, and CYP11B2 are involved in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. CYP11A1 catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of cholesterol, and CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 catalyze the final steps in the biosynthesis of gluco- and mineralocorticoids, respectively. This study reveals their additional capability to metabolize the xenobiotic steroid oral turinabol (OT; 4-chlor-17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-on), which is a common doping agent. By contrast, microsomal steroid hydroxylases did not convert OT. Spectroscopic binding assays revealed dissociation constants of 17.7 µM and 5.4 µM for CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, respectively, whereas no observable binding spectra emerged for CYP11A1. Catalytic efficiencies of OT conversion were determined to be 46 min(-1) mM(-1) for CYP11A1, 741 min(-1) mM(-1) for CYP11B1, and 3338 min(-1) mM(-1) for CYP11B2, which is in the same order of magnitude as for the natural substrates but shows a preference of CYP11B2 for OT conversion. Products of OT metabolism by the CYP11B subfamily members were produced at a milligram scale with a recombinant Escherichia coli-based whole-cell system. They were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to be 11β-OH-OT for both CYP11B isoforms, whereby CYP11B2 additionally formed 11β,18-diOH-OT and 11β-OH-OT-18-al, which rearranges to its tautomeric form 11β,18-expoxy-18-OH-OT. CYP11A1 produces six metabolites, which are proposed to include 2-OH-OT, 16-OH-OT, and 2,16-diOH-OT based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses. All three enzymes are shown to be inhibited by OT in their natural function. The extent of inhibition thereby depends on the affinity of the enzyme for OT and the strongest effect was demonstrated for CYP11B2. These findings suggest that steroidogenic cytochrome P450 enzymes can contribute to drug metabolism and should be considered in drug design and toxicity studies. PMID:26658226

  9. Hsp70 Cochaperones HspBP1 and BAG-1M Differentially Regulate Steroid Hormone Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Regina T.; Wong, Michael J. H.; Kollmannsberger, Lorenz K.; Gassen, Nils C.; Kretzschmar, Anja; Zschocke, Jürgen; Hafner, Kathrin; Young, Jason C.; Rein, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Hsp70 binding protein 1 (HspBP1) and Bcl2-associated athanogene 1 (BAG-1), the functional orthologous nucleotide exchange factors of the heat shock protein 70 kilodalton (Hsc70/Hsp70) chaperones, catalyze the release of ADP from Hsp70 while inducing different conformational changes of the ATPase domain of Hsp70. An appropriate exchange rate of ADP/ATP is crucial for chaperone-dependent protein folding processes. Among Hsp70 client proteins are steroid receptors such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and the androgen receptor (AR). BAG-1 diversely affects steroid receptor activity, while to date the influence of HspBP1 on steroid receptor function is mostly unknown. Here, we compared the influence of HspBP1 and BAG-1M on Hsp70-mediated steroid receptor folding complexes and steroid receptor activity. Coimmunoprecipitation studies indicated preferential binding of Hsp40 and the steroid receptors to BAG-1M as compared to HspBP1. Furthermore, Hsp70 binding to the ligand-binding domain of GR was reduced in the presence of HspBP1 but not in the presence of BAG-1M as shown by pull-down assays. Reporter gene experiments revealed an inhibitory effect on GR, MR, and AR at a wide range of HspBP1 protein levels and at hormone concentrations at or approaching saturation. BAG-1M exhibited a transition from stimulatory effects at low BAG-1M levels to inhibitory effects at higher BAG-1M levels. Overall, BAG-1M and HspBP1 had differential impacts on the dynamic composition of steroid receptor folding complexes and on receptor function with important implications for steroid receptor physiology. PMID:24454860

  10. Interactions of xenobiotics with steroid hormone receptors and the sex-steroid binding protein in spotted seatrout

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.; Ghosh, S.; Pinter, J.; Sperry, T.; Breckenridge-Miller, D.; Laidley, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    A variety of xenobiotics, such as DDT, methoxychlor and PCB mixtures and Kepone have estrogenic actions and disrupt reproduction in mammals by binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ER). These xenobiotics were tested for their ability to bind to the hepatic ER of a marine fish, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). Several of the DDT derivatives, Kepone and PCB mixtures also bound to the seatrout ER over a range of 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}3}M. Moreover, Kepone was shown to have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic actions in an in vitro liver slice vitellogenesis assay. These estrogenic compounds were also tested for their ability to bind to nuclear and plasma membrane progestogen (20{beta}-S) receptors in ovarian tissues and to the sex-steroid binding protein in seatrout plasma. Kepone, methoxychlor and o,p{prime}-DDT caused concentration dependent displacement of {sup 3}H2O{beta}-S from its plasma membrane receptor and inhibition of 20{beta}-S induced final maturation in an in vitro assay over the range of 10{sup {minus}7}--10{sup {minus}3}M, but did not alter steroid binding to the nuclear progestogen receptor. Significant binding of methoxychlor and the other organochlorines to the sex steroid binding protein was also observed. It is concluded from these studies that a variety of xenobiotics with estrogenic actions can also bind to other steroid receptors and binding proteins to influence other endocrine-mediated processes.

  11. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  12. A Novel Mutation in the CYP11B1 Gene Causes Steroid 11β-Hydroxylase Deficient Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with Reversible Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mohammad A; Shati, Ayed A; Zou, Minjing; Alsuheel, Ali M; Alhayani, Abdullah A; Al-Qahtani, Saleh M; Gilban, Hessa M; Meyer, Brain F; Shi, Yufei

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of CAH, resulting from a mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency results in excessive mineralcorticoids and androgen production leading to hypertension, precocious puberty with acne, enlarged penis, and hyperpigmentation of scrotum of genetically male infants. In the present study, we reported 3 male cases from a Saudi family who presented with penile enlargement, progressive darkness of skin, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. The elder patient died due to heart failure and his younger brothers were treated with hydrocortisone and antihypertensive medications. Six months following treatment, cardiomyopathy disappeared with normal blood pressure and improvement in the skin pigmentation. The underlying molecular defect was investigated by PCR-sequencing analysis of all coding exons and intron-exon boundary of the CYP11B1 gene. A novel biallelic mutation c.780 G>A in exon 4 of the CYP11B1 gene was found in the patients. The mutation created a premature stop codon at amino acid 260 (p.W260 (∗) ), resulting in a truncated protein devoid of 11β-hydroxylase activity. Interestingly, a somatic mutation at the same codon (c.779 G>A, p.W260 (∗) ) was reported in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer (COSMIC database). In conclusion, we have identified a novel nonsense mutation in the CYP11B1 gene that causes classic steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficient CAH. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure can be reversed by early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26265915

  13. Photochemical induced changes of in vitro estrogenic activity of steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Whidbey, Christopher M; Daumit, Kelly E; Nguyen, Thanh-Hoa; Ashworth, Danielle D; Davis, Jasmine C C; Latch, Douglas E

    2012-10-15

    Steroid estrogens are endocrine disrupting contaminants frequently detected in natural waters. Because these estrogens can elicit significant biological responses in aquatic organisms, it is important to study their rates and pathways of degradation in natural waters and to identify whether the transformation products retain biological activity. Photochemical kinetics experiments were conducted under simulated solar light for the hormones 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), estrone (E1), equilin (EQ), and equilenin (EQN) under direct and indirect photolysis conditions. All of these hormones were susceptible to direct photodegradation, with half-lives ranging from 40 min for E1 to about 8 h for E2 and EE2. Indirect photolysis experiments with added Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) lead to faster degradation rates for E2, EE2, and EQ. Added SRFA caused slower photodegradation rates for E1 and EQN, indicating that it acts primarily as an inner filter for these analytes. The well-established yeast estrogen screen (YES) was used to measure the estrogenicity of the analytes and their photoproducts. Results of YES assay experiments show that only the direct photolysis of E1 gave estrogenic products. Lumiestrone, the major E1 direct photolysis product, was isolated and characterized. It formed in 53% yield and exhibited moderate estrogenic activity. When photolysed in the presence of perinaphthenone, a potent synthetic sensitizer, E1 degraded via an indirect photolysis pathway and did not produce lumiestrone or any other active products. These results suggest that under typical natural water conditions photochemical reactions of E2, EE2, EQ, and EQN are expected to produce inactive products while E1 will give the estrogenic product lumiestrone in moderate yield. PMID:22877877

  14. Expression of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Vagal Motor Neurons Innervating the Trachea and Esophagus in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ichi Matsuda, Ken; Bando, Hideki; Takanami, Keiko; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The medullary vagal motor nuclei, the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), innervate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα), in relation to innervation of the trachea and esophagus via vagal motor nuclei in mice. AR and ERα were expressed in the rostral NA and in part of the DMV. Tracing experiments using cholera toxin B subunit demonstrated that neurons of vagal motor nuclei that innervate the trachea and esophagus express AR and ERα. There was no difference in expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between trachea- and esophagus-innervating neurons. These results suggest that sex steroid hormones may act on vagal motor nuclei via their receptors, thereby regulating functions of the trachea and esophagus. PMID:27006520

  15. Steroid hormone modulation of olfactory processing in the context of socio-sexual behaviors in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Christopher A

    2003-10-01

    Primer pheromones and other chemosensory cues are important factors governing social interactions and reproductive physiology in many species of mammals. Responses to these chemosignals can vary substantially within and between individuals. This variability can stem, at least in part, from the modulating effects steroid and non-steroid hormones exert on olfactory processing. Such modulation frequently augments or facilitates the effects that prevailing social and environmental conditions have on the reproductive axis. The mechanisms underlying the hormonal regulation of responses to chemosensory cues are diverse. They are in part behavioral, achieved through the modulation of chemoinvestigative behaviors, and in part a product of the modulation of the intrinsic responsiveness of the main and accessory olfactory systems to conspecific, as well as other classes, of chemosignals. The behavioral and non-behavioral effects complement one another to ensure that mating and other reproductive processes are confined to reproductively favorable conditions. PMID:14572914

  16. Determination of steroid hormones in bovine milk by LC-MS/MS and their levels in Swiss Holstein cow milk.

    PubMed

    Goyon, Alexandre; Cai, Julia Zhenzhen; Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Hartmann, Christoph; Shao, Bing; Mottier, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic and natural steroid hormones have attracted some attention in recent years as endocrine active substances (EAS) that interact or interfere with the endocrine system. Endogenous hormones occur naturally in food of animal origin, among which bovine milk represents an important source. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of steroid hormones (oestrogens, androgens, progestogens and glucocorticoids) in cow's milk samples from three farms in Switzerland. An isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of 12 hormones in milk. Some hormonal levels from individual cows showed large variations. The average levels of the hormones analysed (17α-estradiol = 31 ng kg(-)(1), 17β-estradiol = 6 ng kg(-)(1), estrone = 159 ng kg(-)(1), 4-androstenedione = 684 ng kg(-)(1), progesterone = 15486 ng kg(-)(1), 17-hydroxyprogesterone = 214 ng kg(-)(1), cortisone = 112 ng kg(-)(1), and cortisol = 235 ng kg(-)(1)) were comparable with literature data. Estriol, testosterone and androstenediols were not detected at their respective limit of quantification. No significant differences of hormonal content among milk from cows at different lactation/calving numbers were evidenced, except for progesterone and 4-androstenedione. Due to confounding parameters linked to the physiological stage of the animal, like pregnancy and gestational stage (pregnancy trimester), the causal correlation between the variation of the levels for these two hormones and the lactation/calving number could not be unambiguously demonstrated. PMID:27055356

  17. Implantation: mutual activity of sex steroid hormones and the immune system guarantee the maternal-embryo interaction.

    PubMed

    Gnainsky, Yulia; Dekel, Nava; Granot, Irit

    2014-09-01

    Implantation is strictly dependent on the mutual interaction between a receptive endometrium and the blastocyst. Hence, synchronization between blastocyst development and the acquisition of endometrial receptivity is a prerequisite for the success of this process. This review depicts the cellular and molecular events that coordinate these complex activities. Specifically, the involvement of the sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, as well as components of the immune system, such as cytokines and specific blood cells, is elaborated. PMID:24959815

  18. Steroid hormone determination in water using an environmentally friendly membrane based extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Zorita, Saioa; Hallgren, Pär; Mathiasson, Lennart

    2008-05-23

    In this study, a method was developed for determination of steroid hormones (17beta-estradiol, estrone, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol) in tap and sewage water samples from Sweden. Sample preparation and analysis were performed by a hollow-fibre microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (HF-MMLLE) set-up combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this approach, only the organic liquid in the lumen (10microL) of the hollow-fibre membrane was utilised for depleting extraction. Several parameters were studied, including: type of organic solvent, sample pH, salt and humic acid content. The optimised method allowed the determination of the analyte at the low ngL(-1) level in tap and sewage water. A linear plot gave correlation coefficients better than 0.995 and resulted in a method limit of detection of 1.6, 3 and 10ngL(-1) for 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, respectively, in sewage water. Enrichment factors were over 1400 after derivatisation. The repeatabilities at 50 and 600ngL(-1) were better than 10% and 6%, respectively. PMID:18394632

  19. Rainfall Driven Sorting of Soils and Manure in Beef Feedlot Pens, Implications for Steroid Hormone Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, R.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has documented elevated estrogenic and androgenic activity in surface waters receiving cattle feedlot effluent, while current research shows that significant concentrations of hydrophobic steroid hormones are transported in the solid phase of feedlot pen surface runoff. Accumulated manure in beef feedlot pens includes organic matter ranging from colloidal particles to partially digested feed, forming a complex soil-manure conglomerate at the pen surface. We hypothesized that the transport of solid phase particles in rainfall runoff on beef feedlots would be influenced but not limited by shield layer development. Soils and manure at a beef feedlot were evaluated before and after rainfall-runoff events to determine changes in soil composition and structure. Runoff samples were also collected during an hour of runoff and analyzed for suspended solids. Results indicate that rainfall actively sorts the soil and manure components through raindrop impact, depression storage and runoff. However, transport of solid phase constituents was found to be elevated throughout the hydrograph. This suggests that the surface shield layer conceptualization applied to other soils should be modified before application to the soil-manure conglomerate found in beef feedlot pens.

  20. Variation in steroid hormone levels among Caribbean Anolis lizards: endocrine system convergence?

    PubMed

    Husak, Jerry F; Lovern, Matthew B

    2014-04-01

    Variation in aggression among species can be due to a number of proximate and ultimate factors, leading to patterns of divergent and convergent evolution of behavior among even closely related species. Caribbean Anolis lizards are well known for their convergence in microhabitat use and morphology, but they also display marked convergence in social behavior and patterns of aggression. We studied 18 Anolis species across six ecomorphs on four different Caribbean islands to test four main hypotheses. We hypothesized that species differences in aggression would be due to species differences in circulating testosterone (T), a steroid hormone implicated in numerous studies across vertebrate taxa as a primary determinant of social behavior; more aggressive species were expected to have higher baseline concentrations of T and corticosterone. We further hypothesized that low-T species would increase T and corticosterone levels during a social challenge. Within three of the four island assemblages studied we found differences in T levels among species within an island that differ in aggression, but in the opposite pattern than predicted: more aggressive species had lower baseline T than the least aggressive species. The fourth island, Puerto Rico, showed the pattern of baseline T levels among species we predicted. There were no patterns of corticosterone levels among species or ecomorphs. One of the two species tested increased T in response to a social challenge, but neither species elevated corticosterone. Our results suggest that it is possible for similarities in aggression among closely related species to evolve via different proximate mechanisms. PMID:24662425

  1. Patterns of matrix metalloproteinase expression in cycling endometrium imply differential functions and regulation by steroid hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, W H; Matrisian, L M; Giudice, L C; Dsupin, B; Cannon, P; Svitek, C; Gorstein, F; Osteen, K G

    1994-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are a highly regulated family of enzymes, that together can degrade most components of the extracellular matrix. These proteins are active in normal and pathological processes involving tissue remodeling; however, their sites of synthesis and specific roles are poorly understood. Using in situ hybridization, we determined cellular distributions of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, in endometrium during the reproductive cycle. The mRNAs for all the metalloproteinases were detected in menstrual endometrium, but with different tissue distributions. The mRNA for matrilysin was localized to epithelium, while the others were detected in stromal cells. Only the transcripts for the 72-kD gelatinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 were detected throughout the cycle. Transcripts for stromelysin-2 and the 92-kD gelatinase were only detected in late secretory and menstrual endometrium, while those for matrilysin, the 72-kD gelatinase, and stromelysin-3 were also consistently detected in proliferative endometrium. These data indicate that matrix metalloproteinases are expressed in cell-type, tissue, and reproductive cycle-specific patterns, consistent with regulation by steroid hormones, and with specific roles in the complex tissue growth and remodeling processes occurring in the endometrium during the reproductive cycle. Images PMID:8083380

  2. [The individual characteristics of the nociceptive sensitivity of Wistar rats correlated with the content of steroid hormones in the blood plasma].

    PubMed

    Polyntsev, Iu V; Bykova, E V; Rogatina, E L; Samko, Iu N

    1991-01-01

    In male rats of Wistar strain individual nociceptive sensitivity properties were studied in correlation with steroid hormones level in the plasma. Seven groups of experimental animals were observed remarkable for dynamics of nociceptive sensitivity. Repeatedly applied test painful stimuli caused reliable changes of corticosterone and testosterone level in the plasma. Individual differences were found of the level of steroid hormones in the plasma in rats from different groups. PMID:1656640

  3. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 terminates G-protein-coupled receptor function in steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wen-Li; Wang, Di; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit extracellular signals across the cell membrane. GPCR kinases (GRKs) desensitize GPCR signals in the cell membrane. However, the role and mechanism of GRKs in the desensitization of steroid hormone signaling are unclear. In this study, we propose that GRK2 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) in response to induction by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which determines its translocation to the cell membrane of the lepidopteran Helicoverpa armigera. GRK2 protein expression is increased during the metamorphic stage because of induction by 20E. Knockdown of GRK2 in larvae causes accelerated pupation, an increase in 20E-response gene expression, and advanced apoptosis and metamorphosis. 20E induces translocation of GRK2 from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane via steroid hormone ecdysone-responsive GPCR (ErGPCR-2). GRK2 is phosphorylated by PKC on serine 680 after induction by 20E, which leads to the translocation of GRK2 to the cell membrane. GRK2 interacts with ErGPCR-2. These data indicate that GRK2 terminates the ErGPCR-2 function in 20E signaling in the cell membrane by a negative feedback mechanism. PMID:27412951

  4. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 terminates G-protein-coupled receptor function in steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Li; Wang, Di; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit extracellular signals across the cell membrane. GPCR kinases (GRKs) desensitize GPCR signals in the cell membrane. However, the role and mechanism of GRKs in the desensitization of steroid hormone signaling are unclear. In this study, we propose that GRK2 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) in response to induction by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which determines its translocation to the cell membrane of the lepidopteran Helicoverpa armigera. GRK2 protein expression is increased during the metamorphic stage because of induction by 20E. Knockdown of GRK2 in larvae causes accelerated pupation, an increase in 20E-response gene expression, and advanced apoptosis and metamorphosis. 20E induces translocation of GRK2 from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane via steroid hormone ecdysone-responsive GPCR (ErGPCR-2). GRK2 is phosphorylated by PKC on serine 680 after induction by 20E, which leads to the translocation of GRK2 to the cell membrane. GRK2 interacts with ErGPCR-2. These data indicate that GRK2 terminates the ErGPCR-2 function in 20E signaling in the cell membrane by a negative feedback mechanism. PMID:27412951

  5. Adrenal glands of Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii, Wagler, 1831): morphological and morphometric aspects.

    PubMed

    Santos, A C; Viana, D C; Bertassoli, B M; Vasconcelos, B G; Oliveira, D M; Rici, R E G; Oliveira, M F; Miglino, M A; Assis-Neto, A C

    2016-05-01

    Considering the physiological importance and need of greater morphophysiological knowledge of adrenal glands, the aims of present study were compare the morphometric data between left and right adrenal of male and female; perform a histological, scanning and transmission electron microscopy study showing tissue constitution of glands; finally, in order to define the presence and correct site of the cytochrome P450c17 expression in adrenal glands, immunohistochemical study of this enzyme was performed in 18 adrenal glands (right n=9 and left n=9) of nine adult Galea spixii (four males and five females). Right adrenal was more cranially positioned than left adrenal; dimensions (weight, length and width) of right adrenal was larger than left adrenal; no differences between male and female body and adrenal measurements were found; the morphology of cells and different amounts of lipid droplets may be related to the different demands of steroid hormones production, related to each zone of the adrenal cortex; and, the cytochrome P450c17 immunolocalization in fasciculate and reticular zone may be related with synthesis of 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone, 17-hydroxy-progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone or androstenedione. PMID:27143060

  6. [Addison's disease : Primary adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Pulzer, A; Burger-Stritt, S; Hahner, S

    2016-05-01

    Adrenal insufficiency, a rare disorder which is characterized by the inadequate production or absence of adrenal hormones, may be classified as primary adrenal insufficiency in case of direct affection of the adrenal glands or secondary adrenal insufficiency, which is mostly due to pituitary or hypothalamic disease. Primary adrenal insufficiency affects 11 of 100,000 individuals. Clinical symptoms are mainly nonspecific and include fatigue, weight loss, and hypotension. The diagnostic test of choice is dynamic testing with synthetic ACTH. Patients suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency require lifelong hormone supplementation. Education in dose adaption during physical and mental stress or emergency situations is essential to prevent life-threatening adrenal crises. Patients with adrenal insufficiency should carry an emergency card and emergency kit with them. PMID:27129928

  7. Studies on the role of intestinal bacteria in metabolism of synthetic and natural steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Adlercreutz, H; Pulkkinen, M O; Hämäläinen, E K; Korpela, J T

    1984-01-01

    Administration of antimicrobial agents to subjects taking oral contraceptives has been reported to lead to contraceptive failure and subsequent pregnancy. In women taking oral contraceptives antimicrobial agents could have an effect on both endogenous hormone levels and on the metabolism of the exogenously administered steroids. To investigate these possibilities, antimicrobial agents were administered for short periods to normal women taking various steroid drugs: Megestrol acetate (MA), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), norethisterone (NET), a combination of NET and ethinylestradiol (EE) or a combination of lynestrenol and EE. During ampicillin administration the 24-h morning plasma concentrations of MA, MPA and NET were increased compared to the control values. In the MA and MPA experiments the afternoon values were determined and also found to be increased. In the subjects taking oral contraceptives plasma EE concentration showed a tendency to decrease during ampicillin administration on the third, fourth or fifth morning of ampicillin administration, but was never lower than the pretreatment values. In other experiments plasma estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2), urinary total E1, E2 and estriol (E3) and fecal unconjugated and conjugated E1, E2 or E3 were determined by RIA before, during and after administration of oxytetracycline (2 X 500 mg/day for 5 days) to 5 young male subjects. Furthermore urinary and fecal estrogens were determined in 1 male subject after administration of erythromycin for 6 days and in 2 normally menstruating women after tetracycline and trimethoprim administration, respectively. During treatment with antimicrobial drugs an increase in the excretion of fecal conjugated and, with the exception of the oxytetracycline experiments, also of unconjugated estrogens paralleled a decrease in urinary estrogen excretion, especially for E2 and E3. In both urine and feces the E1/E2 and E1 + E2/E3 ratios increased due to diminished reductive metabolism

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Vatroslav; Kruljac, Ivan; Radosevic, Jelena Marinkovic; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Stipic, Darko; Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol. This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively. Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cerina, Vatroslav; Kruljac, Ivan; Radosevic, Jelena Marinkovic; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Stipic, Darko; Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol. This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively. Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The addition

  10. Profiles of Steroid Hormones in Canine X-Linked Muscular Dystrophy via Stable Isotope Dilution LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Júnior, Helio A.; Simas, Rosineide C.; Brolio, Marina P.; Ferreira, Christina R.; Perecin, Felipe; Nogueira, Guilherme de P.; Miglino, Maria A.; Martins, Daniele S.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Ambrósio, Carlos E.

    2015-01-01

    Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) provides the best animal model for characterizing the disease progress of the human disorder, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The purpose of this study was to determine steroid hormone concentration profiles in healthy golden retriever dogs (control group - CtGR) versus GRMD-gene carrier (CaGR) and affected female dogs (AfCR). Therefore, a sensitive and specific analytical method was developed and validated to determine the estradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone levels in the canine serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To more accurately understand the dynamic nature of the serum steroid profile, the fluctuating levels of these four steroid hormones over the estrous cycle were compared across the three experimental groups using a multivariate statistical analysis. The concentration profiles of estradiol, cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone revealed a characteristic pattern for each studied group at each specific estrous phase. Additionally, several important changes in the serum concentrations of cortisol and estradiol in the CaGR and AfCR groups seem to be correlated with the status and progression of the muscular dystrophy. A comprehensive and quantitative monitoring of steroid profiles throughout the estrous cycle of normal and GRMD dogs were achieved. Significant differences in these profiles were observed between GRMD and healthy animals, most notably for estradiol. These findings contribute to a better understanding of both dog reproduction and the muscular dystrophy pathology. Our data open new venues for hormonal behavior studies in dystrophinopathies and that may affect the quality of life of DMD patients. PMID:26010907

  11. Profiles of Steroid Hormones in Canine X-Linked Muscular Dystrophy via Stable Isotope Dilution LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Martins-Júnior, Helio A; Simas, Rosineide C; Brolio, Marina P; Ferreira, Christina R; Perecin, Felipe; Nogueira, Guilherme de P; Miglino, Maria A; Martins, Daniele S; Eberlin, Marcos N; Ambrósio, Carlos E

    2015-01-01

    Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) provides the best animal model for characterizing the disease progress of the human disorder, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The purpose of this study was to determine steroid hormone concentration profiles in healthy golden retriever dogs (control group - CtGR) versus GRMD-gene carrier (CaGR) and affected female dogs (AfCR). Therefore, a sensitive and specific analytical method was developed and validated to determine the estradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone levels in the canine serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To more accurately understand the dynamic nature of the serum steroid profile, the fluctuating levels of these four steroid hormones over the estrous cycle were compared across the three experimental groups using a multivariate statistical analysis. The concentration profiles of estradiol, cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone revealed a characteristic pattern for each studied group at each specific estrous phase. Additionally, several important changes in the serum concentrations of cortisol and estradiol in the CaGR and AfCR groups seem to be correlated with the status and progression of the muscular dystrophy. A comprehensive and quantitative monitoring of steroid profiles throughout the estrous cycle of normal and GRMD dogs were achieved. Significant differences in these profiles were observed between GRMD and healthy animals, most notably for estradiol. These findings contribute to a better understanding of both dog reproduction and the muscular dystrophy pathology. Our data open new venues for hormonal behavior studies in dystrophinopathies and that may affect the quality of life of DMD patients. PMID:26010907

  12. Effects of Nalbuphine on Anterior Pituitary and Adrenal Hormones and Subjective Responses in Male Cocaine Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Goletiani, Nathalie V.; Mendelson, Jack H.; Sholar, Michelle B.; Siegel, Arthur J.; Skupny, Alicja J.; Mello, Nancy K.

