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Sample records for adriatic sea gulf

  1. Underwater noise assessment in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) using an MSFD approach.

    PubMed

    Codarin, Antonio; Picciulin, Marta

    2015-12-30

    In the marine environment, underwater noise is one of the most widespread input of man-made energy. Recently, the European Commission has stressed the necessity of establishing threshold levels as a target for the descriptor 11.2.1 "Continuous low frequency sounds" in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In 2012, a monthly underwater noise monitoring programme was conducted in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy); the collected acoustic samples (frequency range: 10-20,000 Hz) were analysed in the 1/3 octave bands. The stations have been further clustered following the 63 and 125 Hz bands noise levels. Average SPL levels resulted similar to those previously computed for proximate areas, indicating that the Adriatic Sea sub-region experiences high noise pressure in the marine waters. In its turn this claims for a scientific and technical international cooperation, as requested by the EU programme. No seasonal variation in local noise levels has been found.

  2. Underwater noise assessment in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) using an MSFD approach.

    PubMed

    Codarin, Antonio; Picciulin, Marta

    2015-12-30

    In the marine environment, underwater noise is one of the most widespread input of man-made energy. Recently, the European Commission has stressed the necessity of establishing threshold levels as a target for the descriptor 11.2.1 "Continuous low frequency sounds" in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In 2012, a monthly underwater noise monitoring programme was conducted in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy); the collected acoustic samples (frequency range: 10-20,000 Hz) were analysed in the 1/3 octave bands. The stations have been further clustered following the 63 and 125 Hz bands noise levels. Average SPL levels resulted similar to those previously computed for proximate areas, indicating that the Adriatic Sea sub-region experiences high noise pressure in the marine waters. In its turn this claims for a scientific and technical international cooperation, as requested by the EU programme. No seasonal variation in local noise levels has been found. PMID:26506026

  3. Seasonal and interannual dynamics of microzooplankton abundances in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Marina; Minocci, Marco; Milani, Luisella; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2012-12-01

    Abundance and composition of microzooplankton were studied over a 15 years period (from March 1986 to December 1990 and from July 1998 to December 2010) in the Gulf of Trieste (Adriatic Sea, NE Mediterranean Sea). Sampling was conducted biweekly-monthly at the surface at the historical station C1, 200 m offshore (bottom depth 17.5 m). Aloricate ciliates dominated in both periods (median 117 and 243 ind. L-1 in the first and second period respectively) while tintinnids were more abundant in the first period (median 55 ind. L-1vs 16 ind. L-1). For heterotrophic dinoflagellates there are no data during the first period and in the second one they represented the second major group. Micrometazoans remained almost constant over time. In the first period all microzooplankton groups showed a maximum in April, while in the last period the peak has shifted to September. This is particularly evident for both aloricate ciliates and micrometazoans. Tintinnids, that in the past had the absolute maximum in spring, in the second period maintained the only, lower peak in October. Tintinnids in the first period were constituted by 27 species and dominated by the genera Tintinnopsis, Stenosemella and Salpingella. In the last 10 years we registered a dramatic decrease in abundance, paralleling an increase in species (40) with some "new entries" as well as the almost complete disappearance of genera Helicostomella, Favella, Coxiella and Steenstrupiella. The observed changes of the seasonal dynamics of microzooplankton abundance, as well as of the tintinnids composition over the long period considered in our study, might suggest a climatic forcing together with the known anthropogenic oligotrophication of the entire North Adriatic.

  4. Carbonate chemistry dynamics and biological processes along a river-sea gradient (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrosso, Gianmarco; Giani, Michele; Cibic, Tamara; Karuza, Ana; Kralj, Martina; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we investigated, for two years and with a bi-monthly frequency, how physical, chemical, and biological processes affect the marine carbonate system in a coastal area characterized by high alkalinity riverine discharge (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea). By combining synoptic measurements of the carbonate system with in situ determinations of the primary production (14C incorporation technique) and secondary prokaryotic carbon production (3H-leucine incorporation) along a river-sea gradient, we showed that the conservative mixing between river endmember and off-shore waters was the main driver of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) distribution and seasonal variation. However, during spring and summer seasons also the influence of biological uptake and release of DIC was significant. In the surface water of June 2012, the spreading and persistence of nutrient-rich freshwater stimulated the primary production (3.21 μg C L- 1 h- 1) and net biological DIC decrease (- 100 μmol kg- 1), reducing the dissolved CO2 concentration and increasing the pHT. Below the pycnocline of August 2012, instead, an elevated bacterial carbon production rate (0.92 μg C L- 1 h- 1) was related with net DIC increase (92 μmol kg- 1), low dissolved oxygen concentration, and strong pHT reduction, suggesting the predominance of bacterial heterotrophic respiration over primary production. The flux of carbon dioxide estimated at the air-sea interface exerted a low influence on the seasonal variation of the carbonate system. A complex temporal and spatial dynamic of the air-sea CO2 exchange was also detected, due to the combined effects of seawater temperature, river discharge, and water circulation. On annual scale the system was a sink of atmospheric CO2. However, in summer and during elevated riverine discharges, the area close to the river's mouth acted as a source of carbon dioxide. Also the wind speed was crucial in controlling the air-sea CO2

  5. Phosphorus regeneration and burial in near-shore marine sediments (the Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrinc, N.; Faganeli, J.

    2006-05-01

    According to bioassay studies and high dissolved nutrient N/P ratios in the seawater column, phosphorus (P) is thought to control marine productivity in the northern Adriatic Sea. P in near-shore marine sediments of the Gulf of Trieste, the northernmost part of the Adriatic Sea, was investigated using pore water P distributions, and benthic P flux studies under oxic and anoxic conditions. The data show that P regeneration is up to three-fold more extensive in sediments overlain by oxygen-depleted waters and proceeds in parallel with Fe and Mn enhanced benthic fluxes. It appears from the incubation experiments that degradation of sedimentary organic matter is the main contribution to the flux of P at the sediment-water interface, while the release of phosphate adsorbed on the iron oxide surface is of minor importance. It appears that about 50% of P in the Gulf of Trieste is retained within in the sediments, probably bonded to clay minerals and carbonate grains or precipitated as fluoroapatite. In these sediments total P (P tot) is preserved preferentially over organic C (C org). P regenerated from surficial sediments contributes about 1/3 of the P that is assimilated by benthic microalgae. The phytoplankton P requirement should be entirely supplied from fresh-water sources. These results suggest that oxygen depletion in coastal areas caused by eutrophication enhances P regeneration from sediments, providing the additional P necessary for increased biological productivity. The development of anoxic bottom waters in coastal areas enhances the recycling of P, exacerbating the nutrient requirement in the area. A geochemical record of P burial in a longer sedimentary sequence revealed an increasing trend of P tot and organic P (P org) contents occurring approximately 50 years BP (after 1950), probably due to increasing use of inorganic fertilizers and detergents in the area.

  6. Diagenesis and benthic fluxes of nutrients and metals during experimentally induced anoxia in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koron, N.; Ogrinc, N.; Metzger, E.; Riedel, B.; Faganeli, J.

    2013-07-01

    Sequential nutrient regeneration and organic matter (OM) degradation in surface sediments of the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) were examined using in situ benthic chambers under normoxic, anoxic and reoxic conditions. Intensive NH4+ and PO4- anoxic regeneration was subsequently slower in prolonged anoxia. NH4+ production was probably also a consequence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to NH4+. The presence of anammox and laterally pumping of oxygenated water by benthic infauna explained the presence of NO3- in anoxia. Anoxic phases were characterized by enhanced dissolution of Sibiog, decreasing pore water Ca and Mg concentrations indicating carbonate precipitation and higher Fe and Mn concentrations as a result of reduction/respiration. Reoxygenation was characterized by enhanced bioturbation. Nitrification caused NH4+ decrease and P precipitated quickly as carbonate fluorapatite and FePO4. In addition adsorption of P onto Fe-hydroxides could also occur since Fe (and Mn) reoxidized quickly. Increased Ca levels suggested enhanced carbonate dissolution. Diffusive fluxes at the sediment-water interface (SWI), calculated from pore water modelling using diffusion-reaction model, revealed high anoxic NH4+ effluxes and Ca (and Mg) influxes. PO4- fluxes were very low and high NH4+/PO4- flux ratios in anoxic and reoxic phases suggested an excess of benthic inorganic N. Nutrient budgets at the SWI showed intensive anoxic recycling of inorganic N but low P and Si cycling in all redox phases.

  7. Microphytobenthos in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea): Relationship with Labile Sedimentary Organic Matter and Nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, C.; Sdrigotti, E.; Covelli, S.; Faganeli, J.

    2002-08-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual variations of microphytobenthos and inorganic nutrients were examined in sediments sited at 20 m depth in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea). Seasonal changes in water-soluble carbohydrates and proteins were studied in order to obtain information on quality and quantity of labile organic matter and the role of microphytobenthos in producing these compounds. Annual variations in microphytobenthos abundance in the surface sediment layer (0-1 cm) in the months from November 1992 to October 1993 and from July 1995 to June 1996 were similar. The vertical distribution of microphytobenthos abundance revealed a decrease with sediment depth. The depth profiles of water-soluble carbohydrates concentrations revealed a marked decrease with sediment depth. The profiles of protein concentration showed a more irregular pattern than carbohydrates without a progressive decline with sediment depth. In the upper 7 cm of surface sediment, a significant correlation between microphytobenthos abundance and both water-soluble carbohydrates and protein concentration was noticed during the months from July 1995 to March 1996. This positive relationship between the biopolymeric fraction and the microphytobenthos abundance suggest that water-soluble charbohydrates, as exocellular polymeric substances, mostly originate from the metabolic activity of microphytobenthos, whereas the proteins might be a good indicator of the microalgal biomass. Proteins in lower sediment layers could be associated with benthic heterotrophs too. The inorganic nutrient concentration, at the sediment overlying water, evidenced temporal variations with similar annual patterns. Positive correlation between microphytobenthos abundance and ammonium and silicate concentrations, at the water-sediment interface, were found. The lack of correlation between microphytobenthos and nitrite/nitrate concentration can be explained considering that, for their growth, microalgae use ammonium rather

  8. Foraminiferal record of anthropogenic environmental changes in the northeastern Adriatic Sea (Panzano Bay, Gulf of Trieste, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidovic, Jelena; Cosovic, Vlasta; Kern, Vieana; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea is one of the world's largest modern epicontinental seas and a young marine ecosystem that has been subject to various natural and anthropogenic processes during the Holocene: marine transgression, regional climate fluctuations, urbanisation and pollution. The Gulf of Trieste, located in the northeastern part, presents the area of particular interest, as it is a shallow and sheltered embayment, prone to the accumulation of pollutants, populated for at least the last 2000 years and with recent anthropogenic pressure coming from several rivers, ports and industrial zones. The aim of this multidisciplinary study is to provide a high-resolution record of these processes using benthic foraminiferal assemblages, geochemical proxies (trace metals, nutrients and pollutants), sedimentological (sedimentation rates) and time-averaging data (from dated mollusc shells). One core of 1.5 m length was taken at the sampling station Panzano Bay, northernmost part of the Gulf of Trieste, at the water depth of 12.5 m. The sedimentation rate is estimated to be 2.5 mm/year, based on 210Pb sediment dating, while dating of the molluscs shells revealed the age at the bottom of the core to be approximately 500 years. The core was sliced into smaller subsamples, and four sediment fractions of each subsample (63, 125, 250 and 500 μm) were analysed for standard properties of the foraminiferal community (faunal composition, absolute and relative abundances of species, biodiversity indices), in order to make comparison with relevant physical and geochemical properties of the sediment. The results concerning changes in foraminiferal species composition, their abundance and biodiversity, supported by statistical analyses (cluster analysis, NMDS, PCA), allow identification of three major foraminiferal associations: 1) 80-150 cm - the oldest association is dominated by opportunistic genera ans species, characteristic for unstable environments: Valvulineria sp. (25

  9. Carbon fluxes in the pelagic ecosystem of the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umani, Serena Fonda; Malfatti, Francesca; Del Negro, Paola

    2012-12-01

    By measuring a broad suite of physical, chemical, and biological parameters coupled with experiments on grazing efficiency of mesozoo-, microzoo- and heteronano-plankton we were able to depict the seasonal trophic status of the pelagic system in the Gulf of Trieste over a period of 8 years from 1998 to 2005. In winter and spring, primary production exceeded respiration, the autotrophic fraction biomass was higher than the heterotrophic biomass. Moreover, predation on microphytoplankton and autotrophic nanoplankton largely structured the ecosystem and bacterial carbon production accounted for <50% of primary production. The ratio of primary production/respiration was higher than 1 in winter and spring suggesting that pelagic ecosystem was autotrophic whereas in summer and in autumn the ratio was lower than 1 suggesting a shift towards net heterotrophic status. Carbon export was possible in winter and in autumn, and the few data from the sediment trap supported the theoretical rates. Thus since spring most of the C fixed by photosynthesis remained segregated in the surface layer and possibly it was exported to the bottom through grazer fecal pellets. In summer the system was dominated by heterotrophic picoplankton, which showed the highest production rate. In this scenario we hypothesize that the DOC produced during the winter-spring period can sustain a high and active bacterial biomass that is the primary energy source for the whole system. Picoplankton communities were heavily grazed by microzooplankton and heteronano-plankton, moreover predation rates of mesozooplankton on microzooplankton were particularly high in summer. Despite the high variability typical of the coastal areas, the pelagic ecosystem during these 8 years has shifted seasonally from a nutrient-excited state (winter-spring) to a background state (summer-autumn) as it has been observed from open-ocean ecosystem. Understanding the dynamic and the magnitude of this variability-shift is rather

  10. Seasonal changes of mercury reduction and methylation in Gulf of Trieste (north Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, M.; Bratkic, A.; Koron, N.; Faganeli, J.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Tinta, T.

    2014-12-01

    We have successfully improved and applied the 197Hg radiotracer method during the sampling campaign from March until November 2011, collecting and incubating sediments and waters with low 197Hg2+ additions without significantly increasing natural levels. The evolution of Me197Hg and DGM197 was followed. In addition, we have performed Hg speciation of the water column and sediment, determined diversity of microbial community and investigated microbial resistance to Hg through presence of merA and merB genes. Our results showed repeatedly that methylation does not occur in the water column of the GoT, and confirmed that sediments are the principal methylation site, as well as the source of MeHg to the water column. Its formation seems to be closely linked to nutrient cycling at the sediment-water interface, where degradation of organic matter with accompanying oxygen consumption significantly stimulates MeHg production (range 0.85 pM - 3.39 pM). The water column showed a pronounced capability for 197Hg2+ reduction (up to 25% d-1), confirming that the GoT is a source of Hg to the atmosphere. Whether reduction was directly linked to genetic resistance; was a consequence of non-specific redox reactions or of other microbial mechanisms could not be demonstrated. Neither merA nor merB genes were detected, but the microbial community structure was changing in the water column seasonally, as did the reduction rates in the experiments. Most importantly, it was shown that 197Hg methodology is sensitive enough to follow Hg biogeochemical transformations at environmental levels. The advantage is that the minimal additions of 197Hg do not disturb the natural processes occurring in the environment and that very small changes can be detected. Hg stress in the Gulf can directly manifest itself in biota and consequently result in a threat to environmental and public health and therefore needs to be seen in the light of changing global climate and marine environment.

  11. Role of prokaryotic biomasses and activities in carbon and phosphorus cycles at a coastal, thermohaline front and in offshore waters (Gulf of Manfredonia, Southern Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Monticelli, L S; Caruso, G; Decembrini, F; Caroppo, C; Fiesoletti, F

    2014-04-01

    The Western areas of the Adriatic Sea are subjected to inputs of inorganic nutrients and organic matter that can modify the trophic status of the waters and consequently, the microbiological processes involved in the carbon and phosphorus biogeochemical cycles, particularly in shallow coastal environments. To explore this topic, a survey was carried out during the spring of 2003 in a particular hydrodynamic area of the Gulf of Manfredonia, where the potential (P) and real (R) rates of four different microbial exoenzymatic activities (EEA) (α [αG] and ß glucosidases [ßG], leucine aminopeptidase [LAP], and alkaline phosphatase [AP]) as well as the P and R rates of prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP), AP as well as the P and R rates of PHP, primary production (PPnet), the prokaryotic and phototrophic stocks and basic hydrological parameters were examined. Three different water masses were found, with a thermohaline front (THF) being detected between the warmer and less saline coastal waters and colder and saltier offshore Adriatic waters. Under the general oligotrophic conditions of the entire Gulf, a decreasing gradient from the coastal toward the offshore areas was detected, with PHP, PPnet, stocks and EEA (αG, ßG, AP) being directly correlated with the temperature and inversely correlated with the salinity, whereas opposite relationships were observed for LAP activity. No enhancement of microbiological activities or stocks was observed at the THF. The use of P or R rates of microbiological activities, which decrease particularly for EEA, could result in discrepancies in interpreting the efficiency of several metabolic processes.

  12. Mercury speciation in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, Jože; Horvat, Milena; Ogrinc, Nives; Fajon, Vesna; Žagar, Dušan; Cossa, Daniel; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-07-15

    Mercury and its speciation were studied in surface and deep waters of the Adriatic Sea. Several mercury species (i.e. DGM – dissolved gaseous Hg, RHg – reactive Hg, THg – total Hg, MeHg – monomethyl Hg and DMeHg – dimethylmercury) together with other water parameters were measured in coastal and open sea deep water profiles. THg concentrations in the water column, as well as in sediments and pore waters, were the highest in the northern, most polluted part of the Adriatic Sea as the consequence of Hg mining in Idrija and the heavy industry of northern Italy. Certain profiles in the South Adriatic Pit exhibit an increase of DGM just over the bottom due to its diffusion from sediment as a consequence of microbial and/or tectonic activity. Furthermore, a Hg mass balance for the Adriatic Sea was calculated based on measurements and literature data.

  13. Mercury speciation in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, Jože; Horvat, Milena; Ogrinc, Nives; Fajon, Vesna; Žagar, Dušan; Cossa, Daniel; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-07-15

    Mercury and its speciation were studied in surface and deep waters of the Adriatic Sea. Several mercury species (i.e. DGM – dissolved gaseous Hg, RHg – reactive Hg, THg – total Hg, MeHg – monomethyl Hg and DMeHg – dimethylmercury) together with other water parameters were measured in coastal and open sea deep water profiles. THg concentrations in the water column, as well as in sediments and pore waters, were the highest in the northern, most polluted part of the Adriatic Sea as the consequence of Hg mining in Idrija and the heavy industry of northern Italy. Certain profiles in the South Adriatic Pit exhibit an increase of DGM just over the bottom due to its diffusion from sediment as a consequence of microbial and/or tectonic activity. Furthermore, a Hg mass balance for the Adriatic Sea was calculated based on measurements and literature data. PMID:26013591

  14. Interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beg Paklar, Gordana; Sepic, Jadranka; Grbec, Branka; Dzoic, Tomislav; Kovac, Zarko; Ivatek-Sahdan, Stjepan

    2016-04-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was implemented in order to reproduce interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation. Simulations and model result analysis were performed for a three-year period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2013. ROMS model run was forced with realistic atmospheric fields obtained from meteorological model Aladin, climatological river discharges, tides and Mediterranean circulation imposed at the southern open boundary. Atmospheric forcing included momentum, heat and water fluxes calculated interactively from the Aladin surface fields during ROMS model simulations. Model results were compared with available CTD and ADCP measurements and discussed in the light of the climatological circulation and thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and its coastal areas. Interannual variability in the Adriatic circulation is related to the prevailing atmospheric conditions, changes in the hydrological conditions and water mass exchange at the Otranto Strait. Basic features of the Adriatic circulation - basin-wide cyclonic circulation with several embedded smaller cyclonic gyres around main pits - are well reproduced by ROMS model. Modelled temperatures and salinities are within corresponding seasonal intervals, although measured profiles generally indicate stronger stratification than modelled ones. Summer circulation in 2011 with current reversal obtained along the eastern Adriatic coast was related to the sampling results of the early fish stages as well as to ARGO drifter movements. Simulated fields from the Adriatic scale model were used to prescribe the initial and open boundary conditions for the interannual simulation in the middle Adriatic coastal domain.

  15. A sea of worms: polychaete checklist of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Mikac, Barbara

    2015-04-07

    The checklist of polychaetes of the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean) based on bibliographic sources published from 1840 to 2014, as well as on novel data, with 49 new records for the area, is herein presented. The Adriatic Sea polychaete fauna comprises at present of 764 species in 360 genera and 62 families. The richest family is the Syllidae, with 112 species (c.a. 15% of the all taxa). Eight families account for as much as 50% of the diversity (Syllidae, Serpulidae, Sabellidae, Phyllodocidae, Spionidae, Polynoidae, Terebellidae and Nereididae). Among the three Adriatic sectors (Northern, Central and Southern Adriatic), the Northern Adriatic is the richest one, whereas the composition of the most diverse families is very similar in all sectors. Data on endemisms (6), aliens (29) and valid species with the type locality in the Adriatic Sea (90) are also discussed. The list of all relevant papers citing each species in the Adriatic is included, allowing future detailed information retrievals for distinct purposes. Results suggest that the number of species will keep increasing in the future, as new surveys will be undertaken, so regular updates of the present list will be necessary.

  16. A sea of worms: polychaete checklist of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Mikac, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The checklist of polychaetes of the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean) based on bibliographic sources published from 1840 to 2014, as well as on novel data, with 49 new records for the area, is herein presented. The Adriatic Sea polychaete fauna comprises at present of 764 species in 360 genera and 62 families. The richest family is the Syllidae, with 112 species (c.a. 15% of the all taxa). Eight families account for as much as 50% of the diversity (Syllidae, Serpulidae, Sabellidae, Phyllodocidae, Spionidae, Polynoidae, Terebellidae and Nereididae). Among the three Adriatic sectors (Northern, Central and Southern Adriatic), the Northern Adriatic is the richest one, whereas the composition of the most diverse families is very similar in all sectors. Data on endemisms (6), aliens (29) and valid species with the type locality in the Adriatic Sea (90) are also discussed. The list of all relevant papers citing each species in the Adriatic is included, allowing future detailed information retrievals for distinct purposes. Results suggest that the number of species will keep increasing in the future, as new surveys will be undertaken, so regular updates of the present list will be necessary. PMID:25947537

  17. Seasonal changes in technological and nutritional quality of Mytilus galloprovincialis from suspended culture in the Gulf of Trieste (North Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, Tiziana; Iacumin, Lucilla; Tubaro, Franco; Marcuzzo, Eva; Sensidoni, Alessandro; Tulli, Francesca

    2015-04-15

    Nutritional quality parameters, microbiological and technological quality indicators (condition index, meat yield and water-holding capacity) of blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, reared in the North Adriatic Sea were characterised at monthly intervals over a 1 year period. Contents of protein (7.5-11.6 g/100 g), lipid (1.0-2.2 g/100 g) and ash (2.2-3.3 g/100 g) varied significantly accordingly to condition index (6-15%). n-3 PUFAs were the predominant fatty acids (38.7-45.9% of fatty acids) and docosahesaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids were the most abundant (167 and 93.3 mg/100 g, respectively). Glycine, glutamic and aspartic acids accounted for 40% of total amino acids. All samples exhibited limited concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn, as well as Na. M. galloprovincialis from the North Adriatic Sea showed the highest technological and nutritional quality, considering also the inter-annual variability, in late spring, which corresponds to the period immediately before gamete release.

  18. Sediment dispersal in the northwestern Adriatic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, C.K.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.; Bever, A.J.; Warner, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment dispersal in the Adriatic Sea was evaluated using coupled three-dimensional circulation and sediment transport models, representing conditions from autumn 2002 through spring 2003. The calculations accounted for fluvial sources, resuspension by waves and currents, and suspended transport. Sediment fluxes peaked during southwestward Bora wind conditions that produced energetic waves and strengthened the Western Adriatic Coastal Current. Transport along the western Adriatic continental shelf was nearly always to the south, except during brief periods when northward Sirocco winds reduced the coastal current. Much of the modeled fluvial sediment deposition was near river mouths, such as the Po subaqueous delta. Nearly all Po sediment remained in the northern Adriatic. Material from rivers that drain the Apennine Mountains traveled farther before deposition than Po sediment, because it was modeled with a lower settling velocity. Fluvial sediment delivered to areas with high average bed shear stress was more highly dispersed than material delivered to more quiescent areas. Modeled depositional patterns were similar to observed patterns that have developed over longer timescales. Specifically, modeled Po sediment accumulation was thickest near the river mouth with a very thin deposit extending to the northeast, consistent with patterns of modern sediment texture in the northern Adriatic. Sediment resuspended from the bed and delivered by Apennine Rivers was preferentially deposited on the northern side of the Gargano Peninsula, in the location of thick Holocene accumulation. Deposition here was highest during Bora winds when convergences in current velocities and off-shelf flux enhanced delivery of material to the midshelf. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Distribution of natural radioactivity in sediment cores from Amvrakikos Gulf (Western Greece) as a part of IAEA's campaign in the Adriatic and Ionian Seas.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Evangeliou, N; Fillis-Tsirakis, E; Sotiropoulou, M; Patiris, D L; Florou, H

    2012-07-01

    The vertical distribution of natural radionuclides ((232)Th decay, (238)U decay, (40)K and (210)Pb) was assessed in sediment cores collected from the Amvrakikos Gulf, (Ionian Sea, Western Greece). Two collection stations were selected, the first at the western part of the Gulf near Preveza Strait (13A station) and the other near the centre of the Gulf (13B station). Activity concentrations were measured by means of gamma-ray spectrometry using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors installed at two national laboratories. The activity concentration of (226)Ra was found in a range from 10 to 20 Bq kg(-1), while the activity concentration of (222)Rn daughters ((214)Pb, (214)Bi) ranged from 6 to 20 Bq kg(-1). The activity concentration of (228)Ac varied from 20 to 28 Bq kg(-1), while (220)Rn daughters ((212)Pb, (208)Tl) from 7 to 35 Bq kg(-1). As concerns (40)K and (210)Pb, their activities varied from 400 to 830 Bq kg(-1) and from 11 to 360 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Also, the data of (210)Pb were utilised in the calculations of the sedimentation rate along the sediment cores. Both locations were characterised by a consistent pattern with the average rates of 0.55 ± 0.02 and 0.32 ± 0.02 cm y(-1), corresponding to 13A and 13B stations, respectively. Finally, the measurements constituted the basis of the first reported database concerning the radiological condition of the Gulf and which can be reclaimed as reference values in future monitoring studies.

  20. Trophic transfer and accumulation of mercury in ray species in coastal waters affected by historic mercury mining (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Horvat, Milena; Degenek, Nina; Lipej, Lovrenc; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Faganeli, Jadran

    2014-03-01

    Total mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) were analysed in the gills, liver and muscle of four cartilaginous fish species (top predators), namely, the eagle ray (Myliobatis aquila), the bull ray (Pteromylaeus bovinus), the pelagic stingray (Dasyatis violacea) and the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca), collected in the Gulf of Trieste, one of the most Hg-polluted areas in the Mediterranean and worldwide due to past mining activity in Idrija (West Slovenia). The highest Hg and MMHg concentrations expressed on a dry weight (d.w.) basis were found in the muscle of the pelagic stingray (mean, 2.529 mg/kg; range, 1.179-4.398 mg/kg, d.w.), followed by the bull ray (mean, 1.582 mg/kg; range, 0.129-3.050 mg/kg d.w.) and the eagle ray (mean, 0.222 mg/kg; range, 0.070-0.467 mg/kg, d.w.). Only one specimen of the common stingray was analysed, with a mean value in the muscle of 1.596 mg/kg, d.w. Hg and MMHg contents in the bull ray were found to be positively correlated with species length and weight. The highest MMHg accumulation was found in muscle tissue. Hg and MMHg were also found in two embryos of a bull ray, indicating Hg transfer from the mother during pregnancy. The number of specimens and the size coverage of the bull rays allowed an assessment of Hg accumulation with age. It was shown that in bigger bull ray specimens, the high uptake of inorganic Hg in the liver and the slower MMHg increase in the muscle were most probably due to the demethylation of MMHg in the liver. The highest Hg and MMHg contents in all organs were found in the pelagic stingray, which first appeared in the northern Adriatic in 1999. High Hg and MMHg concentrations were also found in prey species such as the banded murex (Hexaplex trunculus), the principal prey of the eagle rays and bull rays, the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) and the red bandfish (Cepola rubescens), which are preyed upon by the pelagic stingray, as well as in zooplankton and seawater. Based on previously published

  1. Trophic transfer and accumulation of mercury in ray species in coastal waters affected by historic mercury mining (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Horvat, Milena; Degenek, Nina; Lipej, Lovrenc; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Faganeli, Jadran

    2014-03-01

    Total mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) were analysed in the gills, liver and muscle of four cartilaginous fish species (top predators), namely, the eagle ray (Myliobatis aquila), the bull ray (Pteromylaeus bovinus), the pelagic stingray (Dasyatis violacea) and the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca), collected in the Gulf of Trieste, one of the most Hg-polluted areas in the Mediterranean and worldwide due to past mining activity in Idrija (West Slovenia). The highest Hg and MMHg concentrations expressed on a dry weight (d.w.) basis were found in the muscle of the pelagic stingray (mean, 2.529 mg/kg; range, 1.179-4.398 mg/kg, d.w.), followed by the bull ray (mean, 1.582 mg/kg; range, 0.129-3.050 mg/kg d.w.) and the eagle ray (mean, 0.222 mg/kg; range, 0.070-0.467 mg/kg, d.w.). Only one specimen of the common stingray was analysed, with a mean value in the muscle of 1.596 mg/kg, d.w. Hg and MMHg contents in the bull ray were found to be positively correlated with species length and weight. The highest MMHg accumulation was found in muscle tissue. Hg and MMHg were also found in two embryos of a bull ray, indicating Hg transfer from the mother during pregnancy. The number of specimens and the size coverage of the bull rays allowed an assessment of Hg accumulation with age. It was shown that in bigger bull ray specimens, the high uptake of inorganic Hg in the liver and the slower MMHg increase in the muscle were most probably due to the demethylation of MMHg in the liver. The highest Hg and MMHg contents in all organs were found in the pelagic stingray, which first appeared in the northern Adriatic in 1999. High Hg and MMHg concentrations were also found in prey species such as the banded murex (Hexaplex trunculus), the principal prey of the eagle rays and bull rays, the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) and the red bandfish (Cepola rubescens), which are preyed upon by the pelagic stingray, as well as in zooplankton and seawater. Based on previously published

  2. Burried MIS 5 abrasion platforms in the Bay of Koper (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic) confirm long-term subsidence of the Northern Adriatic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trobec, Ana; Šmuc, Andrej; Poglajen, Sašo; Vrabec, Marko

    2016-04-01

    The youngest seafloor sediments of the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic) are represented by an up to several 100 meters thick succession of Pliocene to Quaternary continental and shallow-marine deposits recording numerous transgressive-regressive cycles. These sediments are separated from older lithologies (mainly Eocene flysch) by an erosional unconformity. Previous geophysical campaigns conducted in the Italian part of the Gulf of Trieste revealed a complex undulating morphology of the unconformity characterised by numerous morphological steps in the flysch appearing between 40 and 200 m below sea level. From correlation with onshore well data from the Friuli and Veneto area it is assumed that the highest system of these unconformities located at approximately 40 mbsl represents a marine abrasion platform formed during the MIS 5 period sea-level highstand. We present the first observations of these abrasion platforms in the Bay of Koper in the southern (Slovenian) part of the Gulf of Trieste. A series of perpendicular sub-bottom sonar profiles with a spacing of 250-500 meters was acquired in the Bay of Koper between 2009 and 2012 with the Innomar parametric sediment echo sounder SES-2000. Along the northern coast of the bay several acoustic facies were resolved, including the top erosional unconformity surface of the flysch. On this surface we located platforms at 35 ms (platform A), 40 ms (platform B) and 50 ms (platform C) of two-way-travel time. The top of abrasion platform B coincides with the top of a sediment progradational wedge which overlies abrasion platform C. No progradational wedge is developed at the top of platform A. Due to signal attenuation and multiples sub-bottom profiles could not be interpreted below 53 ms TWT time. We used a sound velocity of 1650 m/s for the time to depth conversion, which places the platforms at the depth of 28, 33 and 41 mbsl, respectively. Assuming that the abrasion platforms are a remnant of the MIS 5 highstand, this

  3. Sediment dynamics in the Adriatic Sea investigated with coupled models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Carniel, Sandro; Cavaleri, Luigi; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Das, Himangshu; Doyle, James D.; Harris, Courtney K.; Niedoroda, Alan W.; Perkins, Henry; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Pullen, Julie; Reed, Christopher W.; Russo, Aniello; Sclavo, Mauro; Signell, Richard P.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Warner, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Several large research programs focused on the Adriatic Sea in winter 2002-2003, making it an exciting place for sediment dynamics modelers (Figure 1). Investigations of atmospheric forcing and oceanic response (including wave generation and propagation, water-mass formation, stratification, and circulation), suspended material, bottom boundary layer dynamics, bottom sediment, and small-scale stratigraphy were performed by European and North American researchers participating in several projects. The goal of EuroSTRATAFORM researchers is to improve our ability to understand and simulate the physical processes that deliver sediment to the marine environment and generate stratigraphic signatures. Scientists involved in the Po and Apennine Sediment Transport and Accumulation (PASTA) experiment benefited from other major research programs including ACE (Adriatic Circulation Experiment), DOLCE VITA (Dynamics of Localized Currents and Eddy Variability in the Adriatic), EACE (the Croatian East Adriatic Circulation Experiment project), WISE (West Istria Experiment), and ADRICOSM (Italian nowcasting and forecasting) studies.

  4. Global and regional factors contributing to the past and future sea level rise in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2013-07-01

    This study aims at discussing evolution of Sea Level (SL) in the Northern Adriatic Sea for the 20th and 21st century. A Linear Regression Model (LRM) which aims at describing the effect of regional processes, is built and validated. This LRM computes the North Adriatic mean SL variations using three predictors: the Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) in the Gulf of Venice, the mean Sea Temperature (ST) of the water column in the South Adriatic and the Upper Level Salinity (ULS) in the central part of the basin. SL data are provided by monthly values recorded at 7 tide gauges distributed along the Italian and Croatian coasts (available at the PSMSL, Permanent Service of Mean Sea Level). MSLP data are provided by the EMULATE data set. Mediterranean ST and ULS data are extracted from the MEDATLAS/2002 database. The study shows that annual SL variations at Northern Adriatic stations are very coherent, so that the Northern Adriatic SL can be reconstructed since 1905 on the basis of only two stations: Venice and Trieste. The LRM is found to be robust, very successful at explaining interannual SL variations and consistent with the physical mechanisms responsible for SL evolution. Results show that observed SL in the 20th century has a large trend, which cannot be explained by this LRM, and it is interpreted as the superposition of land movement and a remote cause (such as polar ice melting). When the LRM is used with the MSLP, ST and ULS from climate model projections for the end of the 21st century (A1B scenario), it produces an SL rise in the range from 2.3 to 14.1 cm, with a best estimate of 8.9 cm. However, results show that the behavior of the remotely forced SL rise is the main source of future SL uncertainty and extrapolating its present trend to the future would expand the range of SL uncertainty from 14 to 49 cm.

  5. Molecular characterisation of Anisakidae larvae from fish in Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Vardić Smrzlić, I; Valić, D; Kapetanović, D; Kurtović, B; Teskeredžić, E

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, anisakids from: tuna (Thunnus thynnus) fattened in the Croatian farm in middle Adriatic Sea, three different feral fish species caught near tuna farm (Trachurus trachurus, Scomber japonicus and Oblada melanura) and fish marketed in Croatia (T. trachurus) were analysed by morphology and molecular methods. Larvae were identified to the species level by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism and characterised by sequencing of nuclear (internal transcribed spacer) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2) markers. The results revealed diverse Anisakidae community consisting of: Anisakis pegreffi, Anisakis simplex (s.s.), Anisakis typica and Hysterothylacium aduncum. This is the first report of A. typica in Adriatic Sea, and also the first record of this species in T. thynnus as host in Mediterranean Sea. Molecular identification of H. aduncum found in co-infection with Anisakis larvae type I expands our knowledge of the occurrence of these taxa in the Adriatic Sea. Zoonotic Anisakidae worms found in fish from the Adriatic Sea could represent a risk to acquire parasitic infection/allergies in Croatia.

  6. Molecular characterisation of Anisakidae larvae from fish in Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Vardić Smrzlić, I; Valić, D; Kapetanović, D; Kurtović, B; Teskeredžić, E

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, anisakids from: tuna (Thunnus thynnus) fattened in the Croatian farm in middle Adriatic Sea, three different feral fish species caught near tuna farm (Trachurus trachurus, Scomber japonicus and Oblada melanura) and fish marketed in Croatia (T. trachurus) were analysed by morphology and molecular methods. Larvae were identified to the species level by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism and characterised by sequencing of nuclear (internal transcribed spacer) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2) markers. The results revealed diverse Anisakidae community consisting of: Anisakis pegreffi, Anisakis simplex (s.s.), Anisakis typica and Hysterothylacium aduncum. This is the first report of A. typica in Adriatic Sea, and also the first record of this species in T. thynnus as host in Mediterranean Sea. Molecular identification of H. aduncum found in co-infection with Anisakis larvae type I expands our knowledge of the occurrence of these taxa in the Adriatic Sea. Zoonotic Anisakidae worms found in fish from the Adriatic Sea could represent a risk to acquire parasitic infection/allergies in Croatia. PMID:22983167

  7. A laboratory-incubated redox oscillation experiment to investigate Hg fluxes from highly contaminated coastal marine sediments (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Emili, A; Carrasco, L; Acquavita, A; Covelli, S

    2014-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) mobility at the sediment-water interface was investigated during a laboratory incubation experiment conducted with highly contaminated sediments (13 μg g(-1)) of the Gulf of Trieste. Undisturbed sediment was collected in front of the Isonzo River mouth, which inflows Hg-rich suspended material originating from the Idrija (NW Slovenia) mining district. Since hypoxic and anoxic conditions at the bottom are frequently observed and can influence the Hg biogeochemical behavior, a redox oscillation was simulated in the laboratory, at in situ temperature, using a dark flux chamber. Temporal variations of several parameters were monitored simultaneously: dissolved Hg (DHg) and methylmercury (MeHg), O2, NH4 (+), NO3 (-) + NO2 (-), PO4 (3-), H2S, dissolved Mn(2+), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC). Under anoxic conditions, both Hg (665 ng m(2) day(-1)) and MeHg (550 ng m(2) day(-1)) fluxed from sediments into the water column, whereas re-oxygenation caused concentrations of MeHg and Hg to rapidly drop, probably due to re-adsorption onto Fe/Mn-oxyhydroxides and enhanced demethylation processes. Hence, during anoxic events, sediments of the Gulf of Trieste may be considered as an important source of DHg species for the water column. On the contrary, re-oxygenation of the bottom compartment mitigates Hg and MeHg release from the sediment, thus acting as a natural "defence" from possible interaction between the metal and the aquatic organisms.

  8. Biocomplexity in Populations of European Anchovy in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Occhipinti, Giulia; Fioravanti, Tatiana; Santojanni, Alberto; Leonori, Iole; De Felice, Andrea; Arneri, Enrico; Procaccini, Gabriele; Catanese, Gaetano; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Bonanno, Angelo; Nisi Cerioni, Paola; Giovannotti, Massimo; Grant, William Stewart; Caputo Barucchi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The sustained exploitation of marine populations requires an understanding of a species' adaptive seascape so that populations can track environmental changes from short- and long-term climate cycles and from human development. The analysis of the distributions of genetic markers among populations, together with correlates of life-history and environmental variability, can provide insights into the extent of adaptive variation. Here, we examined genetic variability among populations of mature European anchovies (n = 531) in the Adriatic (13 samples) and Tyrrhenian seas (2 samples) with neutral and putative non-neutral microsatellite loci. These genetic markers failed to confirm the occurrence of two anchovy species in the Adriatic Sea, as previously postulated. However, we found fine-scale population structure in the Adriatic, especially in northern areas, that was associated with four of the 13 environmental variables tested. Geographic gradients in sea temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen appear to drive adaptive differences in spawning time and early larval development among populations. Resolving adaptive seascapes in Adriatic anchovies provides a means to understand mechanisms underpinning local adaptation and a basis for optimizing exploitation strategies for sustainable harvests.

  9. Biocomplexity in Populations of European Anchovy in the Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Occhipinti, Giulia; Fioravanti, Tatiana; Santojanni, Alberto; Leonori, Iole; De Felice, Andrea; Arneri, Enrico; Procaccini, Gabriele; Catanese, Gaetano; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Bonanno, Angelo; Nisi Cerioni, Paola; Giovannotti, Massimo; Grant, William Stewart; Caputo Barucchi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The sustained exploitation of marine populations requires an understanding of a species' adaptive seascape so that populations can track environmental changes from short- and long-term climate cycles and from human development. The analysis of the distributions of genetic markers among populations, together with correlates of life-history and environmental variability, can provide insights into the extent of adaptive variation. Here, we examined genetic variability among populations of mature European anchovies (n = 531) in the Adriatic (13 samples) and Tyrrhenian seas (2 samples) with neutral and putative non-neutral microsatellite loci. These genetic markers failed to confirm the occurrence of two anchovy species in the Adriatic Sea, as previously postulated. However, we found fine-scale population structure in the Adriatic, especially in northern areas, that was associated with four of the 13 environmental variables tested. Geographic gradients in sea temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen appear to drive adaptive differences in spawning time and early larval development among populations. Resolving adaptive seascapes in Adriatic anchovies provides a means to understand mechanisms underpinning local adaptation and a basis for optimizing exploitation strategies for sustainable harvests. PMID:27074008

  10. Biocomplexity in Populations of European Anchovy in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Occhipinti, Giulia; Fioravanti, Tatiana; Santojanni, Alberto; Leonori, Iole; De Felice, Andrea; Arneri, Enrico; Procaccini, Gabriele; Catanese, Gaetano; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Bonanno, Angelo; Nisi Cerioni, Paola; Giovannotti, Massimo; Grant, William Stewart; Caputo Barucchi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The sustained exploitation of marine populations requires an understanding of a species' adaptive seascape so that populations can track environmental changes from short- and long-term climate cycles and from human development. The analysis of the distributions of genetic markers among populations, together with correlates of life-history and environmental variability, can provide insights into the extent of adaptive variation. Here, we examined genetic variability among populations of mature European anchovies (n = 531) in the Adriatic (13 samples) and Tyrrhenian seas (2 samples) with neutral and putative non-neutral microsatellite loci. These genetic markers failed to confirm the occurrence of two anchovy species in the Adriatic Sea, as previously postulated. However, we found fine-scale population structure in the Adriatic, especially in northern areas, that was associated with four of the 13 environmental variables tested. Geographic gradients in sea temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen appear to drive adaptive differences in spawning time and early larval development among populations. Resolving adaptive seascapes in Adriatic anchovies provides a means to understand mechanisms underpinning local adaptation and a basis for optimizing exploitation strategies for sustainable harvests. PMID:27074008

  11. Modelling the Adriatic Sea Bottom Trapped Gravity "River"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello; Warner, John C.

    2013-04-01

    Cold and dry intense winds blowing over shallow sea shelfs produce favorable conditions for water column evaporation and cooling. The new formed water is denser than the out-shelf environmental water and moves away from the production basin, barotropically adjusted. This flow propagates as a wide and slow "river" whose destiny is twofold: on one hand local sea bottom changes force the denser waters to cascade into deeper depressions, while it mixes with the warmer ambient waters, decreasing velocity and so terminate their well defined propagation when it reaches the local neutral buoyancy, and spreading become mainly isopycnic. In this context, the semi-enclosed Adriatic Sea (the North-easternmost sub-basin of Mediterranean Sea) is a representative domain to investigate the dynamics of this bottom trapped gravity "river" (namely North Adriatic Dense Water, NadDW). NAdDW originates in the northern shallow Adriatic (average depth is approximately 20 m) part, and then it moves southward parallel to the eastern Italian coast and branches to partially fill the mid-Adriatic (Jabuca) and the South Adriatic pits. NAdDW reaches the southern Adriatic in 2-3 months covering a route of approximately 800 km, moving with an average speed in the order of 10 cm/s. To investigate different aspects that contribute to produce and spread the dense water an eddy resolving high-resolution (1 km) numerical model has been setup in the Adriatic Sea. The numerical runs have relied on the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere- Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system, which is based on the ocean model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System), the wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore), and the CSTMS (Community Sediment Transport Modeling System) routines (Benetazzo et al., 2013). To drive the modeling system, the atmosphere forcings provided by the operational meteorological model COSMO-I7 (an atmospheric mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) have been used. The

  12. Coflexip installs flexible water line in Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the design, manufacture, transport and installation of a submarine pipe line network. The network would transport potable water from Yugoslavia's Dubroynil and Peljesac peninsula to the islands of Elafiti and Mljet, popular resort areas in the Adriatic Sea. The pipe line network consists of five separate 8-in. ID flexible lines, each 10 mi long. The pipe is made of thermoplastic tubing, a steel carcass and double crossword armor. The tubing is suitable for potable water service.

  13. Development of a geotechnical and pile driving database, Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Carpaneto, R.; Paoletti, L.; Guaita, P.; Pratico, A.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a geotechnical and pile driving data base relevant to offshore installations in the Adriatic Sea. The paper discusses sources of information, structure, content, and engineering applications of the data base. Data available from Agip`s platform installations in the Adriatic was reviewed, and 20 representative platforms were chosen. Two relational data bases were created, for geotechnical and installation data respectively. The data bases provide a comprehensive and organized source of information about past experience in the area. Such experience is now quickly available for geotechnical engineering activities. As a main application of the data bases, information was processed to make data sets for training Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict pile driveability. It is envisioned that the data bases will also be used in ongoing installation program design.

  14. Phylogeography of isolated freshwater three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations in the Adriatic Sea basin.

    PubMed

    DeFaveri, J; Zanella, L N; Zanella, D; Mrakovčić, M; Merilä, J

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of mitochondrial (mt) DNA and microsatellite variation were carried out to examine the relationships between 10 freshwater populations of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. Partial sequences of the mtDNA control region and cytochrome b gene, in addition to 15 microsatellite loci, were used to analyse populations from four isolated river catchments. Results uncovered an Adriatic lineage that was clearly divergent from the European lineage, and confirmed that the most divergent and ancient populations are located within the Adriatic lineage as compared with other European populations. Two northern Adriatic populations formed independent clades within the European mitochondrial lineage, suggesting different colonization histories of the different Adriatic populations. Nuclear marker analyses also indicated deep divergence between Adriatic and European populations, albeit with some discordance between the mtDNA phylogeny of the northern Adriatic populations, further highlighting the strong differentiation among the Adriatic populations. The southern populations within the Adriatic lineage were further organized into distinct clades corresponding to respective river catchments and sub-clades corresponding to river tributaries, reflecting a high degree of population structuring within a small geographic region, concurrent with suggestions of existence of several microrefugia within the Balkan Peninsula. The highly divergent clades and haplotypes unique to the southern Adriatic populations further suggest, in accordance with an earlier, more limited survey, that southern Adriatic populations represent an important reservoir for ancient genetic diversity of G. aculeatus.

  15. Applications of remote sensing for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, F.; Borfecchia, F.; De Cecco, L.; Martini, S.

    1997-08-01

    The paper shows the remote sensing activities that ENEA is carrying out for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions and their modifications over the last fifteen years. The activities were requested by the Italian Research Ministry to gain knowledge of the circulation model of the Adriatic Sea and to understand what caused algae blooms in some of the last years. The Adriatic Sea is a high environmental risk sea, because its depth is low and a strong pollutant charge is coming into the sea from the Po river and from many other rivers of the NE coast of Italy. Processing of satellite images has covered the period from 1980 up to now and has allowed the reconstruction of modifications of the environmental conditions of the sea. The paper shows the first results obtained by remote sensing images processing that will be utilized for the database of the Adriatic Sea.

  16. Bioaccumulation of arsenic species in rays from the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Stajnko, Anja; Falnoga, Ingrid; Lipej, Lovrenc; Mazej, Darja; Horvat, Milena; Faganeli, Jadran

    2014-12-01

    The difference in arsenic concentration and speciation between benthic (Pteromylaeus bovinus, Myliobatis aquila) and pelagic rays (Pteroplatytrygon violacea) from the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Trieste) in relation to their size (age) was investigated. High arsenic concentrations were found in both groups with tendency of more efficient arsenic accumulation in benthic species, particularly in muscle (32.4 to 362 µg·g-1 of total arsenic). This was attributed to species differences in arsenic access, uptake and retention. In liver most arsenic was present in a form of arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenoipids, whereas in muscle mainly arsenobetaine was found. The good correlations between total arsenic/arsenobetaine and size reflect the importance of accumulation of arsenobetaine with age. Arsenobetaine is an analogue of glycine betaine, a known osmoregulator in marine animals and both are very abundant in mussels, representing an important source of food for benthic species P. bovinus and M. aquila.

  17. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic Species in Rays from the Northern Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Stajnko, Anja; Falnoga, Ingrid; Lipej, Lovrenc; Mazej, Darja; Horvat, Milena; Faganeli, Jadran

    2014-01-01

    The difference in arsenic concentration and speciation between benthic (Pteromylaeus bovinus, Myliobatis aquila) and pelagic rays (Pteroplatytrygon violacea) from the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Trieste) in relation to their size (age) was investigated. High arsenic concentrations were found in both groups with tendency of more efficient arsenic accumulation in benthic species, particularly in muscle (32.4 to 362 µg·g−1 of total arsenic). This was attributed to species differences in arsenic access, uptake and retention. In liver most arsenic was present in a form of arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenoipids, whereas in muscle mainly arsenobetaine was found. The good correlations between total arsenic/arsenobetaine and size reflect the importance of accumulation of arsenobetaine with age. Arsenobetaine is an analogue of glycine betaine, a known osmoregulator in marine animals and both are very abundant in mussels, representing an important source of food for benthic species P. bovinus and M. aquila. PMID:25470025

  18. Coastal Rapid Environmental Assessment in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoncelli, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Mariano, Arthur J.; Montanari, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Attilio; Deserti, Marco

    2011-09-01

    A new Coastal Rapid Environmental Assessment (CREA) methodology, based on an operational regional forecasting system and coastal monitoring networks of opportunity, has been developed and successfully applied to the Northern Adriatic Sea. The methodology aims at improving the initial condition estimates by combining operational coarse model fields with coastal observations to improve medium to short range predictability which is required by coastal zone and emergency management. The CREA modeling framework system consists of a high resolution, O(800 m), Adriatic SHELF model (ASHELF) nested into the Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS) at 2.2 km resolution. The CREA observational system is composed of coastal networks sampling the water column temperature and salinity between depths of 5 and 40 m. The initialization technique blends the AFS fields with the available observations using a multi-input, multi-scale optimal interpolation technique and a spin-up period for the high resolution ASHELF model to dynamically adjust initial conditions from the coarser resolution AFS model. The high resolution spin up period has been investigated through a dedicated set of experiments and it was found that a week time is enough to have new energetic features in the model initial condition field estimates to be blended with observations. Five CREA study cases have been analyzed for different months of the year, one per month from May to September 2003, chosen on the basis of the availability of the coastal observations for both model initialization and validation. The CREA 7-days forecasts show skill improvements in the coastal area salinity and temperature profiles, deriving from the blending and the spin-up period in the initialization methodology. The main conclusion is that forecasting in coastal areas by nesting necessitates of the observations to correct the coarse resolution model fields providing informations where parent and child model topographies mismatch. Results

  19. Links between Sea Level in the northern Adriatic sea and large scale patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, L.; Lionello, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study analyzes the link between Northern Adriatic sea level (SL) and three variables: sea level pressure over European and North-Atlantic area (SLP), Mediterranean sea surface temperature (SST) and Mediterranean sea surface salinity (SSS). Sea level data are provided by monthly values recorded at 7 tide gauges stations distributed along the north-Italian and Croatian coasts (available at the PSMSL Permanent Service of Mean Sea Level). SLP data are provided by the EMULATE data set. Mediterranean SST and SSS data are extracted from the MEDATLAS/2002 database. The study shows that annual sea level variations at Northern Adriatic stations are very coherent so that the northern Adriatic sea level can be reconstructed since 1905 on the basis of only two stations: Venice and Trieste, whose data cover almost the entire 20th century (whereas Croatian data cover only the second half of the century). The inverse barometric, thermosteric and halosteric effects provide the physical basis for a local relation of SL with SLP, SST, SSS implying, if other effects are absent, a sea level increase for increasing temperature and decreasing atmospheric pressure and salinity. However, the statistical model used to quantify the link between SL and these three forcings shows that they have produced no important trend and they cannot explain the observed trend of Northern Adriatic Sea level during the second half of the 20th century. The observed trend can therefore be interpreted as the superposition of land movement and a remote cause. Using SLP, SST and SSS from climate model simulations, no trend is obtained during the 20th century, as well. The same model simulations, considering their continuations for the 21st century show that local effects (mainly warming of water masses) are likely to produce an increase of about 10cm (with a large uncertainty) at the end of the century. The global signal and the regional land movements have to be added to this result to obtain the actual

  20. Distribution of phosphorus in the eastern Adriatic Sea sediments (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijević, Slavica; Bogner, Danijela; Kušpilić, Grozdan; Veža, Jere

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is very important nutrient for the eastern Adriatic Sea owing to its limiting role in the primary production. Orthophosphate concentrations are low (median HPO42- value: 0.039 µmol dm-3) as a consequence of relatively small number of freshwater inflows and cyclonic circulation of oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean water masses. Due to anthropogenic influence in coastal areas such as bays, estuaries and channel waters, P concentrations increment occurred leading to the formation of trophic gradient from the open sea towards the coast. As marine sediment presents the ultimate sink for particulate organic P from the water column, as well as for inorganic P forms, knowledge about distribution of different sediment P species is of great importance for understanding the burial, diagenesis and environmental geochemical significance of P. This paper presents results of P distribution at the eastern Adriatic sites of different trophic status (open sea, channel, estuary, semi-enclosed bay under the anthropogenic influence and fish farms) during 2002-2012. In the water column dissolved and particulate inorganic and organic P were analyzed. In all sediments total phosphorus (organic and inorganic P) was determined, while at certain sites beside organic P, inorganic P forms were examined using modified SEDEX methods (P in biogenic - P-FD; authigenic - P-AUT and in detrital apatite - P-DET; phosphorus bound to iron oxides and hydroxides - P-Fe). Various geochemical variables in the water column and sediment (HPO42- concentration, sediment redox potential, granulometric composition, carbonate content, iron, organic carbon and total nitrogen content) were also investigated. Results proved total P concentrations range between 3 and 161 µmol g-1, with highest values at sites under the strong anthropogenic impact including fish farms, estuaries and bay areas. Major inorganic P species in the eastern Adriatic was P-Fe form. Fish debris P species P-FD, prevailed in

  1. Nematofauna in the Adriatic Sea: review and check-list of free-living nematode species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travizi, Ana; Vidaković, Jasna

    1998-02-01

    The present paper presents a collection and synthesis of data found in numerous publications on Adriatic Sea nematofauna, as well as unpublished, data mentioned in annotations. For this purpose, a chronological order of investigations and a general survey of the species that occurred in the Adriatic Sea are given. In all, 281 free-living nematode species comprised in 133 genera and 34 families were discerned and listed in a taxonomic review, according to their spatial distribution. In special cases, descriptions of habitat features were noted. The position of species characterized by high population densities, their importance, and contribution to the faunistic composition of certain parts of the Adriatic were also discussed. The summary of the results, of prevailing research on free-living marine nematodes serves as a tool for making distinctions concerning the research level and state of nematofauna knowledge in different parts of the Adriatic Sea. Northern Adriatic nematofauna has been considerably more intensively investigated than that of the Central and South Adriatic.

  2. Natural radionuclides in seafood from the central Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Desideri, D; Meli, M A; Roselli, C

    2011-02-01

    Activity concentrations of ²¹⁰Po, ²¹⁰Pb, and ⁴⁰K were measured in different samples of marine organisms from the central Adriatic Sea. The marine organisms were purchased from the local consumer market during all four seasons of the year to evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of the natural radioactivity. The concentration trend is the following: ⁴⁰K > ²¹⁰Po > ²¹⁰Pb. ⁴⁰K concentration ranged between 54.9 and 235.9 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight, and the arithmetic mean of Pb concentration for all samples is <0.7 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight. Po activity concentration ranged between 0.3 and 44.6 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight; its arithmetic mean was 5.7 ± 7.2 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight. Among the pelagic species, anchovy displayed the highest polonium concentration. The data obtained depend upon the type of marine organism and the period of sampling. Committed effective dose due to ²¹⁰Po ingestion from marine food for individuals in the two different population groups was calculated to be 95.9 and 466.4 μSv y⁻¹, respectively. PMID:21399431

  3. The Occurrence of Internal Tides along the Italian Coast of the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Pinardi, Nadia; Dobricic, Srdjan; Guarnieri, Antonio; Oddo, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of internal tides along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea during stratification season is revealed by a high-resolution, state-of-the-art, three-dimensional primitive-equation baroclinic tidal ocean model of the Adriatic Sea. The NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) model is implemented in the Adriatic Sea with a horizontal resolution of 1°/48 and 120 vertical layers. Tidal components important for the Adriatic, including four major semi-diurnal and three major diurnal tides, are simulated by imposing tidal elevations and velocities along the model domain's southern boundary, which is in the northern Ionian Sea. Effects of atmospheric pressure and wind stress are simulated as well. The co-tidal charts of both semi-diurnal and diurnal tides are well reproduced by the model, suggesting that the hydrodynamics key to tidal processes in the Adriatic (Kelvin, Poincare, and topographic waves) are correctly represented. Compared against tide gauge observations, tidal harmonic analysis shows that the averaged error of modelled amplitudes and phases at eight stations along the Italian coast are 15% and 5%, respectively. Vertical oscillations of isotherms near diurnal frequencies are evident at sites along the Italian coast during stratification season. Such oscillations are absent when the tidal forcings are removed from the model. The occurrence of internal tides is readily explained by the supercritical slope theory.

  4. Persistence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments in the deeper area of the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Marini, Mauro; Frapiccini, Emanuela

    2013-02-01

    The Po Valley is the most important agricultural and industrial area of Adriatic basin. In this area there are several rivers which transport polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the sea via suspended particulate matter. This study describes the persistence of PAHs in the deep and coastal sediments of the Northern Adriatic. Different environmental conditions were studied: salinity, temperature, sunlight, sediment particle size and organic matter in sediment. The average conditions in the deep areas of the Northern Adriatic are: salinity higher than 37, temperature lower than 11 °C, darkness and clayey sediments with a high organic matter content. These conditions increase the persistence of the PAHs in the deep area of the Northern Adriatic.

  5. Ingestion of marine debris by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Bojan; Gračan, Romana

    2011-01-01

    We examined the occurrence of marine debris in the gastrointestinal tract of 54 loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) found stranded or incidentally captured dead by fisheries in the Adriatic Sea, with a curved carapace length of 25.0-79.2 cm. Marine debris was present in 35.2% of turtles and included soft plastic, ropes, Styrofoam and monofilament lines found in 68.4%, 42.1%, 15.8% and 5.3% of loggerheads that have ingested debris, respectively. The dry mass of debris per turtle was low, ranging from <0.01 to 0.71 g, and the ingestion was not significantly affected by sex or body size (all p>0.05). Marine debris averaged 2.2 ± 8.0% of dry mass of gut content, with a maximum of 35% found in a juvenile turtle that most likely died due to debris ingestion. Considering the relatively high occurrence of debris intake and possible sub-lethal effects of even small quantities of marine debris, this can be an additional factor of concern for loggerheads in the Adriatic Sea.

  6. Ingestion of marine debris by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Bojan; Gračan, Romana

    2011-01-01

    We examined the occurrence of marine debris in the gastrointestinal tract of 54 loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) found stranded or incidentally captured dead by fisheries in the Adriatic Sea, with a curved carapace length of 25.0-79.2 cm. Marine debris was present in 35.2% of turtles and included soft plastic, ropes, Styrofoam and monofilament lines found in 68.4%, 42.1%, 15.8% and 5.3% of loggerheads that have ingested debris, respectively. The dry mass of debris per turtle was low, ranging from <0.01 to 0.71 g, and the ingestion was not significantly affected by sex or body size (all p>0.05). Marine debris averaged 2.2 ± 8.0% of dry mass of gut content, with a maximum of 35% found in a juvenile turtle that most likely died due to debris ingestion. Considering the relatively high occurrence of debris intake and possible sub-lethal effects of even small quantities of marine debris, this can be an additional factor of concern for loggerheads in the Adriatic Sea. PMID:21036372

  7. Microbial respiration and trophic regimes in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio; Maimone, Giovanna

    2006-08-01

    Remineralization in the Northern Adriatic Sea has been examined by studying the respiratory rates, through electron transport system activity, in four systems identified on the basis of different salinities, caused by riverine outflows, and different productivity regimes measured by apparent oxygen utilization. The sea waters influenced by river discharges were characterized by high respiratory activity while in fully marine waters respiration fell close to the typical value for the surface pelagic Mediterranean waters. A speculative approach to quantify the trophic balance in the examined sub-systems was adopted and the following ratios were computed: Primary Production/Respiration (PP/R); Primary Production/(Bacterial Production + Respiration) [PP/(BP + R)]; (Dissolved Organic Carbon + Particulate Organic Carbon)/Respiration [(DOC + POC)/R], using the data generated at the same time from the same multidisciplinary cruises. High variability of these metabolic ratios in the described subsystems occurred, so that shifting autotrophy and heterotrophy patterns through summer-winter and cross-productivity front trends occurred. Episodic heterotrophy has been found to happen in the North Adriatic Sea, although this is normally considered a productive ecosystem.

  8. Long Waves Perturbations to Astronomical Tides in Adriatic and Tyrrenian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2008-01-03

    Portable tide gauges have been made with ultrasonic detectors with acquisition rate of 100 data per minute. With them we measured mean sea level variations in different locations of Adriatic and Tyrrenian sea around latitude 42 deg. N. Several long term variations are superimposed to astronomical tide, ranging from 4 to 60 minutes. Their nature of seiches or edge waves and their identification with transversal oscillations of the whole sea are discussed.

  9. Tephrostratigraphy of the last 170 ka in sedimentary successions from the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calanchi, Natale; Dinelli, Enrico

    2008-10-01

    In this study are discussed new SEM-EDS analyses performed on glass shards from five cores collected in the Central Adriatic Sea and two cores recovered from the South Adriatic Sea. A total of 26 tephra layers have been characterized and compared with the geochemical features of terrestrial deposits and other tephra archives in the area (South Adriatic Sea and Lago Grande di Monticchio, Vulture volcano). The compositions are compatible with either a Campanian or a Roman provenance. The cores, located on the Central Adriatic inner and outer shelf, recorded tephra referred to explosive events described in the literature: AP3 (sub-Plinian activity of the Somma-Vesuvius, 2710 ± 60 14C years BP); Avellino eruption (Somma-Vesuvius, 3548 ± 129 14C years BP); Agnano Monte Spina (Phlegrean Fields, 4100 ± 400 years BP); Mercato eruption (Somma-Vesuvius, 8010 ± 35 14C years BP; Agnano Pomici Principali eruption (Phlegrean Fields, 10,320 ± 50 14C years BP); Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (Phlegrean Fields, 12,100 ± 170 14C years BP). Some of these layers were also observed in the South Adriatic core IN68-9 in addition to younger ( AP2, sub-Plinian eruption, Somma-Vesuvius, 3225 ± 140 14C years BP), and older layers ( Pomici di Base eruption, Somma-Vesuvius, 18,300 ± 150 14C years BP). Significant is the tephra record of core RF95-7 that, for the first time in the Adriatic Sea, reports the occurrence of tephra layers older than 60 ka: the well known Mediterranean tephra layers X2 (ca. 70 ka), W1 (ca. 140 ka) and V2 (Roman origin, ca. 170 ka) as well as other tephra layers attributed, on the basis of geochemistry and biostratigraphy, to explosive eruptions occurred at Vico (138 ± 2 and 151 ± 3 ka BP) and Ischia (147-140 ka BP). Previous tephra correlations performed on other cores in the Central Adriatic Sea were also critically revised according to new available data, and integrated with the results of this study for a correlation at a regional scale. The most important key

  10. Estimation of sedimentation rate in the Middle and South Adriatic Sea using 137Cs.

    PubMed

    Petrinec, Branko; Franic, Zdenko; Ilijanic, Nikolina; Miko, Slobodan; Strok, Marko; Smodis, Borut

    2012-08-01

    (137)Cs activity concentrations were studied in the sediment profiles collected at five locations in the Middle and South Adriatic. In the sediment profiles collected from the South Adriatic Pit, the deepest part of the Adriatic Sea, two (137)Cs peaks were identified. The peak in the deeper layer was attributed to the period of intensive atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (early 1960s), and the other to the Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986). Those peaks could be used to estimate sedimentation rates by relating them to the respective time periods. Grain-size analysis showed no changes in vertical distribution through the depth of the sediment profile, and these results indicate uniform sedimentation, as is expected in deeper marine environments. It was not possible to identify respective peaks on more shallow locations due to disturbance of the seabed either by trawlers (locations PalagruŽa and Jabuka) or by river sediment (location Albania). The highest sedimentation rates were found in Albania (∼4 mm y(-1)) and Jabuka (3.1 mm y(-1)). For PalagruŽa, the sedimentation rate was estimated to be 1.8 mm y(-1), similar to the South Adriatic Pit where the sedimentation rate was estimated to be 1.8±0.5 mm y(-1). Low sedimentation rates found for the Middle and South Adriatic Sea are consistent with previously reported results for the rest of the Mediterranean.

  11. The impact of meteorology on modelling storm surges in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakelin, S. L.; Proctor, R.

    2002-09-01

    A 1/12° by 1/12° two-dimensional, hydrodynamic tide-surge model for the Mediterranean Sea is used to model two storm surge events in the Adriatic Sea. The impact of meteorological forcing on the model results is investigated using three different sources of data: observations obtained from the UK Meteorological Office, operational analysis model data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting and a local area model for the Adriatic region obtained from Agenzia Regionale Prevenzione e Ambiente dell'Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Two surge events are studied, one under conditions of bora wind (December 1995) and the other for a sirocco wind (November 1997). The model results are compared to hourly data from tide gauges in the northern Adriatic Sea. The three meteorological forcing fields produce storm surge elevations with generally similar behaviour but which differ from each other by up to 60 cm in height. The results obtained by using the UK Meteorological Office data were generally better than those obtained by using either of the two sets of meteorological model data. The model results give periods of 21.3, 11.6, 7.3 and 5.6 h for the Adriatic Sea seiches that are produced by the excitation of the fundamental longitudinal oscillation.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the western Adriatic Sea: Sources, historical trends and inventories.

    PubMed

    Combi, Tatiane; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-08-15

    Sources, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in sediments collected in five transects along the north-south axis of the western Adriatic Sea. The concentration of total PCBs (∑28 PCBs) ranged from Adriatic Sea. This is further corroborated by the estimated inventories of PCBs, which were ~4-7 times higher in the Po River prodelta (256ngcm(-2)) in comparison to the middle and southern Adriatic, respectively, and about 100 times higher than the in the deep Adriatic Sea.

  13. Observed and simulated trophic index (TRIX) values for the Adriatic Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiori, Emanuela; Zavatarelli, Marco; Pinardi, Nadia; Mazziotti, Cristina; Ferrari, Carla Rita

    2016-09-01

    The main scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is to achieve good environmental status (GES) of the EU's marine waters by 2020, in order to protect the marine environment more effectively. The trophic index (TRIX) was developed by Vollenweider in 1998 for the coastal area of Emilia-Romagna (northern Adriatic Sea) and was used by the Italian legislation to characterize the trophic state of coastal waters. We compared the TRIX index calculated from in situ data ("in situ TRIX") with the corresponding index simulated with a coupled physics and biogeochemical numerical model ("model TRIX") implemented in the overall Adriatic Sea. The comparison between in situ and simulated data was carried out for a data time series on the Emilia-Romagna coastal strip. This study shows the compatibility of the model with the in situ TRIX and the importance of the length of the time series in order to get robust index estimates. The model TRIX is finally calculated for the whole Adriatic Sea, showing trophic index differences across the Adriatic coastal areas.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the western Adriatic Sea: Sources, historical trends and inventories.

    PubMed

    Combi, Tatiane; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-08-15

    Sources, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in sediments collected in five transects along the north-south axis of the western Adriatic Sea. The concentration of total PCBs (∑28 PCBs) ranged from Adriatic Sea. This is further corroborated by the estimated inventories of PCBs, which were ~4-7 times higher in the Po River prodelta (256ngcm(-2)) in comparison to the middle and southern Adriatic, respectively, and about 100 times higher than the in the deep Adriatic Sea. PMID:27110972

  15. Gastrointestinal helminth community of loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Gračan, Romana; Buršić, Moira; Mladineo, Ivona; Kučinić, Mladen; Lazar, Bojan; Lacković, Gordana

    2012-07-25

    We analysed the intestinal helminth community of 70 loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta with a curved carapace length ranging from 25 to 85.4 cm, recovered dead in neritic foraging habitats in the Adriatic Sea in 1995 to 2004. The overall prevalence of infection was high (70.0%), with a mean abundance of 36.8 helminth parasites per turtle. Helminth fauna comprised 5 trematodes (Calycodes anthos, Enodiotrema megachondrus, Orchidasma amphiorchis, Pachypsolus irroratus, Rhytidodes gelatinosus) and 3 nematodes (Sulcascaris sulcata, Anisakis spp., Hysterothylacium sp.), with 6 taxa specific for marine turtles. In terms of infection intensity and parasite abundance, O. amphiorchis was the dominant species (mean intensity: 49.8; mean abundance: 12.8), followed by R. gelatinosus (30.5 and 8.3, respectively) and P. irroratus (23.5 and 7.0, respectively), while larval Anisakis spp. exhibited the highest prevalence (34.3%). The intensity of helminth infection ranged from 1 to 302 (mean: 52.6 ± 69.1) and was not correlated with the size of turtles; this relationship held for all species, except R. gelatinosus (rS = 0.556, p < 0.05). In comparison to other marine habitats, the helminth community of Adriatic loggerheads is characterised by higher species diversity (Shannon-Wiener H' = 1.58) and evenness (E = 0.76), and lower dominance values (Berger-Parker d = 0.35), which can be attributed to the life history and feeding ecology of sea turtles in recruited neritic grounds and the diversity of their benthic prey.