    2007-01-01

    Nalbuphine (Nubain®) is a mixed action mu-kappa agonist used clinically for the management of pain. Nalbuphine and other mu-kappa agonists decreased cocaine self-administration in preclinical models. Cocaine stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the effects of nalbuphine on the HPA axis are unknown. Analgesic doses (5 and 10 mg/70 kg) of IV nalbuphine were administered to healthy male cocaine abusers, and plasma levels of PRL, ACTH and cortisol were measured before and at 10, 17, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, 40, 45, 60, 75, 105, 135 min after nalbuphine administration. Subjective effects were measured on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Prolactin (PRL) increased significantly within 17 min (P=.04) and reached peak levels of 22.1 ± 7.1 ng/ml and 54.1 ± 11.3 at 60 min after low and high dose nalbuphine administration, respectively. VAS reports of “Sick,” “Bad” and “Dizzy” were significantly higher after 10 mg/70 kg than after 5 mg/70 kg nalbuphine (P=.05−.0001), and were significantly correlated with increases in PRL (P=.05−.0003). However, sedation and emesis were observed only after a 10 mg/70 kg dose of nalbuphine. Interestingly, ACTH and cortisol levels did not change significantly after administration of either dose of nalbuphine. Taken together, these data suggest that nalbuphine had both mu- and kappa-like effects on PRL (PRL increase) but did not increase ACTH and cortisol. PMID:17391744

  13. Regulation of steroid hormone receptors and coregulators during the cell cycle highlights potential novel function in addition to roles as transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yingfeng; Murphy, Leigh C.

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle progression is tightly controlled by several kinase families including Cyclin-Dependent Kinases, Polo-Like Kinases, and Aurora Kinases. A large amount of data show that steroid hormone receptors and various components of the cell cycle, including cell cycle regulated kinases, interact, and this often results in altered transcriptional activity of the receptor. Furthermore, steroid hormones, through their receptors, can also regulate the transcriptional expression of genes that are required for cell cycle regulation. However, emerging data suggest that steroid hormone receptors may have roles in cell cycle progression independent of their transcriptional activity. The following is a review of how steroid receptors and their coregulators can regulate or be regulated by the cell cycle machinery, with a particular focus on roles independent of transcription in G2/M. PMID:26778927

  14. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate. PMID:26976217

  15. Select steroid hormone glucuronide metabolites can cause toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Susannah S; Hutchinson, Mark R; Frick, Morin M; Zhang, Yingning; Maier, Steven F; Sammakia, Tarek; Rice, Kenner C; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-02-01

    We have recently shown that several classes of glucuronide metabolites, including the morphine metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide and the ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide, cause toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent signaling in vitro and enhanced pain in vivo. Steroid hormones, including estrogens and corticosterone, are also metabolized through glucuronidation. Here we demonstrate that in silico docking predicts that corticosterone, corticosterone-21-glucuronide, estradiol, estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide all dock with the MD-2 component of the TLR4 receptor complex. In addition to each docking with MD-2, the docking of each was altered by pre-docking with (+)-naloxone, a TLR4 signaling inhibitor. As agonist versus antagonist activity cannot be determined from these in silico interactions, an in vitro study was undertaken to clarify which of these compounds can act in an agonist fashion. Studies using a cell line transfected with TLR4, necessary co-signaling molecules, and a reporter gene revealed that only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide increased reporter gene product, indicative of TLR4 agonism. Finally, in in vivo studies, each of the 5 drugs was injected intrathecally at equimolar doses. In keeping with the in vitro results, only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide caused enhanced pain. For both compounds, pain enhancement was blocked by the TLR4 antagonist lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, evidence for the involvement in TLR4 in the resultant pain enhancement. These findings have implications for several chronic pain conditions, including migraine and temporomandibular joint disorder, in which pain episodes are more likely in cycling females when estradiol is decreasing and estradiol metabolites are at their highest. PMID:25218902

  16. An isotope-dilution standard GC/MS/MS method for steroid hormones in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Lindley, Chris E.; Losche, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    An isotope-dilution quantification method was developed for 20 natural and synthetic steroid hormones and additional compounds in filtered and unfiltered water. Deuterium- or carbon-13-labeled isotope-dilution standards (IDSs) are added to the water sample, which is passed through an octadecylsilyl solid-phase extraction (SPE) disk. Following extract cleanup using Florisil SPE, method compounds are converted to trimethylsilyl derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Validation matrices included reagent water, wastewater-affected surface water, and primary (no biological treatment) and secondary wastewater effluent. Overall method recovery for all analytes in these matrices averaged 100%; with overall relative standard deviation of 28%. Mean recoveries of the 20 individual analytes for spiked reagent-water samples prepared along with field samples analyzed in 2009–2010 ranged from 84–104%, with relative standard deviations of 6–36%. Detection levels estimated using ASTM International’s D6091–07 procedure range from 0.4 to 4 ng/L for 17 analytes. Higher censoring levels of 100 ng/L for bisphenol A and 200 ng/L for cholesterol and 3-beta-coprostanol are used to prevent bias and false positives associated with the presence of these analytes in blanks. Absolute method recoveries of the IDSs provide sample-specific performance information and guide data reporting. Careful selection of labeled compounds for use as IDSs is important because both inexact IDS-analyte matches and deuterium label loss affect an IDS’s ability to emulate analyte performance. Six IDS compounds initially tested and applied in this method exhibited deuterium loss and are not used in the final method.

  17. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  18. Longitudinal monitoring of sex steroid hormones in excrement of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, Abigail; Buck, C Loren; Atkinson, Shannon; Hollmén, Tuula

    2014-03-01

    From the 1970s to the 1990s, the breeding population of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) in western Alaska declined by 96%, which led to the listing of this species as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1993. Since then, the population has stabilized, but has not recovered to pre-decline numbers. While little is known about reproductive endocrinology in spectacled eiders, in other avian species, estrogen and testosterone are known to initiate and modulate various reproductive processes including yolk protein synthesis, reproductive behaviors and secondary sex characteristics. Measurement of the metabolites of estrogen and testosterone (EM and TM, respectively) in excrement reflect circulating hormone concentrations and provide a non-invasive method to monitor reproductive physiology. We measured concentrations of excreted EM in captive females and TM in males to (1) determine the efficacy of commercially available radioimmunoassay kits to detect EM and TM, (2) describe annual profiles of EM and TM concentrations, and (3) define the reproductive season of captive spectacled eiders using endocrine status. Excrement samples were collected from captive female and male spectacled eiders three times per week throughout 1 year. Female EM and male TM levels were quantified using radioimmunoassay. Mean female EM profile exhibited values exceeding the threshold for "peak" values (EM>193.3 ng/g) from mid-February to early July, and again in September. Additionally, the highest average concentrations of EM were seen in March, May and September. Elevated TM concentrations occurred in mid March, mid May and late June. These data suggest that levels of excreted sex steroids reflect patterns predicted by breeding landmarks in the annual cycle and will assist in field monitoring and captive breeding programs for spectacled eiders. PMID:24406512

  19. Select steroid hormone glucuronide metabolites can cause Toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susannah S.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Frick, Morin M.; Zhang, Yingning; Maier, Steven F.; Sammakia, Tarek; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that several classes of glucuronide metabolites, including the morphine metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide and the ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide, cause toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent signalling in vitro and enhanced pain in vivo. Steroid hormones, including estrogens and corticosterone, are also metabolized through glucuronidation. Here we demonstrate that in silico docking predicts that corticosterone, corticosterone-21-glucuronide, estradiol, estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide all dock with the MD-2 component of the TLR4 receptor complex. In addition to each docking with MD-2, the docking of each was altered by pre-docking with (+)-naloxone, a TLR4 signaling inhibitor. As agonist versus antagonist activity cannot be determined from these in silico interactions, an in vitro study was undertaken to clarify which of these compounds can act in an agonist fashion. Studies using a cell line transfected with TLR4, necessary co-signaling molecules, and a reporter gene revealed that only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide increased reporter gene product, indicative of TLR4 agonism. Finally, in in vivo studies, each of the 5 drugs was injected intrathecally at equimolar doses. In keeping with the in vitro results, only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide caused enhanced pain. For both compounds, pain enhancement was blocked by the TLR4 antagonist lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, evidence for the involvement in TLR4 in the resultant pain enhancement. These findings have implications for several chronic pain conditions, including migraine and tempromandibular joint disorder, in which pain episodes are more likely in cycling females when estradiol is decreasing and estradiol metabolites are at their highest. PMID:25218902

  20. Postnatal ovarian development and its relationship with steroid hormone receptors in JiNing Grey goats.

    PubMed

    Shi, YunZhi; Wang, ShuYing; Bai, Shu; Huang, LiBo; Hou, YanMeng

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we examined the ovarian development and its relationship with steroid hormone receptors levels and the precocious puberty in JiNing Gray goats by using optical microscopy, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting. We found that in the ovaries of neonatal kids, high level of receptors for estrogen (ERα and ERβ) and progesterone (PR) and their mRNA were observed along with growing follicles. From 0 to 30 days of age, the weight and volume of ovaries increased significantly and the boundary between the inner and outer cortex disappeared, while the expression of ERα, ERβ and PR and their mRNA decreased sharply. When 60 days old, the animals began to ovulate; the expression of ERα, ERβ and PR and their mRNA significantly increased, and the animals reached puberty. On day 90, the animals manifested sexual maturity with biggest mature follicles 6.18mm in diameter, the expression of ERβ and PR protein and their mRNA was maintained at a high level, with decreased expression of ERα and its mRNA. Before puberty, the expression of ovarian ERα (prepubertal dominant receptor) and it's mRNA was significantly higher than that of ERβ (dominant receptor after sexual maturity). The results showed that JiNing Grey goats' ovaries had fast development and early maturation, and ERα, ERβ and PR protein and mRNA expression in the ovary had distinct specificity for time and space, which may be closely related to the strain's progenitive characteristics. PMID:25616699

  1. Differential changes in steroid hormones before competition in bonobos and chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Maboto, Jean; Lipson, Susan; Wrangham, Richard; Ellison, Peter T.

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research has demonstrated that variation in competitive behavior across species and individuals is linked to variation in physiology. In particular, rapid changes in testosterone and cortisol during competition differ according to an individual's or species’ psychological and behavioral responses to competition. This suggests that among pairs of species in which there are behavioral differences in competition, there should also be differences in the endocrine shifts surrounding competition. We tested this hypothesis by presenting humans’ closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), with a dyadic food competition and measuring their salivary testosterone and cortisol levels. Given that chimpanzees and bonobos differ markedly in their food-sharing behavior, we predicted that they would differ in their rapid endocrine shifts. We found that in both species, males showed an anticipatory decrease (relative to baseline) in steroids when placed with a partner in a situation in which the two individuals shared food, and an anticipatory increase when placed with a partner in a situation in which the dominant individual obtained more food. The species differed, however, in terms of which hormone was affected; in bonobo males the shifts occurred in cortisol, whereas in chimpanzee males the shifts occurred in testosterone. Thus, in anticipation of an identical competition, bonobo and chimpanzee males showed differential endocrine shifts, perhaps due to differences in perception of the situation, that is, viewing the event either as a stressor or a dominance contest. In turn, common selection pressures in human evolution may have acted on the psychology and the endocrinology of our competitive behavior. PMID:20616027

  2. Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Franco, Carlos Andrés; Román-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Velez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Echeverri-Isaza, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or the independent adrenocorticotropic hormone bilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause hypercortisolism, its diagnosis is challenging and there is no clear way to decide the best therapeutic approach. Adrenal venous sampling is commonly used to distinguish the source of hormonal production in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. It could be a useful tool in this context because it might provide information to guide the treatment. We report the case of a patient with ACTH independent Cushing syndrome in whom the use of adrenal venous sampling with some modifications radically modified the treatment and allowed the diagnosis of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:26309345

  3. Non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy compared with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists or surgical castration monotherapy for advanced prostate cancer: a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kunath, Frank; Grobe, Henrik R; Rücker, Gerta; Motschall, Edith; Antes, Gerd; Dahm, Philipp; Wullich, Bernd; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effects of non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy compared with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists or surgical castration monotherapy for treating advanced hormone-sensitive stages of prostate cancer. We searched the Cochrane Prostatic Diseases and Urologic Cancers Group Specialized Register (PROSTATE), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings, three trial registries and abstracts from three major conferences to 23 December 2013, together with reference lists, and contacted selected experts in the field and manufacturers. We included randomized controlled trials comparing non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy with medical or surgical castration monotherapy for men in advanced hormone-sensitive stages of prostate cancer. Two review authors independently examined full-text reports, identified relevant studies, assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias as well as quality of evidence according to the GRADE working group guidelines. We used Review Manager 5.2 for data synthesis and the fixed-effect model as primary analysis (when heterogeneity was low with I(2) < 50%); we used a random-effects model when confronted with substantial or considerable heterogeneity (when I(2) ≥50%). A total of 11 studies involving 3060 randomly assigned participants were included in the present review. Use of non-steroidal antiandrogens resulted in lower overall survival times (hazard ratio [HR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.48, six studies, 2712 participants) and greater clinical progression (1 year: risk ratio [RR] 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.45, five studies, 2067 participants; 70 weeks: RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.45, six studies, 2373 participants; 2 years: RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.25, three studies, 1336 participants), as well as treatment failure (1 year: RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.38, four studies, 1539 participants; 70 weeks: RR 1

  4. Molecular characterization of a genetic variant of the steroid hormone-binding globulin gene in heterozygous subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, D.O.; Catterall, J.F.; Carino, C.

    1995-04-01

    Steroid hormone-binding globulin in human serum displays different isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns among individuals, suggesting genetic variation in the gene for this extracellular steroid carrier protein. Analysis of allele frequencies and family studies suggested the existence of two codominant alleles of the gene. Subsequent determination of the molecular basis of a variant of the gene was carried out using DNA from homozygous individuals from a single Belgian family. It was of interest to characterize other variant individuals to determine whether all variants identified by IEF phenotyping were caused by the same mutation or whether other mutations occurred in the gene in different populations. Previous studies identified Mexican subjects who were heterozygous for the variant IEF phenotype. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to localize the mutation in these subjects and to purify the variant allele for DNA sequence analysis. The results show that the mutation in this population is identical to that identified in the Belgian family, and no other mutations were detected in the gene. These data represent the first analysis of steroid hormone-binding globulin gene variation in heterozygous subjects and further support the conclusion of biallelism of the gene worldwide. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Systemic SIRT1 insufficiency results in disruption of energy homeostasis and steroid hormone metabolism upon high-fat-diet feeding

    PubMed Central

    Purushotham, Aparna; Xu, Qing; Li, Xiaoling

    2012-01-01

    SIRT1 is a highly-conserved NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that plays essential roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, genomic stability, and stress response. Although the functions of SIRT1 in many organs have been extensively studied in tissue-specific knockout mouse models, the systemic role of SIRT1 is still largely unknown as a result of severe developmental defects that result from whole-body knockout in mice. Here, we investigated the systemic functions of SIRT1 in metabolic homeostasis by utilizing a whole-body SIRT1 heterozygous mouse model. These mice are phenotypically normal under standard feeding conditions. However, when chronically challenged with a 40% fat diet, they become obese and insulin resistant, display increased serum cytokine levels, and develop hepatomegaly. Hepatic metabolomic analyses revealed that SIRT1 heterozygous mice have elevated gluconeogenesis and oxidative stress. Surprisingly, they are depleted of glycerolipid metabolites and free fatty acids, yet accumulate lysolipids. Moreover, high-fat feeding induces elevation of serum testosterone levels and enlargement of seminal vesicles in SIRT1 heterozygous males. Microarray analysis of liver mRNA indicates that they have altered expression of genes involved in steroid metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism. Taken together, our findings indicate that SIRT1 plays a vital role in the regulation of systemic energy and steroid hormone homeostasis.—Purushotham, A., Xu, Q., Li, X. Systemic SIRT1 insufficiency results in disruption of energy homeostasis and steroid hormone metabolism upon high-fat-diet feeding. PMID:22006157

  6. The Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Comorbid Depression: Possible Linkage with Steroid Hormones, Cytokines, and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Numakawa, Tadahiro; Richards, Misty; Nakajima, Shingo; Adachi, Naoki; Furuta, Miyako; Odaka, Haruki; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates a connection between growth factor function (including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF), glucocorticoid levels (one of the steroid hormones), and the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. Because both BDNF and glucocorticoids regulate synaptic function in the central nervous system, their functional interaction is of major concern. Interestingly, alterations in levels of estrogen, another steroid hormone, may play a role in depressive-like behavior in postpartum females with fluctuations of BDNF-related molecules in the brain. BDNF and cytokines, which are protein regulators of inflammation, stimulate multiple intracellular signaling cascades involved in neuropsychiatric illness. Pro-inflammatory cytokines may increase vulnerability to depressive symptoms, such as the increased risk observed in patients with cancer and/or autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss the possible relationship between inflammation and depression, in addition to the cross-talk among cytokines, BDNF, and steroids. Further, since nutritional status has been shown to affect critical pathways involved in depression through both BDNF function and the monoamine system, we also review current evidence surrounding diet and supplementation (e.g., flavonoids) on BDNF-mediated brain functions. PMID:25309465

  7. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long; Ping, Jie; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  8. Hormonal mechanisms in the onset of puberty

    PubMed Central

    Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Odell, William D.

    1975-01-01

    Sexual maturation is associated with increasing levels of sex steroids. These steroidal events are the result of complex changes that occur at several functional levels including the hypothalamus, pituitary, gonad and adrenal gland. These changes, as outlined in Table 3, are often interrelated. While considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the hormonal events associated with sexual maturation, many important questions remain unanswered. Further intensive investigation will be required before we have a lucid understanding of the physiological basis of the sequence of hormonal events which occur during the pubertal process. PMID:1197148

  9. [The effect of low doses of nakom on the hormonal secretion of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system in patients with infantile cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Brin, I L; Mashilov, K V

    1996-01-01

    The levels of hormones of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system were measured in 14 10-14 year old children with infantile cerebral paralysis (ICP) with central catecholaminergic motor insufficiency. Contents of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), hydrocortisone (HC), somatotropic hormone, prolactin (P) were examined before and during Nacome administration (62.5 mg once daily in the morning). 110 patients of the same age with ICP and 18 children with acquired encephalopathy (EP) formed the control group. The elevations of ACTH, HC and P were revealed in spastic forms of ICP. Meanwhile nearly normal hormonal levels were observed in hyperkinetic forms of ICP and EP. The more pronounced effect was noted in "dopamine-dependent" children in which the drug's administration resulted in normalization of clinical and biochemical indices. Hyperkinetic phenomena revealed the connection between the character of neuromotor dyskinesias and the state of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal axis which is regulated by dopamine. The data obtained show hypofunction of dopaminergic neurotransmitter cerebral systems in patients with ICP that plays important pathogenetic role in development of disease with systemic manifestations. PMID:9281279

  10. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I

    PubMed Central

    Sirotkin, Alexander V.; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml). We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a) reduction in basal progesterone release and (b) alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I. PMID:26794607

  11. Association Between Circulating Levels of Sex Steroid Hormones and Barrett's Esophagus in Men: a Case–Control Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael B.; Wood, Shannon N.; Cash, Brooks D.; Young, Patrick; Acosta, Ruben D.; Falk, Roni T.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Hu, Nan; Su, Hua; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Chaoyu; Gherman, Barbara; Giffen, Carol; Dykes, Cathy; Turcotte, Veronique; Caron, Patrick; Guillemette, Chantal; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Abnet, Christian C.; Hyland, Paula L.; Taylor, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Esophageal adenocarcinoma is believed to result from the progression of gastroesophageal reflux disease to erosive esophagitis and re-epithelialization of the esophagus with a columnar cell population termed Barrett's esophagus (BE). Men develop BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma more frequently than women, and the ratio is increasing; approximately 7 men are diagnosed with malignancy for every woman, yet little is known about the mechanisms of this difference. We assessed whether sex steroid hormones were associated with BE in a male population. Methods We analyzed data from the Barrett's Esophagus Early Detection Case Control Study, based at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Blood samples were collected from 173 men with BE and 213 men without BE (controls, based on endoscopic analysis); 13 sex steroid hormones were measured by mass spectrometry and sex hormone binding globulin was measured by ELISA. We also calculated free estradiol, free testosterone and free dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, race, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), heartburn, regurgitation, and gastroesophageal symptom score (excluding heartburn and regurgitation). Results Levels of free testosterone and free DHT were positively associated with BE risk; patients in the highest quartile for these hormones were most likely to have BE (for free testosterone, OR=5.36; 95% CI, 2.21–13.03; P=0.0002 and for free DHT, OR=4.25, 95% CI, 1.87–9.66; P=.001). Level of estrone sulfate was inversely associated with BE risk (P for trend=.02). No other hormone was associated with BE risk. Relationships were not modified by age or BMI. Conclusions In an analysis of men, levels of free testosterone and free DHT were significantly associated with risk of BE. PMID:25158929

  12. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurmeet K. S.; Balzer, Ben W. R.; Kelly, Patrick J.; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I.; Handelsman, David J.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. Methods A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. Results A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. Conclusion We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth. PMID:26599397

  13. Influence of music on steroid hormones and the relationship between receptor polymorphisms and musical ability: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females) were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1) music they preferred (chill-inducing music) and (2) music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor (AR) and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA) was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T) levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability. PMID:24348454

  14. A long pentraxin-3-derived pentapeptide for the therapy of FGF8b-driven steroid hormone-regulated cancers.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Arianna; Matarazzo, Sara; Pagano, Katiuscia; Ragona, Laura; Rezzola, Sara; Corsini, Michela; Di Salle, Emanuela; Presta, Marco; Ronca, Roberto

    2015-05-30

    Fibroblast growth factor-8b (FGF8b) affects the epithelial/stromal compartments of steroid hormone-regulated tumors by exerting an autocrine activity on cancer cells and a paracrine pro-angiogenic function, thus contributing to tumor progression. The FGF8b/FGF receptor (FGFR) system may therefore represent a target for the treatment of steroid hormone-regulated tumors. The soluble pattern recognition receptor long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) binds various FGFs, including FGF2 and FGF8b, thus inhibiting the angiogenic and tumorigenic activity of androgen-regulated tumor cells. Nevertheless, the complex/proteinaceous structure of PTX3 hampers its pharmacological exploitation. In this context, the acetylated pentapeptide Ac-ARPCA-NH2 (ARPCA), corresponding to the N-terminal amino acid sequence PTX3(100-104), was identified as a minimal FGF2-binding peptide able to antagonize the biological activity of FGF2. Here, we demonstrate that ARPCA binds FGF8b and inhibits its capacity to form FGFR1-mediated ternary complexes with heparan sulphate proteoglycans. As a FGF8b antagonist, ARPCA inhibits FGFR1 activation and signalling in endothelial cells, hampering the angiogenic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by FGF8b. Also, ARPCA suppresses the angiogenic and tumorigenic potential of prototypic androgen/FGF8b-dependent Shionogi 115 mammary carcinoma cells and of androgen/FGF8b/FGF2-dependent TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer cells. In conclusion, ARPCA represents a novel FGF8b antagonist with translational implications for the therapy of steroid hormone-regulated tumors. PMID:25912421

  15. Analysis of non-hormonal nutritional supplements for anabolic-androgenic steroids - results of an international study.

    PubMed

    Geyer, H; Parr, M K; Mareck, U; Reinhart, U; Schrader, Y; Schänzer, W

    2004-02-01

    Several recent studies have shown evidence of some nutritional supplements containing prohibited anabolic androgenic steroids, so-called prohormones, which were not declared on the label. Therefore, a broad-based investigation of the international nutritional supplement market was initiated to clarify the extent of this problem. From October 2000 until November 2001, 634 non-hormonal nutritional supplements were purchased in 13 countries from 215 different suppliers. Most supplements were bought in shops in the respective countries (578 samples = 91.2 %) and on the internet (52 samples = 8.2 %). 289 supplements were from prohormone-selling companies and 345 supplements came from companies which do not offer prohormones. After isolation from the supplement matrix 11 different anabolic androgenic steroids, mainly prohormones of testosterone and nandrolone, were analysed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Out of the 634 samples analysed 94 (14.8 %) contained anabolic androgenic steroids not declared on the label ("positive supplements"). We could not obtain reliable data for 66 samples (10.4 %) due to matrix effects. In relation to the total number of products purchased per country, most of the positive supplements were bought in the Netherlands (25.8 %), in Austria (22.7 %), in the UK (18.8 %) and the USA (18.8 %). According to the label, all positive supplements were from companies located in only five countries: the USA, the Netherlands, the UK, Italy and Germany. 21.1 % of the nutritional supplements from prohormone-selling companies contained anabolic androgenic steroids, whereas 9.6 % of the supplements from companies not selling prohormones were positive. The positive supplements showed anabolic androgenic steroid concentrations of 0.01 micro g/g up to 190 micro g/g. The administration of supplements containing nandrolone prohormones adding up to a total uptake of more than 1 micro g resulted in positive doping results for norandrosterone for several

  16. First attempt to monitor luteinizing hormone and reproductive steroids in urine samples of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).

    PubMed

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; Graham, Laura H; da Silva, Vera M F; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine samples of Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis; Mammalia: Sirenia) and to monitor urinary LH and reproductive steroids during the ovarian cycle in this species. Urine samples were collected from two captive males following a hormonal challenge with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. The urinary LH results from hormonal challenge were compared with urinary androgens for the purpose of EIA validation. Furthermore, urine samples were collected daily, over a 12-wk period, from two captive adult females, for 2 consecutive yr. The urinary LH pattern from females was compared with the patterns of urinary progestagens and estrogen conjugates throughout the ovarian cycle. An LH peak was observed in both male Amazonian manatees after the hormonal challenge, occurring prior to or together with peak androgen levels. In the females, the ovarian cycle ranged from 40 to 48 days (mean of 43.7 days). Two distinct peaks of estrogen conjugates were observed across all cycles analyzed, and the urinary LH peaks observed were accompanied by peaks of urinary estrogen conjugates. The EIA was validated as a method for the quantification of urinary LH from Amazonian manatees, as it was able to detect variations in the levels of LH in urine samples. These results suggest that T. inunguis exhibits a peculiar hormonal pattern during the ovarian cycle. Therefore, further studies are desirable and necessary to clarify the relationship between this hormonal pattern and morphological changes, as well as mating behavior, in Amazonian manatee. PMID:25632672

  17. Effects of hypophysectomy and administration of pituitary hormones on luteal function and uptake of high density lipoproteins by luteinized ovaries and adrenals of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.D.; Rajkumar, K.; McKibbin, P.E.; Macdonald, G.J.; Buhr, M.M.; Grinwich, D.L.

    1985-04-01

    The role of plasma lipoproteins and hypophyseal hormones in the maintenance of progesterone secretion by the rat corpus luteum was investigated. In the first experiment, rats were treated daily from days 1-6 of pregnancy with 5 mg/kg 4-aminopyrozolopyramidine (4APP), a blocker of hepatic lipoprotein secretion, or with 5 mg/kg 4APP and 1 or 2 mg ovine PRL or 0.1 ml 0.5% phosphoric acid (4APP vehicle). The administration of 4APP reduced serum cholesterol and progesterone levels on days 2-6 of pregnancy and ovarian progesterone on day 6. The reduced progesterone secretion had no effect on embryo implantation. PRL, in the doses used, was incapable of abrogating the effects of 4APP on circulating or ovarian progesterone levels. Ovaries and adrenals, but not kidneys, of pseudopregnant rats exhibited specific and saturable uptake of porcine high density lipoprotein (HDL). Time-course studies indicated that the uptake of HDL was rapid in ovaries compared to that in adrenals. Ovaries from rats not only exhibited uptake of porcine HDL, but also were capable of using it for progesterone synthesis. Treatment with 4APP increased the adrenal uptake of HDL, but ovarian uptake was not different from that in the control group. Hypophysectomy reduced both adrenal and ovarian uptake of HDL. In adrenals only ACTH at the dose employed ameliorated reduction of HDL uptake induced by hypophysectomy, while in the ovaries, both PRL and LH reversed the effect of hypophysectomy. The effect of PRL on uptake was specific to (/sup 125/I)HDL and did not alter (/sup 125/I)albumin uptake. It is concluded that: 1) hypophysectomy reduces HDL uptake in the luteinized rat ovary; and 2) PRL and LH replacement therapy maintain ovarian uptake of HDL, suggesting a direct effect of these luteotropins on lipoprotein uptake.

  18. The effect of gonadal and adrenal steroid therapy on skeletal health in adolescents and young women with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    DiVasta, Amy D.; Feldman, Henry A.; Giancaterino, Courtney; Rosen, Clifford J.; LeBoff, Meryl S.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by subnormal estrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels. We sought to determine whether the combination of DHEA + estrogen/progestin is superior to placebo in preserving skeletal health over 18 months in AN. Females with AN, aged 13 to 27 years, were recruited for participation in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Ninety-four subjects were randomized, of whom 80 completed baseline assessments and received either study drug (oral micronized DHEA 50 mg + 20 µg ethinyl estradiol/0.1 mg levonorgestrel combined oral contraceptive pill [COC] daily; n = 43) or placebo (n = 37). Serial measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone turnover markers, and serum hormone concentrations were obtained. Sixty subjects completed the 18-month trial. Spinal and whole-body aBMD z scores were preserved in the DHEA + COC group, but decreased in the placebo group (comparing trends, P = .008 and P = .001, respectively). Bone turnover markers initially declined in subjects receiving DHEA + COC and then returned to baseline. No differences in body composition, adverse effects of therapy, or alterations in biochemical safety parameters were observed. Combined therapy with DHEA + COC appears to be safe and effective for preventing bone loss in young women with AN, whereas placebo led to decreases in aBMD. Dehydroepiandrosterone + COC may be safely used to preserve bone mass as efforts to reverse the nutritional, psychological, and other hormonal components of AN are implemented. PMID:22257645

  19. Identification of hormone-interacting amino acid residues within the steroid-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor in relation to other steroid hormone receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Carlstedt-Duke, J.; Stroemstedt, P.E.; Persson, B.; Cederlund, E.; Gustafsson, J.A.; Joernvall, H.

    1988-05-15

    Purified rat liver glucocorticoid receptor was covalently charged with (/sup 3/H)glucocorticoid by photoaffinity labeling (UV irradiation of (/sup 3/H)triamcinolone acetonide-glucocorticoid receptor) or affinity labeling (incubation with (/sup 3/H)dexamethasone mesylate). After labeling, separate samples of the denatured receptor were cleaved with trypsin (directly or after prior succinylation), chymotrypsin, and cyanogen bromide. Labeled residues in the peptides obtained were identified by radiosequence analysis. The peaks of radioactivity corresponded to Met-622 and Cys-754 after photoaffinity labeling with (/sup 3/H)triamcinolone acetonide and Cys-656 after affinity labeling with (/sup 3/H)dexamethasone mesylate. The labeled residues are all positioned within hydrophobic segments of the steroid-binding domain. The patterns of hydropathy and secondary structure for the glucocorticoid receptor are highly similar to those for the progestin receptor and similar but less so to those for the estrogen receptor and to those for c-erb A.

  20. A correlation of fecal volatiles and steroid hormone profiles with behavioral expression during estrous cycle of goat, Capra hircus.

    PubMed

    SankarGanesh, Devaraj; Ramachandran, Rajamanickam; Muniasamy, Samuthirapandi; Saravanakumar, Veluchamy Ramesh; Suriyakalaa, Udhayaraj; Kannan, Soundarapandian; Archunan, Govindaraju; Achiraman, Shanmugam

    2014-09-15

    Chemical signals (both volatile and non-volatile) form the major communication channels in animals. These signals are transferred mainly through excretory sources to facilitate inter-individual communication. In particular, the reproductive cycle of female mammals, including goats, exhibits significant changes in the constituents of their excretory products, and female mammals also express different behavioral patterns. We propose that feces is one of the important sources of chemo-signals in goats. However, the behavioral patterns and analysis of excretory sources based on chemical communication have not yet been studied in the Indian goat, Capra hircus. To validate our hypothesis, we analyzed the behavioral patterns and the volatiles and steroid hormone profiles in the feces samples of female goats during the estrous cycle. Here, we synchronized the estrous cycle in six female goats and obtained feces samples. The samples were extracted with dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A portion of the sample was used for hormone assay to confirm the phases in the estrous cycle. Induction of she-goats into estrus was detected from the vaginal swelling, mucus discharge, restlessness, reduced milk secretion, bellowing, bleating, frequent urination, standing heat, allowing the male to mount, mounting on other females and teasing of males. The repeated male behaviors viz., flehmen, mounting, penile protrusion, body rubbing, dominance over other males and finally coitus with estrus female by male goats were observed. Analysis of volatiles revealed a total of twenty-four compounds combining all the phases in the estrous cycle. Among those, some of the volatile compounds and two antioxidants (ascorbic acid and vitamin E) were estrus-specific. Based on the fecal steroid analysis, higher level of estradiol during estrus and higher level of progesterone during post-estrus were observed. The behavioral patterns of female and male goats combined

  1. Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

  2. Two simple cleanup methods combined with LC-MS/MS for quantification of steroid hormones in in vivo and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Weisser, Johan Juhl; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Poulsen, Rikke; Larsen, Lizette Weber; Cornett, Claus; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2016-07-01

    Measuring both progestagens, androgens, corticosteroids as well as estrogens with a single method makes it possible to investigate the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the main pathways in the mammalian steroidogenesis. This paper presents two simple methods for the determination of the major steroid hormones in biological matrixes using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)). A novel method was developed for the determination of 14 steroids in the H295R in vitro assay without the need for solid phase extraction (SPE) purification prior to LC-MS(2) analysis. The in vitro assay was validated by exposing H295R cells to prochloraz for inhibiting steroid hormone secretion and by exposing cells to forskolin for inducing steroid hormone secretion. The developed method fulfills the recommendations for the H295R assay suggested by the OECD. Furthermore, a simple off-line SPE methodology was developed for the necessary clean-up of in vivo assays. Samples, such as gonad tissue, plasma and serum, are complex biological matrixes, and the SPE methodology was optimized to remove salts and proteins prior to elution of target analytes. At the same time, lipophilic compounds were retained on the SPE cartridge during elution. This, combined with the multi-steroid LC-MS(2) method, made it possible to determine 10 steroids in male Sprague-Dawley rat gonad tissue. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify 6 steroids in the plasma. In general, the observed concentration of steroid hormones in plasma, testes, and H295R cell medium corresponded well with previous studies. The off-line SPE method was validated using spiked charcoal-stripped serum. Method recovery, accuracy, precision and robustness were all good. Instrument sensitivity was in the range of 55-530 pg/mL (LLOQ). PMID:27150205

  3. Polycystic Ovaries Associated with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lucis, O. J.; Hobkirk, R.; Hollenberg, C. H.; MacDonald, S. A.; Blahey, P.

    1966-01-01

    Polycystic ovaries were found in a 16-year-old female with congenital absence of vagina, male-like external genitalia, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Masculinization was sufficiently severe to cause the patient to be reared as a male. Biochemical studies of ovarian tissue revealed hyperactivity and an imbalance of enzyme systems concerned with steroid-hormone biosynthesis, which led to production of large amounts of androgens. The pathway towards estrogens was preserved but less efficient than normal. Urinary steroid metabolites before and after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy revealed an absence of Porter-Silber chromogens and tetrahydrocortisone. Excretion of aldosterone was normal and that of corticosterone slightly higher than normal. The patterns of urinary 17-ketosteroids, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol and pregnanetriolone were similar to those commonly seen in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Urinary estrogens after panhysterectomy were low, being in the post-menopausal range. The pathogenesis of polycystic ovaries and their possible contribution to masculinization are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5901591

  4. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-binding sites on the chicken vitellogenin II gene: synergism of steroid hormone action.

    PubMed

    Cato, A C; Heitlinger, E; Ponta, H; Klein-Hitpass, L; Ryffel, G U; Bailly, A; Rauch, C; Milgrom, E

    1988-12-01

    The chicken vitellogenin II gene is transcriptionally activated by estrogens. In transient transfection experiments in human T47D cells that contain receptors for various steroids, we showed estradiol, progestin, and androgen responses of a chimeric chicken vitellogenin II construct. This construct consists of DNA sequences from -626 to -590 upstream of the start of transcription of the chicken vitellogenin gene linked to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter driving the transcription of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Treatment of the transfected T47D cells with a combination of estradiol and the progestin R5020 led to a superinduction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity, showing a synergistic action of these two steroids. This synergism was not observed upon treatment of the transfected cells with estradiol and the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Using point mutations in the vitellogenin gene fragment, we showed in functional and in in vitro DNase I footprinting assays with a purified progesterone receptor that, for the synergistic action of estradiol and R5020 to occur, the progesterone receptor must be bound to the vitellogenin gene fragment. The progesterone receptor-binding site was localized at -610 to -590, close to the consensus sequence (-626 to -613) for estrogen receptor binding and function. We therefore demonstrate here that two different steroid hormones can be functionally synergistic through the interaction of their corresponding receptors with two different binding sites adjacent to one another. PMID:3244357

  5. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-binding sites on the chicken vitellogenin II gene: synergism of steroid hormone action.

    PubMed Central

    Cato, A C; Heitlinger, E; Ponta, H; Klein-Hitpass, L; Ryffel, G U; Bailly, A; Rauch, C; Milgrom, E

    1988-01-01

    The chicken vitellogenin II gene is transcriptionally activated by estrogens. In transient transfection experiments in human T47D cells that contain receptors for various steroids, we showed estradiol, progestin, and androgen responses of a chimeric chicken vitellogenin II construct. This construct consists of DNA sequences from -626 to -590 upstream of the start of transcription of the chicken vitellogenin gene linked to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter driving the transcription of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Treatment of the transfected T47D cells with a combination of estradiol and the progestin R5020 led to a superinduction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity, showing a synergistic action of these two steroids. This synergism was not observed upon treatment of the transfected cells with estradiol and the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Using point mutations in the vitellogenin gene fragment, we showed in functional and in in vitro DNase I footprinting assays with a purified progesterone receptor that, for the synergistic action of estradiol and R5020 to occur, the progesterone receptor must be bound to the vitellogenin gene fragment. The progesterone receptor-binding site was localized at -610 to -590, close to the consensus sequence (-626 to -613) for estrogen receptor binding and function. We therefore demonstrate here that two different steroid hormones can be functionally synergistic through the interaction of their corresponding receptors with two different binding sites adjacent to one another. Images PMID:3244357

  6. Steroid hormones analysis with surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using catechin-modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tai-Chia

    2011-10-30

    This paper describes the application of catechin-modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) as matrices to analyze four steroid hormones by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). The catechin-modified TiO(2) NPs have high absorbance at 337 nm and are effective SALDI matrices when using a nitrogen laser. Four test steroid hormones-cortisone, hydrocortisone, progesterone, and testosterone-were directly analyzed by SALDI-MS. The limits of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for cortisone, hydrocortisone, progesterone, and testosterone were 1.62, 0.70, 0.66, and 0.23 μM, respectively. This approach provides good quantitative linearity for the four analytes (R(2)>0.986) with good reproducibility (the shot-to-shot and batch-to-batch variations for the four analytes were less than 10% and 15%, respectively). We validated the practicality of this approach-considering its advantages in sensitivity, repeatability, rapidity, and simplicity-through the analysis of testosterone in a urine sample. PMID:22063559

  7. Correlation between steroid sex hormones, egg laying capacity and cercarial shedding in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after treatment with Haplophyllum tuberculatum.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Maha Z; Metwally, Nadia S; Hamed, Manal A; Mohamed, Azza M

    2012-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is considered the second most pre-valiant worldwide parasitic disease ranked next to malaria. It has significant economic and public health consequences in many developing countries. Several ways have been practiced in order to bring the disease under an adequate control through the breakage of the life cycle of the parasite. Snail control could be regarded as a rapid and efficient of reducing or eliminating transmission and remains among the methods of choice for schistosomiasis control. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (family Rutaceae) as a plant molluscicide. The mortality rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were monitored after treatment with three extracts of the plant aerial parts; petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Chloroform extract that recorded the most potent effect was further evaluated through measuring the toxicity pattern against B. alexandrina snails, egg laying capacity, cercarial shedding, phenol oxidase enzyme and the levels of steroid sex hormones. Histopathological examination of hepatopancreas and ovotestis of treated snails were also done for result confirmation. Treatment of snails by chloroform extract recorded reduction in egg laying capacity, decrease in cercarial shedding, diminution in phenol oxidase enzyme, disturbance in steroid sex hormones and sever alternation of the histopathological picture of snails tissue. In conclusion, H. tuberculatum recorded molluscicidal potency against B. alexandrina snails. Further studies are needed for its environmental applications. PMID:22771439

  8. Subchronic effects of cadmium on the gonads, expressions of steroid hormones and sex-related genes in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongju; Shan, Dan; Zhong, Huan; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Wenzhi; Cao, Jinling; Guo, Zhongbao; Xiao, Jun; He, Fulin; Huang, Yifan; Li, Jian; Huang, Heming; Xu, Pao

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem which affects fish health and aquaculture. In the present study, we examined the bioaccumulation of Cd in the gonads of tilapia via dissolved and dietary routes. We evaluated the subchronic effects of Cd on the histology of gonads, steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. In addition, we also studied maternal transfer of Cd. Our results indicated that Cd was accumulated significantly in both ovary and testis from both exposure routes. Histopathological analysis showed that Cd induced ovary and testis injuries. Estradiol levels were significantly increased in dissolved Cd exposed female fish. In addition, the Cd exposure displayed different effects on gene expressions in gonads. In females, the estrogen receptor (ERα) was stimulated in dissolved Cd-exposed fish at 70.32 and 143.78 μg/L for 30 days and in fish at 143.78 μg/L for 60 days. Vitellogenin expression was significantly down-regulated in the ovary of dissolved Cd-exposed fish. In testis, GR expression was elevated after 60 days of dissolved Cd and dietary exposure. Furthermore, Cd level was significantly higher in the eggs than that in the fry. Our results demonstrated that both dissolved and dietary Cd exposures affected gonad development by altering steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. PMID:26471182

  9. Common Genetic Variants of the Human Steroid 21-Hydroxylase Gene (CYP21A2) Are Related to Differences in Circulating Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Doleschall, Márton; Szabó, Julianna Anna; Pázmándi, Júlia; Szilágyi, Ágnes; Koncz, Klára; Farkas, Henriette; Tóth, Miklós; Igaz, Péter; Gláz, Edit; Prohászka, Zoltán; Korbonits, Márta; Rácz, Károly; Patócs, Attila

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Systematic evaluation of the potential relationship between the common genetic variants of CYP21A2 and hormone levels. Methods The relationships of CYP21A2 intron 2 polymorphisms and haplotypes with diverse baseline and stimulated blood hormone levels were studied in 106 subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI). The rationale for using NFAI subjects is dual: i) their baseline hormone profiles do not differ from those of healthy subjects and ii) hormone levels after stimulation tests are available. Results The carriers (N = 27) of a well-defined CYP21A2 haplotype cluster (c5) had significantly elevated levels of cortisol (p = 0.0110), and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p = 0.0001) after ACTH stimulation, and 11-deoxycortisol after metyrapone administration (p = 0.0017), but the hormone values were in normal ranges. In addition, the carriers (N = 33) of the C allele of the rs6462 polymorphism had a higher baseline aldosterone level (p = 0.0006). The prevalence of these genetic variants of CYP21A2 did not differ between NFAI and healthy subjects. Conclusions The common CYP21A2 variants presumably exert the same effect on hormone levels in the healthy and disease-affected populations. Therefore, they may contribute to complex diseases such as some cardiovascular diseases, and may influence the genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) including the individual need for hormone substitution. PMID:25210767

  10. Effects of storage treatment on fecal steroid hormone concentrations of a rodent, the Cape ground squirrel (Xerus inauris).

    PubMed

    Pettitt, B A; Wheaton, C J; Waterman, J M

    2007-01-01

    Fecal steroid analysis is an increasingly common non-invasive technique used in both captive and field studies to measure an animal's approximate hormonal levels and corresponding physiological state. Fecal collection in the field necessitates storage and transportation methods that will prevent the degradation of hormonal metabolites by fecal bacteria. To determine the most stable and therefore preferred method of storage, 48 fecal samples were collected from six captive female Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris). Each sample was randomly divided into three sub-samples to be processed for storage through freezing, drying, or preservation in ethanol. Frozen samples were stored at -20 degrees C, dried-treated samples were desiccated in a conventional oven at 40 degrees C for 4 h, and alcohol-treated samples were preserved in 3 ml of 95% ethanol. Samples were stored for 330 days followed by enzyme immunoassay analysis (EIA) to determine their progestogen and estrone conjugate (E(1)C) concentrations. Validations were performed to establish that the progestogen and E(1)C assays accurately measure fecal progestogen and estrone conjugate concentrations and were sensitive enough to detect biologically meaningful differences in these steroid metabolite concentrations in female X. inauris. Validation results showed a significant difference in progestogen concentrations of gravid females compared to sub-adults and non-gravid females. There was also a significant difference in estrone conjugates between sub-adult and adult females. Duration of storage time did not affect progestogen or estrone metabolite concentrations after being frozen for 3 months. Storage treatment results showed no significant difference between frozen and dried samples, but a significant difference was found between frozen and ethanol samples in both progestogen and estrone conjugate concentrations demonstrating that drying feces provides a reliable method for long-term preservation of fecal steroid

  11. Visinin-like peptide 1 in adrenal gland of the rat. Gene expression and its hormonal control.

    PubMed

    Trejter, Marcin; Hochol, Anna; Tyczewska, Marianna; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Jopek, Karol; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K; Rucinski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    VSNL1 encodes the calcium-sensor protein visinin-like 1 and was identified previously as an upregulated gene in a sample set of aldosterone-producing adenomas. Recently, by means of microarray studies we demonstrated high expression of Vsnl1 gene in rat adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG). Only scanty data are available on the role of this gene in adrenal function as well as on regulation of its expression by factors affecting adrenal cortex structure and function. Therefore we performed relevant studies aimed at clarifying some of the above issues. By Affymetrix(®) Rat Gene 1.1 ST Array Strip, QPCR and immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that expression levels of Vsnl1 in the rat adrenal ZG are notably higher than in the fasciculata/reticularis zone. In QPCR assay this difference was approximately 10 times higher. Expression of this gene in the rat adrenal gland or adrenocortical cells was acutely down regulated by ACTH, while chronic administration of corticotrophin or dexamethasone did not change Vsnl1 mRNA levels. In enucleation-induced adrenocortical regeneration expression levels of both Vsnl1 and Cyp11b2 were notably lowered and positively correlated. Despite these findings, the physiological significance of adrenal Vsnl1 remains unclear, and requires further investigation. PMID:25451331

  12. Quantitative trait loci predicting circulating sex steroid hormones in men from the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald L.; Ardanaz, Eva; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Diver, W. Ryan; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loïc; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Stattin, Pär; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yeager, Meredith; Kaaks, Rudolf; Hunter, David J.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies suggest a heritable component to circulating sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, 874 SNPs in 37 candidate genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway were examined in relation to circulating levels of SHBG (N = 4720), testosterone (N = 4678), 3α-androstanediol-glucuronide (N = 4767) and 17β-estradiol (N = 2014) in Caucasian men. rs1799941 in SHBG is highly significantly associated with circulating levels of SHBG (P = 4.52 × 10−21), consistent with previous studies, and testosterone (P = 7.54 × 10−15), with mean difference of 26.9 and 14.3%, respectively, comparing wild-type to homozygous variant carriers. Further noteworthy novel findings were observed between SNPs in ESR1 with testosterone levels (rs722208, mean difference = 8.8%, P = 7.37 × 10−6) and SRD5A2 with 3α-androstanediol-glucuronide (rs2208532, mean difference = 11.8%, P = 1.82 × 10−6). Genetic variation in genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway is associated with differences in circulating SHBG and sex steroid hormones. PMID:19574343

  13. Rapid and sensitive analysis of phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, and endogenous steroid hormones in human urine by mixed-mode solid-phase extraction, dansylation, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, He-xing; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2013-05-01

    Steroid hormone levels in human urine are convenient and sensitive indicators for the impact of phthalates and/or bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on the human steroid hormone endocrine system. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method for determination of 14 phthalate metabolites, BPA, and ten endogenous steroid hormones in urine was developed and validated on the basis of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The optimized mixed-mode solid phase-extraction separated the weakly acidic or neutral BPA and steroid hormones from acidic phthalate metabolites in urine: the former were determined in positive ion mode with a methanol/water mobile phase containing 10 mM ammonium formate; the latter were determined in negative ion mode with a acetonitrile/water mobile phase containing 0.1 % acetic acid, which significantly alleviated matrix effects for the analysis of BPA and steroid hormones. Dansylation of estrogens and BPA realized simultaneous and sensitive analysis of the endogenous steroid hormones and BPA in a single chromatographic run. The limits of detection were less than 0.84 ng/mL for phthalate metabolites and less than 0.22 ng/mL for endogenous steroid hormones and BPA. This proposed method had satisfactory precision and accuracy, and was successfully applied to the analyses of human urine samples. This method could be valuable when investigating the associations among endocrine-disrupting chemicals, endogenous steroid hormones, and relevant adverse outcomes in epidemiological studies. PMID:23430180

  14. Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

  15. Adrenal androgens and androgen precursors: definition, synthesis, regulation and physiologic actions

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina; Smith, Joshua M.; Auchus, Richard; Rainey, William E.

    2015-01-01

    The human adrenal produces more 19 carbon (C19) steroids, by mass, than either glucocorticoids or mineralocorticoids. However, the mechanisms regulating adrenal C19 steroid biosynthesis continue to represent one of the most intriguing mysteries of endocrine physiology. This review will discuss the C19 steroids produced in the human adrenal and the features within the adrenal that allow production of these steroids. Finally, we consider the effects of these steroids in normal physiology and disorders of adrenal C19 steroid excess. PMID:25428847

  16. Adrenal Development in Mice Requires GATA4 and GATA6 Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Elizabeth; Hatch, Heather M.; Jiang, Tianyu; Morse, Deborah A.; Fox, Shawna C.

    2015-01-01

    The adrenal glands consist of an outer cortex and an inner medulla, and their primary purposes include hormone synthesis and secretion. The adrenal cortex produces a complex array of steroid hormones, whereas the medulla is part of the sympathetic nervous system and produces the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. In the mouse, GATA binding protein (GATA) 4 and GATA6 transcription factors are coexpressed in several embryonic tissues, including the adrenal cortex. To explore the roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in mouse adrenal development, we conditionally deleted these genes in adrenocortical cells using the Sf1Cre strain of animals. We report here that mice with Sf1Cre-mediated double deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 genes lack identifiable adrenal glands, steroidogenic factor 1-positive cortical cells and steroidogenic gene expression in the adrenal location. The inactivation of the Gata6 gene alone (Sf1Cre;Gata6flox/flox) drastically reduced the adrenal size and corticosterone production in the adult animals. Adrenocortical aplasia is expected to result in the demise of the animal within 2 weeks after birth unless glucocorticoids are provided. In accordance, Sf1Cre;Gata4flox/floxGata6flox/flox females depend on steroid supplementation to survive after weaning. Surprisingly, Sf1Cre;Gata4flox/floxGata6flox/flox males appear to live normal lifespans as vital steroidogenic synthesis shifts to their testes. Our results reveal a requirement for GATA factors in adrenal development and provide a novel tool to characterize the transcriptional network controlling adrenocortical cell fates. PMID:25933105

  17. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPOUNDS ON STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN H295R CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    H295R cells constitute a pluripotent cell line that has retained the enzymatic ability to produce steroids along the entire steroidogenic pathway, including C19 androgens and C18 estrogens. For this reason, they have been a valued research tool, and have been employed in an ever...