  16. Gastrointestinal helminth community of loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Gračan, Romana; Buršić, Moira; Mladineo, Ivona; Kučinić, Mladen; Lazar, Bojan; Lacković, Gordana

    2012-07-25

    We analysed the intestinal helminth community of 70 loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta with a curved carapace length ranging from 25 to 85.4 cm, recovered dead in neritic foraging habitats in the Adriatic Sea in 1995 to 2004. The overall prevalence of infection was high (70.0%), with a mean abundance of 36.8 helminth parasites per turtle. Helminth fauna comprised 5 trematodes (Calycodes anthos, Enodiotrema megachondrus, Orchidasma amphiorchis, Pachypsolus irroratus, Rhytidodes gelatinosus) and 3 nematodes (Sulcascaris sulcata, Anisakis spp., Hysterothylacium sp.), with 6 taxa specific for marine turtles. In terms of infection intensity and parasite abundance, O. amphiorchis was the dominant species (mean intensity: 49.8; mean abundance: 12.8), followed by R. gelatinosus (30.5 and 8.3, respectively) and P. irroratus (23.5 and 7.0, respectively), while larval Anisakis spp. exhibited the highest prevalence (34.3%). The intensity of helminth infection ranged from 1 to 302 (mean: 52.6 ± 69.1) and was not correlated with the size of turtles; this relationship held for all species, except R. gelatinosus (rS = 0.556, p < 0.05). In comparison to other marine habitats, the helminth community of Adriatic loggerheads is characterised by higher species diversity (Shannon-Wiener H' = 1.58) and evenness (E = 0.76), and lower dominance values (Berger-Parker d = 0.35), which can be attributed to the life history and feeding ecology of sea turtles in recruited neritic grounds and the diversity of their benthic prey. PMID:22832721

  17. Characterization of aerosols above the Northern Adriatic Sea: Case studies of offshore and onshore wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzola, J.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Canepa, E.; Tedeschi, G.; Prati, P.; Zarmpas, P.; Bastianini, M.; Missamou, T.; Cavaleri, L.

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol particles in coastal areas result from a complex mixing between sea spray aerosols locally generated at the sea surface by the wind-waves interaction processes and a continental component resulting from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. This paper presents a physical and chemical analysis of the aerosol data acquired from May to September 2014 in the Adriatic Sea. Aerosol distributions were measured on the Acqua Alta platform located 15 km off the coast of Venice using two Particle Measuring System probes and a chemical characterization was made using an Ion Chromatography analysis (IC). Our aim is to study both the sea-spray contribution and the anthropogenic influence in the coastal aerosol of this Mediterranean region. To this end, we focus on a comparison between the present data and the aerosol size distributions measured south of the French Mediterranean coast. For air masses of marine origin transported by southern winds on the French coast and by the Sirocco in the Adriatic, we note a good agreement between the concentrations of super-micrometer aerosols measured in the two locations. This indicates a similar sea surface production of sea-spray aerosols formed by bubble bursting processes in the two locations. In contrast, the results show larger concentrations of submicron particles in the North-Western Mediterranean compared to the Adriatic, which result probably from a larger anthropogenic background for marine conditions. In contrast, for a coastal influence, the chemical analysis presented in the present paper seems to indicate a larger importance of the anthropogenic impact in the Northern Adriatic compared to the North-Western Mediterranean.

  18. Effects of winter convection on the deep layer of the Southern Adriatic Sea in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensi, M.; Cardin, V.; Rubino, A.; Notarstefano, G.; Poulain, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    We analyze aspects concerning the thermohaline changes observed in the near-bottom layer of the Southern Adriatic Pit (SAP), in the Eastern Mediterranean, after the arrival of abundant and exceptionally dense water (σθ > 30 kg m-3) produced in the shallow Northern Adriatic Sea during winter 2012. For this purpose, we use temperature (T), salinity (S), and current time series collected at the E2M3A deep-ocean observatory of the Southern Adriatic, and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth data obtained both in the Southern and Middle Adriatic from freely drifting profiling floats. The dense water produced in the Northern Adriatic arrived in the central and deepest part of the SAP as a series of individual pulses starting on 10 March 2012; while, a stronger and prolonged signal that significantly modified the local deep water stratification arrived after 10 April 2012. As a consequence, T and S suddenly decreased (≈0.15°C and ≈0.015), thus interrupting positive T and S bottom trends observed during the previous 5 years and producing a density increase of ≈0.02 kg m-3. Such variability has been rarely observed in the area. We ascribe its occurrence to the concomitance of exceptionally harsh and long-lasting Bora wind, scarce precipitation, and low river discharge over the Northern Adriatic during winter 2011/2012. Eventually, this newly formed AdDW reached the Strait of Otranto during July 2012. Its characteristics profoundly differed from those observed in the previous decade. Hence, a noticeable variability in structure and circulation of the abyssal layers of the Ionian basin is likely to occur in the near future.

  19. Long-term climate variability of the Adriatic Sea thermohaline properties using an ensemble of regional ocean hindcast simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunic, Natalija; Vilibic, Ivica; Sepic, Jadranka; Sevault, Florence; Somot, Samuel; Waldman, Robin; Jorda, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea has a substantial impact on dynamical properties and thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean, through a large freshwater input and dense water formation processes that drive the thermohaline circulation of the Adriatic-Ionian basin. Together with Bimodal Adriatic-Ionian Oscillation (BiOS), it represents the major driving process of interannual and decadal variations in thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and Central/Eastern Mediterranean. Recent findings, extracted from the long-term observations, implicate a change in driving Adriatic climate processes, which might be important for future climate of the whole Eastern Mediterranean. The reproduction of these processes may be challenging for climate models, as occurring over limited areas and over daily timescales at the most. For that reason, an ensemble of NEMOMED regional ocean hindcast simulations with different spatial (10 and 6 km) and vertical (43 and 75 z-levels) resolutions, atmosphere (50 and 12 km resolution) and freshwater (from 8 to 43 river mouths in the basin) forcing have been analyzed, focusing on their representativeness for the Adriatic Sea dynamics. Furthermore, new Adriatic river climatology, developed recently within short-term oceanographic studies, has been imposed to the hindcast simulations with an aim to lower model biases. Half-centurial time series of temperature and salinity collected at the Palagruža Sill transect, and at the Jabuka and South Adriatic Pits known to be collectors of the Adriatic dense waters, were used for verification of models. The analyses focused on the reproduction of the Adriatic interannual and decadal variations, including their governing processes, dense water formation and BiOS for the 1980-2012 time period. Once becoming reliably reproduced, it will allow for an assessment of their importance and changes in future climate.

  20. Accumulation of organochlorine contaminants in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the eastern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Bojan; Maslov, Luna; Romanić, Snježana Herceg; Gračan, Romana; Krauthacker, Blanka; Holcer, Draško; Tvrtković, Nikola

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed 15 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in fat tissue of 27 loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from eastern Adriatic Sea with the curved carapace length ranging from 25.0 to 84.5 cm. The PCB profile was dominated by hexa- and hepta-chlorinated congeners, with PCB-153 (median: 114.9 ng g⁻¹ wet mass), PCB-138 (80.0 ng g⁻¹ w.m.), and PCB-180 (26.7 ng g⁻¹ w.m.) detected with the highest levels. Toxic mono-ortho congeners PCB-118, PCB-105 and PCB-180 with dioxin-like toxicity were found in > 70% samples. 4,4'-DDE (81.0 ng g⁻¹ w.m.) prevailed the OCP signature, accounting for 80% of the total DDTs. A significant increasing trend in accumulation with size was found for PCB-52 (r(s) = 0.512, p < 0.01) and PCB-114 (r(s) = 0.421, p < 0.05). Comparison of our results with organochlorine contaminant (OC) pattern in some prey taxa suggest that contamination occurs primarily through the food web, with biomagnification factors of 0.14-6.99 which were positively correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient (logK(ow); p < 0.05). This study, based upon a fairly large sample size collected mostly from incidentally captured animals over a short time period (June 2001-November 2002), present a temporal snapshot of OC contamination in wild, free-ranging loggerheads from Adriatic feeding grounds and provide a baseline for monitoring the regional OC trends in this endangered species.

  1. The carbon budget in the northern Adriatic Sea, a winter case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, G.; Azzaro, M.; Bastianini, M.; Bellucci, L. G.; Bernardi Aubry, F.; Bianchi, F.; Burca, M.; Cantoni, C.; Caruso, G.; Casotti, R.; Cozzi, S.; Del Negro, P.; Fonda Umani, S.; Giani, M.; Giuliani, S.; Kovacevic, V.; La Ferla, R.; Langone, L.; Luchetta, A.; Monticelli, L. S.; Piacentino, S.; Pugnetti, A.; Ravaioli, M.; Socal, G.; Spagnoli, F.; Ursella, L.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a winter carbon budget for the northern Adriatic Sea, obtained through direct measurements during two multidisciplinary cruises and literature data. A box model approach was adopted to integrate estimates of stocks and fluxes of carbon species over the total area. The oligotrophy at the basin scale and the start of primary productivity well before the onset of spring stratification were observed. In winter, the system underwent a complete reset, as the mixing of water masses erased any signal of previous hypoxia or anoxia episodes. The northern Adriatic Sea was phosphorus depleted with respect to C and N availability. This fact confirms the importance of mixing with deep-sea water for P supply to biological processes on the whole. Despite the abundant prokaryotic biomass, the microbial food web was less efficient in organic C production than phytoplankton. In the upper layer, the carbon produced by primary production exceeded the fraction respired by planktonic community smaller than 200 µm. On the contrary, respiration processes prevailed in the water column below the pycnocline. The carbon budget also proved that the northern Adriatic Sea can be an effective sink for atmospheric CO2 throughout the entire winter season.

  2. Matching oceanography and genetics at the basin scale. Seascape connectivity of the Mediterranean shore crab in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiavina, M; Marino, I A M; Zane, L; Melià, P

    2014-11-01

    Investigating the interactions between the physical environment and early life history is crucial to understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic structure of marine populations. Here, we assessed the genetic differentiation in a species with larval dispersal, the Mediterranean shore crab (Carcinus aestuarii) in the Adriatic Sea (central Mediterranean), and we investigated the role of oceanic circulation in shaping population structure. To this end, we screened 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 431 individuals collected at eight different sites. We found a weak, yet significant, genetic structure into three major clusters: a northern Adriatic group, a central Adriatic group and one group including samples from southern Adriatic and Ionian seas. Genetic analyses were compared, under a seascape genetics approach, with estimates of potential larval connectivity obtained with a coupled physical-biological model that integrates a water circulation model and a description of biological traits affecting dispersal. The cross-validation of the results of the two approaches supported the view that genetic differentiation reflects an oceanographic subdivision of the Adriatic Sea into three subbasins, with circulation patterns allowing the exchange of larvae through permanent connections linking north Adriatic sites and ephemeral connections like those linking the central Adriatic with northern and southern locations.

  3. Increased liver apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor expression in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) reared in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Corriero, Aldo; Zupa, Rosa; Pousis, Chrysovalentinos; Santamaria, Nicoletta; Bello, Giambattista; Jirillo, Emilio; Carrassi, Michele; De Giorgi, Carla; Passantino, Letizia

    2013-06-15

    The Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (ABFT) is intensely fished in the Mediterranean Sea to supply a prosperous capture-based mariculture industry. Liver apoptotic structures and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene expression were determined in: wild ABFT caught in the eastern Atlantic; juvenile ABFT reared in the central Adriatic Sea; juvenile ABFT reared in the northern Adriatic Sea; adult ABFT reared in the western Mediterranean. The highest density of liver apoptotic structures was found in the juveniles from the northern Adriatic. Two partial TNF cDNAs (TNF1 and TNF2) were cloned and sequenced. TNF1 gene expression was higher in juveniles than in adults. The highest expression of TNF2 was found in the juveniles from the northern Adriatic. These findings might be related to the juvenile exposure to environmental pollutants.

  4. A Self-Organizing Maps approach to assess the wave climate of the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbariol, Francesco; Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Scotton, Carlotta; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The assessment of wave conditions at sea is fruitful for many research fields in marine and atmospheric sciences and for the human activities in the marine environment. To this end, in the last decades the observational network, that mostly relies on buoys, satellites and other probes from fixed platforms, has been integrated with numerical models outputs, which allow to compute the parameters of sea states (e.g. the significant wave height, the mean and peak wave periods, the mean and peak wave directions) over wider regions. Apart from the collection of wave parameters observed at specific sites or modeled on arbitrary domains, the data processing performed to infer the wave climate at those sites is a crucial step in order to provide high quality data and information to the community. In this context, several statistical techniques has been used to model the randomness of wave parameters. While univariate and bivariate probability distribution functions (pdf) are routinely used, multivariate pdfs that model the probability structure of more than two wave parameters are hardly managed. Recently, the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) technique has been successfully applied to represent the multivariate random wave climate at sites around the Iberian peninsula and the South America continent. Indeed, the visualization properties offered by this technique allow to get the dependencies between the different parameters by visual inspection. In this study, carried out in the frame of the Italian National Flagship Project "RITMARE", we take advantage of the SOM technique to assess the multivariate wave climate over the Adriatic Sea, a semi-enclosed basin in the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea, where winds from North-East (called "Bora") and South-East (called "Sirocco") mainly blow causing sea storms. By means of the SOM techniques we can observe the multivariate character of the typical Bora and Sirocco wave features in the Adriatic Sea. To this end, we used both observed and

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Arianna; Tavoloni, Tamara; Bastari, Eleonora; Lestingi, Carmela; Romanelli, Sara; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Galarini, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    One-hundred and thirty-four samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along Central Adriatic Sea in 2013 were examined to determine the levels of fifteen congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The purified samples were analysed by gas-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) applying the isotopic dilution. Only four congeners (PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 49 and PBDE 100) were present above the established limits of quantification with mean concentrations equal to 73, 30, 19 and 18 pg g(-1), respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs (sum) ranged from 27 to 386 pg g(-1), with the highest levels around the coastal area of Ancona town. The here found levels were comparable to those measured in mussels collected along Southern Adriatic Sea.

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Arianna; Tavoloni, Tamara; Bastari, Eleonora; Lestingi, Carmela; Romanelli, Sara; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Galarini, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    One-hundred and thirty-four samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along Central Adriatic Sea in 2013 were examined to determine the levels of fifteen congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The purified samples were analysed by gas-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) applying the isotopic dilution. Only four congeners (PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 49 and PBDE 100) were present above the established limits of quantification with mean concentrations equal to 73, 30, 19 and 18 pg g(-1), respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs (sum) ranged from 27 to 386 pg g(-1), with the highest levels around the coastal area of Ancona town. The here found levels were comparable to those measured in mussels collected along Southern Adriatic Sea. PMID:26497256

  7. Bacterial diversity in the South Adriatic Sea during a strong, deep winter convection year.

    PubMed

    Korlević, M; Pop Ristova, P; Garić, R; Amann, R; Orlić, S

    2015-03-01

    The South Adriatic Sea is the deepest part of the Adriatic Sea and represents a key area for both the Adriatic Sea and the deep eastern Mediterranean. It has a role in dense water formation for the eastern Mediterranean deep circulation cell, and it represents an entry point for water masses originating from the Ionian Sea. The biodiversity and seasonality of bacterial picoplankton before, during, and after deep winter convection in the oligotrophic South Adriatic waters were assessed by combining comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The picoplankton communities reached their maximum abundance in the spring euphotic zone when the maximum value of the chlorophyll a in response to deep winter convection was recorded. The communities were dominated by Bacteria, while Archaea were a minor constituent. A seasonality of bacterial richness and diversity was observed, with minimum values occurring during the winter convection and spring postconvection periods and maximum values occurring under summer stratified conditions. The SAR11 clade was the main constituent of the bacterial communities and reached the maximum abundance in the euphotic zone in spring after the convection episode. Cyanobacteria were the second most abundant group, and their abundance strongly depended on the convection event, when minimal cyanobacterial abundance was observed. In spring and autumn, the euphotic zone was characterized by Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteroidetes clades NS2b, NS4, and NS5 and the gammaproteobacterial SAR86 clade were detected to co-occur with phytoplankton blooms. The SAR324, SAR202, and SAR406 clades were present in the deep layer, exhibiting different seasonal variations in abundance. Overall, our data demonstrate that the abundances of particular bacterial clades and the overall bacterial richness and diversity are greatly impacted by strong winter convection.

  8. Bacterial Diversity in the South Adriatic Sea during a Strong, Deep Winter Convection Year

    PubMed Central

    Korlević, M.; Pop Ristova, P.; Garić, R.; Amann, R.

    2014-01-01

    The South Adriatic Sea is the deepest part of the Adriatic Sea and represents a key area for both the Adriatic Sea and the deep eastern Mediterranean. It has a role in dense water formation for the eastern Mediterranean deep circulation cell, and it represents an entry point for water masses originating from the Ionian Sea. The biodiversity and seasonality of bacterial picoplankton before, during, and after deep winter convection in the oligotrophic South Adriatic waters were assessed by combining comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The picoplankton communities reached their maximum abundance in the spring euphotic zone when the maximum value of the chlorophyll a in response to deep winter convection was recorded. The communities were dominated by Bacteria, while Archaea were a minor constituent. A seasonality of bacterial richness and diversity was observed, with minimum values occurring during the winter convection and spring postconvection periods and maximum values occurring under summer stratified conditions. The SAR11 clade was the main constituent of the bacterial communities and reached the maximum abundance in the euphotic zone in spring after the convection episode. Cyanobacteria were the second most abundant group, and their abundance strongly depended on the convection event, when minimal cyanobacterial abundance was observed. In spring and autumn, the euphotic zone was characterized by Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteroidetes clades NS2b, NS4, and NS5 and the gammaproteobacterial SAR86 clade were detected to co-occur with phytoplankton blooms. The SAR324, SAR202, and SAR406 clades were present in the deep layer, exhibiting different seasonal variations in abundance. Overall, our data demonstrate that the abundances of particular bacterial clades and the overall bacterial richness and diversity are greatly impacted by strong winter convection. PMID:25548042

  9. Three Anisakis spp. isolated from toothed whales stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Kristina; Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge concerning cetacean ecology in the Mediterranean is limited but important for sustainable planning and enforcement of appropriate conservation measures. Any information that might help to elucidate their ecology is essential. We explored the population and genetic structures of Anisakis spp. nematodes isolated from four toothed whale species - bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) - stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast (1990-2012) to reveal more information on host ecological patterns. Lower parasite prevalence was observed in resident dolphin species compared with occasionally occurring species, as well as in young compared with adult dolphins, indicating different feeding habits related to age. No unequivocal relationship between the biological traits of a host (age, body length, body mass and blubber depth) and Anisakis population parameters was observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new geographical record of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (1.96%) and Anisakis physeteris (1.31%) in the Adriatic Sea in addition to resident Anisakis pegreffii (96.73%). In an assessment of the Adriatic Sea and oceans worldwide, the genetic structure of Anisakis revealed that A. pegreffii populations do not differ among various final host species but do differ with respect to geographical location in contrast to previously accepted Anisakis panmixia.

  10. Comparison of SeaWiFS and MODIS time series of inherent optical properties for the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mélin, F.

    2011-01-01

    Time series of inherent optical properties (IOPs) derived from SeaWiFS and MODIS are compared for the Adriatic Sea. The IOPs are outputs of the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm and include total absorption a, phytoplankton absorption aph, absorption associated with colored detrital material (CDM) acdm, and particle backscattering coefficient bbp. The average root-mean square difference Δ computed for log-transformed distributions decreases for a from 0.084 at 412 nm to 0.052 at 490 nm, is higher for aph(443) (0.149) than for acdm(443) (0.071), and is approximately 0.165 for bbp at various wavelengths. The SeaWiFS a at 443 and 490 nm, aph at 443 nm and bbp are on average higher than the MODIS counterparts. Statistics show significant variations in space and time. There is an overall increasing gradient for Δ associated with the absorption terms from the open Southern and Central Adriatic to the northwest part of the basin, and a reversed gradient for the particulate backscattering coefficient. Only a(412) and acdm(443) currently represent an unbiased continuity bridging the SeaWiFS and MODIS periods for the Adriatic Sea.

  11. Comparison of SeaWiFS and MODIS time series of inherent optical properties for the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mélin, F.

    2011-05-01

    Time series of inherent optical properties (IOPs) derived from SeaWiFS and MODIS are compared for the Adriatic Sea. The IOPs are outputs of the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm and include total absorption a, phytoplankton absorption aph, absorption associated with colored detrital material (CDM) acdm, and particle backscattering coefficient bbp. The average root-mean square difference Δ computed for log-transformed distributions decreases for a from 0.084 at 412 nm to 0.052 at 490 nm, is higher for aph(443) (0.149) than for acdm(443) (0.071), and is approximately 0.165 for bbp at various wavelengths. The SeaWiFS a at 443 and 490 nm, aph at 443 nm and bbp are on average higher than the MODIS counterparts. Statistics show significant variations in space and time. There is an overall increasing gradient for Δ associated with the absorption terms from the open southern and central Adriatic to the northwest part of the basin, and a reversed gradient for the particulate backscattering coefficient. For time series analysis, only a(412) and acdm(443) currently present an unbiased continuity bridging the SeaWiFS and MODIS periods for the Adriatic Sea.

  12. Dense water formation and BiOS-induced variability in the Adriatic Sea simulated using an ocean regional circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunić, Natalija; Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence

    2016-08-01

    A performance analysis of the NEMOMED8 ocean regional circulation model was undertaken for the Adriatic Sea during the period of 1961-2012, focusing on two mechanisms, dense water formation (DWF) and the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS), which drive interannual and decadal variability in the basin. The model was verified based on sea surface temperature and sea surface height satellite measurements and long-term in situ observations from several key areas. The model qualitatively reproduces basin-scale processes: thermohaline-driven cyclonic circulation and freshwater surface outflow along the western Adriatic coast, dense water dynamics, and the inflow of Ionian and Levantine waters to the Adriatic. Positive temperature and salinity biases are reported; the latter are particularly large along the eastern part of the basin, presumably because of the inappropriate introduction of eastern Adriatic rivers into the model. The highest warm temperature biases in the vertical direction were found in dense-water-collecting depressions in the Adriatic, indicating either an inappropriate quantification of DWF processes or temperature overestimation of modelled dense water. The decadal variability in the thermohaline properties is reproduced better than interannual variability, which is considerably underestimated. The DWF rates are qualitatively well reproduced by the model, being larger when preconditioned by higher basin-wide salinities. Anticyclonic circulation in the northern Ionian Sea was modelled only during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. No other reversals of circulation that could be linked to BiOS-driven changes were modelled.

  13. Multidecadal variability of atmospheric pressure and wind contribution to storm surges in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicich, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea is very sensitive to sea level changes since most of the coastal areas is low and subject to floods. In addition to natural subsidence, the northwestern Adriatic coast, including the Venice Lagoon and the area around Marina di Ravenna, has been affected by anthropogenic subsidence due to the extraction of underground water and gas, particularly during the 1930-1970 period. In this work we will study the time variability of Adriatic sea level using daily means, trying to identify the different contributions of atmospheric pressure and wind to storm surges in the northern basin. A storm surge event corresponds to a positive peak in the time series of daily mean sea level; secondary peaks within ±2 days from the main peak are discarded since they are attributed to the same storm. Daily sea level variability is studied using Empirical Orthogonal Functions and is connected with atmospheric pressure from NCEP reanalyses and wind stress from NCEP reanalyses and scatterometer data. Different sea level data sets are analysed, varying the number of sea level stations and/or the time series span, since the data coverage is uneven in space and time. The EOF analysis of the various data sets provides coherent results with regard to the two main modes, that together explain between 70 and 85% of total variance. The first mode explains 55-69% of total variance and consists of uniform sea level variability all over the basin, correlated with atmospheric pressure through the inverted barometer effect. The second mode explains 14-16% of variance and accounts for an along-basin sea level gradient, which is correlated with the meridional wind stress component. The first two Principal Components are used as proxies to pressure- and wind-induced components of storm surges in the northern Adriatic. The frequency of the most remarkable events is analysed, choosing the 1%, 5% and 10% highest daily mean sea level to represent events of decreasing strength (on

  14. Scarcity of parasite assemblages in the Adriatic-reared European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Ivona; Petrić, Mirela; Segvić, Tanja; Dobričić, Nikolina

    2010-11-24

    The shaping forces of parasite community structure still is the main subject in the ecological parasitology whilst community predictability and repeatability showed that hardly a generally applicable role is ever going to be assessed. Defining and describing parasite communities can be very useful from the epizootiological point, in order to help in the assessment of the medical and economical impact of certain parasitosis, moreover when hosts are economically valuable species. Since parasite assemblages in reared European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) in Adriatic cage systems can play an important role in the economic feasibility of the rearing process, we evaluated their character through assessing diversity indices, nestedness of parasite communities and their differences in respect to season and composition, as well as fish growth. We observed colonization of a new monogenean species (Furnestinia echeneis) and general impoverishment of parasites populations over time in the Adriatic-reared fish parasite assemblages. Parasite assemblages differed significantly between seasons for both fish species, while species richness, evenness, diversity indices and nestedness of parasitic communities in the sea bream showed to be significantly higher compared to those in the sea bass. Such characteristics define parasite communities of both Adriatic-reared fish as species poor although structured and ordered assemblages.

  15. Determination of cadmium, chromium, lead and vanadium in six fish species from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Sepe, A; Ciaralli, L; Ciprotti, M; Giordano, R; Funari, E; Costantini, S

    2003-06-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead and vanadium were determined in samples of six fish species collected along the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The concentrations of the elements studied were generally low, often below the detection limits of the analytical methods. The highest values (microg x kg(-1) fresh weight) were observed, mainly in the central area of the Adriatic Sea, for anchovy (Cd 20.2, Cr 82.9, Pb 45.9, V 89.9), red mullet (Cd 3.1, Cr 31.0, Pb 36.0, V 79.1) and mackerel (Cd 7.7, Cr 28.0, Pb 11.4, V 43.5). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in all the species examined were below the maximum levels indicated by the European Community for these two elements in seafood, and also would lead to exposure levels lower than the provisional tolerable daily intakes suggested by the FAO/WHO for Cd (420 microg x week(-1) for a 60-kg person) and Pb (1500 microg x week(-1) for a 60-kg person). The concentration of chromium was lower than the recommended daily amount (50-200 microg x day(-1) for a 60-kg person) indicated by the US National Research Council. An 11-34% contribution to the daily vanadium ingestion with fish was calculated for the population of the Adriatic coast.

  16. Intense air-sea exchange and heavy rainfall: impact of the northern Adriatic SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, P.; Davolio, S.

    2016-02-01

    Over the northern Adriatic basin, intense air-sea interactions are often associated with heavy precipitation over the mountainous areas surrounding the basin. In this study, a high-resolution mesoscale model is employed to simulate three severe weather events and to evaluate the effect of the sea surface temperature on the intensity and location of heavy rainfall. The sensitivity tests show that the impact of SST varies among the events and it mainly involves the modification of the PBL characteristics and thus the flow dynamics and its interaction with the orography.

  17. Human health implications associated with mucilage in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Funari, E; Ade, P

    1999-01-01

    Mucilage in the northern Adriatic Sea is well known for its negative impact not only on the ecology of the affected area and on fishing activities but on tourism as well. The microhabitat mucilage creates in the sea can provide favourable conditions for the growth and/or survival of some environmental microorganisms that include human opportunistic pathogens. It also seems to favour the selective development of some marine toxic algae. Finally, mucilage can concentrate chemical contaminants from surrounding waters, hence increasing their bioaccumulation in seafoods. This paper examines the possible direct and indirect effects on human health of mucilage and other forms of marine aggregates.

  18. Observed and modeled surface Lagrangian transport between coastal regions in the Adriatic Sea with implications for marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Griffa, Annalisa; Zambianchi, Enrico; Suaria, Giuseppe; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Russo, Aniello; Bellomo, Lucio; Mantovani, Carlo; Celentano, Paolo; Molcard, Anne; Borghini, Mireno

    2016-04-01

    Surface drifters and virtual particles are used to investigate transport between seven coastal regions in the central and southern Adriatic Sea to estimate the degree to which these regions function as a network. Alongshore coastal currents and cyclonic gyres are the primary circulation features that connected regions in the Adriatic Sea. The historical drifter observations span 25 years and, thus, provide estimates of transport between regions realized by the mean surface circulation. The virtual particle trajectories and a dedicated drifter experiment show that southeasterly Sirocco winds can drive eastward cross-Adriatic transport from the Italian coast near the Gargano Promontory to the Dalmatian Islands in Croatia. Southeasterly winds disrupt alongshore transport on the west coast. Northwesterly Mistral winds enhanced east-to-west transport and resulted in stronger southeastward coastal currents in the western Adriatic current (WAC) and export to the northern Ionian Sea. The central Italian regions showed strong connections from north to south, likely realized by alongshore transport in the WAC. Alongshore, downstream transport was weaker on the east coast, likely due to the more complex topography introduced by the Dalmatian Islands of Croatia. Cross-Adriatic connection percentages were higher for east-to-west transport. Cross-Adriatic transport, in general, occurred via the cyclonic sub-gyres, with westward (eastward) transport observed in the northern (southern) arms of the central and southern gyres.

  19. The Southern Adriatic Basin: A Key Area For The Climatic Monitoring of The Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitarese, G.; Gacic, M.; Saint, The

    The Southern Adriatic, the southernmost and deepest subbasin of the Adriatic Sea, is considered a major site of deep water formation and the origin of the semi-closed ther- mohaline cell in the Eastern Mediterranean. The dynamics of the area is dominated by the presence of a quasi-permanent cyclonic gyre that intensifies in the winter season creating the conditions for the production of dense and oxygenated waters that are exported to the rest of the Eastern Mediterranean through the Strait of Otranto. The at- mospheric forcing is transferred into the marine system by the winter convective water overturning, that is the key process generating new waters and triggering the biologi- cal pump. The other main forcing is the intermediate saline water advection across the Strait of Otranto, connecting the Adriatic Sea with the general basin-scale circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean. Both of them act in determining the occurrence and the magnitude of the convective events and the related biological processes. Due to the ac- tion of these forcing, the Southern Adriatic system is subject to a significant variability on temporal scale spanning from days to decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that the local thermal and haline surface forcing generates strong year-to-year varia- tions of the vertical convection and consequently of the primary production. On the other hand, the advective forcing changes the intermediate water thermohaline prop- erties as well as the nutrient content in the basin, again affecting both the vertical convection and the biological processes. The signals associated to these processes are particularly intense, and allow us to designate this relatively small basin as a suit- able field laboratory for the study of the relationships between ocean biogeochemical cycles and climate.

  20. Sea level rise of semi-enclosed basins: deviation of Adriatic and Baltic sea level from the mean global value.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Future sea level rise (SL), which represents today one of the major threats that are caused by climate change, will not be uniform. Regional differences are crucial for 40% of the world population, which is located in the coastal zone. To explore the mechanisms linking regional SL to climate variables is very important in order to provide reliable future projections. This study focuses on two semi-enclosed basins, the Adriatic and Baltic Sea and investigates the deviation of their SL from the mean global value. In fact, past deviations of the SL of these two basins from the global value have been observed and can be attributed to large scale factors (such as teleconnections) and regional factors, such as the inverse barometric effect, the wind stress, the thermosteric and halosteric effects. The final goal of this work is to assess to which extent the Adriatic and Baltic SL will depart from the mean global value in the next decades and at the end of 21st century. This is achieved by analyzing deviations of the mean SL of the Baltic and Adriatic Sea from the global mean SL during the 20th century and investigating which factors can explain such deviations. A multivariate linear regression model is built and used to describe the link between three large scale climate variables which are used as predictors (mean sea level pressure, surface air temperature and precipitation), and the regional SL deviation (the predictand), computed as the difference between the regional and the global SL. At monthly scale this linear regression model provides a good reconstruction of the past variability in the cold season during which it explains 60%-70% of the variance. Summer reconstruction is substantially less successful and it represents presently the main limit of the model skill. This linear regression model, forced by predictors extracted from CMIP5 multi-model simulations, is used to provide projections of SL in the Adriatic and Baltic Sea. On the basis of the projections

  1. Patterns in nematode community during and after experimentally induced anoxia in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Mehrshad; Grego, Mateja; Riedel, Bettina; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2015-09-01

    The effect of short and long-term induced anoxia on a benthic nematode community and its potential for recovery after reoxygenation were investigated in an in situ experiment on a silty-sand bottom in the Gulf of Trieste, the northern Adriatic Sea. Anoxia was created artificially by three underwater benthic Plexiglas chambers at a depth of 24 m. Treatments lasted for 2, 23 and 307 days. Control samples (Normoxia) were taken on 3 (Normoxia 1) and 25 (Normoxia 2) August 2010 outside the chambers (4-5 m further). After opening the chambers, recovery cores were taken after 7 days (Anoxia 2D), 30 days (Anoxia 23D) and 90 days (Anoxia 307D). Our results revealed that short-term anoxia (Anoxia 2D) did not affect nematode total density and diversity, community structure and their vertical distribution in the sediment. However, total and vertical nematode density, species richness and diversity decreased at 23 days and decreased further at 307 days anoxia. Some nematode species like Metalinhomoeus effilatus, Paralinhomoeus caxinus and Terschellingia longicaudata even survived at 307 days anoxia treatment. Our results also demonstrated that nematode community exposed to 23 days anoxia did not recover after 30 days sediment reoxygenation but, a full recovery was observed after 90 days for nematode community exposed to 307 days anoxia. Feeding type contribution (functional aspect) of the nematode community also changed at the anoxia treatments and during the recovery process. This change was most drastic at the Anoxia 23D and 307D treatments. At both Normoxia and Anoxia 2D treatments, selective deposit feeders (1A), non-selective deposit feeders (1B) and epistrate (diatom) feeders (2A) nematodes were observed in the dominant nematode community. Epistrate feeders disappeared from in the Anoxia 23D treatment epistrate and also selective deposit feeders did not belong to the dominant nematode species in the Anoxia 307D treatment. After the recovery process, epistrate feeders

  2. Patterns in nematode community during and after experimentally induced anoxia in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Mehrshad; Grego, Mateja; Riedel, Bettina; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2015-09-01

    The effect of short and long-term induced anoxia on a benthic nematode community and its potential for recovery after reoxygenation were investigated in an in situ experiment on a silty-sand bottom in the Gulf of Trieste, the northern Adriatic Sea. Anoxia was created artificially by three underwater benthic Plexiglas chambers at a depth of 24 m. Treatments lasted for 2, 23 and 307 days. Control samples (Normoxia) were taken on 3 (Normoxia 1) and 25 (Normoxia 2) August 2010 outside the chambers (4-5 m further). After opening the chambers, recovery cores were taken after 7 days (Anoxia 2D), 30 days (Anoxia 23D) and 90 days (Anoxia 307D). Our results revealed that short-term anoxia (Anoxia 2D) did not affect nematode total density and diversity, community structure and their vertical distribution in the sediment. However, total and vertical nematode density, species richness and diversity decreased at 23 days and decreased further at 307 days anoxia. Some nematode species like Metalinhomoeus effilatus, Paralinhomoeus caxinus and Terschellingia longicaudata even survived at 307 days anoxia treatment. Our results also demonstrated that nematode community exposed to 23 days anoxia did not recover after 30 days sediment reoxygenation but, a full recovery was observed after 90 days for nematode community exposed to 307 days anoxia. Feeding type contribution (functional aspect) of the nematode community also changed at the anoxia treatments and during the recovery process. This change was most drastic at the Anoxia 23D and 307D treatments. At both Normoxia and Anoxia 2D treatments, selective deposit feeders (1A), non-selective deposit feeders (1B) and epistrate (diatom) feeders (2A) nematodes were observed in the dominant nematode community. Epistrate feeders disappeared from in the Anoxia 23D treatment epistrate and also selective deposit feeders did not belong to the dominant nematode species in the Anoxia 307D treatment. After the recovery process, epistrate feeders

  3. The role of water mass dynamics in controlling bacterial abundance and production in the middle Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Solić, M; Krstulović, N; Vilibić, I; Kuspilić, G; Sestanović, S; Santić, D; Ordulj, M

    2008-06-01

    Month-to-month fluctuations in the abundance of bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and bacterial production, as well as various chemical (nutrients, oxygen) and physical (salinity, temperature) parameters were analysed at a station located in the open middle Adriatic Sea during one decade (1997-2006). Being influenced by both coastal waters and open Adriatic circulation in the surface layer, and by the deep Adriatic water masses in the deep layers (100 m), this station is quite suitable for detecting the environmental changes occurring in the open Adriatic Sea with respect to the circulation of its water masses and their long-term changes and anomalies. Multivariate methods were used to identify seasonal and inter-annual changes of the investigated parameters, associating observed changes to the changes in Adriatic water masses and circulation regimes. The analyses showed that bacterial abundance and production were controlled by different water mass dynamics during 1997-2001 compared to 2002-2006 period, particularly noticeable in different seasonal patterns of biological parameters. The interplay between North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) and Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) resulted in a change in the available nutrients (NAdDW is poor in orthophosphates), and as a consequence different bacterial abundance and production. A few periods were examined in detail, such as 2004, when LIW inflow was particularly strong and was accompanied by an increase of bacterial and HNF abundances, as well as of bacterial production.

  4. Modeling the influence of climate change on the mass balance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lamon, Lara; MacLeod, Matthew; Marcomini, Antonio; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2012-05-01

    Climate forcing is forecasted to influence the Adriatic Sea region in a variety of ways, including increasing temperature, and affecting wind speeds, marine currents, precipitation and water salinity. The Adriatic Sea is intensively developed with agriculture, industry, and port activities that introduce pollutants to the environment. Here, we developed and applied a Level III fugacity model for the Adriatic Sea to estimate the current mass balance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Sea, and to examine the effects of a climate change scenario on the distribution of these pollutants. The model's performance was evaluated for three PCB congeners against measured concentrations in the region using environmental parameters estimated from the 20th century climate scenario described in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) by the IPCC, and using Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. We find that modeled fugacities of PCBs in air, water and sediment of the Adriatic are in good agreement with observations. The model indicates that PCBs in the Adriatic Sea are closely coupled with the atmosphere, which acts as a net source to the water column. We used model experiments to assess the influence of changes in temperature, wind speed, precipitation, marine currents, particulate organic carbon and air inflow concentrations forecast in the IPCC A1B climate change scenario on the mass balance of PCBs in the Sea. Assuming an identical PCBs' emission profile (e.g. use pattern, treatment/disposal of stockpiles, mode of entry), modeled fugacities of PCBs in the Adriatic Sea under the A1B climate scenario are higher because higher temperatures reduce the fugacity capacity of air, water and sediments, and because diffusive sources to the air are stronger.

  5. Adriatic and Black Sea level in the 20th century and projection to the end of the 21st century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Adriatic and Black Sea are semi-enclosed basins characterized by densely populated coasts, industrial compounds and a rich cultural and historical heritage. It appears to be crucial, for the management and the protection of their coastlines, to understand how much they will be impacted by the global sea level (SL) rise, projected by the end of this century. The aim of this work is to develop a method that allows to estimate to which extent the SL of the two basins will depart from the mean global level. The future evolution of global sea level is not a meaningful indicator at this regional scale and past deviations, due to local factors of the Adriatic and Black Sea levels from the global one, have been observed. The Adriatic Sea is the basin of the Mediterranean Sea best covered by past SL observations. In fact, for the Adriatic Sea is possible to obtain, by statistical method based on PCA and Least square Method, a seamless and long time series (from 1900 to 2009) using records of 7 mareographic stations located along the Italian and Croatian coasts (from PSMSL database). Satellite data of SL are available for the whole Mediterranean from 1993 to 2012 and they show a very high correlation (rho > 0.9) with Adriatic time series based on mareographic records. The SL time series of the 20th century in the Black Sea is computed using data of 4 stations, which are available in the PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) archive, located on the north-east coast. This time series shows a lower correlation (rho about 0.5) with satellite data than in the case of Adriatic Sea. Further it shows a higher interannual variability. All the time series are considered after the subtraction of the Inverse Barometer (IB) effect. A statistical approach, based on a multivariate linear regression model, is used to investigate the link between SL anomaly, computed as the difference between the regional SL and global SL, and three large scale climate variables (sea level pressure

  6. Eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: Benthic fluxes and nutrient budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Berelson, W.M.; Hammond, D.E. ); Giordani, P. )

    1990-01-09

    The northern Adriatic Sea has been plagued by problems of eutrophication. This area is relatively shallow (maximum depth = 60m), becoming stratified during the summer months which inhibits oxygen transport to bottom waters. Anthropogenic nutrient loading in rivers entering the northern Adriatic has increased nutrient input to this system and stimulated algai growth. Five stations in the western Adriatic (south of the Po River Delta) were occupied during September, 1988 and benthic flux chambers used to measure nutrient fluxes. These sites included 3 stations previously studied in 1982. Flux measurements of dissolved silica, nitrate, oxygen, ammonia, phosphate, CO[sub 2], alkalinity and radon were made during 24 hour incubations of flux chambers (area covered - 0.07 m[sup 2], volume = [approximately]81) that were continuously stirred and sampled periodically. Nutrient fluxes measured were generally consistent with the fluxes measured previously in June, 1982 except for radon fluxes which were 203 times greater in the earlier field season. There was a general trend in nutrient fluxes to decrease offshore, a pattern probably controlled by the sedimentation patterns because fine grained, organic matter-rich sediment are concentrated in a zone near shore. Average regional fluxes were (in mmol m[sup -2]d[sup -1], negative values indicate flux into sediment): Oxygen (-12), CO[sub 2] (19), Alkalinity (4), Silica (3.3), Ammonia (1.5), Phosphate (0.1) and Nitrate (0.3). The carbon/ammonia flux ratio is about twice the C/N ratio in marine phytoplankton, suggesting that large amounts of denitrification may be occuring in these sediments. Comparisons of benthic fluxes and sediment burial rates indicate that 50-90% of the carbon, silica, phosphorus and nitrogen arriving at the sediment-water interface is recycled before burial. The nutrient input to the water column from NW Adriatic sediments is about equal to the input from coastal rivers.

  7. A high resolution Adriatic-Ionian Sea circulation model for operational forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo; Vukicevic, Tomislava; Lecci, Rita; Verri, Giorgia; Kumkar, Yogesh; Creti', Sergio

    2015-04-01

    A new numerical regional ocean model for the Italian Seas, with focus on the Adriatic-Ionian basin, has been implemented within the framework of Technologies for Situational Sea Awareness (TESSA) Project. The Adriatic-Ionian regional model (AIREG) represents the core of the new Adriatic-Ionian Forecasting System (AIFS), maintained operational by CMCC since November 2014. The spatial domain covers the Adriatic and the Ionian Seas, extending eastward until the Peloponnesus until the Libyan coasts; it includes also the Tyrrhenian Sea and extends westward, including the Ligurian Sea, the Sardinia Sea and part of the Algerian basin. The model is based on the NEMO-OPA (Nucleus for European Modeling of the Ocean - Ocean PArallelise), version 3.4 (Madec et al. 2008). NEMO has been implemented for AIREG at 1/45° resolution model in horizontal using 121 vertical levels with partial steps. It solves the primitive equations using the time-splitting technique for solving explicitly the external gravity waves. The model is forced by momentum, water and heat fluxes interactively computed by bulk formulae using the 6h-0.25° horizontal-resolution operational analysis and forecast fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) (Tonani et al. 2008, Oddo et al. 2009). The atmospheric pressure effect is included as surface forcing for the model hydrodynamics. The evaporation is derived from the latent heat flux, while the precipitation is provided by the Climate Prediction Centre Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data. Concerning the runoff contribution, the model considers the estimate of the inflow discharge of 75 rivers that flow into the Adriatic-Ionian basin, collected by using monthly means datasets. Because of its importance as freshwater input in the Adriatic basin, the Po River contribution is provided using daily average observations from ARPA Emilia Romagna observational network. AIREG is one-way nested into the Mediterranean Forecasting

  8. Towards integrated assessment of the northern Adriatic Sea sediment budget using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramelli, A.; Filipponi, F.; Valentini, E.; Zucca, F.; Gutierrez, O. Q.; Liberti, L.; Cordella, M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sediment fluxes is a key issue to interpret the evolution of coastal sedimentation under natural and human impact and relevant for the natural resources management. Despite river plumes represent one of the major gain in sedimentary budget of littoral cells, knowledge of factors influencing complex behavior of coastal plumes, like river discharge characteristics, wind stress and hydro-climatic variables, has not been yet fully investigated. Use of Earth Observation data allows the identification of spatial and temporal variations of suspended sediments related to river runoff, seafloor erosion, sediment transport and deposition processes. Objective of the study is to investigate sediment fluxes in northern Adriatic Sea by linking suspended sediment patterns of coastal plumes to hydrologic and climatic forcing regulating the sedimentary cell budget and geomorphological evolution in coastal systems and continental shelf waters. Analysis of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) product, derived from 2002-2012 MERIS time series, was done to map changes in spatial and temporal dimension of suspended sediments, focusing on turbid plume waters and intense wind stress conditions. From the generated multi temporal TSM maps, dispersal patterns of major freshwater runoff plumes in northern Adriatic Sea were evaluated through spatial variability of coastal plumes shape and extent. Additionally, sediment supply from river distributary mouths was estimated from TSM and correlated with river discharge rates, wind field and wave field through time. Spatial based methodology has been developed to identify events of wave-generated resuspension of sediments, which cause variation in water column turbidity, occurring during intense wind stress and extreme metocean conditions, especially in the winter period. The identified resuspension events were qualitatively described and compared with to hydro-climatic variables. The identification of spatial and

  9. Self-Organizing Maps method in recent Adriatic Sea environmental studies: applications and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihanovic, H.; Vilibic, I.

    2014-12-01

    Herein we present three recent oceanographic studies performed in the Adriatic Sea (the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea), where Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method, an unsupervised neural network method capable of recognizing patterns in various types of datasets, was applied to environmental data. The first study applied the SOM method to a long (50 years) series of thermohaline, dissolved oxygen and nutrient data measured over a deep (1200 m) Southern Adriatic Pit, in order to extract characteristic deep water mass patterns and their temporal variability. Low-dimensional SOM solutions revealed that the patterns were not sensitive to nutrients but were determined mostly by temperature, salinity and DO content; therefore, the water masses in the region can be traced by using no nutrient data. The second study encompassed the classification of surface current patterns measured by HF radars over the northernmost part of the Adriatic, by applying the SOM method to the HF radar data and operational mesoscale meteorological model surface wind fields. The major output from this study was a high correlation found between characteristic ocean current distribution patterns with and without wind data introduced to the SOM, implying the dominant wind driven dynamics over a local scale. That nominates the SOM method as a basis for generating very fast real-time forecast models over limited domains, based on the existing atmospheric forecasts and basin-oriented ocean experiments. The last study classified the sea ambient noise distributions in a habitat area of bottlenose dolphin, connecting it to the man-made noise generated by different types of vessels. Altogether, the usefulness of the SOM method has been recognized in different aspects of basin-scale ocean environmental studies, and may be a useful tool in future investigations of understanding of the multi-disciplinary dynamics over a basin, including the creation of operational environmental forecasting systems.

  10. Molluscan shell communities: a window into the ecological history of the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Tomasovych, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The historical ecology approach used in the present study sheds light on the younger ecological history of the northern Adriatic Sea, targeting the period of the last 500 to 1500 years. We focus on down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages, where differences between community structures serve as a proxy for ecological shifts over time. The northern Adriatic Sea, with its densely populated shoreline, is among the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide and is therefore particularly suited to study ecosystem modification under human pressure. Multiple cores of 1.5 m length and diameters of 90 and 160 mm were taken at seven sampling stations throughout the northern Adriatic Sea, covering different sediment types, nutrient conditions and degrees of exploitation. For the mollusc analyses, the cores were sliced into smaller subsamples and analysed for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity, evidence for ecological interactions (i.e., frequencies of drilling predation) and taphonomic condition of shells. Sediment analyses include granulometry and radiometric sediment dating using Pb 210. Sediment age analysis revealed one-order-of-magnitude differences in sedimentation rates between stations (34 mm/yr at the Po delta, Italy, 1.5 mm/yr at Brijuni islands, Croatia). In total, 114 bivalve and 112 gastropod species were recorded. Bivalve assemblages showed significant interregional differences that are strongly correlated with sedimentation rates and sediment composition. Down-core changes in molluscan communities are conspicuous in all cores, particularly in the uppermost core sections. This information, together with radiometric shell dating for selected species, helps to specify the timing of major ecological changes in the past and define pristine benthic communities as references for future conservation and management efforts.

  11. Genetic identification of a rare record of Ommastrephes Bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) from the Eastern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Franjević, Damjan; Skaramuca, Daria; Katavić, Vedran; Rajević, Nives; Skaramuca, Boško

    2015-01-01

    The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii Lesueur, 1821 belongs to the Ommastrephidae, Cephalopoda family. The family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) includes many commercially important species, dispersed around the world. The Ommastrephidae family is conventionally divided into three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae, and Ommastrephinae). We report a specimen of neon flying squid caught in the winter 2013 at Luka Šipanska, Island of Šipan, Croatia and identified at the genetic level using the standard mitochondrial COI barcode region. This record represents the first genetic identification of a neon flying squid from the Adriatic Sea.

  12. Genetic identification of a rare record of Ommastrephes Bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) from the Eastern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Franjević, Damjan; Skaramuca, Daria; Katavić, Vedran; Rajević, Nives; Skaramuca, Boško

    2015-01-01

    The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii Lesueur, 1821 belongs to the Ommastrephidae, Cephalopoda family. The family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) includes many commercially important species, dispersed around the world. The Ommastrephidae family is conventionally divided into three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae, and Ommastrephinae). We report a specimen of neon flying squid caught in the winter 2013 at Luka Šipanska, Island of Šipan, Croatia and identified at the genetic level using the standard mitochondrial COI barcode region. This record represents the first genetic identification of a neon flying squid from the Adriatic Sea. PMID:26103681

  13. Biomonitoring of a polluted coastal area (Bay of Muggia, Northern Adriatic Sea): A five-year study using transplanted mussels.

    PubMed

    Moschino, Vanessa; Del Negro, Paola; De Vittor, Cinzia; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    The subcellular effects of pollution were evaluated using two lysosomal biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, deployed periodically over a period of 5 years in a harbour area in the Bay of Muggia (Gulf of Trieste, North Adriatic Sea) that is strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Mussels were collected from a clean marine farm and analysed (sample T0). A sub-sample was transplanted to the harbour site (sample M) and analysed after about 12 weeks. An additional sub-sample was relocated within the farm as a control and was also tested at the end of the 12-week period (sample T1). The transplantation procedures were repeated twice yearly for 5 consecutive years, starting in 2009. Two well-established lysosomal biomarkers, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin accumulation, were evaluated in hepatopancreas cells. The body condition index and mortality rate were also assessed. Moreover, various pollutants were determined in both mussel flesh, for a better comprehension of the biological response, and sediments, for a general characterization of the study area. As a whole, the applied biomarkers were found to be appropriate for determining the responses of mussels to environmental pollutant loads over time. Variations in lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin content were mostly related to total PAHs and metals respectively. Our results confirm the usefulness of active biomonitoring in evaluating pollution trends in marine coastal areas and in particular the value of lysosomal biomarkers as a rapid screening tool for highlighting pollutant effects at least at organism level.

  14. Biomonitoring of a polluted coastal area (Bay of Muggia, Northern Adriatic Sea): A five-year study using transplanted mussels.

    PubMed

    Moschino, Vanessa; Del Negro, Paola; De Vittor, Cinzia; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    The subcellular effects of pollution were evaluated using two lysosomal biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, deployed periodically over a period of 5 years in a harbour area in the Bay of Muggia (Gulf of Trieste, North Adriatic Sea) that is strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Mussels were collected from a clean marine farm and analysed (sample T0). A sub-sample was transplanted to the harbour site (sample M) and analysed after about 12 weeks. An additional sub-sample was relocated within the farm as a control and was also tested at the end of the 12-week period (sample T1). The transplantation procedures were repeated twice yearly for 5 consecutive years, starting in 2009. Two well-established lysosomal biomarkers, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin accumulation, were evaluated in hepatopancreas cells. The body condition index and mortality rate were also assessed. Moreover, various pollutants were determined in both mussel flesh, for a better comprehension of the biological response, and sediments, for a general characterization of the study area. As a whole, the applied biomarkers were found to be appropriate for determining the responses of mussels to environmental pollutant loads over time. Variations in lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin content were mostly related to total PAHs and metals respectively. Our results confirm the usefulness of active biomonitoring in evaluating pollution trends in marine coastal areas and in particular the value of lysosomal biomarkers as a rapid screening tool for highlighting pollutant effects at least at organism level. PMID:26874197

  15. An algorithm for the detection of the white-tide ('mucilage') phenomenon in the Adriatic Sea using AVHRR data

    SciTech Connect

    Tassan, S. )

    1993-06-01

    An algorithm using AVHRR data has been set up for the detection of a white tide consisting of algae secretion ('mucilage'), an event occurring in the Adriatic Sea under particular meteorological conditions. The algorithm, which includes an ad hoc procedure for cloud masking, has been tested with reference to the mucilage map obtained from the analysis of contemporary Thematic Mapper data, as well as by comparing consecutive AVHRR scenes. The main features of the exceptional mucilage phenomenon that took place in the northern basin of the Adriatic Sea in summer 1989 are shown by a time series of maps.

  16. Trichoptera biodiversity of the Aegean and Adriatic sea basins in the republic of Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Gashi, Agim; Grapci-Kotori, Linda

    2014-01-01

    We present the first preliminary inventory of Trichoptera taxa in the Aegean and Adriatic Sea basins in Kosovo that have previously received poor and fragmentary attention. Adult caddisflies were collected using ultraviolet (UV) light traps in 13 stations in areas of the Aegean Sea and Adriatic Sea drainage basins in Kosovo. Nineteen species out of 82, reported in this article, are first records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna. Five genera are recorded for the first time in Kosovo: Brachycentrus, Ecclisopteryx, Psilopteryx, Thremma, and Oecetis. During this investigation, we found several Southeastern European endemic and rare species whose previous known distribution was limited to particular areas of this region, as well as other species whose distribution is considerably enlarged by this investigation: Polycentropus ierapetra, Polycentropus irroratus, Chaetopteryx stankovici, Drusus schmidi, Drusus tenellus, Potamophylax goulandriourum, Oecetis notata, and Notidobia melanoptera. Even though this article is a result of a limited sampling effort, it increases the number of Trichoptera taxa recorded for the Republic of Kosovo to 131.

  17. Bacterial diversity of polluted surface sediments in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Korlević, Marino; Zucko, Jurica; Dragić, Mirjana Najdek; Blažina, Maria; Pustijanac, Emina; Zeljko, Tanja Vojvoda; Gacesa, Ranko; Baranasic, Damir; Starcevic, Antonio; Diminic, Janko; Long, Paul F; Cullum, John; Hranueli, Daslav; Orlić, Sandi

    2015-05-01

    Samples were collected from sea sediments at seven sites in the northern Adriatic Sea that included six sites next to industrial complexes and one from a tourist site (recreational beach). The samples were assayed for alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The composition of the hydrocarbon samples suggested that industrial pollution was present in most cases. A sample from one site was also grown aerobically under crude oil enrichment in order to evaluate the response of indigenous bacterial populations to crude oil exposure. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed varying microbial biodiversity depending on the level of pollution--ranging from low (200 detected genera) to high (1000+ genera) biodiversity, with lowest biodiversity observed in polluted samples. This indicated that there was considerable biodiversity in all sediment samples but it was severely restricted after exposure to crude oil selection pressure. Phylogenetic analysis of putative alkB genes showed high evolutionary diversity of the enzymes in the samples and suggested great potential for bioremediation and bioprospecting. The first systematic analysis of bacterial communities from sediments of the northern Adriatic Sea is presented, and it will provide a baseline assessment that may serve as a reference point for ecosystem changes and hydrocarbon degrading potential--a potential that could soon gain importance due to plans for oil exploitation in the area.

  18. Trichoptera biodiversity of the Aegean and Adriatic sea basins in the republic of Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Gashi, Agim; Grapci-Kotori, Linda

    2014-01-01

    We present the first preliminary inventory of Trichoptera taxa in the Aegean and Adriatic Sea basins in Kosovo that have previously received poor and fragmentary attention. Adult caddisflies were collected using ultraviolet (UV) light traps in 13 stations in areas of the Aegean Sea and Adriatic Sea drainage basins in Kosovo. Nineteen species out of 82, reported in this article, are first records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna. Five genera are recorded for the first time in Kosovo: Brachycentrus, Ecclisopteryx, Psilopteryx, Thremma, and Oecetis. During this investigation, we found several Southeastern European endemic and rare species whose previous known distribution was limited to particular areas of this region, as well as other species whose distribution is considerably enlarged by this investigation: Polycentropus ierapetra, Polycentropus irroratus, Chaetopteryx stankovici, Drusus schmidi, Drusus tenellus, Potamophylax goulandriourum, Oecetis notata, and Notidobia melanoptera. Even though this article is a result of a limited sampling effort, it increases the number of Trichoptera taxa recorded for the Republic of Kosovo to 131. PMID:25434031

  19. Bacterial diversity of polluted surface sediments in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Korlević, Marino; Zucko, Jurica; Dragić, Mirjana Najdek; Blažina, Maria; Pustijanac, Emina; Zeljko, Tanja Vojvoda; Gacesa, Ranko; Baranasic, Damir; Starcevic, Antonio; Diminic, Janko; Long, Paul F; Cullum, John; Hranueli, Daslav; Orlić, Sandi

    2015-05-01

    Samples were collected from sea sediments at seven sites in the northern Adriatic Sea that included six sites next to industrial complexes and one from a tourist site (recreational beach). The samples were assayed for alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The composition of the hydrocarbon samples suggested that industrial pollution was present in most cases. A sample from one site was also grown aerobically under crude oil enrichment in order to evaluate the response of indigenous bacterial populations to crude oil exposure. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed varying microbial biodiversity depending on the level of pollution--ranging from low (200 detected genera) to high (1000+ genera) biodiversity, with lowest biodiversity observed in polluted samples. This indicated that there was considerable biodiversity in all sediment samples but it was severely restricted after exposure to crude oil selection pressure. Phylogenetic analysis of putative alkB genes showed high evolutionary diversity of the enzymes in the samples and suggested great potential for bioremediation and bioprospecting. The first systematic analysis of bacterial communities from sediments of the northern Adriatic Sea is presented, and it will provide a baseline assessment that may serve as a reference point for ecosystem changes and hydrocarbon degrading potential--a potential that could soon gain importance due to plans for oil exploitation in the area. PMID:25857844

  20. Regional approach to modeling the transport of floating plastic debris in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Liubartseva, S; Coppini, G; Lecci, R; Creti, S

    2016-02-15

    Sea surface concentrations of plastics and their fluxes onto coastlines are simulated over 2009-2015. Calculations incorporate combinations of terrestrial and maritime litter inputs, the Lagrangian model MEDSLIK-II forced by AFS ocean current simulations, and ECMWF wind analyses. With a relatively short particle half-life of 43.7 days, the Adriatic Sea is defined as a highly dissipative basin where the shoreline is, by construction, the main sink of floating debris. Our model results show that the coastline of the Po Delta receives a plastic flux of approximately 70 kg(km day)(-1). The most polluted sea surface area (>10 g km(-2) floating debris) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. Evident seasonality is found in the calculated plastic concentration fields and the coastline fluxes. Complex source-receptor relationships among the basin's subregions are quantified in impact matrices.

  1. Regional approach to modeling the transport of floating plastic debris in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Liubartseva, S; Coppini, G; Lecci, R; Creti, S

    2016-02-15

    Sea surface concentrations of plastics and their fluxes onto coastlines are simulated over 2009-2015. Calculations incorporate combinations of terrestrial and maritime litter inputs, the Lagrangian model MEDSLIK-II forced by AFS ocean current simulations, and ECMWF wind analyses. With a relatively short particle half-life of 43.7 days, the Adriatic Sea is defined as a highly dissipative basin where the shoreline is, by construction, the main sink of floating debris. Our model results show that the coastline of the Po Delta receives a plastic flux of approximately 70 kg(km day)(-1). The most polluted sea surface area (>10 g km(-2) floating debris) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. Evident seasonality is found in the calculated plastic concentration fields and the coastline fluxes. Complex source-receptor relationships among the basin's subregions are quantified in impact matrices. PMID:26774440

  2. Radionuclides in the adriatic sea and related dose-rate assessment for marine biota.

    PubMed

    Petrinec, Branko; Strok, Marko; Franic, Zdenko; Smodis, Borut; Pavicic-Hamer, Dijana

    2013-01-01

    Artificial and natural radionuclides were determined in the Adriatic Sea in the seawater and sediment samples in the period from 2007 to 2011. The sampling areas were coastal waters of Slovenia, Croatia and Albania, together with the deepest part of the Adriatic in South Adriatic Pit and Otranto strait. Sampling locations were chosen to take into account all major geological and geographical features of this part of the Adriatic Sea and possible coastal influences. After initial sample preparation steps, samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. In the seawater ⁴⁰K activity concentrations were in the range from 6063 to 10519 Bq m⁻³, ¹³⁷Cs from 1.6 to 3.8 Bq m⁻³, ²²⁶Ra from 23 to 31 Bq m⁻³, ²²⁸Ra from 1 to 25 Bq m⁻³ and ²³⁸U from 64 to 490 Bq m⁻³. The results of sediment samples showed that ⁴⁰K was in the range from 87 to 593 Bq kg⁻¹, ¹³⁷Cs from 0.8 to 7.3 Bq kg⁻¹, ²²⁶Ra from 18 to 35 Bq kg⁻¹, ²²⁸Ra from 4 to 29 Bq kg⁻¹ and ²³⁸U from 14 to 120 Bq kg⁻¹. In addition, the ERICA Assessment Tool was used for the assessment of dose rates for reference marine organisms using the activity concentrations of the determined radionuclides in seawater. The assessment showed that for the most of the organisms, the dose rates were within the background levels, indicating that the determined values for seawater does not pose a significant risk for the most of marine biota. In the study, the results are critically discussed and compared with other similar studies worldwide. Generally, the activity concentrations of the examined radionuclides did not differ from those reported for the rest of the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. A numerical study of the interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea (2000-2002).

    PubMed

    Oddo, Paolo; Pinardi, Nadia; Zavatarelli, Marco

    2005-12-15

    A free-surface, three-dimensional finite-difference numerical model based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been implemented in order to simulate the interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation. The implementation makes use of an interactive surface momentum and heat flux computation that utilizes the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 6-h analyses and the model predicted sea surface temperatures. The model is also nested at its open boundary with a coarse-resolution Mediterranean general circulation model, utilizing the same surface forcing functions. The simulation and analysis period spans 3 years (1 Jan 2000 to 31 Dec 2002) coinciding with the "Mucilage in the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian" (MAT) Project monitoring activities. Model results for the simulated years show a strong interannual variability of the basin averaged proprieties and circulation patterns, linked to the atmospheric forcing variability and the Po river runoff. In particular, the years 2000 and 2002 are characterized by a weak surface cooling (with respect to the climatological value) and well-marked spring and autumn river runoff maxima. Conversely, 2001 is characterized by stronger wind and heat (autumn cooling) forcings but no river runoff autumn peak, even though the total amount of water inflow during winter and spring is sustained. The circulation is characterized by similar patterns in 2000 and 2002 but very different structures in 2001. During the latter, deep water is not formed in the northern Adriatic. A comparison with the observed data shows that the major model deficiencies are connected to the low salinity of the waters, probably connected to the missed inflow of salty Ionian waters of Aegean origin and to the numerical overestimation of the vertical mixing processes. PMID:16257438

  4. Oil spill hazard from dispersal of oil along shipping lanes in the Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas.

    PubMed

    Liubartseva, S; De Dominicis, M; Oddo, P; Coppini, G; Pinardi, N; Greggio, N

    2015-01-15

    An assessment of hazard stemming from operational oil ship discharges in the Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian (SANI) Seas is presented. The methodology integrates ship traffic data, the fate and transport oil spill model MEDSLIK-II, coupled with the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) ocean currents, sea surface temperature analyses and ECMWF surface winds. Monthly and climatological hazard maps were calculated for February 2009 through April 2013. Monthly hazard distributions of oil show that the zones of highest sea surface hazard are located in the southwestern Adriatic Sea and eastern Ionian Sea. Distinctive "hot spots" appear in front of the Taranto Port and the sea area between Corfu Island and the Greek coastlines. Beached oil hazard maps indicate the highest values in the Taranto Port area, on the eastern Greek coastline, as well as in the Bari Port area and near Brindisi Port area.

  5. Oil spill hazard from dispersal of oil along shipping lanes in the Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas.

    PubMed

    Liubartseva, S; De Dominicis, M; Oddo, P; Coppini, G; Pinardi, N; Greggio, N

    2015-01-15

    An assessment of hazard stemming from operational oil ship discharges in the Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian (SANI) Seas is presented. The methodology integrates ship traffic data, the fate and transport oil spill model MEDSLIK-II, coupled with the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) ocean currents, sea surface temperature analyses and ECMWF surface winds. Monthly and climatological hazard maps were calculated for February 2009 through April 2013. Monthly hazard distributions of oil show that the zones of highest sea surface hazard are located in the southwestern Adriatic Sea and eastern Ionian Sea. Distinctive "hot spots" appear in front of the Taranto Port and the sea area between Corfu Island and the Greek coastlines. Beached oil hazard maps indicate the highest values in the Taranto Port area, on the eastern Greek coastline, as well as in the Bari Port area and near Brindisi Port area. PMID:25455790

  6. First evaluation of the threat posed by antifouling biocides in the Southern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Sonia; Ansanelli, Giuliana; Parrella, Luisa; Di Landa, Giuseppe; Massanisso, Paolo; Schiavo, Simona; Minopoli, Carmine; Lanza, Bruno; Boggia, Raffaella; Aleksi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Afrim

    2014-08-01

    The CARISMA project (characterization and ecological risk analysis of antifouling biocides in the Southern Adriatic Sea) aims to appraise the quality of the Southern Adriatic Sea between Italy (Apulia region) and Albania and, in particular, the impact due to the use of biocidal antifouling coatings. Under this project, a preliminary survey at the main hot spots of contamination (e.g. ports and marinas) was conducted at the end of the nautical season in 2012. Chemical seawater analyses were complemented with ecotoxicological assays and the results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). As expected, PCA splits the Albanian and Italian ports, according to the different degrees of contamination indicated for the two countries by the experimental data, highlighting the most critical situation in one port of Apulia. In addition, in order to assess the potential adverse ecological effects posed by antifouling agents (i.e. tributyltin (TBT)-irgarol-diuron) on non-target marine organisms, hazard quotients (HQ) were calculated. The results showed a low risk posed by irgarol and diuron whereas the probability of adverse effects was high in the case of TBT.

  7. Zooplankton community and hydrographical properties of the Neretva Channel (eastern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidjak, Olja; Bojanić, Natalia; Kušpilić, Grozdan; Ninčević Gladan, Živana; Tičina, Vjekoslav

    2007-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of micro and mesozooplankton was studied in 1998 and 1999 at four stations in the Neretva Channel area influenced by the Neretva river and the open waters of the south Adriatic Sea. The area is orthophosphate limited, but an excessive accumulation of land derived nitrogen is prevented by phytoplankton uptake and the general circulation pattern. Microzooplankton was dominated by ciliates, with average abundances comparable to other Adriatic channel areas (122 543 ind. l-1). Non-loricate ciliates (NLC) generally peaked in the warmer periods, but a winter increase was evident towards the inner part of the channel. Tintinnid abundances generally increased in autumn. A significant relationship with temperature was not recorded for either protozoan group. An inverse relationship between NLC and salinity might be indirectly caused by their preference for the food abundant surface layer. Mesozooplankton was dominated by copepods, with distinct summer maxima throughout the area and pronounced winter maxima of >10,000 ind. m-3 at the inner stations. The community was predominantly neritic but the open sea waters were important in structuring the mesozooplankton assemblage at all stations during the autumn winter period. Although temperature regulated the seasonal dynamics of most metazoans and the species succession in the copepod community, small omnivorous copepods ( Oncaea media complex, Oithona nana and Euterpina acutifrons) dominated regardless of the season. A trophic link between copepods and ciliates was evident in winter during low phytoplankton biomass.

  8. PSP toxins profile in ascidian Microcosmus vulgaris (Heller, 1877) after human poisoning in Croatia (Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Roje-Busatto, Romana; Ujević, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    Toxins known to cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) syndrome in humans that can have serious economic consequences for aquaculture were determined in ascidians of the genus Microcosmus. Significant concentrations of toxins were confirmed in all tested samples collected from the western coast of Istria Peninsula (Adriatic Sea, Croatia) when six people were poisoned following the consumption of fresh ascidians. Several species of bivalves that were under continuous monitoring had not accumulated PSP toxins although they were exposed to the same environmental conditions over the survey period. In the present study, HPLC-FLD with pre-column oxidation of PSP toxins has been carried out to provide evidence for the first human intoxication due to consumption of PSP toxic ascidians (Microcosmus vulgaris, Heller, 1877) harvested from the Adriatic Sea. Qualitative analysis established the presence of six PSP toxins: saxitoxin (STX), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2,3), decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2 and 3 (dcGTX2,3), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoylgonyautoxins 1 and 2 (C1,2), while quantitative analysis suggested STX and GTX2,3 as dominant toxin types and the ones that contribute the most to the overall toxicity of these samples with concentrations near the regulatory limit.

  9. Survey of Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, S; Magnabosco, C; Civettini, M; Boffo, L; Mingarelli, G; Buratti, P; Giovanardi, O; Fortuna, C M; Arcangeli, G

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of larval Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae in anchovies and sardines from the North Adriatic Sea has been estimated. Anisakis pegreffii and Hysterothylacium aduncum were reported, with low prevalence values. In brief, a total amount of 7650 fish specimens collected between September 2011 and 2012 were analysed using three different inspection analyses: a visual inspection of the coelomic cavity, an examination of the viscera exploiting the positive hydro-tropism of the larvae (modified Baermann technique) and enzymatic digestion of muscular tissue pools. Low level of infestation was reported for Anisakis sp. in both in anchovies and sardines, while higher values were reported for Hysterothylacium sp. Subsamples of nematodes collected were characterized at species level using the molecular diagnostic key based on ITS nuclear ribosomal region, and A. pegreffii and H. aduncum were identified. The low prevalence of Anisakis sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea could be related to the peculiar distribution of cetaceans and carnivorous zooplankton in the investigated region and could be used as a potential tag to define oily fishes from this specific fishing area as at low-risk for anisakiasis.

  10. Survey of Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, S; Magnabosco, C; Civettini, M; Boffo, L; Mingarelli, G; Buratti, P; Giovanardi, O; Fortuna, C M; Arcangeli, G

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of larval Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae in anchovies and sardines from the North Adriatic Sea has been estimated. Anisakis pegreffii and Hysterothylacium aduncum were reported, with low prevalence values. In brief, a total amount of 7650 fish specimens collected between September 2011 and 2012 were analysed using three different inspection analyses: a visual inspection of the coelomic cavity, an examination of the viscera exploiting the positive hydro-tropism of the larvae (modified Baermann technique) and enzymatic digestion of muscular tissue pools. Low level of infestation was reported for Anisakis sp. in both in anchovies and sardines, while higher values were reported for Hysterothylacium sp. Subsamples of nematodes collected were characterized at species level using the molecular diagnostic key based on ITS nuclear ribosomal region, and A. pegreffii and H. aduncum were identified. The low prevalence of Anisakis sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea could be related to the peculiar distribution of cetaceans and carnivorous zooplankton in the investigated region and could be used as a potential tag to define oily fishes from this specific fishing area as at low-risk for anisakiasis. PMID:25662709

  11. Large-scale distribution and production of bacterioplankton in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallina, Alessandra A.; Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola

    2011-08-01

    Two oceanographic cruises encompassing the whole Adriatic Sea were carried out during February and October 2008. Selected stations were sampled at several depths to determine total prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria abundance using epifluorescence microscopy, and to estimate prokaryotic carbon production by 3H-leucine incorporation. Biological data were related to physical parameters including temperature, salinity and fluorescence, and an attempt to associate bacterial dynamics to water mass characteristics was performed. In both seasons prokaryotic distribution and production showed a decreasing latitudinal gradient likely dependent on riverine inputs highlighted by a strong negative correlation with salinity ( P < 0.001). A vertical gradient with higher cell numbers at the surface and lower values at the bottom layer was also always detected. In the southern basin in February, however, picocyanobacteria were retrieved also in deep waters, probably linked to higher nutrient loads carried by the Levantine Intermediate Waters and/or the deep water ventilation known to occur in this area. From an oceanographic point of view, we sampled within four different water types, but no relationship between these water types and bacterioplankton abundances was found. The present work contributes to the acquisition of a more holistic overview of prokaryotic distribution and production in the Adriatic Sea, both on a spatial and temporal scale.

  12. Investigation on tsunami effects in the central Adriatic Sea during the last century - a contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maramai, A.; Graziani, L.; Tinti, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present the result of a study aimed at examining the Italian earthquake sequences that occurred in the area of the central Adriatic sea with the purpose of understanding whether some of them were accompanied by tsunami effects. The motivation for this research was the update and enrichment of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue. The result was that evidence was found for two new cases of earthquake-induced tsunamis: these are the August 1916 Rimini and the October 1930 Ancona events. The bulk of the present research consisted in collecting all the available data on the earthquakes that affected the selected area in the past century and in identifying those potentially capable of generating tsunamis. During the study all the available material was gathered, which includes specific monographs and scientific papers, articles available in contemporary chronicles and in local and national newspapers. The final result of this research will improve our knowledge of the tsunamigenic activity of the central Adriatic sea and contribute to the assessment of the tsunami hazard and risk along these coasts, that especially in the peak season form one of the most densely populated areas of the Italian peninsula with flat and large beaches and water front resorts crowded of tourists.

  13. An operational coupled wave-current forecasting system for the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, A.; Coluccelli, A.; Deserti, M.; Valentini, A.; Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2005 an Adriatic implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (AdriaROMS) is being producing operational short-term forecasts (72 hours) of some hydrodynamic properties (currents, sea level, temperature, salinity) of the Adriatic Sea at 2 km horizontal resolution and 20 vertical s-levels, on a daily basis. The main objective of AdriaROMS, which is managed by the Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service (SIMC) of ARPA Emilia Romagna, is to provide useful products for civil protection purposes (sea level forecasts, outputs to run other forecasting models as for saline wedge, oil spills and coastal erosion). In order to improve the forecasts in the coastal area, where most of the attention is focused, a higher resolution model (0.5 km, again with 20 vertical s-levels) has been implemented for the northern Adriatic domain. The new implementation is based on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST)and adopts ROMS for the hydrodynamic and Simulating WAve Nearshore (SWAN) for the wave module, respectively. Air-sea fluxes are computed using forecasts produced by the COSMO-I7 operational atmospheric model. At the open boundary of the high resolution model, temperature, salinity and velocity fields are provided by AdriaROMS while the wave characteristics are provided by an operational SWAN implementation (also managed by SIMC). Main tidal components are imposed as well, derived from a tidal model. Work in progress is oriented now on the validation of model results by means of extensive comparisons with acquired hydrographic measurements (such as CTDs or XBTs from sea-truth campaigns), currents and waves acquired at observational sites (including those of SIMC, CNR-ISMAR network and its oceanographic tower, located off the Venice littoral) and satellite-derived wave-heights data. Preliminary results on the forecast waves denote how, especially during intense storms, the effect of coupling can lead to significant variations in the wave

  14. The Clodia database: a long time series of fishery data from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Sambo, Andrea; Riginella, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Long-term time series of species abundances can depict population declines and changes in communities in response to anthropogenic activities, climate changes, alterations of trophic relationships. Here we present a database of historical marine fishery landing data, covering a remarkably long time series (1945-2013) and referring to one of the most exploited areas of the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea. The database includes two time series of landing data, 1945-2013 and 1997-2013, from the official statistics of the fish market of Chioggia, where the major fishing fleet of the area operates. Comparisons between the landing data of the database and landing data from other fisheries or data from scientific surveys support the reliability of the time series in depicting changes in species abundances. The database is expected to be used by fishery biologists and ecologists interested in depicting and understanding temporal variations in species abundances and community composition, in relation to environmental and anthropogenic factors.

  15. The bivalve Glycymeris pilosa as a multidecadal environmental archive for the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas.

    PubMed

    Peharda, Melita; Black, Bryan A; Purroy, Ariadna; Mihanović, Hrvoje

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the potential of Glycymeris pilosa as an environmental indicator for the Mediterranean region by applying sclerochronological techniques on a sample set collected from Pašman Channel in the middle Adriatic Sea. Maximal longevity of analyzed shells was 69 years. Growth increments in acetate peels of the hinge region had clear boundaries, and there was a strongly synchronous signal in growth-increment width among individuals. The final, replicated chronology spanned 1969 to 2013. Shell growth negatively correlated with local summer sea temperatures and positively with November precipitation. High correlation between shell growth and circulation patterns in the northern Ionian was also observed, with slower growth occurring during cyclonic regimes. Given its broad distribution in the region and the ability to crossdate, generate annually-resolved chronologies, and of a length that substantially overlaps with observational records, G. pilosa has considerable potential to test hypotheses relating to environmental variability and biological response in the Mediterranean. PMID:27254745

  16. Multi-Meteotsunami Event in the Adriatic Sea Generated by Atmospheric Disturbances of 25-26 June 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Međugorac, Iva; Janeković, Ivica; Dunić, Natalija; Vilibić, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    A series of meteotsunamis hit a few locations in the Mediterranean and Black Seas during 22-27 June 2014. Meteotsunamis were particularly numerous on 25 and 26 June in the Adriatic Sea, where at least six harbours and bays were stricken by powerful waves: strongest events occurred in Vela Luka (Korčula Island), a known meteotsunami hot-spot, where waves reached height of ~3 m, and in Rijeka dubrovačka Bay, where strong ~5 m/s currents accompanied ~2.5 m high waves. Intensification of high-frequency sea level activity was observed at both the eastern and western Adriatic tide gauge stations, with maximum recorded wave heights reaching ~68 cm (Ortona, Italy). A series of individual air pressure disturbances characterized by pronounced rates of air pressure change (up to 2.4 hPa/5 min), limited spatial extent (~50 km) and high temporal variability, propagated over the Adriatic on 2 days in question. Numerical hydrodynamic model SCHISM forced by measured and idealised air pressure disturbances was utilised to reproduce the observed Adriatic sea level response. Several important conclusions were reached: (1) meteotsunamis occurring at various parts of the coast were generated by different atmospheric air pressure disturbances; (2) topographic influence can be removed from sea level spectra by computing spectral signal-to-background ratios; the result, being related to the external forcing, resembles atmospheric pressure spectra; (3) sea response is strongly dependant on details of atmospheric forcing; and (4) over complex bathymetries, like the middle and south Adriatic ones, numerous effects, including Proudman resonance, edge waves, strong topographical enhancement and refractions on the islands placed on the pathway of atmospheric disturbances should be taken into account to fully understand meteotsunami generation and dynamics. An in-depth numerical study is planned to supplement the latter conclusion and to quantify contribution of each process.

  17. Recent changes in the marine ecosystems of the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giani, Michele; Djakovac, Tamara; Degobbis, Danilo; Cozzi, Stefano; Solidoro, Cosimo; Umani, Serena Fonda

    2012-12-01

    This review of studies on long term series on river discharges, oceanographic features, plankton, fish and benthic compartments, collected since the 1970s revealed significant changes of mechanisms and trophic structures in the northern Adriatic ecosystems. A gradual increase of eutrophication pressure occurred during the 1970s until the mid 1980s, followed by a reversal of the trend, particularly marked in the 2000s. This trend was ascribed to the combination of a reduction of the anthropogenic impact, mainly due to a substantial decrease of the phosphorus loads, and of climatic modifications, resulting in a decline of atmospheric precipitations and, consequently, of the runoff in the northern Adriatic Sea. Significant decreases of the phytoplankton abundances were observed after the mid 1980s, concurrently with changes in the species composition of the communities, with an evident shift toward smaller cells or organism sizes. Moreover, changes in the zooplankton community were also observed. A decrease of demersal fishes, top predators and small pelagic fishes was ascribed to both overfishing and a demise of eutrophication. Macrozoobenthic communities slowly recovered in the last two decades after the anoxia events of the 1970s and 1980s. An increasing number of non-autochthonous species has been recorded in the last decades moreover the increasing seawater temperature facilitated the spreading of thermophilic species.

  18. Thermohaline variability in the Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas observed from the Argo floats during 2010-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačević, Vedrana; Ursella, Laura; Gačić, Miroslav; Notarstefano, Giulio; Menna, Milena; Bensi, Manuel; Civitarese, Giuseppe; Poulain, Pierre-Marie

    2015-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea is the northernmost basin of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMed). At its southern end, the basin communicates with the adjacent Ionian Sea through the 80 km wide and 850 m deep Strait of Otranto. Due to the river discharge in the north and due to the strong winter cooling, the Adriatic is both a dilution basin and the dense water formation region. The basin-wide circulation is cyclonic. The circulation is however, energetic also at smaller spatial and temporal scales, and several circulation cells and mesoscale features are regularly observed equally along the littoral and in the open sea. The North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) formed during winter is the densest water of the whole Mediterranean Sea (up to 1060 kg/m3). It flows as a density driven bottom current from the northern shelf toward south, filling the deep layers of the middle and southern Adriatic pits. The deep open-sea area of the South Adriatic Pit (SAP, 1200 m) feels the influence of a water mass exchange through the Strait of Otranto. Specifically, it receives salty and warm surface and Levantine Intermediate Waters from the Ionian Sea. Through the open-sea winter convection that homogenizes and ventilates 400-800 m thick upper water column, this salty water contributes to the formation of the Adriatic Deep Water (AdDW, 1029.17-1029.20 kg/m3), which is not as dense as the NAdDW. Both dense waters eventually mix and spill across the sill ventilating the deep and bottom layers of the Ionian Sea, and driving the deep thermohaline cell of the EMed. Thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea vary at wide spatial and temporal scales, and this in turn affects the properties of its dense waters. The long-term scales are of a particular interest, as they are often associated with the biogeochemical and biotic variability such as intrusion of alien species into the Adriatic Sea and interconnection with the adjacent Ionian basin. Due to the extremely variable meteo- and climatic conditions

  19. Microbial processes and organic priority substances in marine coastal sediments (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Dellisanti, Walter; Lungarini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Stefano; Patrolecco, Luisa; Langone, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    PERSEUS EU FP7 Project aims to identify the interacting patterns of natural and human-derived pressures to assess their impact on marine ecosystems and, using the objectives and principles of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) as a vehicle, to design an effective and innovative research governance framework based on sound scientific knowledge. In the frame of this Project (subtask 1.3.3 ADREX: Adriatic and Ionian Seas Experiment), monitoring surveys were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) in order to study the variation of structural and functional characteristics of native bacterial communities and the occurrence of selected classes of organic priority substances in sediments. The study area represents a good natural laboratory sensitive to climate variability and human pressure, owing to the semi-enclosed nature of the Adriatic Sea and to the increasing trend of human activities in the coastal regions. During the cruise ADRI-13 (November 2013) and ADRI-14 (October 2014) we sampled several coastal sites from the mouth of the Po River to the Otranto strait. Surface sediments were collected in all areas, while sediment cores were sampled in selected sites. Microbes associated with marine sediments play an important role in the C-flux being responsible for the transformation of organic detritus (autochthonous and allochthonous) into biomass. The sediment bacterial abundance was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and the rate of bacterial carbon production by measuring the 3H-leucine uptake rates. The community respiration rate was estimated by the measurement of the electron transport system (ETS) activity. The sediment contamination level was determined by measuring the concentration of contaminants included in the list of organic priority substances: PAHs, bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols (APs). The extraction/clean-up of PAHs, BPA and APs was performed by ultrasonic bath with the appropriate solvents, followed by analytical determination with

  20. Performance analysis of coupled and uncoupled hydrodynamic and wave models in the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busca, Claudia; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Ravaioli, Mariangela; Riminucci, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    The complex dynamics of the Adriatic Sea are the result of geographical position, orography and bathymetry, as well as rivers discharge and meteorological conditions that influence, more strongly, the shallow northern part. Such complexity requires a constant monitoring of marine conditions in order to support several activities (marine resources management, naval operations, emergency management, shipping, tourism, as well as scientific ones). Platforms, buoys and mooring located in Adriatic Sea supply almost continuously real time punctual information, which can be spatially extended, with some limitations, by drifters and remote sensing. Operational forecasting systems represent valid tools to provide a complete tridimensional coverage of the area, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service of the Emilia-Romagna Environmental Agency (ARPA-SIMC, Bologna, Italy) and the Dept. of Life and Environmental Sciences of Università Politecnica delle Marche (DISVA-UNIVPM, Ancona, Italy), in collaboration with the Institute of Marine Science of the National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR, Italy) operationally run several wave and hydrodynamic models on the Adriatic Sea. The main implementations are based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), the wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of the former two models in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) system. Horizontal resolutions of the different systems range from the 2 km of AdriaROMS to the 0.5 km of the recently implemented northern Adriatic COAWST. Forecasts are produced every day for the subsequent 72 hour with hourly resolution. All the systems compute the fluxes exchanged through the interface with the atmosphere from the numerical weather prediction system named COSMO-I7, an implementation for Italy of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model, at 7 km horizontal resolution. Considering the several operational

  1. Trends and interactions of physical and bio-geo-chemical features in the Adriatic Sea as derived from satellite observations.

    PubMed

    Barale, Vittorio; Schiller, Christian; Tacchi, Ruggero; Marechal, Cecile

    2005-12-15

    Time series of satellite data, generated by the AVHRR (1981-1999), CZCS (1979-1985) and SeaWiFS (1998-2002), have been used to assess trends and interactions of physical and bio-geo-chemical features in the Adriatic Sea. The images were processed to estimate Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-like Pigment Concentration (CPC). Long-term composites and climatologies were derived, using fixed geographical grids and projections. The AVHRR data show an apparent warming trend, when plotting the sequence of seasonal cycles (monthly mean SST, averaged over the whole basin) against time, due to a steady rise of summer values. Considering 3 regions (north, central and south), split into east and west sections, the northern Adriatic shows high SST fluctuations (possibly associated with the cycle of winter cooling and summer warming, typical of the relatively shallow sub-basin), while the southern Adriatic exhibits a lower variability (possibly influenced by the periodic water incoming from, and outflowing to the Ionian Sea). During summer, an east-west gradient prevails, while during winter only a general north-south gradient can be found. The SeaWiFS-derived CPC values, distributions and trends appear to be consistent with the historical CZCS record. Persistent differences in the quantitative assessment of CPC for coastal waters is due to the use of improved algorithms, less influenced by the presence of dissolved organics and suspended sediments in the water column, for the processing of SeaWiFS data. Apparent incongruities of the space and time patterns in the SeaWiFS record with respect to the reference climatology, obtained by CZCS more than a decade before, occur chiefly when considering the spring bloom in the southern Adriatic and the summer development of the north Adriatic front. The comparison of the long-term times series of satellite data shows that there is a high correlation between patterns in the thermal field and in the colour field. This suggests

  2. Spatial pattern and weight of seabed marine litter in the northern and central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Strafella, P; Fabi, G; Spagnolo, A; Grati, F; Polidori, P; Punzo, E; Fortibuoni, T; Marceta, B; Raicevich, S; Cvitkovic, I; Despalatovic, M; Scarcella, G

    2015-02-15

    The present study analyzes spatial distribution and typology of marine litter on the seabed in the FAO Geographical Sub-Area 17 (northern and central Adriatic Sea). Two surveys were conducted during fall 2011 and 2012 and 67 stations were sampled each year. Litter items were collected using the "rapido" trawl, a modified beam trawl commonly used by the Italian fishermen to catch flat fish and other benthic species. Marine litter in the catches was sorted and classified in 6 major categories (plastic, metal, glass, rubber, wood, other). Plastic litter was further subdivided in 3 sub-categories based on its source: fishing nets, aquaculture nets and other. Plastic was dominant in terms of weight followed by metal and other categories. The highest concentration of litter was found close to the coast likely as a consequence of high coastal urbanization, river inflow and extensive navigation associated with the morphological and hydrological features of the basin. PMID:25560999

  3. Bathing water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Lolita; Murmura, Federica; Scarano, Antonio

    2015-06-15

    The quality of bathing water is fundamental, not only from an environmental point of view but also due to the economic importance of tourism. This paper examines the water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea) with reference to the microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci required by Directive 2006/07 of European Commission. The water quality of 15 coastal beaches was surveyed; data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Abruzzo Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARTA) and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2010-2013). Statistical analysis was used to confirm the aspects deduced from mean values of monitoring and control data for each stretch. The data highlight critical situations in various parts of the coast; these problems can be attributed to river pollution, mainly due to the malfunctioning of the treatment plants for urban wastewater.

  4. Life-history traits and population decline of the Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrusin the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Meneghesso, C; Riginella, E; La Mesa, M; Donato, F; Mazzoldi, C

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated demographic structure and reproductive characteristics of the Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus, in relation to landing trends in the northern-central Adriatic Sea. Results highlighted the occurrence of only small-sized and young-age individuals, and a marked decline from the 1990s to the present in maximum age (from 8 to 3 years) and total length (L(T); from 420 to 360 mm). Fecundity ranged between 40,000 and 190,000 eggs, and was related to female L(T). High levels of atresia implied lower values of actual fecundity. Sexual maturity was attained by 72·8% of individuals in their first year of life at 200 mm. The reduction in maximum L(T) resulted in a marked decline in the population egg production, while the reduction in maximum age implied that females participated in fewer spawning events.

  5. Spatial pattern and weight of seabed marine litter in the northern and central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Strafella, P; Fabi, G; Spagnolo, A; Grati, F; Polidori, P; Punzo, E; Fortibuoni, T; Marceta, B; Raicevich, S; Cvitkovic, I; Despalatovic, M; Scarcella, G

    2015-02-15

    The present study analyzes spatial distribution and typology of marine litter on the seabed in the FAO Geographical Sub-Area 17 (northern and central Adriatic Sea). Two surveys were conducted during fall 2011 and 2012 and 67 stations were sampled each year. Litter items were collected using the "rapido" trawl, a modified beam trawl commonly used by the Italian fishermen to catch flat fish and other benthic species. Marine litter in the catches was sorted and classified in 6 major categories (plastic, metal, glass, rubber, wood, other). Plastic litter was further subdivided in 3 sub-categories based on its source: fishing nets, aquaculture nets and other. Plastic was dominant in terms of weight followed by metal and other categories. The highest concentration of litter was found close to the coast likely as a consequence of high coastal urbanization, river inflow and extensive navigation associated with the morphological and hydrological features of the basin.

  6. Harmful Algae Records in Venice Lagoon and in Po River Delta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilaničovà, Dagmar; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide “updated reference conditions” for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200 cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance. PMID:24683360

  7. Bathing water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Lolita; Murmura, Federica; Scarano, Antonio

    2015-06-15

    The quality of bathing water is fundamental, not only from an environmental point of view but also due to the economic importance of tourism. This paper examines the water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea) with reference to the microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci required by Directive 2006/07 of European Commission. The water quality of 15 coastal beaches was surveyed; data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Abruzzo Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARTA) and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2010-2013). Statistical analysis was used to confirm the aspects deduced from mean values of monitoring and control data for each stretch. The data highlight critical situations in various parts of the coast; these problems can be attributed to river pollution, mainly due to the malfunctioning of the treatment plants for urban wastewater. PMID:25934432

  8. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of Korcula and Peljesac islands in Adriatic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image is of two small islands (Korcula and Peljesac) in the Adriatic Sea, southwest of Sarajevo. The scene was photographed during Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, 33rd orbit with a 300mm lens on the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real-time. Center coordinates of this frame are 42.9 degrees north latitude and 17.2 degrees east longitude. The camera was in shutter priority mode with a 1/500-second shutter speed and -2/3 exposure compensation. Digital file name is ESC03036.IMG.

  9. Relationship between microbial communities and mercury species in the seawater of the Central Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivkovic, Igor; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Joze; Fajon, Vesna; Solic, Mladen; Kanduc, Tjasa

    2016-04-01

    The structure of the microbial food web and its role in biogeochemical processes in marine ecosystems may vary noticeably and depend on environmental trophic status. Importance of picoplankton makes them an essential component for understanding the food web dynamics in marine systems. These small organisms dominate the photosynthetic biomass and primary production in oligotrophic waters like the Adriatic Sea. One of the hypotheses of research is that the factors that enable scavenging nutrients at low concentrations also promote accumulation of contaminants in the biomass of microorganisms. Biologically mediated reactions can transform mercury species and facilitate their entrance into the marine food web in which it bioaccumulates in the form of methylmercury (MeHg). In order to establish relationship between Hg and microbial species, we performed samplings in the Central Adriatic Sea. Samplings were conducted during oceanographic cruises aboard the research vessel Bios Dva from March 2014 to December 2015. Research was constrained to transect from the island of Vis to the Bay of Kastela. Non-filtered water samples were collected for determination of methylmercury (MeHg), total mercury (THg), dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM), and microbial species in Adriatic coastal and open waters. In the pristine environment of the island of Vis, THg concentrations are the lowest and range from 0.14-1.10 ng/L. Mercury contamination from chlor-alkali industrial waters in the Bay of Kastela is observed through the highest THg concentrations (up to 5.58 ng/L). DGM always shows higher values in more contaminated areas (31.8-351 pg/L) than in the pristine environment (22.1-245 pg/L). MeHg concentrations vary, but the highest values are usually found in the Bay of Kastela (up to 34.3 pg/L). Number of picoeukaryotes is the highest in the Bay of Kastela (0.44×106-31.8×106/L) which has been affected by industrial and civil effluents from the surrounding cities. The lowest number is

  10. Comparison Between Numerical Simulations and Drifter Observations of the Surface Circulation in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotenko, K. A.; Poulain, P. M.; Cushman-Roisin, B. R.

    2007-12-01

    Eulerian statistics computed from drifter data and estimated from numerical simulations of circulation of the Adriatic Sea are compared for different seasons and wind forcing. The periods of interest are August-October 2003, May, June and February 2003, where drifter data have high density. The numerical simulations were performed with a 1.2- min resolution DieCAST Ocean Circulation Model adapted for the Adriatic Sea. The simulations resolve the mesoscale variability because the grid size falls below the first baroclinic deformation radius (about 5-10 km) and the model has very low horizontal dissipation. The DieCAST model is initialized with seasonally averaged temperature and salinity data and forced with climatological winds and surface buoyancy fluxes (both heat flux and evaporation minus precipitation). River discharges are varied daily according to a perpetual year for every river, and the open-boundary conditions at Otranto Strait are obtained by nesting in two larger-scale models (Cushman-Roisin et al., JGR, 2007). In the period of interests the model was forced with the COAMPS wind stresses and heat fluxes. Mean Kinetic Energy (MKE) and Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) estimates were obtained using the methodology commonly used with drifter (Poulain, JMS, 2001). The surface drifter observations were obtained in 2002 and 2003 as part of the DOLCEVITA project (Ursella et al., JGR, 2006). More than 120 CODE drifters were released in the northern and middle Adriatic with the purpose of studying the surface circulation at mesoscale to seasonal scale in relation to wind forcing. Drifter velocities were low-pass filtered to eliminate tidal and inertial currents. Comparison of the MKE and EKE computed from the model and drifter data shows a good agreement for high- energy dynamics along the Italian coast and local effects of strong winds like Bora and Sirocco. Discrepancies between the drifter-based and model-inferred Eulerian statistics originates in the specification

  11. Phytoplankton Cell Lysis Associated with Polyunsaturated Aldehyde Release in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ribalet, François; Bastianini, Mauro; Vidoudez, Charles; Acri, Francesco; Berges, John; Ianora, Adrianna; Miralto, Antonio; Pohnert, Georg; Romano, Giovanna; Wichard, Thomas; Casotti, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms are able to react to biotic and abiotic stress, such as competition, predation and unfavorable growth conditions, by producing bioactive compounds including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs). PUAs have been shown to act against grazers and either enhance or inhibit the growth of different phytoplankton and bacteria both in culture and in the field. Presence of nanomolar concentrations of dissolved PUAs in seawater has been reported in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean), suggesting that these compounds are released in seawater following diatom cell lysis. However, the origin of the PUAs and their effects on natural phytoplankton assemblages remain unclear. Here we present data from four oceanographic cruises that took place during diatom blooms in the northern Adriatic Sea where concentrations of particulate and dissolved PUAs were monitored along with phytoplankton cell lysis. Cell lysis was positively correlated with both concentrations of particulate and dissolved PUAs (R = 0.69 and R = 0.77, respectively), supporting the hypothesis that these compounds are released by cell lysis. However, the highest concentration of dissolved PUAs (2.53 nM) was measured when cell lysis was high (0.24 d−1) but no known PUA-producing diatoms were detected, suggesting either that other organisms can produce PUAs or that PUA-producing enzymes retain activity extracellularly after diatom cells have lysed. Although in situ concentrations of dissolved PUAs were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those typically used in laboratory culture experiments, we argue that concentrations produced in the field could induce similar effects to those observed in culture and therefore may help shape plankton community composition and function in the oceans. PMID:24497933

  12. Phytoplankton cell lysis associated with polyunsaturated aldehyde release in the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ribalet, François; Bastianini, Mauro; Vidoudez, Charles; Acri, Francesco; Berges, John; Ianora, Adrianna; Miralto, Antonio; Pohnert, Georg; Romano, Giovanna; Wichard, Thomas; Casotti, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms are able to react to biotic and abiotic stress, such as competition, predation and unfavorable growth conditions, by producing bioactive compounds including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs). PUAs have been shown to act against grazers and either enhance or inhibit the growth of different phytoplankton and bacteria both in culture and in the field. Presence of nanomolar concentrations of dissolved PUAs in seawater has been reported in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean), suggesting that these compounds are released in seawater following diatom cell lysis. However, the origin of the PUAs and their effects on natural phytoplankton assemblages remain unclear. Here we present data from four oceanographic cruises that took place during diatom blooms in the northern Adriatic Sea where concentrations of particulate and dissolved PUAs were monitored along with phytoplankton cell lysis. Cell lysis was positively correlated with both concentrations of particulate and dissolved PUAs (R = 0.69 and R = 0.77, respectively), supporting the hypothesis that these compounds are released by cell lysis. However, the highest concentration of dissolved PUAs (2.53 nM) was measured when cell lysis was high (0.24 d(-1)) but no known PUA-producing diatoms were detected, suggesting either that other organisms can produce PUAs or that PUA-producing enzymes retain activity extracellularly after diatom cells have lysed. Although in situ concentrations of dissolved PUAs were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those typically used in laboratory culture experiments, we argue that concentrations produced in the field could induce similar effects to those observed in culture and therefore may help shape plankton community composition and function in the oceans.

  13. A tri-modular model for the computation of the meteorological and oceanographic fields in the Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lionello, P.; Pernigotti, D.; Zampato, L.; Bergamasco, A.; Buzzi, A.; Malguzzi, P.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this research program is the construction of the modelling framework to describe and predict the development of the sea and of the atmosphere in the Adriatic region. There are two time scales that are considered: the medium range time scale of the weather-surge-oceanwave forecast and the interseasonal time scale of the thermohaline circulation in the Adriatic Sea. The phenomenology associated with the medium range is represented by the intense storms that take place in the Adriatic Sea, in spite of its relatively small extension, when the presence of a pressure minimum over Italy generates an intense Scirocco wind which, channeled by the mountain ridges surrounding the basin, blows along its whole length. Because of the long fetch, approximately 1,000 Km., this situation produces high ocean waves and the storm surge that is associated with the flooding of Venice. The interseasonal phenomenology is represented by the formation of dense water in the Northern part of the basin during winter. This is presumably caused by Bora, a strong South-Westerly wind, cold and dry, which produces cooling and evaporation in the shallow water coastal region of the Northern Adriatic. The complex orography surrounding the Adriatic and the short duration of this phenomena require a model framework capable of high space and time resolution on a limited area. This is the motivation for addressing these issues in a coupled model framework consisting of a limited area atmospheric circulation model, an ocean circulation model, and a ocean wave model with high resolution both in space and time.

  14. Sub-surface and near-bottom thermohaline circulation of a shallow sea during a dense water production event: a case study from the northern Adriatic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Carniel, Sandro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    Cold, dry, and intense winds blowing over shallow sea shelves produce favorable conditions for water column cooling and evaporation: the newly formed water is denser than the out-shelf environmental water and thus is forced to move away from the production basin. The semi-enclosed Adriatic Sea is a representative domain to investigate the dynamics of this gravity flow. Indeed, such a flow (the so-called Northern Adriatic Dense water, NADW) originates in the northern shallow Adriatic and moves southeastward leant to the Italian coast, in quasi-geostrophic conditions, strongly modulated by ocean circulation (tide and wind driven) and pressure gradients. Along its way southward, NADW partially slide into sea bottom depressions and promote renewal of deeper and older water masses. Production and spreading of dense water in the northern Adriatic Sea were simulated by means of an eddy-resolving high-resolution (1.0 x 1.0 km2) numerical model, which relied on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment-Transport (COAWST) system, based on the 3-D ocean model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) and the wave model SWAN (Simulating Wave Nearshore). To drive COAWST, the atmosphere forcings provided by the meteorological model COSMO-I7 (an atmospheric mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) were used. Initial and boundary conditions were derived from numerical models operational in the Adriatic and Mediterranean Sea. An observational dataset has been also used with the dual-purpose of describing the NADW formation process and assess numerical model outputs. The selected period for the analysis brackets early February 2012, an exceptionally cold period during which the northern Adriatic Sea experienced a Cold Air Outbreak (CAO) that forced water temperature to drop to about 6° C, with water density exceeding 1030 kg/m3. Results presented reveal some new insights on how NADW generates in the northern Adriatic Sea, triggered by tidal and wave forcing

  15. Identity of Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from Istra Peninsula in Croatia (Adriatic Sea basin).

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Primoz; Mrakovcic, Milorad; Marcic, Zoran; Naseka, Alexander M; Bogutskaya, Nina G

    2010-08-27

    A chub of previously ambiguous identity from the Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers (south-eastern Istra Peninsula) was studied and compared with geographically close Squalius squalus, Squalius zrmanja, and Squalius janae recently described from the Dragonja River drainage in the Adriatic Sea basin in Slovenia. It was shown that the chub from the south-eastern Istra Peninsula differs from all know species of Squalius but one: Squalius janae. Three samples examined from Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers and Squalius janae from its type locality, Dragonja River, show the following characters typical for the latter species: a long head (the head length 27-32% SL); a pointed conical snout with a clearly projecting upper jaw; a long straight mouth cleft, the lower jaw length (39-45% HL) exceeding the caudal peduncle depth; a large eye; commonly 9? branched anal-fin rays; commonly 44 total vertebrae (24+20 or 25+19); bright silvery colouration, scales easily lost; iris, pectoral, pelvic and anal fin pigmentation with yellow shades. The data on the distribution of Squalius chubs in the northern Adriatic basin support the assumption that the range of Squalius janae is determined by the geology of the Trieste Flysch Basin and the Pazin Flysch Basin forming the base of the Istra Peninsula. The distribution pattern of this species does not support a simple model of fish dispersal and a complete connectivity within the whole Palaeo-Po historical drainage. Indeed, it indicates a disrupted surface palaeohydrography that was heavily fragmented by karstification in the whole Dinaric area.

  16. Eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: Pore water and sediment studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, D.E.; Berelson, W.M. ); Giordani, P.; Langone, L.; Frignani, M.; Ravaioli, M. )

    1990-01-09

    The northern Adriatic Sea has been plagued by problems of eutrophication. This area is relatively shallow (maximum depth = 60m), becoming stratified during the summer months which inhibits oxygen transport to bottom waters. Anthropogenic nutrient loading in rivers entering the northern Adriatic (Po River being the largest) has increased nutrient input to this system and stimulated algal growth. Cores were collected for studies of pore water and solid phase chemistry at 6 stations in this region. [sup 210]Pb was used to constrain sediment accumulation rates and a range of 0-0.5 cm/yr was determined at different stations. Excess [sup 234]Th was only found in the upper 1-2 cm, suggesting that bioturbation is largely restricted to shallow depths. Pore water profiles show evidence of irrigation, and mean diffusive fluxes for oxygen, silica phosphate and ammonia are generally 20-90% of the fluxes obtained from benthic chamber measurements. This is consistent with previous work in this area in which studies of radon fluxes indicated that irrigation plays an important role in sediment-water exchange. Pore water profiles in the northern portion of the study area (near the Po River Delta) were markedly different than profiles in the south; sediments in the north are substantially more acidic and have high concentrations of dissolved iron and phosphate. From the alkalinity vs. TCO[sub 2] relationship in sediment pore waters it appears that differences in reactions involving the reduction of iron oxides and the exchange of magnesium for iron in clays are responsible for this regional difference in pore water properties. Sediments close to the Po apparently undergo more iron-magnesium exchange, while more distal sediments are limited in their ability to do so. Other pore water observations are limited in their ability to do so. Other pore water observations and trends regarding the shape of the silica profiles (which show shallow maxima) will be discussed.

  17. Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) Biodiversity in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean, Italy): Cryptic Species and New Introductions.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Marion A; Sciuto, Katia; Andreoli, Carlo; Moro, Isabella

    2012-12-01

    Ulva Linnaeus (Ulvophyceae, Ulvales) is a genus of green algae widespread in different aquatic environments. Members of this genus show a very simple morphology and a certain degree of phenotypic plasticity, heavily influenced by environmental conditions, making difficult the delineation of species by morphological features alone. Most studies dealing with Ulva biodiversity in Mediterranean waters have been based only on morphological characters and a modern taxonomic revision of this genus in the Mediterranean is not available. We report here the results of an investigation on the diversity of Ulva in the North Adriatic Sea based on molecular analyses. Collections from three areas, two of which subject to intense shipping traffic, were examined, as well as historical collections of Ulva stored in the Herbarium Patavinum of the University of Padova, Italy. Molecular analyses based on partial sequences of the rbcL and tufA genes revealed the presence of six different species, often with overlapping morphologies: U. californica Wille, U. flexuosa Wulfen, U. rigida C. Agardh, U. compressa Linnaeus, U. pertusa Kjellman, and one probable new taxon. U. californica is a new record for the Mediterranean and U. pertusa is a new record for the Adriatic. Partial sequences obtained from historical collections show that most of the old specimens are referable to U. rigida. No specimens referable to the two alien species were found among the old herbarium specimens. The results indicate that the number of introduced seaweed species and their impact on Mediterranean communities have been underestimated, due to the difficulties in species identification of morphologically simple taxa as Ulva.

  18. Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates contamination of crustaceans and fishes from the Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Fulvio; Fabietti, Fabio; Delise, Mirella; Funari, Enzo

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the occurrence of alkylphenols (APs) and their ethoxylates (APEs) in 8 edible marine species from the Adriatic Sea and tries to estimate the corresponding intake for the Italian population. Two crustaceans, Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster) and Squilla mantis (spottail mantis shrimp), plus six fish species, Engraulis enchrascicolus (anchovy), Scomber scombrus (Atlantic mackerel), Merluccius merluccius (European hake), Mullus barbatus (red mullet), Solea vulgaris (common sole) and Lophius piscatorius (angler) were analyzed for their content of nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP) and octylphenol polyethoxylates (OPEs). These compounds were found in all analysed samples. NP was detected at the highest concentrations: 118-399 and 9.5-1431 ng g(-1) fresh weight (fw) respectively in crustaceans and fish. OP was found at respective levels of 2.7-4.7 and 0.3-3.8 ng g(-1) fw in crustaceans and fish, whereas OPE was determined at respective concentrations of 1.2-16.8 and 0.2-21.1 ng g(-1) fw in the same species. These results, together with those from a previous study on 4 edible mollusc, allow to estimate respective daily intakes for NP, OP, and OPE of about 12, 0.1, and 0.1 microg day(-1) for an Italian adult living along the Adriatic Coast. In relation to NP and OP, these intakes are much lower than the doses associated with toxic effects in laboratory animals (9 mg kg(-1) bw for rats). Nevertheless, data of exposure from other sources to these chemicals and others with similar biological characteristics are needed. PMID:15833488

  19. Mass occurrence of the ctenophore Bolinopsis vitrea (L. Agassiz, 1860) in the nearshore southern Adriatic Sea (Kotor Bay, Montenegro).

    PubMed

    Lucic, Davor; Pestoric, Branka; Malej, Alenka; Lopez-Lopez, Lucia; Drakulovic, Dragana; Onofri, Vladimir; Miloslavic, Marijana; Gangai, Barbara; Onofri, Ivona; Benovic, Adam

    2012-08-01

    The ctenophore Bolinopsis vitrea has been rarely observed in the Mediterranean Sea. A bloom of B. vitrea is here reported for the first time in the southern Adriatic Sea in the spring and summer of 2009, together with its effect on the plankton of Kotor Bay. Ctenophores were found below 5 m depth only. Results of the investigation indicate that mass occurrence of B. vitrea could have a great impact on the Kotor Bay ecosystem. Their predation on copepods would reduce grazing pressure on phytoplankton, favouring an uncommon bloom of the latter. It is evident that B. vitrea are capable of altering rapidly the composition and biomass of coastal plankton communities when present in large masses. This first evidence of such events for this species may indicate changes in the functioning of marine ecosystems of the southern Adriatic.

  20. Diversity of the genus Terebellides (Polychaeta: Trichobranchidae) in the Adriatic Sea with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Parapar, Julio; Mikac, Barbara; Fiege, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Based on specimens collected during the sampling campaigns in the Northern Adriatic from 2003-2010, the diversity of genus Terebellides (Polychaeta; Trichobranchidae) was studied and three species are reported for the Northern Adriatic Sea: Terebellides gracilis Malm, 1874, Terebellides mediterranea spec. nov., and Terebellides stroemii Sars, 1835. Terebellides stroemii was the only species previously reported from the area. Terebellides gracilis is reported for the first time for the Mediterranean Sea and its geographical distribution is extended south. Terebellides mediterranea spec. nov., is characterised by the presence of long notopodia and notochaetae in the first thoracic chaetiger. These three species are compared to other Terebellides species described or reported from North Atlantic waters, and a key to Terebellides species of the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean is provided.

  1. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion.

  2. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion. PMID:25828676

  3. Historical ecology of the northern Adriatic Sea: Down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages as indicators of ecological shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Tomasovych, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Modern marine ecological studies investigating ecosystem responses to environmental changes are normally restricted to annual or decadal time scales. The historical ecology approach used in the present study aims to shed light on the younger ecological history of the northern Adriatic Sea, targeting the period of the last 500 to 2000 years that have experienced major anthropogenic ecosystem impacts. Our investigations focus on down-core changes in death assemblages of benthic hard-part producers (molluscs, foraminifera, ostracods), where the degree of variation between different community structures serves as a proxy for ecological shifts. The northern Adriatic Sea, with its densely populated shoreline, lists among the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide and is therefore particularly suited to study ecosystem modification under human pressure. Another advantage of this study area is the availability of historical data from marine surveys dating back to the 1930s.We incorporate these data in our analyses of more recent ecological shifts. More than 50 cores of 1.5 m length and diameters of 90 and 160 mm were taken at seven sampling stations throughout the northern Adriatic Sea, covering different sediment types, nutrient conditions and degrees of exposure to bottom trawling. The cores were sliced into smaller subsamples and analysed for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity, evidence for ecological interactions (i.e., frequencies of drilling predation) and taphonomic condition of shells. First results concerning down-core changes in species composition and abundance point to significant differences within single cores as well as between sites. The radiometric dating of the sediments revealed substantial differences in sedimentation rates and in the ratio between sediment depth and age. This information, together with carbon-calibrated amino acid- racemisation (AAR) of shells from selected species, will help to specify the timing of major

  4. Understanding dynamic of biogeochemical properties in the northern Adriatic Sea by using self-organizing maps and k-means clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko; Barbieri, Pierluigi; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2007-07-01

    The dynamic of biogeochemical properties in a coastal area of the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Trieste) is analyzed through (1) identification of a small number of water typology classes and classification of samples, obtained by means of a novel multivariate classification procedure based on a combination of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and "traditional" clusterization algorithms, (2) interpretation of each class based on biogeochemical properties and ecological phenomena likely to occur in the water body, and (3) discussion of time evolution and spatial distribution of water classes which summarized and provided indications on the system's space and time evolution. Basing itself on a multivariate comparison, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) grouped 1292 samples collected in a 3-year-long monitoring program in 187 sets and identified a representative synthetic sample for each group. These groups were further classified in seven clusters, which identified the water typology. The complexity of the space and time coevolution of 12 variables was so reduced to variation of one categorical variable. Results included an objectively derived typology of water masses and their typical temporal succession, a spatial dividing based on biogeochemical processes, a conceptual scheme of biogeochemistry in the Gulf. Results clearly indicated the importance of river input in triggering plankton blooms and pointed out that trophodynamics followed current paradigms of marine ecosystem functioning, with shifts from conditions dominated by classical food chain to situations in which most of the energy flowed through the autotrophic and heterotrophic parts of the microbial food web.

  5. Space and time variability of the surface color field in the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barale, Vittorio; Mcclain, Charles R.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    1986-01-01

    A time series of coastal zone color scanner images for the years 1979 and 1980 was used to observe the spatial and temporal variability of bio-optical processes and circulation patterns of the northern Adriatic Sea on monthly, seasonal, and interannual scales. The chlorophyll-like pigment concentrations derived from satellite data exhibited a high correlation with sea truth measurements performed during seven surveys in the summer of both years. Comparison of the mean pigment fields indicates a general increase in concentration values and larger scales of coastal features from 1979 to 1980. This variability may be linked to the different patterns of nutrient influx due to coastal runoff in the 2 years. The distribution of surface features is consistent with the general cyclonic circulation pattern. The pigment heterogeneity appears to be governed by fluctuations of freshwater discharge, while the dominant wind fields do not appear to have important direct effects. The Po River presents a plume spreading predominantly in a southeastern direction, with scales positively correlated with its outflow. The spatial scales of the western coastal layer, in contrast, are negatively correlated with this outflow and the plume scales. Both results are consistent with, and may be rationalized by, recent theoretical and experimental results involving a dynamical balance between nonlinear advection and bottom friction, with alternate predominance of one of the two effects.

  6. Hydromorphic to subaqueous soils transitions in the central Grado lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittori Antisari, Livia; De Nobili, Maria; Ferronato, Chiara; Natale, Marco; Pellegrini, Elisa; Vianello, Gilmo

    2016-05-01

    The Grado lagoon is among the largest in the Mediterranean sea and is characterized by salt marshes, where tides influenced the development of a complex micromorphology coupled to a micromosaic of vegetation covers. This study represents the first contribution to the understanding of the main processes governing formation, development and spatial transitions between hydromorphic and subaqueous soils in an Adriatic lagoon ecosystem. Physicochemical characteristics and development of soils were investigated in three salt marshes differing for their proximity to the open sea, textural composition and age of formation. Soils of back barrier salt marshes had A/C profiles and were mostly characterized by a sandy coarse texture that allows rapid drainage and subsurface oxygen exchanges. Soil sequences from the inner salt marsh to its submerged border slope or to a brackish waterhole do not simply represent a hydrosequence, but also reflect erosion/sorting/accumulation processes. The soils in the central part of the lagoon have finer texture and in displayed transition or cambic horizons. Silty clay loam textures and low positions allowed the development of more severe anoxic conditions and accumulation of sulphides. The tide oscillation strongly contributed to formation of redoximorphic features, intensity of anaerobic conditions but also colonization by different plant communities. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify physicochemical properties which discriminate the different soils according to geo-morphological position and prevailing plants. It confirmed that differentiation of plant communities occurred according to distinct morphological and physicochemical soil properties, but also acted as a primary affecting factor of pedogenesis.

  7. The Clodia database: a long time series of fishery data from the Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Sambo, Andrea; Riginella, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Long-term time series of species abundances can depict population declines and changes in communities in response to anthropogenic activities, climate changes, alterations of trophic relationships. Here we present a database of historical marine fishery landing data, covering a remarkably long time series (1945–2013) and referring to one of the most exploited areas of the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea. The database includes two time series of landing data, 1945–2013 and 1997–2013, from the official statistics of the fish market of Chioggia, where the major fishing fleet of the area operates. Comparisons between the landing data of the database and landing data from other fisheries or data from scientific surveys support the reliability of the time series in depicting changes in species abundances. The database is expected to be used by fishery biologists and ecologists interested in depicting and understanding temporal variations in species abundances and community composition, in relation to environmental and anthropogenic factors. PMID:25977775

  8. Common sole in the northern and central Adriatic Sea: Spatial management scenarios to rebuild the stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarcella, Giuseppe; Grati, Fabio; Raicevich, Saša; Russo, Tommaso; Gramolini, Roberto; Scott, Robert D.; Polidori, Piero; Domenichetti, Filippo; Bolognini, Luca; Giovanardi, Otello; Celić, Igor; Sabatini, Laura; Vrgoč, Nedo; Isajlović, Igor; Marčeta, Bojan; Fabi, Gianna

    2014-05-01

    The northern and central Adriatic Sea represents an important spawning and aggregation area for common sole (Solea solea) and provides for around 20% of the Mediterranean landings. In this area, this resource is mainly exploited with rapido trawl and set nets. The stock is not yet depleted and faces a situation of growth overfishing. The comparison between the spatial distribution by age of S. solea and the geographic patterns of the rapido trawl fishing effort evidenced an overlapping of this fishing activity with the area where juveniles concentrate (age groups 0-2). The majority of spawners inhabits specific offshore areas, here defined as ‘sole sanctuaries', where high concentrations of debris and benthic communities make difficult trawling with rapido. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing spatial management regimes and potential new spatial and temporal closures in the northern and central Adriatic Sea using a simple modelling tool. Two spatial simulations were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of complementary methods for the management of fisheries: the ban of rapido trawling from October to December within 6 nautical miles and 9 nautical miles of the Italian coast. The focus of the simulation is that the effort of the rapido trawl is moved far from the coast during key sole recruitment periods, when the juveniles are moving from the inshore nursery area toward the offshore feeding grounds. The management scenarios showed that a change in selectivity would lead to a clear increase in the spawning stock biomass and an increase in landings of S. solea in the medium-term. The rapido trawl activity could be managed by using a different logic, bearing in mind that catches and incomes would increase with small changes in the spatial pattern of the fishing effort. The present study highlights the importance of taking into account spatial dimensions of fishing fleets and the possible interactions that can occur between fleets and target

  9. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  10. Occurrences of igneous rocks in the Adriatic Sea: a possible indicator of the Paleozoic supercontinent disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrna Prašek, Marko; Petrinec, Zorica; Balen, Dražen

    2014-05-01

    Islands of the Adriatic Sea are part of the Mesozoic Adriatic Dinaridic Carbonate Platform (ADCP) and so are mostly comprised of limestones. Occurrences of igneous rocks inside ADCP are in general extremely rare, with the exception of two small islands, Jabuka and Brusnik, which are completely igneous in origin. Small outcrops of igneous rocks can also be found on the island of Vis. Samples used in this research where gathered on a diving expedition of the islands Jabuka and Brusnik and a previously unknown and unexplored underwater (14-25 m b.s.l.) locality - Brusnik Shoal. Samples are mostly hypidiomorphic holocrystalline medium-grained rocks with a massive, locally ophitic texture. Mineral composition is dominated by clinopyroxene and weakly zoned polysynthetic twins of plagioclase. Subordinate are secondary aggregates of amphibole (uralite), chlorite, sericite, biotite, apatite and fine-grained opâque minerals while microfissures are filled with non-oriented needles of prehnite and calcite. Petrographically, all samples are determined as gabbro to gabbro-diorite. Major and trace element signature, characterized by low content of MgO (2.43-5.01 wt. %), low magnesium number (34-53), low content of Ni and Cr (6-12 and 6-61 ppm, respectively) is typical for calc-alkaline to tholeiitic gabbros and shows that the parental magma was not primitive by nature. Trace element patterns, high LILE/HSFE and chondrite-normalized LREE/HREE ratios (LaN/YbN: 3.27 - 5.26), Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*: 0.75 - 0.93), low Nb (2.2 - 3.8 ppm) and high Pb (2 - 18 ppm), together with elevated P, Zr, Ti, U, Th, K concentrations studied in this research point to an active marginal setting with significant contribution from the recycled continental crust. Observed geochemical characteristics point to a single igneous event that led to the formation of all studied samples. At the same time, different degrees of crustal contamination, fractionation of pyroxene and plagioclase and/or development of

  11. Seafloor morphology of the Montenegro/N. Albania Continental Margin (Adriatic Sea-Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bianco, Fabrizio; Gasperini, Luca; Giglio, Federico; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Kljajic, Zoran; Ravaioli, Mariangela

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam morpho-bathymetric maps and a dense grid of seismic reflection profiles show relict and palimpsest geomorphologic features along the Montenegro/Northern Albanian Continental Margin. This sector of the Eastern Adriatic shelf, at the external front of the Dinarides Chain, is characterized by highly variable seafloor patterns and depositional styles, and shows a peculiar alternation of large-scale troughs and ridges, probably caused by tectonic compressive deformations. These tectonically controlled morphologies are overprinted by the result of sedimentary processes, such as progradation at river outflows, erosion, and reworking of sediments by longshore currents, as well as gravity-driven process caused by sediment loading and seismic shaking. Physiographic domains along this shelf-slope margin include (i) an inner and an outer shelf, separated by two major topographic highs, the Kotor and the Bar ridges; (ii) a drowned lobate delta formed during the last phase of sea level fall, likely fed by the Buna/Bojana drainage basin; and (iii) a continental slope affected by gravity-driven faulting and mass-wasting processes. Seafloor reflectivity maps, ground-truthed by grain-size analysis of bottom sediments, reveal that fine-grained deposits accumulate in the inner shelf, while other sectors appear starved. The effects of the last sea-level rise is testified by the presence of seabed forms diagnostic of erosion or depositional processes, such us large dunes, sediment ridges and sediment waves, which were studied to infer the effect of bottom currents under the present-day oceanographic regime and in the recent past. This paper presents a first description of geomorphologic features observed along the Montenegro/Northern Albanian Continental Margin, in the context of Late Quaternary sea-level changes.

  12. Bacterial community shift is induced by dynamic environmental parameters in a changing coastal ecosystem (northern Adriatic, northeastern Mediterranean Sea)--a 2-year time-series study.

    PubMed

    Tinta, T; Vojvoda, J; Mozetič, P; Talaber, I; Vodopivec, M; Malfatti, F; Turk, V

    2015-10-01

    The potential link between the microbial dynamics and the environmental parameters was investigated in a semi-enclosed and highly dynamic coastal system (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, NE Mediterranean Sea). Our comprehensive 2-year time-series study showed that despite the shallowness of this area, there was a significant difference between the surface and the bottom bacterial community structure. The bottom bacterial community was more diverse than the surface one and influenced by sediment re-suspension. The surface seawater temperature had a profound effect on bacterial productivity, while the bacterial community structure was more affected by freshwater-borne nutrients and phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton blooms caused an increase of Gammaproteobacteria (Alteromonadaceae, SAR86 and Vibrionaceae) and shift in dominance from SAR11 to Rhodobacteraceae taxon at the surface. Our results propose the importance of the water mass movements as drivers of freshwater-borne nutrients and of allochthonous microbial taxa. This study emphasizes the prediction power based on association networks analyses that are fed with long-term measurements of microbial and environmental parameters. These interaction maps offer valuable insights into the response of marine ecosystem to climate- and anthropogenic-driven stressors.

  13. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between the levels of total mercury in Norway lobster and those detected in all other species. The 25% of all samples exceeded the maximum limit fixed by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. The results show that fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish.

  14. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between the levels of total mercury in Norway lobster and those detected in all other species. The 25% of all samples exceeded the maximum limit fixed by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. The results show that fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish. PMID:19434348

  15. Ecosystem exploitation and trophodynamic indicators: A comparison between the Northern Adriatic Sea and Southern New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranovi, Fabio; Link, Jason S.

    2009-04-01

    In an ecosystem-based resource management context, it is crucial to assess the relationships between community structure and ecosystem function and how those relationships change with resource extraction. To elucidate how changes in resource use can affect community structure and ecosystem function, we executed a comparative analysis of two different ecosystems subjected to notable fishing pressure. We contrasted the Northern Adriatic Sea (NAS) and Southern New England (SNE) ecosystems by examining outputs from comparable steady-state models. Both ecosystems have relatively high fishing pressure and a high biomass of benthic invertebrates. The basic structure of the food webs shows differences both in the number and definition of the functional groups, as described in the models. Fisheries, on the contrary, show similarities both in terms of catches and discards. Almost all statistics summarizing the structure and flows showed values three times higher in the SNE than in the NAS ecosystem, but despite this difference the two ecosystems exhibited similar, overall properties. Biomass ratios and the Mixed Trophic Impact (MTI) analysis showed that both ecosystems are dominated by the benthic compartment. Removing the biomass effect, however, shows a clear top-down effect, with a high rank achieved by fishing activities. In general terms, the low mean trophic level of catches and the high primary production required (PPR) values result in a high overexploitation level of the ecosystem, as highlighted by the L index. We conclude by exploring how comparative studies will continue to be valuable as ecosystem-based management is further implemented.

  16. Rospo Mare (Adriatic Sea) - An oil-bearing paleokarst in the Mediterranean region

    SciTech Connect

    Soudet, H.; Sorriaux, P.; Michaud, F. )

    1990-05-01

    The oil-bearing paleokarst at Rospo Mare is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km off the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at a depth of 1,300 m and consists of a paleokarst of Oligocene to Miocene age that developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered by 1,200 m of Miocene-Pliocene clastics. The oil column is about 140 m. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical cored drill holes, which allowed us to analyze the various solution features and the sedimentary infill (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a paleokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in quarries located nearby. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including especially paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sink holes. Detailed knowledge of that morphology through geophysics helped optimizing the development of the field through horizontal drilling.

  17. Meteoceanographic premises for structural design purposes in the Adriatic Sea: Acquisition and processing of data

    SciTech Connect

    Rampolli, M.; Biancardi, A.; Filippi, G. De

    1996-12-31

    In 1993 the leading international standards (ISO, APOI RP2A) for the design of offshore structures drastically changed the procedure for the definition of hydrodynamic forces. In particular oil companies are required to have a detailed knowledge of the weather of the areas where they operate, if they want to maintain the previous results. Alternatively, more conservative hydrodynamic forces must be considered in the design phase. Such an increase, valuable in 20--30% of total hydrodynamic force, means heavier platform structures in new projects, and more critical elements to be inspected in existing platforms. In 1992, in order to have more reliable and safe transports to and from the platforms, Agip installed a meteo-marine sensor network in Adriatic Sea, on 13 of the over 80 producing platforms. Data collected are sent to shore via radio and operators can use real time data or 12-hour wave forecast, obtained by a statistic forecasting model. Taking advantage by such existing instruments, a project was undertaken in 1993 with the purpose of determining the extreme environmental parameters to be used by structural engineers. The network has been upgraded in order to achieve directional information of the waves and to permit short term analysis. This paper describes the data acquisition system, data processing and the achieved results.

  18. Measurements and modeling of the volume scattering function in the coastal northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthon, Jean-François; Shybanov, Eugeny; Lee, Michael E.-G.; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2007-08-01

    We performed measurements of the volume scattering function (VSF) between 0.5° and 179° with an angular resolution of 0.3° in the northern Adriatic Sea onboard an oceanographic platform during three different seasons, using the multispectral volume scattering meter (MVSM) instrument. We observed important differences with respect to Petzold's commonly used functions, whereas the Fournier-Forand's analytical formulation provided a rather good description of the measured VSF. The comparison of the derived scattering, bp(λ) and backscattering, bbp(λ) coefficients for particles with the measurements performed with the classical AC-9 and Hydroscat-6 showed agreement to within 20%. The use of an empirical relationship for the derivation of bb(λ) from β(ψ,λ) at ψ=140° was validated for this coastal site although ψ=118° was confirmed to be the most appropriate angle. The low value of the factor used to convert β(ψ,λ) into bb(λ) within the Hydroscat-6 processing partially contributed to the underestimation of bb(λ) with respect to the MVSM. Finally, use of the Kopelevich model together with a measurement of bp(λ) at λ=555 nm allowed us to reconstruct the VSF with average rms percent differences between 8 and 15%.

  19. Assimilation experiments for the Fishery Observing System in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydoǧdu, Ali; Pinardi, Nadia; Pistoia, Jenny; Martinelli, Michela; Belardinelli, Andrea; Sparnocchia, Stefania

    2016-10-01

    An impact assessment of a Fishery Observing System (FOS) network in the Adriatic Sea was carried out with an ocean circulation model fully-coupled with a data assimilation system. The FOS data are single point vertical values of temperature collected in 2007. In this study, we used the Observing System Experiment (OSE) and Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) methodologies to estimate the impact of different FOS design and sensors implementation. OSEs were conducted to evaluate real observations and they show that the FOS network improves the analysis significantly, especially during the stratification season. Root mean square (RMS) of temperature errors are reduced by about 44% and 36% in the upper and lower layers respectively. We also demonstrated that a similar impact can be obtained with a reduced number of vessels if the spatial coverage of the data points does not change significantly. In the OSSE, the impact of the implementation of a CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensor in place of the existing temperature sensor was tested with identical twin approaches between January and April 2007. The results imply that the assimilation of salinity does not improve the analysis significantly during the winter and spring seasons.

  20. Relevance of the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax fragilis in mucilage formations of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Cangini, Monica; Totti, Cecilia; Urbani, Ranieri; Guerrini, Franca; Romagnoli, Tiziana; Sist, Paola; Palamidesi, Simona; Boni, Laurita; Pompei, Marinella

    2005-12-15

    Oceanographic cruises were carried out monthly from June 1999 to July 2002 to follow the mucilage formation process in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Results show that in correspondence with these events the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax fragilis (Schütt) Kofoid was observed both in the water column and within mucilage aggregates. In the water column, increasing abundances were observed from May until July, with values never exceeding 8500 cells l(-1). Much higher densities were observed within superficial gelatinous aggregates (22800-3400000 cells l(-1)). In mucilage samples, a large number of decomposing cells were present, together with abundant alive cells, enveloped in exudates. G. fragilis isolated from mucilage samples was cultured in three different culture media; it was characterized by a low growth rate but it produced a high amount of polysaccharides. The highest yield both in terms of cell number and carbohydrate production was observed in the medium having the highest nitrogen and phosphorus content and the lowest N/P ratio. The monomeric composition of G. fragilis carbohydrates, compared with that of mucilage samples, showed that in both natural and cultured samples galactose was the most abundant sugar; in addition, an overall good correlation, especially between the monomeric carbohydrate composition of G. fragilis grown in f/2 medium and that of a mucilage sample in which this species was present in high density, was observed. PMID:16289296

  1. Radioactive contamination of cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea by 90Sr.

    PubMed

    Franić, Z; Lokobauer, N; Marović, G

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination of water samples from cisterns collecting rainwater containing fission products from roofs and other surfaces have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea since 1968. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the nuclear moratorium. After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, higher levels of 137Cs and 90Sr were detected again, with cistern waters being the only environmental samples in Croatia in which elevated 90Sr activities persisted for several years. For the pre-Chernobyl period, the observed mean residence time of 90Sr in cistern waters, estimated to be 6.2 +/- 1.9 y, was similar to that calculated for fallout. Contrary, for the post-Chernobyl time, observed 90Sr mean residence time was calculated to be considerably shorter, reflecting the tropospheric mean residence time. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from 90Sr and 137Cs by drinking cistern water was estimated to be very small, in the 1990's less than few microSv y(-1).

  2. Saw-tooth modulation of the deep-water thermohaline properties in the southern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querin, Stefano; Bensi, Manuel; Cardin, Vanessa; Solidoro, Cosimo; Bacer, Sara; Mariotti, Laura; Stel, Fulvio; Malačič, Vlado

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigate the dynamics of the bottom layer of the southern Adriatic Sea (eastern Mediterranean basin) by merging experimental measurements and numerical simulations. We hypothesize that the recently observed continuous density decrease over time, which was basically related to a temperature increase, and the following sudden density rise, which was caused by the intrusion of very dense water masses (cold but relatively fresh), constitute one cycle of a general "saw-tooth" pattern: the alternation of long-lasting and almost linear density decreases (mixing phases) and sudden density increases (dense water intrusion phases). The model results, which provide a basin-scale view of the process, corroborate this theory because they satisfactorily reproduced the observed oceanographic features. We describe the almost linear density decrease in terms of local mixing fostered by the advection of flow instabilities that originate from the large-scale quasi-permanent cyclonic circulation. Conversely, diffusive processes play a minor role in determining the bottom layer thermohaline variability. The interpretation of the experimental findings, supported by the numerical simulations, suggests that similar dynamics might be observed in other basins characterized by similar bathymetric and hydrodynamic features.

  3. Measurements and modeling of the volume scattering function in the coastal northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Berthon, Jean-François; Shybanov, Eugeny; Lee, Michael E-G; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2007-08-01

    We performed measurements of the volume scattering function (VSF) between 0.5 degrees and 179 degrees with an angular resolution of 0.3 degrees in the northern Adriatic Sea onboard an oceanographic platform during three different seasons, using the multispectral volume scattering meter (MVSM) instrument. We observed important differences with respect to Petzold's commonly used functions, whereas the Fournier-Forand's analytical formulation provided a rather good description of the measured VSF. The comparison of the derived scattering, b(p)(lambda) and backscattering, b(bp)(lambda) coefficients for particles with the measurements performed with the classical AC-9 and Hydroscat-6 showed agreement to within 20%. The use of an empirical relationship for the derivation of b(b)(lambda) from beta(psi,lambda) at psi=140 degrees was validated for this coastal site although psi=118 degrees was confirmed to be the most appropriate angle. The low value of the factor used to convert beta(psi,lambda) into b(b)(lambda) within the Hydroscat-6 processing partially contributed to the underestimation of b(b)(lambda) with respect to the MVSM. Finally, use of the Kopelevich model together with a measurement of b(p)(lambda) at lambda=555 nm allowed us to reconstruct the VSF with average rms percent differences between 8 and 15%.

  4. {sup 210}Pb dating of sediments from the central and northern Adriatic Sea: deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T. F., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    Lead-210 ({sup 21O}Pb) and organic C depth distribution profiles in sediments from the northern and central Adriatic Sea were measured as part of the EEC funded project on Eutrophic Limits of the Northern Adriatic (ELNA). {sup 210}Pb derived mass-accumulation rates decrease southward from between 0.15 and 0.2 g cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} close to the Po River outflow (> 24 m, water depth) to less than 0.04 g cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} in the Jabuka Pit (246 m, water depth) in the central Adriatic Sea. The mass- accumulation rates obtained in the Jabuka Pit correspond to mean sedimentation rates of about 0.03 cm y{sup -1} (ref. porosity = 0.5) and fall between 5 to 20 times lower than rates found for north Adriatic shelf cores. Estimated sedimentation rates are considered as upper limits because of the possible effects of bioturbation and physical disturbance on the {sup 21O}Pb sedimentary record but are consistent with data from previous work. Rates of sediment accumulation and carbon burial appear to be strongly influenced by the transport of fluvial materials from land and transport of fine-grained particles. First-order estimates of organic C burial rates into surface sediment ranged from 1 to 0.028 mMol cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} between the Po delta and the Jabuka Pit regions, respectively. We estimate that a maximum of 50% of organic C preserved in surface sediment may be derived from biological production in the overlying water column.

  5. High-resolution simulations of heavy precipitation events: role of the Adriatic SST and air-sea interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davolio, Silvio; Stocchi, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Strong Bora and Sirocco winds over the Adriatic Sea favour intense air-sea interactions and are often associated with heavy rainfall that affects the mountainous areas surrounding the basin. A convection-permitting model (MOLOCH) has been implemented at high resolution (2 km) in order to analyse several precipitation events over northern Italy, occurred during different seasons of the year and presenting different rainfall characteristics (stratiform, convective, orographic), and to possibly identify the relevant physical mechanisms involved. With the aim of assessing the impact of the sea surface temperature (SST) and surface fluxes on the intensity and location of the rainfall, sensitivity experiments have been performed taking into account the possible variability of SST analysis for model initialization. The model has been validated and specific diagnostic tools have been developed and applied to evaluate the vertically integrated moisture fluxes feeding the precipitating system or to compute a water balance in the atmosphere over the sea. The results show that the Adriatic Sea plays a role in determining the boundary layer characteristics through exchange of heat and moisture thus modifying the low-level flow dynamics and its interaction with the orography. This in turn impacts on the rainfall. Although the results vary among the analysed events, the precise definition of the SST and its evolution can be relevant for accurate precipitation forecasting.

  6. Unstructured-grid coastal ocean modelling in Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Ivan; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian coastal Forecasting System (SANIFS) is a short-term forecasting system based on unstructured grid approach. The model component is built on SHYFEM finite element three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The operational chain exploits a downscaling approach starting from the Mediterranean oceanographic-scale model MFS (Mediterranean Forecasting System, operated by INGV). The implementation set-up has been designed to provide accurate hydrodynamics and active tracer processes in the coastal waters of Southern Eastern Italy (Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria regions), where the model is characterized by a variable resolution in range of 50-500 m. The horizontal resolution is also high in open-sea areas, where the elements size is approximately 3 km. The model is forced: (i) at the lateral open boundaries through a full nesting strategy directly with the MFS (temperature, salinity, non-tidal sea surface height and currents) and OTPS (tidal forcing) fields; (ii) at surface through two alternative atmospheric forcing datasets (ECMWF and COSMOME) via MFS-bulk-formulae. Given that the coastal fields are driven by a combination of both local/coastal and deep ocean forcings propagating along the shelf, the performance of SANIFS was verified first (i) at the large and shelf-coastal scales by comparing with a large scale CTD survey and then (ii) at the coastal-harbour scale by comparison with CTD, ADCP and tide gauge data. Sensitivity tests were performed on initialization conditions (mainly focused on spin-up procedures) and on surface boundary conditions by assessing the reliability of two alternative datasets at different horizontal resolution (12.5 and 7 km). The present work highlights how downscaling could improve the simulation of the flow field going from typical open-ocean scales of the order of several km to the coastal (and harbour) scales of tens to hundreds of meters.

  7. Foraminiferal assemblages and trophic state in coastal sediments of the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Anna; Bonatto, Sonia; Bianchelli, Silvia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto; Negri, Alessandra

    2012-12-01

    The environmental variables that influence the abundance and biodiversity of foraminifera in shallow-water settings are poorly understood. In order to help address this problem, we investigated abundance, biomass and biodiversity of living (as Rose-Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera together with the quantity and biochemical composition (in terms of phytopigment, protein, lipid, carbohydrate and biopolymeric carbon) of the organic matter in coastal sediments of the Central Adriatic Sea. Sediment samples were collected in the Portonovo Bay in May, July and October 2008 and February 2009, and the organic matter quantity and biochemical composition and benthic foraminiferal abundance and assemblage composition were analysed in the top 1 cm. Uni- and multi-variate analyses of variance revealed clear temporal variability of all the investigated variables as well as relationships between the composition of the foraminiferal assemblages and the quantity and quality of the food sources. The foraminiferal abundance and species composition changed significantly between the four sampling periods, reflecting the temporal (seasonal) variability in the quantity and nutritional quality of the food sources. Lipids, among all other organic compounds, explain significant portions of the variance of both foraminiferal abundance and biomass. In winter, a strong phytoplankton bloom led to an increased quantity of nutritionally available organic matter on the sea floor, which in turn was associated with a bloom of Leptohalysis scottii and Psammophaga sp. 1. These two foraminiferal species thus displayed an opportunistic behaviour in response to the pulse of organic carbon of high nutritional quality. We suggest that these species can be used as indicators of benthic eutrophication in shallow waters.