  18. Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Emily R.; Chang, Lilly; Head, Elizabeth H.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were lower in AD cases aged 80 years and older but not significantly different in the 60–79 year age range. In male brains, we observed that normal aging was associated with significant decreases in androgens but not estrogens. Further, in men aged 60–79 years, brain levels of testosterone but not estrogens were lower in cases with mild neuropathological changes as well as those with advanced AD neuropathology. In male cases over age 80, brain levels hormones did not significantly vary by neuropathological status. To begin investigating the relationships between hormone levels and indices of AD neuropathology, we measured brain levels of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ). In male cases with mild neuropathological changes, we found an inverse relationship between brain levels of testosterone and soluble Aβ. Collectively, these findings demonstrate sex-specific relationships between normal, age-related depletion of androgens and estrogens in men and women, which may be relevant to development of AD. PMID:19428144

  19. Role of gonadal and adrenal steroids and thyroid hormones in the regulation of molting in domestic goose.

    PubMed

    Péczely, P; Bogenfürst, F; Kulcsár, Margit; Polgár, Bea

    2011-03-01

    Plasma levels of testosterone (T), 17-β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), corticosterone (B), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were monitored during postnuptial and the prenuptial molt in domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus) in both sexes. 1. At the beginning of postnuptial molt (when the old, worn dawny-, and cover feathers' loss starts) in ganders, the levels of T, E2, P4 decrease while DHEA and B significantly increase. The elevated levels of T4 and low T3 concentrations characteristic of the last phase of the reproduction, remain unchanged. In layers, similar changes were observed, however, B decreases. 2. In the early phase of outgrowth of wing and cover feathers, plasma levels of T, E2 and P4 are low. Elevated B, DHEA and T4 concentrations decrease in ganders, while in layers DHEA increases and B and T4 levels remain unchanged. T3 increases in both sexes. 3. The subsequent intensive outgrowth period of wing- and cover feathers both in ganders and in layers is characterized by very low levels of T, E2, DHEA and T4, but P4 increased, and T3 concentration remain high. 4. At the end of postnuptial molt - when the outgrowth of dawny, cover-, and wing feathers stops - very low T, E2, P4, DHEA and T4 levels and and high T3 plasma levels were found in both sexes. Fast increase of plasma B was detected in ganders, while in geese, B concentration remain high. 5. During prenuptial molting (outgrowth of contour and tail feathers) low E2, P4 and T4, increasing T and DHEA, but very high T3 and B plasma concentration were measured in ganders. In layers, very low T, E2, P4, DHEA and T4 levels, and very high B and T3 levels were found. 6. At the beginning of the fall-winter sexual repose (postmolting stage) T, E2, P4, DHEA and T4 levels increase, T3 and B declines in both sexes. 7. In the subsequent phase of fall-winter period (preparatory stage) there is a further increase in T, P4 and T4, a fast increase of B and a decrease of E2, DHEA and T3 in ganders. In layers, T, P4 and DHEA decrease, B increases and the T4 and T3 do not change. 8. At the beginning of reproduction high T level, unchanged DHEA, slightly declined P4, and decreased E2, T4, T3 and a strong decline of B concentrations occur in ganders. In layers, T is further increased, E2 and P4 shows high levels, and, at the same time DHEA and T3 remain unchanged, while B and T4 decrease. PMID:21388915

  20. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  1. Fast determination of 24 steroid hormones in river water using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Yun; Zhan, Ping-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2016-01-01

    The easiness-to-handle of the magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (Mag-dSPE) procedure was developed for preconcentration of 24 steroid hormones in river water. Ethylenediamine-functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (EDA@Mag-CNTs) were synthesised by a simple one-pot reaction and were used as sorbent in Mag-dSPE procedure. The properties of the EDA@Mag-CNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). An ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method for determination of 24 steroid hormones in river water at nanograms per liter had been developed with pretreatment of the samples by Mag-dSPE. The obtained results demonstrated the higher extraction capacity of EDA@Mag-CNT Mag-dSPE with recoveries between 82.1 and 113%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the steroid hormone were between 0.020 and 1.00 ng/L. The developed method had been successfully applied to 60 river water samples, and it was confirmed that EDA@Mag-CNT Mag-dSPE was a highly effective extraction method for the steroid hormone analyses. PMID:26377965

  2. On-line solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry optimized for the analysis of steroid hormones in urban wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Paul B; Prévost, Michèle; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2013-10-15

    An analytical method based on on-line SPE-LC-APCI-MS/MS has been developed for the detection and quantification of eight selected estrogenic and progestagenic steroid hormones; estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), levonorgestrel (LEVO), medroxyprogesterone (MEDRO), norethindrone (NORE) and progesterone (PROG) in wastewater matrices. The injection volume could range from 1 to 10-mL according to the expected concentration of steroid hormones in matrix. The method characteristics are: analysis time per sample (<15 min), acceptable recovery values (71-95%), good precision (RSD ≤ 10%) and limits of detection at the low-nanogram per liter levels in affluent and effluent wastewaters (8-60 ng L(-1)). In particular, a detailed discussion of optimization parameters impacting overall performance of the method has been presented (sample collection, filtration and storage). All optimization and validation experiments for the on-line SPE method and chromatographic separation were performed in environmentally-relevant wastewater matrices. This method represents a compromise between analysis time, higher sample throughput capabilities, sample volume and simplicity for the analysis of both progestagenic and estrogenic steroid hormones in a single run, with LODs and LOQs sufficiently low to detect and quantify them in environmental wastewater matrices. Thus, the applicability of the method was tested on affluent and effluent wastewaters from two wastewater treatment facilities using different processes (biological and physico-chemical) to evaluate their removal efficiency for the detected steroid hormones. PMID:24054602

  3. The Steroid Hormone 20-Hydroxyecdysone Enhances Gene Transcription through the cAMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yu-Pu; Wang, Di; Han, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Du-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-06-10

    Animal steroid hormones regulate gene transcription through genomic pathways by binding to nuclear receptors. These steroid hormones also rapidly increase intracellular calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and activate the protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) nongenomic pathways. However, the function and mechanism of the nongenomic pathways of the steroid hormones are unclear, and the relationship between the PKC and PKA pathways is also unclear. We propose that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) activates the PKA pathway to enhance 20E-induced gene transcription in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera The expression of the catalytic subunit 1 of PKA (PKAC1) increased during metamorphosis, and PKAC1 knockdown blocked pupation and repressed 20E-responsive gene expression. 20E regulated PKAC1 phosphorylation at threonine 200 and nuclear translocation through an ecdysone-responsive G-protein-coupled receptor 2. PKAC1 induced cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation at serine 143, which bound to the cAMP response element on DNA to enhance 20E-responsive gene transcription. Through ecdysone-responsive G-protein-coupled receptor 2, 20E increased cAMP levels, which induced CREB PKA phosphorylation and 20E-responsive gene expression. This study demonstrates that the PKA/CREB pathway tightly and critically regulates 20E-induced gene transcription as well as its relationship with the 20E-induced PKC pathway. PMID:27129227

  4. Role of genetics and sex steroid hormones in male androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss: an update of what we now know.

    PubMed

    Yip, Leona; Rufaut, Nick; Sinclair, Rod

    2011-05-01

    The role of genetic predisposition and the influence of sex steroid hormones are indisputable to the pathogenesis of male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA). The role of sex steroid hormones in female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is less known. A good knowledge of the pathophysiology underlying MAGA and FPHL empowers the clinician to confidently counsel patients and make informed therapeutic decisions. Vigorous research in recent years has provided greater insight into the role of genetics and sex steroids in physiological hair growth and cycling, as well as in hair follicle miniaturization, the histological hallmark of MAGA and FPHL. In the present review article directed towards clinicians, we discuss the current understanding of the role of androgens and oestrogens, as well as genetic associations with MAGA and FPHL. We also briefly discuss the interpretation of direct-to-consumer genetic testing for baldness to help clinicians understand the limitations of such tests. PMID:21605090

  5. Sexual Experience Changes Sex Hormones But Not Hypothalamic Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression in Young and Middle-aged Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone is well known to regulate sexual behavior in males, but this is dependent upon prior sexual experience. Aging is associated with decreased libido and changes in testosterone, but the role of experience in these age-related processes has not been systematically studied. We examined effects of age and sexual experience on serum hormones (total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, LH) and on numbers of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) immunoreactive cells in the hypothalamus. Extensive sexual experience was given to male rats at 4 months of age. Rats were euthanized at either 4 months (young) or 12 months (middle-aged (MA)). Comparable sexually naïve male rats were handled and placed into the testing arena but did not receive any sexual experience. Thus, we had four groups: young-naïve, young-experienced, MA-naïve and MA-experienced. Serum hormone levels were assayed, and numbers of AR and ERα cells were quantified stereologically in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Sexually experienced males had significantly elevated serum testosterone and free testosterone in both age groups. Both total and free testosterone were higher, and estradiol lower, in middle-aged than young rats. Experience did not alter either AR or ERα expression in the preoptic brain regions studied. Aging was associated with increased expression of AR, but no change in ERα. These results show that sexual experience can induce short-term and long-term alterations in serum hormones but these effects are not manifested upon their receptors in the hypothalamus. PMID:19559704

  6. Convergent Pathways for Steroid Hormone-and Neurotransmitter-Induced Rat Sexual Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, S. K.; Allen, J. M. C.; Clark, J. H.; Blaustein, J. D.; O'Malley, B. W.

    1994-08-01

    Estrogen and progesterone modulate gene expression in rodents by activation of intracellular receptors in the hypothalamus, which regulate neuronal networks that control female sexual behavior. However, the neurotransmitter dopamine has been shown to activate certain steroid receptors in a ligand-independent manner. A dopamine receptor stimulant and a D_1 receptor agonist, but not a D_2 receptor agonist, mimicked the effects of progesterone in facilitating sexual behavior in female rats. The facilitatory effect of the neurotransmitter was blocked by progesterone receptor antagonists, a D_1 receptor antagonist, or antisense oligonucleotides to the progesterone receptor. The results suggest that in rodents neurotransmitters may regulate in vivo gene expression and behavior by means of cross-talk with steroid receptors in the brain.

  7. Tissue-specific bioconcentration of the synthetic steroid hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Steele, W Baylor; Garcia, Santos N; Huggett, Duane B; Venables, Barney J; Barnes, Sid Edwin; La Point, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    The steroid hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), commonly used in oral and injectable contraceptives, has been detected in surface and wastewaters near urban and agricultural areas in several rivers of the world. The objectives of this study were to examine the accumulative potential and tissue distribution of MPA in fish. A freshwater species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), was exposed to 100 μg/L of MPA for a 7-day period followed by a depuration phase in which fish were maintained in dechlorinated tap water for an additional 7 days. Tissues (muscle, brain, plasma, and liver) were sampled during the uptake (days 1, 3, and 7) and depuration (day 14) phases of the experiment. Tissue-specific bioconcentration factors (BCF) ranged from 4.3 to 37.8 and uptake was greatest in the liver>brain>plasma and lowest in the muscle. From a regulatory standpoint, MPA shows little tendency to bioaccumulate in fish. PMID:24161818

  8. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  9. Steroid hormone "cortisone" and "20-hydroxyecdysone" involved in the non-specific immune responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Ching-Hsu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of two steroid hormones on phenoloxidase activity, O2(-) production in the haemocytes, total haemocyte count (THC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activity, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity, and plasma cholesterol concentrations in white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei). Phenoloxidase activity, THC and plasma cholesterol concentration in shrimps treated with cortisone and 20-hydroxyecdysone were found to be lower when compared with the control groups. In the observation of O2(-) production, treatment of cortisone and hydroxyecdysone were reducing the activity in the 1st day, but to be undiversified with the elapsed time. By contrast, SOD activity in the hepatopancreas, plasma GOT activity, and GPT activity were significantly increased when compared with the control groups. PMID:27403594

  10. Gonadotropins in the Russian Sturgeon: Their Role in Steroid Secretion and the Effect of Hormonal Treatment on Their Secretion.

    PubMed

    Yom-Din, Svetlana; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Aizen, Joseph; Boehm, Benjamin; Shpilman, Michal; Golan, Matan; Hurvitz, Avshalom; Degani, Gad; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2016-01-01

    In the reproduction process of male and female fish, pituitary derived gonadotropins (GTHs) play a key role. To be able to specifically investigate certain functions of Luteinizing (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii; st), we produced recombinant variants of the hormones using the yeast Pichia pastoris as a protein production system. We accomplished to create in vitro biologically active heterodimeric glycoproteins consisting of two associated α- and β-subunits in sufficient quantities. Three dimensional modelling of both GTHs was conducted in order to study the differences between the two GTHs. Antibodies were produced against the unique β-subunit of each of the GTHs, in order to be used for immunohistochemical analysis and to develop an ELISA for blood and pituitary hormone quantification. This detection technique revealed the specific localization of the LH and FSH cells in the sturgeon pituitary and pointed out that both cell types are present in substantially higher numbers in mature males and females, compared to immature fish. With the newly attained option to prevent cross-contamination when investigating on the effects of GTH administration, we compared the steroidogeneic response (estradiol and 11-Keto testosterone (11-KT) in female and males, respectively) of recombinant stLH, stFSH, and carp pituitary extract in male and female sturgeon gonads at different developmental stages. Finally, we injected commercially available gonadotropin releasing hormones analog (GnRH) to mature females, and found a moderate effect on the development of ovarian follicles. Application of only testosterone (T) resulted in a significant increase in circulating levels of 11-KT whereas the combination of GnRH + T did not affect steroid levels at all. The response pattern for estradiol demonstrated a similar situation. FSH levels showed significant increases when GnRH + T was administered, while no changes were present in

  11. Pathways and genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism in male pigs: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Robic, Annie; Faraut, Thomas; Prunier, Armelle

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews state-of-the-art knowledge on steroid biosynthesis pathways in the pig and provides an updated characterization of the porcine genes involved in these pathways with particular focus on androgens, estrogens, and 16-androstenes. At least 21 different enzymes appear to be involved in these pathways in porcine tissues together with at least five cofactors. Until now, data on several porcine genes were scarce or confusing. We characterized the complete genomic and transcript sequences of the single porcine CYP11B gene. We analyzed the porcine AKR1 gene cluster and identified four AKR1C, one AKR1C like genes and one AKR1E2 gene. We provide evidence that porcine AKR1C genes are not orthologous to human AKR1C. A new nomenclature is thus needed for this gene family in the pig. Thirty-two genes are now described: transcript (30+2 characterized in this study) and genomic (complete: 18+1 and partial: 12+1) sequences are identified. However, despite increasing knowledge on steroid metabolism in the pig, there is still no explanation of why porcine testes can produce androstenone and epiandrosterone, but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is also a reduced steroid. PMID:24239507

  12. Phospholipase Cγ1 Connects the Cell Membrane Pathway to the Nuclear Receptor Pathway in Insect Steroid Hormone Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Cai, Mei-Juan; Zheng, Chuan-Chuan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the classical nuclear receptor pathway, there is a nongenomic pathway in the cell membrane that regulates gene expression in animal steroid hormone signaling; however, this mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates calcium influx via phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCG1) to modulate the protein kinase C phosphorylation of the transcription factor ultraspiracle (USP1) in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The PLCG1 mRNA levels are increased during the molting and metamorphic stages. The depletion of PLCG1 by RNA interference can block 20E-enhanced pupation, cause larvae death and pupation defects, and repress 20E-induced gene expression. 20E may induce the tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCG1 at the cytosolic tyrosine kinase (Src) homology 2 domains and then determine the migration of PLCG1 toward the plasma membrane. The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) inhibitor suramin, Src family kinase inhibitor PP2, and the depletions of ecdysone-responsible GPCR (ErGPCR) and Gαq restrain the 20E-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCG1. PLCG1 participates in the 20E-induced Ca2+ influx. The inhibition of GPCR, PLC, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, and calcium channels represses the 20E-induced Ca2+ influx. Through calcium signaling, PLCG1 mediates the transcriptional activation driven by the ecdysone-response element. Through PLCG1 and calcium signaling, 20E regulates PKC phosphorylation of USP1 at Ser-21 to determine its ecdysone-response element binding activity. These results suggest that 20E activates PLCG1 via the ErGPCR and Src family kinases to regulate Ca2+ influx and PKC phosphorylation of USP1 to subsequently modulate gene transcription for metamorphosis. PMID:24692553

  13. Effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-09-01

    The 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17β-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic. PMID:26070167

  14. Therapeutic Targeting of the FKBP52 Co-Chaperone in Steroid Hormone Receptor-Regulated Physiology and Disease.

    PubMed

    Guy, Naihsuan C; Garcia, Yenni A; Cox, Marc B

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors that require the dynamic, ordered assembly of multimeric chaperone complexes to reach a functional conformation. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90 serve as the central chaperones that mediate this process in conjunction with a variety of co-chaperones. Many of these cochaperones represent potential therapeutic targets for the disruption of Hsp90 client protein function. FKBP52 is an Hsp90-associated co-chaperone that has emerged as a promising therapeutic candidate due to its functional specificity for a small subset of Hsp90 client proteins including androgen (AR), glucocorticoid (GR), and progesterone (PR) receptors. Given its Hsp90-client protein specificity, the targeting of FKBP52 should be more specific and less toxic than the Hsp90- targeting drugs. Additionally, the fkbp52-deficient mice display specific phenotypes related to androgen, progesterone, and glucocorticoid insensitivity suggesting minimal off-target effects. Finally, the fact that FKBP52 is already a validated target of the clinically approved immunosuppressive drug, FK506 (Tacrolimus), indicates that FKBP52 is a "druggable" protein. Thus, the development of FKBP52-specific small molecule inhibitors is predicted to be a highly targeted strategy with potential for the treatment of any disease that is dependent on a functional AR, GR, and/or PR signaling pathway. Much progress has been made in understanding the residues and domains critical for FKBP52 function. The proline-rich loop overhanging the FKBP52 FK1 catalytic domain is functionally important and likely represents an interaction surface within the receptor-chaperone complex. Thus, the targeting of FKBP52 proline-rich loop interactions is the most attractive therapeutic approach to disrupt FKBP52 regulation of receptor activity in steroid hormone receptor-dependent physiology and disease. PMID:25986565

  15. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Julie; Mendrek, Adrianna; Germain, Martine; Hot, Pascal; Lavoie, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200), which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms. The N200 and P300 amplitudes were positively

  16. Restricted-access nanoparticles for magnetic solid-phase extraction of steroid hormones from environmental and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lei; Wang, Qing; Xu, Jinping; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Li

    2012-06-29

    Restricted-access materials based on non-ionic surfactant-coated dodecyl-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and applied to extract steroid hormones from environmental and biological samples. The magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation, and were functionalized with dodecyltriethoxysilane, giving dodecyl-grafted magnetic nanoparticles (C₁₂-Fe₃O₄). They were further modified with different non-ionic surfactants by self-assembly adsorption. Several types of non-ionic surfactants, Tween-20, 40, 60 and 85, and Span-40, 60 and 80, were investigated as the coatings. Tween surfactants coated C₁₂-Fe₃O₄, named as TW-20 (40, 60, 85)-C₁₂, exhibited good dispersibility in aqueous solution, which was a preferred character in extraction; besides, TW-20-C₁₂ and TW-40-C₁₂ showed good anti-interference ability and satisfactory reproducibility when they were used as magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbents. The factors that may influence the extraction, including the amount of magnetic nanoparticles, extraction and desorption time, the amount of salt addition, the type and volume of desorption solvent, the volume of methanol addition and pH of sample solution, were investigated in detail. High performance liquid chromatography-UV detection was employed for analysis of target analytes (steroid hormone compounds). The developed method was successfully used for the determination of the target analytes in environmental and urine samples. Both tested materials afforded good recovery, satisfactory reproducibility and low limits of detection for environmental samples, which indicates that the materials possessed anti-interference ability. However, compared to TW-40-C₁₂, TW-20-C₁₂ nanoparticles provided better recovery in relatively complex biological samples, which may indicate that the latter one is more appreciated in complex samples. PMID:22621888

  17. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  18. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Size, Circulating Sex-Steroid Hormones and IGF Components among Healthy Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Lauren E; Miller, Erline E; Wang, Qiong; Li, Jia-Yuan; Liu, Li; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Smith, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has increased in Asian countries and rates of hormone receptor (HR) negative breast cancer exceed those of Western countries. Epidemiologic data suggest that the association between body size and BC risk may vary by HR status, and could differ geographically. While body size may influence BC risk by moderating the synthesis and metabolism of circulating sex-steroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and related binding proteins, there is a dearth of literature among Asian women. We aimed to examine these specific associations in a sample of Chinese women. In Sichuan Province 143 women aged ≥40 years were recruited through outpatient services (2011-2012). Questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood samples were utilized for data collection and linear regression was applied in data analyses. Among women <50 years we observed a non-monotonic positive association between body mass index (BMI) and 17β-estradiol, and a reversed J-shaped association between BMI and IGF-1 (p ≤0.05). We observed similar associations between waist-to-hip ratio and these markers. Our finding of augmented IGF-1 among women with low body mass may have implications for understanding breast tumor heterogeneity in diverse populations and should be evaluated in larger prospective studies with cancer outcomes. PMID:26352264

  19. Proliferation of rhesus ovarian surface epithelial cells in culture: Lack of mitogenic response to steroid or gonadotropic hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jay W.; Toth-Fejel, Suellen; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2002-06-30

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer and approximately 90% of ovarian cancers derive from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), yet the biology of the OSE is poorly understood. Factors associated with increased risk of non-hereditary ovarian cancer include the formation of inclusion cysts, effects of reproductive hormones cytokeratin, vimentin, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, estrogen receptor-a, and progesterone receptor. We show that these cells activate MAP Kinase and proliferate in response to extracellular calcium, as do human and rat OSE. In contrast, the gonadotropic hormones FSH (4-400 IU/L), LH (8.5-850 IU/l), and hCG (10-1000 IU/l) fail to stimulate proliferation. We find that concentrations of progesterone and estrogen normally present in follicles just prior to ovulation ( ~1000 ng/ml) significantly decrease the number of mitotically active RhOSE cells as determined by PCNA labelling, total cell count, and 3H-thymidine uptake, while lower steroid concentrations have no effect.

  20. Combined QM/MM study of thyroid and steroid hormone analogue interactions with αvβ3 integrin.

    PubMed

    Freindorf, Marek; Furlani, Thomas R; Kong, Jing; Cody, Vivian; Davis, Faith B; Davis, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Recent biochemical studies have identified a cell surface receptor for thyroid and steroid hormones that bind near the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) recognition site on the heterodimeric αvβ3 integrin. To further characterize the intermolecular interactions for a series of hormone analogues, combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods were used to calculate their interaction energies. All calculations were performed in the presence of either calcium (Ca(2+)) or magnesium (Mg(2+)) ions. These data reveal that 3,5'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) and 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyroacetic acid (T(4)ac) bound in two different modes, occupying two alternate sites, one of which is along the Arg side chain of the RGD cyclic peptide site. These orientations differ from those of the other ligands whose alternate binding modes placed the ligands deeper within the RGD binding pocket. These observations are consistent with biological data that indicate the presence of two discrete binding sites that control distinct downstream signal transduction pathways for T(3). PMID:22547930

  1. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Size, Circulating Sex-Steroid Hormones and IGF Components among Healthy Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Lauren E.; Miller, Erline E.; Wang, Qiong; Li, Jia-yuan; Liu, Li; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has increased in Asian countries and rates of hormone receptor (HR) negative breast cancer exceed those of Western countries. Epidemiologic data suggest that the association between body size and BC risk may vary by HR status, and could differ geographically. While body size may influence BC risk by moderating the synthesis and metabolism of circulating sex-steroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and related binding proteins, there is a dearth of literature among Asian women. We aimed to examine these specific associations in a sample of Chinese women. In Sichuan Province 143 women aged ≥40 years were recruited through outpatient services (2011–2012). Questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood samples were utilized for data collection and linear regression was applied in data analyses. Among women <50 years we observed a non-monotonic positive association between body mass index (BMI) and 17β-estradiol, and a reversed J-shaped association between BMI and IGF-1 (p ≤0.05). We observed similar associations between waist-to-hip ratio and these markers. Our finding of augmented IGF-1 among women with low body mass may have implications for understanding breast tumor heterogeneity in diverse populations and should be evaluated in larger prospective studies with cancer outcomes. PMID:26352264

  2. ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY AND STEROID HORMONES IN SWINE WASTEWATER PROCESSED THROUGH A LAGOON CONSTRUCTED-WETLAND SYSTEM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons and treatment wetlands are used world-wide to treat wastewater from dense livestock production facilities. However, there is very limited data on the hormonal activity of the wastewater effluent produced by these treatment systems. The objectives of this experiment were to measur...

  3. SUPPRESSION OF THE LUTEINIZING HORMONE SURGE BY CHLORDIMEFORM IN OVARIECTOMIZED, STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The midcycle surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary provides the physiological trigger in the mammalian female for the process of ovulation. ccordingly, any agent that compromises the LH surge could function as a reproductive toxicant. ince ovariectomized (OVX) rats...

  4. Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone receptor expression in the chicken pituitary gland: potential influence of sexual maturation and ovarian steroids.

    PubMed

    Maddineni, S; Ocón-Grove, O M; Krzysik-Walker, S M; Hendricks, G L; Proudman, J A; Ramachandran, R

    2008-09-01

    Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic RFamide, has been found to inhibit gonadotrophin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland originally in birds and, subsequently, in mammalian species. The gene encoding a transmembrane receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) was recently identified in the brain, pituitary gland and gonads of song bird, chicken and Japanese quail. The objectives of the present study are to characterise the expression of GnIHR mRNA and protein in the chicken pituitary gland, and to determine whether sexual maturation and gonadal steroids influence pituitary GnIHR mRNA abundance. GnIHR mRNA quantity was found to be significantly higher in diencephalon compared to either anterior pituitary gland or ovaries. GnIHR mRNA quantity was significantly higher in the pituitaries of sexually immature chickens relative to sexually mature chickens. Oestradiol or a combination of oestradiol and progesterone treatment caused a significant decrease in pituitary GnIHR mRNA quantity relative to vehicle controls. GnIHR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were identified in the chicken pituitary gland cephalic and caudal lobes. Furthermore, GnIHR-ir cells were found to be colocalised with luteinising hormone (LH)beta mRNA-, or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)beta mRNA-containing cells. GnIH treatment significantly decreased LH release from anterior pituitary gland slices collected from sexually immature, but not from sexually mature chickens. Taken together, GnIHR gene expression is possibly down regulated in response to a surge in circulating oestradiol and progesterone levels as the chicken undergoes sexual maturation to allow gonadotrophin secretion. Furthermore, GnIHR protein expressed in FSHbeta or LHbeta mRNA-containing cells is likely to mediate the inhibitory effect of GnIH on LH and FSH secretion. PMID:18638025

  5. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hannon, Patrick R. Brannick, Katherine E. Wang, Wei Gupta, Rupesh K. Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-04-01

    inhibits the production of antral follicle produced sex steroid hormones.

  6. Sex Steroid Hormone Profiles are Related to Sleep Measures from Polysomnography and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, Mary Fran; Zheng, Huiyong; Kravitz, Howard M.; Matthews, Karen; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Gold, Ellen B.; Owens, Jane; Consens, Flavia; Hall, Martica

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To relate reproductive hormones (and the preceding 7-year rates of their change) to objectively and subjectively assessed sleep measures, independent of age, vasomotor symptom frequency, depressive symptoms, and body size. Design: A cross-sectional sleep substudy nested in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a longitudinal study of the menopausal transition. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 365 Caucasian, African American, and Chinese women. Measurements and Results: Sleep duration, continuity, and architecture were measured during two nights of in-home polysomnography (PSG) studies. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for sleep quality, sleep diaries for medication, vasomotor symptoms, lifestyle information and questionnaires for depressive symptoms. Blood collected annually in the years prior to sleep study was assayed for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), and total testosterone (T). More rapid rate of FSH change was significantly associated with higher delta sleep percent, longer total sleep time (TST), but less favorable self-reported sleep quality (PSQI). Baseline E2 was modestly and negatively associated with sleep quality. Women in the lowest total testosterone quartile at baseline had more wake time after sleep onset (WASO) than women in the highest quartile. Lower E2/T ratio, an index reflecting the increasing androgenic environment with the menopause transition, was associated with less WASO. Conclusions: More rapid rate of FSH change was associated with longer sleep duration but poor sleep quality. Women with higher T or who were closer to the completion of the transition process (as indexed by a lower E2/T) had less sleep discontinuity (less WASO). Citation: Sowers MF; Zheng H; Kravitz HM; Matthews K; Bromberger JT; Gold EB; Owens J; Consens F; Hall M. Sex steroid hormone profiles are related to sleep measures From polysomnography and the pittsburgh sleep quality

  7. Influence of triiodothyronine (T(3)) on secretion of steroids and thyroid hormone receptor expression in chicken ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Sechman, A; Pawlowska, K; Rzasa, J

    2009-08-01

    The present study was designed to (1) assess the role of triiodothyronine (T(3)) with regard to in vitro steroid hormone secretion by chicken ovarian follicles; (2) determine whether T(3) influences the in vivo function of the pituitary-ovarian axis in the hen; and (3) detect expression of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA in chicken ovarian follicles. In the first experiment, laying hens were decapitated 22.5h before ovulation. White prehierarchical follicles (1-8mm) and fragments of theca and granulosa layers of the 3 largest yellow preovulatory follicles F3-F1 (22-35mm) were incubated in a medium supplemented with T(3) (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, or 1000ng/mL) or ovine luteinizing hormone (LH) (10ng/mL) in combination with doses of T(3) (1, 10, and 100ng/mL). Triiodothyronine decreased basal and LH-stimulated estradiol secretion by white follicles and the theca layer of all preovulatory follicles. On the other hand, it increased progesterone secretion by F2 and F1 follicles. In the second experiment, hens were injected 1h after ovulation with saline (control) or T(3) (10microg/100g body weight, intraperitoneally). Results indicated that exogenous T(3) decreased plasma concentrations of LH and estradiol and increased plasma concentrations of progesterone. In the third experiment, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, expression of thyroid hormone receptor (TRalpha and TRbeta0), mRNA was detected in all of the ovarian compartments. The expression of TRalpha mRNA was relatively greater in comparison with TRbeta0. There were no differences between white ovarian follicles in the expression of TRalpha and TRbeta0 mRNA. A considerably higher TRalpha and lower TRbeta0 expression was detected in the granulosa layer of preovulatory follicles in comparison with the theca layer. In conclusion, the data indicate that thyroid hormones acting via nuclear receptors are involved in regulation of the pituitary-ovarian axis and processes associated

  8. Implications of Prenatal Steroid Perturbations for Neurodevelopment, Behavior, and Autism

    PubMed Central

    Martien, Katherine M.; Gagnidze, Khatuna; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    The prenatal brain develops under the influence of an ever-changing hormonal milieu that includes endogenous fetal gonadal and adrenal hormones, placental and maternal hormones, and exogenous substances with hormonal activity that can cross the placental barrier. This review discusses the influences of endogenous fetal and maternal hormones on normal brain development and potential consequences of pathophysiological hormonal perturbations to the developing brain, with particular reference to autism. We also consider the effects of hormonal pharmaceuticals used for assisted reproduction, the maintenance of pregnancy, the prevention of congenital adrenal hypertrophy, and hormonal contraceptives continued into an unanticipated pregnancy, among others. These treatments, although in some instances life-saving, may have unintended consequences on the developing fetuses. Additional concern is raised by fetal exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals encountered universally by pregnant women from food/water containers, contaminated food, household chemicals, and other sources. What are the potential outcomes of prenatal steroid perturbations on neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders, including autism-spectrum disorders? Our purposes here are 1) to summarize some consequences of steroid exposures during pregnancy for the development of brain and behavior in the offspring; 2) to summarize what is known about the relationships between exposures and behavior, including autism spectrum disorders; 3) to discuss the molecular underpinnings of such effects, especially molecular epigenetic mechanisms of prenatal steroid manipulations, a field that may explain effects of direct exposures, and even transgenerational effects; and 4) for all of these, to add cautionary notes about their interpretation in the name of scientific rigor. PMID:25211453

  9. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome develops from prolonged or excess use of steroid medications. In other cases, the body itself produces ... adrenal glands can be suppressed when people take steroid medications (medicines that act like cortisol in the ...

  10. Nuclear components responsible for the retention of steroid--receptor complexes, especially from the standpoint of the specifcity of hormonal responses.

    PubMed Central

    Mainwaring, W I; Symes, E K; Higgins, S J

    1976-01-01

    1. By covalently linking nuclear components from hormone-sensitive cells to Sepharose 2B, it is possible to investigate the interaction between nuclear components and cytoplasmic receptor-steroid complexes by affinity chromatography. 2. Many factors are implicated in the specifity of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions, including the nature of the nuclear components, the presence of the cytoplasmic receptor protein and the provision of the appropriate steroid ligand. 3. Two distinct sets of binding sites are present in nuclear extracts immobilized to Sepharose 2B, namely a small number of specific high-affinity sites and a larger number of non-specific low affinity-sites. 4. Considerable evidence supports the importance of the high-affinity binding sites in the manifestation of hormonal specificity in different tissues. Although the study has centred largely on androgenresponsive systems, the findings are germane to cytoplasmic-nuclear interactions in general. 5. The high-affinity or acceptor sites in nuclear extracts reside in the basic but non-histone protein fraction. 6. Hormonal specificity is seemingly maintained by both the cytoplasmic and nuclear components, and the results are discussed in the context of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones. PMID:182139

  11. Uncommon trajectories: steroid hormones, Mexican peasants, and the search for a wild yam.

    PubMed

    Laveaga, Gabriela Soto

    2005-12-01

    This article analyzes how evolving pharmaceutical technology, chemical advances, and world politics created the need for an abundant and cheap supply of steroids, and how decisions made in faraway laboratories ultimately determined that a Mexican yam, barbasco, was the best possible raw material. Following this discovery, this article explores how barbasco's exploitation impacted on the Mexican countryside and specifically the men and women hired to gather wild yams. In analyzing, for example, the peasant organizations that emerged, the use of chemical terms by barely literate peasants, and the Mexican government's political strategy to control rural unrest by controlling barbasco production one begins to understand the unexpected consequences of the global search for medicinal plants. In this particular case, the merging of science and peasant life reshuffled social hierarchies in the countryside, granted monetary value to an erstwhile 'weed', and gave a novel reinterpretation to laboratory knowledge and its (social) uses. PMID:16337559

  12. Influence of menstrual cycle, parity and oral contraceptive use on steroid hormone receptors in normal breast.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, S.; Robertson, B. J.; Anderson, T. J.; King, R. J.; McPherson, K.

    1992-01-01

    Steroid receptor was assessed immunohistochemically in 158 samples of normal breast for variation through the menstrual cycle. Patterns and intensity of reaction were used in a semi-quantitative scoring system to examine the influence of cycle phase, cycle type, parity and age. The changes in oestrogen receptor for natural cycle and oral contraceptive (OC) cycles indicated down-regulation by progestins. Progesterone receptor did not vary significantly in natural cycles, but increased steadily through OC cycles. This study provides strong evidence that both oestrogen and progesterone influence breast epithelium, but dissimilarities from the endometrium are apparent. The interval since pregnancy had a significant negative effect on frequency and score of oestrogen receptor and score of progesterone receptor. Multivariate analysis established the phase of cycle and OC use as independent significant influences on oestrogen receptor. The interval since pregnancy was an independent significant factor for both oestrogen and progesterone receptor presence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1562470

  13. A 5-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study of Lipid-Rich Adrenal Incidentalomas: No Tumor Growth or Development of Hormonal Hypersecretion

    PubMed Central

    Raade, Merja; Hämäläinen, Esa; Sane, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for follow-up of adrenal incidentalomas are extensive and hampered by lack of follow-up studies. We tested the hypothesis that small lipid-rich adrenal incidentalomas, initially characterized by tumor size <40 mm and <10 Hounsfield units (HUs) on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) may not demonstrate excessive growth/hormonal hypersecretion on follow-up. Methods Sixty-nine incidentalomas in 56 patients were restudied with unenhanced CT and screening for hypercortisolism (dexamethasone suppression test [DST], plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone) and pheochromocytoma (24-hour urinary metanephrines and normetanephrines) 5 years later. Primary hyperaldosteronism was excluded at base-line. Results Tumor (n=69) size was similar before and after 5 years follow-up (19±6 mm vs. 20±7 mm). Mean tumor growth was 1±2 mm. Largest increase in tumor size was 8 mm, this tumor was surgically removed and histopathology confirmed cortical adenoma. DST was normal in 54 patients and two patients (3.6%) were still characterized by subclinical hypercortisolism. Initial tumor size was >20 mm for the patient with largest tumor growth and those with subclinical hypercortisolism. All patients had normal 24-hour urinary metanephrines and normetanephrines. Low attenuation (<10 HU) was demonstrated in 97% of 67 masses re-evaluated with unenhanced CT. Conclusion None of the patients developed clinically relevant tumor growth or new subclinical hypercortisolism. Biochemical screening for pheochromocytoma in incidentalomas demonstrating <10 HU on unenhanced CT is not needed. For such incidentalomas <40 mm, it seems sufficient to perform control CT and screen for hypercortisolism after 5 years. PMID:26354488

  14. Regulation of object recognition and object placement by ovarian sex steroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    The ovarian hormones 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) are potent modulators of hippocampal memory formation. Both hormones have been demonstrated to enhance hippocampal memory by regulating the cellular and molecular mechanisms thought to underlie memory formation. Behavioral neuroendocrinologists have increasingly used the object recognition and object placement (object location) tasks to investigate the role of E2 and P4 in regulating hippocampal memory formation in rodents. These one-trial learning tasks are ideal for studying acute effects of hormone treatments on different phases of memory because they can be administered during acquisition (pre-training), consolidation (post-training), or retrieval (pre-testing). This review synthesizes the rodent literature testing the effects of E2 and P4 on object recognition (OR) and object placement (OP), and the molecular mechanisms in the hippocampus supporting memory formation in these tasks. Some general trends emerge from the data. Among gonadally intact females, object memory tends to be best when E2 and P4 levels are elevated during the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and in middle age. In ovariectomized females, E2 given before or immediately after testing generally enhances OR and OP in young and middle-aged rats and mice, although effects are mixed in aged rodents. Effects of E2 treatment on OR 7and OP memory consolidation can be mediated by both classical estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), and depend on glutamate receptors (NMDA, mGluR1) and activation of numerous cell signaling cascades (e.g., ERK, PI3K/Akt, mTOR) and epigenetic processes (e.g., histone H3 acetylation, DNA methylation). Acute P4 treatment given immediately after training also enhances OR and OP in young and middle-aged ovariectomized females by activating similar cell signaling pathways as E2 (e.g., ERK, mTOR). The few studies that have administered both hormones in combination suggest that treatment can enhance OR and OP, but that

  15. Molecular identification of genes involved in testicular steroid synthesis and characterization of the responses to hormones stimulation in testis of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas).

    PubMed

    Chi, Mei L; Wen, Hai S; Ni, Meng; He, Feng; Li, Ji F; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Pei; Chai, Sen H; Ding, Yu X; Yin, Xiang H

    2014-06-01

    Testicular steroids are critical hormones for the regulation of spermatogenesis in male teleosts and their productions have been reported to be regulated by gonadotropins and gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In the Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas), the reproductive endocrine, particularly regarding the production and regulation of testicular steroids, are not well understood. For this reason, we first cloned and characterized the response of several key genes regulating the production of testicular steroids and, second, we analyzed the changes of mRNA profiles of these genes during testicular development cycle and in the administration of hCG and GnRHa with corresponding testosterone level in serum, GSI and histological analyses. We succeeded in cloning the full-length cDNAs for the fushi tarazu factor-1 (FTZ-F1) homologues (FTZ-F1a and FTZ-F1b), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in Japanese sea bass. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins clearly showed that these genes in Japanese sea bass were homologous to those of other piscine species. During the testicular development cycle and hCG/GnRHa administration, quantification of jsbStAR transcripts revealed a trend similar to their serum testosterone levels, while a reciprocal relationship was founded between the serum concentrations of testosterone and jsbAMH and the links between gonadal expression of jsbStAR, jsbAMH and jsbFTZ-F1 were also observed. Our results have identified for the first time several key genes involved in the regulation of steroid production and spermatogenesis in the Japanese sea bass testis and these genes are all detected under gonadotropic hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone control. PMID:24704264

  16. Prediagnostic Sex Steroid Hormones in Relation to Male Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, Louise A.; Key, Tim J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Michels, Karin B.; Sesso, Howard D.; Ursin, Giske; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Wood, Shannon N.; Falk, Roni T.; Parisi, Dominick; Guillemette, Chantal; Caron, Patrick; Turcotte, Véronique; Habel, Laurel A.; Isaacs, Claudine J.; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Cook, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although previous studies have implicated a variety of hormone-related risk factors in the etiology of male breast cancers, no previous studies have examined the effects of endogenous hormones. Patients and Methods Within the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, an international consortium comprising 21 case-control and cohort investigations, a subset of seven prospective cohort studies were able to contribute prediagnostic serum or plasma samples for hormone quantitation. Using a nested case-control design, multivariable unconditional logistic regression analyses estimated odds ratios and 95% CIs for associations between male breast cancer risk and 11 individual estrogens and androgens, as well as selected ratios of these analytes. Results Data from 101 cases and 217 matched controls were analyzed. After adjustment for age and date of blood draw, race, and body mass index, androgens were found to be largely unrelated to risk, but circulating estradiol levels showed a significant association. Men in the highest quartile had an odds ratio of 2.47 (95% CI, 1.10 to 5.58) compared with those in the lowest quartile (trend P = .06). Assessment of estradiol as a ratio to various individual androgens or sum of androgens showed no further enhancement of risk. These relations were not significantly modified by either age or body mass index, although estradiol was slightly more strongly related to breast cancers occurring among younger (age < 67 years) than older men. Conclusion Our results support the notion of an important role for estradiol in the etiology of male breast cancers, similar to female breast cancers. PMID:25964249

  17. Interrelationship between alcohol intake and endogenous sex-steroid hormones on diabetes risk in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Rachelle D.; Liu, Simin; You, Nai-Chieh; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Song, Yiqing

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones, including estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), were associated with alcohol intake or mediated the alcohol-type 2 diabetes (T2D) association. Methods Among women not using hormone replacement therapy and free of baseline cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes in the Women’s Health Study, 359 incident cases of T2D and 359 matched controls were chosen during 10 years of follow-up. Results Frequent alcohol intake (≥1 drink/day) was positively and significantly associated with higher plasma estradiol concentrations in an age-adjusted model (β=0.14, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.26), as compared with rarely/never alcohol intake. After adjusting for additional known covariates, this alcohol-estradiol association remained significant (β=0.19, 95% CI, 0.07, 0.30). Testosterone (β=0.13, 95% CI, −0.05, 0.31), SHBG (β=0.07, 95% CI, −0.07, 0.20), and DHEAS (β=0.14, 95% CI, −0.04, 0.31) showed positive associations without statistical significance. Estradiol alone or in combination with SHBG appeared to influence the observed protective association between frequent alcohol consumption and T2D risk, with a 12–21% reduction in OR in the multivariate-adjusted models. Conclusions Our cross-sectional analysis showed positive associations between alcohol intake and endogenous estradiol concentrations. Our prospective data suggested that baseline concentrations of estradiol, with or without SHBG, might influence the alcohol-T2D association in postmenopausal women. PMID:25759186

  18. 17β-trenbolone, an anabolic–androgenic steroid as well as an environmental hormone, contributes to neurodegeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Fucui; Liu, Daicheng

    2015-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to neurodegenerative disorders. In a large number of neurodegenerative diseases (for example, Alzheimer's disease (AD)), patients do not carry the mutant genes. Other risk factors, for example the environmental factors, should be evaluated. 17β-trenbolone is a kind of environmental hormone as well as an anabolic–androgenic steroid. 17β-trenbolone is used as a growth promoter for livestock in the USA. Also, a large portion of recreational exercisers inject 17β-trenbolone in large doses and for very long time to increase muscle and strength. 17β-trenbolone is stable in the environment after being excreted. In the present study, 17β-trenbolone was administered to adult and pregnant rats and the primary hippocampal neurons. 17β-trenbolone's distribution and its effects on serum hormone levels and Aβ42 accumulation in vivo and its effects on AD related parameters in vitro were assessed. 17β-trenbolone accumulated in adult rat brain, especially in the hippocampus, and in the fetus brain. It altered Aβ42 accumulation. 17β-trenbolone induced apoptosis of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro and resisted neuroprotective function of testosterone. Presenilin-1 protein expression was down-regulated while β-amyloid peptide 42 (Aβ42) production and caspase-3 activities were increased. Both androgen and estrogen receptors mediated the processes. 17β-trenbolone played critical roles in neurodegeneration. Exercisers who inject large doses of trenbolone and common people who are exposed to 17β-trenbolone by various ways are all influenced chronically and continually. Identification of such environmental risk factors will help us take early prevention measure to slow down the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: • The widely used anabolic–androgenic steroid 17β-trenbolone has neurotoxicity. • 17β-trenbolone crosses the blood brain barrier and placental barrier. • Rat has high level of 17

  19. [Gender and the effects of steroid hormones in the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Brandt, N; Vierk, R; Fester, L; Zhou, L; Imholz, P; Rune, G M

    2014-09-01

    Degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, the incidence and prevalence of which vary between men and women, often manifest in the hippocampus. Neurosteroids are hormones that are synthesized in the CNS, and it is here that they exert their influence. Estrogen and testosterone are examples of neurosteroid hormones. In the hippocampus, an area of the brain closely associated with learning and memory, the local synthesis of estrogen in females, but not in males, is essential for the plasticity and stability of the synapses. The inhibition of estrogen synthesis in the female hippocampus causes a reduction in long-term potentiation (LTP), an electrophysiological parameter of learning and memory, thus resulting in a significant loss of synapses. In light of this, the fact that estrogen has been attributed with many neuroprotective functions in degenerative diseases of the CNS suggests that therapeutic concepts involving the use of estrogen are possibly only effective in women, but not in men. These findings similarly provide a basis for explaining the gender dimorphism that has been found in certain degenerative illnesses of the CNS. PMID:25091372

  20. Sex steroid and growth hormone supplementation to enhance performance in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Rogol, A D

    2000-08-01

    Ergogenic aids are taken to enhance energy utilization by producing more, controlling its use, or increasing mechanical efficiency. Most athletes are looking toward enhancing performance by proper training modalities and methods; however, some look to the biochemical route for a "quick fix." Thus, the use of chemical agents is on the rise. Herein is provided information on the anabolic-androgenic agents androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, and the "parent" compound, testosterone. The former two, at best, have equivocal activity, but testosterone is both anabolic and androgenic in doses that adolescents might receive. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 are anabolic, nonandrogenic compounds with undoubted effects on the lean body mass compartment. Both are expensive, not readily available, and subject to the art of counterfeiting. Thus, very few data are available in non-growth hormone-deficient adolescents. The discussion of these agents ends with issues of fairness, ethics, and the message we attempt to project to our teenagers, whether athletes or not. PMID:10943821

  1. Beyond the C18 frontier: Androgen and glucocorticoid metabolism in breast cancer tissues: The role of non-typical steroid hormones in breast cancer development and progression.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Keely May; Sasano, Hironobu

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer's hormonal dependence is well known and has been so for a long time. However in the last two decades great advances have been made in understanding the local metabolism of steroids within tissue. In the form of aromatase inhibition this is already one of the mainstays of breast cancer therapy. This review aims to summarise briefly what is known in terms of the metabolism of C18 steroids but perhaps more importantly to touch on the new developments regarding the importance of the metabolism of androgens and glucocorticoids in breast tissue. It is our hope that this review should provide the reader with a "birds eye view" of the current state of knowledge regarding localised steroid metabolism in the breast. PMID:26057662

  2. Steroid Hormone Signaling Is Essential for Pheromone Production and Oenocyte Survival.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yin Ning; Tan, Kah Junn; Chung, Henry; Lavrynenko, Oksana; Shevchenko, Andrej; Yew, Joanne Y

    2016-06-01

    Many of the lipids found on the cuticles of insects function as pheromones and communicate information about age, sex, and reproductive status. In Drosophila, the composition of the information-rich lipid profile is dynamic and changes over the lifetime of an individual. However, the molecular basis of this change is not well understood. To identify genes that control cuticular lipid production in Drosophila, we performed a RNA interference screen and used Direct Analysis in Real Time and gas chromatography mass spectrometry to quantify changes in the chemical profiles. Twelve putative genes were identified whereby transcriptional silencing led to significant differences in cuticular lipid production. Amongst them, we characterized a gene which we name spidey, and which encodes a putative steroid dehydrogenase that has sex- and age-dependent effects on viability, pheromone production, and oenocyte survival. Transcriptional silencing or overexpression of spidey during embryonic development results in pupal lethality and significant changes in levels of the ecdysone metabolite 20-hydroxyecdysonic acid and 20-hydroxyecdysone. In contrast, inhibiting gene expression only during adulthood resulted in a striking loss of oenocyte cells and a concomitant reduction of cuticular hydrocarbons, desiccation resistance, and lifespan. Oenocyte loss and cuticular lipid levels were partially rescued by 20-hydroxyecdysone supplementation. Taken together, these results identify a novel regulator of pheromone synthesis and reveal that ecdysteroid signaling is essential for the maintenance of cuticular lipids and oenocytes throughout adulthood. PMID:27333054

  3. Steroid Hormone Signaling Is Essential for Pheromone Production and Oenocyte Survival

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Yin Ning; Tan, Kah Junn; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Many of the lipids found on the cuticles of insects function as pheromones and communicate information about age, sex, and reproductive status. In Drosophila, the composition of the information-rich lipid profile is dynamic and changes over the lifetime of an individual. However, the molecular basis of this change is not well understood. To identify genes that control cuticular lipid production in Drosophila, we performed a RNA interference screen and used Direct Analysis in Real Time and gas chromatography mass spectrometry to quantify changes in the chemical profiles. Twelve putative genes were identified whereby transcriptional silencing led to significant differences in cuticular lipid production. Amongst them, we characterized a gene which we name spidey, and which encodes a putative steroid dehydrogenase that has sex- and age-dependent effects on viability, pheromone production, and oenocyte survival. Transcriptional silencing or overexpression of spidey during embryonic development results in pupal lethality and significant changes in levels of the ecdysone metabolite 20-hydroxyecdysonic acid and 20-hydroxyecdysone. In contrast, inhibiting gene expression only during adulthood resulted in a striking loss of oenocyte cells and a concomitant reduction of cuticular hydrocarbons, desiccation resistance, and lifespan. Oenocyte loss and cuticular lipid levels were partially rescued by 20-hydroxyecdysone supplementation. Taken together, these results identify a novel regulator of pheromone synthesis and reveal that ecdysteroid signaling is essential for the maintenance of cuticular lipids and oenocytes throughout adulthood. PMID:27333054

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone: a neuroactive steroid.

    PubMed

    Stárka, Luboslav; Dušková, Michaela; Hill, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate bound form (DHEAS) are important steroids of mainly adrenal origin. They are produced also in gonads and in the brain. Dehydroepiandrosterone easily crosses the brain-blood barrier and in part is also produced locally in the brain tissue. In the brain, DHEA exerts its effects after conversion to either testosterone and dihydrotestosterone or estradiol via androgen and estrogen receptors present in the most parts of the human brain, through mainly non-genomic mechanisms, or eventually indirectly via the effects of its metabolites formed locally in the brain. As a neuroactive hormone, DHEA in co-operation with other hormones and transmitters significantly affects some aspects of human mood, and modifies some features of human emotions and behavior. It has been reported that its administration can increase feelings of well-being and is useful in ameliorating atypical depressive disorders. It has neuroprotective and antiglucocorticoid activity and modifies immune reactions, and some authors have also reported its role in degenerative brain diseases. Here we present a short overview of the possible actions of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate in the brain, calling attention to various mechanisms of their action as neurosteroids and to prospects for the knowledge of their role in brain disorders. PMID:24704258

  5. Do analogues of gonadotrophin releasing hormone influence follicular fluid steroid levels, oocyte maturity and fertilization rates?