  8. Consumption rates and prey preference of the invasive gastropod Rapana venosa in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savini, Dario; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2006-05-01

    The alien Asian gastropod Rapana venosa (Valenciennes 1846) was first recorded in 1973 along the Italian coast of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Recently, this predator of bivalves has been spreading all around the world oceans, probably helped by ship traffic and aquaculture trade. A caging experiment in natural environment was performed during the summer of 2002 in Cesenatico (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) in order to estimate consumption rates and prey preference of R. venosa. The prey items chosen were the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819), the introduced carpet clam Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve 1850), both supporting the local fisheries, and the Indo-Pacific invasive clam Anadara (Scapharca) inaequivalvis (Bruguière 1789). Results showed an average consumption of about 1 bivalve prey per day (or 1.2 g wet weight per day). Predation was species and size selective towards small specimens of A. inaequivalvis; consumption of the two commercial species was lower. These results might reduce the concern about the economical impact on the local bivalve fishery due to the presence of the predatory gastropod. On the other hand, selective predation might probably alter local community structure, influencing competition amongst filter feeder/suspension feeder bivalve species and causing long-term ecological impact. The large availability of food resource and the habitat characteristics of the Emilia-Romagna littoral makes this area an important breeding ground for R. venosa in the Mediterranean Sea, thus worthy of consideration in order to understand the bioinvasion ecology of this species and to control its likely further dispersal.

  9. Gulf Stream eddies - Recent observations in the western Sargasso Sea.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, P. L.; Knauss, J. A.; Strong, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    A cyclonic Gulf Stream eddy was observed in the western Sargasso Sea by satellite infrared measurements and later confirmed by ship measurements. Fourteen months of observations indicate that the eddy moved southwestward at an average rate of 1 mile per day. The evidence suggests that the eddy was absorbed by the Gulf Stream off Florida.

  10. Delta-associated molluscan life and death assemblages in the northern Adriatic Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristina; Zuschin, Martin

    2013-01-15

    Life-death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats and in practice this has to be distinguished using taphonomic preservation pattern and estimates of time-averaging. It remains to be rigorously evaluated, however, how to distinguish between sources of LD disagreement. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). The northern Adriatic Sea is an ecosystem under anthropogenic pressure, and we studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) associated with the delta of the Isonzo River (Gulf of Trieste). Specifically we evaluated the fidelity of richness, evenness, abundance, habitat discrimination and beta diversity. A total of 10,740 molluscs from fifteen tidal flat and fourteen sublittoral sites were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 78 recorded species, only eleven were numerically abundant. There were many more dead than living individuals and rarefied species richness in the DA was higher at all spatial scales, but the differences are lower in habitats and in the region than at individual stations. Evenness was always higher in death assemblages, and probably due to temporally more variable LAs the differences are stronger in the sublittoral habitats. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. Death assemblages have lower beta diversity than life assemblages, but empty shells capture compositional differences between habitats to a higher degree than living shells

  11. Delta-associated molluscan life and death assemblages in the northern Adriatic Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Kristina; Zuschin, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Life–death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats and in practice this has to be distinguished using taphonomic preservation pattern and estimates of time-averaging. It remains to be rigorously evaluated, however, how to distinguish between sources of LD disagreement. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). The northern Adriatic Sea is an ecosystem under anthropogenic pressure, and we studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) associated with the delta of the Isonzo River (Gulf of Trieste). Specifically we evaluated the fidelity of richness, evenness, abundance, habitat discrimination and beta diversity. A total of 10,740 molluscs from fifteen tidal flat and fourteen sublittoral sites were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 78 recorded species, only eleven were numerically abundant. There were many more dead than living individuals and rarefied species richness in the DA was higher at all spatial scales, but the differences are lower in habitats and in the region than at individual stations. Evenness was always higher in death assemblages, and probably due to temporally more variable LAs the differences are stronger in the sublittoral habitats. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. Death assemblages have lower beta diversity than life assemblages, but empty shells capture compositional differences between habitats to a higher degree than living shells

  12. Toxin levels and profiles in microalgae from the north-Western Adriatic Sea--15 years of studies on cultured species.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Guerrini, Franca; Pezzolesi, Laura; Riccardi, Manuela; Vanucci, Silvana; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Forino, Martino; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Tartaglione, Luciana; Milandri, Anna; Pompei, Marinella; Cangini, Monica; Pigozzi, Silvia; Riccardi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Adriatic Sea is the area of the Mediterranean Sea where eutrophication and episodes related to harmful algae have occurred most frequently since the 1970s. In this area, which is highly exploited for mollusk farming, the first occurrence of human intoxication due to shellfish consumption occurred in 1989, nearly 10 years later than other countries in Europe and worldwide that had faced similar problems. Until 1997, Adriatic mollusks had been found to be contaminated mostly by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) that, along with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., saxitoxins), constitute the most common marine biotoxins. Only once, in 1994, a toxic outbreak was related to the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the Adriatic coastal waters. Moreover, in the past 15 years, the Adriatic Sea has been characterized by the presence of toxic or potentially toxic algae, not highly widespread outside Europe, such as species producing yessotoxins (i.e., Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polyedrum), recurrent blooms of the potentially ichthyotoxic species Fibrocapsa japonica and, recently, by blooms of palytoxin-like producing species of the Ostreopsis genus. This review is aimed at integrating monitoring data on toxin spectra and levels in mussels farmed along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna region with laboratory studies performed on the species involved in the production of those toxins; toxicity studies on toxic or potentially toxic species that have recently appeared in this area are also reviewed. Overall, reviewed data are related to: (i) the yessotoxins producing species P. reticulatum, G. spinifera and L. polyedrum, highlighting genetic and toxic characteristics; (ii) Adriatic strains of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii and Prorocentrum lima whose toxic profiles are compared with those of strains of different geographic origins; (iii) F

  13. Toxin levels and profiles in microalgae from the north-Western Adriatic Sea--15 years of studies on cultured species.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Guerrini, Franca; Pezzolesi, Laura; Riccardi, Manuela; Vanucci, Silvana; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Forino, Martino; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Tartaglione, Luciana; Milandri, Anna; Pompei, Marinella; Cangini, Monica; Pigozzi, Silvia; Riccardi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Adriatic Sea is the area of the Mediterranean Sea where eutrophication and episodes related to harmful algae have occurred most frequently since the 1970s. In this area, which is highly exploited for mollusk farming, the first occurrence of human intoxication due to shellfish consumption occurred in 1989, nearly 10 years later than other countries in Europe and worldwide that had faced similar problems. Until 1997, Adriatic mollusks had been found to be contaminated mostly by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) that, along with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., saxitoxins), constitute the most common marine biotoxins. Only once, in 1994, a toxic outbreak was related to the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the Adriatic coastal waters. Moreover, in the past 15 years, the Adriatic Sea has been characterized by the presence of toxic or potentially toxic algae, not highly widespread outside Europe, such as species producing yessotoxins (i.e., Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polyedrum), recurrent blooms of the potentially ichthyotoxic species Fibrocapsa japonica and, recently, by blooms of palytoxin-like producing species of the Ostreopsis genus. This review is aimed at integrating monitoring data on toxin spectra and levels in mussels farmed along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna region with laboratory studies performed on the species involved in the production of those toxins; toxicity studies on toxic or potentially toxic species that have recently appeared in this area are also reviewed. Overall, reviewed data are related to: (i) the yessotoxins producing species P. reticulatum, G. spinifera and L. polyedrum, highlighting genetic and toxic characteristics; (ii) Adriatic strains of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii and Prorocentrum lima whose toxic profiles are compared with those of strains of different geographic origins; (iii) F

  14. Gulf Coast Sea Turtle Hatchlings Released at KSC

    NASA Video Gallery

    The first group of hatchlings from endangered sea turtle eggs brought from beaches along the northern U.S. Gulf Coast was released into the Atlantic Ocean off NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida...

  15. Towards a coastal ocean forecasting system in Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian seas based on unstructured-grid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Ivan; Oddo, Paolo; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian Forecasting System (SANIFS) operational chain is based on a nesting approach. The large scale model for the entire Mediterranean basin (MFS, Mediterranean Forecasting system, operated by INGV, e.g. Tonani et al. 2008, Oddo et al. 2009) provides lateral open boundary conditions to the regional model for Adriatic and Ionian seas (AIFS, Adriatic Ionian Forecasting System) which provides the open-sea fields (initial conditions and lateral open boundary conditions) to SANIFS. The latter, here presented, is a coastal ocean model based on SHYFEM (Shallow HYdrodynamics Finite Element Model) code, which is an unstructured grid, finite element three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (e.g. Umgiesser et al., 2004, Ferrarin et al., 2013). The SANIFS hydrodynamic model component has been designed to provide accurate information of hydrodynamics and active tracer fields in the coastal waters of Southern Eastern Italy (Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria regions), where the model is characterized by a resolution of about of 200-500 m. The horizontal resolution is also accurate in open-sea areas, where the elements size is approximately 3 km. During the development phase the model has been initialized and forced at the lateral open boundaries through a full nesting strategy directly with the MFS fields. The heat fluxes has been computed by bulk formulae using as input data the operational analyses of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Short range pre-operational forecast tests have been performed in different seasons to evaluate the robustness of the implemented model in different oceanographic conditions. Model results are validated by means of comparison with MFS operational results and observations. The model is able to reproduce the large-scale oceanographic structures of the area (keeping similar structures of MFS in open sea), while in the coastal area significant improvements in terms of reproduced structures and dynamics are

  16. Mass mortality events of the coral Balanophyllia europaea (Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae) in the Mljet National Park (eastern Adriatic Sea) caused by sea temperature anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kružić, P.; Popijač, A.

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent climate-induced mass mortalities of marine animals have been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea over the past 15 years. These mortality outbreaks have been associated with positive thermal anomalies. In this study, we assessed long-term (from 2003 to 2013) responses of the temperate coral Balanophyllia europaea to increasing seawater temperatures in the Mljet National Park in the Adriatic Sea (Northern Mediterranean Sea) and described the relationship between recurrent mortality events and sea temperature regimes in the southern Adriatic Sea. Our results indicate that polyp bleaching and tissue necrosis caused the observed mortality. The first observations of B. europaea mortality within the study area in the Mljet NP were in early September 2003. The Mediterranean area experienced high temperatures and hydrographic stability over a period of several weeks throughout that summer, which resulted in a mass mortality event. In the Mljet National Park, the highest impact of mass mortality started during the exceptionally hot summer of 2012, representing one of the most severe mass mortality events ever observed in the Adriatic Sea. In 2012, sea temperatures at a 5 m depth during the summer period (from June to September) ranged from 24.44 to 30.16 °C in the Mljet NP. The northern sites in the Mljet NP were highly impacted, with up to 80 % of B. europaea specimens affected by necrosis, while the southern sites displayed the highest impact, with 90-100 % of affected individuals. Without any coral adaptation to warming and under the present climate-warming trend, new mass mortality events may occur in the near future, possibly causing a major coral biodiversity crisis in the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. Towards an operational use of space imagery for oil pollution monitoring in the Mediterranean basin: a demonstration in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Guido; Bernardini, Annalia; David, Matej; Meyer-Roux, Serge; Muellenhoff, Oliver; Perkovic, Marko; Tarchi, Dario; Topouzelis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Studies of operational pollution carried out by European commission - Joint Research Centre in the Mediterranean Sea for the years 1999-2004 are briefly introduced. The specific analysis of the Adriatic Sea for the same period demonstrates that this area has been characterized by a relevant number of illegal discharges from ships. After setting the historical background of the project AESOP (aerial and satellite surveillance of operational pollution in the Adriatic Sea), the content, partners and aim of the project are presented. Finally, the results of the first phase of the AESOP project are presented. The results seem very encouraging. For the first time in the Adriatic, real time detection of oil spills in satellite images and an immediate verification by the Coast Guard has been undertaken. An exploratory activity has also been carried out in collaboration with the University of Ljubljana to use automatic information system (AIS) to identify the ships detected in the satellite images.

  18. Long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (Croatia) related to eutrophication patterns in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2016-05-15

    An exploration of historical data suggested that eutrophication patterns might drive long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). The regimes of northern Italian rivers, which flow approximately 100km west of the study area, mainly modulate the eutrophication levels of the northern Adriatic Sea. A regression of Cystoseira populations from the 1970s through the 1990s corresponded to increased levels of eutrophication in the study area. During the late 1990s, the density of sea urchins, which are efficacious macroalgal predators, decreased, likely due to an intense formation of pelagic mucilage aggregates that resulted in mass mortality episodes of macrozoobenthic species. During the 2000-2013 period, an oligotrophication of the northern Adriatic formed the basis for the recovery of Cystoseira taxa, whose abundances from 2009 to 2013 were similar to those characterising the most flourishing Mediterranean Cystoseira assemblages.

  19. Long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (Croatia) related to eutrophication patterns in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2016-05-15

    An exploration of historical data suggested that eutrophication patterns might drive long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). The regimes of northern Italian rivers, which flow approximately 100km west of the study area, mainly modulate the eutrophication levels of the northern Adriatic Sea. A regression of Cystoseira populations from the 1970s through the 1990s corresponded to increased levels of eutrophication in the study area. During the late 1990s, the density of sea urchins, which are efficacious macroalgal predators, decreased, likely due to an intense formation of pelagic mucilage aggregates that resulted in mass mortality episodes of macrozoobenthic species. During the 2000-2013 period, an oligotrophication of the northern Adriatic formed the basis for the recovery of Cystoseira taxa, whose abundances from 2009 to 2013 were similar to those characterising the most flourishing Mediterranean Cystoseira assemblages. PMID:26975612

  20. Spatial variations of scavenging rates within the central and northern Adriatic Sea: Use of U-Th disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.; Heilmann, J.; Fowler, S.; Miquel, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    Dissolved and particulate concentrations of {sup 234}Th, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po were measured in surface waters of the central and northern Adriatic Sea. The half-lives and biogeochemistry of {sup 234}Th (t{sub 1/2} = 24.1 days), {sup 210}Po (t{sub 1/2} = 138.4 days) and {sup 210}Pb (t{sub 1/2} = 22.3 years) are ideal for studying particle dynamics in the upper water column. It has been observed that the residence time of dissolved {sup 234}Th with respect to removal on biogenic particles is inversely proportional to primary productivity and may be used to predict export from or new production in the euphotic zone. Model-derived {sup 234}Th fluxes can also be used to help validate sediment trap collections in the upper water column. The aim of the present study was to gain an insight into the intensity and variability of active scavenging and particle removal processes in the central and northern Adriatic Sea. This semi-enclosed sea is strongly influenced by fresh water runoff from rivers carrying large quantities of dissolved nutrients and suspended particles. These inputs of nutrients and suspended particles are expected to give rise to large biological and biogeochemical gradients across the Continental Shelf and offer a range of environments for studying particle scavenging and removal processes. The authors have examined the relationships between {sup 234}Th scavenging rates and residence times of dissolved and particulate phases as a function of other physical and biological parameters (primary productivity, POC, chlorophyll, C/N and total suspended matter). Particular reference is made to the two contrasting environments of the Adriatic--a eutrophic zone near the Po River outflow and in the largely oligotrophic waters of the Jabuka Pit.

  1. Morphodynamics video monitoring and modelling of storm events at Jesolo, Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archetti, Renata; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Parlagreco, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Near-shore zone morphodynamic assessment is crucial for beach management and hinterland protection against flooding. To this aim, high resolution coastal models are a useful tool, as they allow to couple waves, currents and sediment transport processes for simulating short term morphodynamics and coastal flooding due to extreme storm events. Calibration and validation of high resolution modelling needs coastal in-situ observations. The collection of data representative of the state of the coastal environment, essential for proper set up and calibration of the numerical models, is nonetheless a challenging and expensive task. In the framework of the Italian Flagship Project RITMARE—the Italian Research for the Sea, Subproject 3 (Coastal Waters), Workpackage 4 (Coastal Oceanographic Modeling), the North Adriatic littoral zone has been identified as one Strategic Test Area for the study of coastal dynamics and for the collection of a time series of integrated of integrated measurements to support comprehensive, detailed insight on coastal circulation, wave dynamics, sediment transport and coastal erosion. More specifically, this activity proposes and validates a system for the monitoring and modelling of hydrodynamics and morphodynamics at the beach of Jesolo, about 30 km NE Venice. The system combines a video installation and a 2DH numerical model to simultaneously provide shoreline changes and maps of nearshore waves and currents and sediment transport. In this way the system can cope with issues such as beach flooding, shoreline evolution and morphodynamic nearshore changes. The proposed poster will present first results of wave - currents - sediment simulations with the software Mike21, during selected storm events, and validation of results with in situ observation (shoreline, bar position) collected by the new video monitoring station.

  2. Diversity of rare and abundant bacteria in surface waters of the Southern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Quero, Grazia Marina; Luna, Gian Marco

    2014-10-01

    Bacteria are fundamental players in the functioning of the ocean, yet relatively little is known about the diversity of bacterioplankton assemblages and the factors shaping their spatial distribution. We investigated the diversity and community composition of bacterioplankton in surface waters of the Southern Adriatic sub-basin (SAd) in the Mediterranean Sea, across an environmental gradient from coastal to offshore stations. Bacterioplankton diversity was investigated using a whole-assemblage genetic fingerprinting technique (Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis, ARISA) coupled with 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing. The main physico-chemical variables showed clear differences between coastal and offshore stations, with the latter displaying generally higher temperature, salinity and oxygen content. Bacterioplankton richness was higher in coastal than offshore waters. Bacterial community composition (BCC) differed significantly between coastal and offshore waters, and appeared to be influenced by temperature (explaining up to 30% of variance) and by the trophic state. Pyrosequencing evidenced dominance of Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11 cluster), uncultured Gammaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) and Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus). Members of the Bacteroidetes phylum were also abundant, and accounted for 25% in the station characterized by the higher organic carbon availability. Bacterioplankton assemblages included a few dominant taxa and a very large proportion (85%) of rare (<0.1%) bacteria, the vast majority of which was unique to each sampling station. The first detailed census of bacterioplankton taxa in the SAd sub-basin, performed using next generation sequencing, indicates that assemblages are highly heterogeneous, spatially structured according to the environmental conditions, and comprise a large number of rare taxa. The high turnover diversity, particularly evident at the level of the rare taxa, suggests to direct future investigations toward larger

  3. On the applicability of the tidal prism - inlet area relationship to Northern Adriatic Sea lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanon, Luana; D'Alpaos, Andrea; D'Alpaos, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    The tidal prism-inlet area relationship, well-known as the "O'Brien-Jarrett-Marchi law", relates inlet cross-sectional area to its tidal prism (water volume flowing through the considered inlet during a characteristic tidal cycle), thus embodying the complex relation between the channel morphological characteristics and the related hydrodynamic features. Our work is mainly focused on the correct application of this relationship to the lagoons of the Northern Adriatic Sea, in order to analyse the applicability of the above recalled law to lagoons characterized by a dynamic behaviour, with non-negligible effects of tidal propagation. In particular, we integrate the dataset collected by Jarrett (1976) with the data concerning the Venice lagoon and the Delta Po lagoons. First, we investigate the modifications in tidal prism and inlet area induced by the most invasive anthropic interventions carried out within Venice lagoon during the last two centuries. To this purpose, we use a fully-coupled 2D finite element hydrodynamic model to analyse the hydrodynamic behaviour of five morphological configurations representative of the lagoon morphological evolution from 1811 to 2003. The analysis shows that the lagoons characterized by a quasi-static hydrodynamic behaviour, such as Delta Po lagoons and the more recent morphological configurations of Venice lagoon, are better described by the O'Brien-Jarrett-Marchi relationship when compared to the past morphological configurations of Venice lagoon, which are characterized by a dynamic behaviour. Finally, we compare the results obtained by analysing natural lagoons with those obtained by considering data collected within laboratory physical models, and critically discuss them on the basis of theoretical interpretations of the tidal prism-inlet area relationship recently proposed by several authors. This application highlights the need to compare data on the basis of a "modified tidal prism" which takes into account the "scale

  4. Distribution of Viruses and Dissolved DNA along a Coastal Trophic Gradient in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Weinbauer, Markus G.; Fuks, Dragica; Peduzzi, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of viral and other microbial abundances as well as the concentrations of dissolved DNA (D-DNA) along a trophic gradient in the northern Adriatic Sea were determined. Virus abundances, covering a range of 1.2 × 109 to 8.7 × 1010 liter-1 were on average 2.5-fold higher in eutrophic than in mesotrophic stations. A 2.5-fold enrichment was also measured for chlorophyll a concentrations, whereas the densities of bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates were only approximately 1.5-fold higher. The frequency of bacteria containing mature phage increased linearly with bacterial abundance. Assuming that mature phage is only visible during the last 14 to 27% of the latent period (L. M. Proctor, A. Okubo, and J. A. Fuhrman, Microb. Ecol. 25:161-182, 1993), we estimated that between 3.5 and 7.3% of the bacterial population was infected at mesotrophic stations versus between 7.0 and 19.5% at eutrophic stations, indicating that the bacterial mortality due to viral lysis might increase with the degree of eutrophication. The frequency of bacteria with mature phage and the burst size varied significantly with the bacterial morphotype; rod-shape cells, the most abundant morphotype, showed low infection rates but a high burst size. Concentrations of D-DNA varied significantly with season but not with trophic conditions. The estimated percentage of viral DNA on total D-DNA concentrations averaged 17.1% (range, 0.7 to 88.3%). Some kind of interaction between heterotrophic nanoflagellates and viruses is proposed. We conclude (i) that the significance of viruses varies with changing trophic conditions and (ii) that viral activity may play a significant role in food web structure under changing trophic conditions. PMID:16349109

  5. Microbial mechanisms coupling carbon and phosphorus cycles in phosphorus-limited northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Malfatti, F; Turk, V; Tinta, T; Mozetič, P; Manganelli, M; Samo, T J; Ugalde, J A; Kovač, N; Stefanelli, M; Antonioli, M; Fonda-Umani, S; Del Negro, P; Cataletto, B; Hozić, A; Ivošević Denardis, N; Zutić, V; Svetličić, V; Mišić Radić, T; Radić, T; Fuks, D; Azam, F

    2014-02-01

    The coastal northern Adriatic Sea receives pulsed inputs of riverine nutrients, causing phytoplankton blooms and seasonally sustained dissolved organic carbon (DOC) accumulation-hypothesized to cause episodes of massive mucilage. The underlying mechanisms regulating P and C cycles and their coupling are unclear. Extensive biogeochemical parameters, processes and community composition were measured in a 64-day mesocosms deployed off Piran, Slovenia. We followed the temporal trends of C and P fluxes in P-enriched (P+) and unenriched (P-) mesocosms. An intense diatom bloom developed then crashed; however, substantial primary production was maintained throughout, supported by tightly coupled P regeneration by bacteria and phytoplankton. Results provide novel insights on post-bloom C and P dynamics and mechanisms. 1) Post-bloom DOC accumulation to 186 μM remained elevated despite high bacterial carbon demand. Presumably, a large part of DOC accumulated due to the bacterial ectohydrolytic processing of primary productivity that adventitiously generated slow-to-degrade DOC; 2) bacteria heavily colonized post-bloom diatom aggregates, rendering them microscale hotspots of P regeneration due to locally intense bacterial ectohydrolase activities; 3) Pi turnover was rapid thus suggesting high P flux through the DOP pool (dissolved organic phosphorus) turnover; 4) Alpha- and Gamma-proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities despite great differences of C and P pools and fluxes in both mesocosms. However, minor taxa showed dramatic changes in community compositions. Major OTUs were presumably generalists adapted to diverse productivity regimes.We suggest that variation in bacterial ectohydrolase activities on aggregates, regulating the rates of POM→DOM transition as well as dissolved polymer hydrolysis, could become a bottleneck in P regeneration. This could be another regulatory step, in addition to APase, in the microbial regulation of P cycle and the coupling

  6. Mass Mortality Events in the NW Adriatic Sea: Phase Shift from Slow- to Fast-Growing Organisms.

    PubMed

    Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Massive outbreaks are increasing all over the world, which are likely related to climate change. The North Adriatic Sea, a sub-basin of the Mediterranean Sea, is a shallow semi-closed sea receiving high nutrients inputs from important rivers. These inputs sustain the highest productive basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, this area shows a high number of endemisms probably due to the high diversity of environmental conditions and the conspicuous food availability. Here, we documented two massive mortalities (2009 and 2011) and the pattern of recovery of the affected biocoenoses in the next two years. Results show an impressive and fast shift of the benthic assemblage from a biocoenosis mainly composed of slow-growing and long-lived species to a biocoenosis dominated by fast-growing and short-lived species. The sponge Chondrosia reniformis, one of the key species of this assemblage, which had never been involved in previous massive mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea, reduced its coverage by 70%, and only few small specimens survived. All the damaged sponges, together with many associated organisms, were detached by rough-sea conditions, leaving large bare areas on the rocky wall. Almost three years after the disease, the survived specimens of C. reniformis did not increase significantly in size, while the bare areas were colonized by fast-growing species such as stoloniferans, hydrozoans, mussels, algae, serpulids and bryozoans. Cnidarians were more resilient than massive sponges since they quickly recovered in less than one month. In the study area, the last two outbreaks caused a reduction in the filtration efficiency of the local benthic assemblage by over 60%. The analysis of the times series of wave heights and temperature revealed that the conditions in summer 2011 were not so extreme as to justify severe mass mortality, suggesting the occurrence of other factors which triggered the disease. The long-term observations of a benthic assemblage in the

  7. Mass Mortality Events in the NW Adriatic Sea: Phase Shift from Slow- to Fast-Growing Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Massive outbreaks are increasing all over the world, which are likely related to climate change. The North Adriatic Sea, a sub-basin of the Mediterranean Sea, is a shallow semi-closed sea receiving high nutrients inputs from important rivers. These inputs sustain the highest productive basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, this area shows a high number of endemisms probably due to the high diversity of environmental conditions and the conspicuous food availability. Here, we documented two massive mortalities (2009 and 2011) and the pattern of recovery of the affected biocoenoses in the next two years. Results show an impressive and fast shift of the benthic assemblage from a biocoenosis mainly composed of slow-growing and long-lived species to a biocoenosis dominated by fast-growing and short-lived species. The sponge Chondrosia reniformis, one of the key species of this assemblage, which had never been involved in previous massive mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea, reduced its coverage by 70%, and only few small specimens survived. All the damaged sponges, together with many associated organisms, were detached by rough-sea conditions, leaving large bare areas on the rocky wall. Almost three years after the disease, the survived specimens of C. reniformis did not increase significantly in size, while the bare areas were colonized by fast-growing species such as stoloniferans, hydrozoans, mussels, algae, serpulids and bryozoans. Cnidarians were more resilient than massive sponges since they quickly recovered in less than one month. In the study area, the last two outbreaks caused a reduction in the filtration efficiency of the local benthic assemblage by over 60%. The analysis of the times series of wave heights and temperature revealed that the conditions in summer 2011 were not so extreme as to justify severe mass mortality, suggesting the occurrence of other factors which triggered the disease. The long-term observations of a benthic assemblage in the

  8. Mass Mortality Events in the NW Adriatic Sea: Phase Shift from Slow- to Fast-Growing Organisms.

    PubMed

    Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Massive outbreaks are increasing all over the world, which are likely related to climate change. The North Adriatic Sea, a sub-basin of the Mediterranean Sea, is a shallow semi-closed sea receiving high nutrients inputs from important rivers. These inputs sustain the highest productive basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, this area shows a high number of endemisms probably due to the high diversity of environmental conditions and the conspicuous food availability. Here, we documented two massive mortalities (2009 and 2011) and the pattern of recovery of the affected biocoenoses in the next two years. Results show an impressive and fast shift of the benthic assemblage from a biocoenosis mainly composed of slow-growing and long-lived species to a biocoenosis dominated by fast-growing and short-lived species. The sponge Chondrosia reniformis, one of the key species of this assemblage, which had never been involved in previous massive mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea, reduced its coverage by 70%, and only few small specimens survived. All the damaged sponges, together with many associated organisms, were detached by rough-sea conditions, leaving large bare areas on the rocky wall. Almost three years after the disease, the survived specimens of C. reniformis did not increase significantly in size, while the bare areas were colonized by fast-growing species such as stoloniferans, hydrozoans, mussels, algae, serpulids and bryozoans. Cnidarians were more resilient than massive sponges since they quickly recovered in less than one month. In the study area, the last two outbreaks caused a reduction in the filtration efficiency of the local benthic assemblage by over 60%. The analysis of the times series of wave heights and temperature revealed that the conditions in summer 2011 were not so extreme as to justify severe mass mortality, suggesting the occurrence of other factors which triggered the disease. The long-term observations of a benthic assemblage in the

  9. The Red Sea/Gulf of Aden hydrocarbon potential reassessment

    SciTech Connect

    Beydoun, Z.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Samples from most of the 85 exploration wells drilled in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, made available to the UNDP/World Bank Red Sea/Gulf of Aden Regional Hydrocarbon Study Project by the participating states were examined for biostratigraphy and source rock geochemistry. Major tectonic elements segment both basins, but in the Gulf of Aden this is less evident as the drift stage is more advanced; additionally, the Red Sea exhibits asymmetry in crustal composition. All this has influenced the location and development of major sediment depocenters and delta fans. Major Neogeon syn-rift and post-rift (Miocene-Pliocene) lithostratigraphic units are correlatable from the petroliferous Gulf of Suez over the Red Sea: pre-rift (Paleogene and older) and syn-rift/post-rift (Oligocene-Miocene/Pliocene) units correlate well across the Gulf of Aden (middle Oligocene) to the southern Red Sea (upper Oligocene) to the northern Red Sea/Gulf of Suez (lower Miocene). Source-rich intervals are present in the mega-sequence of the pre-rift and syn/post-rift packages. Three undeveloped gas and condensate discoveries and a gas blowout plus numerous oil seepages in the Red Sea, and a black oil discovery in the Gulf of Aden are testimony to hydrocarbon generation and entrapment. Although a higher geothermal gradient is present in the southern Red Sea, modeling of the entire basin (rather than in segments) indicates that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the region is neither too hot nor all gas prone, but it possesses the geological parameters conducive to the generation, expulsion, and trapping of significant amount of oil and gas.

  10. Dense water cascading, bottom currents and sediment wave formation at the exit of the Bari canyon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langone, Leonardo; Miserocchi, Stefano; Boldrin, Alfredo; Turchetto, Margherita; Foglini, Federica; Trincardi, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The dense water forming in the North Adriatic (NAdDW) spreading southward along the Italian continental shelf, sinks in the Southern Adriatic basin through particular cascading events. Such events are seasonal, occurring specially in April, with variable intensity. These phenomena control the water mass mixing, the deep ocean ventilation, the behaviour of deep ecosystems, the formation of complex erosive and depositional bedforms and the abyssal export and burial of nutrients and carbon. Because of the NadDW formation is linked to climate factors (frequency, duration and size of Bura winds), the temporal variations of the NadDW dispersion into the Southern Adriatic allow to make inferences of the impact of recent climate changes on the ecosystems of the deep Mediterranean Sea. Previous research projects (EuroStrataform, HERMES) acquired a large data set of bathymetric, side-scan sonar (TOBI) and Chirp sonar profiles, which were used to build detailed morpho-bathymetric maps of the Southern Adriatic margin. There, the seabed is extremely complex, characterized by a large variety of bedforms (sediment waves, erosive scours, longitudinal furrows and giant comet marks). A branch of the cascading NAdDW is confined and accelerated through the Bari canyon where it produces a strong current capable of reaching down-slope velocities greater than 60 cm s-1 near the bottom at ~600 m of water depth, eroding the canyon thalweg and entraining large amounts of fine-grained sediment. At the exit of the canyon, in water depth greater than 800 m, the current becomes less confined, spreads laterally and generates an 80-km2-wide field of mud waves; these bedforms migrate up current and show amplitudes up to 50 m and wavelengths of about 1 km. Cruise IMPACT-09 of RV Urania was carried out in the Southern Adriatic Sea from 17-30 March 2009 with main scope of studying the impact of NadDW cascading events on the deep ecosystems of the Southern Adriatic. Experiments planned in the cruise

  11. Morphological change by overwash on a microtidal backshore: Bevano beach, Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrati, M.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.; Fontana, E.; Masina, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Bevano beach is a small microtidal shore facing the Adriatic Sea located south of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy. This beach corresponds to the old Bevano river spit which was abandoned after the relocation of the river mouth some 500 m to the south of the previous inlet position. The old river mouth was cut off from the Adriatic by massive sand dumping and the sediments on the newly created beach were fixed by aeolian fences and vegetation. This 600 m long featureless beach looks like a sand barrier: it is backed by the abandoned channel of the Bevano River and is one of the lowest dune system of the region (around 1 m height), causing the beach to still being vulnerable to coastal flooding, storm surges and overwash. This study presents the morphological changes of the "microtidal barrier" in response to one of the highest surges recorded in the last 100 years. Two topographic surveys of the Bevano beach were conducted before and a few hours after the exceptional high tide level recorded on 01 December 2008 (high tide level of 1.59 m above MSL and surge of 0.97 m, combined with an offshore significant wave height of 1.45 m). The lack of height and sand volume of the lower dune crest of the Bevano beach caused the entire barrier to be inundated during the high tide, resulting in important overwash processes. The inundation event was preceded by increasing water levels that were recorded in the old river channel which is the landward limit of the Bevano barrier. Seven separate washover fans were distinguished together with severe damages to fences and dune vegetation. The washover fans had different dimensions, the most important one being around 18 m wide, and generating a ~ 9 m landward migration of the back-barrier limit. The cross-shore profile response to the overwash event can be categorized into two types (1) barrier disintegration and (2) barrier rollover relative to the dune crest height. Furthermore, the study area was subjected

  12. Sea level differences across the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zlotnicki, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The sea level differences between the Sargasso Sea and the slope waters across the Gulf Stream region, averaged between 73 and 61 deg W, and the comparable areas across the Kuroshio extension region, averaged between 143 and 156 deg E, were estimated using the Geosat altimeter data obtained between November 1986 and December 1988. The sea-level differences between the two regions showed a strong correlation between the northwest Atlantic and Pacific, dominated by annual cycles that peak in late-September to mid-October, with about 9 cm (the Gulf Stream region) and about 6.9 cm (Kuroshio region) amplitudes.

  13. Ostreopsis cf. ovata bloom in the northern Adriatic Sea during summer 2009: ecology, molecular characterization and toxin profile.

    PubMed

    Accoroni, Stefano; Romagnoli, Tiziana; Colombo, Federica; Pennesi, Chiara; Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Marini, Mauro; Battocchi, Cecilia; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Dello Iacovo, Emma; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Tartaglione, Luciana; Penna, Antonella; Totti, Cecilia

    2011-11-01

    Intense blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata have occurred in the northern Adriatic Sea since 2006. These blooms are associated with noxious effects on human health and with the mortality of benthic organisms because of the production of palytoxin-like compounds. The O. cf. ovata bloom and its relationships with nutrient concentrations at two stations on the Conero Riviera (northern Adriatic Sea) were investigated in the summer of 2009. O. cf. ovata developed from August to November, with the highest abundances in September (1.3×10(6) cells g(-1) fw corresponding to 63.8×10(3) cells cm(-2)). The presence of the single O. cf. ovata genotype was confirmed by a PCR assay. Bloom developed when the seawater temperature was decreasing. Nutrient concentrations did not seem to affect bloom dynamics. Toxin analysis performed by high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a high total toxin content (up to 75 pg cell(-1)), including putative palytoxin and all the ovatoxins known so far.

  14. Seasonal variations of the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in the red mullet (Mullus barbatus l.) from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Sladjan Z; Borković Mitić, Slavica S; Radovanović, Tijana B; Perendija, Branka R; Despotović, Svetlana G; Gavrić, Jelena P; Saicić, Zorica S

    2010-02-26

    This study investigated seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities: total, manganese, copper zinc containing superoxide dismutase (Tot SOD, Mn SOD, CuZn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and biotransformation phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the liver and white muscle of red mullet (Mullus barbatus). The investigations were performed in winter and spring at two localities: Near Bar (NB) and Estuary of the River Bojana (EB) in the Southern Adriatic Sea. At both sites, Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST activities decreased in the liver in spring. In the white muscle, activities of Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST in NB decreased in spring. GR decreased in spring in EB, while CAT activity was higher in spring at both sites. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on correlations indicated a clear separation of various sampling periods for both investigated tissues and a marked difference between two seasons. Our study is the first report on antioxidant defense enzyme activities in the red mullet in the Southern Adriatic Sea. It indicates that seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities should be used in further biomonitoring studies in fish species.

  15. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  16. Comparative growth and toxin profile of cultured Ostreopsis ovata from the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Franca; Pezzolesi, Laura; Feller, Andrea; Riccardi, Manuela; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Tartaglione, Luciana; Dello Iacovo, Emma; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Forino, Martino; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2010-01-01

    Massive blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata Fukuyo have recently occurred along the whole Italian coastlines, both Tyrrhenian and Adriatic, resulting sometimes in benthonic biocenosis sufferings and, occasionally, in human health problems. In this work, two strains of O. ovata collected in 2006 along the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coastlines and grown in culture were studied to characterize their growth and toxin profile. The two strains showed different cell volumes, the Adriatic strain being nearly twice bigger than the Tyrrhenian, but they had similar slow growth rates. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses indicated that both strains produce putative palytoxin (pPLTX) and ovatoxin-a (OVTX-a), a palytoxin-like compound presenting 2 oxygen atoms less than palytoxin. Toxin content was determined at the end of the stationary and exponential growth phases and reached the highest value in the Adriatic strain at the end of the stationary phase, with concentrations of 353.3 microg l(-1) for OVTX-a and 30.4 microg l(-1) for pPLTX. Toxin released in the growth medium was also measured and resulted to be the highest at the end of the stationary phase, suggesting that a long lasting bloom could enhance the toxin content in the water and cause toxic effects in people inhaling the aerosol. PMID:19638281

  17. Effects of fish farm loading on sea grass Posidonia oceanica at Vrgada Island (Central Adriatic): a nitrogen stable isotope study.

    PubMed

    Dolenec, Tadej; Lojen, Sonja; Lambasa, Zivana; Dolenec, Matej

    2006-03-01

    Analyses of nitrogen stable isotopes in the marine sea grass Posidonia oceanica were used to investigate the influence of fish farming on the coastal ecosystem of Vrgada Island in the Murter Sea, Central Adriatic. The results show a statistically significant 15N enrichment (up to 4.7 per thousand at p < 0.005) in P. oceanica leaf and shoot tissues from fish cage sites with respect to the unaffected offshore reference site of Lumbarda Reef Flat (Kornati Islands). Heavy nitrogen enrichment was also detected in other benthic organisms analysed during this study and is attributed to the absorption and assimilation of 15N-enriched fish farm derived nitrogen waste. PMID:16610128

  18. The tectonic evolution of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.B. ); Sikander, A.H. ); Abouzakhm, A.G.

    1991-08-01

    The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, formed by rifting of the Arabian plate away from Africa, have been the subjects of numerous studies since the 1960s. Geophysical and geological data gathered during hydrocarbon exploration by several companies are being synthesized as part of the World Bank-executed Red Sea/Gulf of Aden Regional Hydrocarbon Study Project. This synthesis provides an opportunity to study the regional variation in tectonic history and structural style within the two basins, particularly toward the basin margins, where data coverage is most complete and a thinner sedimentary cover allows more reliable interpretation of deeper horizons. Based on this data, most of the Red Sea shows a similar tectonic history to that of the Gulf of Suez. Widespread normal faulting developed contemporaneous with deposition of a dominantly clastic sequence of Oligocene( ) to middle Miocene age. The faulting often dies out within or below thick middle to upper Miocene evaporite deposits with only few faults affecting the younger units. The Gulf of Aden, on the other hand, shows a strong contrast between largely west-northwest-east-southeast oriented extensional structures on land, and generally more east-west oriented extensional structures on the continental shelves and slopes. The onshore extensional structures oriented oblique to the coast, and approximately perpendicular to transform fault trends in the oceanic crust of the central Gulf of Aden. This contrast is extensional structure orientations has important implications for the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Aden.

  19. An ecological model of the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea: Analysis of ecosystem structure and fishing impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Marta; Santojanni, Alberto; Palomera, Isabel; Tudela, Sergi; Arneri, Enrico

    2007-08-01

    A trophic mass-balance model was developed to characterise the food web structure and functioning of the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea and to quantify the ecosystem impacts of fishing during the 1990s. Forty functional groups were described, including target and non-target fish and invertebrate groups, and three detritus groups (natural detritus, discards and by-catch of cetaceans and marine turtles). Results highlighted that there was an important coupling between pelagic-benthic production of plankton, benthic invertebrates and detritus. Organisms located at low and medium trophic levels, (i.e. benthic invertebrates, zooplankton and anchovy), as well as dolphins, were identified as keystone groups of the ecosystem. Jellyfish were an important element in terms of consumption and production of trophic flows within the ecosystem. The analysis of trophic flows of zooplankton and detritus groups indirectly underlined the importance of the microbial food web in the Adriatic Sea. Fishing activities inflicted notable impacts on the ecosystem during the 1990s, with a high gross efficiency of the fishery, a high consumption of fishable production, high exploitation rates for various target and non target species, a low trophic level of the catch and medium values of primary production required to sustain the fishery. Moreover, the analysis of Odum's ecological indicators highlighted that the ecosystem was in a low-medium developmental stage. Bottom trawling ( Strascico), mid-water trawling ( Volante) and beam trawling ( Rapido) fleets had the highest impacts on both target and non target ecological groups. On the contrary, purse seining ( Lampara) showed medium to low impacts on the ecosystem; cetaceans, marine turtles and sea birds were not significantly involved in competition with fishing activity.

  20. Influence of releases of I-129 from reprocessing plants on the marine environment of the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Osterc, Andrej; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2012-03-01

    Compared to the pre-nuclear era, large amounts of (129)I have been released to the marine environment, especially as liquid and gaseous discharges from two European reprocessing plants located at Sellafield and La Hague. Their liquid discharges influence Northern Europe and most research was conducted in the area of the North Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. In this article data on (129)I content and (129)I/(127)I ratios observed in the North Adriatic Sea, which is a rather enclosed basin of the Mediterranean Sea, are presented. To the best of our knowledge no data on (129)I in the Mediterranean Sea have previously been reported. As this area is isolated from direct liquid discharges, the main transport pathway is probably gaseous releases from reprocessing plants. Surface sea water, the marine alga Fucus virsoides, an iodine accumulator, and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in 2009 and 2010, and marine sediment collected in 2005 and 2009 were analysed. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios observed were in the range from 0.8 to 3.0×10(-08) for seawater, from 0.06 to 0.35×10(-08) for marine sediment, from 0.05 to 0.10×10(-08) for F. virsoides and from 0.3 to 0.9×10(-08) for M. galloprovincialis.

  1. Inshore capture-based tuna aquaculture impact on Posidonia oceanica meadows in the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kružić, Petar; Vojvodić, Vjeročka; Bura-Nakić, Elvira

    2014-09-15

    Mapping and monitoring of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the eastern (Croatian) part of the Adriatic Sea since 2004 indicates a significant decline in meadow density in an area impacted by inshore capture-based tuna aquaculture. The density and overall condition of P. oceanica meadows impacted by tuna farms near Fulija Islet was compared to two reference sites (Iž Island and Mrtovnjak Islet). The factors with the most significant influence on P. oceanica meadows were found to be the input of organic matter originating from the cages, as well as high epiphyte biomass caused by nutrient enrichment. Significant differences in nutrient concentrations were found between the sites impacted by tuna farms (Fulija Islet) and the control stations. Shoot density of the P. oceanica meadows decreased at the stations in close vicinity to the tuna farm, which suggests that the tuna farm activity strongly affected the surrounding meadows.

  2. The fouling of fish farm cage nets as bioindicator of aquaculture pollution in the Adriatic Sea (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Sliskovic, Merica; Jelic-Mrcelic, Gorana; Antolic, Boris; Anicic, Ivica

    2011-02-01

    A fouling assemblage (including density, species richness and diversity, and biomass) growing on netting of fish farm cages was investigated in Stracinska Bay--Location 1 and Peles Bay--Location 2 (Croatia) in order to test the efficiency of fouling as a bioindicator of organic pollution. A total number of 40 algal taxa in Location 1 and total number of 22 algal taxa in Location 2 were identified, with a dominance of opportunistic species (ESG II). We found domination of algal species over animal species and absolute dominance of Rhodophyta which are typical fouler in the Adriatic Sea. Low diversity and species richness with increase in value of the R/P index (occasionally higher than 6) were recorded in Location 2, indicating a certain impact of nutrient enrichment from fish culture facilities on a fouling community structure.

  3. Radar Backscatter Across the Gulf Stream Sea Surface Temperature Front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Li, F. K.; Walsh, E. J.; Lou, S. H.

    1998-01-01

    Ocean backscatter signatures were measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne NUSCAT K(sub u)-band scatterometer across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front. The measurements were made during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) off the coast of Virginia and Maryland in the winter of 1991.

  4. Coastal vulnerability and the implications of sea level rise between the cities of Pescara and Ortona (Adriatic Sea - Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarragoni, C.; Bellotti, P.; Caputo, C.; Davoli, L.; Evangelista, S.; Pugliese, F.; Raffi, R.; Lupia Palmieri, E.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphic processes induce rapid environmental changes especially along the coast that is highly susceptible to them. In addiction, the effects of storm or wave may be amplified by the expected relative sea level rise. In a context, like Italian coast, where the almost part of coast is densely populated and many infrastructures are presents, it is very important to have adequate tools to urban planning like the coastal vulnerability map. In this study the preliminary results of the ongoing SECOA project (Solution for Environmental contrasts in COastal Areas; 7th Framework Program) are presented, with reference to the Adriatic coast between Pescara and Ortona cities, in the Abruzzo region. In this work the same analytical model applied in the Venice Lagoon has been employed (Fontolan, 2001; 2005) involving the evaluation of the effective vulnerability (Ve). Ve is calculated as the difference between the potential vulnerability (Vp) and the defence elements present along the coast (D). (Ve = Vp - D) The data used to measure quantitative features are: high-resolution DEM (LiDAR), satellite images, aero photos, bathymetric profiles and topographic maps. The variables that contribute to the evaluation are: beach amplitude, berm height, seafloor gradient, seafloor evolution, recent and historical shorelines evolution for Vp; height, slope, vegetation cover, presence of passages, incipient dunes and windbreak barriers for the dune and anthropic barriers height. In this context, the potential vulnerability results from the sum of each variable (Vn) per the relative efficacy coefficient (Kn): Vp = V1K1+V2K2+ …VnKn In the same way the defences result from the sum of each kind of defence per the relative efficacy coefficient: D = D1K1+ …. DnKn The coastal area between Pescara and Ortona cities has been segmented in different sectors characterized by homogeneous values of the considered variables and for each of these the Ve values have been calculated and referred to one

  5. Picoplankton community structure before, during and after convection event in the offshore waters of the Southern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najdek, M.; Paliaga, P.; Šilović, T.; Batistić, M.; Garić, R.; Supić, N.; Ivančić, I.; Ljubimir, S.; Korlević, M.; Jasprica, N.; Hrustić, E.; Dupčić-Radić, I.; Blažina, M.; Orlić, S.

    2014-05-01

    This paper documents the picoplankton community's response to changes in oceanographic conditions in the period between October 2011 and September 2012 at two stations belonging to the South Adriatic Pit (SAP). The recorded data include the community's abundance, composition, prokaryotic production rates and bacterial metabolic capacity. The sampling period included an intense sea cooling with formation of exceptional, record-breaking dense water. We documented an especially intense winter convection episode that completely diluted the core of Levantine intermediate waters (LIW) in a large area encompassing the SAP's center and its margin. During this convection event the whole picoplankton community had significantly higher abundances with a recorded picoeukaryotic peak at the SAP margin. In the post-convection phase in March, prokaryotic heterotrophic production strongly increased in the entire SAP area (up to 50 times; 456.8 nM C day-1). An autotrophic biomass increase (up to 5 times; 4.86 μg L-1) and a disruption of a close correspondence between prokaryotic heterotrophic biomass production and cell replication rates were observed only in the center of the SAP, which was not under the influence of LIW. At the SAP's margin such an effect was attenuated by LIW, since the waters affected by LIW were characterized by decreased concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, decreased autotrophic biomasses, and by increased bacterial biomass production balanced with cell replication rates as well as by the domination of Synechococcus among autotrophic picoplankton. The metabolic capacity was lowest in spring when autotrophic biomass largely increased, while the highest levels found in the pre-convection phase (October 2011) suggest that the system was more oligotrophic before than after the convection event. Furthermore, we showed that metabolic capacity is a trait of bacterial community independent of environmental conditions and tightly linked to cell replication

  6. Investigation of model capability in capturing vertical hydrodynamic coastal processes: a case study in the north Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKiver, W. J.; Sannino, G.; Braga, F.; Bellafiore, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a numerical study of hydrodynamics in the coastal zone using two different models, SHYFEM (shallow water hydrodynamic finite element model) and MITgcm (Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model), to assess their capability to capture the main processes. We focus on the north Adriatic Sea during a strong dense water event that occurred at the beginning of 2012. This serves as an interesting test case to examine both the models strengths and weaknesses, while giving an opportunity to understand how these events affect coastal processes, like upwelling and downwelling, and how they interact with estuarine dynamics. Using the models we examine the impact of setup, surface and lateral boundary treatment, resolution and mixing schemes, as well as assessing the importance of nonhydrostatic dynamics in coastal processes. Both models are able to capture the dense water event, though each displays biases in different regions. The models show large differences in the reproduction of surface patterns, identifying the choice of suitable bulk formulas as a central point for the correct simulation of the thermohaline structure of the coastal zone. Moreover, the different approaches in treating lateral freshwater sources affect the vertical coastal stratification. The results indicate the importance of having high horizontal resolution in the coastal zone, specifically in close proximity to river inputs, in order to reproduce the effect of the complex coastal morphology on the hydrodynamics. A lower resolution offshore is acceptable for the reproduction of the dense water event, even if specific vortical structures are missed. Finally, it is found that nonhydrostatic processes are of little importance for the reproduction of dense water formation in the shelf of the north Adriatic Sea.

  7. Bioaccumulation of algal toxins and changes in physiological parameters in Mediterranean mussels from the North Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Buratti, Sara; Franzellitti, Silvia; Poletti, Roberto; Ceredi, Alfiero; Montanari, Giuseppe; Capuzzo, Antonio; Fabbri, Elena

    2013-08-01

    The Northwestern Adriatic Sea is a commercially important area in aquaculture, accounting for about 90% of the Italian mussel production, and it was subjected to recurring cases of mussel farm closures due to toxic algae poisoning. A spatial and temporal survey of four sites along the North Adriatic Sea coasts of Emilia Romagna (Italy) was undertaken to study the possible impairments of physiological parameters in Mytilus galloprovincialis naturally exposed to algal toxins. The sites were selected as part of the monitoring network for the assessment of algal toxins bioaccumulation by the competent Authority. Samples positive to paralytic shellfish toxins and to lipophilic toxins were detected through the mouse bioassay. Lipophilic toxins were assessed by HPLC. Decreasing yessotoxins (YTX) levels were observed in mussels from June to December, while homo-YTX contents increased concomitantly. Lysosome membrane stability (LMS), glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities, and multixenobiotic resistance (MXR)-related gene expressions were assessed as parameters related to the mussel health status and widely utilized in environmental biomonitoring. Levels of cAMP were also measured, as possibly involved in the algal toxin mechanisms of action. Low LMS values were observed in hemocytes from mussels positive to the mouse bioassay. MXR-related gene expressions were greatly inhibited in mussels positive to the mouse bioassay. Clear correlations were established between increasing homo-YTX contents (and decreasing YTX) and increasing cAMP levels in the tissues. Similarly, significant correlations were established between the increase of homo-YTX and cAMP levels, and the expressions of three MXR-related genes at submaximal toxin concentrations. In conclusion, YTXs may affect mussel physiological parameters, including hemocyte functionality, gene expression and cell signaling.

  8. Discussion on sea level fluctuations along the Adriatic coasts coupling to climate indices forced by solar activity: Insights into the future of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, Davide; Traverso, Pietro; Tomasino, Mario

    2006-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which is a dominant circulation pattern in Northern Hemisphere winter, is known to affect sea-level variability in the Mediterranean Sea mainly through the hydrostatic response of water masses to pressure anomalies and changes in evaporation/precipitation budgets. In this study the influence of the NAO on sea levels along the Adriatic coasts is re-assessed in the attempt to uncover the potential causes of the observed high sensitivity of the northern basin to NAO fluctuations. The investigation is focused on the role of the NAO as forcing factor of the winds blowing in the area and of the freshwaters input from the Po River, both of which influence the hydrodynamics of the Northern Adriatic. In addition, some insights into the future of Venice are discussed on the basis of the hypothesis that NAO phases are modulated by the varying solar activity through the intensity of the Earth's geomagnetic activity.

  9. Microbial degradation at a shallow coastal site: Long-term spectra and rates of exoenzymatic activities in the NE Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola

    2012-12-01

    The degradation of organic matter along the water column is mediated by enzymes released into the environment by planktonic organisms. Variations in enzymes profiles (types and levels of activity) reflect the trophic status of the environment and could be caused by shifts in the dominant species or in the level of enzyme expression by the same species in response to changes in the spectrum of organic substrates. To explore this issue, we examined the maximum rates of hydrolysis of 6 different enzymes (protease, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase) along the water column (4 depths) at a coastal station in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea), from 2000 to 2005. Most of the studied enzymes exhibited a pronounced seasonal variability with winter minima and maxima from April to October. During summer, alkaline phosphatase, lipase and protease reached the highest activities, while polysaccharide degradation prevailed in spring and autumn, associated to phytoplankton blooms. Phosphatase/protease activities ratio was generally low, indicating that microbial communities were rarely P-limited, possibly because of the use of organic P sources. A pronounced interannual variability of degradation patterns was found, with maximum rates of protease being the highest in most of the samples, followed by the alkaline phosphatase's ones. Water column features greatly affected hydrolysis rates, being degradation of linear polysaccharides, lipids, phosphorilated compounds and polypeptides significantly different at different depths during stratified condition. Mixing processes affected especially α-glucosidase activity, possibly as a consequence of resuspension of organic matter from the seabed. Large-impact phenomena such as the 2003 heat wave and mucilage influenced the degradation of specific substrates. Mucilage enhanced lipase, phosphatase and protease, whereas a pronounced inhibition characterised phosphatase and protease

  10. Occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) and pathologic findings in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria M; Zizzo, Nicola

    2014-02-15

    Livers of 12 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea) were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Pathological and microbiological studies were also carried out in order to provide a contribution to the knowledge of causes of Mediterranean turtle death. Boat-strike injuries, entanglement in derelict fishing nets and ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines are the causes of death most frequently observed. PCBs (average: 1,399 ng g(-1) fat basis) were the dominant chemicals, followed by PCDFs (average: 61 pg g(-1) fat basic) and PCDDs (average: 16 pg g(-1) fat basis). Hexachlorobiphenyl 153 accounted for the greatest proportion of the total PCBs, followed in order by PCB 138 and PCB 180 (14.1%). Mid-chlorinated, penta-through hepta-PCBs were among the top contributors to the sum of total PCBs, while the homolog pattern of PCCD/Fs was dominated by the tetra- to hexa-substituted congeners. In general the contamination level observed here was comparable with that reported in literature for specimens from different marine areas. Average TEQPCDD/Fs+Dl-PCBs concentration was 27.02 pg g(-1) wet weight (305.1 pg g(-1) lipid weight), with dioxin like-PCBs (93.4%) contributing much more to the total than PCDFs (3.9%) and PCDDs (2.7%). The appreciable concentration of TEQ would at first suggest that there are signs of potential threats to the health of these marine reptiles. Apart from PCBs, this is the first study documenting concentrations of PCDD/Fs in marine turtles from the Mediterranean Sea. Further investigations are urgently needed to characterize their contamination level for a better future protection and conservation of this endangered animal. PMID:24342092

  11. Occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) and pathologic findings in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria M; Zizzo, Nicola

    2014-02-15

    Livers of 12 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea) were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Pathological and microbiological studies were also carried out in order to provide a contribution to the knowledge of causes of Mediterranean turtle death. Boat-strike injuries, entanglement in derelict fishing nets and ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines are the causes of death most frequently observed. PCBs (average: 1,399 ng g(-1) fat basis) were the dominant chemicals, followed by PCDFs (average: 61 pg g(-1) fat basic) and PCDDs (average: 16 pg g(-1) fat basis). Hexachlorobiphenyl 153 accounted for the greatest proportion of the total PCBs, followed in order by PCB 138 and PCB 180 (14.1%). Mid-chlorinated, penta-through hepta-PCBs were among the top contributors to the sum of total PCBs, while the homolog pattern of PCCD/Fs was dominated by the tetra- to hexa-substituted congeners. In general the contamination level observed here was comparable with that reported in literature for specimens from different marine areas. Average TEQPCDD/Fs+Dl-PCBs concentration was 27.02 pg g(-1) wet weight (305.1 pg g(-1) lipid weight), with dioxin like-PCBs (93.4%) contributing much more to the total than PCDFs (3.9%) and PCDDs (2.7%). The appreciable concentration of TEQ would at first suggest that there are signs of potential threats to the health of these marine reptiles. Apart from PCBs, this is the first study documenting concentrations of PCDD/Fs in marine turtles from the Mediterranean Sea. Further investigations are urgently needed to characterize their contamination level for a better future protection and conservation of this endangered animal.

  12. Late Quaternary sea-level changes of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokier, Stephen W.; Bateman, Mark D.; Larkin, Nigel R.; Rye, Philip; Stewart, John R.

    2015-07-01

    Late Quaternary reflooding of the Persian Gulf climaxed with the mid-Holocene highstand previously variously dated between 6 and 3.4 ka. Examination of the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental context of a mid-Holocene whale beaching allows us to accurately constrain the timing of the transgressive, highstand and regressive phases of the mid- to late Holocene sea-level highstand in the Persian Gulf. Mid-Holocene transgression of the Gulf surpassed today's sea level by 7100-6890 cal yr BP, attaining a highstand of > 1 m above current sea level shortly after 5290-4570 cal yr BP before falling back to current levels by 1440-1170 cal yr BP. The cetacean beached into an intertidal hardground pond during the transgressive phase (5300-4960 cal yr BP) with continued transgression interring the skeleton in shallow-subtidal sediments. Subsequent relative sea-level fall produced a forced regression with consequent progradation of the coastal system. These new ages refine previously reported timings for the mid- to late Holocene sea-level highstand published for other regions. By so doing, they allow us to constrain the timing of this correlatable global eustatic event more accurately.

  13. Severity of sea ice in the Southern Baltic Sea, Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Bothnia up 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzenna, Sztobryn

    2012-11-01

    The study focused on the evaluation of probable changes in the severity of sea ice conditions occurring in 3 selected areas of the Baltic Sea: the Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland and the Southern Baltic Sea up to the year 2100. The areas have been chosen due to the high intensity of marine traffic (the Gulfs—of Bothnia and of Finland) and due to differences in sea ice conditions; winters in the Gulf of Bothnia were characterized as the most severe, whereas in the Southern Baltic were classified as the mildest ones. Consequently, three scenarios were taken into account in the study: A2 (slow rate of global economic development, market scenario), A1B (regional scenario, rapid economic development, with ecological priorities), B1 (sustainable, median economic development with strong ecological priorities), all three constructed on the basis of Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES models of greenhouse gas emission). The probable changes of sea ice conditions expressed as severity index S were calculated from these models. The main results of the investigation are as follows, the variety of sea ice conditions occurring in specific regions of the Baltic will remain stable (i.e. the most severe winter conditions will still occur in Gulf of Bothnia, while the mildest in the Southern Baltic Sea). The most significant changes are likely to occur in the Southern Baltic, where some winters without ice cover in the Vistula Lagoon may happen. Nonetheless, some extremely severe winters will occur and also within specific seasons more winters with a lower number of days with ice will occur.

  14. Metallothioneins and heat shock proteins 70 in marine mussels as sensors of environmental pollution in Northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Mićović, Vladimir; Bulog, Aleksandar; Kučić, Natalia; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Radošević-Stašić, Biserka

    2009-11-01

    In an attempt to assess the intensity of environmental pollution in industrial zones of Kvarnerian Bay in Northern Adriatic Sea and the reactivity of Mytilus galloprovincialis to these changes, in this study we estimated the concentration of heavy metals at four locations in both sea-sediment and in the mussels. Further we tried to correlate these changes with seasonal variations in environmental temperature, pH and salinity, as well as with the expression of metallothioneins (MTs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the digestive tract of the mussels. Sampling in vivo was performed monthly, during the year 2008, while under the laboratory conditions the reactivity of acclimated mussels were tested to increasing concentrations of CdCl(2) and to thermal stress. The data have shown that the induction of MTs and HSP isoforms of the 70-kDa size class were highly affected by model agents treatment including contamination of sea-sediment by Pb, Hg and Cd, implying that these stress proteins might be power biomarkers of marine pollution.

  15. Near-field dispersion of produced formation water (PFW) in the Adriatic Sea: an integrated numerical-chemical approach.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, D; Manfra, L; Zambianchi, E; Maggi, C; Cappiello, A; Famiglini, G; Mannozzi, M; Cicero, A M

    2008-05-01

    Produced formation waters (PFWs), a by-product of both oil and gas extraction, are separated from hydrocarbons onboard oil platforms and then discharged into the sea through submarine outfalls. The dispersion of PFWs into the environment may have a potential impact on marine ecosystems. We reproduce the initial PFW-seawater mixing process by means of the UM3 model applied to offshore natural gas platforms currently active in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Chemical analyses lead to the identification of a chemical tracer (diethylene glycol) which enables us to follow the fate of PFWs into receiving waters. The numerical simulations are realized in different seasonal conditions using both measured oceanographic data and tracer concentrations. The numerical results show the spatial and temporal plume development in different stratification and ambient current conditions. The analytical approach measures concentrations of the diethylene glycol at a maximum sampling distance of 25 m. The results show a good agreement between field observations and model predictions in the near-field area. The integration of numerical results with chemical analyses also provides new insight to plan and optimize PFW monitoring and discharge.

  16. Cadmium and lead in selected tissues of two commercially important fish species from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Gaspić, Z Kljaković; Zvonarić, T; Vrgoc, N; Odzak, N; Barić, A

    2002-12-01

    Baseline levels of cadmium and lead were determined in muscle tissue and liver of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and red mullet (Mullus barbatus), two commercially important fish species from the eastern Adriatic. Concentrations of trace metals in liver (Cd: 6-183 microg kg(-1) w. wt. ; Pb: 39-970 microg kg(-1) w. wt.) were within the range of recently published data for the Mediterranean. In the muscle tissue, cadmium concentrations (4.1-29 microg kg(-1) w. wt.) were among the lowest reported values for the Mediterranean, whereas lead levels (49-158 microg kg(-1) w. wt.) were within the range of values reported for various coastal areas of the Mediterranean. Presented data on cadmium and lead content in the studied fish species provide no proof of the general pollution of the Adriatic. Obtained data were tested in relation to fish length. Metal concentrations in liver decreased with the increase in fish size, whereas no significant correlation was found between trace metal levels in the muscle tissue and the length of both species. Relationships between metal concentrations and sex were also tested, but they gave no significant results. A comparison of contaminant concentrations in the edible tissue of hake and red mullet with the Croatian legislation shows that the consumption of their meat is not harmful for humans, not even for the most endangered population from the coastal region.

  17. Long-term changes in heterotrophic prokaryotes abundance and growth characteristics in the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivančić, Ingrid; Fuks, Dragica; Najdek, Mirjana; Blažina, Maria; Devescovi, Massimo; Šilović, Tina; Paliaga, Paolo; Orlić, Sandi

    2010-09-01

    During the 1990-2008 period heterotrophic prokaryotes abundance (HP) in the northern Adriatic showed a substantial decrease after 2003. Before 2003 the HP annual cycle was characterized by minimal values during winter (100-134 · 10 7 cell l - 1 , on average) and a gradual increase toward summer (up to 212 · 10 7 cell l - 1 , on average). After 2003 HP was low during the most part of the year (27-63 · 10 7 cell l - 1 , on average), with somewhat higher values only at the end of summer and in April (up to 80 · 10 7 cell l - 1 in average). The overall higher Leu/TdR ratio after 2003 showed that prokaryotes were increasing their cellular biomass but more slowly dividing than before. There were indications that changed hydrographic conditions, reduced substrate supply and quality changes might be the most responsible factors for the observed HP decrease and change in their growth characteristics. As a consequence of lower HP heterotrophic flagellates abundance (HF) after 2003 (average 0.57 · 10 6 cell l - 1 ) generally decreased by about three times. Weakened coupling between HP and HF confirmed the minor role of grazing pressure in controlling HP after 2003. This study shows the direct response of the microbial community to meteorological and subsequent hydrographical condition changes that occurred in the northern Adriatic.

  18. Surface drifter derived circulation in the northern and middle Adriatic Sea: Response to wind regime and season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ursella, L.; Poulain, P.-M.; Signell, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    More than 120 satellite-tracked drifters were deployed in the northern and middle Adriatic (NMA) Sea between September 2002 and November 2003, with the purpose of studying the surface circulation at mesoscale to seasonal scale in relation to wind forcing, river runoff, and bottom topography. Pseudo-Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics were calculated from the low-pass-filtered drifter velocity data between September 2002 and December 2003. The structure of the mean circulation is determined with unprecedented high horizontal resolution by the new data. In particular, mean currents, velocity variance, and kinetic energy levels are shown to be maximal in the Western Adriatic Current (WAC). Separating data into seasons, we found that the mean kinetic energy is maximal in fall, with high values also in winter, while it is significantly weaker in summer. High-resolution Local Area Model Italy winds were used to relate the drifter velocities to the wind fields. The surface currents appear to be significantly influenced by the winds. The mean flow during the northeasterly bora regime shows an intensification of the across-basin recirculating currents. In addition, the WAC is strongly intensified both in intensity and in its offshore lateral extension. In the southeasterly sirocco regime, northward flow without recirculation dominates in the eastern half of the basin, while during northwesterly maestro the WAC is enhanced. Separating the data into low and high Po River discharge rates for low-wind conditions shows that the WAC and the velocity fluctuations in front of the Po delta are stronger for high Po River runoff. Lagrangian covariance, diffusivity, and integral time and space scales are larger in the along-basin direction and are maximal in the southern portion of the WAC. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Integrated use of biomarkers in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis for assessing off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea: results of a two-year biomonitoring program.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, Alessio; Da Ros, Luisa; Nasci, Cristina; Meneghetti, Francesca; Spagnolo, Alessandra; Fabi, Gianna

    2011-11-01

    Despite a large number of gas platforms existing in the Adriatic Sea, which is a semi-enclosed basin characterized by a slow turnover rate and increasing industrial as well as other anthropogenic activities, the effects of these structures on the aquatic ecosystem require further investigation. Since 1998, multidisciplinary studies have been performed by CNR-ISMAR to comply with legislation and to support the development of protocols for the monitoring of offshore activities in the Adriatic Sea. The present study was developed to implement a biomonitoring plan to assess the ecotoxicological effects of the extraction activities of an off-shore gas platform. Biomarkers were evaluated in mussels collected from the platform in relation to physiological stress, DNA damage, cellular damage, oxidative stress and exposure effects. Organic contaminants and trace element bioaccumulation were also assessed in the soft body of the mussels to correlate bioaccumulation of pollutants with biomarker responses. The results indicate an absence of platform-related environmental stress.

  20. {sup 210}Pb dating of sediments from the central and the northern Adriatic Sea: The deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.; Fowler, S.; Miquel, J.C.; La Rosa, J.

    1996-04-01

    A central goal of the ELNA project is to assess the carbon assimilation capacity of the Northern Adriatic Sea. This requires fundamental quantitative information on budgets and sinks of organic carbon. Any change in carbon production in the water column should be reflected in the underlying sediments. Moreover, the fraction of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor which is subsequently preserved in the sediment will be strongly coupled to sediment accumulation and mixing. In this study a series of box cores were collected in order to characterize a hypothetical eutrophication gradient extending from the Po River outflow region in the north down to the shallow meso-Adriatic depression (Jabuka Pit). The main tasks assigned to IAEA-MEL were to provide {sup 210}Pb derived sedimentation and dry-mass accumulation rates and to examine the possible correlations between sedimentary processes, the deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon and pelagic primary productivity.

  1. Climate change impacts on marine water quality: The case study of the Northern Adriatic sea.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, J; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Zabeo, A; Brigolin, D; Carniel, S; Pastres, R; Marcomini, A

    2016-01-30

    Climate change is posing additional pressures on coastal ecosystems due to variations in water biogeochemical and physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity) leading to aquatic ecosystem degradation. With the main aim of analyzing the potential impacts of climate change on marine water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic. It integrates the outputs of regional biogeochemical and physico-chemical models considering future climate change scenarios (i.e., years 2070 and 2100) with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators. Results showed that salinity and temperature will be the main drivers of changes, together with macronutrients, especially in the area of the Po' river delta. The final outputs are exposure, susceptibility and risk maps supporting the communication of the potential consequences of climate change on water quality to decision makers and stakeholders and provide a basis for the definition of adaptation and management strategies.

  2. Historical pattern and mass balance of trace metals in sediments of the northwestern Adriatic Sea Shelf.

    PubMed

    Romano, Stefania; Langone, Leonardo; Frignani, Mauro; Albertazzi, Sonia; Focaccia, Paola; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Ravaioli, Mariangela

    2013-11-15

    In view of the recent action in Marine Strategy Framework Directive, reconstructing the history of anthropogenic metal inputs and calculating the budgets for the northwestern part of the Italian Adriatic basin can provide a benchmark for comparison with new evidences and enlighten recent environmental changes. Among the metals, the attention was focused on Pb and Zn, as they provide the most significant anthropogenic signals. In 1988, areal distributions clearly identified the Po, Adige and Brenta rivers as the main sources of contaminants. The study area was divided in three compartments. The area in front of the Po delta represented a sink for metals but the accumulation of Zn and Pb integrated over the entire study area suggests an effective export throughout southern boundary. Most concentration-depth/year profiles in cores showed an upward increase from the Italian Unification (1861), with a still significant anthropogenic supply at the time of sampling.