    PubMed

    Tavmergen, E; Tavmergen, E N; Capanoğlu, R

    1992-04-01

    One-hundred-and-twelve samples of follicular fluid from 32 patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer were analysed in this study. The follicular fluids were analysed for any relationships between oestradiol, progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone levels, the progesterone/oestradiol and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone/oestradiol ratios and oocyte maturity and fertilization rates. In Group A, consisting of women who used analogues of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone during ovarian stimulation with human menopausal gonadotrophin, the progesterone/oestradiol ratio rose in parallel with the fertilization rate (P less than 0.05). Group B comprised patients treated with human menopausal gonadotrophin alone. No significant relationship was found between the other parameters, oocyte maturation and fertilization rates in either group. PMID:1387881

  6. Stressor-responsive central nesfatin-1 activates corticotropin-releasing hormone, noradrenaline and serotonin neurons and evokes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Natsu; Maejima, Yuko; Sedbazar, Udval; Ando, Akihiko; Kurita, Hideharu; Damdindorj, Boldbaatar; Takano, Eisuke; Gantulga, Darambazar; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Kurashina, Tomoyuki; Onaka, Tatsushi; Dezaki, Katsuya; Nakata, Masanori; Mori, Masatomo; Yada, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered satiety molecule, nesfatin-1, is localized in neurons of the hypothalamus and brain stem and colocalized with stress-related substances, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), oxytocin, proopiomelanocortin, noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of nesfatin-1 produces fear-related behaviors and potentiates stressor-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels in rats. These findings suggest a link between nesfatin-1 and stress. In the present study, we aimed to further clarify the neuronal network by which nesfatin-1 could induce stress responses in rats. Restraint stress induced c-Fos expressions in nesfatin-1-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus, and in the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS), locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) in the brain stem, without altering plasma nesfatin-1 levels. Icv nesfatin-1 induced c-Fos expressions in the PVN, SON, NTS, LC, DR and median raphe nucleus, including PVN-CRH, NTS-NA, LC-NA and DR-5-HT neurons. Nesfatin-1 increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in the CRH-immunoreactive neurons isolated from PVN. Icv nesfatin-1 increased plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels. These results indicate that the central nesfatin-1 system is stimulated by stress and activates CRH, NA and 5-HT neurons and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, evoking both central and peripheral stress responses. PMID:20966530

  7. Moderate Heat Challenge Increased Yolk Steroid Hormones and Shaped Offspring Growth and Behavior in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Chanson, Marine; Delaveau, Joël; Mercerand, Frédéric; Möstl, Erich; Calandreau, Ludovic; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Collin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental challenges might affect the maternal organism and indirectly affect the later ontogeny of the progeny. We investigated the cross-generation impact of a moderate heat challenge in chickens. We hypothesized that a warm temperature–within the thermotolerance range- would affect the hormonal environment provided to embryos by mothers, and in turn, affect the morphology and behavioral phenotype of offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Laying hens were raised under a standard thermal condition at 21°C (controls) or 30°C (experimental) for 5 consecutive weeks. A significant increase was observed in the internal temperature of hens exposed to the warm treatment; however plasma corticosterone levels remained unaffected. The laying rate was not affected, but experimental hens laid lighter eggs than the controls during the treatment. As expected, the maternal thermal environment affected yolk hormone contents. Eggs laid by the experimental hens showed significantly higher concentrations of yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol. All chicks were raised under standard thermal conditions. The quality of hatchlings, growth, feeding behavior and emotional reactivity of chicks were analyzed. Offspring of experimental hens (C30 chicks) were lighter but obtained better morphological quality scores at hatching than the controls (C21 chicks). C30 chicks expressed lesser distress calls when exposed to a novel food. Unlike C21 chicks, C30 chicks expressed no preference for energetic food. Conclusion/Significance Our findings suggest that moderate heat challenge triggers maternal effects and modulate the developmental trajectory of offspring in a way that may be adaptive. This suggests that the impact of heat challenges on captive or wild populations might have a cross-generation effect. PMID:23451257

  8. Intracellular colocalization of HAP1/STBs with steroid hormone receptors and its enhancement by a proteasome inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Fujinaga, Ryutaro; Takeshita, Yukio; Yoshioka, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Shinoda, Shuhei; Islam, Md. Nabiul; Jahan, Mir Rubayet; Yanai, Akie; Kokubu, Keiji; Shinoda, Koh

    2011-07-15

    The stigmoid body (STB) is a cytoplasmic inclusion containing huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1), and HAP1/STB formation is induced by transfection of the HAP1 gene into cultured cells. In the present study, we examined the intracellular colocalization of HAP1/STBs with steroid hormone receptors (SHRs), including the androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptor, in COS-7 cells cotransfected with HAP1 and each receptor. We found that C-terminal ligand-binding domains of all SHRs had potential for colocalization with HAP1/STBs, whereas only AR and GR were clearly colocalized with HAP1/STBs when each full-length SHR was coexpressed with HAP1. In addition, it appeared that HAP1/STBs did not disrupt GR and AR functions because the receptors on HAP1/STBs maintained nuclear translocation activity in response to their specific ligands. When the cells were treated with a proteasome inhibitor, GR and AR localized outside HAP1/STBs translocated into the nucleus, whereas the receptors colocalized with HAP1/STBs persisted in their colocalization even after treatment with their ligands. Therefore, HAP1/STBs may be involved in cytoplasmic modifications of the nuclear translocation of GR and AR in a ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  9. The Interaction between a Sexually Transferred Steroid Hormone and a Female Protein Regulates Oogenesis in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2013-01-01

    Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO) protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male–female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria. PMID:24204210

  10. Pushing quantitation limits in micro UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of steroid hormones by sample dilution using high volume injection.

    PubMed

    Márta, Zoltán; Bobály, Balázs; Fekete, Jenő; Magda, Balázs; Imre, Tímea; Mészáros, Katalin Viola; Szabó, Pál Tamás

    2016-09-10

    Ultratrace analysis of sample components requires excellent analytical performance in terms of limits of quantitation (LoQ). Micro UHPLC coupling with sensitive tandem mass spectrometry provides state of the art solutions for such analytical problems. Decreased column volume in micro LC limits the injectable sample volume. However, if analyte concentration is extremely low, it might be necessary to inject high sample volumes. This is particularly critical for strong sample solvents and weakly retained analytes, which are often the case when preparing biological samples (protein precipitation, sample extraction, etc.). In that case, high injection volumes may cause band broadening, peak distortion or even elution in dead volume. In this study, we evaluated possibilities of high volume injection onto microbore RP-LC columns, when sample solvent is diluted. The presented micro RP-LC-MS/MS method was optimized for the analysis of steroid hormones from human plasma after protein precipitation with organic solvents. A proper sample dilution procedure helps to increase the injection volume without compromising peak shapes. Finally, due to increased injection volume, the limit of quantitation can be decreased by a factor of 2-5, depending on the analytes and the experimental conditions. PMID:27423010

  11. Steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone regulation of the very-high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) receptor phosphorylation for VHDL uptake.

    PubMed

    Dong, Du-Juan; Liu, Wen; Cai, Mei-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2013-04-01

    During the metamorphic stage of holometabolous insects, the biosynthetic precursors needed for the synthesis of a large number of adult proteins are acquired from the selective absorption of storage proteins. The very-high-density lipoprotein (VHDL), a non-hexameric storage protein, is consumed by the fat body from the hemolymph through VHDL receptor (VHDL-R)-mediated endocytosis. However, the mechanism of the uptake of VHDL by a VHDL-R remains unclear. In this study, a VHDL-R from Helicoverpa armigera was found to be involved in 20E-regulated VHDL uptake through the regulation of steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). The transcripts of VHDL-R were detected mainly in the fat body and integument during the wandering stage. The transcription of VHDL-R was upregulated by 20E through the ecdysteroid receptor (EcRB1) and Ultraspiracle (USP1). In addition, 20E stimulates the phosphorylation of VHDL-R through protein kinase C for ligand binding. VHDL-R knockdown in larvae results the inhibition of development to adulthood. These data imply that 20E regulates VHDL-R on both transcriptional and posttranslational levels for VHDL absorption. PMID:23416133

  12. Oleic acid induces specific alterations in the morphology, gene expression and steroid hormone production of cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Viergutz, Torsten; Vanselow, Jens

    2016-06-01

    After parturition, one of the major problems related to nutritional management that is faced by the majority of dairy cows is negative energy balance (NEB). During NEB, excessive lipid mobilization takes place and hence the levels of free fatty acids, among them oleic acid, increase in the blood, but also in the follicular fluid. This accumulation can be associated with serious metabolic and reproductive disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of physiological concentrations of oleic acid on cell morphology, apoptosis, necrosis, proliferation and steroid production, and on the abundance of selected transcripts in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Increasing oleic acid concentrations induced intracellular lipid droplet accumulation, thus resulting in a foam cell-like morphology, but had no effects on apoptosis, necrosis or proliferation. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the transcript abundance of the gonadotropin hormone receptors, FSHR and LHCGR, steroidogenic genes STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B1 and CYP19A1, the cell cycle regulator CCND2, but not of the proliferation marker PCNA. In addition, treatment increased the transcript levels of the fatty acid transporters CD36 and SLC27A1, and decreased the production of 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone. From these data it can be concluded that oleic acid specifically affects morphological and physiological features and gene expression levels thus altering the functionality of granulosa cells. Suggestively, these effects might be partly due to the reduced expression of FSHR and thus the reduced responsiveness to FSH stimulation. PMID:27118706

  13. Control of gonadotrophin secretion by steroid hormones in castrated male transsexuals. I. Effects of oestradiol infusion on plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

    PubMed

    Goh, H H; Chew, P C; Karim, S M; Ratnam, S S

    1980-02-01

    Twenty-four infusions of oestradiol (E2) in graded doses ranging from 0--200 micrograms administered over a period of 7 hours were carried out in eleven healthy male transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment at least 3 months previously. Plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and E2 were analysed by radioimmunoassay, while sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was measured using 3H-testosterone as the saturating ligand. Infusion of 5--200 micrograms of E2 raised plasma E2 to levels ranging from 38.4--367.8 pg/ml which present 83%--800% of levels found in a control group of sixty-three normal males. SHBG capacity remained unchanged at all doses of E2 studied. No change in plasma levels of FSH and LH was observed in control infusions and infusion of 5 micrograms of E2. From 10 micrograms-200 micrograms, suppression of plasma levels of FSH was noted at the 5--7 hour period. The suppression increased up to 20 micrograms and thereafter the levels of FSH remained constant. On the other hand, the suppression of LH increased up to the highest E2 dose (200 micrograms) studied. Further, significant suppression of LH occurred earlier than the 5--7 hours as the dose of E2 increased. These observations are consistent with the conclusions that: (1) E2 plays a part in the regulation of secretion of FSH and LH in men; and (2) at doses higher than physiological, E2 exerts a differential effect on the secretion of FSH and LH. PMID:6772356

  14. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  15. Steroidal hormones and other endocrine active compounds in shallow groundwater in nonagricultural areas of Minnesota—Study design, methods, and data, 2009–10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Melinda L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, completed a study on the occurrence of steroidal hormones and other endocrine active compounds in shallow groundwater in nonagricultural areas of Minnesota during 2009–10. This report describes the study design and methods, and presents the data collected on steroidal hormones and other related compounds. Environmental and quality-control samples were collected from 40 wells as part of this study. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for 16 steroidal hormones and 4 other related compounds, of which all but 2 compounds are endocrine active compounds. Most of the water samples did not contain detectable concentrations of any of the 20 compounds analyzed. Water samples from three wells had detectable concentrations of one or more compounds. Bisphenol A was detected in samples from three wells, and trans-diethylstilbestrol was detected in one of the samples in which bisphenol A also was detected.

  16. Inflammation and sex hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin; Naumann, Heidrun; Weidler, Claudia; Schellenberg, Martina; Anders, Sven; Straub, Rainer H

    2006-06-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases is higher in females than in males. In both sexes, adrenal hormones, that is, glucocorticoids, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androgens, are inadequately low in patients when compared to healthy controls. Hormonally active androgens are anti-inflammatory, whereas estrogens are pro-inflammatory. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the alterations of steroid profiles in inflammation are of major interest. The local metabolism of androgens and estrogens may determine whether a given steroid profile found in a subject's blood results in suppression or promotion of inflammation. The steroid metabolism in mixed synovial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, and monocytes was assessed. Major focus was on cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), while cells from patients with osteoarthritis served as controls. Enzymes directly or indirectly involved in local sex steroid metabolism in RA are: DHEA-sulfatase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase (CYP19), which are required for the synthesis of sex steroids from precursors, 5alpha-reductase and 16alpha-hydroxylase, which can be involved either in the generation of more active steroids or in the pathways leading to depletion of active hormones, and 3alpha-reductase and 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7B), which unidirectionally are involved in the depletion of active hormones. Androgens inhibit aromatization in synovial cells when their concentration is sufficiently high. As large amounts of estrogens are formed in synovial tissue, there may be a relative lack of androgens. Production of 5alpha-reduced androgens should increase the local anti-inflammatory activity; however, it also opens a pathway for the inactivation of androgens. The data discussed here suggest that therapy of RA patients may benefit from the use of nonaromatizable androgens and/or the use of aromatase inhibitors. PMID:16855150

  17. Placental claudin expression and its regulation by endogenous sex steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Changhwan; Yang, Hyun; Lee, Dongoh; An, Beum-soo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2015-08-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) form continuous intercellular contacts controlling the paracellular transportation across the cell-to-cell junction. TJ components include the peripheral protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), and integral proteins such as occludin and claudins. Among the junction proteins, claudins play a major role in regulation of paracellular electrolyte transportation. This study explores the expression and distribution of tight junctions and their regulation during pregnancy. To study the regulation of claudin family, we examined expression of mouse placental tight junction proteins, including claudin-1 to -24, with real-time PCR and Western blotting and distribution of tight junction proteins with immunohistochemistry. Pregnant C57/BL6 mice were used in this study. The pregnant mice were divided into three groups depending on pregnant day (on days 12, 16, and 20 of gestation). Regarding the transcription levels, claudin-1, claudin-2, claudin-4, and claudin-5 expression levels were relatively high compared to other claudin family in all periods of pregnancy. Claudin-4 and 5 expressions, which reduce ion permeability, were increased over a period of time. However, claudin-2 expression, that is the responsive protein for a decrease in paracellular conductance, was decreased. Following this modulation of expression during mid-term pregnancy, we identified endogenous hormonal modulation of claudin family using estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 and progesterone receptor antagonist RU-486. After administration of ICI and RU-486, expression of claudin-4 mRNA and protein was increased. In addition, immunohistochemistry was performed to identify their localization for inferring permeability in placenta. Due to the function of claudins as effectors of ion transport at the end of regulatory pathways, they must be transducing proteins that modulate the function of claudins and thus link the physiologic inputs to the final

  18. Reproductive steroid hormones and ovarian activity in felids of the Leopardus genus.

    PubMed

    Moreira, N.; Monteiro-Filho, E.L.A.; Moraes, W.; Swanson, W.F.; Graham, L.H.; Pasquali, O.L.; Gomes, M.L.F.; Morais, R.N.; Wildt, D.E.; Brown, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Reproductive endocrine patterns were characterized in female ocelots (Leopardus pardalis; n = 3), tigrinas (Leopardus tigrinus; n = 2), and margays (Leopardus wiedii; n = 2) housed in captivity in southern Brazil. Females were maintained as singletons and exposed to natural fluctuations in photoperiod. Cyclic changes in ovarian steroids were monitored by analyzing estrogen and progestogen metabolites in fecal samples collected five times weekly for 14 to 18 months. Based on intervals between fecal estrogen peaks, mean (+/- SEM) duration of the estrous cycle was 18.4 +/- 1.6 days for the ocelots (range, 7-31 days; n = 75 cycles), 16.7 +/- 1.3 days for the tigrinas (range, 11-27 days; n = 23 cycles), and 17.6 +/- 1.5 days for the margays (range, 11-25 days; n = 32 cycles). Fecal progestogen analyses combined with two laparoscopic observations of the ovaries confirmed that ocelots and tigrinas did not ovulate spontaneously. In contrast, non-mating-induced luteal phases of 40.1 +/- 6.3 days in duration (range, 30-60 days) were observed frequently in both margays. There was no evidence of gonadal seasonality in margays in either follicular or luteal activity. In ocelots, cyclic changes in estrogen excretion were observed during each month of the year; however, only one female cycled continuously. In the other two ocelots, periods of acyclicity of several months' duration were observed. It was not possible to conclude whether tigrinas were aseasonal because estrous cyclicity was observed in only one of two individuals. In the female that cycled, a 3-month period of acyclicity was observed in the late fall/early winter. These data demonstrate similarities among three felid species of the genus Leopardus, including evidence they are polyestrous but experience unexplained periods of ovarian inactivity. Only the margays differed by exhibiting occasional spontaneous, non-mating-induced ovulations. Historically, these species have not bred well in captivity. However, it is

  19. The Ernst Schering Poster Award. Intracellular traffic of steroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Guiochon-Mantel, A; Delabre, K; Lescop, P; Milgrom, E

    1996-01-01

    The signal responsible for the nuclear localization of the progesterone receptor has been characterized. It is a complex signal. The study of the mechanism of this nuclear localization has revealed that the receptor continuously shuttles between nucleus and the cytoplasm. The receptor diffuses into the cytoplasm and is constantly and actively transported back into the nucleus. The same phenomenon exists for estradiol and glucocorticoid receptors. The mechanism of entry of proteins into the nucleus is well documented, whereas the mechanism of their outward movement to the cytoplasm is not understood. We have grafted different nuclear localization signals (NLSs) onto beta-galactosidase and have studied the traffic of this protein using heterokaryons and microinjection experiments. We have demonstrated that the same NLSs are involved in both the inward and the outward movement of proteins through the nuclear membrane. These results suggest that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling may be a general phenomenon for nuclear proteins that could possibly undergo modifications in the cytoplasm and exert some biological activities there. These conclusions also imply that at least part of the cellular machinery involved in the nuclear import of proteins may function bidirectionally. Using these techniques, we have shown that the two major antiprogestins, RU486 and ZK98299, act at the same distal level of hormone action. PMID:8603044

  20. Instant effect of therapeutic abortion on serum steroid hormones during first trimester.

    PubMed

    Kisnisci, H A; Ayhan, A; Yucebilgin, S; Beksac, M S; Sefercioglu, A; Tasarkan, K

    1980-01-01

    Study focus was on the instant effect of therapeutic abortion under general anesthesia on serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone during the 1st trimester. Patients were 20 healthy women. Gestational age was determined clinically by the obstetrician on the basis of the menstrual history and estimation of the size of the uterus. The procedure was cervical dilatation by Hegar's dilators and curettage under general anesthesia. Venous blood samples were taken from each patient before dilatation and curettage and 3 hours after the termination of the procedure. In all samples serum estradiol, testosterone and progesterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. There was no significant correlation between the preoperative and postoperative serum estradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels. On the basis of the study findings it was concluded that there was no sudden effect of general anesthesia and therapeutic abortion on the serum estradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels. A 3-hour interval may be insufficient for the change of steriod hormones in serum samples. PMID:12262089

  1. PGE2 suppresses NK activity in vivo directly and through adrenal hormones: Effects that cannot be reflected by ex-vivo assessment of NK cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Meron, G.; Tishler, Y.; Shaashua, L.; Rosenne, E.; Levi, B.; Melamed, R.; Gotlieb, N.; Matzner, P.; Sorski, L.; Ben-Eliyahu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Surgery can suppress in vivo levels of NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) through various mechanisms, including catecholamine-, glucocorticoid (CORT)-, and prostaglandin (PG)-mediated responses. However, PGs are synthesized locally following tissue damage, driving proinflammatory and CORT responses, while their systemic levels are often unaffected. Thus, we herein studied the role of adrenal factors in mediating in vivo effects of PGs on NKCC, using adrenalectomized and sham-operated F344 rats subjected to surgery or PGE2 administration. In vivo and ex-vivo approaches were employed, based on intravenous administration of the NK-sensitive MADB106 tumor line, and based on ex-vivo assessment of YAC-1 and MADB106 target-line lysis. Additionally, in vitro studies assessed the kinetics of the impact of epinephrine, CORT, and PGE2 on NKCC. The results indicated that suppression of NKCC by epinephrine and PGE2 are short lasting, and cannot be evident when these compounds are removed from the in vitro assay milieu, or in the context of ex-vivo assessment of NKCC. In contrast, the effects of CORT are long-lasting and are reflected in both conditions even after its removal. Marginating-pulmonary NKCC was less susceptible to suppression than circulating NKCC, when tested against the xenogeneic YAC-1 target line, but not against the syngeneic MADB106 line, which seems to involve different cytotoxicity mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that elevated systemic PG levels can directly suppress NKCC in vivo, but following laparotomy adrenal hormones mediate most of the effects of endogenously-released PGs. Additionally, the ex-vivo approach seems limited in reflecting the short-lasting NK-suppressive effects of catecholamines and PGs. PMID:23153554

  2. PGE2 suppresses NK activity in vivo directly and through adrenal hormones: effects that cannot be reflected by ex vivo assessment of NK cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Meron, G; Tishler, Y; Shaashua, L; Rosenne, E; Levi, B; Melamed, R; Gotlieb, N; Matzner, P; Sorski, L; Ben-Eliyahu, S

    2013-02-01

    Surgery can suppress in vivo levels of NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) through various mechanisms, including catecholamine-, glucocorticoid (CORT)-, and prostaglandin (PG)-mediated responses. However, PGs are synthesized locally following tissue damage, driving proinflammatory and CORT responses, while their systemic levels are often unaffected. Thus, we herein studied the role of adrenal factors in mediating in vivo effects of PGs on NKCC, using adrenalectomized and sham-operated F344 rats subjected to surgery or PGE(2) administration. In vivo and ex vivo approaches were employed, based on intravenous administration of the NK-sensitive MADB106 tumor line, and based on ex vivo assessment of YAC-1 and MADB106 target-line lysis. Additionally, in vitro studies assessed the kinetics of the impact of epinephrine, CORT, and PGE(2) on NKCC. The results indicated that suppression of NKCC by epinephrine and PGE(2) are short lasting, and cannot be evident when these compounds are removed from the in vitro assay milieu, or in the context of ex vivo assessment of NKCC. In contrast, the effects of CORT are long-lasting and are reflected in both conditions even after its removal. Marginating-pulmonary NKCC was less susceptible to suppression than circulating NKCC, when tested against the xenogeneic YAC-1 target line, but not against the syngeneic MADB106 line, which seems to involve different cytotoxicity mechanisms. Overall, these findings indicate that elevated systemic PG levels can directly suppress NKCC in vivo, but following laparotomy adrenal hormones mediate most of the effects of endogenously-released PGs. Additionally, the ex vivo approach seems limited in reflecting the short-lasting NK-suppressive effects of catecholamines and PGs. PMID:23153554

  3. Effects of steroid hormones on differentiated glandular epithelial and stromal cells in a three dimensional cell culture model of the canine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oestrogens and progesterone have a significant impact on the endometrium during the canine oestrous cycle. Their receptors mediate plasma steroid hormone levels and are expressed in several endometrial cell types. Altered steroid receptor expression patterns are involved in serious uterine diseases; however the mechanisms of hormone action during pathogenesis in these tissues remain unclear. The development of 3D culture systems of canine endometrial cells provides an opportunity for the effects of steroid hormones to be quantitatively assessed in a more in vivo-like setting. The present study aimed to determine the effects of the steroid hormones 17β-estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) on the expression of the oestrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR), and on proliferative activity, in a 3D co-culture system of canine uterine origin, comprising differentiated endometrial glands, and stromal cells (SCs). Results Morphology, differentiation, and apical-basolateral polarity of cultured glandular epithelial cells (GECs) were comparable to those in native uterine tissue as assessed by immunohistochemistry using differentiation markers (β-catenin, laminin), lectin histochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Supplementation of our 3D-culture system with E (at 15, 30 and 100 pg/mL) resulted in constant levels of ER expression in GECs, but reduced expression levels in SCs. PR expression was reduced in both GECs and SCs following treatment with E. 3 ng/mL P resulted in increased ER expression in GECs, but a decrease in SCs. PR expression in GECs increased in all P-treated groups, whereas PRs in SCs decreased with the lowest and highest doses, but increased with the middle dose of treatment. Proliferative activity, assessed by Ki67 staining, remained below 1% in all assays and cell types. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the applicability of our 3D organotypic canine endometrium-derived culture system for cellular-level studies. 3D

  4. Changes in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in the growing and regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus during development.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Germán-Castelán, Liliana; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2013-08-01

    Sex steroids participate in the regulation of reproduction in female chickens. In this work, we determined the content of androgen receptor (AR), intracellular progesterone receptor isoforms (PR-A and PR-B), membrane progesterone receptor γ (mPRγ) and estrogen receptor α (ER-α) in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to 1-month-old chickens by western blot analysis. A marked difference in the morphological characteristics of the left and the right ovaries during development was observed. Results show a higher content of AR in the left ovary than in the right one in all ages. In the left ovary, the highest content of AR was observed on day 13 of embryonic development, and diminished with age. In the right ovary, AR was expressed from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old, and became undetectable at 1-week and 1-month-old. In the left ovary, PR isoforms were not detected on day 13 of embryonic development, but they presented a marked expression after hatching. In the right ovary, the highest expression of both PR isoforms was found on 1-day-old, and significantly decreased with age. PR-B was the predominant isoform on 1-day and 1-month old in the left ovary, whereas PR-A was the predominant one on day 13 of embryonic development in the right ovary. Interestingly, mPRγ was detected at 1-week and 1-month-old in the left ovary meanwhile in the right ovary, it was detected from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old. ER-α was only detected in the left ovary from day 13 to 1-week-old, while in 1-month-old chickens, it was expressed in both ovaries. In the left ovary, ER-α content was lower from 1-day to 1-month-old as compared with day 13 of embryonic development. Our results demonstrate a differential expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between the left growing and the right regressing ovary, and throughout chickens' age; and this is the first report about mPR expression in birds

  5. The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones in the Immunopathology of Experimental Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bini, Estela Isabel; Mata Espinosa, Dulce; Marquina Castillo, Brenda; Barrios Payán, Jorge; Colucci, Darío; Cruz, Alejandro Francisco; Zatarain, Zyanya Lucía; Alfonseca, Edgar; Pardo, Marta Romano; Bottasso, Oscar; Pando, Rogelio Hernández

    2014-01-01

    The relation between men and women suffering pulmonary tuberculosis is 7/3 in favor to males. Sex hormones could be a significant factor for this difference, considering that testosterone impairs macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, while estrogens are proinflammatory mediator’s inducer. The aim of this work was to compare the evolution of tuberculosis in male and female mice using a model of progressive disease. BALB/c mice, male and female were randomized into two groups: castrated or sham-operated, and infected by the intratracheal route with a high dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Mice were euthanized at different time points and in their lungs were determined bacilli loads, inflammation, cytokines expression, survival and testosterone levels in serum. Non-castrated male mice showed significant higher mortality and bacilli burdens during late disease than female and castrated male animals. Compared to males, females and castrated males exhibited significant higher inflammation in all lung compartments, earlier formation of granulomas and pneumonia, while between castrated and non-castrated females there were not significant differences. Females and castrated males expressed significant higher TNF-α, IFN γ, IL12, iNOS and IL17 than non-castrated males during the first month of infection. Serum Testosterone of males showed higher concentration during late infection. Orchidectomy at day 60 post-infection produced a significant decrease of bacilli burdens in coexistence with higher expression of TNFα, IL-12 and IFNγ. Thus, male mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than females and this was prevented by castration suggesting that testosterone could be a tuberculosis susceptibility factor. PMID:24722144

  6. Cadmium exerts toxic effects on ovarian steroid hormone release in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenchang; Pang, Fen; Huang, Yaqing; Yan, Ping; Lin, Wei

    2008-11-10

    This study examined the toxic effects of cadmium on the function of sexual hormone release in the ovaries of rats and the mechanism of this dysregulation. In vivo, adult female rats were randomly assigned to four groups based on weight. Cadmium was given ip 5 days/week for 6 weeks at doses of 1.0, 0.5, 0.25 and 0mg/kg. Following euthanasia, the ovaries were removed and placed into culture medium for 3h. The levels of progesterone (P) and estadiol (E) in the culture medium were then measured by radioimmunoassay. In vitro studies were done using the ovaries of adult rats in different stages of estrous (proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus). Individual ovaries were collected, placed into culture medium and exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, or 2mM of CdCl(2) for 3h, at which time the levels of P and E in the ovary culture serum were determined by radioimmunoassay. The in vivo results showed that the levels of P and E in the ovary culture serum (5.3+/-1.4 ng/ml and 1.4+/-0.4 pg/ml, respectively) decreased significantly in the high dose group compared to the control (9.2+/-0.9 ng/ml and 3.9+/-0.7 pg/ml, respectively). In vitro, there were significant differences in P and E in between the different concentrations of cadmium and also between the different stages of the estrous cycle. These data suggest that cadmium can inhibit P and E release in ovaries. This may represent an important mechanism of endocrine disruption. PMID:18708132

  7. The current preference for the immuno-analytical ELISA method for quantitation of steroid hormones (endocrine disruptor compounds) in wastewater in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manickum, Thavrin; John, Wilson

    2015-07-01

    The availability of national test centers to offer a routine service for analysis and quantitation of some selected steroid hormones [natural estrogens (17-β-estradiol, E2; estrone, E1; estriol, E3), synthetic estrogen (17-α-ethinylestradiol, EE2), androgen (testosterone), and progestogen (progesterone)] in wastewater matrix was investigated; corresponding internationally used chemical- and immuno-analytical test methods were reviewed. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (immuno-analytical technique) was also assessed for its suitability as a routine test method to quantitate the levels of these hormones at a sewage/wastewater treatment plant (WTP) (Darvill, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa), over a 2-year period. The method performance and other relevant characteristics of the immuno-analytical ELISA method were compared to the conventional chemical-analytical methodology, like gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/LC-MS), and GC-LC/tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS), for quantitation of the steroid hormones in wastewater and environmental waters. The national immuno-analytical ELISA technique was found to be sensitive (LOQ 5 ng/L, LOD 0.2-5 ng/L), accurate (mean recovery 96%), precise (RSD 7-10%), and cost-effective for screening and quantitation of these steroid hormones in wastewater and environmental water matrix. A survey of the most current international literature indicates a fairly equal use of the LC-MS/MS, GC-MS/MS (chemical-analytical), and ELISA (immuno-analytical) test methods for screening and quantitation of the target steroid hormones in both water and wastewater matrix. Internationally, the observed sensitivity, based on LOQ (ng/L), for the steroid estrogens E1, E2, EE2, is, in decreasing order: LC-MSMS (0.08-9.54) > GC-MS (1) > ELISA (5) (chemical-analytical > immuno-analytical). At the national level, the routine, unoptimized chemical-analytical LC-MSMS method was found to lack the required sensitivity for meeting environmental

  8. Steroid hydroxylations: A paradigm for cytochrome P450 catalyzed mammalian monooxygenation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Estabrook, Ronald W. . E-mail: Ronald.estabrook@utsouthwestern.edu

    2005-12-09

    The present article reviews the history of research on the hydroxylation of steroid hormones as catalyzed by enzymes present in mammalian tissues. The report describes how studies of steroid hormone synthesis have played a central role in the discovery of the monooxygenase functions of the cytochrome P450s. Studies of steroid hydroxylation reactions can be credited with showing that: (a) the adrenal mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing the 11{beta}-hydroxylation of deoxycorticosterone was the first mammalian enzyme shown by O{sup 18} studies to be an oxygenase; (b) the adrenal microsomal enzyme catalyzing the 21-hydroxylation of steroids was the first mammalian enzyme to show experimentally the proposed 1:1:1 stoichiometry (substrate:oxygen:reduced pyridine nucleotide) of a monooxygenase reaction; (c) application of the photochemical action spectrum technique for reversal of carbon monoxide inhibition of the 21-hydroxylation of 17{alpha}-OH progesterone was the first demonstration that cytochrome P450 was an oxygenase; (d) spectrophotometric studies of the binding of 17{alpha}-OH progesterone to bovine adrenal microsomal P450 revealed the first step in the cyclic reaction scheme of P450, as it catalyzes the 'activation' of oxygen in a monooxygenase reaction; (e) purified adrenodoxin was shown to function as an electron transport component of the adrenal mitochondrial monooxygenase system required for the activity of the 11{beta}-hydroxylase reaction. Adrenodoxin was the first iron-sulfur protein isolated and purified from mammalian tissues and the first soluble protein identified as a reductase of a P450; (f) fractionation of adrenal mitochondrial P450 and incubation with adrenodoxin and a cytosolic (flavoprotein) fraction were the first demonstration of the reconstitution of a mammalian P450 monooxygenase reaction.

  9. Intrafollicular steroids and anti-mullerian hormone during normal and cystic ovarian follicular development in the cow.

    PubMed

    Monniaux, Danielle; Clemente, Nathalie di; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Belville, Corinne; Rico, Charlène; Bontoux, Martine; Picard, Jean-Yves; Fabre, Stéphane

    2008-08-01

    Development of follicular cysts is a frequent ovarian dysfunction in cattle. Functional changes that precede cyst formation are unknown, but a role for anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the development of follicular cysts has been suggested in humans. This study aimed to characterize intrafollicular steroids and AMH during follicular growth in a strain of beef cows exhibiting a high incidence of occurrence of follicular cysts. Normal follicular growth and cyst development were assessed by ovarian ultrasonography scanning during the 8 days before slaughtering. Experimental regression of cysts was followed by rapid growth of follicles that reached the size of cysts within 3-5 days. These young cysts exhibited higher intrafollicular concentrations of testosterone, estradiol-17beta, and progesterone than large early dominant follicles did in normal ovaries, but they exhibited similar concentrations of AMH. Later-stage cysts were characterized by hypertrophy of theca interna cells, high intrafollicular progesterone concentration, and high steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA expression in granulosa cells. Progesterone and AMH concentrations in the largest follicles (> or =10 mm) and cysts were negatively correlated (r = -0.45, P < 0.01). Smaller follicles (<10 mm) exhibited higher intrafollicular testosterone and estradiol-17beta concentrations in ovaries with cysts compared to normal ovaries. During follicular growth, AMH concentration dropped in follicles larger than 5 mm in diameter and in a similar way in ovaries with and without cysts. In conclusion, enhanced growth and steroidogenesis in antral follicles <10 mm preceded cyst formation in cow ovaries. Intrafollicular AMH was not a marker of cystic development in the cow, but low AMH concentrations in cysts were associated with luteinization. PMID:18448844

  10. The effect of steroid hormones on the mRNA expression of oct4 and sox2 in uterine tissue of the ovariectomized mice model of menopause

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Marzieh; Zavareh, Saeed; Ghorbanian, Mohammad Taghi; Paylakhi, Seyed Hassan; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The uterus is a dynamic tissue responding to hormonal changes during reproductive cycles. As such, uterine stem cells have been studied in recent years. Transcription factors oct4 and sox2 are critical for effective maintenance of pluripotent cell identity. Objective: The present research evaluated the mRNA expression of oct4 and sox2 in the uterine tissues of ovariectomized mice treated with steroid hormones. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, adult virgin female mice were ovariectomized and treated with estradiol 17β (E2), progesterone (P4), and a combination of E2 and P4 (E2 & P4) for 5 days. Uterine tissues were removed, and immunofluorescent (IF) staining and quantitative real-time PCR of oct4 and sox2 markers were performed. Results: IF showed oct4 and sox2 expression in the uterine endometrium and myometrium among all groups. The mRNA expression of oct4 (p=0.022) and sox2 (p=0.042) in the E2-treated group significantly were decreased compared to that in the control group. By contrast, the mRNA expression of oct4 and sox2 in the P4 (p=0.641 and 0.489 respectively) and E2 & P4-treated groups (p=0.267 and 0.264 respectively) did not show significant differences compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results indicate ovarian steroid hormones change the expression of oct4 and sox2 in the mice uterine tissues, which suggest the involvement of steroid hormonal regulation in uterine stem cells. PMID:27525332

  11. Life cycle exposure of the frog Silurana tropicalis to arsenate: Steroid- and thyroid hormone-related genes are differently altered throughout development.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Laura A; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J; Cullen, William R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2016-08-01

    Arsenic contaminates water surface and groundwater worldwide. Several studies have suggested that arsenic acts as an endocrine disruptor in mammalian and non-mammalian species, although its chronic effect during development remains largely unknown. To address this question, life cycle exposures to 0, 0.3 and 0.8ppm of arsenate (pentavalent arsenic; As(V)) were performed in the Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis) from the gastrulae stage (developmental stage Nieuwkoop-Faber; NF12) until metamorphosis (NF66). Tissue samples were collected at the beginning of feeding (NF46; whole body), sexual development (NF56; liver), and at metamorphosis completion (NF66; liver and gonadal mesonephros complex). Real-time RT-PCR analysis quantified decreases in mRNA levels of genes related to estrogen- (estrogen receptor alpha and aromatase), androgen- (androgen receptor and steroid 5-alpha-reductase type 2), and cholesterol metabolism- (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) at stage NF46. Similarly, arsenate decreased steroid 5-alpha-reductase type 2 expression in stage NF56 livers, but transcript increases were observed for both estrogen receptor alpha and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein at this stage. Given the changes observed in the expression of genes essential for proper sexual development, gonadal histological analysis was carried out in stage NF66 animals. Arsenate treatments did not alter sex ratio or produce testicular oocytes. On the other hand, arsenate interfered with thyroid hormone-related transcripts at NF66. Specifically, thyroid hormone receptor beta and deiodinase type 2 mRNA levels were significantly reduced after arsenate treatment in the gonadal mesonephros complex. This reduction in thyroid hormone-related gene expression, however, was not accompanied by any morphological changes measured. In summary, environmentally relevant concentrations of As(V) altered steroidogenesis-, sex steroid signaling- and thyroid hormone-related gene expression

  12. Development of a multi-class steroid hormone screening method using Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Boggs, Ashley S P; Bowden, John A; Galligan, Thomas M; Guillette, Louis J; Kucklick, John R

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring complex endocrine pathways is often limited by indirect measurement or measurement of a single hormone class per analysis. There is a burgeoning need to develop specific direct-detection methods capable of providing simultaneous measurement of biologically relevant concentrations of multiple classes of hormones (estrogens, androgens, progestogens, and corticosteroids). The objectives of this study were to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for multi-class steroid hormone detection using biologically relevant concentrations, then test limits of detection (LOD) in a high-background matrix by spiking charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum (FBS) extract. Accuracy was tested with National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) with certified concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, and progesterone. 11-Deoxycorticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, adrenosterone, androstenedione, cortisol, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, estriol, estrone, equilin, pregnenolone, progesterone, and testosterone were also measured using isotopic dilution. Dansyl chloride (DC) derivatization was investigated maintaining the same method to improve and expedite estrogen analysis. Biologically relevant LODs were determined for 15 hormones. DC derivatization improved estrogen response two- to eight-fold, and improved chromatographic separation. All measurements had an accuracy ≤14 % difference from certified values (not accounting for uncertainty) and relative standard deviation ≤14 %. This method chromatographically separated and quantified biologically relevant concentrations of four hormone classes using highly specific fragmentation patterns and measured certified values of hormones that were previously split into three separate chromatographic methods. PMID:27039201

  13. Prenatal hormones and childhood sex segregation: playmate and play style preferences in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pasterski, Vickie; Geffner, Mitchell E; Brain, Caroline; Hindmarsh, Peter; Brook, Charles; Hines, Melissa

    2011-04-01

    We investigated playmate and play style preference in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (26 females, 31 males) and their unaffected siblings (26 females, 17 males) using the Playmate and Play Style Preferences Structured Interview (PPPSI). Both unaffected boys and girls preferred same-sex playmates and sex-typical play styles. In the conflict condition where children chose between a same-sex playmate engaged in an other-sex activity or an other-sex playmate engaged in a same-sex activity, boys (both CAH and unaffected brothers) almost exclusively chose playmates based on the preferred play style of the playmate as opposed to the preferred gender label of the playmate. By contrast, unaffected girls used play style and gender label about equally when choosing playmates. Girls with CAH showed a pattern similar to that of boys: their playmate selections were more masculine than unaffected girls, they preferred a boy-typical play style and, in the conflict condition, chose playmates engaged in a masculine activity. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure contributes to sex differences in playmate selection observed in typically developing children and that, among boys and girls exposed to high levels of androgens prenatally, play style preferences drive sex segregation in play. PMID:21338606

  14. Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.

    1988-07-01

    The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

  15. The effects of luteinizing hormone ablation/replacement versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the primate corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Cecily V.; Hennebold, Jon D.; Stouffer, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a genome-wide analysis of the effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the developed corpus luteum (CL) in primates during the menstrual cycle. On Days 9–11 of the luteal phase, female rhesus monkeys were left untreated (control) or received a GnRH antagonist Antide (A), A + LH, A + LH + the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor Trilostane (TRL) or A + LH + TRL + a progestin R5020. On Day 12 of the luteal phase, CL were removed and samples of RNA from individual CL were hybridized to Affymetrix™ rhesus macaque total genome microarrays. The greatest number of altered transcripts was associated with the ablation/replacement of LH, while steroid ablation/progestin replacement affected fewer transcripts. Replacement of LH during Antide treatment restored the expression of most transcripts to control levels. Validation of a subset of transcripts revealed that the expression patterns were similar between microarray and real-time PCR. Analyses of protein levels were subsequently determined for two transcripts. This is the first genome-wide analysis of LH and steroid regulation of gene transcription in the developed primate CL. Further analysis of novel transcripts identified in this data set can clarify the relative role for LH and steroids in CL maintenance and luteolysis. PMID:19168862

  16. A Novel Population of Inner Cortical Cells in the Adrenal Gland That Displays Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptor-β1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen-Che Jeff; Kraft, Cary; Moy, Nicole; Ng, Lily

    2015-01-01

    The development of the adrenal cortex involves the formation and then subsequent regression of immature or fetal inner cell layers as the mature steroidogenic outer layers expand. However, controls over this remodeling, especially in the immature inner layer, are incompletely understood. Here we identify an inner cortical cell population that expresses thyroid hormone receptor-β1 (TRβ1), one of two receptor isoforms encoded by the Thrb gene. Using mice with a Thrbb1 reporter allele that expresses lacZ instead of TRβ1, β-galactosidase was detected in the inner cortex from early stages. Expression peaked at juvenile ages in an inner zone that included cells expressing 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, a marker of the transient, so-called X-zone in mice. The β-galactosidase-positive zone displayed sexually dimorphic regression in males after approximately 4 weeks of age but persisted in females into adulthood in either nulliparous or parous states. T3 treatment promoted hypertrophy of inner cortical cells, induced some markers of mature cortical cells, and, in males, delayed the regression of the TRβ1-positive zone, suggesting that TRβ1 could partly divert the differentiation fate and counteract male-specific regression of inner zone cells. TRβ1-deficient mice were resistant to these actions of T3, supporting a functional role for TRβ1 in the inner cortex. PMID:25774556

  17. Effects of dietary fat and season on steroid hormonal profiles before parturition and on hormonal, cholesterol, triglycerides, follicular patterns, and postpartum reproduction in Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Lammoglia, M A; Willard, S T; Oldham, J R; Randel, R D

    1996-09-01

    Spring-calving Brahman cows (S) artificially inseminated to Brahman, Angus, or Tuli sires and fall-calving Brahman cows (F) naturally bred to Brahman were allotted randomly to receive 3.74% (LF; n = 9 S and 6 F), 5.20% (MF; n = 8 S and 6 F), or 6.55% dietary fat (HF; n = 8 S). Diets were formulated to contain differing fatty acid concentrations and to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Cows were bled and fed twice daily from 2 wk before expected calving date through d 21 after calving. Ultrasonography was performed on d 14 and 21 after calving. From d 21 to 90 after calving a sterile bull equipped with a chin-ball marker was placed with the cows to aid in estrus detection. In both seasons progesterone decreased (P < .01) and estradiol-17 beta increased (P < .01) as parturition approached. Cows receiving MF and HF had increased (P < .01) total numbers of follicles compared to LF cows, and cows receiving MF had larger (P < .01) follicles. During the spring, cows receiving HF and cows bred to Brahman or Tuli sires had longer (P < .01) gestation lengths. Progesterone concentrations before calving were affected (P < .01) by treatment x sire and estradiol-17 beta by a time x treatment interaction (P < .01). Cholesterol after calving was higher (P < .01) in HF cows than in LF or MF cows. In the fall, LF cows had heavier (P < .01) calves than cows receiving MF. Birth weight was also affected (P < .01) by treatment x sex of calf. Progesterone was affected (P < .01) by treatment x sex of calf. Estradiol-17 beta was affected (P < .01) by sex of calf and treatment x sex of calf. Across seasons, by d 90 after calving, 9 of 15 (60%) LF and 11 of 15 (73.3%) MF cows showed estrual behavior. Cows in the spring had increased (P < .01) numbers and larger follicles compared to the fall. In conclusion, dietary fat may influence steroid hormone concentrations before calving, calf birth weight and postpartum follicular populations; furthermore, follicular populations may also be

  18. Sexual maturation, serum steroid concentrations, and mRNA expression of IGF-1, luteinizing and progesterone hormone receptors and survivin gene in Japanese quail hens.

    PubMed

    Shit, N; Sastry, K V H; Singh, R P; Pandey, N K; Mohan, J

    2014-03-15

    In avian species, sexual maturation represents the evidence of start laying, which is a consequence of the development of ovarian follicles. These follicles are the functional reproductive unit whose maturation and viability critically depends on endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors beyond the signals from the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation of sexual maturity with tissue growth, mRNA expression of certain genes, and serum steroid concentrations in Japanese quail hens. To carry out the present study, a total of forty Japanese quail hens (5 weeks) were housed individually under uniform husbandry condition with ad libitum quail layer ration and water at 14-hour photo schedule. On sixth week onwards, four birds were sacrificed at each time on 1, 3, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28 days. Serum was extracted aseptically to analyze the gonadal steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and corticosterone to investigate the liaison with sexual maturation of the species. Expression analyses of four genes i.e., insulin-like growth factor-1, luteinizing hormone receptor, progesterone receptor, and survivin were carried out in the three largest ovarian yellow follicles. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight gain and oviduct weight was recorded during the phase of sexual maturation. Smaller follicles revealed higher insulin-like growth factor-1 and survivin gene expression, whereas the reverse result was manifested in both the luteinizing and progesterone hormone receptors. In biochemical study, the gonadal steroids (estrogen and progesterone) were recorded higher at the first half of the experiment when a gradual decrease in corticosterone concentration was confirmed from the very beginning of this study. This result substantiated that sexual maturation in Japanese quail may be completed by the time of 8 weeks after its birth in support of the analyzed information studied in the current investigation

  19. Steroids and endocrine disruptors--History, recent state of art and open questions.

    PubMed

    Hampl, Richard; Kubátová, Jana; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the levels and sites at which endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect steroid actions. In contrast to the special issue of Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published three years ago and devoted to EDs as such, this paper focuses on steroids. We tried to point to more recent findings and opened questions. EDs interfere with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism either as inhibitors of relevant enzymes, or at the level of their expression. Particular attention was paid to enzymes metabolizing steroid hormones to biologically active products in target cells, such as aromatase, 5α-reductase and 3β-, 11β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. An important target for EDs is also steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), responsible for steroid precursor trafficking to mitochondria. EDs influence receptor-mediated steroid actions at both genomic and non-genomic levels. The remarkable differences in response to various steroid-receptor ligands led to a more detailed investigation of events following steroid/disruptor binding to the receptors and to the mapping of the signaling cascades and nuclear factors involved. A virtual screening of a large array of EDs with steroid receptors, known as in silico methods (≡computer simulation), is another promising approach for studying quantitative structure activity relationships and docking. New data may be expected on the effect of EDs on steroid hormone binding to selective plasma transport proteins, namely transcortin and sex hormone-binding globulin. Little information is available so far on the effects of EDs on the major hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axes, of which the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is of particular importance. Kisspeptins act as stimulators for hormone-induced gonadotropin secretion and their expression is regulated by sex steroids via a feed-back mechanism. Kisspeptin is now believed to be one of the key factors triggering puberty in

  20. A chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous profiling of ten endogenous steroids, including progesterone, adrenal precursors, androgens and estrogens, using low serum volume.

    PubMed

    Caron, Patrick; Turcotte, Véronique; Guillemette, Chantal

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of a large set of sex steroids in clinical epidemiology and laboratory research with reliable methods providing low quantification limits and using a limited volume of blood sample represents a significant challenge. We report a new validated gas chromatography selected reaction monitoring - tandem mass spectrometry assay (GC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantification of ten endogenous steroids including progesterone (PROG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol (5-diol), androstenedione (4-dione), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (ADT), 5alpha-androstan-3beta-17beta-diol (3β-diol), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2). After addition of stable isotope internal standards, the approach involved the combination of liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and solid-phase extraction for injection into the GC system and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method presents high reproducibility for all analytical parameters in 250 μl serum samples. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were of 100 pg/ml for DHEA, 50 pg/ml for PROG, 5-diol, 4-dione and ADT, 30 pg/ml for T, 10 pg/ml for 3β-diol and DHT, 5 pg/ml for E1, and 1 pg/ml for E2. The applicability of the validated method to determine the concentrations of these 10 steroids was successfully tested on serum from men (n=15), premenopausal (n=10) and postmenopausal women (n=20), and is currently used for larger cancer-related epidemiology studies. One of the most considerable advantages over existing methods is the simultaneous determination of ten steroids in a limited volume of serum that will help conserve important clinical samples from existing biobanks. PMID:26254607

  1. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Overview What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia? Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or CAH, is a disorder that affects the adrenal glands. The adrenal ...

  2. Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, S M

    2012-05-01

    Nine groups each of four fish were injected with a single intramuscular dose of the following preparations: Physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) as a control group, 0.5 ml kg(-1) Ovaprim, 20 and 40 μg kg(-1) BW of GnRHa, 8 and 16 mL kg(-1) pimozide tablets and the following combination of GnRHa with pimozide (GP): 20 μg + 4 mg, 30 μg + 8 mg and 40 μg + 16 mg kg(-1) BW. The primary oocyte diameter (POD) before hormone administration ranged from 943.3 to 1071.0 μm. The latency periods (LP) were in the range of 9.0 to 12.0 h after injection. The highest ovulation ratio (OR) was observed in groups Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16). Other treatments were effective for ovulation, the ovulation ratio in Groups G(40) and GP(20 + 4) were significantly higher than G(20) treatment. The ovulation index (OI) was in the range 62 to 77% and showed significant differences among groups. There was no significant difference in fertilization ratio (FR) among Ovaprim, GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) groups, while there were significant difference between the previous group and G(20) and G(40) groups. Control, P8, P16 showed negative results in all the parameters LP, OED, OR, OI and FR. Levels of sex steroids were analyzed on 6 and 12 h after initiation of treatments. A significant increase in plasma E(2) with GP(30 + 8) injection was observed 6 and 12 h after injection, while there were no significant increase between all the other groups 6 h after injection. Treatments with GP(20 + 4) resulted in a significant increase in plasma T concentration in females compared with control after 6 h. In contrast, plasma T and E(2) concentrations were lower during the combined GP(20 + 4), GP(30 + 8) and GP(40 + 16) after 12 h than after 16 h of injection. The combined treatments (GnRHa + PIM) are better compared with Ovaprim which gave the same results, they have some advantages, such as reliable response and low cost. Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this

  3. T-2 toxin regulates steroid hormone secretion of rat ovarian granulosa cells through cAMP-PKA pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Tu, Di; Yuan, Li-Yun; Yi, Jin-e; Tian, Yanan

    2015-02-01

    T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium genus and is a common contaminant in food and feedstuffs of cereal origin. In porcine granulosa cells(GC), T-2 toxin has been shown to inhibit the steroidogenesis; however, the mechanism has not been well understood. Gonadotropin-stimulated steroidogenesis is regulated by the cAMP-PKA pathway. In this study, we investigated potential mechanisms for T-2 toxin-induced reproductive toxicity focusing on the critical steps of the cAMP-PKA pathway affected by T-2 toxin. We first analyzed the effects of T-2 toxin on progesterone and estrogen production in rat granulosa cells. For this purpose the granulosa cells were cultured for 48 h in 10% fetal bovine serum-containing medium followed by 24h in serum-free medium containing FSH (10 ng/ml) and androstenedione (3 ng/ml), both are required for normal steroidogenesis. Treatment of these cells with T-2 toxin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of cells and the steroid hormone production. Cellular cyclic AMP levels were dose-dependently inhibited by T-2 toxin (0, 1, 10 and 100 nM, 24 h). Furthermore, we found that although the induction of progesterone by 8-Br-cAMP (a FSH mimetic) and 22R-HC (substrate for progesterone) could both be inhibited by T-2 toxin treatment, the T-2-imposed inhibitory effects could be reversed by increasing doses of 22R-HC, while increasing 8-Br-cAMP had no effects, suggesting that T2 toxin targeted at distinct mechanisms. cAMP-stimulated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is a rate limiting protein in progesterone synthesis. Exposure to T2 toxin caused significant suppression of StAR expression as determined by Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR suggesting StAR is a sensitive target for T-2 toxin. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that T2 toxin inhibits steroidogenesis by suppressing cAMP-PKA pathway and StAR is a target for T-2-toxin. The antisteroidogenesis effects were observable at low T-2 dose (1 ng

  4. Adrenal cortex dysfunction: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Huebener, K.H.; Treugut, H.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of the adrenal gland was studied in 302 patients with possible endocrinologic disease and 107 patients undergoing CT for nonendocrinologic reasons. Measurements of adrenal size were also made in 100 adults with no known adrenal pathology. CT proved to be a sensitive diagnostic tool in combination with clinical studies. When blood hormone levels are increased, CT can differentiate among homogeneous organic hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, benign adenoma, and malignant cortical adenoma. When blood hormone levels are decreased, CT can demonstrate hypoplasia or metastatic tumorous destruction. Calcifications can be demonstrated earlier than on plain radiographs. When hormone elimination is increased, the morphologic substrate can be identified; tumorous changes can be localized and infiltration of surrounding organs recognized.

  5. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  6. Delayed Diagnosis of Graves' Thyrotoxicoisis Presenting as Recurrent Adrenal Crisis in Primary Adrenal Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Naik, Dukhabandhu; Jebasingh, K Felix; Thomas, Nihal

    2016-04-01

    Adrenal crisis is a potential life threatening complication. The common causes of adrenal crisis are infections, surgical stress and abrupt cessation of steroid medications. Endocrine causes like Graves' disease with thyrotoxicosis is one of the less common causes of an adrenal crisis. We report a 42-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of adrenal crisis due to delayed diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. She was initially treated with Carbimazole followed by Radio-iodine ablation and currently she is euthyroid. Her adrenal insufficiency was initially treated with hydrocortisone during the time of adrenal crisis followed by Prednisolone 5 mg once daily in the morning along with fludrocortisone 50 mcg once daily. This case highlights the need for high index of suspicion and less common causes like thyrotoxicosis should be ruled out in patients with adrenal crisis. PMID:27190873

  7. Delayed Diagnosis of Graves’ Thyrotoxicoisis Presenting as Recurrent Adrenal Crisis in Primary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Dukhabandhu; Jebasingh, K Felix

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal crisis is a potential life threatening complication. The common causes of adrenal crisis are infections, surgical stress and abrupt cessation of steroid medications. Endocrine causes like Graves’ disease with thyrotoxicosis is one of the less common causes of an adrenal crisis. We report a 42-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of adrenal crisis due to delayed diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. She was initially treated with Carbimazole followed by Radio-iodine ablation and currently she is euthyroid. Her adrenal insufficiency was initially treated with hydrocortisone during the time of adrenal crisis followed by Prednisolone 5 mg once daily in the morning along with fludrocortisone 50 mcg once daily. This case highlights the need for high index of suspicion and less common causes like thyrotoxicosis should be ruled out in patients with adrenal crisis. PMID:27190873

  8. Effects of acute and chronic ketoconazole administration on hypothalamo--pituitary--adrenal axis activity and brain corticotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Smagin, Gennady N; Goeders, Nick E

    2004-11-01

    We have been investigating the effects of ketoconazole on cocaine reward in rats for several years now. However, we recently confirmed that ketoconazole-induced changes in cocaine self-administration and reinstatement do not always correspond with decreases in plasma corticosterone, which suggests that other mechanisms must be underlying the behavioral effects that we observe. This experiment was therefore designed to determine the effects of acute, repeated and chronic ketoconazole administration on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) content in hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic brain sites in rats following the same dosing regimen that we use in our behavioral studies. Although ketoconazole significantly increased the concentration of ACTH in trunk blood, there were no significant effects on plasma cortisol, corticosterone or testosterone. There was also a significant increase in CRH content in the median eminence after the acute administration of ketoconazole that just failed to reach statistical significance following repeated or chronic administration. However, acute, repeated and chronic treatment with ketoconazole each significantly increased CRH content in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPC), but did not consistently affect the peptide in any other brain region studied. Since the MPC and CRH have been implicated in the neurobiology of cocaine, CRH-induced alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission may play an important role in this peptide's effects on cocaine responsiveness. Taken together with the results from previous studies, these data suggest that ketoconazole may affect cocaine reward, at least in part, through interactions with dopamine and CRH within the MPC. PMID:15288701

  9. [The subcapsular blastema of the adrenal cortex of the swine after continuous long-term infusion of exogenous ACTH].