  3. Concentration of selected trace elements and PCBs in sediments from the Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, S W; Hamilton, T F; Coquery, M; Villeneuve, J-P; Horvat, M

    2000-07-26

    A broad baseline study of the levels and distributions of trace metals and PCB compounds in sediments has been undertaken. PCB concentrations in surface sediments reflect the source of these contaminates in the region. The highest PCB concentrations as Aroclor 1260 (approximately 10 ng g{sup -1}) were found in sediments near the outflow of the Po river. The lowest concentrations (1.5 ng g{sup -1} dry) were associated with the sediments from the Jabuka Pit in the Middle Adriatic. These values are quite similar to total PCBs (<1.0-17) measured in surface sediments sampled off the coast of Croatia in 1977-78. Thus, based on the limited amount of new data available, it appears that there has been little, if any, decrease in PCB loading in Adriatic sediments over the past 15 years. Downcore profiles of PCBs in sediment cores are also discussed from a pollution history standpoint. Likewise, total mercury in surface sediments was also highest at stations off the Po (403-499 ng g{sup -1} dry) and lowest (67-224 ng g{sup -1}) in the Jabuka Pit. In one core located just south of the Po outflow, total Hg concentrations at all depths were relatively high decreasing gradually from approximately 400 ng g{sup -1} in the top 4 cm to roughly 200 ng g{sup -1} at a depth of 32 cm. Using a {sup 210}Pb-derived sedimentation rate of 0.26 em Y{sup -1} for this station, it appears that anthropogenic inputs of mercury may have been responsible for the gradual increase in total mercury noted over the last 125 years.

  4. Spatial variations of particle scavenging rates within the central and northern Adriatic Sea: use of U--Th disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T. F., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    Dissolved and particlulate Thorium-234 ({sup 234}Th) were measured in near surface waters from the Central and Northern Adriatic Sea in order to gain an insight into the intensity and variability of active scavenging and particle removal processes. Dissolved {sup 234}Th to Uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) activity ratios vary from 0.21 to 0.75 and clearly imply that {sup 234}Th is being actively scavenged from sea water on a timescale of <3 months. The scavenging rate of dissolved {sup 234}Th with respect to scavenging onto particles appears to correlate with primary productivity measurements. Scavenging and rapid removal of particulate {sup 234}Th from the water column is best explained by a mechanism of zooplankton grazing and fecal pellet production. At one sight in the Jabuka Pit, particulate {sup 234}Th residence times below the pycnocline are long (30-40 days) suggesting that particles are being more readily recycled at these depths. By comparison, in a seawater profile collected near the Po outflow region, {sup 234}Th is depleted with respect to {sup 238}U through the entire water column. We conclude from this assessment that particles in waters near the Po River outflow will be more efficiently transported to bottom sediments compared with those in deeper waters over the Jabuka Pit.

  5. On the dense water cascading in the Southern Adriatic Sea during 2012: Setup of a Rapid Environmental Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langone, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    In the North Adriatic, Dense Shelf Water (DSW) forms during cold and dry winters by cooling and evaporation. DSW spreads southward along the western shelf reaching the southern Adriatic basin (1200 m deep) after 1-2 months, where sinks through cascading events. In February 2012, a large Siberian High caused blocking of the Atlantic flow and a westward flow of dry and cold air masses from eastern Russia toward Europe. The North Adriatic experienced a cold spell with large decrease of surface temperature (3° -6° C) associated to severe cold and dry Bora wind. The result was the formation of extremely dense shelf water, further made possible by the very limited discharge of the Po river in the preceding autumn. As contribution to the Italian research programme RITMARE (Italian Research for the Sea), CNR-ISMAR set up a Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) experiment to study the occurrence, amount, timing and properties of the newly formed DSW. Setting up REA strategies is crucial for several scientific and practical reasons: (i) capturing extreme events to improve our understanding of natural systems in a global-change scenario; (ii) to evaluate their impact on marine systems and the biota; (iii) to address issues related to fluctuating fish stocks as well as (iv) C export and sequestration in the deep sea. The experiment was designed with an integrated approach, including modeling simulations, mooring deployments and quick-response oceanographic cruises. Based on numerical model ensemble, the arrival time of the DSW at the Gargano Cape was forecasted likely starting after March 15, 2012, thus moorings were deployed few days before. Five moorings were deployed in sites selected on the basis of modelling predictions and geology-driven inferences defining areas where the passage of dense shelf water is most likely to occur. Moorings were equipped with down-looking ADCPs, automatic sediment traps, temperature loggers, recorders of temperature, conductivity and

  6. Sea snake harvest in the gulf of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia; Montoya, Alfred; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Broad, Kenneth; Voris, Harold K; Takacs, Zoltan

    2014-12-01

    Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human-snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest by squid fishers operating out of the ports of Song Doc and Khanh Hoi, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. The data were collected during documentation of the steps of the trading process and through interviewers with participants in the trade. Squid vessels return to ports once per lunar synodic cycle and fishers sell snakes to merchants who sort, package, and ship the snakes to various destinations in Vietnam and China for human consumption and as a source of traditional remedies. Annually, 82 t, roughly equal to 225,500 individuals, of live sea snakes are brought to ports. To our knowledge, this rate of harvest constitutes one of the largest venomous snake and marine reptile harvest activities in the world today. Lapemis curtus and Hydrophis cyanocinctus constituted about 85% of the snake biomass, and Acalyptophis peronii, Aipysurus eydouxii, Hydrophis atriceps, H. belcheri, H. lamberti, and H. ornatus made up the remainder. Our results establish a quantitative baseline for characteristics of catch, trade, and uses of sea snakes. Other key observations include the timing of the trade to the lunar cycle, a decline of sea snakes harvested over the study period (approximately 30% decline in mass over 4 years), and the treatment of sea snake bites with rhinoceros horn. Emerging markets in Southeast Asia drive the harvest of venomous sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand and sea snake bites present a potentially lethal occupational hazard. We call for implementation of monitoring programs to further address the conservation implications of this large-scale marine reptile exploitation.

  7. Sea level rise in Louisiana and Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.; Penland, S. )

    1989-09-01

    Data from two tide-gage networks in Louisiana and the northern Gulf of Mexico were analyzed to determine local and regional trends in relative sea level rise. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) maintains a network of 83 tide-gage stations throughout coastal Louisiana. Of these, 20 have records for two lunar nodal cycles or more, and some date back to 1933. The authors used the USACE data set to determine the local and regional character of relative sea level rise in Louisiana. The National ocean Survey (NOS) maintains nine tide gage stations throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. All of the records of these stations exceed two lunar nodal cycles, and some date back to 1908. The authors used the NOS data set to determine the character of relative sea level rise throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico. This investigation updates and extends the previous systematic regional tide gage analysis (which covered 1908-1983) to 1988.

  8. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une

  9. Multi-annual investigation of the spatial distributions of juvenile and adult sole (Solea solea L.) in the Adriatic Sea (northern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grati, Fabio; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Polidori, Piero; Domenichetti, Filippo; Bolognini, Luca; Gramolini, Roberto; Vasapollo, Claudio; Giovanardi, Otello; Raicevich, Saša; Celić, Igor; Vrgoč, Nedo; Isajlovic, Igor; Jenič, Aljaž; Marčeta, Bojan; Fabi, Gianna

    2013-11-01

    The common sole (Solea solea) is one of the most important demersal resources in the northern and central Adriatic Sea (GFCM GSA 17). Landings from this basin make up around 23% of the overall Mediterranean and Black Sea production. Despite the economic relevance of sole in the Adriatic Sea, and its inherent property of being shared among three countries (i.e. Italy, Slovenia and Croatia), studies on its spatial distribution are scarce and aged. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the spatial distribution and investigate the dynamics of this species in the GSA 17. Samples of common sole were collected in the framework of yearly rapido trawl surveys (SoleMon), during late autumn, from 2005 to 2010, i.e. the spawning season of common sole in the Adriatic. Results highlighted that juveniles are mostly concentrated in shallow water (0-30 m depth) along the Italian coast and their spatial distribution persisted along the sampled years. By contrast adults were mainly distributed in the central/eastern part of the basin at depths > 30 m. As a result of the different spatial distributions, juveniles are exploited exclusively by Italian vessels, especially by beam trawlers (i.e. rapido trawl), while adults are caught by Croatian and Slovenian fishing fleets in their respective national waters and by the Italian fleet operating in international waters. These results, while shedding light on the common sole spatial ecology in the Adriatic, represent crucial information for the setting of international collaboration for a rational spatial-based management of the resource.

  10. First assessment of effects of air-gun seismic shooting on marine resources in the central Adriatic sea

    SciTech Connect

    La Bella, G.; Cannata, S.; Froglia, C.

    1996-11-01

    A series of investigations were carried out to test the effects of air-gun seismic shooting on main fishery resources of the Adriatic Sea during summer 1995. The energy source used for the trial was formed by one air-gun array made up by two sub-arrays consisting in 8 air-guns each developing a total volume of c.a. 2500 i{sup 3} at 2000 psi with an amplitude of 60 bar/m. The interval between two was of 25 s. The intensity was of 210 dB re 1 mPa-m/Hz. Acoustical and spectral analysis were performed simultaneously in the surveyed areas to correlate fishery and behavior observations with sound pattern of the energization. Main results were: (1) Analysis of trawl catch data evidenced no significant changes before and after the air-gun seismic profiling. (2) Echosurvey relative estimate of pelagic biomass, performed simultaneously to trawling operations, failed to evidence any significant change in the pelagic biomass subsequent to the seismic shooting. (3) Small differences were observed in the trammel net catch composition, but one single set of pre-post fishing operations could be done in the study period. (4) Similar density estimate were obtained from dredge surveys performed by an hydraulic dredger before and after air-gun seismic profiling over a clam bed in 14 in depth. (5) Video recording of captive fish, kept into cages moored on the sea bottom at 12 in depth, evidenced a Behavioral response to the approach of the sound source; but no lethal event was recorded on captive sea-bass immediately after the seismic shooting. (6) Biochemical and histological analysis were performed to verify if it is to be related to the captive condition or is somewhat consequent to the air-gun energization. These results confirm that no relevant effects are induced on fishery resources by seismic air-gun shooting.

  11. Italy - Adriatic Sea - Barbara - A giant gas field marked by seismic velocity anomaly - A subtle trap

    SciTech Connect

    Ianniello, A.; Bolelli, W.; Di Scala, L. )

    1990-09-01

    Barbara gas field, discovered in 1971, is located in the northern sector of the Adriatic offshore. The field is a gentle anticline involving Quaternary clastic sediments and shaped by carbonate Mesozoic morphology. The presence of shallow gas pockets at the crest of the structure distort the seismic signal to such an extent that structural reconstruction using seismic data is not possible. Moreover, time delays and ray-path anomalies do not allow the use of staking velocities for the depth conversion. Seismic attribute analysis, instead of velocities, and time delays on the isochrone maps are providing a key to the understanding of seismic anomalies and are an indirect tool for reconstructing the real structural configuration of the field. The appraisal story of the field illustrates how the previously mentioned complications influenced its delineation and how an understanding of these complications helped in upgrading the reserves from an initial value of 10 billion ECM of gas to 40 billion ECM. Additional data acquired with the development wells tend to increase the estimate. Therefore, Barbara field is the most important Italian gas field of the decade. The producing formation is composed of very thin-bedded sandstone and shale intercalations, representing the peculiarity of this reservoir. Development of the field is being achieved with six production platforms and 72 wells.

  12. Post-Chernobyl investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in Adriatic Sea pilchards.

    PubMed

    Franić, Zdenko; Petrinec, Branko; Branica, Gina; Marović, Gordana; Kubelka, Dragan; Franić, Zrinka

    2012-08-01

    Investigations in the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2009) of radiocaesium activity concentrations in Adriatic pilchards are presented. Compared with pre-Chernobyl period, the Chernobyl nuclear accident caused increase of (137)Cs activity concentrations in pilchards. By fitting the measured (137)Cs activity concentrations to the theoretical curve was estimated to be 1.5±0.4 y for 1986-90 and 5.8±0.4 y for 1991-2009 and the bimodal behaviour for the ecological half-life of (137)Cs in pilchards has been observed. Estimated annual effective doses received by (134)Cs and (137)Cs intake due to consumption for an adult member of Croatian population are small. Collective dose for the 1986-2009 period was 4.9+0.3 person-Sv. The observed (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio in pilchards was similar to the ratio that has been found in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for pilchards was roughly estimated to be 93.7±39.2 l kg(-1), which is consistent with the values observed elsewhere.

  13. Climate change impacts on marine water quality: The case study of the Northern Adriatic sea.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, J; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Zabeo, A; Brigolin, D; Carniel, S; Pastres, R; Marcomini, A

    2016-01-30

    Climate change is posing additional pressures on coastal ecosystems due to variations in water biogeochemical and physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity) leading to aquatic ecosystem degradation. With the main aim of analyzing the potential impacts of climate change on marine water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic. It integrates the outputs of regional biogeochemical and physico-chemical models considering future climate change scenarios (i.e., years 2070 and 2100) with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators. Results showed that salinity and temperature will be the main drivers of changes, together with macronutrients, especially in the area of the Po' river delta. The final outputs are exposure, susceptibility and risk maps supporting the communication of the potential consequences of climate change on water quality to decision makers and stakeholders and provide a basis for the definition of adaptation and management strategies. PMID:26152856

  14. Diversity and localization of bacterial symbionts in three whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from the east coast of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Skaljac, M; Zanić, K; Hrnčić, S; Radonjić, S; Perović, T; Ghanim, M

    2013-02-01

    Several whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are cosmopolitan phloem-feeders that cause serious damage in numerous agricultural crops. All whitefly species harbor a primary bacterial symbiont and a diverse array of secondary symbionts which may influence several aspects of the insect's biology. We surveyed infections by secondary symbionts in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) from areas in the east cost of the Adriatic Sea. Both the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) B. tabaci genetic groups were detected in Montenegro, whereas only the MED was confirmed in Croatia. Trialeurodes vaporariorum and S. phillyreae were found in all areas surveyed. MEAM1 and MED exhibited similarity to previously reported infections, while populations of T. vaporariorum from Montenegro harbored Rickettsia, Wolbachia and Cardinium in addition to previously reported Hamiltonella and Arsenopnohus. Siphoninus phillyreae harbored Hamiltonella, Wolbachia, Cardinium and Arsenophonus, with the latter appearing in two alleles. Multiple infections of all symbionts were common in the three insect species tested, with some reaching near fixation. Florescent in situ hybridization showed new localization patterns for Hamiltonella in S. phillyreae, and the morphology of the bacteriosome differed from that observed in other whitefly species. Our results show new infections with bacterial symbionts in the whitefly species studied. Infections with the same symbionts in reproductively isolated whitefly species confirm complex relationships between whiteflies and bacterial symbionts, and suggest possible horizontal transfer of some of these bacteria.

  15. Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Romanić, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klinčić, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

    2014-09-01

    Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (Σ6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ΣPCB and ΣDDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk. PMID:25151654

  16. Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Romanić, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klinčić, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

    2014-09-01

    Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (Σ6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ΣPCB and ΣDDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk.

  17. Strategies for optimized geology-related seismic data processing in the geological interpretation of the Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Agostinelli, E.; Boy, M.; Cardamone, M.; Carlini, A.

    1988-08-01

    New seismic surveys are usually preceded by methodical tests relative to specific exploration targets in the study area and provide results which are not widely applicable. If the main exploration targets of a basin are known, one can confidently choose a few representative sections and prepare a sequence of exhaustive processing tests concerning them. The relative data can be subsequently extrapolated to similar stratigraphic and structural situations in the basin. Such a knowledge base can be considerably enhanced by the use of the latest data processing techniques: 240-channel data treatment, multiple-events removal using advanced algorithms, pre- or post-stack time migrations, etc. This maximizes the efficiency of the seismic tool in terms of cost, time, and quality of results, making the derived geological interpretation more reliable. The central Adriatic Sea, due to the large amount of available data and experience acquired through years of exploration activity, represented a very good test area. In this basin a set of representative exploration targets on which to perform suitable processing tests was easily selected, and using the above-mentioned techniques they arrived at a better geological understanding of the area.

  18. Trophic status and meiofauna biodiversity in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Insights for the assessment of good environmental status.

    PubMed

    Bianchelli, Silvia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Buschi, Emanuela; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The Descriptor 5 (Eutrophication) of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims at preventing the negative effects of eutrophication. However, in coastal systems all indicators based on water column parameters fail in identifying the trophic status and its effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We investigated benthic trophic status, in terms of sedimentary organic matter quantity, composition and quality, along with meiofaunal abundance, richness of taxa and community composition in three coastal sites (N Adriatic Sea) affected by different levels of anthropogenic stressors. We show that, on the basis of organic matter quantity and composition, the investigated areas can be classified from oligo-to mesotrophic, whereas using meiofauna as a descriptor, their environmental quality ranged from sufficient to moderately impacted. Our results show that the benthic trophic status based on organic matter variables, is not sufficient to provide a sound assessment of the environmental quality in marine coastal ecosystems. However, data reported here indicate that the integration of the meiofaunal variable allows providing robust assessments of the marine environmental status.

  19. Ecological and morphological characteristics of Ephelota gemmipara (Ciliophora, Suctoria), epibiontic on Eudendrium racemosum (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Tazioli, Silvia; Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the suctorian Ephelota gemmipara and the large hydroid Eudendrium racemosum from the North Adriatic Sea has been studied over its full annual cycle. Ephelota gemmipara settles on the perisarc of the hydroid, usually close to the hydranths in order to exploit the hydroid's food discharges. The life cycle of E. gemmipara is influenced by temperature variations and by its relationship with the host. The hydroid shows an active phase in the summer, and it gets through the adverse winter season forming resting stages. In April, when temperature increases, the hydroid starts its active phase and it is colonized by suctorians. From May to September the suctorians produce multiple buds (swarmers) that detach from the parental cells to settle on an Eudendrium colony. The abundance of the suctorian peaks in September, with more than 1.2 million ind. m(-2). Their proliferation coincides with the maximal abundance of their host and the highest water temperatures. On the contrary, sexual reproduction and the encystment occur when the temperature and the abundance of E. racemosum decrease. Lastly, we also report the presence of symbionts such as bacteria and the parasitic protozoans Tachyblaston ephelotensis and Enigmocoma acinetarum.

  20. Application of empirical model to predict background metal concentration in mixed carbonate-alumosilicate sediment (Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Felja, Igor; Romić, Marija; Romić, Davor; Bakić, Helena; Pikelj, Kristina; Juračić, Mladen

    2016-05-15

    A 96m long sediment core (S10-33) from the Mali Ston Channel (Adriatic Sea) showed large natural variation in carbonate share (between 1% and 95%) and concentration of elements. These variations indicate rather significant changes in fine-grained sediment that was deposited in this area during Younger Pleistocene and Holocene. Unaffected by anthropogenic influence, sediment in the core was used to determine background concentration of trace elements in sediment with various carbonate content. Here we propose a method of the normalization of trace elements to carbonate share, in order to assess natural/background concentration of metals in sediments consisting of carbonates and alumosilicates in various proportions. Six characteristic metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) that were normalized to carbonate share showed very good correlation, with much higher background concentrations in alumosilicate than in carbonate end member. Simple formulas were proposed to easily determine background concentration of these elements, in coastal and shelf depositional environments with mixed carbonate-alumosilicate sediments.

  1. Radioactive contamination of cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea by [sup 90]Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Franic, Z.; Lokobauer, N.; Marovic, G. . Radiation Protection Unit)

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination of water samples from cisterns collecting rainwater containing fission products from roofs and other surfaces have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea since 1968. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the nuclear moratorium. After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, higher levels of [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr were detected again, with cistern waters being the only environmental samples in Croatia in which elevated [sup 90]Sr activities persisted for several years. For the pre-Chernobyl period, the observed mean residence time of [sup 90]Sr in cistern waters, estimated to be 6.2 [+-] 1.9 y, was similar to that calculated for fallout. Contrary, for the post-Chernobyl time, observed [sup 90]Sr mean residence time was calculated to be considerably shorter, reflecting the tropospheric mean residence time. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs by drinking cistern water was estimated to be very small, in the 1990's less than few [micro]Sv y[sup [minus]1].

  2. Influence of seasonal forcing on habitat use by bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearzi, Giovanni; Azzellino, Arianna; Politi, Elena; Costa, Marina; Bastianini, Mauro

    2008-12-01

    Bottlenose dolphins are the only cetaceans regularly observed in the northern Adriatic Sea, but they survive at low densities and are exposed to significant threats. This study investigates some of the factors that influence habitat use by the animals in a largely homogeneous environment by combining dolphin data with hydrological and physiographical variables sampled from oceanographic ships. Surveys were conducted year-round between 2003 and 2006, totalling 3,397 km of effort. Habitat modelling based on a binary stepwise logistic regression analysis predicted between 81% and 93% of the cells where animals were present. Seven environmental covariates were important predictors: oxygen saturation, water temperature, density anomaly, gradient of density anomaly, turbidity, distance from the nearest coast and bottom depth. The model selected consistent predictors in spring and summer. However, the relationship (inverse or direct) between each predictor and dolphin presence varied among seasons, and different predictors were selected in fall. This suggests that dolphin distribution changed depending on seasonal forcing. As the study area is relatively uniform in terms of bottom topography, habitat use by the animals seems to depend on complex interactions among hydrological variables, caused primarily by seasonal change and likely to determine shifts in prey distribution.

  3. Trophic status and meiofauna biodiversity in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Insights for the assessment of good environmental status.

    PubMed

    Bianchelli, Silvia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Buschi, Emanuela; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The Descriptor 5 (Eutrophication) of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims at preventing the negative effects of eutrophication. However, in coastal systems all indicators based on water column parameters fail in identifying the trophic status and its effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We investigated benthic trophic status, in terms of sedimentary organic matter quantity, composition and quality, along with meiofaunal abundance, richness of taxa and community composition in three coastal sites (N Adriatic Sea) affected by different levels of anthropogenic stressors. We show that, on the basis of organic matter quantity and composition, the investigated areas can be classified from oligo-to mesotrophic, whereas using meiofauna as a descriptor, their environmental quality ranged from sufficient to moderately impacted. Our results show that the benthic trophic status based on organic matter variables, is not sufficient to provide a sound assessment of the environmental quality in marine coastal ecosystems. However, data reported here indicate that the integration of the meiofaunal variable allows providing robust assessments of the marine environmental status. PMID:26562451

  4. Application of empirical model to predict background metal concentration in mixed carbonate-alumosilicate sediment (Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Felja, Igor; Romić, Marija; Romić, Davor; Bakić, Helena; Pikelj, Kristina; Juračić, Mladen

    2016-05-15

    A 96m long sediment core (S10-33) from the Mali Ston Channel (Adriatic Sea) showed large natural variation in carbonate share (between 1% and 95%) and concentration of elements. These variations indicate rather significant changes in fine-grained sediment that was deposited in this area during Younger Pleistocene and Holocene. Unaffected by anthropogenic influence, sediment in the core was used to determine background concentration of trace elements in sediment with various carbonate content. Here we propose a method of the normalization of trace elements to carbonate share, in order to assess natural/background concentration of metals in sediments consisting of carbonates and alumosilicates in various proportions. Six characteristic metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) that were normalized to carbonate share showed very good correlation, with much higher background concentrations in alumosilicate than in carbonate end member. Simple formulas were proposed to easily determine background concentration of these elements, in coastal and shelf depositional environments with mixed carbonate-alumosilicate sediments. PMID:26975609

  5. Seismicity of the Adriatic microplate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Console, R.; Di, Giovambattista R.; Favali, P.; Presgrave, B.W.; Smriglio, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Adriatic microplate was previously considered to be a unique block, tectonically active only along its margins. The seismic sequences that took place in the basin from 1986 to 1990 give new information about the geodynamics of this area. Three subsets of well recorded events were relocated by the joint hypocentre determination technique. On the whole, this seismic activity was concentrated in a belt crossing the southern Adriatic sea around latitude 42??, in connection with regional E-W fault systems. Some features of this seismicity, similar to those observed in other well known active margins of the Adriatic plate, support a model of a southern Adriatic lithospheric block, detached from the Northern one. Other geophysical information provides evidence of a transitional zone at the same latitude. ?? 1993.

  6. Characterization of sea floor in Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, B.A.; Kenyon, N.H.; Schlee, J.S.; Mattick, R.e.; Twichell, D.C.

    1986-05-01

    In 1985, the US Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a mapping program in the Gulf of Mexico. Using the GLORIA (Geologic Long-Range Inclined Asdic) side-scan sonar system of the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, USGS mapped approximately 90,000 nmi/sup 2/ of sea floor in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, seaward of the shelf edge. The Sigsbee Escarpment, the seaward edge of a salt front that extends from the western gulf to just west of the Mississippi Canyon, is marked by piles of debris along its base, and is breached by several submarine channels. One such meandering channel can be traced from the shelf edge, through the maze of diapirs on the slope, and out across the Sigsbee Abyssal Plain. This continuous transport pathway indicates the interaction of salt tectonics on sediment pathways and distribution. Numerous bed forms seaward of the Sigsbee Escarpment suggest that strong bottom currents are present. The northern gulf has three major submarine fans, each with different surface morphologies. The Rio Grande Fan has a braided channel system. The Mississippi Fan has a main channel that can be traced for approximately 100 km across the midfan, but most of the surface of the upper and midfan as well as the channel are buried by submarine slides or debris flows. Desoto Canyon Fan also has a continuous channel that has been filled or overrun in places by massive debris flows. Based on the sonographs, mass wasting appears to be an important process in distributing sediments in the deep water of the central gulf.

  7. Sea urchin coelomocytes as a novel cellular biosensor of environmental stress: a field study in the Tremiti Island Marine Protected Area, Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pinsino, A; Della Torre, C; Sammarini, V; Bonaventura, R; Amato, E; Matranga, V

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate on the suitability of the sea urchin as a sentinel organism for the assessment of the macro-zoobenthos health state in bio-monitoring programmes. A field study was carried out during two oceanographic campaigns using immuno-competent cells, the coelomocytes, from sea urchins living in a marine protected area. In particular, coelomocytes subpopulations ratio and heat shock protein 70 (HSC70) levels were measured in specimens of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamark, 1816) collected in two sampling sites, namely Pianosa and Caprara Islands, both belonging to the Tremiti Island Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy. By density gradients separation performed on board the Astrea boat, we found an evident increase in red amoebocytes, a subpopulation increasing upon stress, in those specimens collected around Pianosa (strictly protected area with no human activities allowed), unlike those collected around Caprara (low restrictions for human activities). Likewise, we found higher HSC70 protein levels in the low impacted site (Pianosa) by Western blots on total coelomocyte lysates. The apparent paradox could be explained by the presence in the Pianosa sampling area of contaminating remains from Second World War conventional ammunitions and a merchant boat wreck. Metal determination performed using sea urchin gonads by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) revealed higher Fe and lower Zn levels around Pianosa with respect to Caprara, in accordance with the persistent contaminating metal sources, and thus calling for remediation measures. Taken all together, our results confirm the feasibility of using sea urchin coelomocytes as biosensors of environmental stress. PMID:18228151

  8. Red Sea/Gulf of Aden source rock geochemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ducreux, C.; Mathurin, G.; Latreille, M. )

    1991-08-01

    The potential of hydrogen generation in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden was studied by geochemical analyses of 2,271 samples from 23 wells drilled in 6 countries within the area. Selection of candidate source beds was primarily a function of the sedimentary column penetrated by drilling (i.e., whereas sub-Tertiary sediments are accessible in Somalia and Yemen in the Gulf of Aden, sampling below the thick Neogene evaporitic sequence in the Red Sea could not be achieved due to a general lack of penetration to such levels). Organic matter content and type, maturity levels, petroleum potential of the rock analyzed, and its capacity to have generated liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons are the basic results provided by the analyses. Geochemical well correlations within and between subbasins are presented using the two most representative parameters: total organic carbon (TOC) and Petroleum Potential (PP = S{sub 1} + S{sub 2}), expressed in kilograms of hydrocarbons per ton of rock. In general, results obtained in the two rift basins, with sampling mostly in Neogene sediments in the Red Sea and in sub-Tertiary and Tertiary sediments in the Gulf of Aden, indicate the presence of favorable sources preferentially in this sub-Tertiary succession. It is stressed that geochemical analysis results are from wells whose locations are generally on structural highs and, therefore, are not representative (especially in terms of maturation) of conditions in adjacent depressions, particularly where the difference in structural level is great. Sound simulation modeling makes possible the reconstruction regional thermal and burial history and, thus, identification of maturation kitchens.

  9. Blooms of the potentially toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup & Hasle in coastal waters of the northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marić, Daniela; Ljubešić, Zrinka; Godrijan, Jelena; Viličić, Damir; Ujević, Ivana; Precali, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The genus Pseudo-nitzschia contains more than 30 species, though most of them are discernible only on the basis of ultrastructural or genetic differences. We present a taxonomic study of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundhum, Hasle & Moestrup in the coastal waters of the northern Adriatic Sea together with domoic acid (DA) measurements on natural and breeding populations of shellfish. Sampling carried out monthly at 13 stations during 2007 showed Pseudo-nitzschia species to be present with high abundances during the entire year, forming blooms in coastal waters (reaching abundances of up to 1.2 × 10 6 cells L -1) during the late summer/early autumn, when they contributed up to 70% of the whole phytoplankton community. Ultrastructural examination provided evidence that the observed blooms were formed by the potentially toxic species P. calliantha. After the P. calliantha bloom, DA was detected at 3 stations along the north-eastern Adriatic coast with concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 1.32 μg g -1 in shellfish tissue. The distribution patterns of the species were analyzed statistically in order to explain the relationships between environmental variables and population dynamics. We here report on a mass appearance of the potentially toxic P. calliantha in the coastal waters of the northern Adriatic.

  10. Plasma levels of pollutants are much higher in loggerhead turtle populations from the Adriatic Sea than in those from open waters (Eastern Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Bucchia, Matteo; Camacho, María; Santos, Marcelo R D; Boada, Luis D; Roncada, Paola; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we determined the levels of 63 environmental contaminants, including organic (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and PAHs) and inorganic (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn) compounds in the blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from two comparable populations that inhabit distinct geographic areas: the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean basin) and the Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). All animals were sampled at the end of a period of rehabilitation in centers of wildlife recovery, before being released back into the wild, so they can be considered to be in good health condition. The dual purpose of this paper is to provide reliable data on the current levels of contamination of this species in these geographic areas, and secondly to compare the results of both populations, as it has been reported that marine biota inhabiting the Mediterranean basin is exposed to much higher pollution levels than that which inhabit in other areas of the planet. According to our results it is found that current levels of contamination by organic compounds are considerably higher in Adriatic turtles than in the Atlantic ones (∑PCBs, 28.45 vs. 1.12ng/ml; ∑OCPs, 1.63 vs. 0.19ng/ml; ∑PAHs, 13.39 vs. 4.91ng/ml; p<0.001 in all cases). This is the first time that levels of PAHs are reported in the Adriatic loggerheads. With respect to inorganic contaminants, although the differences were not as great, the Adriatic turtles appear to have higher levels of some of the most toxic elements such as mercury (5.74 vs. 7.59μg/ml, p<0.01). The results of this study confirm that the concentrations are larger in turtles from the Mediterranean, probably related to the high degree of anthropogenic pressure in this basin, and thus they are more likely to suffer adverse effects related to contaminants. PMID:25863507

  11. Plasma levels of pollutants are much higher in loggerhead turtle populations from the Adriatic Sea than in those from open waters (Eastern Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Bucchia, Matteo; Camacho, María; Santos, Marcelo R D; Boada, Luis D; Roncada, Paola; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we determined the levels of 63 environmental contaminants, including organic (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and PAHs) and inorganic (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn) compounds in the blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from two comparable populations that inhabit distinct geographic areas: the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean basin) and the Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). All animals were sampled at the end of a period of rehabilitation in centers of wildlife recovery, before being released back into the wild, so they can be considered to be in good health condition. The dual purpose of this paper is to provide reliable data on the current levels of contamination of this species in these geographic areas, and secondly to compare the results of both populations, as it has been reported that marine biota inhabiting the Mediterranean basin is exposed to much higher pollution levels than that which inhabit in other areas of the planet. According to our results it is found that current levels of contamination by organic compounds are considerably higher in Adriatic turtles than in the Atlantic ones (∑PCBs, 28.45 vs. 1.12ng/ml; ∑OCPs, 1.63 vs. 0.19ng/ml; ∑PAHs, 13.39 vs. 4.91ng/ml; p<0.001 in all cases). This is the first time that levels of PAHs are reported in the Adriatic loggerheads. With respect to inorganic contaminants, although the differences were not as great, the Adriatic turtles appear to have higher levels of some of the most toxic elements such as mercury (5.74 vs. 7.59μg/ml, p<0.01). The results of this study confirm that the concentrations are larger in turtles from the Mediterranean, probably related to the high degree of anthropogenic pressure in this basin, and thus they are more likely to suffer adverse effects related to contaminants.

  12. Microphytobenthic response to mussel farm biodeposition in coastal sediments of the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Franzo, Annalisa; Cibic, Tamara; Del Negro, Paola; Solidoro, Cosimo

    2014-02-15

    The effects of long-line mussel farming on microphytobenthos were investigated in a coastal area of the Gulf of Trieste. Sediment grain-size, organic matter content, microalgal abundance and community structure were analysed in September 2008 and March 2009. Four areas were sampled: a twenty-year farm, a four-year farm, a disused farm and a reference site. Principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted a decreasing gradient of organic matter content from the twenty-year farm to the control. Mussel farming seemed to influence microphytobenthic abundance with higher densities in the oldest farm. Three genera were dominant; Navicula and Gyrosigma seemed to be stimulated by the organic load under the active farms while we infer that Nitzschia proliferation was limited by shade caused by mussel ropes. In the PCA, samplings of the disused farm were placed in-between the still active farms and the control, indicating the partial recovery occurred in this site.

  13. Variability of PAHs and trace metals in the sediments in relation to environmental characteristics of the bottom layer in the middle Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Federica; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Campanelli, Alessandra; Guicciardi, Stefano; Marini, Mauro; Marasovic, Ivona; Grbec, Branka; Skejić, Sanda; Ujević, Ivana; Lušić, Jelena

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project PERSEUS (Policy-oriented marine Environmental Research in the Southern EUropean Seas), two interdisciplinary surveys were carried out in April 2013 and April 2014 in the middle Adriatic Sea along the Pescara-Sibenik transect (Jabuka Pits area) and Vieste-Split transect (Palagruza Sill area) with Croatian research vessel "Bios II" and the Italian research vessel "G. Dallaporta", respectively. The main objective of these research cruises was the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in the Adriatic region for collecting physical, chemical and biological data in order to get a better understanding of whole Adriatic ecosystem. The two transects are already recognised as a key areas for the interception and the study of dense water modification (Zore-Armanda, 1963; Marini et al., 2006; Grilli et al., 2013). Due to seasonal circulation patterns, they are characterized by high temporal variability of the thermohaline structure (Grbec and Morović, 1997; Vilibić, et al., 2004) and other oceanographic parameters. Long term oceanographic records from the Middle Adriatic enable better understanding of the ecosystem response to changes of atmospheric and sea conditions through physical, chemical and biological processes (Marasović et al., 1995). Several oceanographic parameters relevant and useful for the ecosystem assessment of the two areas (temperature, salinity, density, fluorescence, oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll, phyto- and zoo-plankton as well as selected pollutants , trace metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-PAHs in sediments) were collected. In the present work, the variations of PAHs and trace metals concentration in the marine sediments are presented in relation to the physical and chemical characteristics of the bottom layer. A constant influx of metal induces more intense accumulation of anthropogenic metals, especially Cd, in sediment from Jabuka Pit, and the metal content slightly increases

  14. Down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages at Panzano Bay, an impacted area in the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselmair, Alexandra; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Stachowitsch, Michael; Tomasovych, Adam; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We use a historical ecology approach to shed light on the environmental history of the northern Adriatic Sea over the last hundreds to thousands of years. We focus on down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages, which serve as proxies for ecological shifts over time. The northern Adriatic Sea is particularly suited to study ecosystem modification under human pressure because it is among the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide. We chose a sampling station in Panzano Bay, close the Isonzo River mouth and not far from the major industrial harbours of Trieste (Italy) and Koper (Slovenia), and traced down-core changes in molluscan community structure in correlation to major anthropogenic impacts that occurred here during the last centuries. Five sediment cores (1.5 m in length and diameters of 90 and 160 mm) were taken at a water depth of 12 m. We analysed grain size composition, the concentration of heavy metals and organic pollutants, and radiometrically dated the sediment using 210Pb. Furthermore, we dated shells of the abundant bivalve species Corbula gibba using 14C calibrated amino acid-racemisation (AAR). The whole molluscan community in the cores was analysed for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity, evidence for ecological interactions (i.e., frequencies of drilling predation) and taphonomic conditions of shells. The granulometric analysis shows that silt and clay dominate equally throughout the cores. Radiometric sediment dating revealed an average sedimentation rate of 2.5 mm/yr during the last 120 years. Shell dating points to a comparable overall core age, with only a few shell specimens being older than 500 years in the deepest core layer. In total, 10,452 mollusc individuals were analysed and 104 species identified. The most abundant bivalve species are Kurtiella bidentata, Corbula gibba and Abra nitida. Turritella communis and Nassarius pygmaeus are the most frequent gastropod species. Down-core changes in species composition

  15. The rock magnetic characteristics of last glacial cycle loess from the island of Susak (Adriatic Sea, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambach, Ulrich; Duchoslav, Maguerita; Rolf, Christian; Wacha, Lara; Frechen, Manfred; Galovic, Lidija

    2010-05-01

    palaeosols occur at 3 and 5.5 metre depth and two macroscopically visible volcanic tephra layers are intercalated in the upper part of the section. At present, we assume that the sequence represents the entire last glacial cycle (11-130 kyr). The concentration dependent magnetic parameters (e.g. magnetic low field susceptibility, SIRM) do not at all resemble the lithology. Volume susceptibility in unaltered loess exceeds even 1*10-3 SI which is at least 3 times higher compared to loess from the middle Danube basin only a few hundreds of kilometres to the East (Markovic et al. 2009). Grain size dependent magnetic parameters (e.g. frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, S-ratio, etc.) reveal the relative enhancement of superparamagnetic particles and the formation of high-coercivity minerals in the pedogenetically altered horizons. However, in general the magnetic signal seems to be controlled by the primarily detrital minerals and climatically governed relatively weak alterations occur only in the macroscopically visible pedohorizons. During the last glacial cycle, the sea level of the Adriatic Sea was lowered by several decametres at least. As a consequence, the alluvial plain of the Po River extended far to the Southeast and provided the sand and silt which were blown to the shallow mountain ranges forming today the islands of the Dalmatian archipelago (Cremaschi 1990). Pleistocene and recent floodplain deposits of the Po River in North Italy contain large amounts of heavy minerals from the metamorphic series of the Central Alps. This detritus may control the magnetic properties of the aeolian deposits on the island of Susak. Further petrographical and mineral magnetic studies are necessary to prove our hypothesis.

  16. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in some edible marine organisms from the Central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Perugini, M; Cavaliere, M; Giammarino, A; Mazzone, P; Olivieri, V; Amorena, M

    2004-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) were found in tissue of marine organisms such as Mediterranean mussel, Norway lobster, red mullet, common cuttle-fish, European flying squid, European anchovy, European pilchard and Atlantic mackerel, coming from two sites along the Abruzzo coast of the Adriatic Sea. Species were selected due to their habitat, trophic level, feeding behaviour and their use in the Italian diet. Mussels, filter feeder and sedentary organisms, were used in order to test water pollution whereas Norway lobster and red mullet (benthic fish) were used in order to test sediment pollution. The concentration of ?PCBs exceeded that of ?OCs in the samples analysed. The highest concentrations of ?PCBs (1415 ng/g lipid weight) and ?OCs (507 ng/g lipid weight) were found in pilchard while the lowest concentrations of the same pollutants were found in cephalopods. Our results have shown that species such as anchovy, pilchard and mackerel, were the most polluted due to their location at the last level of the trophic chain. All samples contained different concentrations of PCBs and among these, congeners 153 and 138 were the most representative. Among the OCs, except for the cuttle-fish, the highest concentrations were found for p,p(')-DDE and p,p(')-DDD that are metabolite of DDT. The prevailing DDE presence, compared to DDT (high DDE/DDT ratio), suggested that the biotransformation rate of pollutants was very efficacious in fish and above all in crustaceans. Results have also been interpreted in terms of geographical distribution and organisms' biological cycle. None of the samples analysed exceeded the tolerance limits established by the OCs Italian legislation.

  17. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in some edible marine organisms from the Central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Perugini, M; Cavaliere, M; Giammarino, A; Mazzone, P; Olivieri, V; Amorena, M

    2004-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) were found in tissue of marine organisms such as Mediterranean mussel, Norway lobster, red mullet, common cuttle-fish, European flying squid, European anchovy, European pilchard and Atlantic mackerel, coming from two sites along the Abruzzo coast of the Adriatic Sea. Species were selected due to their habitat, trophic level, feeding behaviour and their use in the Italian diet. Mussels, filter feeder and sedentary organisms, were used in order to test water pollution whereas Norway lobster and red mullet (benthic fish) were used in order to test sediment pollution. The concentration of ?PCBs exceeded that of ?OCs in the samples analysed. The highest concentrations of ?PCBs (1415 ng/g lipid weight) and ?OCs (507 ng/g lipid weight) were found in pilchard while the lowest concentrations of the same pollutants were found in cephalopods. Our results have shown that species such as anchovy, pilchard and mackerel, were the most polluted due to their location at the last level of the trophic chain. All samples contained different concentrations of PCBs and among these, congeners 153 and 138 were the most representative. Among the OCs, except for the cuttle-fish, the highest concentrations were found for p,p(')-DDE and p,p(')-DDD that are metabolite of DDT. The prevailing DDE presence, compared to DDT (high DDE/DDT ratio), suggested that the biotransformation rate of pollutants was very efficacious in fish and above all in crustaceans. Results have also been interpreted in terms of geographical distribution and organisms' biological cycle. None of the samples analysed exceeded the tolerance limits established by the OCs Italian legislation. PMID:15331266

  18. A multidisciplinary environmental integrated approach to better understand the Tegnue Reefs formation, offshore Chioggia, Northern Adriatic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamasco, Andrea; Donnici, Sandra; Tosi, Luigi; Tagliapietra, Davide; Zaggia, Luca; Bonaldo, Davide; Braga, Federica; Da Lio, Cristina; Keppel, Erica; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfè, Giorgia; Franceschini, Gianluca; Giovanardi, Otello; Carol, Eleonora; Fornaro, Elena; Grant, Carley

    2014-05-01

    , and benthic invertebrates like bryozoans, mollusks, serpulids and corals also contribute to the final building of the status of Tegnue's environment, but we want to demonstrate that the in first stage of consolidation abiotic phenomena could have played a major role. In order to prove our thesis a series of ground water sampling as well as rock sampling and sediment cores were carried out. The poster illustrates the overall ongoing program as well as some work in progress and first results from field cruise. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Municipality of Chioggia through the Tegnue Project and partially by the Flagship Project RITMARE - The Italian Research for the Sea - coordinated by the Italian National Research Council and funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research within the National Research Program 2011-2013, and by the Scientific Cooperation Agreement between the CONICET (Argentina) - CNR (Italy), Program 2013-2014, Project 'Fresh-saltwaters in high-value coastlands: from the hydrogeophysical/geochemical characterization of the present interactions to the modeling quantification of the expected effects of climate changes'. References - Bonardi, M., Tosi, L. 2000. Indagini preliminari su alcune formazioni di sabbie cementate nella laguna di Venezia. In: La Ricerca Scientifica Per Venezia. Il Progetto Sistema Lagunare Veneziano, Modellistica del Sistema Lagunare Studio di Impatto Ambientale. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Vol. II, Tomo II, p. 967-974, Venezia, ISBN: 88-86166-82-6. - Bonardi, M., Tosi, L., Rizzetto, F., Brancolini, G., Baradello, L. 2006. Effects of climate changes on the late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments of the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 39, 279-284. - Casellato S., Stefanon A. 2008. Coralligenous habitat in the northern Adriatic Sea: an overview. Marine Ecology, 29: 321-341. - Gabbianelli, G., Colantoni, P., Degetto, S., Dinelli, E., Lucchini, F. 1997

  19. An observatory system for physical and biogeochemical parameters in the northern Adriatic Sea: the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bastianini, Mauro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Bertotti, Luciana; Bonaldo, Davide; Cavaleri, Luigi; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Finotto, Stefania; Lester, Graham; Licer, Matjaz; Malacic, Vlado; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The history of the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform (http://www.ismar.cnr.it/infrastructures/piattaforma-acqua-alta) started more than forty years ago, shortly after the dramatic surge that affected the city of Venice in late 1966. Since then, benefiting also from recent funding acquired within the National Flagship Project RITMARE, great efforts have been devoted to monitor the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in the Northern Adriatic Sea (NA), in the proximity of the Venice lagoon. Nowadays the "Acqua Alta", located on a 16 m depth area, represents a success story of the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), that manages the structure and used collected data to improve the knowledge of the fragile sea environment that surrounds the Venetian littoral. The directional wave observations started in 1979, representing one of the world longest continuous series. On the sea surface, waves are now routinely observed by means of a submerged acoustic-Doppler system that provides burst of directional wave data, including significant wave height, mean wave period and direction of propagation. Currently these wave parameters are integrated with the data collected by a stereo-video system (namely Wave Acquisition Stereo System, WASS) that provides the 3-D profile of the wavy sea surface. WASS data are unleashing a "new view" for ocean waves providing the complete space-time dynamics of wave groups. Moreover, a series of multiparameters probes permits to measure the vertical distribution of sea temperature (at nine depths from the surface to the bottom), salinity (three positions), dissolved oxygen (two positions), and turbidity close to the sea bottom. The collected data are continuously used to track the water masses that enter, leave, and are produced within the NA. A striking example is provided by the temperature and salinity data used to follow the exceptional dense water formation that occurred in this basin

  20. An observatory system for physical and biogeochemical parameters in the northern Adriatic Sea: the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bastianini, Mauro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Bertotti, Luciana; Bonaldo, Davide; Cavaleri, Luigi; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Finotto, Stefania; Lester, Graham; Licer, Matjaz; Malacic, Vlado; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The history of the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform (http://www.ismar.cnr.it/infrastructures/piattaforma-acqua-alta) started more than forty years ago, shortly after the dramatic surge that affected the city of Venice in late 1966. Since then, benefiting also from recent funding acquired within the National Flagship Project RITMARE, great efforts have been devoted to monitor the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in the Northern Adriatic Sea (NA), in the proximity of the Venice lagoon. Nowadays the "Acqua Alta", located on a 16 m depth area, represents a success story of the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), that manages the structure and used collected data to improve the knowledge of the fragile sea environment that surrounds the Venetian littoral. The directional wave observations started in 1979, representing one of the world longest continuous series. On the sea surface, waves are now routinely observed by means of a submerged acoustic-Doppler system that provides burst of directional wave data, including significant wave height, mean wave period and direction of propagation. Currently these wave parameters are integrated with the data collected by a stereo-video system (namely Wave Acquisition Stereo System, WASS) that provides the 3-D profile of the wavy sea surface. WASS data are unleashing a "new view" for ocean waves providing the complete space-time dynamics of wave groups. Moreover, a series of multiparameters probes permits to measure the vertical distribution of sea temperature (at nine depths from the surface to the bottom), salinity (three positions), dissolved oxygen (two positions), and turbidity close to the sea bottom. The collected data are continuously used to track the water masses that enter, leave, and are produced within the NA. A striking example is provided by the temperature and salinity data used to follow the exceptional dense water formation that occurred in this basin

  1. Feeding habits of European pilchard late larvae in a nursery area in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borme, Diego; Tirelli, Valentina; Palomera, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    European pilchard Sardina pilchardus late larvae were collected in the Gulf of Manfredonia, an important nursery area, during their seasonal inshore occurrence. Thanks to diel cycle sampling and to the wide range of larval lengths (from a minimum of 27 mm to a maximum of 45 mm), both feeding rhythm and ontogenetic changes were analysed. The feeding peak was observed in the afternoon, before sunset. Sardine larvae were exclusively zooplanktivorous, their diet being based on Calanoid Copepods from the genus Paracalanus (IRI% = 65.7), on the species Temora longicornis (IRI% = 15.5) and other small-sized Copepods. Other planktonic organisms appeared in the stomach contents occasionally and never reached IRI% values > 1. The number of prey per stomach increased suddenly at larval lengths around 40 mm, corresponding to the development of the stomach. Prey composition in the environment was established by contemporaneous sampling of plankton, performed by means of two plankton nets with different meshes. The main prey items were positively selected among those available in the field, but some other prey (Centropages spp., Harpacticoids, Corycaeids, Temora stylifera and Acartia spp.) were also preferred, although rare in the plankton samples. In contrast, copepod nauplii, despite their abundance in the environment (15,848 ± 4441 individuals m- 3), were only occasionally recovered in the larval gut contents (N = 0.26%). This shows that sardine late larvae have switched to larger prey items.

  2. Environmental impacts of tourism in the Gulf and the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, William; Curley, Belinda; Shokri, Mohammad Reza

    2013-07-30

    The Gulf and Red Sea possess diverse coastal and marine environments that support rapidly expanding mass tourism. Despite the associated environmental risks, there is no analysis of the tourism-related literature or recent analysis of impacts. Environmental issues reported in 101 publications (25 from the Gulf, 76 from the Red Sea) include 61 purported impacts (27 from the Gulf, 45 from the Red Sea). Gulf literature includes quantitative studies (68% publications) and reviews (32%), and addresses mostly land reclamation and artificial habitats. Most Gulf studies come from Iran and UAE (64%). Red Sea literature includes quantitative studies (81%) and reviews (11%), with most studies occurring in Egypt (70%). The most published topics relate to coral breakage and its management. A full account of tourism's environmental impacts is constrained by limited tourism data, confounding of impacts with other coastal developments, lack of baseline information, shifting baselines, and fragmentation of research across disciplines.

  3. Variability of PAHs and trace metals in the sediments in relation to environmental characteristics of the bottom layer in the middle Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Federica; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Campanelli, Alessandra; Guicciardi, Stefano; Marini, Mauro; Marasovic, Ivona; Grbec, Branka; Skejić, Sanda; Ujević, Ivana; Lušić, Jelena

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project PERSEUS (Policy-oriented marine Environmental Research in the Southern EUropean Seas), two interdisciplinary surveys were carried out in April 2013 and April 2014 in the middle Adriatic Sea along the Pescara-Sibenik transect (Jabuka Pits area) and Vieste-Split transect (Palagruza Sill area) with Croatian research vessel "Bios II" and the Italian research vessel "G. Dallaporta", respectively. The main objective of these research cruises was the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in the Adriatic region for collecting physical, chemical and biological data in order to get a better understanding of whole Adriatic ecosystem. The two transects are already recognised as a key areas for the interception and the study of dense water modification (Zore-Armanda, 1963; Marini et al., 2006; Grilli et al., 2013). Due to seasonal circulation patterns, they are characterized by high temporal variability of the thermohaline structure (Grbec and Morović, 1997; Vilibić, et al., 2004) and other oceanographic parameters. Long term oceanographic records from the Middle Adriatic enable better understanding of the ecosystem response to changes of atmospheric and sea conditions through physical, chemical and biological processes (Marasović et al., 1995). Several oceanographic parameters relevant and useful for the ecosystem assessment of the two areas (temperature, salinity, density, fluorescence, oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll, phyto- and zoo-plankton as well as selected pollutants , trace metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-PAHs in sediments) were collected. In the present work, the variations of PAHs and trace metals concentration in the marine sediments are presented in relation to the physical and chemical characteristics of the bottom layer. A constant influx of metal induces more intense accumulation of anthropogenic metals, especially Cd, in sediment from Jabuka Pit, and the metal content slightly increases

  4. Toxic element concentrations in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus), striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's (Grampus griseus) dolphins stranded in eastern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Ðokić, Maja; Ðuras Gomerčić, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Zadravec, Manuela; Benić, Miroslav; Prevendar Crnić, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) were measured in muscle, liver and kidney of three cetacean species, the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus), striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's (Grampus griseus) dolphins from the Croatian waters of the Adriatic Sea. In all three dolphin species Cd levels decreased in tissues in the order: kidney > liver > muscle, while As and Pb decreased in the order: liver > kidney > muscle for striped and Risso's dolphins, but with the order reversed for liver and kidney in the bottlenose dolphin for Pb. Levels of Hg consistently followed the order: liver > muscle > kidney, with mean concentrations in the liver being 11-34 times higher than in the other tissues. The highest mean concentrations of trace elements were measured in Risso's dolphins at 14.9 μg/g wet weight, for Cd in the kidney, and concentrations in the liver of 2.41, 1,115 and 0.63 μg/g for As, Hg and Pb, respectively. Statistically significant differences between the three dolphin species were determined for Cd, Hg and Pb in liver tissues, for As in muscle and for Cd in kidney. Significant correlations of metals between tissues were determined in all three species. The results presented give an indication of the environmental condition with regard to the content of toxic metals along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea.

  5. Two-year study of lipophilic marine toxin profile in mussels of the North-central Adriatic Sea: First report of azaspiracids in Mediterranean seafood.

    PubMed

    Bacchiocchi, Simone; Siracusa, Melania; Ruzzi, Angela; Gorbi, Stefania; Ercolessi, Manuela; Cosentino, Maria Anna; Ammazzalorso, Patrizia; Orletti, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    Since the late 1980s, the North-central Adriatic Sea has frequently experienced blooms of harmful algal species, producing marine lipophilic toxins (MLTs) which accumulate in mussels and pose a serious threat to consumer health. Here, we present a 2-year LC-MS/MS study (2012-2014) of the MLT profile in mussels from the North-central Adriatic Sea in the context of the presence of toxic phytoplankton concentrations in seawater. Okadaic acid increased in mussels from all areas during the summer and autumn-winter periods with a rising trend between 2012 and 2014. In the same periods, Dinophysis sp. increased in abundance in seawater, but the highest densities of algae did not always coincide with the highest levels of toxins in mussels. Yessotoxins (YTXs) content in mussel increased sharply in the autumn-winter periods even exceeding the legal limit; although this accumulation did not always correlated with the YTX-producers in water (such as Lingulodinium polyedrum and Protoceratium reticulatum) a massive bloom of Gonyaulax spinifera was reported in November 2013, suggesting the role of this species in YTXs shellfish contamination. Traces of Azaspiracid 2 (AZA-2) were observed often in mussels during the study period, confirming for the first time the presence of this biotoxin in Mediterranean seafood.

  6. Long-term changes in community composition and life-history traits in a highly exploited basin (northern Adriatic Sea): the role of environment and anthropogenic pressures.

    PubMed

    Barausse, A; Michieli, A; Riginella, E; Palmeri, L; Mazzoldi, C

    2011-12-01

    The changes in a marine community in the northern Adriatic Sea were explored over a period of 65 years using landings data from a commercial fishing fleet, and the role of fishing pressure and environmental variations in driving these changes was investigated. A total of 40 taxonomic categories, including one or several species, were analysed, representing 93·7% of the total landings. From 1945 to 2010 a significant decrease in the evenness index was observed, indicating a trend towards landings dominated by fewer taxa. The composition of the landings showed a temporal shift during the 1980s; from 1945 to the 1980s a continuous, clear change in composition took place, probably driven by an increase in fishing pressure as well as riverine nutrient inputs. Since the 1980s, a different trend of changing composition emerged. Among the analysed predictors, fishing capacity, summer seawater temperature, inflow from the Po River (the major river of the northern Adriatic Sea) and nutrients were related to the changes in landings. In relation to life-history traits of the landed species, the community shifted from large, late-maturing species to more fecund, smaller and earlier-maturing species. A high fishing pressure is probably the major cause of these changes, possibly acting synergistically with environmental variations.

  7. Two-year study of lipophilic marine toxin profile in mussels of the North-central Adriatic Sea: First report of azaspiracids in Mediterranean seafood.

    PubMed

    Bacchiocchi, Simone; Siracusa, Melania; Ruzzi, Angela; Gorbi, Stefania; Ercolessi, Manuela; Cosentino, Maria Anna; Ammazzalorso, Patrizia; Orletti, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    Since the late 1980s, the North-central Adriatic Sea has frequently experienced blooms of harmful algal species, producing marine lipophilic toxins (MLTs) which accumulate in mussels and pose a serious threat to consumer health. Here, we present a 2-year LC-MS/MS study (2012-2014) of the MLT profile in mussels from the North-central Adriatic Sea in the context of the presence of toxic phytoplankton concentrations in seawater. Okadaic acid increased in mussels from all areas during the summer and autumn-winter periods with a rising trend between 2012 and 2014. In the same periods, Dinophysis sp. increased in abundance in seawater, but the highest densities of algae did not always coincide with the highest levels of toxins in mussels. Yessotoxins (YTXs) content in mussel increased sharply in the autumn-winter periods even exceeding the legal limit; although this accumulation did not always correlated with the YTX-producers in water (such as Lingulodinium polyedrum and Protoceratium reticulatum) a massive bloom of Gonyaulax spinifera was reported in November 2013, suggesting the role of this species in YTXs shellfish contamination. Traces of Azaspiracid 2 (AZA-2) were observed often in mussels during the study period, confirming for the first time the presence of this biotoxin in Mediterranean seafood. PMID:26455996

  8. On the use of a coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model during an extreme cold air outbreak over the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricchi, Antonio; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Falco, Pier Paolo; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bergamasco, Andrea; Sclavo, Mauro; Carniel, Sandro

    2016-05-01

    An intense cold air outbreak affected the northern Adriatic Sea during winter 2012, determining an exceptional persistence of northeasterly Bora wind over the basin, which lasted for about 3 weeks. The cold air coming from the Balkans produced icing in the Venice lagoon and very intense snowfall in the Apennines Mountains and even near the coasts. In order to understand the importance and role of air-sea interactions for the evolution of the atmospheric fields, simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model encompassing the whole period have been performed using sea surface temperature (SST) fields with an increasing level of complexity. Starting from a large-scale static sea temperature, the SST in the initial and boundary conditions has been progressively made more realistic. First, a more refined field, retrieved from a satellite radiometer was used; then, the same field was updated every 6 h. Next, the effect of including a simplified 1D ocean model reproducing the Oceanic Mixed Layer (OML) evolution has been tested. Finally, the potential improvements coming from a coupled description of atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-ocean-waves interactions have been explored within the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. Results highlight that the energy exchange between air and sea does not significantly impact the atmospheric fields, in particular 10 m wind and 2 m temperature, also because of the geography of the basin and the predominance of synoptic-scale flow in intense events of Bora, in the northern Adriatic. However, when sensible and latent heat fluxes, which are dependent on atmospheric and oceanic variables, are analyzed, the more realistic representation of SST drastically improves the model performances.

  9. Deviation of Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea level from the global mean during the 20th century: analysis of the main factors involved and a high-end projection to the end of 21st century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to investigate which are the main factors determining interannual sea level variability of Baltic, Adriatic and Black seas, and to which extent the sea level of these three basins can deviate from the global mean. The three basins selected are semi-enclosed marginal seas connected with the adjacent seas by narrow straits. 13 sea level timeseries in Baltic Sea, 7 in Adriatic Sea and 5 in Black Sea provided by PSMSL, allowed us to compute a single seamless sea level timeseries representative for each basin from 1900 and for the entire 20th century, using statistical tools (PCA and Least Square method). Comparison with satellite data in the period 1993-2009, confirms that timeseries so computed are good representations of the observed sea level, with correlation values of 0.97, 0.87 and 0.72 for Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. At basin scale the sea level has been decomposed in various contributions that have been separately analyzed: local effect of pressure, steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation, boundary forcing, wind effect and river discharge. The annual cycles and their variability, show that the largest contribution is due to the wind for the Adriatic Sea and for the Baltic Sea. In these two basins the inverse Barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric factor is almost negligible. The wind seems to play a negligible role on Black Sea, where the Danube river discharge plays an important role. A linear regression model, built considering large scale sea level pressure distribution as predictor, is capable to explain a further percentage of sea level variability variability (about 20%) left after subtracting all the factors considered above. Sea level of the Baltic and Black Sea show a significant positive correlation (0.3 about) revealing the likely influence of an external common forcing. Past sea level variability shows no strong evidences of large deviation from the global mean sea level

  10. Climate change effects on environment (marine, atmospheric and terrestrial) and human perception in an Italian Region (Marche) and the nearby northern Adriatic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appiotti, F.; Krzelj, M.; Marincioni, F.; Russo, A.

    2012-04-01

    An integrated analysis of recent climate change, including atmosphere, sea and land, as well as some of the impacts on society, has been conducted on the Marche Region in central Italy and the northern portion of the Adriatic Sea. The Marche Region is one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy, located at a latitude approximately 43° North, with a total surface area of 9,366 km2 and 1,565,000 residents. The northern Adriatic Sea is the northernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea, and it has peculiar relevance for several aspects (environment, tourism, fisheries, economy). The collected environmental data included meteorological stations (daily maximum and minimum air temperature, daily precipitation), oceanographic stations (sea temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient salts concentration, chlorophyll) and river flows, over the last 50 years. The collected social data include 800 questionnaires and interviews carried out on selected samples of residents, decision-makers and emergency managers. These questionnaires and interviews aimed at highlighting the perception of climate change risks. The trend analysis of air temperature and precipitation data detailed an overall temperature increase in all seasons and rainfall decreases in Winter, Spring and Summer with Autumn increases, influencing river flow changes. Marine data showed a relevant warming of the water column in the period after 1990 in comparison with the previous period, particularly in the cold season. Surface salinity increased in Spring and Summer and strongly decreased in Autumn and Winter (according with the precipitation and river flow changes). These last mentioned changes, combined with anthropogenic effects, also influenced the marine ecosystems, with changes of nutrient salts, chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen. Changes in nutrient discharge from rivers influenced the average marine chlorophyll concentration reduction and the consequent average reduction of warm season hypoxic

  11. Drilling predation on molluscs in the northern Adriatic Sea: Spatial variability and temporal trends over the last millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengg, Markus; Wurzer, Sandra; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Competition and predation are essential ecological factors influencing biodiversity. In a palaeontological context, the rate of predatory interactions between animal species is difficult to reconstruct because traces of predation are rarely incorporated into the fossil record. In the marine environment, the calcareous shells of molluscs, however, have good, long-time preservation potential, and predation in this group is often exerted by carnivorous gastropods that drill holes into mollusc shells. The prey's perforated shells remain in the sediment and can be used to study rates and intensities of predatory interactions in past marine molluscan communities. Differences in drilling frequencies along a sediment core not only reflect changes in local species richness and predation pressure, but may also mirror ecosystem changes through space and time. This makes the analysis of drilling predation an important tool when investigating the historical ecology of marine habitats. We used 1.5-m-long sediment cores from seven shelf locations spread throughout the northern Adriatic Sea basin to investigate regional and down-core variations in drilling frequencies. In total, about 54,000 bivalve and 40,000 gastropod shells were analysed to determine the following parameters: 1) overall drill frequency (DF), the proportion of shells drilled by predators; 2) edge drill frequency (EDF, only in bivalve shells), the proportion of shells with drilling traces at the shell edge; 3) multiple drill frequency (MDF), the percentage of individuals with more than one drill hole, 4) incomplete drill frequency (IDF), the percentage of shells unsuccessfully drilled; 5) prey effectiveness (PE), the proportion of individuals resisting the predator's attacks. Total drill frequency across all cores is 18% for bivalves and 13% for gastropods, but there are marked regional differences, with minima in the Po Delta (5%) and maxima in Panzano Bay (24%). Edge-drilled shells and multiple drill holes on

  12. Picoplankton community structure before, during and after convection event in the offshore waters of the southern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najdek, M.; Paliaga, P.; Šilović, T.; Batistić, M.; Garić, R.; Supić, N.; Ivančić, I.; Ljubimir, S.; Korlević, M.; Jasprica, N.; Hrustić, E.; Dupčić-Radić, I.; Blažina, M.; Orlić, S.

    2013-11-01

    This paper documents the picoplankton community's response to changes in oceanographic conditions in the period between October 2011 and September 2012 at two stations belonging to South Adriatic Pit (SAP). The recorded data include the community's abundance, composition, prokaryotic production rates and bacterial metabolic capacity. The aforementioned interval included an intense sea cooling with formation of exceptionally, record-breaking dense water. We documented an especially intense winter convection episode that completely diluted the core of Levantine intermediate waters (LIW) in a large area encompassing the SAP's center and its margin. During this convection event the whole picoplankton community had significantly higher abundances with a recorded picoeukaryotic peak at the SAP margin. In the post-convection phase in March prokaryotic heterotrophic production strongly increased in the entire SAP area (up to 50 times; 456.8 nM C day-1). The autotrophic biomass increase (up to 5 times; 4.86 μg L-1) and a disruption of a close correspondence between prokaryotic heterotrophic biomass production and cell replication rates were observed only in the center of the SAP, which was not under the influence of LIW. At the SAP's margin such an effect was attenuated by LIW, since the waters affected by LIW were characterized by decreased concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, decreased autotrophic biomasses and by increased bacterial biomass production balanced with cell replication rates as well as by the domination of Synechococcus among autotrophic picoplankton. Metabolic capacity was the lowest in spring when autotrophic biomass largely increased, while the highest levels found in the pre-convection phase (October 2011) suggests that the system was more oligotrophic before than after the convection event. Furthermore, we showed that metabolic capacity is a trait of bacterial community independent of environmental conditions and tightly linked to cell

  13. Eastern-Mediterranean ventilation variability during sapropel S1 formation, evaluated at two sites influenced by deep-water formation from Adriatic and Aegean Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidi, A.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; De Lange, G. J.

    2016-07-01

    Present-day bottom-water ventilation in the Eastern Mediterranean basin occurs through deep-water convection originating from the two marginal basins, i.e. Adriatic and Aegean Seas. In the paleo record, long periods of enhanced deep-water formation have been alternating with shorter periods of reduced deep-water formation. The latter is related mainly to low-latitude humid climate conditions and the enhanced deposition and preservation of organic-rich sediment units (sapropels). This study focuses on sedimentary archives of the most-recent sapropel S1, retrieved from two sites under the direct influence of the two deep-water formation areas. Restricted oxygen conditions have developed rapidly at the beginning of S1 deposition in the Adriatic site, but bottom-water conditions have not persistently remained anoxic during the full interval of sapropel deposition. In fact, the variability in intensity and persistence of sedimentary redox conditions at the two deep-water formation sites is shown to be related to brief episodes of climate cooling. In the Adriatic site, sapropel deposition appears to have been interrupted twice. The 8.2 ka event, only recovered at the Adria site, is characterized by gradually increasing suboxic to possibly intermittently oxic conditions and decreasing Corg fluxes, followed by an abrupt re-establishment of anoxic conditions. Another important event that disrupted sapropel S1 formation, has taken place at ca. 7.4 cal ka BP. The latter event has been recovered at both sites. In the Adriatic site it is followed by a period of sedimentary conditions that gradually change from suboxic to more permanently oxic, as deduced from the Mn/Al pattern. Using the same proxy for suboxic/oxic sedimentary redox conditions, we observe that conditions in the Aegean Sea site shift to more permanently oxic from the 7.4 ka event onwards. However, at both sites the accumulation and preservation of enhanced amounts of organic matter have continued under these

  14. Comparison of the adjoint and adjoint-free 4dVar assimilation of the hydrographic and velocity observations in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaremchuk, Max; Martin, Paul; Koch, Andrey; Beattie, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the adjoint and adjoint-free 4-dimensional variational (4dVar) data assimilation techniques is compared in application to the hydrographic surveys and velocity observations collected in the Adriatic Sea in 2006. Assimilating the data into the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) has shown that both methods deliver similar reduction of the cost function and demonstrate comparable forecast skill at approximately the same computational expense. The obtained optimal states were, however, significantly different in terms of distance from the background state: application of the adjoint method resulted in a 30-40% larger departure, mostly due to the excessive level of ageostrophic motions in the southern basin of the Sea that was not covered by observations.

  15. Freshwater mass balance and exchange of water masses with the open sea: the Mljet Lakes (Croatia, Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martincic, Urska; Bezak, Nejc; Zagar, Dusan; Makovec, Tihomir; Lucic, Davor; Onofri, Vladimir; Malacic, Vlado

    2016-04-01

    Two karstic seawater lakes (Veliko - Big and Malo - Small Lake) located in the National Park Mljet on the Mljet Island in Croatia were investigated in this study. The Small and the Big Lake cover 0.25 and 1.45 km2, respectively. The two lakes are connected to each other and to the sea by narrow channels. The connecting channel between the Big Lake and the sea is 12 m wide and 3 m deep. The connection to the Small Lake leads through another artificial channel (2.7 m wide and 0.8 m deep). The average salinity of the Big and the Small lake is 37.75 and 36.9, respectively, and the average salinity of the open sea is 38.5. While previous studies have been conducted due to the lakes' unique ecosystem and the karstic characteristics of the area, the main aim of this study was to determine the freshwater mass balance and exchange of water masses with the nearby sea. Several measurement campaigns were performed between 2008 and 2015 when meteorological parameters as well as salinity, water temperature and water velocities in both lakes and the channels were observed. A perpetual year was determined using available meteorological data. The contribution of the surface runoff to both lakes was modelled using the hydrological rainfall-runoff HEC-HMS model. Curve number parameter was estimated using the CLC Corine Land cover and geomorphological maps. Evaporation from the lake was calculated using the Verburg, Kondo and Coare equations. We found that the annual evaporation approximately equals the annual rainfall to the lake surface (cca. 550-600 mm). From the hydrological model and the difference between precipitation and evaporation from the lake surface we calculated the annual net excess of freshwater between 0.5 106 and 0.7 106 m3. The average salinity in both lakes is lower than the salinity in the sea; therefore, we hypothesize that the excess water should be discharged either through the channel between the Big Lake and the open sea or through underwater karstic sink

  16. Inter-annual sea level variability in the southern Gulf of Mexico (1966-1976)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-de-León, David Alberto; Monreal-Gómez, María Adela; Salas-Monreal, David; Riveron-Enzastiga, Mayra Lorena; Sánchez-Santillan, Norma Leticia

    2006-04-01

    Hourly time series at seven locations throughout the southern Gulf of Mexico were used to calculate the trend and the inter-annual sea level. The sea level series from January 1966 to December 1976 were filtered using a Lanczos low pass filter to remove oscillations with periods smaller than one year. The results revealed a sea level increment of about 1.4 mm yr-1 from 1966 to 1976 in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The monthly sea level variability obtained after the trends were removed, presented a sea level setup during winter and a sea level depression in summer attributed to seasonal wind conditions. The horizontal representation of averaged sea level in the southern Gulf of Mexico presented a saddle critical point. The associated sea level slope indicated water accumulation at Ciudad Madero in the western side of the gulf and Coatzacoalcos in the southernmost station, and sea level depressions at Tuxpan and Progreso in the southwestern and southeastern side of the gulf, respectively. Nevertheless, one of the most intriguing result is the presence of a Kelvin wave with a two mode oscillation axis that goes from Progreso to Tuxpan.