    PubMed

    Zintzsch, I; Gutte, G

    1976-01-01

    After long time application of homologous ACTH the morphokinesis of the adrenal cortex of the pig was investigated experimentally. Following results were obtained: 1. In view of the controls the absolute and relative weight of the adrenals is raised considerably. 2. The progressive transformation is followed by the disappearance of the zonal structure of the adrenal cortex, and the parenchyma get the picture of fasciculata cells generally. 3. Nearly exclusive the zona fasciculata consists of great, pale activated spongiocytes with 2 nucleoli frequently. Topochemically glycogen and the lipids are inconstant, however the histochemical activity of succinodehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatase are considerable raised in regard of the controls. 4. The zona fasciculata contains degenerated cells isolated only. Signs of extensive regressive changes are not present. 5. The zona glomerulosa is dissolving or eliminating respectively. The consequences for the synthesis of the adrenal steroid hormones are discussed. 6. A large, spongy subcapsular blastema with several cell layers and a rich capillary network develop between the fibrous capsula of the adrenal and the zona fasiculata. The fasciculata cells are the direct continuation of the subcapsular blastema. The blastema contains neither glycogen nor lipids and histochemical activities of the enzymes are absent, too. The significance of the subcapsular blastema for the morphological and functional adaptation of the adrenal cortex in stress are discussed. Under the conditions of the closed hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal control system the new origin of cells (hyperplasia) is not significant for the morphokinetic adaptive reactions of the adrenal cortex. Rather the subcapsular blastema represents a reserve area which after the destruction of the endocrine parenchyma through specific pathogens the organism enabled to the regeneration of the adrenal cortex. PMID:188714

  10. Suckling and salsolinol attenuate responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress: focus on catecholamines, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, cortisol and prolactin secretion in lactating sheep.

    PubMed

    Hasiec, M; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D; Misztal, T

    2014-12-01

    In mammals, the responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stress is reduced during lactation and this mainly results from suckling by the offspring. The suckling stimulus causes a release of the hypothalamic 1-metyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol) (a derivative of dopamine), one of the prolactin-releasing factors. To investigate the involvement of salsolinol in the mechanism suppressing stress-induced HPA axis activity, we conducted a series of experiments on lactating sheep, in which they were treated with two kinds of isolation stress (isolation from the flock with lamb present or absent), combined with suckling and/or i.c.v infusion of salsolinol and 1-methyl-3,4-dihydro-isoqinoline (1-MeDIQ; an antagonistic analogue of salsolinol). Additionally, a push-pull perfusion of the infundibular nucleus/median eminence (IN/ME) and blood sample collection with 10-min intervals were performed during the experiments. Concentrations of perfusate corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and catecholamines (noradrenaline, dopamine and salsolinol), as well as concentrations of plasma adenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and prolactin, were assayed. A significant increase in perfusate noradrenaline, plasma ACTH and cortisol occurred in response to both kinds of isolation stress. Suckling and salsolinol reduced the stress-induced increase in plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations. Salsolinol also significantly reduced the stress-induced noradrenaline and dopamine release within the IN/ME. Treatment with 1-MeDIQ under the stress conditions significantly diminished the salsolinol concentration and increased CRH and cortisol concentrations. Stress and salsolinol did not increase the plasma prolactin concentration, in contrast to the suckling stimulus. In conclusion, salsolinol released in nursing sheep may have a suppressing effect on stress-induced HPA axis activity and peripheral prolactin does not appear to participate in

  11. The effect of ovariectomy and ovarian steroid treatment on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I levels in the rat femur.

    PubMed

    Suliman, I A; El-Bakri, N K; Adem, A; Mustafa, A; Lindgren, J U

    2001-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are known to play an important role in bone metabolism. The regulation of plasma levels of GH and IGF-I by ovarian steroids is well known, however, their effect on local GH and IGF-I is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ovariectomy and ovarian steroid treatment on the femur GH and IGF-I levels as well as on bone density in the rat. Nine month-old rats were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated (SHAM) and 9 weeks after the surgery they were treated with daily s.c. injections of either 17beta-estradiol (OVX + E), progesterone (OVX + P), or vehicle (OVX + V) for another 10 weeks. GH and IGF-I levels in the femur extracts were measured by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Ovariectomy decreased GH and had no effect on IGF-I levels. Estradiol treatment increased femur GH and IGF-I levels compared to SHAM rats. Progesterone restored GH and increased IGF-I levels. Ovariectomy decreased, estrogen restored and progesterone partially restored femur bone density. Our results demonstrate that ovariectomy and ovarian steroids modulate the levels of GH and IGF-I in the bone of aged OVX rats. However, these effects appear to be limited to supraphysiological concentrations of estradiol and progesterone. PMID:11780998

  12. [The effect of subclinical and acute ante partum acidosis in cows on the course of pregnancy with regard to the steroid hormone profile].

    PubMed

    Raś, A; Janowski, T; Zduńczyk, S

    1996-08-01

    Experiment 1: In a field experiment in 19 of 87 cows being in day 260-265 of pregnancy subclinical metabolic acidosis was found. The control group included 10 healthy cows in the same stage of pregnancy. Blood samples from cows of both groups were collected once daily until day 2 post partum for determination of oestrogens, progesterone and cortisol. Dystocia was found in four and retained placenta in three cows having acidosis. These cows had lower oestrogens and markedly higher cortisol and progesterone concentrations during parturition. Course of pregnancy and delivery in control cows an without any difficulties and hormonal profiles in these cows were typical. Experiment 2: On day 265 of pregnancy experimental acute acidosis was evoked in five cows and five other cows served as control. Sampling of blood was the same as in experiment 1. Acidosis caused on day 269 in two cows premature birth with retained placenta. Moreover concentrations of studied steroids were atypical. In three other cows with acidosis course of pregnancy and delivery was without any trouble. Only cortisol was increased while progesterone and oestrogen values were in agreement with concentrations of control cows. Data suggest that metabolic acidosis can cause dystocia, premature birth and retained placenta. Furthermore, acidosis clearly affects the profile of steroid hormones. PMID:9012018

  13. Wet- and dry-season steroid hormone profiles and stress reactivity of an insular dwarf snake, the Hog Island boa (Boa constrictor imperator).

    PubMed

    Holding, Matthew L; Frazier, Julius A; Dorr, Scott W; Pollock, Nicholas B; Muelleman, P J; Branske, Amber; Henningsen, Sloane N; Eikenaar, Cas; Escallón, Camilo; Montgomery, Chad E; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2014-01-01

    Field endocrine studies providing new comparisons for inference into the evolutionary and ecological factors shaping organismal physiology are important, often yielding novel physiological insights. Here, we explored factors associated with the sex steroid hormone concentrations and adrenocortical response to capture stress in Hog Island boas (Boa constrictor imperator) in the Cayos Cochinos archipelago of Honduras to generate comparative field hormone data from a tropical reptile and test the island tameness hypothesis. Baseline concentrations of testosterone, corticosterone, estradiol, and progesterone were measured during the wet and dry seasons, and an acute stressor of 1 h in a cloth bag was used to assess the stress response. Plasma steroid concentrations in these snakes were generally low in comparison to other taxa. Higher testosterone concentrations in males and higher estradiol and corticosterone concentrations in females were observed during the wet season compared to the dry season, which may be indicative of mating activities and vitellogenesis during this period. Snakes displayed a 15-fold increase in corticosterone concentrations in response to capture stress, a rise that was not impacted by whether a snake had been captured during previous years. The adrenocortical stress response was greater in males and positively related to body temperature. We suggest that this system merits future inquiries into the physiology and behavior of B. c. imperator, particularly as a model for studying insular impacts on diverse life history characters. PMID:24769701

  14. Positive iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) adrenal images can precede return of adrenocortical function after o,p' DDD treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sparagana, M.; Ackerman, L.

    1988-05-01

    A patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, due to the ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, received a 3-month course of treatment with 1,1 dichloro-2(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p' DDD), which caused adrenal hypofunction requiring steroid therapy. Eleven months later, Cushing's syndrome recurred. His CT scan showed a left adrenal gland that was enlarged and a normal-sized right adrenal gland. However, the NP-59 image showed increased uptake by both glands. Venous effluent was sampled from each adrenal vein. The plasma cortisol level from the left gland was 1392 ng/ml, and that from the right gland was 667 ng/ml. The latter value was not significantly different from the values obtained at peripheral sites (517-744 ng/ml). In the course of recovery from o,p' DDD damage, the ability of the adrenal gland to take up NP-59 may be restored before the return of its biosynthetic and secretory functions. Serial NP-59 adrenal images can anticipate the recurrence of Cushing's syndrome after adrenolytic therapy, thereby permitting early retreatment.

  15. Steroids (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by some athletes and bodybuilders. Anabolic steroids are synthetic hormones that can boost the body's ability to ... doses every day can significantly increase levels of testosterone, which can lead to a number of health ...

  16. Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels. PMID:26449161

  17. Budesonide-related adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Arntzenius, Alexander; van Galen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency is a potential harmful side effect of treatment with corticosteroids. It manifests itself when an insufficient cortisol response to biological stress leads to an Addisonian crisis: a life-threatening situation. We describe a case of a patient who developed an Addisonian crisis after inappropriate discontinuation of budesonide (a topical steroid used in Crohn's disease) treatment. Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency due to budesonide use has been rarely reported. Prescribers should be aware of the resulting risk for an Addisonian crisis. PMID:26430235

  18. Capillary electrophoresis with UV detection and mass spectrometry in method development for profiling metabolites of steroid hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sirén, Heli; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oresic, Matej

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for comprehensive profiling of metabolites involved in mammalian steroid metabolism. The study was performed using the partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (PF-MEKC) technique for determination of endogenous low-hydrophilic steroids. The detection techniques in capillary electrophoresis were UV absorption and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Thirteen steroids were included in the method development, and the selected were metabolites involved in major pathways of steroid biosynthesis. Although only eight of them could be separated and detected with UV, they could be identified by ESI-MS using selected ion monitoring (SIM) technique. Tandem MS spectra were also collected. UV detection was more sensitive than MS due to better separation of compounds and the selective signal sensitivity. The lowest limits of detection were 10-100 ng/mL for cortisone, corticosterone, hydrocortisone and testosterone. The other steroids could be detected at 500-1000 ng/mL. The identification of cortisone, corticosterone, hydrocortisone, estrogen and testosterone were made in patient urine samples and their concentrations were 1-40 microg/L. PMID:18585986

  19. Steroid hormone modulation of 3H-prostaglanding E1 binding to bovine corpus leteum cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Rao, C V

    1975-04-01

    The specific binding of 3H-prostaglandin E1 (3H-PGE1) to bovine corpus luteum cell membranes was not affected by cholesterol or various progestins at concentrations of up to 9.0x10-minus-6M. At concentrations above 2.5 x 10-minus-6M; estrone, 17beta-estradiol (but not 17alpha-estradiol or 17beta-estradiol glucuronide), estroil, equilin, D-equilenin, 17-ethynyl estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, cortisol, corticosterone, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone inhibited specific binding of 3H-PGE1. On the other hand, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (but not androstenedione) significantly enhanced 3H-PGE1 binding. These findings permitted the following correlations between steroid structure and modulation of 3H-PGE1 binding: steroids with a free phenolic ring and a 17beta-hydroxyl or 17-keto group or C-21 steroids with a C-20 ketone and a C-21 hydroxy group decrease, whereas C-19 steroids with a C-17 hydroxy group enhance specific binding of 3H-PGE1. PGE receptors are heterogeneous with respect to affinity for 3H-PGE1. The steroids that decreased 3H-PGE1 binding caused a lowering to a complete loss of low affinity PGE receptors. Steroids that increased 3H-PGE1 binding caused appearance of new low affinity PGE receptors. Association rate constants for 3H-PGE1 binding were decreased by 17beta-estradiol (61%) and increased by DHT (59%). PMID:168618

  20. Role of a Disordered Steroid Metabolome in the Elucidation of Sterol and Steroid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 1937 Butler and Marrian found large amounts of the steroid pregnanetriol in urine from a patient with the adrenogenital syndrome, a virilizing condition known to be caused by compromised adrenal secretion even in this pre-cortisol era. This introduced the concept of the study of altered excretion of metabolites as an in vivo tool for understanding sterol and steroid biosynthesis. This approach is still viable and has experienced renewed significance as the field of metabolomics. From the first cyclized sterol lanosterol to the most downstream product estradiol, there are probably greater than 30 steps. Based on a distinctive metabolome clinical disorders have now been attributed to about seven post-squalene cholesterol (C) biosynthetic steps and around 15 en-route to steroid hormones or needed for further metabolism of such hormones. Forty years ago it was widely perceived that the principal steroid biosynthetic defects were known but interest rekindled as novel metabolomes were documented. In his career this investigator has been involved in the study of many steroid disorders, the two most recent being P450 oxidoreductase deficiency and apparent cortisone reductase deficiency. These are of interest as they are due not to mutations in the primary catalytic enzymes of steroidogenesis but in ancillary enzymes needed for co-factor oxido-reduction A third focus of this researcher is Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a cholesterol synthesis disorder caused by 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase mutations. The late George Schroepfer, in whose honor this article has been written, contributed greatly to defining the sterol metabolome of this condition. Defining the cause of clinically severe disorders can lead to improved treatment options. We are now involved in murine gene therapy studies for SLOS which, if successful could in the future offer an alternative therapy for this severe condition. PMID:21874273

  1. Adrenal myelolipoma.

    PubMed

    Cyran, K M; Kenney, P J; Memel, D S; Yacoub, I

    1996-02-01

    In 1905, Gierke [1] first described the occurrence of a tumor in the adrenal composed of mature fat and mixed myeloid and erythroid cells, subsequently termed "formations myelolipomatoses" by Oberling [2] in 1929. PMID:8553954

  2. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    PubMed

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value. PMID:26658410

  3. PERCEPTION OF THE MOLTING HORMONE 20-HYDROXECDYSONE BY HOMARUS AMERICANUS: LOCALIZATION OF STEROID RECEPTORS AND EFFECT ON BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...

  4. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Anxiety: Beyond the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    PubMed

    Borrow, A P; Stranahan, A M; Suchecki, D; Yunes, R

    2016-07-01

    The central nervous system regulates and responds to endocrine signals, and this reciprocal relationship determines emotional processing and behavioural anxiety. Although the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis remains the best-characterised system for this relationship, other steroid and peptide hormones are increasingly recognised for their effects on anxiety-like behaviour and reward. The present review examines recent developments related to the role of a number of different hormones in anxiety, including pregnane neurosteroids, gut peptides, neuropeptides and hormonal signals derived from fatty acids. Findings from both basic and clinical studies suggest that these alternative systems may complement or occlude stress-induced changes in anxiety and anxiety-like behaviour. By broadening the scope of mechanisms for depression and anxiety, it may be possible to develop novel strategies to attenuate stress-related psychiatric conditions. The targets for these potential therapies, as discussed in this review, encompass multiple circuits and systems, including those outside of the HPA axis. PMID:27318180

  5. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into gonad and adrenal steroidogenic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Takashi; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Kaoru; Umezawa, Akihiro; Taniguchi, Takanobu

    2014-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy is necessary for patients with adrenal and gonadal failure. Steroid hormone treatment is also employed in aging people for sex hormone deficiency. These patients undergo such therapies, which have associated risks, for their entire life. Stem cells represent an innovative tool for tissue regeneration and the possibility of solving these problems. Among various stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to differentiate into steroidogenic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In particular, they can effectively be differentiated into steroidogenic cells by expressing nuclear receptor 5A subfamily proteins (steroidogenic factor-1 and liver receptor homolog-1) with the aid of cAMP. This approach will provide a source of cells for future regenerative medicine for the treatment of diseases caused by steroidogenesis deficiencies. It can also represent a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of steroidogenesis and its related diseases. PMID:24772247

  6. Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Dissecting Steroid Intracrinology within Target Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cobice, Diego F.; Mackay, C. Logan; Goodwin, Richard J. A.; McBride, Andrew; Langridge-Smith, Patrick R.; Webster, Scott P.; Walker, Brian R.; Andrew, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Steroid concentrations within tissues are modulated by intracellular enzymes. Such ‘steroid intracrinology’ influences hormone-dependent cancers and obesity, and provides targets for pharmacological inhibition. However, no high resolution methods exist to quantify steroids within target tissues. We developed mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), combining matrix assisted laser desorption ionization with on-tissue derivatization with Girard T and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, to quantify substrate and product (11-dehydrocorticosterone and corticosterone) of the glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11β-HSD1. Regional steroid distribution was imaged at 150-200μm resolution in rat adrenal gland and mouse brain sections, and confirmed with collision induced dissociation/liquid extraction surface analysis. In brains of mice with 11β-HSD1 deficiency or inhibition, MSI quantified changes in sub-regional corticosterone/11-dehydrocorticosterone ratio, distribution of inhibitor, and accumulation of the alternative 11β-HSD1 substrate, 7-ketocholesterol. MSI data correlated well with LC-MS/MS in whole brain homogenates. MSI with derivatization is a powerful new tool to investigate steroid biology within tissues. PMID:24134553

  7. Acute Serum Hormone Levels: Characterization and Prognosis after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Emily H.; Niyonkuru, Christian; Ozawa, Haishin; Loucks, Tammy L.; Dobos, Julie A.; Brett, Christopher A.; Santarsieri, Martina; Dixon, C. Edward; Berga, Sarah L.; Fabio, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies report the neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids on multiple mechanisms of injury, with the clinical assumption that women have hormonally mediated neuroprotection because of the endogenous presence of these hormones. Other literature indicates that testosterone may exacerbate injury. Further, stress hormone abnormalities that accompany critical illness may both amplify or blunt sex steroid levels. To better understand the role of sex steroid exposure in mediating TBI, we 1) characterized temporal profiles of serum gonadal and stress hormones in a population with severe TBI during the acute phases of their injury; and 2) used a biological systems approach to evaluate these hormones as biomarkers predicting global outcome. The study population was 117 adults (28 women; 89 men) with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=536) were collected for 7 days post-TBI for cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including acute care mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 months. Hormone levels after TBI were compared to those in healthy controls (n=14). Group based trajectory analysis (TRAJ) was used to develop temporal hormone profiles that delineate distinct subpopulations in the cohort. Structural equations models were used to determine inter-relationships between hormones and outcomes within a multivariate model. Compared to controls, acute serum hormone levels were significantly altered after severe TBI. Changes in the post-TBI adrenal response and peripheral aromatization influenced hormone TRAJ profiles and contributed to the abnormalities, including increased estradiol in men and increased testosterone in women. In addition to older age and greater injury severity, increased estradiol and testosterone levels over time were associated with increased mortality and worse global

  8. Acute serum hormone levels: characterization and prognosis after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amy K; McCullough, Emily H; Niyonkuru, Christian; Ozawa, Haishin; Loucks, Tammy L; Dobos, Julie A; Brett, Christopher A; Santarsieri, Martina; Dixon, C Edward; Berga, Sarah L; Fabio, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies report the neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids on multiple mechanisms of injury, with the clinical assumption that women have hormonally mediated neuroprotection because of the endogenous presence of these hormones. Other literature indicates that testosterone may exacerbate injury. Further, stress hormone abnormalities that accompany critical illness may both amplify or blunt sex steroid levels. To better understand the role of sex steroid exposure in mediating TBI, we 1) characterized temporal profiles of serum gonadal and stress hormones in a population with severe TBI during the acute phases of their injury; and 2) used a biological systems approach to evaluate these hormones as biomarkers predicting global outcome. The study population was 117 adults (28 women; 89 men) with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=536) were collected for 7 days post-TBI for cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including acute care mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 months. Hormone levels after TBI were compared to those in healthy controls (n=14). Group based trajectory analysis (TRAJ) was used to develop temporal hormone profiles that delineate distinct subpopulations in the cohort. Structural equations models were used to determine inter-relationships between hormones and outcomes within a multivariate model. Compared to controls, acute serum hormone levels were significantly altered after severe TBI. Changes in the post-TBI adrenal response and peripheral aromatization influenced hormone TRAJ profiles and contributed to the abnormalities, including increased estradiol in men and increased testosterone in women. In addition to older age and greater injury severity, increased estradiol and testosterone levels over time were associated with increased mortality and worse global outcome for

  9. Determination of pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, and endocrine-disrupting personal care products in sewage sludge by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yiyi; Huang, Qiuxin; Cui, Jianlan; Zhang, Kun; Tang, Caiming; Peng, Xianzhi

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive method has been developed and validated for the determination of diverse groups of pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, and hormone-like personal care products in sewage sludge. Samples were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction followed by solid-phase extraction cleanup. For determination of estrogens and hormone-like phenolic compounds, sample extracts were further derivatized with dansyl chloride and purified with silica gel column chromatography to improve the analytical sensitivity. The chemicals were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Recoveries ranged mostly from 63% to 119% with relative standard deviations within 15%. Method quantification limits were 0.1-3 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for sewage sludge. The method was applied to a preliminary investigation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sewage sludge and sediment in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Triclosan, triclocarban, 2-phenylphenol, bisphenol A, and parabens were ubiquitously detected at 3.6-5088.2 ng g(-1) dw in sludge and 0.29-113.1 ng g(-1) dw in sediment samples, respectively. Estrone, carbamazepine, metoprolol, and propranolol were also frequently quantified in the sludge and sediment samples. The dewatering process caused no significant losses of these PPCPs in sewage sludge. PMID:21046090

  10. Adipose Tissue and Adrenal Glands: Novel Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kargi, Atil Y.; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or “adipokines” have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of “cross talk” between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals. PMID:25018768

  11. Assessing the presence of abnormal regulation of cortisol secretion by membrane hormone receptors: in vivo and in vitro studies in patients with functioning and non-functioning adrenal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, C; Ballarè, E; Mantovani, G; Ambrosi, B; Spada, A; Barbetta, L; Colombo, P; Travaglini, P; Loli, P; Beck-Peccoz, P

    2004-08-01

    Regulation of cortisol secretion by aberrant hormone receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. In this study, the topic was evaluated by combining in vivo and in vitro approaches. Cortisol responses to various stimuli (standard meal, GnRH + TRH, cisapride, vasopressin, glucagon) were assessed in 6 patients with clinical or subclinical adrenal Cushing's syndrome, and non-functioning adrenal adenoma in two cases. Abnormal responses were observed in three patients with Cushing's syndrome; one patient showed a gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)-dependent cortisol rise after meal, together with responses after GnRH and cisapride; the second patient showed an LH-dependent cortisol response to GnRH, and in the third cortisol rose after cisapride. The pattern of receptor expression performed by RT-PCR showed that while GIP-R was only expressed in tumor from the responsive patient, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 receptor and LH-R were also present in normal adrenal tissues and tissues from non-responsive patients. Interestingly, an activating mutation of Gsalpha gene was identified in one of these tumors. Therefore, cortisol responses to agents operating via Gs protein coupled receptors (in one case associated with Gsalpha mutation) were found in Cushing's patients, while these responses were absent in the others. The finding of receptor expression in normal and non-responsive tumors suggests that different mechanisms are probably involved in inducing in vivo cortisol responses. PMID:15326569

  12. Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... through hormonal blood and urine tests. A health care provider uses these tests first to determine whether cortisol levels are too ... if the diagnosis remains unclear. [ Top ] What other tests might a health care provider perform after diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency? After ...

  13. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  14. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production. PMID:27080552

  15. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands and gonadal disorders....

  16. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands and gonadal disorders....

  17. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands and gonadal disorders....

  18. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands and gonadal disorders....

  19. Lack of cyclical fluctuations of endometrial GLUT4 expression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Evidence for direct regulation of GLUT4 by steroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Peng; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoqin; Feng, Yi; Lin, Jin-Fang; Billig, Håkan; Shao, Ruijin

    2015-01-01

    Background Determination of the role of steroid hormones in expression and regulation of endometrial glucose transport 4 (GLUT4) in humans is important for understanding endometrial disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common hormone-imbalance disease. Methods Endometrial biopsy samples were collected from non-PCOS patients with regular menstrual cycles or with hyperplasia and from PCOS patients with or without hyperplasia. In addition, endometrial tissues from postmenopausal women were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 10 IU/ml), 17β-estradiol (E2, 10 nM), progesterone (P4, 100 nM), or a combination of E2 and P4 for 24 h. The expression of GLUT4 was measured at the mRNA level using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and at the protein level using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results A cyclical change in GLUT4 expression pattern was observed in non-PCOS patients, and a high level of GLUT4 expression was seen in the proliferative phase compared to the secretory phase. Low levels of GLUT4 expression were found in PCOS patients compared to menstrual cycle phase-matched non-PCOS patients, and there was no significant change in GLUT4 expression in PCOS patients during the menstrual cycle. GLUT4 was localized in both epithelial and stromal cells, with notable changes in epithelial cells. We postulate that decreased GLUT4 expression might be regulated by steroid hormones. In support of this, we showed that in cultured endometrial tissues hCG and E2 alone had no effect on GLUT4 expression. However, P4 alone and P4 in combination with E2 decreased GLUT4 expression. Compared with non-PCOS controls, PCOS patients with endometrial hyperplasia exhibited decreased GLUT4 expression in particular in the epithelial cells. Conclusion We conclude that P4 can induce changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression during the menstrual cycle and that abnormal hormonal conditions such as PCOS disrupt normal patterns

  20. Do Changes in Sex Steroid Hormones Precede or Follow Increases in Body Weight during the Menopause Transition? Results from The Study of Women's Health Across the