  17. Ocean backscatter across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, S.V.; Li, F.K.

    1997-06-01

    Ocean backscatter was measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with the airborne NUSCAT K{sub u}-band scatterometer, across the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature front during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment off the coast of Virginia and Maryland in the winter of 1991. Backscatter across the front between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration experimental coastal buoy A (44024) on the cold side and Discus C buoy (44023) on the warm side shows a difference of more than 5 dB for vertical polarization in many cases. This large frontal backscatter change is observed in all upwind, downwind, and crosswind directions. The sea surface temperature difference measured by the buoys was about 9{degrees}C. The corresponding difference in wind speed cannot account for the large backscatter change in view of geophysical model functions depending only on neutral wind velocity such as SASS. The measured backscatter also has larger upwind-downwind and upwind-crosswind ratios compared to the model results. Furthermore, NUSCAT data reveal that upwind backscatter on the cold side was smaller than or close to crosswind backscatter on the warm side for incidence angles between 30{degrees} to 50{degrees}. This suggests that the temperature front can be detected by the scatterometer at these incidence angles for different wind directions in the cold and warm sides.

  18. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Simões, Nuno; Tello-Musi, José Luis; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna.

  19. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Simões, Nuno; Tello-Musi, José Luis; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna. PMID:24146599

  20. Training Course on the Marine Ecology of the Red Sea. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course on the marine ecology of the Red Sea designed by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) in collaboration with the Marine Science Department of UNESCO for the Program for Environmental Studies, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA). It was hosted by the Marine Science Station,…

  1. Demersal Fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeek, M. S. M.; Fouda, M. M.; Hermosa, G. V.

    1999-08-01

    The demersal fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf are reviewed. The region comprises eight countries: Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. Over 350 commercial fish species, eight shrimp species, two spiny lobster species, one shovel nose lobster species, one cuttlefish species, one crab species, and one abalone species support the demersal fisheries in the continental shelves of the three regions. Artisanal and industrial vessels with over 120 000 fishermen were involved in demersal fisheries. Fishing boats include fish and shrimp trawlers (wooden and steel hulled), large wooden boats (dhow) with inboard engines, small dhows with outboard engines, and fibreglass boats. Fishing gear consists of trawls, bottom gill nets, traps (wire mesh and plastic types), barrier traps, hand lines, and bare hands and knives (to dislodge abalone). Demersal fish (primarily Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Serranidae, Siganidae, Sciaenidae, Stromateidae, Lutjanidae, Trichiuridae, and Nemipteridae) and shrimp (primarily Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, and Penaeus merguiensis) were the two commercial demersal resources. Approximately 198 000-214 000 tonnes (t) of demersals were landed annually during 1988-1993, accounting for nearly 40% of the total marine landings (475 000-552 000 t). This percentage, however varied among countries: 25% in Oman, 32% in U.A.E., 71% in Qatar, 52% in Saudi Arabia, 56% in Bahrain, 55% in Kuwait, close to 100% in Iraq, and 41% in Iran. Fishing effort on certain stocks may have been below the optimum level (e.g. certain Omani demersal fish), near the optimum level (e.g. Omani shrimp), or above the optimum level (e.g. Arabian Gulf shrimp and demersal fish). Overexploitation led to restriction of fishing effort by limiting fishing licences, regulating fishing gear (mesh size) and capture size, closing fishing areas, restricting fishing season, and

  2. Historical trends (1998-2012) of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) concentrations in marine sediments at four locations in the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Traven, Luka; Furlan, Nikolina; Cenov, Arijana

    2015-09-15

    Historical trends (1998-2012) nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) concentrations in marine sediments were assessed at four locations in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia) in the proximity of an oil refinery. Ecological risks were characterized by benchmarking the dataset against Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQG). A significant number of samples had Ni values above ERL with no exceedance of the ERL values for Cu and Cr. Weak positive historical trends were found for only for Cu. At all sites there were statistically significant correlations between Ni and Cr indicating a common origin of these heavy metals in the investigated marine sediments. There were statistically significant differences between the sites under the direct influence of the oil refinery compared to the control site indicating the possibility that the oil refinery is contributing to the concentration of these heavy metals in the marine sediments.

  3. Historical trends (1998-2012) of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) concentrations in marine sediments at four locations in the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Traven, Luka; Furlan, Nikolina; Cenov, Arijana

    2015-09-15

    Historical trends (1998-2012) nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) concentrations in marine sediments were assessed at four locations in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia) in the proximity of an oil refinery. Ecological risks were characterized by benchmarking the dataset against Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQG). A significant number of samples had Ni values above ERL with no exceedance of the ERL values for Cu and Cr. Weak positive historical trends were found for only for Cu. At all sites there were statistically significant correlations between Ni and Cr indicating a common origin of these heavy metals in the investigated marine sediments. There were statistically significant differences between the sites under the direct influence of the oil refinery compared to the control site indicating the possibility that the oil refinery is contributing to the concentration of these heavy metals in the marine sediments. PMID:26146134

  4. Dynamics of the oceanographic properties during mucilage appearance in the Northern Adriatic Sea: analysis of the 1997 event in comparison to earlier events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzi, Stefano; Ivančić, Ingrid; Catalano, Giulio; Djakovac, Tamara; Degobbis, Danilo

    2004-10-01

    The dynamics of the oceanographic properties in Northern Adriatic Sea during the 1997 mucilage event is reported. These observations, compared to a longer time series (1985-1998), indicate that processes on short temporal scales and abrupt changes of the physical and biogeochemical conditions in the basin have a great effect on mucilage events. The seawater warming during the years with the mucilage was delayed in May and June compared to those without aggregate. Since the same typical summer values were afterward reached in both cases, a more abrupt warming is supposed in the period preceding mucilage events. During 1997, the Po River regime had an abrupt change from very low flow rates in April-May (526-985 m 3 s -1) to a strong freshet in July (4870 m 3 s -1). This river pulse, coupled to the scarce intrusion of the high salinity Middle Adriatic Deep Water (MAdDW), determined the large retention of low salinity waters in the Northern Adriatic Sea from July to September. In 1997, as well as during the events in 1989, 1991, the freshwater content in the basin was two times higher (4-5%) with respect to the years without aggregates from 1992 to 1998 (<2%). The biological response to these physical forcings was an intense phytoplankton bloom in the western low salinity waters in July 1997 (O 2sat. up to 206%, Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) up to 7.64 μg dm -3), a common feature in all years with mucilage. It determined a strong increase of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON, +100%) and phosphorus (DOP, +39%) in the most productive western waters of the basin, which constitute available material for mucilage formation. Nutrient content in the upper waters shifted in concomitance to mucilage appearance, from a PO 4-scarce condition in spring (Si/N/P=225:105:1), to a rather severe dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and SiO 4-depletion in summer (Si/N/P=21:13:1). This drastic change can stimulate exudate hyperproduction and/or modify bacteria degradation capacity of organic matter

  5. Classification of Satellite Derived Chlorophyll a Space-Time Series by Means of Quantile Regression: An Application to the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, P.; Pastres, R.; Gaetan, C.; Mangin, A.; Taji, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a classification of Adriatic waters, based on spatial time series of remotely sensed Chlorophyll type-a. The study was carried out using a clustering procedure combining quantile smoothing and an agglomerative clustering algorithms. The smoothing function includes a seasonal term, thus allowing one to classify areas according to “similar” seasonal evolution, as well as according to “similar” trends. This methodology, which is here applied for the first time to Ocean Colour data, is more robust with respect to other classical methods, as it does not require any assumption on the probability distribution of the data. This approach was applied to the classification of an eleven year long time series, from January 2002 to December 2012, of monthly values of Chlorophyll type-a concentrations covering the whole Adriatic Sea. The data set was made available by ACRI (http://hermes.acri.fr) in the framework of the Glob-Colour Project (http://www.globcolour.info). Data were obtained by calibrating Ocean Colour data provided by different satellite missions, such as MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS. The results clearly show the presence of North-South and West-East gradient in the level of Chlorophyll, which is consistent with literature findings. This analysis could provide a sound basis for the identification of “water bodies” and of Chlorophyll type-a thresholds which define their Good Ecological Status, in terms of trophic level, as required by the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The forthcoming availability of Sentinel-3 OLCI data, in continuity of the previous missions, and with perspective of more than a 15-year monitoring system, offers a real opportunity of expansion of our study as a strong support to the implementation of both the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the UNEP-MAP Ecosystem Approach in the Mediterranean.

  6. Long-term ecological changes in the north Adriatic Sea: Epi-to Infauna turnover at the Brijuni islands national park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pifeas, Iason; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea with its densely populated coastline experienced strong anthropogenic impacts during the last centuries. The Brijuni islands at the southern tip of Istria, Croatia, are a national park since 1983 and represent a study area of special interest when comparing impacted marine areas with regions under relatively long-term protection that were able to recover from the pressure of fishing and bottom trawling. The present study is part of a project on the historical ecology of the northern Adriatic sea and focusses on long-term ecological changes and benthic community shifts as a result of anthropogenic impacts since the Holocene transgression. Several cores of 1.5 m length and a diameter of 90 mm were taken close to the main island of Brijuni and sliced into smaller subunits for sediment analyses and the investigation of death assemblages. Hard part remains of molluscs, crustaceans, bryozoans, echinoderms and sedentary polychaetes were analysed for species composition, abundance and indicators for high biomass epifauna. Death assemblages were compared with surface samples of the recent fauna taken at the same area by grab-sampling and by divers using a 100 x 100 cm frame. Data analyses revealed a steep increase of species abundance and diversity in the early stages of the Holocene transgression, at the very bottom of the core, followed by a steady decline, representing a major shift from a previously epibenthic to an infauna dominated community. Towards the top of the core, this trend weakens, and in the uppermost 6 cm it even reverses indicating a possible recovery of the benthic communities since the protection of the area. By correlating down-core changes in benthic community structure with sediment parameters (grain size distribution, TOC, heavy metal content, concentrations of organic pollutants) and data from radiometric sediment dating, we can further improve our understanding of the timing and the magnitude of past ecological changes and

  7. Coastal alluvial fans (fan deltas) of the Gulf of Aqaba (Gulf of Eilat), Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, A. B.

    1985-04-01

    Coastal sediments of the Gulf of Aqaba are dominated by alluvial fans that prograde directly into the sea. The fans can be subdivided into four types: (1) largely inactive alluvial fans that merge into a braided fluvial system and pass seaward into sabkha flats, lagoons, mangroves and fringing reefs; (2) large alluvial fans that pass directly into the sea with one major entrenched channel and a fringing reef with a large incised canyon; both of these were formed during the Pleistocene, present fluvial activity is confined to the entrenched channels; (3) medium-sized (1-2 km long, 3-4 km wide) moderate to highly active alluvial fans with fringing reefs and backreef lagoons; and (4) small short-headed wadis that empty directly into the sea. The scale, overall sediment body geometry and facies associations of type (3) coastal alluvial fans (fan deltas) provide a close and useful modern analogue for many ancient fan-delta sedimentary sequences. On subaerial parts of the fan, disorganised cobbles and boulders, at the apex, deposited by debris flows pass downslope into longitudinal bars deposited during the high flood stage of periodic flash-flood events. The bars extend over the entire fan surface becoming progressively smaller and finer grained down fan. In general, the fans are characterised by a low proportion of floodplain deposits and extensive modification by aeolian processes, producing widespread gravel pavements and small dune fields over inactive areas of the lower fan. In the marine environment the fans are modified by a combination of wave action and longshore drift. Sand beaches are characterised by low-angle seaward-dipping lamination. On shingle beaches all gravel clasts have a strong preferred seaward dipping orientation. In areas where the fringing reefs are situated offshore from the fan, mixed quartz-bioclastic sand-filled lagoons develop. The nearshore lagoon areas are characterised by large sand bars orientated parallel to the shore. These pass

  8. Yemeni Red Sea and Gulf of Aden petroleum geology and regional geophysical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sanabani, M.; Said, F.M. )

    1991-08-01

    The World Bank-executed Red Sea/Gulf of Aden Regional Hydrocarbon Study Project was organized to synthesize data on the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden basins. The study of Yemeni Red Sea and Gulf of Aden was based on public-domain exploration data, published information, and data released by operating companies. These included reports, sections, and wireline logs from 15 well, samples from 15 wells for biostratigraphic analysis, and samples from 11 wells for geochemical analysis. Interpretation was carried out on 7,419 line-km of seismic data selected from a grid of 21,623 line-km of data. Four horizons were identified on a regional basis in the Red Sea area, including the sea floor, top, and near base of middle to upper Miocene evaporites, and approximate acoustic basement, as well as equivalent series in the Gulf of Aden. Bathymetric, structure-contour, and interval isopach maps were prepared using digitized picks from the interpreted seismic. Examples of each of these interpreted results will be on display. The results show that the Yemeni Red Sea is similar to the better known, productive Gulf of Suez in its tectonic evolution, and in its Miocene to Holocene stratigraphic sequence. Surface shows on the east side of the southern Red Sea in the Yemeni part of the basin suggest that this area contain the necessary elements for several attractive petroleum plays. The Yemeni Red Sea appears to contain the necessary elements for an attractive petroleum potential. The Yemeni Gulf of Aden, on the other hand, shows an attractive potential chiefly in pre-rift Mesozoic to Eocene units, with more limited potential in Oligocene to younger units.

  9. Evidence of butyltin biomagnification along the Northern Adriatic food-web (Mediterranean Sea) elucidated by stable isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Fortibuoni, Tomaso; Noventa, Seta; Rampazzo, Federico; Gion, Claudia; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Berto, Daniela; Raicevich, Saša

    2013-04-01

    The biomagnification of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), and total butyltins (ΣBT) was analyzed in the Northern Adriatic food-web (Mediterranean) considering trophodynamic interactions among species and carbon sources in the food-web. Although it is acknowledged that these contaminants bioaccumulate in marine organisms, it is still controversial whether they biomagnify along food-webs. A wide range of species was considered, from plankton feeders to top predators, whose trophic level (TL) was assessed measuring the biological enrichment of nitrogen stable isotopes (δ(15)N). Carbon isotopic signature (δ(13)C) was used to trace carbon sources in the food-web (terrestrial vs marine). At least one butyltin species was detected in the majority of samples, and TBT was the predominant contaminant. A significant positive relationship was found between TL and butyltin concentrations, implying food-web biomagnification. Coherently, the Trophic Magnification Factor resulted higher than 1, ranging between 3.88 for ΣBT and 4.62 for DBT. A negative but not significant correlation was instead found between δ(13)C and butyltin concentrations, indicating a slight decreasing gradient of contaminants concentrations in species according to the coastal influence as carbon source in their diet. However, trophodynamic mechanisms are likely more important factors in determining butyltin distribution in the Northern Adriatic food-web.

  10. Impact of remote oceanic forcing on Gulf of Alaska sea levels and mesoscale circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsom, Arne; Metzger, E. Joseph; Hurlburt, Harley E.

    2003-11-01

    We examine the relative importance of regional wind forcing and teleconnections by an oceanic pathway for impact on interannual ocean circulation variability in the Gulf of Alaska. Any additional factors that contribute to this variability, such as freshwater forcing from river runoff, are disregarded. The study is based on results from numerical simulations, sea level data from tide gauge stations, and sea surface height anomalies from satellite altimeter data. At the heart of this investigation is a comparison of ocean simulations that include and exclude interannual oceanic teleconnections of an equatorial origin. Using lagged correlations, the model results imply that 70-90% of the interannual coastal sea level variance in the Gulf of Alaska can be related to interannual sea levels at La Libertad, Equador. These values are higher than the corresponding range from sea level data, which is 25-55%. When oceanic teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific are excluded in the model, the explained variance becomes about 20% or less. During poleward propagation the coastally trapped sea level signal in the model is less attenuated than the observed signal. In the Gulf of Alaska we find well-defined sea level peaks in the aftermath of El Niño events. The interannual intensity of eddies in the Gulf of Alaska also peaks after El Niño events; however, these maxima are less clear after weak and moderate El Niño events. The interannual variations in eddy activity intensity are predominantly governed by the regional atmospheric forcing.

  11. Exploring Linkages Between Gulf of Mexico Sea Surface Conditions and North American Hydroclimate during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, J. N.; Thirumalai, K.; Quinn, T. M.; Poore, R. Z.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico is part of the Atlantic Warm Pool, a feature that drives oceanic moisture flux to the surrounding continent. It is connected to the North Atlantic Ocean via the loop current, which transports salt and heat from the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico poleward via the Gulf Stream. As such, variations in Gulf of Mexico sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) are linked to changes in North Atlantic Ocean circulation and North American hydroclimate. Although SST and SSS variability in the Gulf of Mexico are well understood on inter-annual and glacial-interglacial timescales, little is known about centennial scale variability in these sea surface parameters through the Holocene. We present here the first continuous multi-decadal resolution time series of SST and SSS spanning the entire Holocene from the Gulf of Mexico. This proxy reconstruction is based on paired measurements of Mg/Ca and δ18O in the planktic foraminifer, Globigerinoides ruber (white variety) in the Garrison Basin. Using these data, in combination with additional Gulf of Mexico SST and SSS records from the late Holocene, we explore linkages between North American precipitation patterns and ocean circulation on centennial timescales.

  12. The Po river water from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea (Italy): new insights from geochemical and isotopic (δ(18)O-δD) data.

    PubMed

    Marchina, Chiara; Bianchini, Gianluca; Natali, Claudio; Pennisi, Maddalena; Colombani, Nicolò; Tassinari, Renzo; Knoeller, Kay

    2015-04-01

    Although the Po river is the most important fluvial system of Northern Italy, the systematic geochemical and isotopic investigations of its water are rare and were never reported for the whole basin. The present contribution aims to fill this knowledge gap, reporting a comprehensive data set including oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes as well as major and trace element concentration of dissolved species for 54 Po river water samples, mainly collected in different hydrological conditions (peak discharge in April, drought in August) at increasing distance from the source, i.e., from the upper part of the catchment to the terminal (deltaic) part of the river at the confluence with the Adriatic Sea. The isotopic compositions demonstrate that the predominant part of the runoff derives from the Alpine sector of the catchment through important tributaries such as the Dora Baltea, Ticino, Adda, and Tanaro rivers, whereas the contribution from the Apennines tributaries is less important. The geochemical and isotopic compositions show that the Po river water attains a homogeneous composition at ca. 100 km from the source. The average composition is characterized by δ(18)O -9.8‰, δD -66.2‰, total dissolved solid (TDS) 268 mg/L, and chloride 17 mg/L and by a general Ca-HCO3 hydrochemical facies, which is maintained for most of the river stream, only varying in the terminal part where the river is diverted in a complex deltaic system affected by more significant evaporation and mixing with saline water evidenced by higher TDS and chloride content (up to 8198 and 4197 mg/L, respectively). Geochemical and isotopic maps have been drawn to visualize spatial gradients, which reflect the evolution of the river water composition at progressive distance from the source; more detailed maps were focused on the deltaic part in order to visualize the processes occurring in the transitional zone toward the Adriatic Sea. The data also highlight anthropogenic contributions, mainly

  13. Quality of the surface sediments of the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Vallius, Henry

    2015-10-15

    The Gulf of Finland is a shallow sea where a multitude of activities compete of space. Many of the activities include reworking of the sea floor. The gulf is known to have been rather largely contaminated by heavy metals during the last century, and although indications of recovery have been reported, it is crucial to know the levels of sea floor sediment contamination before any decisions of activities are taken by the authorities. In order to predict sediment toxicity the sediment concentrations acquired during a study from 2001 to 2004 are compared to Canadian sediment quality guidelines (SQG: s), which reveal that in the majority of the subsamples the metals and arsenic exceed the threshold levels of the used SQG: s, some exceed also the probable effect level. As, Cd, Hg, and especially Zn concentrations occur at unacceptably high levels in the coastal Gulf of Finland sediments.

  14. Organochlorine and butyltin residues in walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and Japan Sea.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Ana P X; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine (OC) and toxic butyltin compounds (BTs) were determined in walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) collected from Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and Japan Sea, during 1991 and 1992. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) and its metabolites were the most abundant compounds ranging up to 3200 and 2500 ng/g on lipid weight, respectively, followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the liver of walleye pollock. Concentrations of HCHs and HCB in walleye pollock from these remote areas were higher than those in fishes from the western North Pacific and Japanese coastal waters, indicating atmospheric transport of these compounds to higher latitude regions such as Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska and/or local input around northern Japan Sea. The concentrations of other OCs were generally comparable to those in fishes from North Pacific Ocean and Japanese waters but significantly lower than in cod-like fishes from North Atlantic and European countries. Among sampling locations, walleye pollock from Japan Sea showed higher concentrations of DDTs and HCHs compared to fishes from Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska, suggesting greater input of these compounds around Japan Sea. Slower declining trend of DDTs and CHLs and an increasing pattern of PCBs concentrations were found in walleye pollock from Bering Sea during 1982-1992. This may imply a continuous input of these compounds by long-range transport and/or long-term persistency in these cold regions. Compared to the fishes from Japan Sea, walleye pollock from Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska showed higher proportions of alpha-HCH and p,p'-DDE in the composition of HCH isomers and DDT compounds, respectively. This suggests selective transportability of these compounds during long-range transport to higher latitude remote areas. Concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) in the muscle of walleye pollock ranged from 1.1 to

  15. Impact evaluation of the industrial activities in the Bay of Bakar (Adriatic Sea, Croatia): recent benthic foraminifera and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Popadić, Adriana; Vidović, Jelena; Cosović, Vlasta; Medaković, Davorin; Dolenec, Matej; Felja, Igor

    2013-11-15

    The Bay of Bakar is one of the most heavily polluted bays at the Eastern Adriatic. Three major industrial companies potentially endanger the bay. The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in surface sediments from thirteen stations was discussed in relation to the sediment type and foraminiferal assemblages. The distribution of major elements in the bay is influenced by geological nature of surroundings. Heavy metal distribution depends on pollution sources and on amount of mud fraction: fine-grained sediments are enriched by them in comparison with coarse-grained ones. Different sediment quality criteria complicate the pollution assessment in the bay. Heavy metal concentrations generally fall into allowed depositional values for marine environments; only area in front of the coke plant and the City of Bakar harbor is heavily polluted. Stress-tolerant foraminiferal species dominate at stations with higher concentrations of heavy metals and coarse-grained sediments consist of larger number of epifaunal taxa.

  16. Economic vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern U.S. Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico coast of the United States has been identified as highly vulnerable to sea-level rise, based on a combination of physical and societal factors. Vulnerability of human populations and infrastructure to projected increases in sea level is a critical area of uncertainty for communities in the extremely low-lying and flat northern gulf coastal zone. A rapidly growing population along some parts of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline is further increasing the potential societal and economic impacts of projected sea-level rise in the region, where observed relative rise rates range from 0.75 to 9.95 mm per year on the Gulf coasts of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. A 1-m elevation threshold was chosen as an inclusive designation of the coastal zone vulnerable to relative sea-level rise, because of uncertainty associated with sea-level rise projections. This study applies a Coastal Economic Vulnerability Index (CEVI) to the northern Gulf of Mexico region, which includes both physical and economic factors that contribute to societal risk of impacts from rising sea level. The economic variables incorporated in the CEVI include human population, urban land cover, economic value of key types of infrastructure, and residential and commercial building values. The variables are standardized and combined to produce a quantitative index value for each 1-km coastal segment, highlighting areas where human populations and the built environment are most at risk. This information can be used by coastal managers as they allocate limited resources for ecosystem restoration, beach nourishment, and coastal-protection infrastructure. The study indicates a large amount of variability in index values along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline, and highlights areas where long-term planning to enhance resiliency is particularly needed.

  17. SWASV speciation of Cd, Pb and Cu for the determination of seawater contamination in the area of the Nicole shipwreck (Ancona coast, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The study reports for the first time on the heavy metal contamination of the waters surrounding a shipwreck lying on the sea floor. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry has been used for a survey of the total and dissolved Cd, Pb and Cu contents of the seawater at the site of the sinking of the Nicole M/V (Coastal Adriatic Sea, Italy). Results show that the hulk has a considerable impact as regards all three metals in the bottom water, especially for the particulate fraction concentrations, which increased by factors of ≈ 9 (Cd), ≈ 3 (Pb) and ≈ 5 (Cu). The contaminated plume extended downstream for about 2 miles. Much lower contamination was observed for dissolved bottom concentrations; nevertheless Pb (0.56 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is higher than the Italian legal limits established for 2015 and Cd (0.23 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is very close the limit of Cd will be exceeded if the hulk is not removed.

  18. SWASV speciation of Cd, Pb and Cu for the determination of seawater contamination in the area of the Nicole shipwreck (Ancona coast, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The study reports for the first time on the heavy metal contamination of the waters surrounding a shipwreck lying on the sea floor. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry has been used for a survey of the total and dissolved Cd, Pb and Cu contents of the seawater at the site of the sinking of the Nicole M/V (Coastal Adriatic Sea, Italy). Results show that the hulk has a considerable impact as regards all three metals in the bottom water, especially for the particulate fraction concentrations, which increased by factors of ≈ 9 (Cd), ≈ 3 (Pb) and ≈ 5 (Cu). The contaminated plume extended downstream for about 2 miles. Much lower contamination was observed for dissolved bottom concentrations; nevertheless Pb (0.56 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is higher than the Italian legal limits established for 2015 and Cd (0.23 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is very close the limit of Cd will be exceeded if the hulk is not removed. PMID:21982428

  19. Sea Level Trends Along the Coast of the Gulf of Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, O. P.; Koch, A. O.

    2008-12-01

    Historical time series of monthly mean values of sea level were compiled for all stations in the Gulf of Finland for time periods starting from the beginning of sea level observations at each station and until station closing, or the year 2006 for Russian and Finnish and 1991 for Estonian stations. These data were analysed for trends for a common period from 1920 until 1991. It was found that along the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, the sea level trends change from minus 3-4 mm/year in the west (at Turku and Hanko) to plus 1.5 mm/year in the east (at Lisiy Nos). Along the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, the sea level trends also change from small negative values at the west (at Ristna, Poosaspea) to plus 1,4 mm/year at the east (at Lomonosov). At the head of the Gulf in Saint-Petersburg (at Port of Nevskaya), the positive trend was the largest: 3.3 mm/year. Relative to the global sea level rise (about 2 mm/year during the last century) trend values are negative in all points except Saint-Petersburg. Their spatial distribution is consistent with the map of post-glacial uplift in Fennoscandia (Ekman, 1996) and with the results of repeated levelings (in 1966 and 1985) across Saint-Petersburg and suburbs, which have shown that the land there is sinking.

  20. The Influence of Allochthonous Leaf Detritus on the Occurrence of Crustacean Detritivores in the Soft-bottom Macrobenthos of the Po River Delta Area (northwestern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, G.; Rossi, L.

    2002-05-01

    Core samples were examined quarterly at two coastal sites (S1 and S2) and at an offshore station (S3) located in the Po River delta area (northwestern Adriatic Sea). Analyses focused on (i) occurrence of coarse detritus of allochthonous origin in the sedimentary matrix and (ii) the relative influence of macrodetritus enrichment and other environmental factors on the vagile macrofauna. Plant debris occurred in site S1 sediments only in summer and autumn; in contrast, fragments of the phanerogams Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera spp. were found in site S2 sediment throughout the sampling period. Sediments from the offshore site S3 were characterized by negligible plant material, even though in summer and autumn samples debris of continental origin was observed. Even though leaf detritus occurrence at site S2 was ∼5-fold higher compared to the other coastal site S1, it did not influence the total organic matter and its distribution among grain-size classes. Conversely, the specific organic content of dimensional fractions provided an effective assessment of detritus enrichment processes occurring at the two coastal sites. A group of brackish-originated crustaceans (i.e. the amphipods Gammarus insensibilis and G. aequicauda and the isopod Idotea baltica) was the main determinant of among-site multivariate differences in the vagile macrofauna; depositivorous ophiuroids accounted for the residual differences observed during the study period. The analysis of taxa abundance and individual body size indicated that in both site S1 and S3 macrodetritus advection to the benthic system corresponded with passive dispersal of brackish crustaceans, that provided a negligible contribution to the macrobenthic production. In contrast, in site S2 allochthonous inputs from marginal environments could have represented the key factor for the persistence of an authochthonous population of Gammarus insensibilis. The amphipod provided a considerable (19·4%) contribution to the total

  1. Sea level rise within the west of Arabian Gulf using tide gauge and continuous GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhan, M. E.; Alothman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Arabian Gulf is connected to Indian Ocean and located in the south-west of the Zagros Trust Belt. To investigate sea level variations within the west of Arabian Gulf, monthly means of sea level at 13 tide gauges along the coast of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, available in the database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), are studied. We analyzed individually the monthly means at each station, and estimated secular sea level rate by a robust linear trend fitting. We computed the average relative sea level rise rate of 1.96 ± 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf based on 4 stations spanning longer than 19 years. Vertical land motions are included into the relative sea level measurements at the tide gauges. Therefore sea level rates at the stations are corrected for vertical land motions using the ICE-5G v1.2 VM4 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model then we found the average sea level rise rate of 2.27 mm/yr. Bahrain International GPS Service (IGS) GPS station, which is close to the Mina Sulman tide gauge station in Bahrain, is the only continuous GPS station accessible in the region. The weekly GPS time series of vertical component at Bahrain IGS-GPS station referring to the ITRF97 from 1999.2 to 2008.6 are downloaded from http://www-gps.mit.edu/~tah/. We fitted a linear trend with an annual signal and one break to the GPS vertical time series and found a vertical land motion rate of 0.48 ± 0.11 mm/yr. Assuming the vertical rate at Bahrain IGS-GPS station represents the vertical rate at each of the other tide gauge stations studied here in the region, we computed average sea level rise rate of 2.44 ± 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf.

  2. Prokaryotic dynamics and heterotrophic metabolism in a deep convection site of Eastern Mediterranean Sea (the Southern Adriatic Pit)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, M.; La Ferla, R.; Maimone, G.; Monticelli, L. S.; Zaccone, R.; Civitarese, G.

    2012-08-01

    We report on investigations of prokaryotic abundance, biomass, extracellular enzymatic activity, prokaryotic heterotrophic production and respiration in the full water column (˜1200 m) of a deep convection site (the Southern Adriatic Pit), carried out on six cruises in 2006-2008. Prokaryotic abundance (PA) varied vertically and temporally and ranged from 1.2 to 20.4×105 cell ml-1. Cell volumes, generally increased with depth; the lowest mean cell volume was observed in a period with no active convective process (Feb-07) and the highest in a period of stratification (Jun-08) following the convection process occurred in Feb-08. Prokaryotic biomass decreased with the depth and was related with both seasonal cycles of organic matter and hydrological processes. The picophytoplankton ranged in the upper layer (UL) from 0.089 to 10.71×104 cell ml-1. Cells were also recorded till 500 m depth in Feb-08 and this finding could be linked to water convection occurred in the Southern Adriatic Pit in that month. In UL the variations of enzymatic activities as well as leucine-aminopeptidase/ß-glucosidase ratio showed a seasonal trend probably linked to the productive processes of the photic layer. An inverse relation between alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and phosphate concentrations was found (APA=0.0003PO4-1.7714, R2=0.333, P<0.05). Generally cell-specific enzymatic activities increased with depth as did cell-specific carbon dioxide production rates, while cell-specific prokaryotic heterotrophic production had an opposite trend. High values of prokaryotic growth efficiency registered in the deep layers in Nov-06 reflected a supply of preformed C transported within the deep water masses. Overall, in 2007 when no convective phenomenon was observed, the variability of prokaryotic metabolism was governed by the seasonal cycle of the organic matter, while in Nov-06 and Jun-08 the dynamics of deep water ventilation influenced the trend along the water column of many microbial

  3. Investigating the impact of surface wave breaking on modeling the trajectories of drifters in the northern Adriatic Sea during a wind-storm event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carniel, S.; Warner, J.C.; Chiggiato, J.; Sclavo, M.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate numerical prediction of the oceanic upper layer velocity is a demanding requirement for many applications at sea and is a function of several near-surface processes that need to be incorporated in a numerical model. Among them, we assess the effects of vertical resolution, different vertical mixing parameterization (the so-called Generic Length Scale -GLS- set of k-??, k-??, gen, and the Mellor-Yamada), and surface roughness values on turbulent kinetic energy (k) injection from breaking waves. First, we modified the GLS turbulence closure formulation in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to incorporate the surface flux of turbulent kinetic energy due to wave breaking. Then, we applied the model to idealized test cases, exploring the sensitivity to the above mentioned factors. Last, the model was applied to a realistic situation in the Adriatic Sea driven by numerical meteorological forcings and river discharges. In this case, numerical drifters were released during an intense episode of Bora winds that occurred in mid-February 2003, and their trajectories compared to the displacement of satellite-tracked drifters deployed during the ADRIA02-03 sea-truth campaign. Results indicted that the inclusion of the wave breaking process helps improve the accuracy of the numerical simulations, subject to an increase in the typical value of the surface roughness z0. Specifically, the best performance was obtained using ??CH = 56,000 in the Charnok formula, the wave breaking parameterization activated, k-?? as the turbulence closure model. With these options, the relative error with respect to the average distance of the drifter was about 25% (5.5 km/day). The most sensitive factors in the model were found to be the value of ??CH enhanced with respect to a standard value, followed by the adoption of wave breaking parameterization and the particular turbulence closure model selected. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Red Sea and Gulf of Aden petroleum geology and regional geophysical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sikander, A.H. ); Allen, R.B. ); Abouzakhm, A.G.

    1991-08-01

    The World Bank-executed Red Sea/Gulf of Aden Regional Hydrocarbon Study Project was organized to synthesize data on the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden basins. The primary objectives were to encourage increased hydrocarbon exploration activity within the project area by applying recent exploration techniques basin wide, and to train national geoscientists in exploration techniques. The study was based on public-domain exploration data, published information, and data released by operating companies. This included reports, sections, and wireline logs from most of the offshore wells, and samples for biostratigraphic and geochemical analysis. Interpretation was carried out on seismic data selected from basinwide grids. Four horizons were identified on a regional basis in the Red Sea, including the sea floor, top, and near base of middle to upper Miocene evaporite, and approximate acoustic basement, and an equivalent of horizons were identified in the Gulf of Aden. The results of the syntheses show that the hydrocarbon potential of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden is variable. The Red Sea shows an attractive potential in much of the basin in Miocene to Holocene synrift to post-rift units. This may locally include either lower to middle Miocene sub-evaporite syn-rift units or Pliocene to Holocene superrift units, depending on variations in structural development and sedimentation and thermal history. In addition, sub-rift units of Mesozoic to Paleogene age show an attractive potential in some areas. The primary potential in the Gulf of Aden, on the other hand, may be in Mesozoic to Eocene sub-rift units, with only limited potential in Oligocene and younger units.

  5. STS-49 Earth observation of the Salton Sea and the Gulf of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Earth observation taken aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, shows the Salton Sea and the Gulf of California. The nearly cloud-free view follows the Colorado River Delta from the Gulf of California (Mexico) to the Salton Sea (California). The Colorado River enters its delta from the right (east), then turns directly south to form saline tidal flats at the edge of the gulf. Nearly all the water is used for irrigation. The United States (U.S.) / Mexican border shows clearly in the different field patterns and the intensity of the greenish color. The irrigated agricultural area offers a sharp contrast to the surrounding desert. The crew used a handheld HASSELBLAD camera with a 100-mm lens to record the image.

  6. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in cultured mussels from the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Herceg-Romanić, Snježana; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Klinčić, Darija; Ujević, Ivana

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigated the distribution of 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 17 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners in the edible tissue of the blue mussels (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) collected at 15 shellfish breeding farms and 1 harvesting area along the Croatian Adriatic coast. All analyzed OCPs were found in all samples (0.011-1.47 ng g(-)(1) w.wt.). Concentrations of PCB congeners in positive samples ranged between 0.007 and 7.66 ng g(-)(1) w.wt. The most abundant compounds were γ-HCH, PCB-138 and PCB-153. Overall levels of PCBs and OCPs were in the lower end of the concentration ranges reported in literature. Significant differences of all contaminants were recorded between seasons, with higher values in the warmer part of the year. Results of the evaluation of the risks to human health associated with consumption of the mussels containing organic contaminants suggest that the levels of these compounds in mussels do not pose any threat for consumers of cultivated mussels.

  7. Biomonitoring of heavy metals and arsenic on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic Sea using Mytilus galloprovincialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orescanin, Višnja; Lovrencic, Ivanka; Mikelic, Luka; Barisic, Delko; Matasin, Zeljka; Lulic, Stipe; Pezelj, Durdica

    2006-04-01

    Results of two years monitoring of heavy metals and arsenic concentrations in soft tissue of Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis are presented. Samples were taken at six localities (five exposed to various pollution sources and one control site) on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic in October 2003 and 2004 and in April 2004 and 2005. All measurements were carried out with source excited Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Method (EDXRF). Measured concentrations were in the following ranges: Pb (2-7 mg/kg); As (4-30 mg/kg); Cr (1-2.9 mg/kg); Mn (2-13 mg/kg); Fe (53.4-719 mg/kg); Ni (0.8-5 mg/kg); Cu (3.7-11.1 mg/kg) and Zn (59.1-273 mg/kg). Maximum values of the most elements were measured in samples from the most polluted Vranjic region. Statistically significant difference among six localities ( p = 0.05) was found for As, Fe and Zn while Mn, Fe and Cu showed significantly higher concentrations in spring period. None of the selected elements showed significant difference between the control and exposed regions.

  8. Diversity and distribution of winter phytoplankton in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpov, Igor; Saburova, Maria; Al-Yamani, Faiza

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of the phytoplankton (diversity, composition, and cell abundance) was described in relation to local environmental conditions across the Arabian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Sea of Oman based on data of ROPME cruise of winter 2006. The 376 phytoplankton taxa identified in these waters represented a diverse composition of species with a prevalence of dinoflagellates and diatoms. Three peaks in the phytoplankton abundance were recorded throughout the studied area associated with diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms in the central and northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf and in the Sea of Oman and the adjacent waters. The studied area was divided into three main regions by cluster analysis based on differences in the phytoplankton composition and concentration. The Sea of Oman and the Strait of Hormuz were occupied by highly abundant, strongly diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage. The Arabian Gulf was divided into two main regions along a diagonal northwest-southeast axis, with rather diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage off the south and along the Iranian coast but with flagellate-dominated phytoplankton of the north and along the Arabian coast. The distance-based linear modeling revealed a significant relationship between the phytoplankton composition and water masses as indexed by salinity. Our results demonstrated that abundance and composition of winter phytoplankton were related to water circulation pattern in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman.

  9. Scientific Diving Training Course. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents the scientific diving training course organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) for the Program for Environmental Studies, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA). This course of six weeks duration aims to produce a person who is capable of carrying out scientific diving tasks in the…

  10. Developing a robust tephrochronological framework for Late Quaternary marine records in the Southern Adriatic Sea: new data from core station SA03-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, I. P.; Trincardi, F.; Lowe, J. J.; Bourne, A. J.; MacLeod, A.; Abbott, P. M.; Andersen, N.; Asioli, A.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lane, C. S.; Oh, Y. A.; Satow, C. S.; Staff, R. A.; Wulf, S.

    2015-06-01

    Tephra layers are assuming an increasingly important role in the dating and correlation of Late Quaternary marine sequences. Here we demonstrate their potential by reporting a new study of the sediment sequence of marine core SA03-11, recovered from the Southern Adriatic Sea, which spans the last c. 39 ka. A total of 28 discrete tephra layers are reported from this sequence, 10 of which are visible in the core and a further 18 are non-visible cryptotephra layers. These have been analysed using more than 1400 WDS-EPMA measurements of glass chemistry and results have been compared with published chemical measurements obtained from relevant proximal and distal sites which preserve eruptive material dating to within the same time interval. The data show that a high proportion of the layers originate from the Campi Flegrei volcanic field but more distinctive layers are sourced from Vesuvius, the Aeolian Islands and Vulcano, and these provide key marker horizons. The results show that the sequence extends in time to the Campanian Ignimbrite at the base, that a number of the layers have robust age estimates that permit a better constrained age-depth model to be constructed for the sequence, and that the potential exists for importing terrestrially-based age estimates into marine contexts, thereby circumventing problems of incorporating reservoir uncertainties associated with marine radiocarbon dates. The WDS-EPMA dataset generated here also provides important new data that constrain key Late Quaternary tephra layers in the central Mediterranean region.

  11. Heavy metal (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se) concentrations in muscle and bone of four commercial fish caught in the central Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2014-04-01

    Heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg and Se) concentrations in the muscle and bone of four fish species (Mullus barbatus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, and Scomber scombrus) from the central Adriatic Sea were measured and the relationships between fish size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in the tissues were investigated. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry with automatic dual viewing. In the muscle, results of linear regression analysis showed that, except for mercury, significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. Only mercury levels were positively correlated with Atlantic mackerel size (p < 0.05). No significant variations of heavy metal concentrations were observed in muscles of the examined species, but a significant difference (p < 0.01) was found for As, Cd, Pb, and Se concentrations in bone. All the investigated metals showed higher values in the muscle than in bone, except for lead and zinc. Regarding cadmium, lead, and mercury maximum levels, set for the edible portion by European legislation, several samples exceeded these values, confirming the heavy metal presence in species caught near the Jabuka Pit.

  12. Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fish tissues: First observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment has raised scientific interest during the last decade. Several organisms can ingest microplastics with potentially adverse effects on the digestive tract, respiratory system and locomotory appendages. However, a clear evidence of tissue accumulation and transfer of such microparticles in wild organisms is still lacking, partially hampered by technical difficulties in isolation and characterization protocols from biological samples. In this work, we compared the efficacy of some existing approaches and we optimized a new protocol allowing an extraction yield of microplastics from fish tissues ranging between 78% and 98%, depending on the polymer size. FT-IR analyses confirmed that the extraction procedure did not affect the particles characteristics. The method was further validated on the fish mullet, Mugil cephalus, exposed under laboratory conditions to polystyrene and polyethylene; the particles were isolated and quantified in stomach and liver, and their presence in the hepatic tissue was confirmed also by histological analyses. A preliminary characterization revealed the presence and distribution of microplastics in various fish species collected along the Adriatic Sea. FT-IR analyses indicated polyethylene as the predominant polymer (65%) in the stomach of fish. The overall results confirmed the newly developed method as a reliable approach to detect and quantify microplastics in the marine biota.

  13. Benthic community and biological trait composition in respect to artificial coastal defence structures: a study case in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Munari, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) is a method for addressing ecological functioning based on traits exhibited by members of biological assemblages. This study explores and compares species and biological trait patterns on either side (landward and seaward) of coastal breakwater structures in northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy), with the aim of giving insights and knowledge for management of sandy beach systems affected by coastal development. Eight ecological traits of 96 benthic species were considered. Taxon composition evidenced differences in benthic assemblages across time and exposure: landward and seaward communities shared less than 50% of the total number of species. BTA suggested a no-management effect in the functioning of benthic assemblages. Dominant traits modalities were deposit-feeding, short life, small body size, short life span, iteroparity, gonocorism, with plankto-planktotrophic larvae. The results of BTA highlighted similarities and stability in trait composition contrary to species composition, suggesting a possible persistence in benthic functioning despite the occurrence of species replacements. To best of my knowledge, this study is one of the first attempts to investigate the effects of a management measure (submerged shore-parallel barriers with groynes) in a shallow marine system by means of BTA.

  14. Heavy metal (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se) concentrations in muscle and bone of four commercial fish caught in the central Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2014-04-01

    Heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg and Se) concentrations in the muscle and bone of four fish species (Mullus barbatus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, and Scomber scombrus) from the central Adriatic Sea were measured and the relationships between fish size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in the tissues were investigated. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry with automatic dual viewing. In the muscle, results of linear regression analysis showed that, except for mercury, significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. Only mercury levels were positively correlated with Atlantic mackerel size (p < 0.05). No significant variations of heavy metal concentrations were observed in muscles of the examined species, but a significant difference (p < 0.01) was found for As, Cd, Pb, and Se concentrations in bone. All the investigated metals showed higher values in the muscle than in bone, except for lead and zinc. Regarding cadmium, lead, and mercury maximum levels, set for the edible portion by European legislation, several samples exceeded these values, confirming the heavy metal presence in species caught near the Jabuka Pit. PMID:24242233

  15. Surface drift prediction in the Adriatic Sea using hyper-ensemble statistics on atmospheric, ocean and wave models: Uncertainties and probability distribution areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rixen, M.; Ferreira-Coelho, E.; Signell, R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite numerous and regular improvements in underlying models, surface drift prediction in the ocean remains a challenging task because of our yet limited understanding of all processes involved. Hence, deterministic approaches to the problem are often limited by empirical assumptions on underlying physics. Multi-model hyper-ensemble forecasts, which exploit the power of an optimal local combination of available information including ocean, atmospheric and wave models, may show superior forecasting skills when compared to individual models because they allow for local correction and/or bias removal. In this work, we explore in greater detail the potential and limitations of the hyper-ensemble method in the Adriatic Sea, using a comprehensive surface drifter database. The performance of the hyper-ensembles and the individual models are discussed by analyzing associated uncertainties and probability distribution maps. Results suggest that the stochastic method may reduce position errors significantly for 12 to 72??h forecasts and hence compete with pure deterministic approaches. ?? 2007 NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC).

  16. Petroleum systems of the Po Basin Province of northern Italy and the northern Adriatic Sea; Porto Garibaldi (biogenic), Meride/Riva di Solto (thermal), and Marnoso Arenacea (thermal)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Porto Garibaldi total petroleum system dominates the Po Basin Province of onshore northern Italy and offshore Italy and Croatia in the northern Adriatic Sea. Porto Garibaldi contains Pliocene (primarily) and Pleistocene (secondarily) biogenic gas ? approximately 16 TCF (2.66 BBOE) ultimately recoverable ? accumulated in co-eval siliciclastic reservoirs. This area was the northwestern edge of the Gondwanan (African) continental plate in pre-Hercynian time until the assembly of Pangea, a dominantly carbonate passive continental margin during the Mesozoic breakup of Pangea, and a Cenozoic collision zone with siliciclastic foredeep and foreland regions surrounded by thrust belts. At least two other petroleum systems, with Triassic (Meride / Riva di Solto) and Miocene (Marnoso Arenacea) source rocks, contribute oil and thermal gas reserves (nearly 1 BBOE) to the province. The major time of hydrocarbon expulsion of the thermal systems was Late Neogene during the Alpine and Apennine orogenies. Local Mesozoic oil expulsion from Triassic rocks also occurred, but those oils either were not trapped or were leaked from faulty traps through time.

  17. Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fish tissues: First observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment has raised scientific interest during the last decade. Several organisms can ingest microplastics with potentially adverse effects on the digestive tract, respiratory system and locomotory appendages. However, a clear evidence of tissue accumulation and transfer of such microparticles in wild organisms is still lacking, partially hampered by technical difficulties in isolation and characterization protocols from biological samples. In this work, we compared the efficacy of some existing approaches and we optimized a new protocol allowing an extraction yield of microplastics from fish tissues ranging between 78% and 98%, depending on the polymer size. FT-IR analyses confirmed that the extraction procedure did not affect the particles characteristics. The method was further validated on the fish mullet, Mugil cephalus, exposed under laboratory conditions to polystyrene and polyethylene; the particles were isolated and quantified in stomach and liver, and their presence in the hepatic tissue was confirmed also by histological analyses. A preliminary characterization revealed the presence and distribution of microplastics in various fish species collected along the Adriatic Sea. FT-IR analyses indicated polyethylene as the predominant polymer (65%) in the stomach of fish. The overall results confirmed the newly developed method as a reliable approach to detect and quantify microplastics in the marine biota. PMID:26210759

  18. Total assemblages of benthic foraminifera from a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner shelf; preliminary results from the bays of Soline and Nin (Adriatic Sea, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidović, J.; Ćosović, V.; Juračić, M.; Benac, Č.

    2012-04-01

    Eastern Adriatic shelf is mixed siliciclastic/carbonate area with a great proportion of carbonate biogenous production. This study presents analysis and comparison of total benthic foraminiferal assemblages (their composition, diversity and distribution) in surface sediments from two Eastern Adriatic shallow water bays (Soline and Nin Bay), sampled seasonally from 2006 to 2008. In order to characterize the carbonate sediment production, 62 samples along the bathymetric profiles (from 2 to 20 m) were collected by scuba diving with short PVC corers. Granulometrical analysis was done using method of wet sieving. Statistical analyses (cluster analysis, PCA) were performed using Past program. The most abundant biogenous components in different sediments from Soline Bay (muddy sandy gravel and mud) are foraminifera, followed by fragments of mollusks, gastropods, bryozoans and sea urchins. Foraminiferal assemblages are high diversified as confirmed by Shannon-Wiener index varying from 2.14 to 3.39, Fisher α index from 5.74 to 16.30 and Equitability from 0.32 to 0.72. The shallowest part of the bay is covered with the sand, consisted of high proportion of siliciclastic component and impoverished in biogenous remnants. Foraminiferal assemblages have low diversity (Shannon-Wiener index 1.36, Fisher α index 2.31 and Equitability 0.32). Throughout Nin Bay, sediments (classified as sand, muddy sand and mud) are consisted of various biogenic remnants. Foraminiferal assemblages have high biodiversity, with Shannon-Wiener index varying from 2.51 to 3.20, α-Fisher index from 7.84 to 12.64 and Equitability from 0.37 to 0.77. Statistical analyses (cluster analysis and PCA) grouped foraminifera in two major assemblages, related to sediment type. On sandy and gravely substrates, assemblage is dominated by epifaunal genera and species: Quinqueloculina sp. (6-20%), Elphidium sp. (5-16%), Neoconorbina terquemi (6-10 %) and Asterigerinata mamilla (5-7%). Infaunal species, Ammonia

  19. Dominant molluscan taxa in the northern Adriatic Sea over the last centuries: down-core changes in shell communities and their implications for an ecological history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselmair, Alexandra; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Tomasovych, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea, with its densely populated shoreline, is among the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide and therefore particularly suited to study ecosystem modification under human pressure. In particular, the period of the last 500 to 1500 years witnessed major anthropogenic impacts here. The present study reconstructs major ecological shifts over this timespan by identifying down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages that can serve as proxies for changing environmental conditions. Here, we focus on taxonomical down-core fluctuations and changes in abundance of key bivalve and gastropod taxa found at seven sampling stations spread throughout the northern Adriatic basin. At these stations, which were chosen in order to cover different sediment types, nutrient conditions and degrees of exploitation, several cores of 1.5 m length and diameters of 90 and 160 mm were taken and sliced into smaller subsamples of 2 and 5 cm, respectively. The samples were sieved through a 1 mm mesh size and all the shells found counted and identified to species level if possible. In total, 114 bivalve and 112 gastropod species were recorded. At the Po delta and Panzano bay stations, characterized by muddy sediments, Corbula gibba and Kurtiella bidentata were the dominant bivalve species, Nassarius pygmaeus and Turritella communis the most abundand gastropods. In the sandy mud from the Brijuni islands, the bivalves Timoclea ovata and Striarca lactea were very numerous, whereas at the Piran station, characterized by a similar sediment composition, Gouldia minima and Corbula gibba reached the highest numbers. Overall abundances of bivalve and gastropod species differed markedly between stations. In all cores, the incidence of individual species varied down-core. Opposite trends were recorded for Brijuni and Piran station: at Piran, the abundance peaked in the uppermost sediment layers while at the Brijuni islands the number of most gastropod and bivalve species

  20. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  1. Calcareous Bio-Concretions in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Habitat Types, Environmental Factors that Influence Habitat Distributions, and Predictive Modeling.

    PubMed

    Falace, Annalisa; Kaleb, Sara; Curiel, Daniele; Miotti, Chiara; Galli, Giovanni; Querin, Stefano; Ballesteros, Enric; Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko

    2015-01-01

    Habitat classifications provide guidelines for mapping and comparing marine resources across geographic regions. Calcareous bio-concretions and their associated biota have not been exhaustively categorized. Furthermore, for management and conservation purposes, species and habitat mapping is critical. Recently, several developments have occurred in the field of predictive habitat modeling, and multiple methods are available. In this study, we defined the habitats constituting northern Adriatic biogenic reefs and created a predictive habitat distribution model. We used an updated dataset of the epibenthic assemblages to define the habitats, which we verified using the fuzzy k-means (FKM) clustering method. Redundancy analysis was employed to model the relationships between the environmental descriptors and the FKM membership grades. Predictive modelling was carried out to map habitats across the basin. Habitat A (opportunistic macroalgae, encrusting Porifera, bioeroders) characterizes reefs closest to the coastline, which are affected by coastal currents and river inputs. Habitat B is distinguished by massive Porifera, erect Tunicata, and non-calcareous encrusting algae (Peyssonnelia spp.). Habitat C (non-articulated coralline, Polycitor adriaticus) is predicted in deeper areas. The onshore-offshore gradient explains the variability of the assemblages because of the influence of coastal freshwater, which is the main driver of nutrient dynamics. This model supports the interpretation of Habitat A and C as the extremes of a gradient that characterizes the epibenthic assemblages, while Habitat B demonstrates intermediate characteristics. Areas of transition are a natural feature of the marine environment and may include a mixture of habitats and species. The habitats proposed are easy to identify in the field, are related to different environmental features, and may be suitable for application in studies focused on other geographic areas. The habitat model outputs

  2. Calcareous Bio-Concretions in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Habitat Types, Environmental Factors that Influence Habitat Distributions, and Predictive Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Falace, Annalisa; Kaleb, Sara; Curiel, Daniele; Miotti, Chiara; Galli, Giovanni; Querin, Stefano; Ballesteros, Enric; Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko

    2015-01-01

    Habitat classifications provide guidelines for mapping and comparing marine resources across geographic regions. Calcareous bio-concretions and their associated biota have not been exhaustively categorized. Furthermore, for management and conservation purposes, species and habitat mapping is critical. Recently, several developments have occurred in the field of predictive habitat modeling, and multiple methods are available. In this study, we defined the habitats constituting northern Adriatic biogenic reefs and created a predictive habitat distribution model. We used an updated dataset of the epibenthic assemblages to define the habitats, which we verified using the fuzzy k-means (FKM) clustering method. Redundancy analysis was employed to model the relationships between the environmental descriptors and the FKM membership grades. Predictive modelling was carried out to map habitats across the basin. Habitat A (opportunistic macroalgae, encrusting Porifera, bioeroders) characterizes reefs closest to the coastline, which are affected by coastal currents and river inputs. Habitat B is distinguished by massive Porifera, erect Tunicata, and non-calcareous encrusting algae (Peyssonnelia spp.). Habitat C (non-articulated coralline, Polycitor adriaticus) is predicted in deeper areas. The onshore-offshore gradient explains the variability of the assemblages because of the influence of coastal freshwater, which is the main driver of nutrient dynamics. This model supports the interpretation of Habitat A and C as the extremes of a gradient that characterizes the epibenthic assemblages, while Habitat B demonstrates intermediate characteristics. Areas of transition are a natural feature of the marine environment and may include a mixture of habitats and species. The habitats proposed are easy to identify in the field, are related to different environmental features, and may be suitable for application in studies focused on other geographic areas. The habitat model outputs

  3. Calcareous Bio-Concretions in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Habitat Types, Environmental Factors that Influence Habitat Distributions, and Predictive Modeling.

    PubMed

    Falace, Annalisa; Kaleb, Sara; Curiel, Daniele; Miotti, Chiara; Galli, Giovanni; Querin, Stefano; Ballesteros, Enric; Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko

    2015-01-01

    Habitat classifications provide guidelines for mapping and comparing marine resources across geographic regions. Calcareous bio-concretions and their associated biota have not been exhaustively categorized. Furthermore, for management and conservation purposes, species and habitat mapping is critical. Recently, several developments have occurred in the field of predictive habitat modeling, and multiple methods are available. In this study, we defined the habitats constituting northern Adriatic biogenic reefs and created a predictive habitat distribution model. We used an updated dataset of the epibenthic assemblages to define the habitats, which we verified using the fuzzy k-means (FKM) clustering method. Redundancy analysis was employed to model the relationships between the environmental descriptors and the FKM membership grades. Predictive modelling was carried out to map habitats across the basin. Habitat A (opportunistic macroalgae, encrusting Porifera, bioeroders) characterizes reefs closest to the coastline, which are affected by coastal currents and river inputs. Habitat B is distinguished by massive Porifera, erect Tunicata, and non-calcareous encrusting algae (Peyssonnelia spp.). Habitat C (non-articulated coralline, Polycitor adriaticus) is predicted in deeper areas. The onshore-offshore gradient explains the variability of the assemblages because of the influence of coastal freshwater, which is the main driver of nutrient dynamics. This model supports the interpretation of Habitat A and C as the extremes of a gradient that characterizes the epibenthic assemblages, while Habitat B demonstrates intermediate characteristics. Areas of transition are a natural feature of the marine environment and may include a mixture of habitats and species. The habitats proposed are easy to identify in the field, are related to different environmental features, and may be suitable for application in studies focused on other geographic areas. The habitat model outputs

  4. The Red Sea analog for the early Gulf of Mexico: Salt basins on oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    New geophysical data from the Red Sea and the Gulf of Mexico support the concept that the early Gulf closely resembled the modern Red Sea. Oceanic crust like that now forming along the axis of the Red Sea basin may underlie much of the continental slope offshore Louisiana and Texas. Original depositional thicknesses greater than 4 km characterize both salt depocenters. The thickest salt overlies oceanic crust, probably for isostatic reasons. Deep crustal detachment faulting in a simple shear model with ductile flow below 15 km and narrow zones (up to 50 km) of severely extended crust on the hanging wall characterizes the early tectonic development. The landward edge of thick (> 2--4 km) salt generally follows the edge of oceanic crust, but the seaward edge is localized by depositional factors, modified by subsequent gravity spreading.

  5. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability.

    PubMed

    Lester, Lori A; Gutierrez Ramirez, Mariamar; Kneidel, Alan H; Heckscher, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1) to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2) to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m) on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44%) will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m). Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species' populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise. PMID:26934343

  6. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability.

    PubMed

    Lester, Lori A; Gutierrez Ramirez, Mariamar; Kneidel, Alan H; Heckscher, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1) to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2) to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m) on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44%) will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m). Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species' populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise.

  7. Use of a Florida Gulf Coast Barrier Island by Spring Trans-Gulf Migrants and the Projected Effects of Sea Level Rise on Habitat Availability

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Lori A.; Gutierrez Ramirez, Mariamar; Kneidel, Alan H.; Heckscher, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Barrier islands on the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico are an internationally important coastal resource. Each spring hundreds of thousands of Nearctic-Neotropical songbirds crossing the Gulf of Mexico during spring migration use these islands because they provide the first landfall for individuals following a trans-Gulf migratory route. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise, may negatively impact habitat availability for migrants on barrier islands. Our objectives were (1) to confirm the use of St. George Island, Florida by trans-Gulf migrants and (2) to determine whether forested stopover habitat will be available for migrants on St. George Island following sea level rise. We used avian transect data, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and simulation modelling to investigate the potential effects of three different sea level rise scenarios (0.28 m, 0.82 m, and 2 m) on habitat availability for trans-Gulf migrants. We found considerable use of the island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Migrants were most abundant in areas with low elevation, high canopy height, and high coverage of forests and scrub/shrub. A substantial percentage of forest (44%) will be lost by 2100 assuming moderate sea level rise (0.82 m). Thus, as sea level rise progresses, less forests will be available for migrants during stopover. Many migratory bird species’ populations are declining, and degradation of barrier island stopover habitat may further increase the cost of migration for many individuals. To preserve this coastal resource, conservation and wise management of migratory stopover areas, especially near ecological barriers like the Gulf of Mexico, will be essential as sea levels rise. PMID:26934343

  8. Gulf of Mexico Air/Sea Interaction: Measurements and Initial Data Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C.; Huang, C. H.; Roberts, P. T.; Bariteau, L.; Fairall, C. W.; Gibson, W.; Ray, A.

    2011-12-01

    Corporate, government, and university researchers collaborated to develop an atmospheric boundary layer environmental observations program on an offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico. The primary goals of this project were to provide data to (1) improve our understanding of boundary layer processes and air-sea interaction over the Gulf of Mexico; (2) improve regional-scale meteorological and air quality modeling; and (3) provide a framework for advanced offshore measurements to support future needs such as emergency response, exploration and lease decisions, wind energy research and development, and meteorological and air quality forecasting. In October 2010, meteorological and oceanographic sensors were deployed for an extended period (approximately 12 months) on a Chevron service platform (ST 52B, 90.5W, 29N) to collect boundary layer and sea surface data sufficient to support these objectives. This project has significant importance given the large industrial presence in the Gulf, sizeable regional population nearby, and the recognized need for precise and timely pollutant forecasts. Observations from this project include surface meteorology; sodar marine boundary layer winds; microwave radiometer profiles of temperature, relative humidity, and liquid water; ceilometer cloud base heights; water temperature and current profiles; sea surface temperature; wave height statistics; downwelling solar and infrared radiation; and air-sea turbulent momentum and heat fluxes. This project resulted in the collection of an unprecedented set of boundary layer measurements over the Gulf of Mexico that capture the range of meteorological and oceanographic interactions and processes that occur over an entire year. This presentation will provide insight into the logistical and scientific issues associated with the deployment and operations of unique measurements in offshore areas and provide results from an initial data analysis of boundary layer processes over the Gulf of

  9. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS) in Mississippi and Florida. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The Gulf Islands in Mississippi and Florida consist of stable and washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland and marsh. The areas likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash, the highest rates of shoreline change, the gentlest regional coastal slope, and the highest rates of relative sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers.

  10. Seasonal dynamics and long-term trend of hypoxia in the coastal zone of Emilia Romagna (NW Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Alvisi, Francesca; Cozzi, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Long-term series of meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data were compared with hypoxia occurrence, in order to define characteristics and trends of this phenomenon in the Emilia Romagna Coastal Zone (ERCZ) in 1977-2008. During this period, hypoxia was recorded at all sampling stations, up to 20 km offshore. In winter, spring and late autumn, hypoxia appearance was matched to significant positive anomalies of air and surface seawater temperatures (up to +3.6 °C), whereas this effect was less pronounced in August-October. Hypoxia generally occurred with scarce precipitation (0-2 dm(3)m(2)d(-1)) and low wind velocity (0-2 ms(-1)), suggesting the importance of stable meteo-marine conditions for the onset of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, wind direction emerged as an indicator of hydrodynamic seasonal changes in the area and is thus a hypoxia regulator. In winter, spring and autumn, hypoxia was favored by large increases of biomass induced by river freshets. In contrast, summer hypoxia occurred during periods of low runoff, suggesting that pronounced stratification and weak circulation of coastal waters were more important in this season. Since the 1990s, a shift from widespread summer hypoxia to local hypoxia irregularly distributed across the year has occurred. This process was concomitant to long-term increases of air temperature (+0.14 °C yr(-1)), wind speed (+0.03 ms(-1) yr(-1)) and salinity (+0.09 yr(-1)), and decreases of Po River flow (-0.54 km(3) yr(-1)), oxygen saturation (-0.2% yr(-1)) and PO4(3-) (-0.004 μmol P L(-1) yr(-1)) and NH4(+) (-0.04 μmol N L(-1) yr(-1)) concentrations in surface coastal waters. Despite that several of these changes suggest an ERCZ trophic level positive reduction, similar to that reported for the N Adriatic, the concomitant climate warming might further exacerbate hypoxia in particularly shallow shelf locations. Therefore, in order to avoid hypoxia development a further mitigation of anthropogenic pressure is still

  11. Seasonal dynamics and long-term trend of hypoxia in the coastal zone of Emilia Romagna (NW Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Alvisi, Francesca; Cozzi, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Long-term series of meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data were compared with hypoxia occurrence, in order to define characteristics and trends of this phenomenon in the Emilia Romagna Coastal Zone (ERCZ) in 1977-2008. During this period, hypoxia was recorded at all sampling stations, up to 20 km offshore. In winter, spring and late autumn, hypoxia appearance was matched to significant positive anomalies of air and surface seawater temperatures (up to +3.6 °C), whereas this effect was less pronounced in August-October. Hypoxia generally occurred with scarce precipitation (0-2 dm(3)m(2)d(-1)) and low wind velocity (0-2 ms(-1)), suggesting the importance of stable meteo-marine conditions for the onset of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, wind direction emerged as an indicator of hydrodynamic seasonal changes in the area and is thus a hypoxia regulator. In winter, spring and autumn, hypoxia was favored by large increases of biomass induced by river freshets. In contrast, summer hypoxia occurred during periods of low runoff, suggesting that pronounced stratification and weak circulation of coastal waters were more important in this season. Since the 1990s, a shift from widespread summer hypoxia to local hypoxia irregularly distributed across the year has occurred. This process was concomitant to long-term increases of air temperature (+0.14 °C yr(-1)), wind speed (+0.03 ms(-1) yr(-1)) and salinity (+0.09 yr(-1)), and decreases of Po River flow (-0.54 km(3) yr(-1)), oxygen saturation (-0.2% yr(-1)) and PO4(3-) (-0.004 μmol P L(-1) yr(-1)) and NH4(+) (-0.04 μmol N L(-1) yr(-1)) concentrations in surface coastal waters. Despite that several of these changes suggest an ERCZ trophic level positive reduction, similar to that reported for the N Adriatic, the concomitant climate warming might further exacerbate hypoxia in particularly shallow shelf locations. Therefore, in order to avoid hypoxia development a further mitigation of anthropogenic pressure is still

  12. Acid-labile sulfides in shallow marine bottom sediments: A review of the impact on ecosystems in the Azov Sea, the NE Black Sea shelf and NW Adriatic lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.; Zakuskina, O. Yu

    2012-02-01

    Acid-labile sulfides (LS) increase in bottom sediments at sites in the Azov Sea, at the NE Black Sea shelf and in the coastal lagoons of NW Adriatic Sea experiencing direct impacts of anthropogenic pollution. Fresh anthropogenic organic matter stimulates the bacterial sulfate reduction and here the rate of the LS production overcomes their loss during the oxidation and pyritization. This results in the expansion of reduced sediment layer up to the bottom surface. The LS concentration in the reduced sediments varies between 300 and 2000 mg S l -1 of wet silt depending on the size of pollution loading and on the rate of sedimentation. In the oxidized sediments away from the direct pollution impact, the LS concentration did not exceed 100-150 mg S l -1. Being a strong cytochrome toxin, the LS adversely affect the coastal ecosystems. The concentrations over 600 mg S l -1 result in quasi total benthic mortality whereas >300-400 mg S l -1 depletes the benthic faunal abundance and taxonomic diversity. Accumulation of the LS in sediments also induces nocturnal hypoxia and stimulates domination of toxic cyanobacteria in the pelagic phytocenoses.

  13. Evaluation of lindane diffusion along the southeastern Adriatic coastal strip (Mediterranean Sea): a case study in an Albanian industrial area.

    PubMed

    Marini, Mauro; Betti, Mattia; Grati, Fabio; Marconi, Valerio; Mastrogiacomo, Anna Rita; Polidori, Piero; Sanxhaku, Mitat

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze the impact at sea of a pesticide factory located 7 km north of Durres (Albania) by investigating a lowland area under the sea situated 0.7 km from the shoreline. The main product of this factory was lindane. Production ceased in 1991 during the Albanian civil war, and a large amount of industrial waste was dispersed over the ground surrounding the factory, resulting in a high level of lindane pollution. A water-scoop channels the ground water accumulated around the disused factory directly into the sea. The concentrations of lindane in sediments collected along the coasts of the region ranged from 0.60 to 22.55 ng g(-1). The average concentration in the muscles of fish did not exceed the limits specified by European Commission legislation, whereas the concentration in the liver did exceed these limits; consequently, liver is not recommended for consumption.

  14. Loss and Recovery Potential of Marine Habitats: An Experimental Study of Factors Maintaining Resilience in Subtidal Algal Forests at the Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Perkol-Finkel, Shimrit; Airoldi, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Background Predicting and abating the loss of natural habitats present a huge challenge in science, conservation and management. Algal forests are globally threatened by loss and severe recruitment failure, but our understanding of resilience in these systems and its potential disruption by anthropogenic factors lags well behind other habitats. We tested hypotheses regarding triggers for decline and recovery potential in subtidal forests of canopy-forming algae of the genus Cystoseira. Methodology/Principal Findings By using a combination of historical data, and quantitative in situ observations of natural recruitment patterns we suggest that recent declines of forests along the coasts of the north Adriatic Sea were triggered by increasing cumulative impacts of natural- and human-induced habitat instability along with several extreme storm events. Clearing and transplantation experiments subsequently demonstrated that at such advanced stages of ecosystem degradation, increased substratum stability would be essential but not sufficient to reverse the loss, and that for recovery to occur removal of the new dominant space occupiers (i.e., opportunistic species including turf algae and mussels) would be required. Lack of surrounding adult canopies did not seem to impair the potential for assisted recovery, suggesting that in these systems recovery could be actively enhanced even following severe depletions. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that sudden habitat loss can be facilitated by long term changes in the biotic and abiotic conditions in the system, that erode the ability of natural ecosystems to absorb and recover from multiple stressors of natural and human origin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mere restoration of environmental conditions preceding a loss, if possible, may be insufficient for ecosystem restoration, and is scarcely cost-effective. We conclude that the loss of complex marine habitats in human-dominated landscapes could be mitigated with

  15. Application of a toxicity test battery integrated index for a first screening of the ecotoxicological threat posed by ports and harbors in the southern Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Manzo, Sonia; Schiavo, Simona; Aleksi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Afrim

    2014-11-01

    Ports and harbors may represent a threat for coastal ecosystems due to pollutant inputs, especially those derived from maritime activities. In this study, we report a first assessment of the ecotoxicological threat posed by six ports and harbors of opposite coastal regions, Apulia and Albania, in the southern Adriatic Sea (Italy). A bioassay battery consisting of four different species representing different trophic levels, algae Dunaliella tertiolecta, bacteria Vibrio fischeri, crustacean Artemia salina, and echinoids Paracentrotus lividus, has been used to assess sediment elutriates, pore waters, and sediment suspensions. Two different approaches of toxicity data integration, worst case and integrated index, have been used to determine the most appropriate procedure for the investigated sites. All sites with the worst case approach showed high toxicity levels. The chronic test with algae was the most sensitive identifying the highest effects in the battery. This effect can be attributable to contaminants derived from antifouling paints. The sediments, evaluated with V. fischeri test, often showed toxicity not found in the aqueous matrices of the same sites and that can be mainly linked to organic compounds. The test battery used in this study allowed us to perform a preliminary screening of the ecotoxicological risk of the studied area. In fact, the species utilized for toxicity tests responded differently to the investigated samples, showing different sensitivity. The test battery integrated index did not allow highlighting the differences among the sites and showed a general high ecotoxicological risk. A larger number of tests with higher sensitivity together with a tailored attribution of weights to endpoints and matrices will improve the final site evaluation.

  16. Changes in microbial food web structure in response to changed environmental trophic status: a case study of the Vranjic Basin (Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Solić, M; Krstulović, N; Kuspilić, G; Nincević Gladan, Z; Bojanić, N; Sestanović, S; Santić, D; Ordulj, M

    2010-08-01

    Vranjic Basin, in the eastern part of KastelaBay (middle Adriatic Sea), received municipal wastewater until offshore submarine outfalls were finished in November 2004. To identify the responses of the microbial community to changes in the trophic status of the marine environment, two 4-year periods were compared: a eutrophic period (2001-2004) when the sewage waters entered the Basin and an oligotrophic period (2005-2008) after the outfalls were completed. The switch from eutrophic to oligotrophic conditions was accompanied by decreases in bacterial abundance, bacterial production and chlorophyll a, and increase in heterotrophic nanoflagellate (HNF) abundance and bacterial specific growth rate. Qualitative changes in the phytoplankton community manifested through dramatically decreased abundance of the diatom species Skeletonema costatum and Euglenophyta Eutreptiella spp. during the oligotrophic period. Furthermore, the percent contribution of pico-nano phytoplankton chlorophyll to total chlorophyll increased from less than 40% during the eutrophic period to more than 60% during the oligotrophic period. Changes in seasonal patterns of phytoplankton, bacteria and HNF abundance were also observed, with summer maxima during the eutrophic period and spring and autumn maxima during the oligotrophic period. Significant changes in the microbial food web were also identified. During eutrophic conditions, bacteria were dominantly under the phytoplankton-mediated bottom-up control whereas HNF were dominantly controlled by ciliate grazing (top-down control). In contrast, during the oligotrophic period, predominantly top-down control of bacteria by strong HNF grazing was observed. At the same time, HNF were spared from strong ciliate predation pressure because the ciliates apparently switched their dominant prey from HNF to the pico-nano phytoplankton fraction during that period. PMID:20570345

  17. Benthic fluxes of cadmium, lead, copper and nitrogen species in the northern Adriatic Sea in front of the River Po outflow, Italy.

    PubMed

    Zago, C; Capodaglio, G; Ceradini, S; Ciceri, G; Abelmoschi, L; Soggia, F; Cescon, P; Scarponi, G

    2000-02-10

    Trace heavy metal (Cd, Pb and Cu) and nitrogen species (N-NO3, N-NO2 and N-NH4) fluxes between sediment and water were examined for approximately 4 days, in a coastal marine station located in the northern Adriatic Sea in front of the River Po outflow. An in situ benthic chamber, equipped with electronic devices for monitoring and adjustment of oxygen and pH and with a temperature detector, was used. The benthic chamber experiment enabled study of the temporal trend of metals and nutrients when oxygen concentration varied in a controlled environment. Although particular care was devoted to chamber deposition and parameter control, sediment resuspension occurred at the beginning of the experiment and O2 fluctuations were observed during the course of the experiment. Pb concentration was affected by both resuspension and oxic conditions in bottom water, which prevented determination of any reasonable Pb flux value. Cd and Cu, not influenced by oxygen fluctuations, reached an equilibrium phase in a short period with initial positive fluxes from sediment of 0.68 (S.D. = 0.07) and 6.9 (S.D. = 5.6) pmol cm(-2) h(-1), respectively. With regard to nitrogen species, the highest positive flux was that of N-NH4 (10.5, S.D. = 2.4, nmol cm(-2) h(-1)) whose concentration increased in the chamber, while nitrate concentration (initial flux of -5.7, S.D. = 1.5, nmol cm(-2) h(-1)) immediately decreased after the beginning of the experiment. Nitrite concentration was almost constant throughout the experiment and its flux was generally low (initial flux 0.1, S.D. = 0.9, nmol cm(-2) h(-1)). PMID:10696718

  18. Holocene development of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone (Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sergeev, Alexander; Gusentsova, Tatiana; Gerasimov, Dmitry; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Amantov, Aleksey; Kulkova, Marianna; Sorokin, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In 2011-2013 geoarcheological and marine geological research of the eastern Gulf of Finland coasts and near-shore bottom were undertaken. Researches were concentrated within several key-areas (Sestroretskaya Lowland, Narva-Luga Klint Bay and southern coastal zone of the Gulf (near Bolshaya Izhora village). Study areas can provide important information about Gulf of Finland Holocene coastal development as since Ancylus time (about 10000 cal.BP). Development of numerous sand accretion forms (spits, bars, dunes) of different shape, age and genesis caused formation of lagoon systems, situated now on-land due to land uplift. Coasts of lagoons in Sestroretskaya Lowland and Narva-Luga Klint Bay were inhabited by Neolithic and Early Metal people. Analysis of coastal morphology and results of geological research (GIS relief analyses, ground penetrating radar, drilling, grain-size analyses, radiocarbon dating) and geoarcheological studies allowed to reconstruct the mechanism of large accretion bodies (bars and spits) and lagoon systems formation during last 8000 years. Geoarcheological studies carried out within eastern Gulf of Finland coasts permitted to find some features of the Neolithic - Early Metal settlements distribution. Another important features of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone relief are the series of submarine terraces found in the Gulf bottom (sea water depths 10 to 2 m). Analyses of the submarine terraces morphology and geology (e.g. grain-size distribution, pollen analyses and organic matter dating) allow to suppose that several times during Holocene (including preAncylus (11000 cal.BP) and preLittorina (8500 cal.BP) regressions) the sea-water level was lower than nowadays. During the maximal stage of the Littorina transgression (7600-7200 cal. BP) several open bays connected with the Littorina Sea appeared in this area. The lagoon systems and sand accretion bodies (spits and bars) were formed during the following decreasing of the sea level. Late

  19. Toxicity evaluation of diethylene glycol and its combined effects with produced waters of off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy): bioassays with marine/estuarine species.

    PubMed

    Tornambè, Andrea; Manfra, Loredana; Mariani, Livia; Faraponova, Olga; Onorati, Fulvio; Savorelli, Federica; Cicero, Anna Maria; Virno Lamberti, Claudia; Magaletti, Erika

    2012-06-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is commonly used to dehydrate natural gas in off-shore extraction plants and to prevent formation of gas hydrates. It may be released into the sea accidentally or in discharged produced waters (PWs). PWs samples from off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) have been used in this study. The objectives of the study were: a) to evaluate the toxicity of DEG for marine organisms; b) to evaluate if a high DEG content in PWs may alter their toxicity; c) to verify whether the DEG threshold concentration established by the Italian legislation (3.5 g/l) for PWs discharged at sea is safe for marine environment. Ten different species (Vibrio fischeri, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Brachionus plicatilis, Artemia franciscana, Tigropus fulvus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas, Tapes philippinarum and Dicentrarchus labrax) have been exposed to DEG; four of these species were also exposed to PWs in combination with DEG. The results showed that: a) DEG is not toxic at levels normally detected in Adriatic PWs; b) DEG in combination with PW showed mainly additive or synergistic effects; c) short-term bioassays showed that the DEG limit of 3.5 g/l could be acceptable.

  20. Element levels in cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) from the Adriatic Sea and potential risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zvab Rožič, Petra; Dolenec, Tadej; Baždarić, Branimir; Karamarko, Vatroslav; Kniewald, Goran; Dolenec, Matej

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the role of aquaculture activity as a source of selected metals was analyzed. Significant differences in element content between cultured (Dicentrarchus labrax, Sparus aurata) and wild fishes as well as between fish muscle and their feed were detected. Higher concentrations of trace elements (i.e., As, Cu, Hg, Se) in wild fish tissues in comparison with cultured ones indicate additional sources of metals beside fish feed as natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Generally, mean Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, and Zn concentrations in cultured (0.016, 1.79, 0.14, 0.87, and 34.32 μg/g, respectively) and wild (0.011, 1.97, 0.10, 1.78, and 23,54 μg/g, respectively) fish samples were below the permissible levels, while mean As (2.57 μg/g in cultured, 4.77 μg/g in wild) and Cr (5.25 μg/g in cultured, 2.92 μg/g in wild) values exceeded those limits. Hg values were lower in cultured (0.17 μg/g) and higher in wild (1.04 μg/g) fish specimens. The highest elemental concentrations were observed in almost all fish samples from Korčula sampling site. The smallest cultured sea basses showed As (4.01 μg/g), Cr (49.10 μg/g), Pb (0.65 μg/g), and Zn (136 μg/g) concentrations above the recommended limits; however, values decreased as fish size increased. Therefore, the majority of metal concentrations in commercial fishes showed no problems for human consumption. Also calculated Se:Hg molar ratios (all >1) and selenium health benefit values (Se-HBVs) (all positive) showed that consumption of all observed fishes in human nutrition is not risk.

  1. [Sea star (Asteroidea) association structures on the rocky reef in the Gulf of California, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Reyes Bonilla, Héctor; González Azcárraga, Adriana; Rojas Sierra, Aracely

    2005-12-01

    Sea stars are invertebrates that play relevant roles in rocky and coral reefs: they occupy different levels in food webs and may act as top predators. There are numerous studies on taxonomy and biogeography of the class in the eastern tropical Pacific, but information about the attributes and composition of its assemblages is scant. The objectives of this study were the examination and comparison of asteroid community structure from four regions of the Gulf of California, Mexico, characterized by the presence of rocky reefs, and the search for possible associations between pairs of species. In August 2004 we visited four locations in the western gulf: Bahia de Los Angeles (29 degrees N), Santa Rosalia (27 degrees N), Loreto (26 degrees N) and La Paz (24 degrees N), and censuses sea stars using 50 m2 belt transects (N=93). Abundance and species richness was estimated, as well as diversity (H'), evenness (J') and taxonomic distinctness (delta*); then, all variables were compared among regions with analysis of variance. In addition, an ordination analysis was run looking for groups of locations with similar faunistic composition. Our results showed that Loreto Bay had the highest richness and abundance of asteroids, probably because it presents a large number of habitats and multiple food sources; these conditions seem to favor the occurrence of rare species and of detritivores. However, there were no significant interregional differences among ecological indices, nor we detected groups of locations singled out because of its species composition. Thus, community structure of sea stars in rocky areas of the Gulf of California is quite homogeneous and do not change with latitude. This is a consequence of the fact that all regions under analysis had the species Phataria unifascialis and Pharia pyramidatus as dominant in number. There were significant positive associations between three pairs of species: apparently competition is not particularly relevant to control sea

  2. Sea Level Rise and Subsidence in the Gulf of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemnil, Sommart

    In the Thailand -EC GEO2TECDI-SONG Project we investigate the sea level change and vertical land motion in Thailand. First, Bangkok is situated in river delta and average height is closed to sea level. Second, it is subsiding due to ground water extraction. Third, it is experiencing post-seismic motion due to nearby mega thrust earthquakes and fourth, it suffers from rising of sea levels due to global climate change. This poses a serious threat on Thai society and economy. Before mitigation methods can be devised we aim at charting, qualifying and quantifying all contributing effects by the use of satellite altimetry, GNSS, InSAR techniques and combining results with the in situ observations like tide gauge and with geophysical modeling. Adding GPS based vertical land motion to the tide gauge sea level registration reveals the absolute sea level change, which is nicely confirmed by altimetry. We find an average absolute rise of 3.5 mm/yr + 0.7, but nears mouth of Chao Praya River (Bangkok) and the Mekong delta (Ho Chi Min City), this mounts to 4 to 5 mm/yr, faster than global average. This is reinforced when accounting for the tectonic subsidence that resulted from 2004 9.1Mw Sumatra/Andaman earthquake; from 2005 onwards we find downfall in the order of 10 mm/yr. RADARSAT InSAR analyses show subsidence rates up to 25 mm/yr at many places along coastal Bangkok.

  3. Offshore oil & gas markets heating up: Gulf of Mexico rising from `Dead Sea` image; healthy Gulf, North Sea markets combine for big impact

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    Only three years ago, Gulf of Mexico drilling activity was so moribund that it was termed the Dead Sea. But the market has changed so there is now effectively 100 percent utilization in several important categories of offshore rigs, and almost every type of offshore rig is now getting higher use and better rates. What makes these changes so profound is that few industry participants saw this tightness developing, and almost no one predicted that it would occur so soon. Even the largest offshore contractors were pleasantly surprised as they watched their key drilling markets tighten so uickly after many years of vast oversupply. Today, while neither the Gulf of Mexico nor the North Sea could be described as booming, they are not falling apart either. The combination of both markets merely being normal at the same time has made a big impact on the worldwide supply and demand for offshore drilling. The need for steady and increasing offshore oil and gas production has never been so high. The technology now in place is allowing the development of offshore areas deemed almost impossible less than a decade ago. Also, the vast excess supply of offshore equipment is gone for many forms of drilling, and the need for steadily higher dayrates is real and will merely increase over time.

  4. Mean sea surface and variability of the Gulf of Mexico using Geosat altimetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leben, Robert R.; Born, George H.; Fox, Chad A.; Thompson, Dana J.

    1990-01-01

    Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) altimetric measurements of the sea surface height in the Gulf of Mexico are used to determine the mean sea surface height with respect to the ellipsoid and mesoscale variability along Geosat ground tracks in the gulf for the time period from November 8, 1986 to November 25, 1988. A mean surface generated using the Geosat ERM along-track mean is calculated and contrasted with a previously derived mean surface determined using GEOS 3 and Seasat crossover differences. This provides a first look at the variability in the mean between the time periods of 1987-1988 and 1975-1978. In addition, the along-track mesoscale variability time series has been produced from the Geosat ERM data set by using a robust orbit-error removal algorithm to determine the variability of the sea-surface height with respect to the along-track mean. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement with previous in situ observations in the region is found. This study demonstrates the potential of satellite altimetry for oceanographic studies of the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Sea-level response to atmospheric forcing along the north coast of Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, S.; Kiasatpour, A.; Hosseinibalam, F.

    2007-02-01

    Data from tide gauges (1990-1999) at Bandar Abbas and Bushehr combined with atmospheric data at both stations are utilized to investigate the mean sea-level (MSL) response to meteorological forcing functions along the north coast of the Persian Gulf. The relations between MSL and forces due to air pressure, air temperature and local wind are examined. The characteristics of variability of each field are analyzed using the spectral analysis method. The annual cycle is dominant in the sea-level, atmospheric pressure, air temperature and wind spectra. The influence of local meteorological functions are quantified using forward stepwise regression techniques. The results suggest that 71.5% and 71.2% variations in the MSL of Bandar Abbas and Bushehr stations are due to meteorological forces at each stations. The model indicates that the most significant influence on the observed variation of MSL at Bandar Abbas is air pressure, while at Bushehr is air temperature. The results of multivariate and simple regression show that these parameters are highly intercorrelated. The sea-level is not significantly correlated with the monthly and winter NAO and Monsoon in the Persian Gulf. The remaining variations are due to density of sea water (steric effect), which has considerable influence on the sea-level variations, and coastal upwelling.

  6. Sea-level and environmental changes since the last interglacial in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chivas, Allan R.; Garcı́a, Adriana; van der Kaars, Sander; Couapel, Martine; Holt, Sabine; Reeves, Jessica M.; Wheeler, David J.; Switzer, Adam D.; Murray-Wallace, Colin V.; Banerjee, Debabrata; Price, David M.; Wang, Sue X.; Pearson, Grant; Edgar, N. Terry; Beaufort, Luc; de Deckker, Patrick; Lawson, Ewan; Cecil, C. Blaine

    2001-01-01

    The Gulf of Carpentaria is an epicontinental sea (maximum depth 70 m) between Australia and New Guinea, bordered to the east by Torres Strait (currently 12 m deep) and to the west by the Arafura Sill (53 m below present sea level). Throughout the Quaternary, during times of low sea-level, the Gulf was separated from the open waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, forming Lake Carpentaria, an isolation basin, perched above contemporaneous sea-level with outlet channels to the Arafura Sea. A preliminary interpretation is presented of the palaeoenvironments recorded in six sediment cores collected by the IMAGES program in the Gulf of Carpentaria. The longest core (approx. 15 m) spans the past 130 ka and includes a record of sea-level/lake-level changes, with particular complexity between 80 and 40 ka when sea-level repeatedly breached and withdrew from Gulf/Lake Carpentaria. Evidence from biotic remains (foraminifers, ostracods, pollen), sedimentology and geochemistry clearly identifies a final marine transgression at about 9.7 ka (radiocarbon years). Before this transgression, Lake Carpentaria was surrounded by grassland, was near full, and may have had a surface area approaching 600 km×300 km and a depth of about 15 m. The earlier rise in sea-level which accompanied the Marine Isotopic Stage 6/5 transgression at about 130 ka is constrained by sedimentological and biotic evidence and dated by optical- and thermoluminescence and amino acid racemisation methods.

  7. Sources and fluxes of atmospheric trace elements to the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Paytan, Adina; Chase, Zanna; Measures, Christopher; Beck, Aaron J.; SañUdo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Post, Anton F.

    2008-03-01

    We present the first comprehensive investigation of the concentrations, fluxes and sources of aerosol trace elements over the Gulf of Aqaba. We found that the mean atmospheric concentrations of crustally derived elements such as Al, Fe and Mn (1081, 683, and 16.7 ng m-3) are about 2-3 times higher than those reported for the neighboring Mediterranean area. This is indicative of the dominance of the mineral dust component in aerosols over the Gulf. Anthropogenic impact was lower in comparison to the more heavily populated areas of the Mediterranean. During the majority of time (69%) the air masses over the Gulf originated from Europe or Mediterranean Sea areas delivering anthropogenic components such as Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, and P. Airflows derived from North Africa in contrast contained the highest concentrations of Al, Fe, and Sr but generally lower Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, and P. Relatively high Pb, Ni, and V were found in the local and Arabian airflows suggesting a greater influence of local emission of fuel burning. We used the data and the measured trace metal seawater concentrations to calculate residence times of dissolved trace elements in the upper 50 m surface water of the Gulf (with respect to atmospheric input) and found that the residence times for most elements are in the range of 5-37 years while Cd and V residence times are longer.

  8. Mid-Cretaceous Eustatic sea level fall: magnitude and timing in Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vierbuchen, R.C.; Oestmann, M.A.; Greenlee, S.M.

    1987-05-01

    The magnitude and timing of a mid-Cretaceous sea level fall have been documented on the margins of the Gulf of Mexico in east Texas. Analysis of seismic, log, and paleontologic data from east Texas demonstrates that a fall of 60 to 100 m occurred at the end of Washita (mid-Cenomanian) time. This sea level fall has been identified elsewhere on the shelves of the Gulf of Mexico and is proposed to have caused the mid-Cretaceous unconformity of the deep sea and the termination of Washita carbonate deposition. They conclude that this sea level fall is of regional significance and eustatic origin. The magnitude and timing of the fall agree with those postulated by Vail and others, and Haq and others, who recognized a major sea level fall in mid-Cenomanian time. The magnitude of sea level fall is estimated from the difference in elevation between carbonate buildups on the Buda margin, which accumulated at or near sea level, and fluvial deposits in the lower Woodbine, which immediately overlie Buda carbonates and have been drilled up to 20 km basinward of the shelf margin. After constructing a datum along the preexisting Buda shelf, they measure the thickness of sediment from this datum to the onlapping fluvial, lower Woodbine siliciclastics. This measurement is then corrected for compaction, isostatic subsidence due to sediment loading, and thermotectonic subsidence. The result, 60 m, is considered a minimum estimate. A similar measurement to the lowest seismically identified coastal onlap in the lower Woodbine yields an estimate of 100 m.

  9. Benthic foraminiferal bathymetry and sea-bed biogeochemistry in the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Loubere, P. . Dept. of Geology); Gary, A. . Science and Technology Div.)

    1992-01-01

    Box cores were collected down the slope of the northwest Gulf of Mexico so that the sea-bed biogeochemistry could be compared to established benthic Foraminiferal bathymetric zonations. Pore water geochemistry along with water columns and sedimentologic analyses were used to quantify bottom water temperatures, organic carbon flux, bottom water oxygen content and sedimentary environment. The prominent Foraminiferal boundary between 170 and 200m water depth is associated with position of the mud-line in the northwestern Gulf. Deeper than this, assemblage changes are more gradational and, between 200 and 600m, appear related to gradients in temperature, oxygen supply and organic carbon flux. Between 600 and 2,000m bathymetric zonation correlates to the organic carbon flux profile. An analysis of sediment pore water geochemistry and sedimentary features in the box cores shows that there is a progressive change in the vertical distribution and character of potential microhabitats within the sediments down the slope of the northwest Gulf. This gradient in habitats must influence the generation of benthic Foraminiferal assemblages, and it is largely controlled by the organic carbon flux to the sea-bed.

  10. Geochemistry of the Adige River water from the Eastern Alps to the Adriatic Sea (Italy): evidences for distinct hydrological components and water-rock interactions.

    PubMed

    Natali, C; Bianchini, G; Marchina, C; Knöller, K

    2016-06-01

    The Adige River flows from the Eastern Alps to the Adriatic Sea and the understanding of its fluvial dynamics can be improved by geochemical and O-H isotopic investigation. The most negative isotopic compositions are recorded close to the source (δ(18)O between -14.1 and -13.8 ‰, δD between -100.3 and -97.0 ‰), and δD and δ(18)O values generally increase downstream through the upper part (UP, the mountainous sector), stabilizing along the lower part (LP, the alluvial plain) of the river with δ(18)O between -12.4 and -11.8 ‰, δD between -86.9 and -83.7 ‰. The isotopic variations along the stream path (δ(18)O-δD vs distance from the source) depict subparallel distributions for all the investigated periods, with less negative values recorded in winter. Total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration shows the lowest value (<100 mg/l) at the river source, jumping to 310 mg/l at the Rio Ram inflow, then decreasing down to the Isarco River confluence; from here, we observed an increase toward the river mouth, with different values in the distinct sampling periods. The lowest values (140-170 mg/l) were recorded during high discharge in spring, whereas higher TDS values (up to 250 mg/l) were recorded during winter low flow conditions. Extreme TDS values were observed in the estuarine samples (up to 450 mg/l), as result of mixing with seawater. The results allow for the identification of distinct water end-members: glacio-nival component(s) characterized by the most negative isotopic composition and extremely low TDS, a rainfall component characterized by intermediate isotopic and elemental composition and groundwater characterized by the less negative isotopic composition and comparatively higher TDS. An additional component is represented by seawater, which is recorded at the lowest reach of the river during drought periods. These contributions variously mix along the stream path in the distinct hydrological periods, and the presented data are a

  11. SEA ODC - An Implementation of Web Portal and B2B Services for Managing of Oceanographic Data Sets Collected in South-East Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovicic, A.; Castelli, A.; Kljajic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    As a result of efforts to standardize oceanographic data sets collected since year 2002 in the area of south-east Adriatic, relational data model suitable for storage of meta-data and in situ measurements was designed and implemented. Using combination of customized tools developed for extraction of meta-data and data records from CTD files as well as standard office applications, data were extracted, transformed, processed and unified by attributes and units of measurement. To make those data available for wider scientific community, we have developed web portal able to be used for data retrieval based on various filters (spatial, temporal, by project and/or by sampling instrument). Selected data model proves to be also very efficient for generating of data-exchange formats required by various projects and initiatives (e.g. SeaDataNet) so extended by particular dictionaries it can allow fast implementation of integration services. As a part of Ecoport 8 project, newly available type of data was recently introduced. Real-time data provided by permanent sensors need to be automatically collected and stored into database. Visualization of such data was also required as well as exchange with project data center. To fulfill those requirements, additional data scheme and appropriate B2B services were developed. Additional care was taken about data transfer security as database was not hosted at the same place as workstation used for remote access to sensor equipment. Third section of portal is "Tide Tables", interactive, graphical application that visualize tide predictions for ports of Bar and Kotor, allowing also correction by atmospheric pressure. Developed in Java, based on well known Mike Foreman's Fortran 77 code it can be used as stand-alone product without Internet connection. Last section of portal is Google Earth file containing position of stations as well as some spatial features that can be useful during planning of future oceanographic cruises in this area

  12. Geochemistry of the Adige River water from the Eastern Alps to the Adriatic Sea (Italy): evidences for distinct hydrological components and water-rock interactions.

    PubMed

    Natali, C; Bianchini, G; Marchina, C; Knöller, K

    2016-06-01

    The Adige River flows from the Eastern Alps to the Adriatic Sea and the understanding of its fluvial dynamics can be improved by geochemical and O-H isotopic investigation. The most negative isotopic compositions are recorded close to the source (δ(18)O between -14.1 and -13.8 ‰, δD between -100.3 and -97.0 ‰), and δD and δ(18)O values generally increase downstream through the upper part (UP, the mountainous sector), stabilizing along the lower part (LP, the alluvial plain) of the river with δ(18)O between -12.4 and -11.8 ‰, δD between -86.9 and -83.7 ‰. The isotopic variations along the stream path (δ(18)O-δD vs distance from the source) depict subparallel distributions for all the investigated periods, with less negative values recorded in winter. Total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration shows the lowest value (<100 mg/l) at the river source, jumping to 310 mg/l at the Rio Ram inflow, then decreasing down to the Isarco River confluence; from here, we observed an increase toward the river mouth, with different values in the distinct sampling periods. The lowest values (140-170 mg/l) were recorded during high discharge in spring, whereas higher TDS values (up to 250 mg/l) were recorded during winter low flow conditions. Extreme TDS values were observed in the estuarine samples (up to 450 mg/l), as result of mixing with seawater. The results allow for the identification of distinct water end-members: glacio-nival component(s) characterized by the most negative isotopic composition and extremely low TDS, a rainfall component characterized by intermediate isotopic and elemental composition and groundwater characterized by the less negative isotopic composition and comparatively higher TDS. An additional component is represented by seawater, which is recorded at the lowest reach of the river during drought periods. These contributions variously mix along the stream path in the distinct hydrological periods, and the presented data are a

  13. Petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Botello, A V; Villanueva, S; Díaz, G

    1997-01-01

    In 1976, IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region, noting that petroleum pollution was of regionwide concern and recommended initiating a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil-producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas in the U.S.; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad. All these are classified as high-risk production accident zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading and unloading operations, and accidental spills. About 5 million barrels of crude oil are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/yr. The results of the Caribbean Pollution Regional Program (CARIPOL) conducted between 1980 and 1987 pointed out that significant levels of petroleum pollution exist throughout the Wider Caribbean, including serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major current systems, and very high levels of dissolved and dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major adverse effects of this type of pollution include: high tar levels on many beaches that either prevent their recreational use or require very expensive cleanup operations, distress and death for marine life, and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tissues of important economic species has been reported, creating a risk for public health because of

  14. Synrift sedimentation in the Gulf of Suez rift controlled by eustatic sea level variations

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Laterally persistent stratigraphic variations in the southern Gulf of Suez rift indicate that eustatic variations in sea level predominate over local tectonic effects in controlling Neogene basin-fill sedimentation. Low sea level allows extensive erosion of tilt-block crests and rift shoulders, sending clastic aprons into the intervening subbasins and allowing evaporite deposition. High sea level minimizes clastic input, allowing marls and shales to build up off structure and reefs to form on and around tilt blocks. Thus variations in sediment character indicate relative sea level. Early rifting events in the upper Oligocene are marked by deposition of continental red beds. Overlying lowest Miocene clastics and evaporites are cut by a lower Burdigalian unconformity, indicating a minor transgression in the Aquitanian. Above a disconformity, laterally varying clastics and evaporites suggest regression followed by intermittent shallow-water conditions. A higher unconformity is overlain by thick cyclic evaporites representing periodic flooding and drying of the rift, a result of sea level remaining close to the height of the Suez sill to the north. A major Messinian unconformity cuts the section, indicating major regression, and is overlain by largely clastic sediments of both continental and marine affinities, showing rapid sea level fluctuations. Regional synrift sedimentation has been controlled more by eustatic sea level change, modified by the Suez sill to the north, than by tectonic movements within the rift.

  15. Ogaden Basin subsidence history: Another key to the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden tectonic puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Pigott, J.D.; Neese, D.; Carsten, G.

    1995-08-01

    Previous work has attempted to understand the tectonic evolution of the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden region through a focus upon plate kinematics and reconstruction of plate interactions in a two dimensional sense. A significant complement to the three dimensional puzzle can be derived from a critical examination of the vertical component, tectonic subsidence analysis. By removing the isostatic contributions of sediment loading and unloading, and fluctuations in sea level, the remaining thermal-mechanical contribution to a basin`s subsidence can be determined. Such an analysis of several Ogaden Basin wells reveals multiple pulses of tectonic subsidence and uplift which correspond to far-field tectonic activities in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. One of the more dramatic is a Jurassic tectonic pulse circa 145-130 m.a., and a later extensional event which correlates to a major subsidence event ubiquitous through-out the Gulf of Aden, related to Gondwana Land breakup activities. Tectonic uplift during the Tertiary coincides with early Red Sea rifting episodes. Such activities suggest the Ogaden Basin has been a relatively stable East African cratonic basin, but with heating-extension events related to nearby plate interactions. In terms of hydrocarbon generation, the use of steady state present day geothermal gradients, coupled with subsidence analysis shows that potential Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks initiated generation as early as the Jurassic. The generating potential of Paleozoic source rocks would only be exacerbated by later heating events. Furthermore, cooling and tectonic uplift during the Tertiary would tend to arrest on-going hydrocarbon generation for Jurassic source rocks in the Ogaden area.

  16. Use of multiple cell and tissue-level biomarkers in mussels collected along two gas fields in the northern Adriatic Sea as a tool for long term environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, A; Volpato, E; Nasci, C; Perra, G; Viarengo, A; Dagnino, A; Spagnolo, A; Fabi, G

    2015-04-15

    As a consequence of the growing global demand of energy supplies, intense oil and gas exploration and exploitation programs have been carried out worldwide especially within the marine environments. The release of oil-derived compounds in the sea from anthropogenic sources both as effluents or accidental spill is perceived as a major environmental concern. An approach based on a combination of biomarkers and the distribution of some classes of environmentally relevant pollutants was used to investigate the occurrence of a stress syndrome in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at three gas platforms placed in two distinct oceanographic districts within the Adriatic Sea. Biological responses were integrated by a ranking algorithm which demonstrated both a range of biological effects reflecting exposure gradients and a temporal related trend in the investigated responses. The overall results demonstrate a moderate to absent pollution from studied gas platforms with low but remarkable biological disturbance in sentinel organisms.

  17. Use of multiple cell and tissue-level biomarkers in mussels collected along two gas fields in the northern Adriatic Sea as a tool for long term environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, A; Volpato, E; Nasci, C; Perra, G; Viarengo, A; Dagnino, A; Spagnolo, A; Fabi, G

    2015-04-15

    As a consequence of the growing global demand of energy supplies, intense oil and gas exploration and exploitation programs have been carried out worldwide especially within the marine environments. The release of oil-derived compounds in the sea from anthropogenic sources both as effluents or accidental spill is perceived as a major environmental concern. An approach based on a combination of biomarkers and the distribution of some classes of environmentally relevant pollutants was used to investigate the occurrence of a stress syndrome in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at three gas platforms placed in two distinct oceanographic districts within the Adriatic Sea. Biological responses were integrated by a ranking algorithm which demonstrated both a range of biological effects reflecting exposure gradients and a temporal related trend in the investigated responses. The overall results demonstrate a moderate to absent pollution from studied gas platforms with low but remarkable biological disturbance in sentinel organisms. PMID:25724089

  18. Modelling for anchovy recruitment studies in the Gulf of Lions (Western Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolle, Amandine; Garreau, Pierre; Liorzou, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) is an important commercial species and one of the most abundant pelagic fish in the Gulf of Lions and the Catalan Sea. The factors influencing its recruitment are crucial to fisheries and ecological research. Among those factors transport of larvae by hydrodynamics (currents) is important because it determines whether the organisms can reach areas favourable to recruitment or are dispersed. Therefore, the first step in anchovy recruitment modelling is to simulate North-western Mediterranean Sea circulation. Several years (2001-2008) of hydrodynamics were simulated with the MARS-3D code. The resulting simulated currents and salinity are used by Lagrangian tool, Ichthyop, to transport anchovy eggs and larvae to the Western Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this study is to understand the main hydrodynamic processes that control anchovy transport and the effects of diel vertical migration on the transport and final distribution of anchovy.

  19. February 2003 marine atmospheric conditions and the bora over the northern Adriatic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorman, C.E.; Carniel, S.; Cavaleri, L.; Sclavo, M.; Chiggiato, J.; Doyle, J.; Haack, T.; Pullen, J.; Grbec, B.; Vilibic, I.; Janekovic, I.; Lee, C.; Malacic, V.; Orlic, M.; Paschini, E.; Russo, A.; Signell, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    A winter oceanographic field experiment provided an opportunity to examine the atmospheric marine conditions over the northern Adriatic. Mean February winds are from a northeasterly direction over most of the Adriatic and a more northerly direction along the western coast. Wind speeds are fastest in jets over the NE coast during bora events and weakest in the mid-northwestern Adriatic. Diurnal air temperature cycles are smallest on the NE coast and largest in the midwestern Adriatic. The maximum sea-air difference is +10??C on the eastern coast and near zero on the midwestern Adriatic. Boras are northeasterly (from) wind events that sweep off Croatia and Slovenia, bringing slightly colder and drier air over the northern Adriatic. The main bora season is December to March. Winter 2002-2003 was normal for bora events. Synoptic-scale temporal variations are correlated over the northern Adriatic. Fastest Bora winds and highest wind stress over the northern Adriatic is concentrated in four topographically controlled jets. The strongest is the Senj Jet, while the Trieste Jet extends across the entire northern Adriatic. Between each two jets is a weak wind zone. The greatest mean net heat loss is in bora jets in the NE Adriatic, where it was -438 W m-2 and is weakest in the midwestern northern Adriatic, where it was near zero. Wind stress is concentrated over the NE half of Adriatic in four bora jets, while wind stress is weak in the NW Adriatic. There is significant variation in wind stress mean and standard deviation structure over the northern Adriatic with each bora event. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Contributions to the sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz (Southwestern Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiz, Irene; Tejedor, Begoña; Gómez-Enri, Jesús; Aboitiz, Alazne; Villares, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    The spatial distribution of the sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) has been analysed using monthly maps of sea level anomalies from gridded multi-mission altimeter data, along with monthly means of sea level heights from three tide gauge stations. Moreover, the contribution to the sea level seasonal cycle of atmospheric pressure and wind and the steric effect were evaluated using maps of sea level residuals from the VANI2-ERA hindcast, and a combination of satellite Sea Surface Temperature maps with a very high resolution Temperature and Salinity climatology for the region. The atmospheric contribution accounted for 55-58% of the sea level variance offshore, with this percentage diminishing toward the coast, where the effect of wind stress might be underestimated, especially over regions of complex bathymetry. The steric contribution was addressed by considering local, open ocean, basin-wide and continental shelf steric effects. Results obtained highlighted the oceanographic complexity of the GoC at regional scales. In this sense, the open ocean steric contribution explained the largest percentage of atmospheric-corrected sea level variance at the offshore part of the basin (50-67%) and over the eastern shelf (42-48%), suggesting that the sea level seasonal cycle within the eastern shelf is connected to the large scale circulation system. West of Cape Santa Maria, both over the continental shelf and offshore, the best results were obtained with the local steric contribution, suggesting a decoupling of deep and shallow water sea level variations at the seasonal scale in that region.

  1. Human impact and the historical transformation of saltmarshes in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontolan, Giorgio; Pillon, Simone; Bezzi, Annelore; Villalta, Renato; Lipizer, Marco; Triches, Antonella; D'Aietti, Alessandro

    2012-11-01

    Historical transformations of the saltmarshes in the six sub-basins of the Marano and Grado Lagoon were analyzed using aerial photographs (1954, 1990, 2006), and the support of historical maps and topographic surveys. Analysis of the 2006 set of aerial photographs enabled the definition of the present extent and distribution of the saltmarshes inside the lagoon (760 ha), with a total reduction in saltmarsh area of 16% (144 ha) compared to 1954. Direct human actions played a significant role in the budget, since total loss due to land reclamation and dredging during this period amounted to 126 ha. After excluding the total loss due to direct human interventions, different erosional and depositional marsh types were recognized and associated with different forcing factors, based on morphological and geographical evidence. Over the 52-year period marshes were lost due to: (a) drowning - the combined effects of eustatism, regional subsidence and autocompaction (102 ha); (b) edge-retreat by wind wave attack (34 ha); (c) erosion by vessel-generated waves (37 ha); and (d) coastal dynamics and inlet migration (5.7 ha). Conversely, marshes gained in area due to: (a) fluvial input (63 ha); (b) tidal input (27 ha); (c) paralagoonal deposition (45 ha); (d) the re-opening of abandoned fish farms (18 ha); and (e) the dumping of dredged material (8 ha). Our analysis demonstrates that local and short-term forcing factors can obliterate or compensate the long-term ones, especially the relative sea-level rise. A test of the integrated sediment budget carried out on one third of the total lagoon, through a bathymetric comparison between datasets from 1964 to 2009, pointed out that conservation or slight expansion of the marshes inside these basins were linked to an overall positive sediment budget of 61,000 m3/y. Nevertheless, significant morphological changes occurred in the submerged basin, which is affected by sustained deposition along the inner margins due to sediment supplies

  2. The Influence of Fluvial Discharge on Pelagic Production in the Gulf of Papua, Northern Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. I.; Dixon, P.; Alongi, D. M.

    1998-03-01

    The influence of river discharge on the behaviour of dissolved and particulate nutrients, and patterns of primary and bacterial production, were investigated in the Gulf of Papua, northern Coral Sea. Inshore, close to the mouths of the Fly and Purari Rivers, buoyant plumes of warmer river water, marked by high total suspended solid concentrations and floating plant debris, overlay cooler saline waters, and their movement with the tides results in marked short-term changes in salinity profiles. Mixing of silicate was conservative, but the behaviour of other nutrients (nitrate, DOC, phosphate) indicated biological uptake and/or production and release from particles. DIN:DIP ratios increased slightly into the gulf indicating possible phosphorus limitation to phytoplankton growth in mid-shelf and outer-shelf waters. At the mouth of the Fly Delta and in inshore waters, decreases in phosphate concentration corresponded to increases in standing stocks of chlorophyll a. Primary production rates were <20 mgC m -2day -1in waters of salinity <4, but ranged from 133 to 942 mgC m -2day -1in river delta and inshore waters. Bacterial production was highly variable (range: 162-886 mgC m -2day -1), but correlated very significantly ( r=0·97) with primary production. Rates of bacterioplankton production nearly equal or exceed primary production rates, indicating that pelagic bacteria in the gulf are utilizing other carbon sources (e.g. riverine DOC and POC) and that gulf waters are net heterotrophic. The pattern of primary production across the estuary—shelf salinity gradient off the southern Papua New Guinea coast is similar to that observed off the Amazon. However, the much lower volume of water exiting the Papuan rivers restricts maximum production to the inshore (<50 km from the coast) rim of the Gulf of Papua. This pattern is mirrored in benthic secondary production indicating close benthic-pelagic coupling.

  3. The flooding of the San Matías Gulf: The Northern Patagonia sea-level curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    2013-12-01

    Northern Patagonia is characterised by tectonic depressions below present sea level. Some of them are today flooded by the sea; others remain emerged although they are at altitudes of - 50 m (Bajo del Gualicho), - 35 m (Salinas Grandes) and - 7 m (Salina La Piedra). San Matías Gulf also was such an emerged depression below contemporary mean sea level during the Late Pleistocene. It flooded between 11,500 and 11,000 years ago, when the sea level surpassed the sill of the gulf (today 50 m below mean sea level) during postglacial sea-level rise. In those days, shrublands extended on the slopes of the tectonic depression. In-situ pieces of woods dredged from the bottom of the gulf at depths of 70 m gave a conventional age of 11,310 ± 150 years BP. We used the wood, together with dated shells from the continental shelf, and shells and organic matter dated from the San Blas, Negro and Chubut coastal plains to construct a sea-level curve. Sea level rise surpassed the present level somewhat before 6000 years BP, reaching a maximum stand of + 6 m. It has since gently diminished towards present sea level.

  4. Climate change signal over Northern Adriatic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampieri, M.; Lionello, P.; Nikulin, G.

    2009-04-01

    In this study we collect the results of several regional climate models from various projects (PRUDENCE, ENSEMBLES, and others). Temperature, precipitation, Sea Level Pressure, 500hPa geopotential height and wind speed are analyzed for Venetia and the Northern Adriatic region. The agreement among models is analyzed for the control runs and for the scenario simulations, and the dispersion among models is evaluated. The importance of resolutions is addressed as well as the changes of climate extremes in future scenarios.

  5. New Observations of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water Intrusion into the Red Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, A.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The three-layer exchange flow between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean during summer is characterized by a thick, northward intrusion of relatively cold, low-salinity and low in dissolved oxygen (< 0.5 ml/l); Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), sandwiched between two thin layers of outflow water. The flux of GAIW into the Red Sea is important in the heat, freshwater and nutrient budgets of the Red Sea, but the structure and pathways of the intrusion are not well-known due to a paucity of hydrographic and direct velocity observations. A research cruise was executed at the eastern side of the Red Sea during September-October 2011 to conduct the first large-scale survey of the intrusion. This mission is part of a series of expeditions in the Red Sea designed to investigate the seasonal Red Sea circulation. Surprisingly, the GAIW intrusion was observed to stretch nearly the entire length of the Red Sea (~1500 km) as a narrow eastern boundary current with subsurface velocity maximum of 0.1-0.3 m/s in the depth range 50-100 m. The intruding layer is weakly stratified compared to the background, possibly an indication of strong vertical mixing as it flows through the strait. Some GAIW was observed to enter deep channels in a coral reef bank (Farasan Banks) located in the southeastern Red Sea, and to enter the Red Sea interior, the latter possibly due to interactions between the boundary current and mesoscale eddies. The pathways and erosion of the GAIW intrusion will likely have major implications for the spatial distribution of biological productivity.

  6. What dominates sea level at the coast: a case study for the Gulf of Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melet, Angélique; Almar, Rafael; Meyssignac, Benoit

    2016-05-01

    Sea level variations and extreme events are a major threat for coastal zones. This threat is expected to worsen with time because low-lying coastal areas are expected to become more vulnerable to flooding and land loss as sea level rises in response to climate change. Sea level variations in the coastal ocean result from a combination of different processes that act at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, the relative importance of processes causing coastal sea level variability at different time-scales is evaluated. Contributions from the altimetry-derived sea-level (including the sea level rise due to the ocean warming and land ice loss in response to climate change), dynamical atmospheric forcing induced sea level (surges), wave-induced run-up and set-up, and astronomical tides are estimated from observational datasets and reanalyses. As these processes impact the coast differently, evaluating their importance is essential for assessment of the local coastline vulnerability. A case study is developed in the Gulf of Guinea over the 1993-2012 period. The leading contributors to sea level variability off Cotonou differ depending on the time-scales considered. The trend is largely dominated by processes included in altimetric data and to a lesser extent by swell-waves run-up. The latter dominates interannual variations. Swell-waves run-up and tides dominate subannual variability. Extreme events are due to the conjunction of high tides and large swell run-up, exhibiting a clear seasonal cycle with more events in boreal summer and a trend mostly related to the trend in altimetric-derived sea-level.

  7. Tectonic evolution of the gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barjous, M.; Mikbel, Sh

    1990-08-01

    Neogene tectonic phases related to stresses which created the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform fault system were recorded from evidence in the central part of the Wadi Araba. The chronological sequence of deformation stages is as follows: (1) Epeirogeny (latest late Eocene-Oligocene). (2) Faulting and warping (?Oligocene-Middle Miocene). (3) Folding striking between north-northeast and northeast, E-W trending and N-S shear faulting, and NW-SE normal faulting (Miocene). (4) Uplift and faulting (Pliocene-Pleistocene). (5) Faulting with volcanic activity (Pleistocene). (6) Sinistral movement along the major shear fault in the Wadi Araba. Indications are that this phase is still active (Pleistocene-Recent). The re-strain phases recognised are clues for the investigated area and the entire region to the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform. Structural features contributing to evidence of strike-slip movement are: drag folds, reverse and normal flower structures, alternation of the downthrown side along the fault trace, gently waved vertical fault planes, horizontal slickensides, transpressive and transtensional pressure ridges and rhombs, linear fault traces without marked vertical throw, and fault plane ridges. A sinistral offset of 40 km along the N-S Al Quweira Fault was deduced from the displacement of distinctive andesitic rocks found on both sides of the fault. For the E-W Salawan Fault, a dextral movement of at least 7 km was determined from the offset of formation boundaries. North-northeast-striking deformed belts containing monoclinal to recumbent en-echelon folds can be seen in the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform fault zone. The axial planes of the folds dip southeast and face northwest. These structural elements indicate local SE-NW compressional stress.

  8. Understanding sea level rise along the Mississippi sector of the US Gulf Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, G. A.; Wolstencroft, M.; Shen, Z.; Tornqvist, T. E.; Kulp, M.; Love, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Mississippi Delta (MD) and the adjacent US Gulf Coast host a significant population,extensive economic activity, and critical ecosystem goods and services. The characteristic rate of 20th century relative sea level rise in the MD is ~10 mm/yr [e.g., Penland and Ramsey, 1990], which is about five times the global mean value. This regional amplification, thought to be dominated by land subsidence, makes this part of the Gulf Coast particularly vulnerable to catastrophic events (e.g., storm surges associated with tropical cyclones) as well as more chronic environmental degradation such as wetland loss from a range of largely human influences [Day et al., 2007]. This paper focuses on improving our understanding of land subsidence in this region via a modelling analysis that considers the influence of sediment loading as well as glacial isostatic adjustment (ice and ocean loading). A number of studies have suggested that sediment isostatic adjustment (SIA) and/or active tectonics are primary contributors to the present-day subsidence of this region [e.g. Dokka et al., 2006; Ivins et al., 2007] and thus contribute several mm/yr of regional basement subsidence. Our model sensitivity analysis considers key components of the regional sediment loading history as well as a range of plausible Earth model parameters. Results indicate that rates due to SIA are likely less that 0.5 mm/yr and those due to GIA can be up to ~2 mm/yr and so the latter plays a more important role. Model output was found to be compatible with both paleo (e.g. relative sea level) and geodetic (Global Positioning System) observations. We therefore conclude that processes other than SIA and GIA, such as sediment compaction in the Holocene sediments, most likely dominate the high rates of sea level change (~10 mm/yr) measured along this part of the Gulf Coast.

  9. Late Glacial to Holocene evolution and sea-level history of Gulf of Gemlik, Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuncu, Asen; Kadir Eriş, K.; Kaslilar, Ayse; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Gasperini, Luca; Filikçi, Betül

    2016-04-01

    The Gulf of Gemlik is an E-W elongated trans-tensional basin with a maximum depth of 113 m, located on the middle strand of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the south eastern part of the Sea of Marmara (SoM). While during the Holocene the sea level in the Gulf of Gemlik changed in tandem with the water level changes in the SoM, it may have been different in the late glacial when the Sea of Marmara was lacustrine. Beside the tectonic activity related to the NAFZ, eustatic sea level changes would have controlled the basin evolution and consequent sedimentary history during the different paleocanographic phases of the SoM. Considering the limited studies on the late glacial-Holocene stratigraph of the Gulf of Gemlik, this study aims to investigate the depositional units and their environments with respect to different allogenic and autogenic controls. For these purposes, we analyzed over 300 2 - 7 kHz bandwidth high-resolution gridded seismic sub-bottom CHIRP profiles together with 70 kHz high resolution multibeam bathymetry with backscatter data. Four seismic stratigraphic units were defined and correlated with chronstratigraphic units in five piston cores covering the last 15.8 ka BP according to radiocarbon ages (14C). The depth-scale accuracy of chronostratigraphic units in cores is of key importance for the precise calculation of sedimentation rates. Correlation between the seismic profiles and cores were made by matching Multi-Sensor Core-Logger (MSCL) data and seismic reflection coefficients and amplitudes for different stratigraphic units. The impedance data derived from the logger were used to generate a synthetic seismogram. We used an approach to display, estimate, and correct the depth-scale discrepancies due to oversampling affecting the upper part of sedimentary series during piston coring. The method is based on the resynchronization of synthetic seismograms computed from high-quality physical property logs to the corresponding CHIRP profiles. Each

  10. Coastal vulnerability assessment of the Northern Gulf of Mexico to sea-level rise and coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Barras, J.A.; Williams, S.J.; Twichell, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise along the Northern Gulf of Mexico from Galveston, TX, to Panama City, FL. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rate, mean tidal range, and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable are combined and an index value is calculated for 1-kilometer grid cells along the coast. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. The CVI assessment presented here builds on an earlier assessment conducted for the Gulf of Mexico. Recent higher resolution shoreline change, land loss, elevation, and subsidence data provide the foundation for a better assessment for the Northern Gulf of Mexico. The areas along the Northern Gulf of Mexico that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are parts of the Louisiana Chenier Plain, Teche-Vermillion Basin, and the Mississippi barrier islands, as well as most of the Terrebonne and Barataria Bay region and the Chandeleur Islands. These very high vulnerability areas have the highest rates of relative sea-level rise and the highest rates of shoreline change or land area loss. The information provided by coastal vulnerability assessments can be used in long-term coastal management and policy decision making.

  11. Sea level variabilities in the Gulf Stream between Cape Hatteras and 50 deg W - A Geosat study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez, Jorge; Zlotnicki, Victor; Fu, Lee-Lueng

    1990-01-01

    Sea level variabilities in the Gulf Stream between Cape Hatteras and 50 deg W were examined by studying sea level residuals, relative to a 2-yr mean sea level, obtained from Geosat altimetry data for the period between November 1986 and December 1988. An array of sea-level time series was constructed for a region bounded by 30 deg N and 45 deg N in latitude and by 80 deg W and 50 deg W longitude. It is shown that the spectral characteristics of this time series varies with geographic location along the Gulf Stream path. Concurrent NOAA IR images are used to aid in the interpretation of sea level observations in terms of the variability of the stream's path, demonstrating the synergistic value of the combination of satellite-altimeter and IR data.

  12. Residence time of pollutants discharged in the Gulf of Kachchh, northwestern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Patgaonkar, Rupali S; Vethamony, P; Lokesh, K S; Babu, M T

    2012-08-01

    A 2D Hydrodynamic-Particle Analysis model was applied to the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) to estimate the residence time of pollutants. The tidal currents in the Gulf have a strong E-W component, which prevents the material in the north being transported towards south. In the regions situated very close to the open boundary, where the GoK waters exchange freely with the northern Arabian Sea, dilution takes place rapidly with the incoming waters and hence, the residence time is on the order of 1 day. Influence of eddies and a dynamic barrier across the Sikka-Mundra section on the residence time is apparent. Eastern GoK shows a relatively large residence time, on the order of 2-4 days, warranting caution while releasing industrial wastes in the northeastern Gulf. The region around location-5 behaves like a bay; the dissolved matter gets trapped in this bay and the residence time increases by 3-4 days.

  13. Geochemical and radiation conditions in coastal landscapes of the Kara Sea Gulf (Novaya Zemlya Archipelago)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Miroshnikov, A. Yu.; Krupskaya, V. V.; Asadulin, En. E.; Semenkov, I. N.; Usacheva, A. A.; Zakusin, S. V.; Terskaya, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    This work considers terrestrial coastal landscapes of Abrosimov and Stepovoi gulfs and Yuzhnii (Southern) Island in the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in the Kara Sea. These areas are dominated by horizons of slightly acidic leptosols and lithic leptosols of 10 cm thick (Stepovoi Gulf) and those of weak skeleton acidic lithic leptosols of 10-15 cm thick (Abrosimov Gulf) covered by moss-shrub assemblages. Kaolinite is formed in a rhizosphere fine earth layer; illite is formed along the leptosol sequence. The studied coastal landscapes are characterized by low accumulation potential of chemical elements, including radionuclides, at higher contents of them. Elements such as Fe and Ti are dispersed in sols, whereas P, S, Cl, Cu, Pb, and Zn are accumulated in soils in minor amounts. Plants accumulate S, P, Cl, Sr, Zn, and 137Cs in minor amounts as well. Elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Cr, V, Co, Ni, Cu, Rb, Zr, Ba, Th, Y, Nb, Pb, and As are attributed to the group of weak biological adsorption. The specific 137Cs activity (Bq kg-1) amounts to 10-150 in plants, 10-300 in moor leptosol horizons, and 1-40 in mull horizons.

  14. Oysters, estuaries, and Late Pleistocene-Holocene sea level, northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, W.W. . Marine Science Program); Shultz, A.W. )

    1993-03-01

    The timing and magnitude of global sea level fluctuations over the past 35 kyr remain nondum ostenduntur after three decades of study. The construction of local relative sea level histories is often complicated by the need to assess regional tectonic and climatic components together. The authors attempt to contribute to an understanding of sea level fluctuations in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico through the application of faunal tracking, using fossil oyster shells as indicators of paleoestuarine environments. They assume that sites on the continental shelf where oysters have been collected were coastal and therefore are reasonable approximations of past shoreline locations and sea-level elevations. They acknowledge that this assumption is a leap of faith for some observers, but is justified as a provisional step toward an independent determination. Insights into Quaternary coastal paleogeography are gathered from locations and radiocarbon ages of American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shells collected from the Alabama continental shelf. Prior to the onset of the last Wisconsinan glaciation (35 to 26 kyr BP), estuaries occupied a zone 20 to 25 km seaward of today's coastline. As glaciation increased and sea level was lowered (23 to 21 kyr BP), open coastal estuarine conditions developed southward. Oysters dating from the lowstand period (20 to 16 kyr BP) have not been collected. As sea level rose over the next 10 kyr (16 to 6 kyr BP), estuaries were displaced northward in steps. This data on depths and ages can be viewed as supporting an interpretation of fluctuating Holocene sea level, rather than a steady sea-level rise.

  15. Spatial structure of the sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiz, I.; Tejedor, B.; Gómez-Enri, J.; Aboitiz, A.; Villares, P.

    2012-09-01

    Sea level anomaly maps from altimeter (AVISO) were retrieved for the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) for the period 1997-2008, along with maps of Dynamic Atmospheric Correction (DAC), atmospheric pressure at sea level and satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Data were averaged in time to obtain maps of monthly mean time series in order to analyze the seasonal variability of sea level and its main forcing agents along the GoC. Moreover, a very high resolution climatology for the region was combined with the SST maps to explore the steric contribution with enough spatial resolution near the coast. The AVISO sea level anomaly monthly maps were initially de-corrected using the DAC product and then corrected using the inverted barometer method. Atmospheric pressure explained more than 55% of the sea level variance offshore and between 35-45% within the continental shelf. The amplitude of the pressureadjusted sea level semiannual signal was considerably reduced, confirming its meteorological origin. The steric contribution on the pressure-adjusted sea level was addressed by considering local, open ocean, basin-wide and continental shelf steric effects. The open ocean contribution explained the highest percentage of variance all over the basin with the exception of the western shelf, where the best results were obtained with the local contribution. After correcting for the best steric contribution, the amplitude of the remaining offshore annual signal was negligible (0.5-1.0 ± 1 cm). As for the continental shelves, 2- 3 cm (± 0.5-1 cm) of the annual signal remained unexplained, probably due to local effects related with the shelves dynamics.

  16. Regional sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz from radar altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Enri, Jesus; Laiz, Irene; Tejedor, Begoña; Aboitiz, Alazne; Villares, Pilar

    2013-04-01

    AVISO sea level anomaly weekely maps from radar altimetry were retrieved for the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) (1997-2008), along with maps of Dynamic Atmospheric Correction (DAC), atmospheric pressure at sea level and satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Data were averaged in time to obtain maps of monthly mean time series in order to analyze the seasonal variability of sea level and its main forcing agents along the GoC. Moreover, a very high resolution climatology for the region was combined with the SST maps to explore the steric contribution with enough spatial resolution near the coast. The AVISO sea level anomaly monthly maps were initially de-corrected using the DAC product and then corrected using the inverted barometer method. Atmospheric pressure explained more than 55% of the sea level variance offshore and between 35-45% within the continental shelf. The amplitude of the pressure-adjusted sea level semiannual signal was considerably reduced, confirming its meteorological origin. The steric contribution on the pressure-adjusted sea level was addressed by considering local, open ocean, basin-wide and continental shelf steric effects. The open ocean contribution explained the highest percentage of variance all over the basin with the exception of the western shelf, where the best results were obtained with the local contribution. After correcting for the best steric contribution, the amplitude of the remaining offshore annual signal was negligible (0.5-1.0 ± 1 cm). As for the continental shelves, 2-3 cm (± 0.5-1 cm) of the annual signal remained unexplained, probably due to local effects related with the shelves dynamics.

  17. Radiative transfer modeling applied to sea water constituent determination. [Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, K. H.

    1979-01-01

    Optical radiation from the sea is influenced by pigments dissolved in the water and contained in discrete organisms suspended in the sea, and by pigmented and unpigmented inorganic and organic particles. The problem of extracting the information concerning these pigments and particulates from the optical properties of the sea is addressed and the properties which determine characteristics of the radiation that a remote sensor will detect and measure are considered. The results of the application of the volume scattering function model to the data collected in the Gulf of Mexico and its environs indicate that the size distribution of the concentrations of particles found in the sea can be predicted from measurements of the volume scattering function. Furthermore, with the volume scattering function model and knowledge of the absorption spectra of dissolved pigments, the radiative transfer model can compute a distribution of particle sizes and indices of refraction and concentration of dissolved pigments that give an upwelling light spectrum that closely matches measurements of that spectrum at sea.

  18. Underwater sightings of sea turtles in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosman, I.; Boland, G.S.; Martin, L.; Chandler, C.

    1987-10-01

    Between 1975 and 1985, eight scientific studies were conducted in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The purpose here was to review the data collected from all eight studies for information concerning underwater sightings of sea turtles. Records of 1,024 scuba dives, 909 hours of underwater video and submersible observations, and some 1,500 days of time-lapse photographic observations were compiled from published reports, data logs, and photographic material. The effort yielded 268 verifiable underwater sightings of sea turtles, 231 of which came from time-lapse cameras. The majority of sightings that could be identified by species were of loggerheads. Other species sighted included three leatherbacks and one Kemp's Ridley.

  19. Modeling the drift of plastics in the Adriatic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Lecci, Rita; Creti, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Recently, plastic pollution at sea has become widely recognized as an acute environmental problem. Distribution of plastics in the marine environment is controlled by (1) locations and time-varying intensity of inputs; (2) the dynamics of the upper mixed layer of the ocean, where the majority of plastics float; and (3) the sinks of plastics. In the present work, we calculate the plastic concentrations at the sea surface and fluxes onto the coastline (2009-2015) that originated from terrestrial and maritime inputs. We construct a Markov chain model based on coupling the MEDSLIK-II model (De Dominicis et al., 2013) with the daily Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS) ocean currents simulations (1/45° horizontal resolution) (Guarneri et al., 2010) and ECMWF surface wind analyses (0.25° horizontal and 6-h temporal resolutions). We assume that the coastline is the main sink of plastics in the Adriatic Sea (Liubartseva et al., 2015). Our calculations have shown that the mean particle half-life in the basin approximately equals 43.7 days, which allows us to define the Adriatic Sea as a highly dissipative system with respect to floating plastics. On long-term time-mean scales, the most polluted sea surface area (more than 10 g/km2 floating plastics) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. That corresponds to the spatial distributions of plastic inputs, and indicates a tight connection with patterns of the general Adriatic circulation, including the Western Adriatic Coastal Current and the South Adriatic gyre. On seasonal time-mean scales, we indicate the winter plastics' expansion into the basin's interior, spring trapping in the northern Adriatic, summer cleansing the middle and southern Adriatic and autumn spreading into the southeastern Adriatic. Distinctive coastal "hot spot" is found on the Po Delta coastline that receives a plastic flux of 70 kg/(kmṡday). Complex source-receptor relationships

  20. Marine Magnetic Anomalies of the Northern Part of the Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Zoubi, A.

    2009-04-01

    MARINE MAGNETIC ANOMALIES OF THE NORTHERN PART OF THE GULF OF AQABA, DEAD SEA RIFT Al-Zoubi (1), Z. Ben-Avraham (2), T. M. Niemi (3), E. Akawi (1), G. Tibor (4), R. Al-Rzouq (1), J.K. Hall (5), A. Abueladas (1), G. Hartman (2) (1) Surveying & Geomatics Department, Al-Balqa' Applied University, Salt, Jordan (2) Department of Geophysics & Planetary Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (3) University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA. (4) Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa, Israel (5) Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel A high-resolution marine magnetic survey in the northern part of the Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift was carried out during October and November 2006. The survey led by an international research group (Israel, Jordan, and USA) funded by MERC, USA and aims to provide the municipalities of Aqaba and Elat a base map of active faults for seismic hazard assessment. The total magnetic intensity at sea surface was measured by a proton precession magnetometer. Diurnal magnetic variation was corrected from the data by using the observation located in southern part of Israel during the survey period. The correction of the external field variation was carried out based on the continuous magnetic observations at a reference magnetic observatory close to the survey area. For calculations of the total intensity of magnetic anomaly, the IGRF model was used as the core field model in accordance with the recommendation of the IAGA. Geomagnetic total intensity anomaly map of the study area has been produced. The magnetic anomaly map shows that there are two major magnetic trends appear in the study area. These are the magnetic high across the northwest section of the Gulf and a magnetic low across the southeast section. These two general trends are divided by a northeast-trending boundary. The magnetic map reveals a complex faults system between the deep part of the Gulf as a pull-apart basin and the on land transform fault in the Araba

  1. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2015-07-01

    We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  2. Comparative assessment of the reproductive status of female Atlantic bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jessica M; Aranda, Guillermo; Medina, Antonio; Lutcavage, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Despite attention focused on the population status and rebuilding trajectory of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), the reproduction and spawning biology remains poorly understood, especially in the NW Atlantic. At present, the eastern and western spawning populations are believed to exhibit different reproductive characteristics and, consequently, stock productivity. However, our study suggests that the two spawning populations, the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, could show similar reproductive features and spawning strategies. Between 2007 and 2009, gonad samples from female Atlantic bluefin tuna were collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico (n = 147) and in the western Mediterranean Sea (n = 40). The histological and stereological analysis confirmed that sampled eastern and western bluefin tuna exhibit the same spawning duration (three months) but the spawning in the Gulf of Mexico begins one month earlier than in the Mediterranean Sea. Western bluefin tuna caught in the peak of the spawning season (May) showed a similar spawning frequency (60%) to the spawning peak observed in the Mediterranean Sea (June). Fecundity for the Gulf of Mexico fish (28.14 eggs · g(-1)) was lower but not significantly different than for fish sampled in the Mediterranean Sea (45.56 eggs · g(-1)). Our study represents the first comparative histological analysis of the eastern and western spawning stocks whose findings, combined with new determinations of size/age at maturity and possible alternative spawning areas, might suggest basic life history attributes warrant further scientific and management attention.

  3. Comparative Assessment of the Reproductive Status of Female Atlantic Bluefin Tuna from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Jessica M.; Aranda, Guillermo; Medina, Antonio; Lutcavage, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Despite attention focused on the population status and rebuilding trajectory of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), the reproduction and spawning biology remains poorly understood, especially in the NW Atlantic. At present, the eastern and western spawning populations are believed to exhibit different reproductive characteristics and, consequently, stock productivity. However, our study suggests that the two spawning populations, the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, could show similar reproductive features and spawning strategies. Between 2007 and 2009, gonad samples from female Atlantic bluefin tuna were collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico (n = 147) and in the western Mediterranean Sea (n = 40). The histological and stereological analysis confirmed that sampled eastern and western bluefin tuna exhibit the same spawning duration (three months) but the spawning in the Gulf of Mexico begins one month earlier than in the Mediterranean Sea. Western bluefin tuna caught in the peak of the spawning season (May) showed a similar spawning frequency (60%) to the spawning peak observed in the Mediterranean Sea (June). Fecundity for the Gulf of Mexico fish () was lower but not significantly different than for fish sampled in the Mediterranean Sea (). Our study represents the first comparative histological analysis of the eastern and western spawning stocks whose findings, combined with new determinations of size/age at maturity and possible alternative spawning areas, might suggest basic life history attributes warrant further scientific and management attention. PMID:24911973

  4. Analyzing the Modeled Tidal Signal in the Bab El Mandeb Strait and Adjacent Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillory, R. N. B.

    2014-12-01

    The tidal forces that dominate the Bab el Mandeb region are influenced by both the generally semi-diurnal tides in the Red Sea and mixed tides in the Gulf of Aden. Also, the tidal ranges are much greater in the Gulf of Aden (~ 2 m) than in the Red Sea (< 1m), which further complicates the tidal signal in Bab el Mandeb Strait. The Red Sea Regional Navy Coastal Model (NCOM), which includes the entire Red Sea, and the western part of the Gulf of Aden at a 1 km resolution, will be evaluated on how well it replicates the tidal signal described in literature and historical observations. In addition, the model will be compared to available temperature/salinity in situ profiles. NCOM incorporates the Oregon State University Tide Model, which should allow the ocean model to accurately reflect the transitional tides in the Bab el Mandeb Strait. Preliminary estimates indicate that the model replicates the overall circulation pattern seen in literature and the fact that there are higher tidal amplitudes in the Gulf of Aden than in the Red Sea. Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited

  5. Antibodies against Leptospira interrogans in California sea lion pups from Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Godínez, C R; Zelaya de Romillo, B; Aurioles-Gamboa, D; Verdugo-Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez-Reyes, E A; De la Peña-Moctezuma, A

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-five serum samples from California sea lion (Zalophus californianus californianus) pups, and one from an adult female from eight reproductive rookeries located in seven islands in the Gulf of California (Mexico), were collected during the 1994-96 reproductive seasons. These were tested for antibodies to 19 serovars of Leptospira interrogans using a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Forty-one samples (32%) had antibody levels from 1:20 to 1:320 to one or more serovars. The most frequently detected serotypes were Leptospira interrogans hardjo (n = 13), cynopteri (8), ballum (6), and szwajizak (5). Serovars with the highest prevalence were Leptospira interrogans hardjo and serjoe (1:320), ballum (1:160), and cynopteri, girppotyphosa, and tarassovi (1:80). Based on these results, exposure of sea lions to L. interrogans serovar hardjo seems to be relatively common among colonies located in the islands of the Gulf of California in contrast with those located on the Pacific coast, where the most frequently detected serovar is L. interrogans serovar pomona.

  6. Sea level rise and tidal power plants in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelling, Holly E.; Mattias Green, J. A.

    2013-06-01

    The response of the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine to large-scale tidal power plants and future sea-level rise is investigated using an established numerical tidal model. Free stream tidal turbines were simulated within the Bay of Fundy by implementing an additional bed friction term, Kt. The present-day maximum tidal power output was determined to be 7.1 GW, and required Kt = 0.03. Extraction at this level would lead to large changes in the tidal amplitudes across the Gulf of Maine. With future SLR implemented, the energy available for extraction increases with 0.5-1 GW per m SLR. SLR simulations without tidal power extraction revealed that the response of the semidiurnal tides to SLR is highly dependent on how changes in sea level are implemented in the model. When extensive flood defenses are assumed at the present-day coast line, the response to SLR is far larger than when land is allowed to (permanently) flood. For example, within the Bay of Fundy itself, the M2 amplitude increases with nearly 0.12 m per m SLR without flooding, but it changes with only 0.03 m per m SLR with flooding. We suggest that this is due to the flooding of land cells changing the resonant properties of the basin.

  7. Growth rate and age distribution of deep-sea black corals in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, N.G.; Roark, E.B.; Buster, N.A.; Ross, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Black corals (order Antipatharia) are important long-lived, habitat-forming, sessile, benthic suspension feeders that are found in all oceans and are usually found in water depths greater than 30 m. Deep-water black corals are some of the slowest-growing, longest-lived deep-sea corals known. Previous age dating of a limited number of black coral samples in the Gulf of Mexico focused on extrapolated ages and growth rates based on skeletal 210Pb dating. Our results greatly expand the age and growth rate data of black corals from the Gulf of Mexico. Radiocarbon analysis of the oldest Leiopathes sp. specimen from the upper De Soto Slope at 300 m water depth indicates that these animals have been growing continuously for at least the last 2 millennia, with growth rates ranging from 8 to 22 µm yr–1. Visual growth ring counts based on scanning electron microscopy images were in good agreement with the 14C-derived ages, suggestive of annual ring formation. The presence of bomb-derived 14C in the outermost samples confirms sinking particulate organic matter as the dominant carbon source and suggests a link between the deep-sea and surface ocean. There was a high degree of reproducibility found between multiple discs cut from the base of each specimen, as well as within duplicate subsamples. Robust 14C-derived chronologies and known surface ocean 14C reservoir age constraints in the Gulf of Mexico provided reliable calendar ages with future application to the development of proxy records.

  8. Seasonal development of the properties and composition of landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granskog, Mats A.; LeppäRanta, Matti; Kawamura, Toshiyuki; Ehn, Jens; Shirasawa, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    The seasonal development of the structure, salinity, and stable oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of landfast sea ice was studied during the winter seasons 1999-2001 in the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea. The main focuses were on the seasonal and the interannual variability in ice properties and composition and on the contribution of meteoric ice to sea ice mass balance. Results provide a first statistical description of the seasonal evolution of sea ice in mild ice climate conditions. The ice has a characteristic structure with an upper granular ice layer, composed almost exclusively of superimposed ice and snow-ice, averaging at 20-35% of the total ice thickness. The remaining is composed of columnar or intermediate granular columnar ice, depending on growth conditions. While salinity shows a uniform profile through the ice, δ18O shows lower values in the surface because of meteoric ice formation. The thin ice cover is susceptible to changes in atmospheric conditions, and rapid changes in ice salinity are connected to changes in the ice thermal regime and flooding. The contribution of meteoric ice varied from 0 to 35% (by mass), depending on season and year. Superimposed ice formation is a recurring process and significantly contributed to ice growth (up to 20% by mass), especially late in the season during snowmelt-freeze cycles. Liquid precipitation also cause formation of intermittent superimposed ice layers at these latitudes. The contribution of meteoric ice to sea ice mass balance is largely dependent on the amount and timing of snow accumulation and timing of snowmelt-freeze processes, which all showed large year-to-year variation. The conditions presented here may start to occur at higher latitudes if global warming continues.

  9. Reconstructing Late Holocene Relative Sea-level Changes on the Gulf Coast of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, M. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Kemp, A.; Moyer, R. P.; Smoak, J. M.; Bernhardt, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about late Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) along the Gulf Coast of Florida. A RSL reconstruction from this region is needed to fill a spatial gap in sea-level records which can be used to support coastal management, contribute geologic data for Earth-Ice models estimating late Holocene land-level change and serve as the basis for which future projections of sea-level rise must be superimposed. Further, this dataset is crucial to understanding the presence/absence and non-synchronous timing of small sea-level oscillations (e.g. rise at ~ 1000 A.D.; fall at ~ 1400 A.D.) during the past 2000 years on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States that may be linked to climate anomalies. We present the results of a high-resolution RSL reconstruction based on the sediment record of two salt marshes on the eastern margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Two ~1.3m cores primarily composed of Juncus roemeranius peat reveal RSL changes over the past ~2000 years in the southern end of Tampa Bay and in Charlotte Harbor, Florida. Two study sites were used to isolate localized factors affecting RSL at either location. Lithostratigraphic analysis at both sites identifies a transition from sandy-silt layers into salt-marsh peat at the bottom of each core. The two records show continuous accumulation of salt-marsh peat with Juncus roemeranius macrofossils and intermittent sand horizons likely reflecting inundation events. We used vertically zoned assemblages of modern foraminifera to assign the indicative meaning. The high marsh is dominated by Ammoastuta inepta, Haplophragmoides wilberti, and Arenoparella mexicana, with low marsh and tidal flats identified by Ammobaculites spp. and Miliammina fusca. Chronologies for these study sites were established using AMS radiocarbon dating of in-situ plant macrofossils, Cs137, Pb210 and pollen and pollution chronohorizons. Our regional RSL curve will add additional data for constraining the mechanisms causing RSL change.

  10. Directional sea state criteria for deepwater Gulf of Mexico compliant towers

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.S.; Morrison, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    Directional sea state criteria have been developed for deepwater compliant towers which accommodate for the fact that the loading intensity of extreme Gulf of Mexico (GOM) storms and their resulting structural responses change with direction. The methodology used results in a more consistent approach to establish structural strength (in different directions) relative to the preferred directions of extreme storms. In the past, structures have been designed to withstand the omni-directional extreme event from all directions although it is very unlikely to occur from most directions. Structures designed to the proposed directional criteria, unlike structures designed to omni-directional criteria, must carefully assess the impact of their directional orientation. The directional criteria include the effects of hurricanes combined with Loop Currents, random waves, sea state directionality, and current blockage. The presented approach to directional wave criteria resulted in a drop of the severity of the extreme storm sea states from previously established intensities. A noticeable savings in steel costs accompanies this drop. Both the conventional (omni-directional) and the proposed (by-direction) methods use 3-dimensional wave theories. The new by-direction technique should not be confused with adding spread wave theory to criteria development. Rather, the authors introduce a methodology to capitalize on the storm sea state heading directionality (i.e. differences in storm intensities for different headings).

  11. Dtection of Sea Level Rise within the Arabian Gulf Using Space Based GNSS Measurements and Insitu Tide Gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, Abdulaziz; Ayhan, Mehmet

    In the 21st century, sea level rise is expected to be about 30 cm or even more (up to 60 cm). Saudi Arabia has very long coasts of about 3400 km and hundreds of islands. Therefore, sea level monitoring may be important in particular along coastal low lands on Red Sea and Arabian Gulf coasts. Arabian Gulf is connected to Indian Ocean and lying along a parallel course in the south-west of the Zagros Trust Belt. We expect vertical land motion within the area due to both tectonic structures of the Arabian Peninsula and oil production activities. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Continues observations were used to estimate the vertical crustal motion. Bahrain International GPS Service (IGS-GPS) station is the only continuous GPS station accessible in the region, and it is close to the Mina Sulman tide gauge station in Bahrain. The weekly GPS time series of vertical component at Bahrain IGS-GPS station referring to the ITRF97 from 1999.2 to 2008.6 are used in the computation. We fitted a linear trend with an annual signal and a break to the GPS vertical time series and found a vertical land motion rate of 0.46 0.11 mm/yr. To investigate sea level variation within the west of Arabian Gulf, monthly means of sea level at 13 tide gauges along the coast of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, available in the database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), are studied. We analyzed separately the monthly mean sea level measurements at each station, and estimated secular sea level rate by a robust linear trend fitting. We computed the average relative sea level rise rate of 1.96 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf based on 4 stations spanning longer than 19 years. Sea level rates at the stations are first corrected for vertical land motion contamination using the ICE-5G v1.2 VM4 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model, and the average sea level rate is found 2.27 0.21 mm/yr. Assuming the vertical rate at Bahrain IGS-GPS station represents the vertical rate

  12. Recent kinematics of the tectonic plates surrounding the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schettino, Antonio; Macchiavelli, Chiara; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Zanoni, Davide; Rasul, Najeeb

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden represent two young basins that formed between Africa and Arabia since the early Oligocene, floored by oceanic crust or by transitional and thinned continental crust. While in the easternmost Gulf of Aden the rift-drift transition can be dated chron C6 (˜20.1 Ma), here we show that in the Red Sea the first pulse of sea floor spreading occurred during chron C3n.2n (˜4.6 Ma) around ˜17.1°N (present-day coordinates) and propagated southwards from this location, separating the Danakil microplate from Arabia. It is also shown that sea floor spreading between Arabia and Nubia started later, around chron 2A (˜2.58 Ma), and propagated northwards. At present, there is no magnetic evidence for the existence of a linear spreading center in the northern Red Sea at latitudes higher than ˜24°N and in the southern Red Sea below ˜14.8°N. The present-day plate kinematics of this region can be described with high accuracy by a network of five interacting plates (Nubia, Arabia, Somalia, Sinai, and Danakil) and six triple junctions. For times older than anomaly 2A (˜2.58 Ma) and up to anomaly 3, the absence of marine magnetic anomalies between Arabia and Nubia prevents a rigorous kinematic description of the five-plates system. However, there is strong evidence that the unique changes in plate motions during the last five Myrs were a dramatic slowdown at chron C2 (˜1.77 Ma) in the spreading or extension rates along the ridge and rift axes, thereby a good representation of the real plate motions can be obtained anyway by backward extension of the oldest Arabia - Nubia and Arabia - Danakil stage rotations determined on the basis of marine magnetic anomalies, respectively C2 - C2A and C2A - C3. The proposed kinematic reconstructions are accompanied by a geodynamic explanation for the genesis of large continent-continent fracture zones at the rift-drift transition and by an analysis of the strain associated with plate motions in Afar, northeastern

  13. Gulf of Suez-Rift basin stratigraphy: an interplay of subsidence and Eustatic sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, M.; Arthur, M.A.

    1987-05-01

    The Gulf of Suez and Red Sea rift basin underwent a period of rapid subsidence from the early Miocene to the Pliocene during which time a thick (up to 4 km) series of marine evaporites accumulated within the basin. The evaporitic sequence interfingers with carbonates and clastics over structural highs within and along the margins of the basin. Evaporite deposition was also interrupted basin wide by short periods of normal marine sedimentation. Timing and paleo-oceanographic aspects of evaporite deposition within the rift is controversial. A change over of marine source waters within the basin from the Mediterranean Sea to an opening of the rift to the Indian Ocean occurred sometime between the earliest Messinian and earliest Pliocene. Preliminary data suggests that anhydrites from this evaporite sequence retain original Miocene sea water Sr/sup 87//Sr/sup 86/ values which can be compared to Neogene strontium isotope versus time curves in order to further constrain the age of the nonfossiliferous evaporite group. This, combined with currently accepted biostratigraphies for the normal marine strata, enable us to refine rift stratigraphy in order to examine basin subsidence, evaporite accumulation rates, and the correlation of rift tectonics, sedimentation, and associated paleo-oceanographic events. Initial fragmentation and subsidence propagated from the south to the north in the Gulf of Suez during the Aquitanian to Burdigalian (20-25 Ma), and mixed clastic, carbonate, and evaporitic sediments (Nukhul Formation) up to 700 m thick were deposited in isolated subbasins within the rift. This episode was followed by renewed uplift of the rift shoulders, rapid subsidence, and increased clastic influx (late Rudeis Formation) during the Burdigalian (ca. 20-17 Ma).

  14. Challenges in modeling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedigh Marvasti, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Dunne, J. P.; Ghader, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in harmful algal blooms in the Northwest Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman, raising the question of whether climate change will accelerate this trend. This has led us to examine whether the Earth System Models used to simulate phytoplankton productivity accurately capture bloom dynamics in this region - both in terms of the annual cycle and interannual variability. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color) show two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. Two coarse (1°) models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ) capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6) with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING) displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The models fail to capture both the magnitude of the wintertime bloom and its modulation by eddies in part because of their failure to capture the observed sharp thermocline and/or nutricline in this region. When CM2.6 is able to capture such features in the Southern part of the basin, eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature). For the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf - something that is poorly done in global models.

  15. Decadal variability in Gulf of Mexico sea surface temperatures since 1734 CE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLong, K. L.; Maupin, C. R.; Flannery, J. A.; Quinn, T. M.; lin, K.; Shen, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico is a major source of moisture to North America and is a source region for the Gulf Stream, which transports ocean heat northward. Sea surface temperature (SST) variations on centennial to millennial time scales have been documented for this region using paleoceanographic proxies; however, records capable of resolving decadal to subannual variability are lacking. Here we present 274 years of monthly-resolved SST variations derived from records of strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) extracted from four Siderastrea siderea cores recovered from coral colonies within the Dry Tortugas National Park (24°42‧N, 82°48‧W) in the Gulf of Mexico. We find no significant difference in mean Sr/Ca among these cores and significant correlation between cores (r ≥ 0.90, p ≤ 0.05 for monthly). The cross-dated chronology, determined by counting annual bands and correlating Sr/Ca variations, agrees with four 230Th dates within ±2σ analytical precision. Calibration and verification of our multi-core coral Sr/Ca record with local temperature records reveals high agreement (Sr/Ca = -0.042 SST + 10.074, R2 = 0.96; σregression = 0.70°C, 1σ), similar to those reported for single cores from this location. We find winter SSTs tend to be more variable than summer SSTs (0.99 and 0.81°C, 1σ; respectively) with periodic intervals of 10 to 15 years with cooler summer temperatures. The average reconstructed SST during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1734-1880 CE) is colder (-0.82°C) than that during the late twentieth century (1971-2000 CE). The amplitude of decadal-scale variability (1 to 2.5°C) in the LIA is larger compared to similar scale variability in the twentieth century. The secular trend and decadal-scale variability in our reconstruction is broadly similar to an ~ decadally-resolved (~12 years/sample) Mg/Ca record from planktic foraminifer in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Richey et al., 2007), thus further confirming the reconstructed patterns of temperature

  16. 75 FR 21600 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW07 Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and Tanner Crab Fisheries in the Bering...

  17. Programme for Environmental Studies, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, Jeddah II Conference, 12-18 January 1976. Provisional Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This publication presents the report of Jeddah II Conference of the Program for Environmental Studies, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA) hosted by King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah in January 1976. The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) initiated the conference to study the issues of scientific research on,…

  18. Reconstruction of Sea/Lake-Level Changes in an Active Strike-Slip Basin (Gulf of Cariaco, NE Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Daele, M.; Audemard, F.; Beck, C.; de Batist, M.; van Welden, A.; Moernaut, J.; 2006 Shipboard Party, G.

    2008-05-01

    In January 2006, 76 high-resolution reflection seismic profiles were acquired in the Gulf of Cariaco, Northeast Venezuela. In the upper 100 m of sedimentary infill, 17 unconformity-bounded sequences were identified and mapped throughout the basin. Up to now, no core or borehole information is available to provide age constraints on these units. The sedimentary infill is cut by several faults, Riedel faults in the central part and the El Pilar fault (one of the main faults of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary) in the southern part of the gulf. The connection of the Gulf of Cariaco with the adjacent Cariaco Basin occurs at a present-day water depth of ~ 55 m. This implies that the gulf was disconnected from the world ocean and functioned as a lake during a large part of the last glacial. The main rivers entering the gulf drain the coastal mountain ranges and tend to form pronounced deltas at their inlet. During times when the gulf was a lake, periods with a dry climate resulted in dramatic lake-level lowstands and even complete desiccation/evaporation. The present-day depths of delta offlap breaks and the presence of lowstand/evaporite deposits can thus be used to estimate sea/lake level at the time of their formation. Detailed analysis of these stratigraphic sea/lake-level indicators allowed reconstructing the sea/lake-level history for the period encompassed by the 17 identified sequences. This sea/lake-level reconstruction also needed to be corrected for tectonic subsidence, affecting different parts of the gulf with different intensity. The reconstructed sea/lake-level curve of the Gulf of Cariaco was compared with the eustatic sea-level curve and with results of previous paleoclimate studies in Venezuela. The striking coherence between the eustatic curve and the amplitudes and absolute heights of successive reconstructed lowstands and highstands compelled us to tune our record to the eustatic curve in order to achieve a rough age estimate for our units

  19. Turbulence observations in the Gulf of Trieste under moderate wind forcing and different water column stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Kantha, Lakshmi; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bonaldo, Davide; Barbariol, Francesco; Malačič, Vlado; Sclavo, Mauro; Carniel, Sandro

    2016-03-01

    The oceanographic campaign CARPET2014 (Characterizing Adriatic Region Preconditionig EvenTs), (30 January-4 February 2014) collected the very first turbulence data in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) under moderate wind (average wind speed 10 m s-1) and heat flux (net negative heat flux ranging from 150 to 400 W m-2). Observations consisted of 38 CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) casts and 478 microstructure profiles (grouped into 145 ensembles) with three sets of yoyo casts, each lasting for about 12 consecutive hours. Averaging closely repeated casts, such as the ensembles, can lead to a smearing effect when in the presence of a vertical density structure with strong interfaces that can move up or down between subsequent casts under the influence of tides and internal waves. In order to minimize the smearing effect of such displacements on mean quantities, we developed an algorithm to realign successive microstructure profiles to produce sharper and more meaningful mean profiles of measured turbulence parameters. During the campaign, the water column in the gulf evolved from well-mixed to stratified conditions due to Adriatic waters intruding at the bottom along the gulf's south-eastern coast. We show that during the warm and relatively dry winter, the water column in the Gulf of Trieste, even under moderate wind forcing, was not completely mixed due to the influence of bottom waters intruding from the open sea. Inside the gulf, two types of water intrusions were found during yoyo casts: one coming from the northern coast of the Adriatic Sea (i.e. cooler, fresher and more turbid) and one coming from the open sea in front of the Po Delta (i.e. warmer, saltier and less turbid). The two intrusions had different impacts on turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate profiles. The former, with high turbidity, acted as a barrier to wind-driven turbulence, while the latter, with low sediment concentrations and a smaller vertical density gradient, was not

  20. Long Term Seasonal Dynamics of Synechococcus Population Structure in the Gulf of Aqaba, Northern Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Post, Anton F.; Penno, Sigrid; Zandbank, Keren; Paytan, Adina; Huse, Susan M.; Welch, David Mark

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterns of marine Synechococcus diversity across ocean domains have been reported on extensively. However, much less is known of seasonal and multiannual patterns of change in Synechococcus community composition. Here we report on the genotypic diversity of Synechococcus populations in the Gulf of Aqaba, Northern Red Sea, over seven annual cycles of deep mixing and stabile stratification, using ntcA as a phylogenetic marker. Synechococcus clone libraries were dominated by clade II and XII genotypes and a total of eight different clades were identified. Inclusion of ntcA sequences from the Global Ocean Sampling database in our analyses identified members of clade XII from beyond the Gulf of Aqaba, extending its known distribution. Most of the Synechococcus diversity was attributed to members of clade II during the spring bloom, while clade III contributed significantly to diversity during summer stratification. Clade XII diversity was most prevalent in fall and winter. Clade abundances were estimated from pyrosequencing of the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA. Members of clade II dominated Synechococcus communities throughout the year, whereas the less frequent genotypes showed a pattern of seasonal succession. Based on the prevailing nutritional conditions we observed that clade I members thrive at higher nutrient concentrations during winter mixing. Clades V, VI and X became apparent during the transition periods between mixing and stratification. Clade III became prominent during sumeer stratification. We propose that members of clades V, VI, and X, and clade III are Synechococcus ecotypes that are adapted to intermediate and low nutrient levels respectively. This is the first time that molecular analyses have correlated population dynamics of Synechococcus genotypes with temporal fluctuations in nutrient regimes. Since these Synechococcus genotypes are routinely observed in the Gulf of Aqaba we suggest that seasonal fluctuations in nutrient levels

  1. Gulf of Mexico Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystem Studies, 2008-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Most people are familiar with tropical coral reefs, located in warm, well-illuminated, shallow waters. However, corals also exist hundreds and even thousands of meters below the ocean surface, where it is cold and completely dark. These deep-sea corals, also known as cold-water corals, have become a topic of interest due to conservation concerns over the impacts of trawling, exploration for oil and gas, and climate change. Although the existence of these corals has been known since the 1800s, our understanding of their distribution, ecology, and biology is limited due to the technical difficulties of conducting deep-sea research. DISCOVRE (DIversity, Systematics, and COnnectivity of Vulnerable Reef Ecosystems) is a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) program focused on deep-water coral ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. This integrated, multidisciplinary, international effort investigates a variety of topics related to unique and fragile deep-sea coral ecosystems from the microscopic level to the ecosystem level, including components of microbiology, population genetics, paleoecology, food webs, taxonomy, community ecology, physical oceanography, and mapping.

  2. Stratigraphic signature of sub-orbital climate and sea-level changes in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, S. P.; Bassetti, M. A.; Baumann, J.; Dennielou, B.; Jouet, G.; Mauffrey, M.; Sierro, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Promess boreholes in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) provide precise chrono-stratigraphic constraints of the last ca 500 ky, that were nicely preserved at the shelf edge due to high accommodation and important sediment supply from the Rhone River. The major stratigraphic elements in this physiographic domain are Falling Stage Systems Tracts (in the sense of SEPM) linked to 100-ky eustatic cycles. They form wedges pinching out on the middle shelf, and thickening seaward on the outer shelf/upper slope (about 30-40m thick on the outer shelf). Within the uppermost sequence, linked to the last Glacial-Interglacial cycle, internal discontinuities were long described, but they were assigned to autogenic processes such as lobe avulsion or bedform migration. However, careful interpretation of a dense grid of very high resolution seismic data, together with precise chronostratigraphic constraints from borehole data and long piston cores, reveal that distinct parasequences, correlable at the regional scale, correspond to relatively minor sea-level changes linked (a) to Bond Cycles during the end of the Last Glacial, and (b) to an early Melt Water Pulse at the onset of Deglacial sea-level rise. These regressive and transgressive (respectively) parasequences are particularly well preserved in canyon heads, due to better accommodation. We propose that such features are important building blocks of the stratigraphic record, that might be recognized elsewhere on modern continental margins, as well as in the rock record.

  3. Distribution and speciation of metals in surface sediments of Taranto [corrected] gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Buccolieri, Alessandro; Buccolieri, Giovanni; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Dell'Atti, Angelo; Di Leo, Antonella; Maci, Antonella; Petronio, Bianca Maria

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of metals (Al, Fe, Ti, Ni, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb) were determined in surface sediments from Taranto gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy) in order to assess the distribution and the bioavailability of metals. Total metal content and speciation of Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb were determined. Sediment cores were also sampled in some stations of particular interest. The analytical results show that metals distribution does not show significant variations in relation to depth. Metal distribution in the Taranto gulf is mainly influenced by industrial wastes from Taranto town, by rivers of the Basilicata region and by prevailing anticlockwise marine currents. These factors cause an accumulation of metals in the sediments near to the coasts of Calabria. The statistical analysis, effected by HCA and PCA methods, can be considered a good starting point in order to classify sediment samples and to locate accumulation areas. Metal speciation shows that Fe, Ni and Zn are present in sediments mainly as sulphides, Mn is present principally in an ion-exchange form or bound to carbonate, while Cu and Pb are mainly present in the fraction bounds to humic acids.

  4. [Feeding habits of Trichiurus lepturus in Beibu Gulf of South China Sea].

    PubMed

    Yan, Yun-Rong; Chen, Jun-Lan; Hou, Gang; Lu, Huo-Sheng; Jin, Xian-Shi

    2010-03-01

    From August 2008 to September 2009, the feeding habits of Trichurus lepturus L. in Beibu Gulf of South China Sea were studied by monthly sampling and stomach content analysis. In study area, T. lepturus was euryphagous, which fed on fish, cephalopoda, benthic crustacean, and zooplankton, etc., among which, Bregmaceros rarisquamosu, Decapterus maruadsi, and Acetes chinensis were the main prey components, accounting for 37.99%, 16.42%, and 10.03%, respectively. D. maruadsi and Anchoviella heteroloba appeared throughout the Beibu Gulf all year round, and could be served as the index species for the migration and fishing ground distribution of T. lepturus. The indices feeding intensity and stomach fullness differed significantly among seasons (P < 0.001); while the index prey diversity had no significant seasonal difference (P > 0.05), which peaked in autumn and had an annual average value of 1.97. Cluster analysis revealed that when the preanal length of T. lepturus was 190 mm, i. e., at 50% of maturity length, a clear diet shift happened, from small zooplankton, pelagic fishes, and crustacean for the juveniles to predominantly larger fish and cephalopoda for the adults.

  5. Style of extensional tectonism during rifting, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Geologic and geophysical studies from the Arabian continental margin in the southern Red Sea and LANDSAT analysis of the northern Somalia margin in the Gulf of Aden suggest that the early continental rifts were long narrow features that formed by extension on closely spaced normal faults above moderate- to shallow-dipping detachments with break-away zones defining one rift flank and root zones under the opposing rift flank. The rift flanks presently form the opposing continental margins across each ocean basin. The detachment on the Arabian margin dips gently to the west, with a breakaway zone now eroded above the deeply dissected terrain of the Arabian escarpment. A model is proposed in which upper crustal breakup occurs on large detachment faults that have a distinct polarity. -from Author

  6. Desert flash floods form hyperpycnal flows in the coral-rich Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, T.; Ginat, H.; Eyal, G.; Steiner, Z.; Braun, Y.; Shalev, S.; Goodman-Tchernov, B. N.

    2015-05-01

    Running rivers are very scarce in globally distributed hyperarid and arid coastlines (∼28,000 km worldwide), and it is ephemeral rivers that carry most terrestrial sediment into the sea in these regions. However, there is very little information regarding the contribution of terrestrial sediment and dynamics of transport of sediment that enter marine basins from these rivers. One hyperarid region, the Gulf of Aqaba received an exceptional number of flashflood events during the winter of 2012-2013. The results illustrate, for the first time, how the high volume of flashflood sediment influences the distribution of coral reefs; dwarfs the contribution of airborne dust; elevates floodwater densities to produce hyperpycnal flows, despite highest ocean salinities; and is subsequently transported to the deep basin where it may be preserved as a climate archive.

  7. Macrofauna biodiversity of mussel bed assemblages in Thermaikos Gulf (northern Aegean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintiroglou, Chariton-Charles; Damianidis, Panagiotis; Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Lantzouni, Marina; Vafidis, Dimitris

    2004-02-01

    Biomonitoring of mussel bed assemblages can provide valuable information about the impact of pollution on hard substrate assemblages. This study of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel beds in Thermaikos Gulf (northern Aegean Sea) deals with the spatial and temporal structure of the associated fauna. Samples were collected and abiotic factors were measured in two successive years. Common biocoenotic methods were employed to analyze the data. The samples could be separated into three groups, with summer and winter samples being clearly different. A total of 100 species were found: polychaetes and crustaceans were the most dominant taxa. The assemblage shows high diversity with respect to species abundance. Biotic interactions within the assemblage appear to influence its composition, although the total evenness remains unaffected in space and time. The M. galloprovincialis assemblages can be found in clean as well as in polluted waters and, therefore, are of great interest in biomonitoring studies.

  8. Glacial and pluvial periods: their relationship revealed by pleistocene sediments of the red sea and gulf of aden.

    PubMed

    Deuser, W G; Ross, E H; Waterman, L S

    1976-03-19

    Oxygen isotope analyses of planktonic foraminifera from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden indicate that during periods of maximum continental and polar glaciation in the late Pleistocene, the Red Sea was subject to strong evaporation. Between glacial maximums the salinity of the Red Sea was equal to or below that of the open ocean. This suggests that high-latitude glacial periods corresponded in time to interpluvial stages in the present-day desert belt of northern Africa, whereas high-latitude interglacial periods coincided with pluvial stages.

  9. Glacial and pluvial periods: their relationship revealed by pleistocene sediments of the red sea and gulf of aden.

    PubMed

    Deuser, W G; Ross, E H; Waterman, L S

    1976-03-19

    Oxygen isotope analyses of planktonic foraminifera from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden indicate that during periods of maximum continental and polar glaciation in the late Pleistocene, the Red Sea was subject to strong evaporation. Between glacial maximums the salinity of the Red Sea was equal to or below that of the open ocean. This suggests that high-latitude glacial periods corresponded in time to interpluvial stages in the present-day desert belt of northern Africa, whereas high-latitude interglacial periods coincided with pluvial stages. PMID:17781646

  10. Hydrodynamics in the Gulf of Aigues-Mortes, NW Mediterranean Sea: In situ and modelling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leredde, Yann; Denamiel, Cléa; Brambilla, Elena; Lauer-Leredde, Christine; Bouchette, Frédéric; Marsaleix, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    The Gulf of Aigues-Mortes (NW Mediterranean Sea) is a midshelf zone whose scale is an intermediate between the nearshore scale (0-10 m depth) and the coastal scale (including the whole continental shelf). Its hydrodynamics is investigated for the first time. ADCP, CTD and thermosalinograph data were collected during three short cruises (HYGAM; March 6-7, 20-21, April 5-6, 2005). They were scheduled approximately every 15 days to sample the gulf circulation under different weather conditions. Moreover, the cruise data were used to validate the Symphonie model, a 3D primitive equations circulation model. The circulation features displayed by in situ data were well reproduced by Symphonie. A downscaling modelling approach was implemented, the largest scale being obtained by the replay of the MFSTEP regional model of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. The analysis, closely coupling in situ measurements and model results, provides information that would not have been obtained using data separately. The great variability of the oceanic circulation at this scale is well evidenced. Winds are the main forces, not only locally but also at a larger scale. North winds generate coherent structures interacting with the general Mediterranean circulation. The explanation of the induced currents is then not straightforward, some of them being, for example, northward. South and southeast winds reinforce the sloping surface, the latter allowing the geostrophic equilibrium with longshore currents. This study, focused on the end of winter 2004-2005, also enhances the heat fluxes from offshore to nearshore, as well as the initiation of shelf dense waters. The knowledge of the midshelf oceanic circulation is then applied to run a numerical experiment which describes both the dispersion of a fictive contaminant from a point S (at the centre of the GAM), and evaluates the risk of contamination of the beaches along the GAM shores.

  11. Parasite communities of Adriatic cage-reared fish.

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Ivona

    2005-04-01

    From June 2001 to March 2002, 7 semi-offshore facilities in the Adriatic Sea rearing sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, sea bream Sparus aurata, sharpsnout bream Diplodus puntazzo and red sea bream Pagellus bogaraveo aged 1+, were monitored for the presence of protozoan and metazoan parasites. Obtained data sets of abundance and prevalence were used to evaluate the structure and dynamic of infra- and component parasite communities. In all hosts, except the red sea bream, dominant parasites were monogenean specialists, showing clear seasonality. Average infracommunity richness was very low, ranging from 1 to 3 parasites per fish, while at component community level, values ranged from 3 to 8, depending on host species. Based on low diversity indices and a moderate to high similarity coefficient between different facilities, it can be concluded that the parasitofauna of Adriatic cage-reared fish is a stable and impoverished stochastic assemblage, with monogeneans as the predominant parasitic group. PMID:15900691

  12. Meiobenthos under mariculture conditions of the brown seaweed Saccharina japonica in Rifovaya Bay, Peter the Great Gulf, Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belogurova, L. S.; Maslennikov, S. I.

    2016-07-01

    The qualitative and quantitative compositions of free-living marine nematodes were studied in Rifovaya Bay (Peter the Great Gulf, Sea of Japan). It was found that the density distribution of nematode populations in bottom sediments of Rifovaya Bay is nonuniform. In total, 72 nematode species were found, including Oncholaimium paraolium, Viscosia epapilosa, and Monoposthia latiannulata on all types of substrates. The dominant trophic group comprised "predators" (2B) and "scrapers" (2A). It was shown that the species composition of nematodes in Rifovaya Bay is very similar to the species composition of nematodes in the other areas of Peter the Great Gulf.

  13. Morphotectonics of Kid drainage basin, Southeastern Sinai: A landscape evolution coeval to Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, Ahmed; Shawky, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    The Pleistocene fluvio-tectonic conditions have shaped the landscapes of Sinai Peninsula through development of small sedimentary traps following preexisting lineaments. In the Gulf of Aqaba region, orientation of these lineaments with respect to the Pleistocene stress field develops strike-slip simple and dip-slip pure extensional shear models that induced rifting of the Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea fault system. The Beida and Nabq grabens are two major rift-related depressions at the southwestern coast of the Gulf of Aqaba region. Both grabens are landscapes that received alluvial sediments of the Kid drainage basin (KDB), which is one of the largest drainage systems in the western region of the Gulf of Aqaba fault-scarp. The Beida graben is formed at a horse tail structure next to Abiad and Kid faults, while the Nabq graben is a pull-apart structure formed as onshore continuation of the Dakar deep. The geometry and origin of these landscapes are the intrinsic themes of this study to investigate the morphotectonic evolution of the KDB terrain within the tectonic framework of the Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea rift. The hanging terraces and canyons being at higher elevations on the Gulf of Aqaba fault-scarp; and the accumulation of younger alluvial fans, talus cones and bajada on its footslope indicate that the KDB landscape is basically shaped; and evolutionary modified by hinterland uplifting of the Gulf of Aqaba region. Hence, two morphotectonic evolution periods of the KDB terrain coincide with the early NE- and late NNE-trending extensional Pleistocene axes. The early period started with deposition of the older alluvial fan sediments that emerged at the outlet of KDB, and partially buried the Gulf of Aqaba fault-scarp. Subsequent hinterland uplifting revived the Gulf of Aqaba fault-scarp with development of hanging alluvial and bed-rock terraces; and the older alluvial fan sediments are uplifted on the footwall of southward-dipping normal faults whose hanging

  14. Recent kinematics of the tectonic plates surrounding the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schettino, Antonio; Macchiavelli, Chiara; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Zanoni, Davide; Rasul, Najeeb

    2016-10-01

    The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden represent two young basins that formed between Africa and Arabia since the early Oligocene, floored by oceanic crust or by transitional and thinned continental crust. While in the easternmost Gulf of Aden, the rift-drift transition can be dated chron C6 (˜20.1 Ma), here we show that in the Red Sea the first pulse of seafloor spreading occurred during chron C3n.2n (˜4.6 Ma) around ˜17.1°N (present-day coordinates) and propagated southwards from this location, separating the Danakil microplate from Arabia. It is also shown that seafloor spreading between Arabia and Nubia started later, around chron 2A (˜2.58 Ma), and propagated northwards. At present, there is no magnetic evidence for the existence of a linear spreading centre in the northern Red Sea at latitudes higher than ˜24°N and in the southern Red Sea below ˜14.8°N. The present-day plate kinematics of this region can be described with high accuracy by a network of five interacting plates (Nubia, Arabia, Somalia, Sinai and Danakil) and six triple junctions. For times older than anomaly 2A (˜2.58 Ma) and up to anomaly 3, the absence of marine magnetic anomalies between Arabia and Nubia prevents a rigorous kinematic description of the five-plates system. However, there is strong evidence that the unique changes in plate motions during the last 5 Myr were a dramatic slowdown at chron C2 (˜1.77 Ma) in the spreading or extension rates along the ridge and rift axes, thereby a good representation of the real plate motions can be obtained anyway by backward extension of the oldest Arabia-Nubia and Arabia-Danakil stage rotations determined on the basis of marine magnetic anomalies, respectively, C2-C2A and C2A-C3. The proposed kinematic reconstructions are accompanied by a geodynamic explanation for the genesis of large continent-continent fracture zones at the rift-drift transition and by an analysis of the strain associated with plate motions in Afar, northeastern Egypt and

  15. CANEK: 10 Years of Observations and Modeling of the Circulation in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, J.; Sheinbaum, J.; Ochoa, J.; Badan, A.

    2007-05-01

    The studies of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea within the CANEK Program initiated in December 1996 and continue until now. More than 12 oceanographic cruises, the deployment of year-long shallow and deep moorings at several locations within the GM and the Mexican Caribbean and numerical modeling efforts, have permitted to investigate important aspects of the circulation in the region. Among the most important findings of the Program: 1) That the transport through the Yucatan Channel (YC) during (8/1999-7/2001) was 24 Sv, representing a deficit with respect to the transport of the Gulf Stream within 18 degree water characteristic of the Subtropical Atlantic and less than the "expected" 28 Sv. 2) Deep counterflows (from the Gulf of Mexico into the Caribbean Sea) were found on both sides of Yucatan Channel; The deep flow there is intimately related with the extension and penetration of the Loop Current into the Gulf of Mexico. 3) The flow variability in the Mexican Caribbean, including the Yucatan Current, is dominated by the presence of meso-scale eddies of both signs. The vorticity anomalies that flow through the channel directly influence the retraction of the Loop Current and the detachment of anticyclonic eddies, that latter propagate westward, dominating a large part of the observed variability in the Gulf. 4) The circulation on fringing reef lagoons along the Mexican Caribbean is mostly dominated by surface waves breaking over the reef and spilling water inward. These flows are modulated by sea level changes related to the position and intensity of the Yucatan Current. An analysis of these observations in conjunction with satellite altimetry and SST and numerical model simulations, demonstrate the indirect connection between the different basins in the Caribbean Sea, that is modulated by the instability of the prevailing currents in the region

  16. Modelling ice conditions in the easternmost Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchenko, Vladimir; Dvornikov, Anton; Haapala, Jari; Myrberg, Kai

    2010-07-01

    To model ice conditions in the eastern Gulf of Finland, a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is coupled with the advanced sea-ice model HELMI ( Haapala et al., 2005). To test the model in extreme situations, the ice pattern in the eastern Gulf of Finland was simulated for a mild ice winter (2007-2008) and for a moderate one (2003-2004). The reference runs were performed on the assumption that the ice in the model domain is fast ice if the sea depth is less than 10 m. Using this assumption, the ice thickness averaged over the Neva Bay (the easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland) is overestimated by the model for almost the entire wintertime in the mild winter and during the ice formation and melting periods in the moderate winter, as compared with the thickness reported in ice charts. For both winters, the model solution without the assumption of a fast ice region is in better agreement with averaged ice thicknesses from ice charts during the ice formation and ice melting periods. The addition of snow on the ice surface in the model without a fast ice region led to a significant decrease of ice thickness during the entire wintertime period for the moderate winter, so that the model agrees well with the ice thickness estimated from observations. At the same time, the decrease of ice thickness in the mild winter was not strong enough, and the model overestimated the observed ice thickness in the Neva Bay in January-March by about 10 cm. We will show that possible reasons for this are heat sources (warm wastewater) within the Neva Bay and uncertainties in the assumed river temperature. In the case of no fast ice region and snow on ice, the model correctly simulates the spatial distribution of ice thickness seen on ice charts for the mild winter. Despite the absence of irregularities in wind forcing - which was assumed to be homogeneous over the model domain - the modelled ice thickness distributions included meso-scale features such as the ridged and

  17. Analysis of mercury and methylmercury concentrations, and selenium:mercury molar ratios for a toxicological assessment of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the most recent stranding event along the Adriatic coast (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Chiaravalle, E; Gavinelli, S; Monaco, G; Rizzi, M; Abete, M C

    2015-11-01

    Mass stranding of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is a rare event in the Mediterranean Sea. In September 2014, a pod of seven sperm whales became stranded along the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This is the seventh occurrence of this type since 1555 in this sea basin. Total concentrations of mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) were measured from brain, muscle, liver and kidney of three female sperm whales, which died in this event. Analyses showed considerable, age-dependent variations in Hg and Se concentrations in the different organs. The contamination levels of T-Hg in the liver (up to 200 mg kg(-1)) and brain (up to 21 mg kg(-1)) samples were markedly higher than those in the kidney and muscle samples. The liver and brain also showed the highest Se levels. Se:Hg molar ratios ⩾1 were observed in all the organs of the three sperm whales, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg toxicity. The risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity was assessed by comparing our values to thresholds set for neurotoxicity in mammals, and the role of Se in the detoxification process of T-Hg/MeHg is discussed herein.

  18. Analysis of mercury and methylmercury concentrations, and selenium:mercury molar ratios for a toxicological assessment of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the most recent stranding event along the Adriatic coast (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Chiaravalle, E; Gavinelli, S; Monaco, G; Rizzi, M; Abete, M C

    2015-11-01

    Mass stranding of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is a rare event in the Mediterranean Sea. In September 2014, a pod of seven sperm whales became stranded along the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This is the seventh occurrence of this type since 1555 in this sea basin. Total concentrations of mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) were measured from brain, muscle, liver and kidney of three female sperm whales, which died in this event. Analyses showed considerable, age-dependent variations in Hg and Se concentrations in the different organs. The contamination levels of T-Hg in the liver (up to 200 mg kg(-1)) and brain (up to 21 mg kg(-1)) samples were markedly higher than those in the kidney and muscle samples. The liver and brain also showed the highest Se levels. Se:Hg molar ratios ⩾1 were observed in all the organs of the three sperm whales, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg toxicity. The risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity was assessed by comparing our values to thresholds set for neurotoxicity in mammals, and the role of Se in the detoxification process of T-Hg/MeHg is discussed herein. PMID:26233668

  19. Gas hydrate that breaches the sea floor on the continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, I.R.; Guinasso, N.L. Jr.; Sassen, R.; Brooks, J.M.; Lee, L. ); Scott, K.T. )

    1994-08-01

    We report observations that concern formation and dissociation of gas hydrate near the sea floor at depths of [minus]540 m in the northern Gulf of Mexico. In August 1992, three lobes of gas hydrate were partly exposed beneath a thin layer of sediment. By May 1993, the most prominent lobe had evidently broken free and floated away, leaving a patch of disturbed sediment and exposed hydrate. The underside of the gas hydrate was about 0.2[degree]C warmer than ambient sea water and had trapped a large volume of oil and free gas. An in situ monitoring device, deployed on a nearby bed of mussels, recorded sustained releases of gas during a 44 day monitoring period. Gas venting coincided with a temporary rise in water temperature of 1[degree]C, which is consistent with thermally induced dissociation of hydrate composed mainly of methane and water. We conclude that the effects of accumulating buoyant force and fluctuating water temperature cause shallow gas hydrate alternately to check and release gas venting. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Holocene climate variability in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, B.; Sicre, M.-A.; Bassetti, M.-A.; Kallel, N.

    2015-07-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and land-derived input time series were generated from the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf sediments (NW Mediterranean Sea) using alkenones and high-molecular-weight odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (TERR-alkanes), respectively. The SST record depicts three main phases: a warm Early Holocene (∼ 18 ± 0.4 °C) followed by a cooling of ∼ 3 °C (from 7000 to 1000 BP) and rapid warming from ∼ 1850 AD onwards. Several superimposed multi-decadal cooling events of ∼ 1 °C amplitude were also identified. TERR-alkanes were also quantified to identify periods of high river discharge in relation with flood events of the Rhone River and precipitations. Their concentrations show a broad increase from the early Holocene towards present with a pronounced minimum around 2500 BP and large fluctuations during the second part of the Holocene. Comparison with Holocene flood activity reconstructions across the Alps region suggests that sediments of the inner shelf originate mainly from the Upper Rhone River catchment basin and that they are primarily delivered during positive NAO.

  1. Holocene climate variability in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, B.; Sicre, M.-A.; Bassetti, M.-A.; Kallel, N.

    2016-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and land-derived input time series were generated from the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf sediments (NW Mediterranean Sea) using alkenones and high-molecular-weight odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (TERR-alkanes), respectively. The SST record depicts three main phases: a warm Early Holocene ( ˜ 18 ± 0.4 °C) followed by a cooling of ˜ 3 °C between 7000 and 1000 BP, and rapid warming from ˜ 1850 AD onwards. Several superimposed multi-decadal to centennial-scale cold events of ˜ 1 °C amplitude were also identified. TERR-alkanes were quantified in the same sedimentary horizons to identify periods of high Rhone River discharge and compare them with regional flood reconstructions. Concentrations show a broad increase from the Early Holocene towards the present with a pronounced minimum around 2500 BP and large fluctuations during the Late Holocene. Comparison with Holocene flood activity reconstructions across the Alps region suggests that sediments of the inner shelf originate mainly from the Upper Rhone River catchment basin and that they are primarily delivered during positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  2. Modeling of circulation in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman: Skill assessment and seasonal thermohaline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azhar, Muchamad; Temimi, Marouane; Zhao, Jun; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-03-01

    Hindcast simulations of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) are quantitatively evaluated with basin-wide hydrographic data and time series measurements. The model shows comparable skill in reproducing moored observations of current velocities structure in upper and bottom depths. The skill in simulating observed temperature is higher of 0.93 (scale 0-1) in upper depths compared to 0.52 in bottom depths. Model results are sensitive to parameterization of water clarity. A lower sensitivity was noticed to KPP, GLS, and MY2.5 turbulence closures. When coastal turbid water parameterization is used, accuracy of the model in reproducing seasonal and spatial variations of temperature and salinity increased by 25% compared to the clear water case whereas only 10% increase was noticed when applying KPP turbulent closure. The model reproduces well anticlockwise circulation in the Gulf. A stronger surface inflow of fresher water to the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz is simulated in summer compared to winter conditions, mainly due to upper layer horizontal gradient of density between the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. Less seasonal variability of outflow between 0.15 and 0.20 m s-1 at 50 m to bottom depth around the Strait of Hormuz was noticed in the model results. Modeled surface layer stratification is stronger in summer than winter and varies spatially in the Arabian Gulf with highest stratification near the Strait of Hormuz. Overall, the stratification in shallow water area of the Arabian Gulf remains low throughout the year.

  3. Barotropic eastward currents in the western Gulf of Lion, north-western Mediterranean Sea, during stratified conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, A.; Dufau, C.; Estournel, C.

    2008-11-01

    The circulation of the Gulf of Lion, a large continental shelf north of the western basin of the Mediterranean Sea, is complex and highly variable. During stratified conditions, unexpected barotropic eastward currents can be detected, mostly in the western part of the gulf. Care is given to retrieve inertial oscillations when necessary. The primitive-equation free-surface model Symphonie is used to investigate the processes which can generate and influence these eastward currents. Three main wind forcing create these barotropic eastward currents: northwesterlies channelled in the western part of the gulf, northwesterlies and north winds both homogeneous throughout the gulf. In the first case, the wind stress curl of the channeled northwesterlies generates an elongated cyclonic circulation in the western part of the Gulf of Lion. The southern part of this cyclonic circulation is a barotropic eastward current, detected west of longitude 4.5°E. In the second case, a homogeneous northwesterly wind creates an intrusion of the along-slope geostrophic current on the shelf, generating a strong coastal jet going northward above Cap Creus. In stratified conditions, intrusion at this western end of the continental shelf only occurs during this type of wind forcing. The coastal jet goes north then detaches itself from the coast and goes eastward, north of the 100 m isobath. In the third case, a homogeneous north wind creates an eastward current which occupies the whole shelf north of latitude 43°N. The first two cases are studied in more details since cruise data corroborate the model simulations. The striking characteristic of these eastward currents is that they are barotropic despite the stratified conditions. Otherwise, their amplitude and exact locations are slightly different for the different cases of circulation. These eastward currents probably have an impact on the residence time of water masses in the Gulf of Lion, and hence on the total water budget of the gulf

  4. Sixty-year sedimentary record of DDTs, HCHs, CHLs and endosulfan from emerging development gulfs: a case study in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingyang; Wang, Yinghui; Huang, Wenyu; Yao, Huanmei; Xue, Baoming; Xu, Yiyin

    2014-01-01

    The temporal distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was examined in the (210)Pb dated sediment core from the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea. The total OCPs concentrations were in the range of 0.93-26.6 ng g(-1) dry weight. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) (0.17-24.8 ng g(-1)), Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (0.04-0.51 ng g(-1)), Chlordane related compounds (CHLs) (0.22-1.72 ng g(-1)) and endosulfan (n.d.-0.91 ng g(-1)) were the predominant compounds. Similar to most Chinese coastal areas, the levels of DDTs in the Beibu Gulf became elevated since the early 1990s, especially since 2000 despite the ban in 1983 in China. This suggests that the concentrations of DDTs were controlled by several processes, such as land reclamation and soil runoff. The isomer ratios of (p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT/DDTs along with construction land expansion indicated that economic activities, land reclamation, soil runoff and the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints might be responsible for the input of DDT. The ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH (and γ-HCH/HCHs) and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) indicated fresh inputs of lindane and chlordane, respectively. In addition, CC was found to be degraded faster than TC under anaerobic conditions in sediments from the Beibu Gulf.

  5. Sea level change in the Gulf of Thailand from GPS-corrected tide gauge data and multi-satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisirisatayawong, Itthi; Naeije, Marc; Simons, Wim; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana

    2011-04-01

    Investigation of long-term tidal data and short-term altimetry measurements reveals that sea level in the Gulf of Thailand is rising significantly faster than global average rates. Upward land motion detected from repeated precise GPS campaign measurements is used to correct the apparent sea level change from tide gauge, yielding absolute long-term trends as follows: Sattahip (1942-2004) 5.0 ± 1.3 mm/yr, Ko Sichang (1940-1999) 4.5 ± 1.3 mm/yr and Ko Mattaphon (1964-2004) 4.4 ± 1.1 mm/yr. Dual-crossover minimization of multi-mission altimetry data covering the 1993-2009 period reveals the following absolute sea level rates: Sattahip 4.8 ± 0.7 mm/yr, Ko Sichang 5.8 ± 0.8 mm/yr, Ko Lak 3.6 ± 0.7 mm/yr and Ko Mattaphon 3.2 ± 0.7 mm/yr. In other parts of the Gulf, the 1993-2009 rising rates are also in the range of 3 to 5.5 mm/yr. In the entire Gulf we don't find any evidence of sea level falling. At Ko Lak where the collocation of Topex-class altimetry ground track and the tidal station is extremely good, vertical land motion derived from the difference of sea level change rates detected by altimetry and tidal data is used to correct the apparent rate, yielding an absolute long-term (1940-2004) rate of 3.0 ± 1.5 mm/yr. The differences between the altimetry-based rates and the absolute tide gauge sea level trends can be explained by interannual variations like ENSO and decadal variations due to solar activity and lunar nutation. Post-2004 tidal data have been treated separately in our study because reliable values of region-wide vertical co-seismic displacements and post-seismic velocities caused by the 2004 Mw9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake are still not accurately known. Exclusion of these data will not significantly change the determined long-term absolute sea level change rates because of the relatively short time span of post-earthquake sea level data compared to the complete tidal record. The impact of fast rising sea level combined with high rates of post

  6. Sedimentary earthquake records in the İzmit Gulf, Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çağatay, M. N.; Erel, L.; Bellucci, L. G.; Polonia, A.; Gasperini, L.; Eriş, K. K.; Sancar, Ü.; Biltekin, D.; Uçarkuş, G.; Ülgen, U. B.; Damcı, E.

    2012-12-01

    Sedimentary earthquake records of the last 2400 a, including that of the devastating 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake (Mw = 7.4), were studied in cores from the 210 m-deep central Karamürsel Basin of the İzmit Gulf in the eastern Sea of Marmara, using laser grain-size, physical properties, stable O and C isotopes and XRF Core Scanner analyses, and dated by radionuclide and radiocarbon methods. The earthquake records are represented by turbidite-homogenite mass-flow units (THU) that commonly contain a basal coarse layer, a middle laminated silt layer and an overlying homogeneous mud layer. The coarse basal part has a sharp and sometimes scoured lower boundary, and includes multiple coarse (sand/silt) layers or laminae showing normal size grading. Multiple coarse layers and occasional bi-directional cross-bedding suggest deposition from a bed-load during water column oscillations, or seiche effect. The grain-size characteristics of the overlaying laminated silt and the homogeneous mud units indicate deposition from weak oscillating currents and homogeneous suspension, respectively. High Mn value just below the base of THUs suggests diagenetic enrichment at oxic/anoxic redox boundary before the mass-flow event. Sharp decrease in Mn with very low values within the THUs suggests transient redox conditions following the mass-flow. Variable geochemical compositions of the basal coarse layers indicate different sediment sources for different THUs. Eight sedimentary earthquake records observed in the last 2400 a in the İzmit Gulf can be confidently correlated with the historical earthquakes of 1999, 1509 AD (Ms = 7.2), 1296 AD (I = VII), 865 AD (I = VIII), 740 AD (I = VIII), 268 AD (I = VIII), 358 AD (I = IX), and 427 BC. This gives an earthquake recurrence time of ca. 300 a, with the interval between consecutive events ranging from 90 to 695 a.

  7. Turbulence observations in the Gulf of Trieste under moderate wind forcing and different water column stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcieri, F. M.; Kantha, L.; Benetazzo, A.; Bergamasco, A.; Bonaldo, D.; Barbariol, F.; Malačič, V.; Sclavo, M. S.; Carniel, S.

    2015-08-01

    During the oceanographic campaign CARPET2014, between 30 January and 4 February 2014, a total of 478 microstructure profiles (grouped into 145 ensembles) and 38 CTD casts were made in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea) under moderate wind forcing (average wind speed 10 m s-1) and heat fluxes (net negative heat flux in the range of 150 to 400 W m-2). Among the collected profiles, there were three sets of yoyo casts, each lasting for about 12 h for a total of 50 casts. Overall, these represent the first turbulence observations collected in the Gulf of Trieste. Microstructure profiles collected with a free-falling profiler must be taken in enables of repeated casts, with the objective of obtaining more statistically significant values for turbulence parameters. This approach is certainly feasible in shallow waters, but has a down side when the vertical density structure includes strong interfaces that can move up or down between subsequent casts, under the influence of tides and internal waves. In order to minimize the smearing effect of such interfacial displacements on mean quantities, we developed an algorithm to realign, according to the temperature profile, successive microstructure profiles to produce sharper and more meaningful mean profiles of measured turbulence parameters. During CARPET2014, the water column in the Gulf evolved from a well-mixed condition to a stratified one, due to Adriatic waters intruding at the bottom along the Gulf's south-eastern coast. These waters stratified the water column and changed its stability characteristics, which in turn prevented wind driven turbulence from penetrating to the bottom of the water column. In this study, we show that during a warm and relatively dry winter, such as in 2014, the Gulf of Trieste was not completely mixed because of the influence of bottom waters intruding from the open sea, even under moderate wind forcing. Inside the Gulf, two types of water intrusions from the Adriatic Sea were

  8. Transport and dispersion of particulate Hg associated with a river plume in coastal Northern Adriatic environments.

    PubMed

    Covelli, Stefano; Piani, Raffaella; Acquavita, Alessandro; Predonzani, Sergio; Faganeli, Jadran

    2007-01-01

    The role of suspended particulate matter (SPM) as an important carrier of mercury (Hg) dispersed into the Gulf of Trieste and in the adjacent Grado lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea) was studied during a high Isonzo River inflow and the resulting river plume formation. Despite the fact that extreme flood events are rare during the year, they account for most of the PHg influx (37-112 ngL(-1)) into the Gulf of Trieste. When the river plume is diverted to the SW under the influence of an E-NE wind, the tidal flux acts as a "transport belt" carrying the PHg, mostly inorganic, into the Grado lagoon. A preliminary estimation indicates that the amount of PHg entrapped in the lagoon basin following a tidal semi-cycle accounts for 1.4 kg/12h, which corresponds to about 49% of the total Hg carried by the tidal flow. These findings should be considered in future remediation strategies in the lagoon environment.

  9. The snails' tale at deep-sea habitats in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génio, L.; Warén, A.; Matos, F. L.; Cunha, M. R.

    2013-02-01

    Bridging the Atlantic and Mediterranean continental margins, the South Iberian region has recently been the focus for geological and biological investigations. The Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) encompasses a great variety of deep-sea habitats that harbour highly diverse biological communities. In this study, we describe the taxa composition of gastropod assemblages from deep-sea habitats in the GoC and analyse the species distributional patterns in relation to their dispersal capabilities and substrate availability. Distinct gastropod assemblages were found at mud volcanoes, carbonate and coral sites, and organic-falls. Overall, the GoC comprises a high diversity of gastropods that include 65 taxa representing 32 families, 48 genera and 30 named species. The highest number of taxa was found at the highly heterogeneous carbonate province in the middle slope (500-1500 m depth), and higher abundance of individuals was observed in Captain Arutyunov mud volcano, one of the most active sites found in the GoC. Faunal similarities were found with Mediterreanean cold-seeps (species- and genus-level) and other chemosynthetic environments in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (genus-level). Colonization experiments with organic substrata (wood and alfalfa grass) yielded high abundances of gastropod species. These organic inputs allowed the recruitment of local species but also of wood specialist taxa that were not known to occur in the GoC. Our results suggest that distribution of gastropod assemblages may be primarily determined by the occurrence of suitable habitats probably due to effect of the substrate type on feeding strategies and that larval development is not a limiting factor for colonization of the deep sea. However, the predominance of non-planktotrophy, and especially lecithotrophy, suggests that the trade-off between a more limited dispersal capability and the higher potential for self-recruitment may be favoured by the gastropod species inhabiting reducing environments and

  10. The snails' tale in deep-sea habitats in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génio, L.; Warén, A.; Matos, F. L.; Cunha, M. R.

    2013-07-01

    Bridging the Atlantic and Mediterranean continental margins, the South Iberian region has recently been the focus for geological and biological investigations. In this region, the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) encompasses a great variety of deep-sea habitats that harbour highly diverse biological communities. In this study, we describe the composition of gastropod assemblages obtained from in situ colonization experiments and benthic sampling of deep-sea habitats in the GoC. Gastropod distributional patterns, such as bathymetric ranges, bathymetric turnover, affinity to substrate types and abundance-occupancy relationships, are analysed and interpreted in relation to their inferred dispersal capabilities and substrate availability. Overall, the GoC comprises a high diversity of gastropods (65 species), and distinct assemblages were found in typical sedimentary environments at mud volcanoes and in association with carbonate and coral samples or organic substrata. The number of taxa peaked at the Carbonate Province in the middle slope (600-1200 m depth), a highly heterogeneous area with numerous mud volcanoes, carbonate mounds and corals. Darwin (1100 m) and Captain Arutyunov (1300 m) mud volcanoes harboured the most species-rich and abundant gastropod assemblages, respectively. Colonization experiments with organic substrata (wood and alfalfa grass) also yielded diverse and abundant gastropod assemblages. These organic inputs allowed the recruitment of local species but mainly of wood specialist taxa that were not previously known from the GoC. Our results suggest that the distribution of gastropod assemblages may be primarily determined by the occurrence of suitable habitats, probably due to the effect of the substrate type on the structural complexity of the habitat and availability and diversity of adequate food sources. The type of larval development is apparently not a limiting factor for colonization of deep-sea habitats. However, the predominance of non

  11. Radioactivity and metal concentrations in marine sediments associated with mining activities in Ierissos Gulf, North Aegean Sea, Greece.

    PubMed

    Pappa, F K; Tsabaris, C; Ioannidou, A; Patiris, D L; Kaberi, H; Pashalidis, I; Eleftheriou, G; Androulakaki, E G; Vlastou, R

    2016-10-01

    Marine sediment samples were collected from Ierissos Gulf, N Aegean Sea, close to the coastal mining facilities. Measurements of radionuclide and metal concentrations, mineral composition and grain size distribution were performed. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (235)U and trace metals showed enhanced values in the port of Stratoni compared with those obtained near to Ierissos port. The dose rates received by marine biota were also calculated by the ERICA Assessment Tool and the results indicated no significant radiological risk. PMID:27474903

  12. Seasonal and Geographic Distribution of Luminous Bacteria in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Elat

    PubMed Central

    Yetinson, T.; Shilo, M.

    1979-01-01

    Luminous bacteria in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba-Elat have different distribution patterns. In the Mediterranean Sea, Beneckea harveyi is present all year round, with different subtypes alternating in summer and winter; Photobacterium fischeri was only present during the winter. In the Gulf of Elat, P. leiognathi is present throughout the water column in similar densities during the entire year. This constancy in distribution is presumably due to the near-constancy in water temperature. In summer, Photobacterium leiognathi is replaced by B. harveyi in coastal surface waters. In the hypersaline Bardawil lagoon, only B. harveyi types are present. P. fischeri, a major component of the Mediterranean Sea winter communities, is absent from the lagoon. Luminous Beneckea strains show a great diversity in properties, e.g. temperature range for growth, sensitivity to infection by phages, sensitivity to attack by Bdellovibrio strains, and differences in tolerance to high-salinity shock. Therefore, subdivision of the taxonomic cluster of B. harveyi into subtypes is indicated. The composition of the luminous bacteria communities may serve as indicators of different marine water bodies. The symbiotic luminous bacteria of the light organ of the common Gulf of Elat fish, Photoblepharon palbebratus steinitzi, is different from any of the types described. Images PMID:16345404

  13. High-resolution Holocene paleoclimatic events from the Southern-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea (Salerno Gulf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lirer, F.; Sprovieri, M.; Ferraro, L.; Vallefuoco, M.; Cascella, A.; Pelosi, N.; Capotondi, L.

    2012-12-01

    A high-resolution paleoclimatic study is here presented for the Holocene in the southern-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, based on calcareous plankton taxa (planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils) distribution, δ18OG.ruber record, tephrostratigraphy and various dating methods (210Pb and 137Cs, AMS 14C) for a composite sediment core (from the top to the bottom, C90_1m, C90 and C836, water depth 103 mbsl) from the continental shelf of the Salerno Gulf. High sedimentation rates of ca. 1cm/100 yr (base Holocene) to ca 20cm/100 yr (present day), make this area an ideal marine archive of millennial/secular paleoclimate changes. In the early Holocene the study marine sedimentary archive recorded the climatic phases (S1a, S1i and S1b) associated to the deposition of the anoxic event Sapropel S1 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (4.7 kyr long). In particular, the cold global event reported at 8.2 ka BP by Rohling and Pälike (2005), correlable to the Sapropel S1 interruption (S1i), in here recorded by strong increase in abundances of planktonic foraminifera N. pachyderma right coiled and of calcareous nannofossils B. bigelowii. This event is strongly supported by positive δ18O G.ruber excursion (~0.6 ‰). Upwards to ca 2000 yrs BP (Eneolithic to Golden age), δ18O G.ruber signal combined with calcareous plankton data suggest the occurrence of three Rapid Climatic Chance (RCC), superimposed to short-tern oscillations, those correspond to main changes in geochemical and biological proxies. During the last 2000 yrs BP (Roman period to present day), the planktonic foraminifera show two main turnovers in abundance: from herbivore-opportunistic species to carnivore species at ca 79AD and a progressive turnover between carnivore species and herbivore-opportunistic species at 1462 AD (Medieval Warm Period-Little Ice Age transition). Finally, the onset of a new important cool climatic phase (between 1462 AD and 1940 AD), the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA), expressed in the

  14. Physical and biological correlates of virus dynamics in the southern Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payet, Jérôme P.; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2008-12-01

    As part of the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES), we investigated the spatial and seasonal distributions of viruses in relation to biotic (bacteria, chlorophyll- a (chl a)) and abiotic variables (temperature, salinity and depth). Sampling occurred in the southern Beaufort Sea Shelf in the region of the Amundsen Gulf and Mackenzie Shelf, between November 2003 and August 2004. Bacterial and viral abundances estimated by epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and flow cytometry (FC) were highly correlated ( r2 = 0.89 and r2 = 0.87, respectively), although estimates by EFM were slightly higher (FC = 1.08 × EFM + 0.12 and FC = 1.07 × EFM + 0.43, respectively). Viral abundances ranged from 0.13 × 10 6 to 23 × 10 6 ml - 1 , and in surface waters were ~ 2-fold higher during the spring bloom in May and June and ~ 1.5-fold higher during July and August, relative to winter abundances. These increases were coincident with a ~ 6-fold increase in chl a during spring and a ~ 4-fold increase in bacteria during summer. Surface viral abundances near the Mackenzie River were ~ 2-fold higher than in the Mackenzie Shelf and Amundsen Gulf regions during the peak summer discharge, concomitant with a ~ 5.5-fold increase in chl a (up to 2.4 μg l - 1 ) and a ~ 2-fold increase in bacterial abundance (up to 22 × 10 5 ml - 1 ). Using FC, two subgroups of viruses and heterotrophic bacteria were defined. A low SYBR-green fluorescence virus subgroup (V2) representing ~ 71% of the total viral abundance, was linked to the abundance of high nucleic acid fluorescence (HNA) bacteria (a proxy for bacterial activity), which represented 42 to 72% of the bacteria in surface layers. A high SYBR-green fluorescence viral subgroup (V1) was more related to high chl a concentrations that occurred in surface waters during spring and at stations near the Mackenzie River plume during the summer discharge. These results suggest that V1 infect phytoplankton, while most V2 are bacteriophages. On the

  15. Reconstruction of late Holocene flooding events in the Gulf of Genoa, Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, Frank; Kaiser, Jerome; Arz, Helge; Ruggieri, Nicoletta

    2014-05-01

    The area of the Gulf of Genoa contains a large potential for studying past rainfall variability as it is one of the major Mediterranean centers for cyclogenesis. The strongest depressions form when cold arctic/subarctic air outbreaks flow through the Rhone valley into the Gulf of Lions and the Ligurian Sea during late autumn when sea surface temperatures are still relatively high. The cyclones are more frequent during negative Arctic Oscillation / North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/NAO). As well, significant negative correlations exist between AO/NAO and winter/spring precipitation and river discharge in northwestern Italy. Related autumn flooding events occur at interannual time-scales and may cause substantial damage in the region. Moreover, the "Genoa Cyclones" sometimes move northeastwards into eastern/central Europe (the so-called "Vb" cyclone track) and contributed for example substantially to the Elbe flooding in 2002. During R/V Poseidon cruise P413 (May 2011), ca. 60 sediment cores were taken along the Ligurian shelf, continental slope and in the basin between off Livorno and the French border. Coring profiles from the coastal area to the deep basin allow reconstructing past environmental variability over the last ca. 90000 years with sedimentation rates varying between ca. 0.5 cm*yr-1 for the latest Holocene to ca. 10 cm*kyr-1 for the last glacial. On the shelf, mud lenses with exceptionally high sedimentation rates reaching several m/kyr provide detailed Holocene records of changes in terrigenous sediment input primarily related to autumn rainfall events. We performed high resolution (mm) analyses of major elements using XRF core-scanning on two cores with extremely high resolution (0.2-0.4 cm/year) over the last 2.5 kyr BP. Typical elements of detrital origin (i.e. Ti, Fe) present a very high variability, probably related to flooding events during the late Holocene. Spectral analysis on these records reveals significant periodicities around 4-5 and 7

  16. Distinct protistan assemblages characterize the euphotic zone and deep sea (2500 m) of the western North Atlantic (Sargasso Sea and Gulf Stream).

    PubMed

    Countway, Peter D; Gast, Rebecca J; Dennett, Mark R; Savai, Pratik; Rose, Julie M; Caron, David A

    2007-05-01

    Protistan diversity was characterized at three locations in the western North Atlantic (Sargasso Sea and Gulf Stream) by sequencing 18S rRNA genes in samples from euphotic (< or = 125 m) and bathypelagic depths (2500 m). A total of 923 partial-length protistan sequences were analysed, revealing 324 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) determined by an automated OTU-calling program set to 95% sequence similarity. Most OTUs were comprised of only one or two sequences suggesting a large but rare pool of protistan diversity. Many OTUs from both depth strata were associated with recently described novel alveolate and stramenopile lineages while many OTUs from the bathypelagic were affiliated with Acantharea, Polycystinea and Euglenozoa and were not observed in euphotic zone libraries. Protistan assemblages from the euphotic zone and the deep sea were largely composed of distinct OTUs; only 28 of the 324 protistan OTUs were detected in both shallow and deep sea clone libraries. The diversity of protistan assemblages in the deep sea was distinctly lower than the diversity of euphotic zone assemblages. Protistan assemblages from the Gulf Stream were the most diverse for either depth strata. Overall, protistan assemblages from different stations but comparable depths were more similar than the assemblages from different depths at the same station. These data suggest that particular groups of protistan OTUs formed distinct 'shallow' and 'deep-sea' assemblages across widely spaced oceanic locales.

  17. Late Pleistocene to Holocene paleoceanographic and paleo-climatic changes in Gulf of Gemlik, Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filikci, Betül; Kadir Eriş, K.; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Gasperini, Luca; Sabuncu, Asen; Acar, Dursun; Yalamaz, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Gulf of Gemlik is an east-west oriented marine inlet with a maximum depth of 113 m in the south-eastern part of the Sea of Marmara. It is located on the middle branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. While the Gulf of Gemlik is separated from the SoM by a bedrock sill at -50 m, there were presumably several disconnections during the Late Pleistocene to Holocene, but the timing of the youngest connection around the onset of the Holocene is still controversial. Here, we attempt to elucidate the paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental changes during the late glacial-Holocene using the multi-proxy analysis of a core extending back to 13 ka BP. The multi-proxy data include physical and geochemical properties together with AMS 14C ages. The core sediments covering the time period of the last 13 ka BP consists of two main lithostratigraphic units. The lower Unit L2 represents the lacustrine phase of the gulf prior to 10.6 ka BP, while the upper Unit L1 is an overlying transgressive mud drape deposited during the main part of the Holocene. Unit L2 deposited prior 10.6 ka BP represents Bølling-Allerød and Younger Dryas climatic periods, when prograding shelf edge sediments were deposited in the form of well sorted medium sands with brackish water bivalve shells (Dreissenapolymorpha). At the beginning of the Holocene, the rising sea level in the Sea of Marmara breached the -50 m sill at 10.6 ka BP, and therefore the Gulf of Gemlik was converted into a marine realm. Soon after, the water stratifications allowed to the formation of the previously studied two sapropels in the gulf, as shown by increased TOC contents. μ-XRF Ca/Ti and Sr/Ca profiles of Unit L1 provide evidence of rapid climatic changes at 8.2 ka BP and 4.2 ka BP, representing cold and dry short climatic periods which are well correlated with previous marine and lake studies in İznik Lake south of the Sea of Marmara. Keywords: Gemlik Gulf, core, paleoclimate, Late Pleistocene to Holocene

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bottom sediments of the Kara Sea shelf, Gulf of Ob and Yenisei Bay.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Salve; Savinov, Vladimir M; Matishov, Gennadij G; Evenset, Anita; Naes, Kristoffer

    2003-05-01

    PAH concentration and distribution has been examined in surface sediments samples from the Kara Sea, Russia. The study includes 13 samples from the South-eastern Kara Sea shelf, one sample from the south-western part of the sea, 4 samples from the Baydaratskaya Bay, 5 samples from the Gulf of Ob and 4 samples from the Yenisei Bay, collected in August-September 1993-1994. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to identify common patterns and possible sources of PAHs. The total PAH concentration (sum of two- to six-ring aromatic hydrocarbons) in the Kara Sea sediments was generally lower than in the Barents Sea sediments and comparable to the levels in the Pechora and White seas. Two- and three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons predominated in Kara Sea sediments, which indicate a relatively stronger petrogenic origin than that in the adjacent seas. The highest total PAH concentrations within the Kara Sea were found in sediments from the Yenisei Bay and in the South-western part of the Kara Sea in the Eastern Novaya Zemlya Trough. The PAHs of the Yenisei Bay sediments were dominated by perylene and PAHs of petrogenic origin, but had also a strong indication of PAHs of pyrogenic origin. The dominating PAH group in the South-western part of the Kara Sea were four- to six-ring aromatic hydrocarbons, indicating pyrogenic origin. Perylene levels were high in all the Kara Sea samples, and highest levels were found in areas of strong terrigenous influence. The most probable source is decaying peat products being transported to the Kara Sea by both large and small rivers. PMID:12699918

  19. Determination of the Earth gravity Field Parameters in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea with the Satellite Altimetry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emadi, S. R.; Najafi-Alamardi, M.; Toosi, K. N.; Sedighi, M.; Nankali, H. R.

    2006-07-01

    Satellite altimetry provides continuous, accur ate, and homogenous data ser ies in marine areas .Th e Sea Surf ace Heigh ts (SSH) ex tracted from altimetry data w as used in a method sear ching for the least squares of the sea surface topography to simultaneously d etermine the geoidal height and the sea surface topography as well in the Persian Gulf and the Oman sea. This is contrary to th e methods wh ich r equire the knowledge of one parameter to estimate the other. The North and East componen ts of the deflections of vertical w ere also estimated by differentiating the der ived geoid al heights in the corresponding directions, and finally the free- air grav ity anomalies w ere computed utilizing the inverse V ening- Meinesz integral.

  20. Seasonal changes in physiological responses and evaluation of "well-being" in the Venus clam Chamelea gallina from the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Moschino, Vanessa; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2006-12-01

    Chamelea gallina is an infaunal bivalve, widespread in sandy bottoms along Mediterranean coasts. It is an important economic resource for fisheries in the Adriatic, although in recent years over-fishing, and other concurrent factors, have dramatically decreased clam harvesting. In this context, it is of great interest to gain information on seasonal variations in the physiological performance of clams, for an overall evaluation of their well-being. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to define allometric relationships and effects of temperature on clearance and respiration rates of C. gallina. The mean values of b coefficients were calculated and used to correlate physiological measurements to 'standard' body mass, when seasonally collected clams were analysed. The highest clearance rate (0.42 L h(-1)) was measured in clams collected in July 2000; the highest respiration rate (12.22 micromol O2 h(-1)) was observed in July 2001, leading to a negative scope for growth (-2.8 J h(-1)). The influence of environmental and endogenous factors, mostly reproduction, was discussed. Survival in air and condition indices, showing hi